Science.gov

Sample records for advanced mission planning

  1. Advanced planetary analyses. [for planetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results are summarized of research accomplished during this period concerning planetary mission planning are summarized. The tasks reported include the cost estimations research, planetary missions handbook, and advanced planning activities.

  2. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  3. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  4. Candidate functions for advanced technology implementation in the Columbus mission planning environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Audrey; Kellner, Albrecht

    1988-01-01

    The Columbus Project is the European Space Agency's contribution to the International Space Station program. Columbus is planned to consist of three elements (a laboratory module attached to the Space Station base, a man-tended freeflyer orbiting with the Space Station base, and a platform in polar orbit). System definition and requirements analysis for Columbus are underway, scheduled for completion in mid-1990. An overview of the Columbus mission planning environment and operations concept as currently defined is given, and some of the challenges presented to software maintainers and ground segment personnel during mission operators are identified. The use of advanced technologies in system implementation is being explored. Both advantages of such solutions and potential problems they present are discussed, and the next steps to be taken by Columbus before targeting any functions for advanced technology implementation are summarized. Several functions in the mission planning process were identified as candidates for advanced technology implementation. These range from expert interaction with Columbus' data bases through activity scheduling and near-real-time response to departures from the planned timeline. Each function is described, and its potential for advanced technology implementation briefly assessed.

  5. Advanced solar space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The space missions in solar physics planned for the next decade are similar in that they will have, for the most part, distinct, unifying science objectives in contrast to the more general 'exploratory' nature of the Orbiting Solar Observatory and Skylab/ATM missions of the 1960's and 70's. In particular, the strategy for advanced solar physics space missions will focus on the quantitative understanding of the physical processes that create and control the flow of electromagnetic and particulate energy from the sun and through interplanetary space at all phases of the current sunspot cycle No. 21. Attention is given to the Solar Maximum Mission, the International Solar Polar Mission, solar physics on an early Shuttle mission, principal investigator class experiments for future spacelabs, the Solar Optical Telescope, the Space Science Platform, the Solar Cycle and Dynamics Mission, and an attempt to send a spacecraft to within 4 solar radii of the sun's surface.

  6. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  7. Mission planning and scheduling concept for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, M.; Guffin, O. T.

    1994-01-01

    Projected for launch in the latter part of 1998, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the third satellite in the Great Observatory series, promises to dramatically open the x-ray sky as the Hubble and Compton observatories have done in their respective realms. Unlike its companions, however, AXAF will be placed in a high altitude, highly elliptical orbit (10,000 x 100,000 km), and will therefore be subject to its own unique environment, spacecraft and science instrument constraints and communication network interactions. In support of this mission, ground operations personnel have embarked on the development of the AXAF Offline System (OFLS), a body of software divided into four basic functional elements: (1) Mission Planning and Scheduling, (2) Command Management, (3) Altitude Determination and Sensor Calibration and (4) Spacecraft Support and Engineering Analysis. This paper presents an overview concept for one of these major elements, the Mission Planning and Scheduling subsystem (MPS). The derivation of this concept is described in terms of requirements driven by spacecraft and science instrument characteristics, orbital environment and ground system capabilities. The flowdown of these requirements through the systems analysis process and the definition of MPS interfaces has resulted in the modular grouping of functional subelements depicted in the design implementation approach. The rationale for this design solution is explained and capabilities for the initial prototype system are proposed from the user perspective.

  8. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  9. Ares First Stage "Systemology" - Combining Advanced Systems Engineering and Planning Tools to Assure Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.

  10. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  11. Planning a pharmacy-led medical mission trip, part 3: development and implementation of an elective medical missions advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) rotation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dana A; Ferrill, Mary J

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of new pharmacy schools/colleges and expansion of existing ones, pharmacy schools/colleges are often in need of elective rotation experiences as part of the final year advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) program. Offering a medical missions elective APPE in either a domestic or international setting is a unique opportunity to expose pharmacy students to direct patient care. APPE students can be involved in triaging patients, compounding and dispensing medications, and providing patient education. As part of this APPE, pharmacy students are expected to complete projects such as formulary development, case presentations, book club discussions, journal reflections, manuscript preparations, and trip logistics planning. An elective APPE focused on medical missions facilitates the learning process and promotes the emergence of team leaders and leadership skills in general.

  12. Streamlining Collaborative Planning in Spacecraft Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Dhariti; Bopf, Michel; Fishman, Mark; Jones, Jeremy; Kerbel, Uri; Pell, Vince

    2000-01-01

    During the past two decades, the planning and scheduling community has substantially increased the capability and efficiency of individual planning and scheduling systems. Relatively recently, research work to streamline collaboration between planning systems is gaining attention. Spacecraft missions stand to benefit substantially from this work as they require the coordination of multiple planning organizations and planning systems. Up to the present time this coordination has demanded a great deal of human intervention and/or extensive custom software development efforts. This problem will become acute with increased requirements for cross-mission plan coordination and multi -spacecraft mission planning. The Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is taking innovative steps to define collaborative planning architectures, and to identify coordinated planning tools for Cross-Mission Campaigns. Prototypes are being developed to validate these architectures and assess the usefulness of the coordination tools by the planning community. This presentation will focus on one such planning coordination too], named Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT), which is currently being developed to streamline the coordination between astronomical missions

  13. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  14. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    presentation, we will highlight the planned activities of these NASA Mars missions, as they start new chapters in their historic exploration of the dynamic and complex planet that is Mars.

  15. Gravitational models for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    A fitted truncated model is developed and any differences between this fitted model and one derived by simply truncating are analyzed. Based on the study, recommendations are made for an appropriate model for use in a mission planning environment.

  16. Advanced Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupinacci, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the importance of developing a comprehensive security plan prior to purchasing more equipment and resources to bolster school safety. Decision making following the plan's development is addressed including equipment choices, ID cards, access control, exit alarms, and video monitors. (GR)

  17. Advanced automation for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, R.A., Jr.; Healy, T.J.; Long, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A NASA/ASEE summer study conducted at the University of Santa Clara in 1980 examined the feasibility of using advanced artificial intelligence and automation technologies in future NASA space missions. Four candidate applications missions were considered: an intelligent earth-sensing information system; an autonomous space exploration system; an automated space manufacturing facility; and a self-replicating, growing lunar factory. The study assessed the various artificial intelligence and machine technologies which must be developed if such sophisticated missions are to become feasible by the century's end. 18 references.

  18. The Mission Operations Planning Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuetzle, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Principal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZetaLisp and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  19. The mission operations planning assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuetzle, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Prinicpal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZETALISP and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  20. Small Explorer for Advanced Missions - cubesat for scientific mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-04-01

    A class of nanosatellites is defined by the cubesat standard, primarily setting the interface to the launcher, which allows standardizing cubesat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. The majority of cubesats have been launched are demonstration or educational missions. For scientific and other advanced missions to fully realize the potential offered by the low cost nanosatellites, there are challenges related to limitations of the existing cubesat platforms and to the availability of small yet sufficiently sensitive sensors. The new project SEAM (Small Explorer for Advanced Missions) was selected for realization in frames of FP-7 European program to develop a set of improved critical subsystems and to construct a prototype nanosatellite in the 3U cubesat envelope for electromagnetic measurements in low Earth orbit. The SEAM consortium will develop and demonstrate in flight for the first time the concept of an electromagnetically clean nanosatellite with precision attitude determination, flexible autonomous data acquisition system, high-bandwidth telemetry and an integrated solution for ground control and data handling. As the first demonstration, the satellite is planned to perform the Space Weather (SW) mission using novel miniature electric and magnetic sensors, able to provide science-grade measurements. To enable sensitive magnetic measurements onboard, the sensors must be deployed on booms to bring them away from the spacecraft body. Also other thorough yet efficient procedures will be developed to provide electromagnetic cleanliness (EMC) of the spacecraft. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  1. A review of mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Sorensen, E. M.; Wolff, T.; Haddow, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    A general definition of Mission Planning is given. The definition covers the full scope of an end-to-end mission planning system. Noting the mission-specific nature of most mission planning systems, a classification of autonomous spacecraft missions is made into Observatory, Survey, multi-instrument science, and Telecommunications missions. The mission planning approach for one mission in each category is examined critically. The following missions were chosen: ISO (Infrared Space Observatory); ERS-1 (European Remote Sensing Satellite); and Eureca (European Retrievable Carrier). The paper gives a summary of lessons learned from these missions suggesting improvements in areas such as requirements analysis, testing, user interfacing, rules, and constraints handling. The paper will also examine commonalities in functions, which could constitute a basis for identification of generic mission planning support tools.

  2. Formulation of detailed consumables management models for the development (preoperational) period of advanced space transportation system. Volume 1: Detailed requirements for the mission planning processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed requirements for the mission planning processor are documented. The mission planning processor is a user oriented tool for consumables management and is part of the total consumables subsystem management concept. A quasi top-down approach was applied to the design of the mission planning processor. Interface requirements, input/output, and data base concepts were considered before computational processing. Existing analytical models were investigated for applicability before new models were developed. The mission planning processor was designed for an interactive system using demand terminals for input/outputdisplay and interfacing with an updateable mission data bank. The control and support routines provide the user interface, peripheral data handling, program control, and support functions required by the mission planning processor for execution on an interactive system. A description, interface requirements, definition of internal variables, listing of input data, processing flow diagram, and listing of output data are presented for each routine.

  3. Post LANDSAT D Advanced Concept Evaluation (PLACE). [with emphasis on mission planning, technological forecasting, and user requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An outline is given of the mission objectives and requirements, system elements, system concepts, technology requirements and forecasting, and priority analysis for LANDSAT D. User requirements and mission analysis and technological forecasting are emphasized. Mission areas considered include agriculture, range management, forestry, geology, land use, water resources, environmental quality, and disaster assessment.

  4. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickler, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  5. Alaska SAR Facility Mission planning software - An interactive mission planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Martin W.

    1989-01-01

    The Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Facility Mission Planning Subsystem is an interactive mission planning software system on the VAXStation 2000. This system has the capability to generate satellite ephemerides and mission parameters related to synthetic aperture radar missions. The mission data can be viewed as overlays on the world map in various projections and zooms. The system also provides schedule planning capabilities, using the INGRES DBMS to keep track of the various plans and schedules generated by the mission planner.

  6. Cooperative mission execution and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flann, Nicholas S.; Saunders, Kevin S.; Pells, Larry

    1998-08-01

    Utilizing multiple cooperating autonomous vehicles to perform tasks enhances robustness and efficiency over the use of a single vehicle. Furthermore, because autonomous vehicles can be controlled precisely and their status known accurately in real time, new types of cooperative behaviors are possible. This paper presents a working system called MEPS that plans and executes missions for multiple autonomous vehicles in large structured environments. Two generic spatial tasks are supported, to sweep an area and to visit a location while activating on-board equipment. Tasks can be entered both initially by the user and dynamically during mission execution by both users and vehicles. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle and tasks conditions. The system has been successfully applied to control ATV and micro-robotic vehicles in precision agriculture and waste-site characterization environments.

  7. Planning for the V&V of infused software technologies for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Fesq, Lorraine M.; Ingham, Michel D.; Klein, Suzanne L.; Nelson, Stacy D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is planning to make use of advanced software technologies in order to support fulfillment of its ambitious science objectives. The mission plans to adopt the Mission Data System (MDS) as the mission software architecture, and plans to make significant use of on-board autonomous capabilities for the rover software.

  8. Advanced missions to primitive bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    Six interplanetary spacecraft, three earth orbital experiments, and one spacecraft orbiting Venus will observe comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner in 1985-86. At comet Halley, attempts will be made to image the nucleus, remote sensing will be made by spectrometers in wavelength ranges from the IR to the UV, and in-situ observations will be made with neutral, ion and dust mass spectrometers. Plasma measurements will be made at both comets and at comet Halley the upstream solar wind flux will be simultaneously monitored by nearby spacecraft. In the post-Halley era, there are several missions being planned for the continued exploration of the solar system's most primitive bodies - comets and asteroids.

  9. Planning the Voyager spacecraft's mission to Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plagemann, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the systems engineering process to the planning of the Voyager spacecraft mission is described. The Mission Planning Office prepared guidelines that controlled the use of the project and multimission resources and spacecraft consumables in order to obtain valuable scientific data at an acceptable risk level. Examples of mission planning which are concerned with the design of the Deep Space Network antenna, the uplink window for transmitting computer command subsystem loads, and the contingency and risk assessment functions are presented.

  10. HIAD Advancements and Extension of Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Keith; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Korzun, Ashley M.; DiNonno, John M.; Lindell, Mike C.; Swanson, Greg T.

    2016-01-01

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology has made significant advancements over the last decade with flight test demonstrations and ground development campaigns. The first generation (Gen-1) design and materials were flight tested with the successful third Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment flight test of a 3-m HIAD (IRVE-3). Ground development efforts incorporated materials with higher thermal capabilities for the inflatable structure (IS) and flexible thermal protection system (F-TPS) as a second generation (Gen-2) system. Current efforts and plans are focused on extending capabilities to improve overall system performance and reduce areal weight, as well as expand mission applicability. F-TPS materials that offer greater thermal resistance, and ability to be packed to greater density, for a given thickness are being tested to demonstrated thermal performance benefits and manufacturability at flight-relevant scale. IS materials and construction methods are being investigated to reduce mass, increase load capacities, and improve durability for packing. Previous HIAD systems focused on symmetric geometries using stacked torus construction. Flight simulations and trajectory analysis show that symmetrical HIADs may provide L/D up to 0.25 via movable center of gravity (CG) offsets. HIAD capabilities can be greatly expanded to suit a broader range of mission applications with asymmetric shapes and/or modulating L/D. Various HIAD concepts are being developed to provide greater control to improve landing accuracy and reduce dependency upon propulsion systems during descent and landing. Concepts being studied include a canted stack torus design, control surfaces, and morphing configurations that allow the shape to be actively manipulated for flight control. This paper provides a summary of recent HIAD development activities, and plans for future HIAD developments including advanced materials, improved construction techniques, and alternate

  11. Generic astronomy mission planning and scheduling: The AXAF solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.

    1994-01-01

    During SpaceOps 92 the idea of generic mission planning concepts for space astronomy missions, that could be applied to future missions in order to simplify software development, was introduced. It was proposed that mission planning systems could be decomposed into functional elements that could be standardized and then organized into optimal functional flows for each individual mission. In addition, it was further suggested that these flows themselves could be reduced to a small set of possibilities by describing them in terms of generic mission type, such as manned, unmanned, high orbit, low orbit, etc. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), planned for launch in the latter part of 1998, represents the first application of this idea on an unmanned mission. This paper examines the AXAF Mission Planning and Scheduling concept in light of the generic system theory. Each functional element is evaluated according to AXAF characteristics and requirements and then compared to its generic counterpart. Functional flow considerations are then derived from the overall AXAF mission planning concept to determine the viability and sensitivity of the generic flow to actual requirements. The results of this analysis are then used to update the generic system concept and to define the level of commonality and core system components that are practical to achieve across multiple missions.

  12. Generic mission planning and scheduling: The AXAF solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.; Newhouse, M.

    1994-01-01

    During SpaceOps 92 the idea of generic mission planning concepts for space astronomy missions, that could be applied to future missions in order to simplify software development, was introduced. It was proposed that mission planning systems could be decomposed into functional elements that could be standardized and then organized into optimal functional flows for each individual mission. In addition, it was further suggested that these flows themselves could be reduced to a small set of possibilities by describing them in terms of generic mission type, such as manned, unmanned, high orbit, low orbit, etc. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), planned for launch in the latter part of '98, represents the first application of this idea on an unmanned mission. This paper examines the AXAF Mission Planning and Scheduling concept in light of the generic system theory. Each functional element is evaluated according to AXAF characteristics and requirements and then compared to its generic counterpart. Functional flow considerations are then derived from the overall AXAF mission planning concept to determine the viability and sensitivity of the generic flow to actual requirements. The results of this analysis are then used to update the generic system concept and to define the level of commonality and core system components that are practical to achieve across multiple missions.

  13. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  14. Generic mission planning concepts for space astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.; Onken, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The past two decades have seen the rapid development of space astronomy, both manned and unmanned, and the concurrent proliferation of the operational concepts and software that have been produced to support each individual project. Having been involved in four of these missions since the '70's and three yet to fly in the present decade, the authors believe it is time to step back and evaluate this body of experience from a macro-systems point of view to determine the potential for generic mission planning concepts that could be applied to future missions. This paper presents an organized evaluation of astronomy mission planning functions, functional flows, iteration cycles, replanning activities, and the requirements that drive individual concepts to specific solutions. The conclusions drawn from this exercise are then used to propose a generic concept that could support multiple missions.

  15. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  16. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  17. Galileo mission planning for Low Gain Antenna based operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Buxbaum, K. L.; Ludwinski, J. M.; Paczkowski, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo mission operations concept is undergoing substantial redesign, necessitated by the deployment failure of the High Gain Antenna, while the spacecraft is on its way to Jupiter. The new design applies state-of-the-art technology and processes to increase the telemetry rate available through the Low Gain Antenna and to increase the information density of the telemetry. This paper describes the mission planning process being developed as part of this redesign. Principal topics include a brief description of the new mission concept and anticipated science return (these have been covered more extensively in earlier papers), identification of key drivers on the mission planning process, a description of the process and its implementation schedule, a discussion of the application of automated mission planning tool to the process, and a status report on mission planning work to date. Galileo enhancements include extensive reprogramming of on-board computers and substantial hard ware and software upgrades for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The principal mode of operation will be onboard recording of science data followed by extended playback periods. A variety of techniques will be used to compress and edit the data both before recording and during playback. A highly-compressed real-time science data stream will also be important. The telemetry rate will be increased using advanced coding techniques and advanced receivers. Galileo mission planning for orbital operations now involves partitioning of several scarce resources. Particularly difficult are division of the telemetry among the many users (eleven instruments, radio science, engineering monitoring, and navigation) and allocation of space on the tape recorder at each of the ten satellite encounters. The planning process is complicated by uncertainty in forecast performance of the DSN modifications and the non-deterministic nature of the new data compression schemes. Key mission planning steps include

  18. Small planetary mission plan: Report to Congress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document outlines NASA's small planetary projects plan within the context of overall agency planning. In particular, this plan is consistent with Vision 21: The NASA Strategic Plan, and the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) Strategic Plan. Small planetary projects address focused scientific objectives using a limited number of mature instruments, and are designed to require little or no new technology development. Small missions can be implemented by university and industry partnerships in coordination with a NASA Center to use the unique services the agency provides. The timeframe for small missions is consistent with academic degree programs, which makes them an excellent training ground for graduate students and post-doctoral candidates. Because small missions can be conducted relatively quickly and inexpensively, they provide greater opportunity for increased access to space. In addition, small missions contribute to sustaining a vital scientific community by increasing the available opportunities for direct investigator involvement from just a few projects in a career to many.

  19. Small planetary mission plan: Report to Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    This document outlines NASA's small planetary projects plan within the context of overall agency planning. In particular, this plan is consistent with Vision 21: The NASA Strategic Plan, and the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) Strategic Plan. Small planetary projects address focused scientific objectives using a limited number of mature instruments, and are designed to require little or no new technology development. Small missions can be implemented by university and industry partnerships in coordination with a NASA Center to use the unique services the agency provides. The timeframe for small missions is consistent with academic degree programs, which makes them an excellent training ground for graduate students and post-doctoral candidates. Because small missions can be conducted relatively quickly and inexpensively, they provide greater opportunity for increased access to space. In addition, small missions contribute to sustaining a vital scientific community by increasing the available opportunities for direct investigator involvement from just a few projects in a career to many.

  20. Architecting a mission plan for Lunar Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridenoure, Rex W.

    1991-01-01

    The present status of NASA's Lunar Observer study effort at JPL is discussed in the context of an ongoing 20-year series of studies focused on defining a robotic, low-altitude, polar-orbiting mission to the moon. The primary emphasis of the discussion is a review of the various systems-level factors that drive the overall architecture of the mission plan. Selected top-level project and science requirements are summarized and the current mission and science objectives are presented. A brief description of the candidate science instrument complement is included. Several significant orbital effects caused by the lunar gravity field are explained and the variety of trajectory and maneuver options considered for both getting to the moon and orbiting there are described. Several candidate mission architectures are outlined and the mission plans chosen for future study are described. Two mission options result: a single-spacecraft, single-launch scenario, and a multiple-spacecraft, multiple-launch concept.

  1. Science Planning for the TROPIX Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the study grant was to undertake the planning needed to execute meaningful solar electric propulsion missions in the magnetosphere and beyond. The first mission examined was the Transfer Orbit Plasma Investigation Experiment (TROPIX) mission to spiral outward through the magnetosphere. The next mission examined was to the moon and an asteroid. Entitled Diana, it was proposed to NASA in October 1994. Two similar missions were conceived in 1996 entitled CNR for Comet Nucleus Rendezvous and MBAR for Main Belt Asteroid Rendezvous. The latter mission was again proposed in 1998. All four of these missions were unsuccessfully proposed to the NASA Discovery program. Nevertheless we were partially successful in that the Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission was eventually carried out nearly duplicating our CNR mission. Returning to the magnetosphere we studied and proposed to the Medium Class Explorer (MIDEX) program a MidEx mission called TEMPEST, in 1995. This mission included two solar electric spacecraft that spiraled outward in the magnetosphere: one at near 900 inclination and one in the equatorial plane. This mission was not selected for flight. Next we proposed a single SEP vehicle to carry Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers and inside observations to complement the IMAGE mission providing needed data to properly interpret the IMAGE data. This mission called SESAME was submitted unsuccessfully in 1997. One proposal was successful. A study grant was awarded to examine a four spacecraft solar electric mission, named Global Magnetospheric Dynamics. This study was completed and a report on this mission is attached but events overtook this design and a separate study team was selected to design a classical chemical mission as a Solar Terrestrial Probe. Competing proposals such as through the MIDEX opportunity were expressly forbidden. A bibliography is attached.

  2. Computer-Generated Movies for Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. H., Jr.; vanDillen, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    Computer-generated movies help the viewer to understand mission dynamics and get quantitative details. Sample movie frames demonstrate the uses and effectiveness of movies in mission planning. Tools needed for movie-making include computer programs to generate images on film and film processing to give the desired result. Planning scenes to make an effective product requires some thought and experience. Viewpoints and timing are particularly important. Lessons learned so far and problems still encountered are discussed.

  3. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  4. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  5. Operational efficiency subpanel advanced mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Herein, the term mission control will be taken quite broadly to include both ground and space based operations as well as the information infrastructure necessary to support such operations. Three major technology areas related to advanced mission control are examined: (1) Intelligent Assistance for Ground-Based Mission Controllers and Space-Based Crews; (2) Autonomous Onboard Monitoring, Control and Fault Detection Isolation and Reconfiguration; and (3) Dynamic Corporate Memory Acquired, Maintained, and Utilized During the Entire Vehicle Life Cycle. The current state of the art space operations are surveyed both within NASA and externally for each of the three technology areas and major objectives are discussed from a user point of view for technology development. Ongoing NASA and other governmental programs are described. An analysis of major research issues and current holes in the program are provided. Several recommendations are presented for enhancing the technology development and insertion process to create advanced mission control environments.

  6. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

  7. Mission applications for advanced photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; West, John L.; Chave, Robert G.; Mcgee, David P.; Yen, Albert S.

    1990-01-01

    The suitability of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) for future space missions was examined by considering the impact on the spacecraft system in general. The lightweight flexible blanket array system was compared to rigid arrays and a radio-isotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) static power source for a wide range of assumed future earth orbiting and interplanetary mission applications. The study approach was to establish assessment criteria and a rating scheme, identify a reference mission set, perform the power system assessment for each mission, and develop conclusions and recommendations to guide future APSA technology development. The authors discuss the three selected power sources, the assessment criteria and rating definitions, and the reference missions. They present the assessment results in a convenient tabular format. It is concluded that the three power sources examined, APSA, conventional solar arrays, and RTGs, can be considered to complement each other. Each power technology has its own range of preferred applications.

  8. Mission College Educational and Facilities Master Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mission Coll., Santa Clara, CA.

    This document details Mission College's 2001 master plan for education and facilities. The plan makes several recommendations. (1) It is imperative to stay on the "cutting edge" in high-demand fields; (2) With a changing student population (45% ESL and 85% first-generation college students), it is also important to provide a strong, basic…

  9. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  10. Interactive experimenters' planning procedures and mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The computerized mission control and planning system routinely generates a 24-hour schedule in one hour of operator time by including time dimensions into experimental planning procedures. Planning is validated interactively as it is being generated segment by segment in the frame of specific event times. The planner simply points a light pen at the time mark of interest on the time line for entering specific event times into the schedule.

  11. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  12. GPS test range mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  13. Mission support plan STS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibanez, F.

    1981-01-01

    The plan defines the anticipated GSTDN/DOD station support and configuration requirements for a nominal flight with an orbital inclination of 38.4 degrees and a circular orbit of 120 nautical miles for the first 5 orbits and 137 nautical miles thereafter. A complete set of preliminary site configuration messages (SCM) define nominal station AOS/LOS times and configurations for S-Band and UHF support. This document is intended for use as a planning tool, providing the necessary guidelines and data base for SCM generation in support of STS-2.

  14. Towards a class library for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujo, Oliver; Smith, Simon T.; Starkey, Paul; Wolff, Thilo

    1994-01-01

    The PASTEL Mission Planning System (MPS) has been developed in C++ using an object-oriented (OO) methodology. While the scope and complexity of this system cannot compare to that of an MPS for a complex mission one of the main considerations of the development was to ensure that we could reuse some of the classes in future MPS. We present here PASTEL MPS classes which could be used in the foundations of a class library for MPS.

  15. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  16. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  17. Performance of advanced missions using fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan; Mcadams, Jim; Schulze, Norm

    1989-01-01

    A quantitive evaluation of the premise that nuclear fusion propulsion offers benefits as compared to other propulsion technologies for carrying out a program of advanced exploration of the solar system and beyond is presented. Using a simplified analytical model of trajectory performance, numerical results of mass requirements versus trip time are given for robotic missions beyond the solar system that include flyby and rendezvous with the Oort cloud of comets and with the star system Alpha Centauri. Round trip missions within the solar system, including robotic sample returns from the outer planet moons and multiple asteroid targets, and manned Mars exploration are also described.

  18. Automated and Adaptive Mission Planning for Orbital Express

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel; Koblick, Darin

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express space mission was a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) lead demonstration of on-orbit satellite servicing scenarios, autonomous rendezvous, fluid transfers of hydrazine propellant, and robotic arm transfers of Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) components. Boeing's Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle provided the servicing to the Ball Aerospace's Next Generation Serviceable Satellite (NextSat) client. For communication opportunities, operations used the high-bandwidth ground-based Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) along with the relatively low-bandwidth GEO-Synchronous space-borne Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) network. Mission operations were conducted out of the RDT&E Support Complex (RSC) at the Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico. All mission objectives were met successfully: The first of several autonomous rendezvous was demonstrated on May 5, 2007; autonomous free-flyer capture was demonstrated on June 22, 2007; the fluid and ORU transfers throughout the mission were successful. Planning operations for the mission were conducted by a team of personnel including Flight Directors, who were responsible for verifying the steps and contacts within the procedures, the Rendezvous Planners who would compute the locations and visibilities of the spacecraft, the Scenario Resource Planners (SRPs), who were concerned with assignment of communications windows, monitoring of resources, and sending commands to the ASTRO spacecraft, and the Mission planners who would interface with the real-time operations environment, process planning products and coordinate activities with the SRP. The SRP position was staffed by JPL personnel who used the Automated Scheduling and Planning ENvironment (ASPEN) to model and enforce mission and satellite constraints. The lifecycle of a plan began three weeks outside its execution on-board. During the planning timeframe, many aspects could change the plan

  19. 107. Air defense command "master plan, basic mission plan," RCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Air defense command "master plan, basic mission plan," RCA Service Company tab no. F-1, sheet 2 of 2, dated 1 June, 1963. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. SATCOP mission planning software package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucey, Steve

    1993-01-01

    As the CDSLR Network grows into the 1990's, it is undergoing many changes in both its capabilities and requirements. On the one hand, great progress has been made in terms of increasing the SLR systems' performance. Upgrades to the onsite computer and improved laser ranging hardware have greatly increased the number of satellite passes which can be acquired during an operating shift by reducing the amount of time needed for operations other than actual ranging. On the other hand, more requirements have been placed on the systems. Many more satellites have become available, with more scheduled for launch, thus, increasing the likelihood of simultaneous satellite visibility. In addition, the possible scenarios required for ranging these many satellites are changing frequently, with conflicting priorities and needs. It became apparent that some tools needed to be developed to assist the planners in determining Network ranging priorities. Such tools have been developed at Bendix under the direction of NASA's Dynamics of the Solid Earth Project (DOSE) for both long range planning and routine operations to maximize the amount of data collected. This paper reviews some of these tools and describe their uses.

  1. ESA's advanced relay and technology mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechte, H.; Bird, A. G.; van Holtz, L.; Oppenhauser, G.

    1990-05-01

    The Advanced Relay and Technology Mission is discussed. The objective of the mission is to develop, launch, and operate a single geostationary satellite. The proposed satellite includes advanced communications payloads with data-relay, mobile, and fixed-service applications. The semiconductor laser intersatellite link experiment (Silex), which is aimed at developing an optical communications data-relay system, is described. The Silex configuration is designed for LEO or GEO applications and has a 65 Mbit/s data rate over the optical return link. Consideration is given to the phased-array technology utilized in the S-band data-relay payload; the L-band land mobile payload; diagnostics and propagation packages; and technology experiments for improving the platform.

  2. Resource envelope concepts for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, K. Y.; Weiler, J. D.; Tokaz, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Seven proposed methods for creating resource envelopes for Space Station Freedom mission planning are detailed. Four reference science activity models are used to illustrate the effect of adding operational flexibility to mission timelines. For each method, a brief explanation is given along with graphs to illustrate the application of the envelopes to the power and crew resources. The benefits and costs of each method are analyzed in terms of resource utilization. In addition to the effect on individual activities, resource envelopes are analyzed at the experiment level.

  3. Advanced power sources for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

    1989-01-01

    Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

  4. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  5. Advancement Planning: An Objectives View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druck, Kalman B.

    1986-01-01

    Planning must revolve around objectives related to students, faculty, money, and political support. When it is understood that all of the institution's advancement activity should help produce these four things, planning is easy. (MLW)

  6. Emirates Mars Mission Planetary Protection Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadhi, Mohsen Al

    2016-07-01

    The United Arab Emirates is planning to launch a spacecraft to Mars in 2020 as part of the Emirates Mars Mission (EMM). The EMM spacecraft, Amal, will arrive in early 2021 and enter orbit about Mars. Through a sequence of subsequent maneuvers, the spacecraft will enter a large science orbit and remain there throughout the primary mission. This paper describes the planetary protection plan for the EMM mission. The EMM science orbit, where Amal will conduct the majority of its operations, is very large compared to other Mars orbiters. The nominal orbit has a periapse altitude of 20,000 km, an apoapse altitude of 43,000 km, and an inclination of 25 degrees. From this vantage point, Amal will conduct a series of atmospheric investigations. Since Amal's orbit is very large, the planetary protection plan is to demonstrate a very low probability that the spacecraft will ever encounter Mars' surface or lower atmosphere during the mission. The EMM team has prepared methods to demonstrate that (1) the launch vehicle targets support a 0.01% probability of impacting Mars, or less, within 50 years; (2) the spacecraft has a 1% probability or less of impacting Mars during 20 years; and (3) the spacecraft has a 5% probability or less of impacting Mars during 50 years. The EMM mission design resembles the mission design of many previous missions, differing only in the specific parameters and final destination. The following sequence describes the mission: 1.The mission will launch in July, 2020. The launch includes a brief parking orbit and a direct injection to the interplanetary cruise. The launch targets are specified by the hyperbolic departure's energy C3, and the hyperbolic departure's direction in space, captured by the right ascension and declination of the launch asymptote, RLA and DLA, respectively. The targets of the launch vehicle are biased away from Mars such that there is a 0.01% probability or less that the launch vehicle arrives onto a trajectory that impacts Mars

  7. PLAN-IT - Knowledge-based mission sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.

    1987-01-01

    PLAN-IT (Plan-Integrated Timelines), a knowledge-based approach to assist in mission sequencing, is discussed. PLAN-IT uses a large set of scheduling techniques known as strategies to develop and maintain a mission sequence. The approach implemented by PLAN-IT and the current applications of PLAN-IT for sequencing at NASA are reported.

  8. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This volume described in detail the Department`s research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department`s laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B & R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department`s appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R & D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R & D performers chosen to execute the Department`s missions.

  9. Automated Data Assimilation and Flight Planning for Multi-Platform Observation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj; Morris, Robert A.; Strawa, Anthony; Kurklu, Elif; Keely, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This is a progress report on an effort in which our goal is to demonstrate the effectiveness of automated data mining and planning for the daily management of Earth Science missions. Currently, data mining and machine learning technologies are being used by scientists at research labs for validating Earth science models. However, few if any of these advanced techniques are currently being integrated into daily mission operations. Consequently, there are significant gaps in the knowledge that can be derived from the models and data that are used each day for guiding mission activities. The result can be sub-optimal observation plans, lack of useful data, and wasteful use of resources. Recent advances in data mining, machine learning, and planning make it feasible to migrate these technologies into the daily mission planning cycle. We describe the design of a closed loop system for data acquisition, processing, and flight planning that integrates the results of machine learning into the flight planning process.

  10. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  11. NUCLEON Satellite Mission. Status and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, P.; Baranova, N.; Christl, M.; Chilingarian, A.; Chupin, I.; Derrickson, J.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of the NUCLEON satellite mission is direct measurements of the elemental energy spectra of high-energy (10(exp 11) - 10(exp 15) eV) cosmic rays with Kinematic Lightweight Energy Meter (KLEM) device. The design of the instrument has been corrected to increase geometry factor and improve charge resolution. The special mechanical and electronic systems have been developed for installation of the experimental apparatus in a regular Russian satellite. It is planned to launch the NUCLEON instrument in 2006.

  12. Vehicle management and mission planning in support of shuttle operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, W. R.; Bell, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An operational approach to shuttle mission planning during high flight frequency years (20 or more flights per year) is described wherein diverse mission planning functions interface via an interactive computer system and common data base. The Vehicle Management and Mission Planning System (VMMPS) is proposed as a means of helping to accomplish the mission planning function. The VMMPS will link together into an interactive system the major mission planning areas such as trajectory, crew, vehicle performance, and launch operations. A common data base will be an integral part of the system and the concept of standard mission types and phases will be used to minimize mission to mission uniqueness. The use of this system will eliminate much redundancy and replanning, shorten interface times between functions, and provide a means to evaluate unplanned events and modify schedules.

  13. Formulation of consumables management models. Volume 1: Mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torian, J. G.; Zamora, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Development of an STS (Space Transportation System) interactive computer program MPP (Mission Planning Processor) working model was conducted. A summary of the computer program development and those supporting tasks conducted is presented. Development of the MPP Computer Program is discussed. This development was supported by several parallel tasks. These tasks either directly supported the program development, or provided information for future application and/or modification to the program in relation to the flight planning and flight operations of the STS and advanced spacecraft. The supporting tasks also included development of a Space Station MPP to demonstrate the applicability of the analytical methods developed under this RTOP to more advanced spacecraft than the STS.

  14. Applications of artificial intelligence to mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Donnie R.; Rogers, John S.; Floyd, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    The scheduling problem facing NASA-Marshall mission planning is extremely difficult for several reasons. The most critical factor is the computational complexity involved in developing a schedule. The size of the search space is large along some dimensions and infinite along others. It is because of this and other difficulties that many of the conventional operation research techniques are not feasible or inadequate to solve the problems by themselves. Therefore, the purpose is to examine various artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to assist conventional techniques or to replace them. The specific tasks performed were as follows: (1) to identify mission planning applications for object oriented and rule based programming; (2) to investigate interfacing AI dedicated hardware (Lisp machines) to VAX hardware; (3) to demonstrate how Lisp may be called from within FORTRAN programs; (4) to investigate and report on programming techniques used in some commercial AI shells, such as Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE); and (5) to study and report on algorithmic methods to reduce complexity as related to AI techniques.

  15. Advanced Life Support Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

  16. Advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Advance directives allow patients to have some control over decisions even when they are no longer able to make decisions themselves. All states authorize written advance directives, such as the appointment of a health care proxy, but commonly impose procedural requirements. Some states have restricted the use of oral advance directives, although they are frequently used in everyday practice. Advance directives are limited because they are infrequently used, may not be informed, and may conflict with the patient's current best interests. Moreover, surrogates often cannot state patients' preferences accurately. Furthermore, discussions among physicians and patients about advance directives are flawed. Physicians can improve discussions about advance directives by asking the patient who should serve as proxy and by ascertaining the patient's values and general preferences before discussing specific clinical situations. PMID:15538068

  17. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  18. Manned orbital systems concepts study. Book 3: Configurations for extended duration missions. [mission planning and project planning for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mission planning, systems analysis, and design concepts for the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system for extended manned operations are described. Topics discussed are: (1) payloads, (2) spacecraft docking, (3) structural design criteria, (4) life support systems, (5) power supplies, and (6) the role of man in long duration orbital operations. Also discussed are the assembling of large structures in space. Engineering drawings are included.

  19. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    applications. One notable example of such missions are those to explore for the existence of water on planets such as Mars and the moons of Jupiter. It is clear that water does not exist on the surfaces of such bodies, but may well be located at some considerable depth below the surface, thus requiring a subsurface drilling capability. Subsurface drilling on planetary surfaces will require a robust autonomous control and analysis system, currently a major challenge, but within conceivable reach of planned technology developments. This paper will focus on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations, including flight test results, lessons learned, and implications for the future. An additional focus will be on technologies for planetary exploration using autonomous systems and astronaut-assistance systems that employ new spoken language technology. Topics to be presented will include a description of key autonomous control concepts, illustrated by the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will also be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. Current results of autonomous planetary drilling system research will be presented. A key thrust within NASA is to develop technologies that will leverage the capabilities of human astronauts during planetary surface explorations. One such technology is spoken dialogue interfaces, which would allow collaboration with semi-autonomous agents that are engaged in activities that are normally accomplished using language, e.g., astronauts in space suits interacting with groups of semi-autonomous rovers and other

  20. Mission Planning for the CHANDRA X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Larry D.; Stone, Russell, L.; Evans, Steven W.

    1999-01-01

    The CHANDRA x-ray observatory started life as the Advanced X-ray Facility (AXAF) but was renamed Chandra in December of 1998 at the of a nationwide contest by NASA to name the new observatory. The honors the Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist S. Chandrasekar who astrophysics at the University of Chicago for more than 50 years, following graduate studies at Cambridge University in England. The observatory has been under construction for a decade under the management of the Observatory observatory, Projects office at the Marshall Space Flight Center; the same office that oversaw the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. This observatory is a member of NASA's great observatory series of missions of which Hubble and Compton are members. This paper describes the mission planning that was conducted at MSFC to design the orbit and launch window that would permit the new observatory to function properly.

  1. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  2. Link Analysis in the Mission Planning Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Jessica A.; Cervantes, Benjamin W.; Daugherty, Sarah C.; Arroyo, Felipe; Mago, Divyang

    2011-01-01

    The legacy communications link analysis software currently used at Wallops Flight Facility involves processes that are different for command destruct, radar, and telemetry. There is a clear advantage to developing an easy-to-use tool that combines all the processes in one application. Link Analysis in the Mission Planning Lab (MPL) uses custom software and algorithms integrated with Analytical Graphics Inc. Satellite Toolkit (AGI STK). The MPL link analysis tool uses pre/post-mission data to conduct a dynamic link analysis between ground assets and the launch vehicle. Just as the legacy methods do, the MPL link analysis tool calculates signal strength and signal- to-noise according to the accepted processes for command destruct, radar, and telemetry assets. Graphs and other custom data are generated rapidly in formats for reports and presentations. STK is used for analysis as well as to depict plume angles and antenna gain patterns in 3D. The MPL has developed two interfaces with the STK software (see figure). The first interface is an HTML utility, which was developed in Visual Basic to enhance analysis for plume modeling and to offer a more user friendly, flexible tool. A graphical user interface (GUI) written in MATLAB (see figure upper right-hand corner) is also used to quickly depict link budget information for multiple ground assets. This new method yields a dramatic decrease in the time it takes to provide launch managers with the required link budgets to make critical pre-mission decisions. The software code used for these two custom utilities is a product of NASA's MPL.

  3. Developing Advanced Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbel, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth s moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a systems engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD s Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. these products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  4. Developing Advanced Human Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbell, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth's moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a system engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD's Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. These products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  5. Mission activities planning for a Hermes mission by means of AI-technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pape, U.; Hajen, G.; Schielow, N.; Mitschdoerfer, P.; Allard, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Activities Planning is a complex task to be performed by mission control centers. AI technology can offer attractive solutions to the planning problem. This paper presents the use of a new AI-based Mission Planning System for crew activity planning. Based on a HERMES servicing mission to the COLUMBUS Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF) with complex time and resource constraints, approximately 2000 activities with 50 different resources have been generated, processed, and planned with parametric variation of operationally sensitive parameters. The architecture, as well as the performance of the mission planning system, is discussed. An outlook to future planning scenarios, the requirements, and how a system like MARS can fulfill those requirements is given.

  6. Mission planning for the Lidar in Space Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    1995-01-01

    Developing a mission planning system for a Space Shuttle mission is a complex procedure. Several months of preparation are required to develop a plan that optimizes science return during the short operations time frame. Further complicating the scenario is the necessity to schedule around crew activities and other payloads which share Orbiter resources. SpaceTec, Inc. developed the mission planning system for the Lidar In Space Technology Experiment, or LITE, which flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-64 in September of 1994. SpaceTec used a combination of off-th-shelf and in-house developed software to analyze various mission scenarios both premission and real-time during the flight. From this analysis, SpaceTec developed a comprehensive mission plan that met the mission objectives.

  7. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  8. NASA's Decadal Planning Team Mars Mission Analysis Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2007-02-01

    In June 1999 the NASA Administrator chartered an internal NASA task force, termed the Decadal Planning Team, to create new integrated vision and strategy for space exploration. The efforts of the Decadal Planning Team evolved into the Agency-wide team known as the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT). This team was also instructed to identify technology roadmaps to enable the science-driven exploration vision, established a cross-Enterprise, cross-Center systems engineering team with emphasis focused on revolutionary not evolutionary approaches. The strategy of the DPT and NEXT teams was to "Go Anywhere, Anytime" by conquering key exploration hurdles of space transportation, crew health and safety, human/robotic partnerships, affordable abundant power, and advanced space systems performance. Early emphasis was placed on revolutionary exploration concepts such as rail gun and electromagnetic launchers, propellant depots, retrograde trajectories, nano structures, and gas core nuclear rockets to name a few. Many of these revolutionary concepts turned out to be either not feasible for human exploration missions or well beyond expected technology readiness for near-term implementation. During the DPT and NEXT study cycles, several architectures were analyzed including missions to the Earth-Sun Libration Point (L2), the Earth-Moon Gateway and L1, the lunar surface, Mars (both short and long stays), one-year round trip Mars, and near-Earth asteroids. Common emphasis of these studies included utilization of the Earth-Moon Libration Point (L1) as a staging point for exploration activities, current (Shuttle) and near-term launch capabilities (EELV), advanced propulsion, and robust space power. Although there was much emphasis placed on utilization of existing launch capabilities, the team concluded that missions in near-Earth space are only marginally feasible and human missions to Mars were not feasible without a heavy lift launch capability. In addition, the team concluded that

  9. NASA's Decadal Planning Team Mars Mission Analysis Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    In June 1999 the NASA Administrator chartered an internal NASA task force, termed the Decadal Planning Team, to create new integrated vision and strategy for space exploration. The efforts of the Decadal Planning Team evolved into the Agency-wide team known as the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT). This team was also instructed to identify technology roadmaps to enable the science-driven exploration vision, established a cross-Enterprise, cross-Center systems engineering team with emphasis focused on revolutionary not evolutionary approaches. The strategy of the DPT and NEXT teams was to "Go Anywhere, Anytime" by conquering key exploration hurdles of space transportation, crew health and safety, human/robotic partnerships, affordable abundant power, and advanced space systems performance. Early emphasis was placed on revolutionary exploration concepts such as rail gun and electromagnetic launchers, propellant depots, retrograde trajectories, nano structures, and gas core nuclear rockets to name a few. Many of these revolutionary concepts turned out to be either not feasible for human exploration missions or well beyond expected technology readiness for near-term implementation. During the DPT and NEXT study cycles, several architectures were analyzed including missions to the Earth-Sun Libration Point (L2), the Earth-Moon Gateway and L1, the lunar surface, Mars (both short and long stays), one-year round trip Mars, and near-Earth asteroids. Common emphasis of these studies included utilization of the Earth-Moon Libration Point (L1) as a staging point for exploration activities, current (Shuttle) and near-term launch capabilities (EELV), advanced propulsion, and robust space power. Although there was much emphasis placed on utilization of existing launch capabilities, the team concluded that missions in near-Earth space are only marginally feasible and human missions to Mars were not feasible without a heavy lift launch capability. In addition, the team concluded that

  10. Advances in Architectural Elements For Future Missions to Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Kim; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Matson, Dennis; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Andre; Beauchamp, Pat; Spilker, Tom; Strange, Nathan; Elliott, John

    2010-05-01

    to describe recent advances and ongoing planning for a Titan balloon and surface elements. References [1] NRC Space Studies Board (2003), New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (first Decadal Survey Report), National Academic Press, Washington, DC. [2] Coustenis et al. (2008). Experimental Astronomy, DOI: 10.1007/s10686-008-9103-z. [3] J. Leary, R. Strain, R. Lorenz, J. H. Waite, 2008. Titan Explorer Flagship Mission Study, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/opag/Titan_Explorer_Public_Report.pdf. [4] TSSM Final Report, 3 November 2008, NASA Task Order NMO710851 [5] TSSM NASA/ESA Joint Summary Report, 15 November 2008, NASA Task Order NMO710851

  11. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission infrastructure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Root, R.W.

    1998-01-08

    This system plan presents the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Infrastructure Program. This Infrastructure Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project`s Retrieval and Disposal Mission.

  12. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  13. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  14. MPGT - THE MISSION PLANNING GRAPHICAL TOOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Planning Graphical Tool (MPGT) provides mission analysts with a mouse driven graphical representation of the spacecraft and environment data used in spaceflight planning. Developed by the Flight Dynamics Division at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, MPGT is designed to be a generic tool that can be configured to analyze any specified earth orbiting spacecraft mission. The data is presented as a series of overlays on top of a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional projection of the earth. Up to six spacecraft orbit tracks can be drawn at one time. Position data can be obtained by either an analytical process or by use of ephemeris files. If the user chooses to propagate the spacecraft orbit using an ephemeris file, then Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) formatted ephemeris files must be supplied. The MPGT User's Guide provides a complete description of the GTDS ephemeris file format so that users can create their own. Other overlays included are ground station antenna masks, solar and lunar ephemeris, Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) coverage, a field-of-view swath, and orbit number. From these graphical representations an analyst can determine such spacecraft-related constraints as communication coverage, interference zone infringement, sunlight availability, and instrument target visibility. The presentation of time and geometric data as graphical overlays on a world map makes possible quick analyses of trends and time-oriented parameters. For instance, MPGT can display the propagation of the position of the Sun and Moon over time, shadowing of sunrise/sunset terminators to indicate spacecraft and Earth day/night, and color coding of the spacecraft orbit tracks to indicate spacecraft day/night. With the 3-dimensional display, the user specifies a vector that represents the position in the universe from which the user wishes to view the earth. From these "viewpoint" parameters the user can zoom in on or rotate around the earth

  15. MPGT - THE MISSION PLANNING GRAPHICAL TOOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Planning Graphical Tool (MPGT) provides mission analysts with a mouse driven graphical representation of the spacecraft and environment data used in spaceflight planning. Developed by the Flight Dynamics Division at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, MPGT is designed to be a generic tool that can be configured to analyze any specified earth orbiting spacecraft mission. The data is presented as a series of overlays on top of a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional projection of the earth. Up to six spacecraft orbit tracks can be drawn at one time. Position data can be obtained by either an analytical process or by use of ephemeris files. If the user chooses to propagate the spacecraft orbit using an ephemeris file, then Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) formatted ephemeris files must be supplied. The MPGT User's Guide provides a complete description of the GTDS ephemeris file format so that users can create their own. Other overlays included are ground station antenna masks, solar and lunar ephemeris, Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) coverage, a field-of-view swath, and orbit number. From these graphical representations an analyst can determine such spacecraft-related constraints as communication coverage, interference zone infringement, sunlight availability, and instrument target visibility. The presentation of time and geometric data as graphical overlays on a world map makes possible quick analyses of trends and time-oriented parameters. For instance, MPGT can display the propagation of the position of the Sun and Moon over time, shadowing of sunrise/sunset terminators to indicate spacecraft and Earth day/night, and color coding of the spacecraft orbit tracks to indicate spacecraft day/night. With the 3-dimensional display, the user specifies a vector that represents the position in the universe from which the user wishes to view the earth. From these "viewpoint" parameters the user can zoom in on or rotate around the earth

  16. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  17. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  18. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    applications. One notable example of such missions are those to explore for the existence of water on planets such as Mars and the moons of Jupiter. It is clear that water does not exist on the surfaces of such bodies, but may well be located at some considerable depth below the surface, thus requiring a subsurface drilling capability. Subsurface drilling on planetary surfaces will require a robust autonomous control and analysis system, currently a major challenge, but within conceivable reach of planned technology developments. This paper will focus on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations, including flight test results, lessons learned, and implications for the future. An additional focus will be on technologies for planetary exploration using autonomous systems and astronaut-assistance systems that employ new spoken language technology. Topics to be presented will include a description of key autonomous control concepts, illustrated by the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will also be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. Current results of autonomous planetary drilling system research will be presented. A key thrust within NASA is to develop technologies that will leverage the capabilities of human astronauts during planetary surface explorations. One such technology is spoken dialogue interfaces, which would allow collaboration with semi-autonomous agents that are engaged in activities that are normally accomplished using language, e.g., astronauts in space suits interacting with groups of semi-autonomous rovers and other

  19. Advance Care Planning

    Cancer.gov

    The thirteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the attitudes and practices of African Americans related to completion of advance directives, and recommends effective strategies to improve decision-making in the setting of serious, life-threatening illness, in ways that augment patient autonomy and support patient-centered goal-setting and decision-making among African American patients and their families.

  20. Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

  1. Managing the Perception of Advanced Technology Risks in Mission Proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellisario, Sebastian Nickolai

    2012-01-01

    Through my work in the project proposal office I became interested in how technology advancement efforts affect competitive mission proposals. Technology development allows for new instruments and functionality. However, including technology advancement in a mission proposal often increases perceived risk. Risk mitigation has a major impact on the overall evaluation of the proposal and whether the mission is selected. In order to evaluate the different approaches proposals took I compared the proposals claims of heritage and technology advancement to the sponsor feedback provided in the NASA debriefs. I examined a set of Discovery 2010 Mission proposals to draw patterns in how they were evaluated and come up with a set of recommendations for future mission proposals in how they should approach technology advancement to reduce the perceived risk.

  2. Atmospheric constraint statistics for the Space Shuttle mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.; Willett, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The procedures used to establish statistics of atmospheric constraints of interest to the Space Shuttle mission planning are presented. The statistics considered are for the frequency of occurrence, runs, and time conditional probabilities of several atmospheric constrants for each of the Space Shuttle mission phases. The mission phases considered are (1) prelaunch, (2) launch, (3) return to launch site, (4) abort once around landing, and (5) end of mission landing.

  3. Atmospheric constraint statistics for the Space Shuttle mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures used to establish statistics of atmospheric constraints of interest to the Space Shuttle mission planning are presented. The statistics considered are for the frequency of occurrence, runs, and time conditional probabilities of several atmospheric constraints for each of the Space Shuttle mission phases. The mission phases considered are (1) prelaunch, (2) launch operations, (3) return to launch site, (4) abort once around landing, and (5) end of mission landing. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33417

  4. Conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migra, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    An initial conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems is provided, utilizing a space station to provide a dedicated test facility. The advanced power systems considered included Brayton, Stirling, and liquid metal Rankine systems operating in the temperature range of 1040 to 1400 K. The critical technologies for advanced systems were identified by reviewing the current state of the art of solar dynamic power systems. The experimental requirements were determined by planning a system test of a 20 kWe solar dynamic power system on the space station test facility. These requirements were documented via the Mission Requirements Working Group (MRWG) and Technology Development Advocacy Group (TDAG) forms. Various concepts or considerations of advanced concepts are discussed. A preliminary evolutionary plan for this technology development mission was prepared.

  5. A Titan exploration study: Science, technology and mission planning options, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tindle, E. L.; Manning, L. A.; Sadin, S. R.; Edsinger, L. E.; Weissman, P. R.; Swenson, B. L.

    1976-01-01

    Mission concepts and technology advancements that can be used in the exploration of the outer planet satellites were examined. Titan, the seventh satellite of Saturn was selected as the target of interest. Science objectives for Titan exploration were identified, and recommended science payloads for four basic mission modes were developed (orbiter, atmospheric probe, surface penetrator and lander). Trial spacecraft and mission designs were produced for the various mission modes. Using these trial designs as a base, technology excursions were then made to find solutions to the problems resulting from these conventional approaches and to uncover new science, technology and mission planning options. Several mission modes were developed that take advantage of the unique conditions expected at Titan. They include a combined orbiter, atmosphere probe and lander vehicle, a combined probe and surface penetrator configuration and concepts for advanced remote sensing orbiters.

  6. Advances in Atmospheric Correction for NASA's PACE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, L. A.; Franz, B. A.; Boss, E.

    2015-12-01

    The PACE (Pre- Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystem) mission is a strategic Climate Continuity mission, included in NASA's 2010 plan: "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space". On a polar orbit, PACE will make climate-quality global measurements that are essential for understanding ocean biology, biogeochemistry, ecology, aerosol and cloud properties. These measurements will be used to help determine how the ocean and atmosphere are influencing and being influenced by a changing climate. At the heart of the PACE mission is a broad spectrum moderate resolution (~1 km nadir) radiometer, called the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI). OCI will provide high spectral resolution (5 nm) from the UV to NIR (350 - 800 nm), with additional spectral bands in the NIR and SWIR to support atmospheric correction, and aerosol and cloud science. Never before has a U.S. space borne instrument measured across such a broad spectral range at such a fine spectral and spatial resolutions on a global scale. The added capability of OCI presents unique new opportunities for oceanic and atmospheric retrievals, but also new challenges, especially for atmospheric correction. These challenges are being met in a variety of creative ways. In addition to OCI, PACE may include a multi-spectral, multi-angle polarimeter that will enhance aerosol and cloud characterization, aid significantly in atmospheric correction for oceanic retrievals, and may offer new insight into characterization of oceanic hydrosols. With these advanced global remote sensing capabilities PACE is expected to: (1) Provide high quality observations for both basic science research, as well as applications; and (2) Extend the current time-series of climate quality data to enable detection of long-term trends.

  7. Three Dimensional Rover/Lander/Orbiter Mission-Planning (3D-ROMPS) System: A Modern Approach to Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharfe, Nathan D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's current mission planning system is based on point design, two-dimensional display, spread sheets, and report technology. This technology does not enable engineers to analyze the results of parametric studies of missions plans. This technology will not support the increased observational complexity and data volume of missions like Cassini, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), and Mars Sample Return (MSR). The goal of the 3D-ROMPS task has been to establish a set of operational mission planning and analysis tools in the Image Processing Laboratory (IPL) Mission Support Area (MSA) that will respond to engineering requirements for planning future Solar System Exploration (SSE) missions using a three-dimensional display.

  8. Planning Ahead: Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Planning Ahead: Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Aug 24,2016 An important part of ... content was last reviewed on 04/16/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  9. Cartography for lunar exploration: 2008 status and mission plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, R.L.; Archinal, B.A.; Gaddis, L.R.; Rosiek, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The initial spacecraft exploration of the Moon in the 1960s-70s yielded extensive data, primarily in the form of film and television images, which were used to produce a large number of hardcopy maps by conventional techniques. A second era of exploration, beginning in the early 1990s, has produced digital data including global multispectral imagery and altimetry, from which a new generation of digital map products tied to a rapidly evolving global control network has been made. Efforts are also underway to scan the earlier hardcopy maps for online distribution and to digitize the film images so that modern processing techniques can be used to make high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) and image mosaics consistent with the current global control. The pace of lunar exploration is accelerating dramatically, with as many as eight new missions already launched or planned for the current decade. These missions, of which the most important for cartography are SMART-1 (Europe), Kaguya/SELENE (Japan), Chang'e-1 (China), Chandrayaan-1 (India), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (USA), will return a volume of data exceeding that of all previous lunar and planetary missions combined. Framing and scanner camera images, including multispectral and stereo data, hyperspectral images, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, and laser altimetry will all be collected, including, in most cases, multiple data sets of each type. Substantial advances in international standardization and cooperation, development of new and more efficient data processing methods, and availability of resources for processing and archiving will all be needed if the next generation of missions are to fulfill their potential for high-precision mapping of the Moon in support of subsequent exploration and scientific investigation.

  10. Advanced thermal management needs for Lunar and Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.C. ); Webb, B.J. )

    1993-01-15

    Significant improvements in thermal management technologies will be required to support NASA's planned Lunar and Mars missions. The developments needed include the application of advanced materials to reduce radiator system masses, enhanced survivability, and the use of alternative working fluids. Current thermal management systems utilize one of two heat rejection alternatives; either single phase pumped loops, or two phase heat pipes constructed with thick walled metal casings. These two technologies have proven themselves to be reliable performers in the transport and rejection of waste heat from spacecraft. As thermal management needs increase with increased power consumption and activity required on spacecraft, these metal based thermal management systems will become mission limiting. Investigations into the use of light weight ceramic materials for high temperature thermal management systems have been conducted by NASA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense since the early 1980s, with results showing that significant mass savings can be obtained by replacing some of the metallic functions with ceramic materials.

  11. Optical navigation planning process for the Cassini Solstice Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolet, Simon; Gillam, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini Equinox Mission, the Optical Navigation strategy has gradually evolved toward maintenance of an acceptable level of uncertainty on the positions of the bodies to be observed. By counteracting the runoff of the uncertainty over time, this strategy helps satisfy the spacecraft pointing requirements throughout the Solstice Mission, while considerably reducing the required imaging frequency. Requirements for planning observations were established, and the planning process itself was largely automated to facilitate re-planning if it becomes necessary. This paper summarizes the process leading to the optical navigation schedule for the seven years of the Solstice Mission.

  12. Lofty missions, down-to-earth plans.

    PubMed

    Rangan, V Kasturi

    2004-03-01

    Most nonprofits make program decisions based on a mission rather than a strategy. They rally under the banner of a particular cause, be it "fight homelessness" or "end hunger." And since their causes are so worthwhile, they support any programs that are related--even tangentially--to their core missions. It's hard to fault people for trying to improve the state of the world, but that approach to making decisions is misguided. Acting without a clear long-term strategy can stretch an agency's core capabilities and push it in unintended directions. The fundamental problem is that many nonprofits don't have a strategy; instead, they have a mission and a portfolio of programs. But they hardly make deliberate decisions about which programs to run, which to drop, and which to turn down for funding. What most nonprofits call "strategy" is really just an intensive exercise in resource allocation and program management. This article outlines for nonprofits a four-step process for developing strategy. The first step is to create a broad, inspiring mission statement. The second step is to translate that core mission into a smaller, quantifiable operational mission. For instance, an agency whose core mission is to fight homelessness must decide if its focus is rural or urban and if it should concentrate on low-income housing loans or on establishing more shelters. The third step is to create a strategy platform; that is, the nonprofit decides how it will achieve its operational mission. Decisions about funding and about client, program, and organizational development are all made here. Once that platform is established, the nonprofit is ready to move to step four--making reasoned, strategic decisions about which programs to run and how to run them. The agency that follows these steps will improve its focus and its effectiveness at fulfilling its mission.

  13. The Mission Planning Lab: A Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Sarah C.; Cervantes, Benjamin W.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation and visualization are powerful decision making tools that are time-saving and cost-effective. Space missions pose testing and e valuation challenges that can be overcome through modeling, simulatio n, and visualization of mission parameters. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) capi talizes on the benefits of modeling, simulation, and visualization to ols through a project initiative called The Mission Planning Lab (MPL ).

  14. Potential Astrophysics Science Missions Enabled by NASA's Planned Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley; Langhoff, Stepheni; Postman, Marc; Lester, Daniel; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    NASA s planned Ares V cargo vehicle with its 10 meter diameter fairing and 60,000 kg payload mass to L2 offers the potential to launch entirely new classes of space science missions such as 8-meter monolithic aperture telescopes, 12- meter aperture x-ray telescopes, 16 to 24 meter segmented telescopes and highly capable outer planet missions. The paper will summarize the current Ares V baseline performance capabilities and review potential mission concepts enabled by these capabilities.

  15. Apollo experience report: Mission planning for Apollo entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, C. A.; Harpold, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The problems encountered and the experience gained in the entry mission plans, flight software, trajectory-monitoring procedures, and backup trajectory-control techniques of the Apollo Program should provide a foundation upon which future spacecraft programs can be developed. Descriptions of these entry activities are presented. Also, to provide additional background information needed for discussion of the Apollo entry experience, descriptions of the entry targeting for the Apollo 11 mission and the postflight analysis of the Apollo 10 mission are presented.

  16. Scheduling Algorithm for Mission Planning and Logistics Evaluation (SAMPLE). Volume 2: Mission payloads subsystem description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupnick, E.; Wiggins, D.

    1980-01-01

    The scheduling algorithm for mission planning and logistics evaluation (SAMPLE) is presented. Two major subsystems are included: The mission payloads program; and the set covering program. Formats and parameter definitions for the payload data set (payload model), feasible combination file, and traffic model are documented.

  17. Project Helios-A. [mission planning for solar probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Helios-A solar probe which will fly within 28 million miles of the sun is described as a joint American and German project. The spacecraft and instrument designs, planned experiments, and mission are briefly discussed.

  18. Space Station Mission Planning System (MPS) development study. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klus, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    The process and existing software used for Spacelab payload mission planning were studied. A complete baseline definition of the Spacelab payload mission planning process was established, along with a definition of existing software capabilities for potential extrapolation to the Space Station. This information was used as a basis for defining system requirements to support Space Station mission planning. The Space Station mission planning concept was reviewed for the purpose of identifying areas where artificial intelligence concepts might offer substantially improved capability. Three specific artificial intelligence concepts were to be investigated for applicability: natural language interfaces; expert systems; and automatic programming. The advantages and disadvantages of interfacing an artificial intelligence language with existing FORTRAN programs or of converting totally to a new programming language were identified.

  19. Spacecraft radiators for advanced mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for spacecraft heat rejection systems are identified, and their impact on the construction of conventional pumped fluid and hybrid heat pipe/pumped fluid radiators is evaluated. Heat rejection systems to improve the performance or reduce the cost of the spacecraft are proposed. Heat rejection requirements which are large compared to those of existing systems and mission durations which are relatively long, are discussed.

  20. The Single Habitat Module Concept for Exploration - Mission Planning and Mass Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The Single Habitat Module (SHM) concept approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions combines many of the new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that use a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them prior to departure of the vicinity of Earth provides the capability of using the single habitat both in transit to an exploration destination and while exploring the destination. The concept employs the capability to return the habitat and interplanetary propulsion system to Earth vicinity so that those elements can be reused on subsequent exploration missions. This paper provides a review of the SHM concept, the advantages it provides, trajectory assessments related to use of a high specific impulse space based propulsion system, advances in mission planning and new mass estimates.

  1. The Single Habitat Module Concept for Exploration - Mission Planning and Mass Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The Single Habitat Module (SHM) concept approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions combines many of the new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that use a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them prior to departure of the vicinity of Earth provides the capability of using the single habitat both in transit to an exploration destination and while exploring the destination. The concept employs the capability to return the habitat and interplanetary propulsion system to Earth vicinity so that those elements can be reused on subsequent exploration missions. This paper provides a review of the SHM concept, the advantages it provides, trajectory assessments related to use of a high specific impulse space based propulsion system, advances in mission planning and new mass estimates.

  2. flexplan: Mission Planning System for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    flexplan is a mission planning and scheduling (MPS) tool that uses soft algorithms to define mission scheduling rules and constraints. This allows the operator to configure the tool for any mission without the need to modify or recompile code. In addition, flexplan uses an ID system to track every output on the schedule to the input from which it was generated. This allows flexplan to receive feedback as the schedules are executed, and update the status of all activities in a Web-based client. flexplan outputs include various planning reports, stored command loads for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), ephemeris loads, and pass scripts for automation.

  3. Scheduling algorithm for mission planning and logistics evaluation users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.; Williams, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The scheduling algorithm for mission planning and logistics evaluation (SAMPLE) program is a mission planning tool composed of three subsystems; the mission payloads subsystem (MPLS), which generates a list of feasible combinations from a payload model for a given calendar year; GREEDY, which is a heuristic model used to find the best traffic model; and the operations simulation and resources scheduling subsystem (OSARS), which determines traffic model feasibility for available resources. The SAMPLE provides the user with options to allow the execution of MPLS, GREEDY, GREEDY-OSARS, or MPLS-GREEDY-OSARS.

  4. Science opportunity analyzer - a multi-mission tool for planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, B. A.; Polanskey, C. A.; O'Reilly, T.; Colwell, J.

    2002-01-01

    For many years the diverse scientific community that supports JPL's wide variety ofinterplanetary space missions has needed a tool in order to plan and develop their experiments. The tool needs to be easily adapted to various mission types and portable to the user community. The Science Opportunity Analyzer, SOA, now in its third year of development, is intended to meet this need. SOA is a java-based application that is designed to enable scientists to identify and analyze opportunities for science observations from spacecraft. It differs from other planning tools in that it does not require an in-depth knowledge of the spacecraft command system or operation modes to begin high level planning. Users can, however, develop increasingly detailed levels of design. SOA consists of six major functions: Opportunity Search, Visualization, Observation Design, Constraint Checking, Data Output and Communications. Opportunity Search is a GUI driven interface to existing search engines that can be used to identify times when a spacecraft is in a specific geometrical relationship with other bodies in the solar system. This function can be used for advanced mission planning as well as for making last minute adjustments to mission sequences in response to trajectory modifications. Visualization is a key aspect of SOA. The user can view observation opportunities in either a 3D representation or as a 2D map projection. The user is given extensive flexibility to customize what is displayed in the view. Observation Design allows the user to orient the spacecraft and visualize the projection of the instrument field of view for that orientation using the same views as Opportunity Search. Constraint Checking is provided to validate various geometrical and physical aspects of an observation design. The user has the ability to easily create custom rules or to use official project-generated flight rules. This capability may also allow scientists to easily impact the cost to science if

  5. Surgical mission planning in the developing world.

    PubMed

    McClenaghan, F; Fell, M; Martin, D; Smith, G; McGurk, M

    2013-12-01

    Surgical missions to the developing world have been criticized for their lack of outcome analysis. Reported studies indicate a high rate of postoperative complications. An integrated pathway developed for surgical missions and a report of its performance in action is presented herein. Patients were optimized for surgery by a medical team from the UK for a minimum of 14 days preoperatively. They were then transferred to hospital for surgery and returned when stable. At the completion of the mission a junior doctor remained behind for 3 weeks to chart the patients' progress. Thirty case patients were treated over a 2-week period. The complication rate at 3 weeks postoperatively was 7/30. Twenty-two operations were classified as complex (over 1h with more than one flap) and eight as simple (under 1h with minimal flaps). Of those undergoing the simple operations, 2/8 encountered complications at an average of 5 days postoperatively (range 3-7 days). Many medical teams depart in an elevated atmosphere of accomplishment, which without an outcome analysis gives a false impression of their positive impact. Outcome analysis is essential to honestly appraise the effect of surgical missions.

  6. Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR) for SWOT mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the SWOT (Surface Water & Ocean Topography) satellite mission is to measure wide-swath, high resolution ocean topography and terrestrial surface waters. Since main payload radar will use interferometric SAR technology, conventional microwave radiometer system which has single nadir look antenna beam (i.e., OSTM/Jason-2 AMR) is not ideally applicable for the mission for wet tropospheric delay correction. Therefore, SWOT AMR incorporates two antenna beams along cross track direction. In addition to the cross track design of the AMR radiometer, wet tropospheric error requirement is expressed in space frequency domain (in the sense of cy/km), in other words, power spectral density (PSD). Thus, instrument error allocation and design are being done in PSD which are not conventional approaches for microwave radiometer requirement allocation and design. A few of novel analyses include: 1. The effects of antenna beam size to PSD error and land/ocean contamination, 2. Receiver error allocation and the contributions of radiometric count averaging, NEDT, Gain variation, etc. 3. Effect of thermal design in the frequency domain. In the presentation, detailed AMR design and analyses results will be discussed.

  7. Orbital Express mission operations planning and resource management using ASPEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less labor-power rises. Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Like a tow-truck delivering gas to a car on the road, the "servicing" satellite of OE had to find the "client" from several kilometers away, connect directly to the client, and transfer fluid (or a battery) autonomously, while on earth-orbit. The mission met 100% of its success criteria, and proved that autonomous satellite servicing is now a reality for space operations. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. As the constraints for execution could change weekly, daily, and even hourly, the tools used create the mission execution plans needed to be flexible and adaptable to many different kinds of changes. At the same time, the hard constraints of the plans needed to be maintained and satisfied. The Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, an overview of the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the NASA's Earth Observing One mission's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  8. Advanced Sensors for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, Ravindra B.; Clinton, R. G.; Frazier, Donald

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a variety of advanced sensors needed for NASA's space exploration. The topics include: 1) The vision of the President of the United States of America for Space Exploration; 2) The report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy; 3) Exploration Systems Interim Report; 4) Major areas of sensor needs; 5) Classes of material; and 6) Variety of Sensors for Space Exploration.

  9. Geologic Traverse Planning for Apollo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The science on Apollo missions was overseen by the Science Working Panel (SWP), but done by multiple PIs. There were two types of science, packages like the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) and traverse science. Traverses were designed on Earth for the astronauts to execute. These were under direction of the Lunar Surface PI, but the agreed traverse was a cooperation between the PI and SWP. The landing sites were selected by a different designated committee, not the SWP, and were based on science and safety.

  10. Improving the Operations of the Earth Observing One Mission via Automated Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg; Schaffer, Steve; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    We describe the modeling and reasoning about operations constraints in an automated mission planning system for an earth observing satellite - EO-1. We first discuss the large number of elements that can be naturally represented in an expressive planning and scheduling framework. We then describe a number of constraints that challenge the current state of the art in automated planning systems and discuss how we modeled these constraints as well as discuss tradeoffs in representation versus efficiency. Finally we describe the challenges in efficiently generating operations plans for this mission. These discussions involve lessons learned from an operations model that has been in use since Fall 2004 (called R4) as well as a newer more accurate operations model operational since June 2009 (called R5). We present analysis of the R5 software documenting a significant (greater than 50%) increase in the number of weekly observations scheduled by the EO-1 mission. We also show that the R5 mission planning system produces schedules within 15% of an upper bound on optimal schedules. This operational enhancement has created value of millions of dollars US over the projected remaining lifetime of the EO-1 mission.

  11. Peer-to-Peer Planning for Space Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barreiro, Javier; Jones, Grailing, Jr.; Schaffer, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Planning and scheduling for space operations entails the development of applications that embed intimate domain knowledge of distinct areas of mission control, while allowing for significant collaboration among them. The separation is useful because of differences in the planning problem, solution methods, and frequencies of replanning that arise in the different disciplines. For example, planning the activities of human spaceflight crews requires some reasoning about all spacecraft resources at timescales of minutes or seconds, and is subject to considerable volatility. Detailed power planning requires managing the complex interplay of power consumption and production, involves very different classes of constraints and preferences, but once plans are generated they are relatively stable.

  12. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

  13. Saturn orbit insertion mission plan for Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ya-Pei Holden; Stetson, Douglas S.

    1990-01-01

    The Cassini mission will be launched in April 1996 and will arrive at Saturn in December 2002. Upon arrival, a large maneuver near Saturn periapsis called Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) will reduce the energy of the spacecraft and result in capture into Saturn orbit. SOI is one of the most critical events of the entire mission. Therefore it is prudent to determine what resources must be dedicated to assure successful execution of SOI and what operational resources can be provided to satisfy SOI science objective. To prolong undisturbed science observations near the periapsis, a delayed SOI burn strategy has been developed. To examine potential resource conflicts between science and engineering activities, key considerations such as power and data storage capability have been evaluated. Other constraints such as turning the spacecraft to burn attitude and slewing platforms for science have also been examined. Although there are many constraints and the spacecraft resources are limited, a reasonable amount of science can still be carried out prior to and during the SOI burn.

  14. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John W.; Vondrak, Richard; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Gavin, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, this phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009, completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission is scheduled for 2 years and will be completed in 2012 with an opportunity for an extended mission beyond 2012. Under SMD, the mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having marked the two year anniversary will review here the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including a proposed 2-year extended mission. These objectives include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5) measuring the Lunar atmosphere and radiation environment.

  15. Applications technology satellites advanced mission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    Three spacecraft configurations were designed for operation as a high powered synchronous communications satellite. Each spacecraft includes a 1 kw TWT and a 2 kw Klystron power amplifier feeding an antenna with multiple shaped beams. One of the spacecraft is designed to be boosted by a Thor-Delta launch vehicle and raised to synchronous orbit with electric propulsion. The other two are inserted into a elliptical transfer orbit with an Atlas Centaur and injected into final orbit with an apogee kick motor. Advanced technologies employed in the several configurations include tubes with multiple stage collectors radiating directly to space, multiple-contoured beam antennas, high voltage rollout solar cell arrays with integral power conditioning, electric propulsion for orbit raising and on-station attitude control and station-keeping, and liquid metal slip rings.

  16. Advances in Astromaterials Curation: Supporting Future Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Fries, M. D..; Righter, K.; Allton, J. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Calaway, M. J.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Astromaterials, curated at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, are the most extensive, best-documented, and leastcontaminated extraterrestrial samples that are provided to the worldwide research community. These samples include lunar samples from the Apollo missions, meteorites collected over nearly 40 years of expeditions to Antarctica (providing samples of dozens of asteroid bodies, the Moon, and Mars), Genesis solar wind samples, cosmic dust collected by NASA's high altitude airplanes, Comet Wild 2 and interstellar dust samples from the Stardust mission, and asteroid samples from JAXA's Hayabusa mission. A full account of NASA's curation efforts for these collections is provided by Allen, et al [1]. On average, we annually allocate about 1500 individual samples from NASA's astromaterials collections to hundreds of researchers from around the world, including graduate students and post-doctoral scientists; our allocation rate has roughly doubled over the past 10 years. The curation protocols developed for the lunar samples returned from the Apollo missions remain relevant and are adapted to new and future missions. Several lessons from the Apollo missions, including the need for early involvement of curation scientists in mission planning [1], have been applied to all subsequent sample return campaigns. From the 2013 National Academy of Sciences report [2]: "Curation is the critical interface between sample return missions and laboratory research. Proper curation has maintained the scientific integrity and utility of the Apollo, Antarctic meteorite, and cosmic dust collections for decades. Each of these collections continues to yield important new science. In the past decade, new state-of-the-art curatorial facilities for the Genesis and Stardust missions were key to the scientific breakthroughs provided by these missions." The results speak for themselves: research on NASA's astromaterials result in hundreds of papers annually, yield fundamental

  17. Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  18. Voyager: Perils of advanced planning, 1960 - 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Contract proposals; phased project planning; budgetary problems; Saturn 1 B-Centaur versus Saturn V; mission guidelines and management assignments; and the origins of the Voyager project are discussed.

  19. Planning Coverage Campaigns for Mission Design and Analysis: Clasp for the Proposed DESDynI Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; McLaren, David; Hu, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Mission design and analysis present challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, our approach is to use automated planning tools that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. We have applied this approach to DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice) mission design concept using the CLASP (Compressed Large-scale Activity Scheduler/Planner) planning system [7], but since this adaptation many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP and the DESDynI mission concept has undergone drastic changes, including that it has been renamed the Earth Radar Mission. Over the past two years, we have run more than fifty simulations with the CLASP-DESDynI adaptation, simulating different mission scenarios with changing parameters including targets, swaths, instrument modes, and data and downlink rates. We describe the evolution of simulations through the DESDynI MCR (Mission Concept Review) and afterwards.

  20. Vehicle management and mission planning systems with shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary definition of a concept for an automated system is presented that will support the effective management and planning of space shuttle operations. It is called the Vehicle Management and Mission Planning System (VMMPS). In addition to defining the system and its functions, some of the software requirements of the system are identified and a phased and evolutionary method is recommended for software design, development, and implementation. The concept is composed of eight software subsystems supervised by an executive system. These subsystems are mission design and analysis, flight scheduler, launch operations, vehicle operations, payload support operations, crew support, information management, and flight operations support. In addition to presenting the proposed system, a discussion of the evolutionary software development philosophy that the Mission Planning and Analysis Division (MPAD) would propose to use in developing the required supporting software is included. A preliminary software development schedule is also included.

  1. A Conceptual Titan Orbiter Mission Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Shirley, James H.; Spilker, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This study details a conceptual follow-on Titan orbiter mission that would provide full global topographic coverage. surface imaging, and meteorological characterization of the atmosphere over a nominal 5-year science mission duration. The baseline power requirement is approx.1 kWe at EOM and is driven by a high power radar instrument that would provide 3-dimensional measurements of atmospheric clouds, precipitation, and surface topography. While this power level is moderately higher than that of the Cassini spacecraft. higher efficiency advanced RPSs could potentially reduce the plutonium usage to less than 1/3rd of that used on the Cassini spacecraft. The Titan Orbiter mission is assumed to launch in 2015. It would utilize advanced RPSs to provide all on-board power.

  2. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  3. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less man-power rises.Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. The Automated-Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN)tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the ASE project's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  4. Advanced Silicon Detectors for High Energy Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, George

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of silicon detectors for high energy astrophysics missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Background: Motivation for Event-Driven CCD; 2) Report of Grant Activity; 3) Packaged EDCCD; 4) Measured X-ray Energy Resolution of the Gen1 EDCCDs Operated in "Conventional Mode"; and 5) EDCCD Gen 1.5-Lot 1 Planning.

  5. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  6. Formulation of consumables management models: Test plan for the mission planning processor working model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The test plan and test procedures to be used in the verification and validation of the software being implemented in the mission planning processor working model program are documented. The mission planning processor is a user oriented tool for consumables management and is part of the total consumables subsystem management concept. An overview of the working model is presented. Execution of the test plan will comprehensively exercise the working model software. An overview of the test plan, including a testing schedule, is presented along with the test plan for the unit, module, and system levels. The criteria used to validate the working model results for each consumables subsystem is discussed.

  7. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  8. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  9. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    SciTech Connect

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions.

  10. The Living with a Star Program Mission Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    LWS (Living With a Star) is research science focused to facilitate enabling science for spacecraft design (specifically environment specification models) and spacecraft operations (specifically Space Weather research). The following topics are discussed: LWS goals and program, program architecture, the solar dynamic observer, the geospace plan, the space environment testbed concept, and the heliosphere missions.

  11. Planning Mars Memory: Learning from the Mer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge management for space exploration is part of a multi-generational effort at recognizing, preserving and transmitting learning. Each mission should be built on the learning, of both successes and failures, derived from previous missions. Knowledge management begins with learning, and the recognition that this learning has produced knowledge. The Mars Exploration Rover mission provides us with an opportunity to track how learning occurs, how it is recorded, and whether the representations of this learning will be optimally useful for subsequent missions. This paper focuses on the MER science and engineering teams during Rover operations. A NASA team conducted an observational study of the ongoing work and learning of the these teams. Learning occurred in a wide variety of areas: how to run two teams on Mars time for three months; how to use the instruments within the constraints of the martian environment, the deep space network and the mission requirements; how to plan science strategy; how best to use the available software tools. This learning is preserved in many ways. Primarily it resides in peoples memories, to be carried on to the next mission. It is also encoded in stones, in programming sequences, in published reports, and in lessons learned activities, Studying learning and knowledge development as it happens allows us to suggest proactive ways of capturing and using it across multiple missions and generations.

  12. Artificial intelligence for the EChO mission planning tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Ribas, Ignasi; Colomé, Josep

    2015-12-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) has as its main goal the measurement of atmospheres of transiting planets. This requires the observation of two types of events: primary and secondary eclipses. In order to yield measurements of sufficient Signal-to-Noise Ratio to fulfil the mission objectives, the events of each exoplanet have to be observed several times. In addition, several criteria have to be considered to carry out each observation, such as the exoplanet visibility, its event duration, and no overlapping with other tasks. It is expected that a suitable mission plan increases the efficiency of telescope operation, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. Nevertheless, to obtain a long term mission plan becomes unaffordable for human planners due to the complexity of computing the huge number of possible combinations for finding an optimum solution. In this contribution we present a long term mission planning tool based on Genetic Algorithms, which are focused on solving optimization problems such as the planning of several tasks. Specifically, the proposed tool finds a solution that highly optimizes the defined objectives, which are based on the maximization of the time spent on scientific observations and the scientific return (e.g., the coverage of the mission survey). The results obtained on the large experimental set up support that the proposed scheduler technology is robust and can function in a variety of scenarios, offering a competitive performance which does not depend on the collection of exoplanets to be observed. Specifically, the results show that, with the proposed tool, EChO uses 94% of the available time of the mission, so the amount of downtime is small, and it completes 98% of the targets.

  13. Mission to Planet Earth Strategic Enterprise Plan 1996-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth's (MTPE's) first Strategic Enterprise Plan, issued in May 1995, defined the Agency's major goals and objectives as well as constraints. This update of the Strategic Enterprise Plan identifies the following major changes: a focused Science Research Plan that integrates space-based and in situ observational critical science to address critical science uncertainties; a technology infusion plan to reduce the cost of future missions; a series of flight opportunities to infuse new science into the overall program; and a tighter coupling between NASA and NOAA to reduce costs and to improve the overall program. Three important new initiatives are also under development and are described briefly in this plan: MTPE Education Strategy, MTPE Commercial Strategy, and an emerging concept for an Integrated Global Observing Strategy. This first update to the MTPE Strategic Enterprise Plan captures these new developments, and takes a significant step forward in planning this complex Earth system science endeavor. The plan and other information on MTPE may be viewed via the Internet at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/mtpe/.

  14. Advanced Passive Microwave Radiometer Technology for GPM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Principe, Caleb; Ruf, Christoper; Wilheit, Thomas; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An interferometer-type passive microwave radiometer based on MMIC receiver technology and a thinned array antenna design is being developed under the Instrument Incubator Program (TIP) on a project entitled the Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer (LRR). The prototype single channel aircraft instrument will be ready for first testing in 2nd quarter 2003, for deployment on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and in a ground configuration manner; this version measures at 10.7 GHz in a crosstrack imaging mode. The design for a two (2) frequency preliminary space flight model at 19 and 35 GHz (also in crosstrack imaging mode) has also been completed, in which the design features would enable it to fly in a bore-sighted configuration with a new dual-frequency space radar (DPR) under development at the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) in Tokyo, Japan. The DPR will be flown as one of two primary instruments on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's core satellite in the 2007 time frame. The dual frequency space flight design of the ERR matches the APR frequencies and will be proposed as an ancillary instrument on the GPM core satellite to advance space-based precipitation measurement by enabling better microphysical characterization and coincident volume data gathering for exercising combined algorithm techniques which make use of both radar backscatter and radiometer attenuation information to constrain rainrate solutions within a physical algorithm context. This talk will discuss the design features, performance capabilities, applications plans, and conical/polarametric imaging possibilities for the LRR, as well as a brief summary of the project status and schedule.

  15. Comprehensive planning of data archive in Japanese planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Shinohara, Iku; Hoshino, Hirokazu; Tateno, Naoki; Hareyama, Makoto; Okada, Naoki; Ebisawa, Ken

    Comprehensive planning of data archive in Japanese planetary missions Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) provides HAYABUSA and KAGUYA data as planetary data archives. These data archives, however, were prepared independently. Therefore the inconsistency of data format has occurred, and the knowledge of data archiving activity is not inherited. Recently, the discussion of comprehensive planning of data archive has started to prepare up-coming planetary missions, which indicates the comprehensive plan of data archive is required in several steps. The framework of the comprehensive plan is divided into four items: Preparation, Evaluation, Preservation, and Service. 1. PREPARATION FRAMEWORK Data is classified into several types: raw data, level-0, 1, 2 processing data, ancillary data, and etc. The task of mission data preparation is responsible for instrument teams, but preparations beside mission data and support of data management are essential to make unified conventions and formats over instruments in a mission, and over missions. 2. EVALUATION FRAMEWORK There are two meanings of evaluation: format and quality. The format evaluation is often discussed in the preparation framework. The data quality evaluation which is often called quality assurance (QA) or quality control (QC) must be performed by third party apart from preparation teams. An instrument team has the initiative for the preparation itself, and the third-party group is organized to evaluate the instrument team's activity. 3. PRESERVATION FRAMEWORK The main topic of this framework is document management, archiving structure, and simple access method. The mission produces many documents in the process of the development. Instrument de-velopment is no exception. During long-term development of a mission, many documents are obsoleted and updated repeatedly. A smart system will help instrument team to reduce some troubles of document management and archiving task. JAXA attempts to follow PDS manners

  16. Advanced propulsion options for the Mars cargo mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.; Sargent, Mark S.; Gowda, Nandini

    1990-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion options for a split-mission piloted Mars exploration scenario are presented. The primary study focus is on identifying concepts that can reduce total initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) for the cargo delivery portion of the mission; in addition, concepts that can reduce the trip time of the piloted option are assessed. The propulsion options considered are nuclear thermal propulsion, solar sails, multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion, solar electric propulsion, magnetic sails, mass drivers, rail guns, solar thermal rockets, beamed-energy propulsion systems, and tethers. For the cargo mission, solar sails are found to provide the greatest mass savings over the baseline chemical system, although they suffer from having very long trip times; a good performance compromise between a low IMLEO and a short trip time can be obtained using multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  17. An advanced neutron spectrometer for future manned exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Mark

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with lithium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators.

  18. Family System of Advanced Charring Ablators for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, William M.; Curry, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Ablators Program Objectives: 1) Flight-ready(TRL-6) ablative heat shields for deep-space missions; 2) Diversity of selection from family-system approach; 3) Minimum weight systems with high reliability; 4) Optimized formulations and processing; 5) Fully characterized properties; and 6) Low-cost manufacturing. Definition and integration of candidate lightweight structures. Test and analysis database to support flight-vehicle engineering. Results from production scale-up studies and production-cost analyses.

  19. An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Merril, Garrick W.; Watts, John W.; Sabra, Mohammad S.; Smith, Dennis A.; Rodriquez-Otero, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

  20. Advancing Lidar Sensors Technologies for Next Generation Landing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Brewster, Paul F.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Missions to solar systems bodies must meet increasingly ambitious objectives requiring highly reliable "precision landing", and "hazard avoidance" capabilities. Robotic missions to the Moon and Mars demand landing at pre-designated sites of high scientific value near hazardous terrain features, such as escarpments, craters, slopes, and rocks. Missions aimed at paving the path for colonization of the Moon and human landing on Mars need to execute onboard hazard detection and precision maneuvering to ensure safe landing near previously deployed assets. Asteroid missions require precision rendezvous, identification of the landing or sampling site location, and navigation to the highly dynamic object that may be tumbling at a fast rate. To meet these needs, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a set of advanced lidar sensors under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. These lidar sensors can provide precision measurement of vehicle relative proximity, velocity, and orientation, and high resolution elevation maps of the surface during the descent to the targeted body. Recent flights onboard Morpheus free-flyer vehicle have demonstrated the viability of ALHAT lidar sensors for future landing missions to solar system bodies.

  1. The NASA New Millennium Program: Space Flight Validation of Advanced Technologies for Future Science Missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.; Raymond, C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of advanced technologies are needed to support NASA's ambitious plans for planetary exploration during the next decade. To address these needs, the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) identifies breakthrough spacecraft and instrument technologies and validates them in space to reduce their cost and risk. The first NMP Deep Space mission, DS1, was launched on October 24, 1998. Since then, it has successfully validated a solar-powered ion propulsion system, a miniaturized deep space transponder, autonomous operations and navigation software, multifunctional structures, low-power microelectronics and 2 instruments: the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS), and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). To validate these technologies in a realistic environment, DS1's trajectory includes a close (<10km) flyby of asteroid 1992KD. An extended mission will allow encounters with comets Wilson-Harrington and Borrelly. The second NMP mission, DS2, consists of a pair of micro penetrators that are targeted near the Martian South Pole (71 to 76 S). DS2 was launched on January 3, 1999 as a piggyback payload on the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander cruise stage. After crashing into the Martian surface at greater than 200 m/s on December 3, 1999, these probes will validate technologies that will enable future Mars penetrator networks. These technologies include a single-stage, passive atmospheric entry system and a high-impact landing system designed to deliver a payload up to 1 meter below the Martian surface. This mission will also validate a miniaturized telecom system, low-temperature batteries, a suite of miniaturized in-situ scientific instruments, and other innovative packaging technologies. The next 2 NMP space science missions are currently being planned. If approved, Space Technology 3 (ST3) will validate technologies for separated spacecraft optical interferometry, to enable the ambitious Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission. The ST5

  2. Mission planning and analysis division development plan for STS-2 through STS-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline products, schedules, and resource requirements for the Mission Planning and Analysis Division's support of Space Transportation System flights 2, 3, and 4 are presented. Major functions addressed are: orbiter software, Mission Control Center software, flight design, flight operations support, simulation tools, and postflight analysis.

  3. Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.; Keller, J. W.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; Petro, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18,2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and the measurement of the lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and was completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September of 2012. Under SMD, the Science Mission focused on a new set of goals related to understanding the history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having recently marked the completion of the two-year Science Mission, we will review here the major results from the LRO for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives for the Extended Science that will last until September, 2014. Some results from the LRO mission are: the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  4. Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. W.; Vondrak, R. R.; Petro, N. E.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and the measurement of the lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and was completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September of 2012. Under SMD, the Science Mission focused on a new set of goals related to understanding the history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having recently marked the completion of the two-year Science Mission, we will review here the major results from the LRO for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives for the Extended Science that will last until September, 2014. Some results from the LRO mission are: the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  5. Review of the Draft 2014 Science Mission Directorate Science Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board (SSB) initiated a study to review a draft of the SMD's 2014 Science Plan. The request for this review was made at a time when NASA is engaged in the final stages of a comprehensive, agency-wide effort to develop a new strategic plan and at a time when NASA's budget is under considerable stress. SMD's Science Plan serves to provide more detail on its four traditional science disciplines-astronomy and astrophysics, solar and space physics (also called heliophysics), planetary science, and Earth remote sensing and related activities-than is possible in the agency-wide Strategic Plan. In conducting its review of the draft Science Plan, the Committee on the Assessment of the NASA Science Mission Directorate 2014 Science Plan was charged to comment on the following specific areas: (1) Responsiveness to the NRC's guidance on key science issues and opportunities in recent NRC reports; (2) Attention to interdisciplinary aspects and overall scientific balance; (3) Identification and exposition of important opportunities for partnerships as well as education and public outreach; (4) Integration of technology development with the science program; (5) Clarity on how the plan aligns with SMD's strategic planning process; (6) General readability and clarity of presentation; and (7) Other relevant issues as determined by the committee. The main body of the report provides detailed findings and recommendations relating to the draft Science Plan. The highest-level, crosscutting issues are summarized here, and more detail is available in the main body of the report.

  6. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  7. Science Planning for the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenkert, Daniel D.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Eggemeyer, William Curtis; Hale, Amy Snyder; Kass, David; Martin, Terry Z.; Noland, Stephen J.; Safaeinili, Ali; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched on August 12, 2005, carries six science instruments, each with unique requirements for repetitive global monitoring, regional or global survey mapping, and/or targeted observations of Mars. Some prefer nadir-only observations, while other instruments require many off-nadir observations (especially for stereo viewing). Because the operations requirements are often incompatible, an interactive science planning process has been developed. This process is more complex than in some recent NASA Mars missions, but less complex (and more repetitive) than processes used by many large planetary missions. It takes full advantage of MRO's novel onboard processing capabilities, and uses simple electronic interactions between geographically distributed teams. This paper describes the process used during MRO's Primary Science Phase (PSP) to plan both interactive and non-interactive observations of Mars, and what has already been learned in the tests and rehearsals preparing for PSP.

  8. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  9. Spacecraft Trajectory Analysis and Mission Planning Simulation (STAMPS) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puckett, Nancy; Pettinger, Kris; Hallstrom,John; Brownfield, Dana; Blinn, Eric; Williams, Frank; Wiuff, Kelli; McCarty, Steve; Ramirez, Daniel; Lamotte, Nicole; Vu, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    STAMPS simulates either three- or six-degree-of-freedom cases for all spacecraft flight phases using translated HAL flight software or generic GN&C models. Single or multiple trajectories can be simulated for use in optimization and dispersion analysis. It includes math models for the vehicle and environment, and currently features a "C" version of shuttle onboard flight software. The STAMPS software is used for mission planning and analysis within ascent/descent, rendezvous, proximity operations, and navigation flight design areas.

  10. Supplementing the Digitized Sky Survey for UV-Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The Space Telescope Science Institute worked on a project to augment the Digitized Sky Survey archive by completing the scanning and processing of the POSS-I blue survey. This will provide an additional valuable resource to support UV-mission planning. All of the data will be made available through the NASA optical/UV archive (MAST) at STScI. The activities completed during this project are included.

  11. Advanced automatic target recognition for police helicopter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Schoppmann, Paul

    2000-08-01

    The results of a case study about the application of an advanced method for automatic target recognition to infrared imagery taken from police helicopter missions are presented. The method consists of the following steps: preprocessing, classification, fusion, postprocessing and tracking, and combines the three paradigms image pyramids, neural networks and bayesian nets. The technology has been developed using a variety of different scenes typical for military aircraft missions. Infrared cameras have been in use for several years at the Bavarian police helicopter forces and are highly valuable for night missions. Several object classes like 'persons' or 'vehicles' are tested and the possible discrimination between persons and animals is shown. The analysis of complex scenes with hidden objects and clutter shows the potentials and limitations of automatic target recognition for real-world tasks. Several display concepts illustrate the achievable improvement of the situation awareness. The similarities and differences between various mission types concerning object variability, time constraints, consequences of false alarms, etc. are discussed. Typical police actions like searching for missing persons or runaway criminals illustrate the advantages of automatic target recognition. The results demonstrate the possible operational benefits for the helicopter crew. Future work will include performance evaluation issues and a system integration concept for the target platform.

  12. Hanford Mission Plan risk-based prioritization methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hesser, W.A.; Madden, M.S.; Pyron, N.M.; Butcher, J.L.

    1994-08-01

    Sites across the US Department (DOE) complex recognize the critical need for a systematic method for prioritizing among their work scope activities. Here at the Hanford Site, Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) conducted preliminary research into techniques to meet this need and assist managers in making financial resource allocation decisions. This research is a subtask of the risk management task of the Hanford Mission Plan as described in the WHC Integrated Planning Work Breakdown Structure 1.8.2 Fiscal Year 1994 Work Plan. The research team investigated prioritization techniques used at other DOE sites and compared them with the Priority Planning Grid (PPG), a tool used at Hanford. The authors concluded that the PPG could be used for prioritization of resource allocation, but it needed to be revised to better reflect the Site`s priorities and objectives. The revised PPG was tested with three Hanford programs, the PPG was modified, and updated procedures were prepared.

  13. PST and PARR: Plan specification tools and a planning and resource reasoning shell for use in satellite mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David; Yen, Wen

    1989-01-01

    Plan Specification Tools (PST) are tools that allow the user to specify satellite mission plans in terms of satellite activities, relevent orbital events, and targets for observation. The output of these tools is a set of knowledge bases and environmental events which can then be used by a Planning And Resource Reasoning (PARR) shell to build a schedule. PARR is a reactive planning shell which is capable of reasoning about actions in the satellite mission planning domain. Each of the PST tools and PARR are described as well as the use of PARR for scheduling computer usage in the multisatellite operations control center at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  14. Mission Continuity Planning: Strategically Assessing and Planning for Threats to Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.

    This book covers the principles of risk and risk management and offers a framework for analyzing the significant, often unforeseen threats facing higher education institutions today. It examines the critical elements of a disaster preparedness plan and addresses business continuity and mission continuity planning. The book also provides tools for…

  15. Planned Environmental Microbiology Aspects of Future Lunar and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Victoria A.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2006-01-01

    With the establishment of the Constellation Program, NASA has initiated efforts designed similar to the Apollo Program to return to the moon and subsequently travel to Mars. Early lunar sorties will take 4 crewmembers to the moon for 4 to 7 days. Later missions will increase in duration up to 6 months as a lunar habitat is constructed. These missions and vehicle designs are the forerunners of further missions destined for human exploration of Mars. Throughout the planning and design process, lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and past programs will be implemented toward future exploration goals. The standards and requirements for these missions will vary depending on life support systems, mission duration, crew activities, and payloads. From a microbiological perspective, preventative measures will remain the primary techniques to mitigate microbial risk. Thus, most of the effort will focus on stringent preflight monitoring requirements and engineering controls designed into the vehicle, such as HEPA air filters. Due to volume constraints in the CEV, in-flight monitoring will be limited for short-duration missions to the measurement of biocide concentration for water potability. Once long-duration habitation begins on the lunar surface, a more extensive environmental monitoring plan will be initiated. However, limited in-flight volume constraints and the inability to return samples to Earth will increase the need for crew capabilities in determining the nature of contamination problems and method of remediation. In addition, limited shelf life of current monitoring hardware consumables and limited capabilities to dispose of biohazardous trash will drive flight hardware toward non-culture based methodologies, such as hardware that rapidly distinguishes biotic versus abiotic surface contamination. As missions progress to Mars, environmental systems will depend heavily on regeneration of air and water and biological waste remediation and

  16. Advanced Plasma Propulsion for Human Missions to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Pearson, J. Boise

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly identify a promising fusion plasma power source, which when coupled with a promising electric thruster technology would provide for an efficient interplanetary transfer craft suitable to a 4 year round trip mission to the Jovian system. An advanced, nearly radiation free Inertial Electrostatic Confinement scheme for containing fusion plasma was judged as offering potential for delivering the performance and operational benefits needed for such high energy human expedition missions, without requiring heavy superconducting magnets for containment of the fusion plasma. Once the Jovian transfer stage has matched the heliocentric velocity of Jupiter, the energy requirements for excursions to its outer satellites (Callisto, Ganymede and Europa) by smaller excursion craft are not prohibitive. The overall propulsion, power and thruster system is briefly described and a preliminary vehicle mass statement is presented.

  17. Autonomy, liberalism and advance care planning.

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomidis, S; Singer, P A

    1999-01-01

    The justification for advance directives is grounded in the notion that they extend patient autonomy into future states of incompetency through patient participation in decision making about end-of-life care. Four objections challenge the necessity and sufficiency of individual autonomy, perceived to be a defining feature of liberal philosophical theory, as a basis of advance care planning. These objections are that the liberal concept of autonomy (i) implies a misconception of the individual self, (ii) entails the denial of values of social justice, (iii) does not account for justifiable acts of paternalism, and (iv) does not account for the importance of personal relationships in the advance care planning process. The last objection is especially pertinent in light of recent empirical research highlighting the importance of personal relationships in advance care planning. This article examines these four objections to autonomy, and the liberal theoretical framework with which it is associated, in order to re-evaluate the philosophical basis of advance care planning. We argue that liberal autonomy (i) is not a misconceived concept as critics assume, (ii) does not entail the denial of values of social justice, (iii) can account for justifiable acts of paternalism, though it (iv) is not the best account of the value of personal relationships that arise in advance care planning. In conclusion, we suggest that liberalism is a necessary component of a theoretical framework for advance care planning but that it needs to be supplemented with theories that focus explicitly on the significance of personal relationships. PMID:10635509

  18. MAPGEN: Mixed-Initiative Activity Planning for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai-Chang, Mitchell; Bresina, John; Hsu, Jennifer; Jonsson, Ari; Kanefsky, Bob; McCurdy, Michael; Morris, Paul; Rajan, Kanna; Vera, Alonso; Yglesias, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the Mixed initiative Activity Plan Generation system MAPGEN. This system is one of the critical tools in the Mars Exploration Rover mission surface operations, where it is used to build activity plans for each of the rovers, each Martian day. The MAPGEN system combines an existing tool for activity plan editing and resource modeling, with an advanced constraint-based reasoning and planning framework. The constraint-based planning component provides active constraint and rule enforcement, automated planning capabilities, and a variety of tools and functions that are useful for building activity plans in an interactive fashion. In this demonstration, we will show the capabilities of the system and demonstrate how the system has been used in actual Mars rover operations. In contrast to the demonstration given at ICAPS 03, significant improvement have been made to the system. These include various additional capabilities that are based on automated reasoning and planning techniques, as well as a new Constraint Editor support tool. The Constraint Editor (CE) as part of the process for generating these command loads, the MAPGEN tool provides engineers and scientists an intelligent activity planning tool that allows them to more effectively generate complex plans that maximize the science return each day. The key to the effectiveness of the MAPGEN tool is an underlying constraint-based planning and reasoning engine.

  19. Mission to Planet Earth. Strategic enterprise plan, 1995-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) provides long-term understanding of the earth system needed to protect and improve our environment, now and for future generations. This MTPE Strategic Enterprise Plan states how NASA intends to meet its responsibility to the Nation for developing a long-term, integrated program of environmental observation in support of informed decision-making. This plan implements the NASA Strategic Plan for the MTPE Enterprise; it is the first version of a rolling 5-year plan that will be updated annually. It is consistent with the interagency program developed by the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of the National Science and Technology Council and implemented in large part through the U.S. Global Change Research Program. This report consists of the following sections: (1) introduction; (2) scientific foundation; (3) mission (destination and purposes); (4) principle of operation (ethical and quality assurance standards); (5) customer base (to ensure that the right products and services are delivered); (6) internal and external assessments; (7) assumptions; (8) goals, objectives, and strategies; (9) linkages to other strategic enterprises; and (10) summary.

  20. Mission to Planet Earth. Strategic enterprise plan, 1995-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-05-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) provides long-term understanding of the earth system needed to protect and improve our environment, now and for future generations. This MTPE Strategic Enterprise Plan states how NASA intends to meet its responsibility to the Nation for developing a long-term, integrated program of environmental observation in support of informed decision-making. This plan implements the NASA Strategic Plan for the MTPE Enterprise; it is the first version of a rolling 5-year plan that will be updated annually. It is consistent with the interagency program developed by the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of the National Science and Technology Council and implemented in large part through the U.S. Global Change Research Program. This report consists of the following sections: (1) introduction; (2) scientific foundation; (3) mission (destination and purposes); (4) principle of operation (ethical and quality assurance standards); (5) customer base (to ensure that the right products and services are delivered); (6) internal and external assessments; (7) assumptions; (8) goals, objectives, and strategies; (9) linkages to other strategic enterprises; and (10) summary.

  1. Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  2. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  3. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express satellite servicing demonstrator program is a DARPA program aimed at developing "a safe and cost-effective approach to autonomously service satellites in orbit". The system consists of: a) the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle, under development by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and b) a prototype modular next-generation serviceable satellite, NEXTSat, being developed by Ball Aerospace. Flexibility of ASPEN: a) Accommodate changes to procedures; b) Accommodate changes to daily losses and gains; c) Responsive re-planning; and d) Critical to success of mission planning Auto-Generation of activity models: a) Created plans quickly; b) Repetition/Re-use of models each day; and c) Guarantees the AML syntax. One SRP per day vs. Tactical team

  4. Space Station Mission Planning System (MPS) development study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klus, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    The basic objective of the Space Station (SS) Mission Planning System (MPS) Development Study was to define a baseline Space Station mission plan and the associated hardware and software requirements for the system. A detailed definition of the Spacelab (SL) payload mission planning process and SL Mission Integration Planning System (MIPS) software was derived. A baseline concept was developed for performing SS manned base payload mission planning, and it was consistent with current Space Station design/operations concepts and philosophies. The SS MPS software requirements were defined. Also, requirements for new software include candidate programs for the application of artificial intelligence techniques to capture and make more effective use of mission planning expertise. A SS MPS Software Development Plan was developed which phases efforts for the development software to implement the SS mission planning concept.

  5. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  6. Using Computer Simulation for Neurolab 2 Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Betty M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the procedure used in the creation of a computer simulation video generated by the Graphics Research and Analysis Facility at NASA/Johnson Space Center. The simulation was preceded by an analysis of anthropometric characteristics of crew members and workspace requirements for 13 experiments to be conducted on Neurolab 2 which is dedicated to neuroscience and behavioral research. Neurolab 2 is being carried out as a partnership among national domestic research institutes and international space agencies. The video is a tour of the Spacelab module as it will be configured for STS-90, scheduled for launch in the spring of 1998, and identifies experiments that can be conducted in parallel during that mission. Therefore, this paper will also address methods for using computer modeling to facilitate the mission planning activity.

  7. A Conceptual Venus Rover Mission Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael; Shirley, James H.; Abelson, Robert Dean

    2006-01-01

    This concept study demonstrates that a long lived Venus rover mission could be enabled by a novel application of advanced RPS technology. General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules would be employed to drive an advanced thermoacoustic Stirling engine, pulse tube cooler and linear alternator that provides electric power and cooling for the rover. The Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) is a system for converting high-temperature heat into acoustic power which then drives linear alternators and a pulse tube cooler to provide both electric power and coolin6g for the rover. A small design team examined this mission concept focusing on the feasibility of using the TASHE system in this hostile environment. A rover design is described that would provide a mobile platform for science measurements on the Venus surface for 60 days, with the potential of operating well beyond that. A suite of science instruments is described that collects data on atmospheric and surface composition, surface stratigraphy, and subsurface structure. An Earth-Venus-Venus trajectory would be used to deliver the rover to a low entry angle allowing an inflated ballute to provide a low deceleration and low heat descent to the surface. All rover systems would be housed in a pressure vessel in vacuum with the internal temperature maintained by the TASHE at under 50 °C.

  8. The CONSERT operations planning process for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogez, Yves; Puget, Pascal; Zine, Sonia; Hérique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Altobelli, Nicolas; Ashman, Mike; Barthélémy, Maud; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Casas, Carlos M.; Sitjà, Marc Costa; Delmas, Cédric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Fronton, Jean-François; Geiger, Bernhard; Geurts, Koen; Grieger, Björn; Hahnel, Ronny; Hoofs, Raymond; Hubault, Armelle; Jurado, Eric; Küppers, Michael; Maibaum, Michael; Moussi-Souffys, Aurélie; Muñoz, Pablo; O'Rourke, Laurence; Pätz, Brigitte; Plettemeier, Dirk; Ulamec, Stephan; Vallat, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave Transmission (CONSERT / Rosetta) has been designed to sound the interior of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This instrument consists of two parts: one onboard Rosetta and the other one onboard Philae. A good CONSERT science measurement sequence requires joint operations of both spacecrafts in a relevant geometry. The geometric constraints to be fulfilled involve the position and the orientation of both Rosetta and Philae. At the moment of planning the post-landing and long-term science operations for Rosetta instruments, the actual comet shape and the landing location remained largely unknown. In addition, the necessity of combining operations of Rosetta spacecraft and Philae spacecraft makes the planning process for CONSERT particularly complex. In this paper, we present the specific methods and tools we developed, in close collaboration with the mission and the science operation teams for both Rosetta and Philae, to identify, rank and plan the operations for CONSERT science measurements. The presented methods could be applied to other missions involving joint operations between two platforms, on a complex shaped object.

  9. Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

  10. Advanced spacecraft designs in support of human missions to earth's neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by the NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a crew transfer vehicle (CTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the CTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the CTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP. .

  11. Mixed-Initiative Planning and Scheduling for Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Karen L.; Wolverton, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this joint NASA Ames/JPL/SRI project was to develop mixed-initiative planning and scheduling technology that would enable more effective and efficient planning of science missions. The original intent behind the project was to have all three organizations work closely on the overall research and technology development objectives. Shortly after the project began, however, the Ames and JPL project members made a commitment to develop and field an operational mixed-initiative planning and scheduling tool called MAPGEN for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission [Ai-Chang et al. 2003]. Because of the tremendous amounts of time and effort that went into making that tool a success, the Ames and JPL personnel were mostly unavailable for collaboration on the joint objectives of the original proposal. Until November of 2002, SRI postponed work on the project in the hope that the Ames and JPL personnel would be able to find time for the planned collaborative research. During discussions between Dr. Karen Myers (the SRI institutional PI) and Dr. John Bresina (the project PI) during November of 2002, it was mutually agreed that SRI should work independently to achieve some of the research objectives for the project. In particular, Dr. Bresina identified explanation of plans and planner behavior as a critical area for research, based on feedback from demonstrating an initial prototype of MAPGEN to the operational community. For that reason, our focus from November of 2002 through the end of the project was on designing explanation methods to address this need.

  12. Mission Planning and Sequencing Investigation of Third Party Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozingo, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) maintains a system called the Automated Sequence Processor(ASP) which is responsible for checking non?interactive commands and preparing them for radiation to spacecraft. In order to streamline the process and increase maintainability MPS is looking to use a third party workflow engine to control the ASP. In addition to increasing productivity, another driver for the workflow paradigm is the new way that the software is going to represent the spacecraft state. The spacecraft state is going to be represented by a timeline data structure.

  13. The cryogenics analysis program for Apollo mission planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W.; Williams, J.

    1971-01-01

    The cryogenics analysis program was developed as a simplified tool for use in premission planning operations for the Apollo command service module. Through a dynamic development effort, the program has been extended to include real time and postflight analysis capabilities with nominal and contingency planning features. The technical aspects of the program and a comparison of ground test and mission data with data generated by using the cryogenics analysis program are presented. The results of the program capability to predict flight requirements also are presented. Comparisons of data from the program with data from flight results, from a tank qualifications program, and from various system anomalies that have been encountered are discussed. Future plans and additional considerations for the program also are included. Among these plans are a three tank management scheme for hydrogen, venting profile generation for Skylab, and a capability for handling two gas atmospheres. The plan for two gas atmospheres will involve the addition of the capability to handle nitrogen as well as oxygen and hydrogen.

  14. SPIKE: Application for ASTRO-D mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, T.; Johnston, M.; Morgan, E.; Clark, G.

    1992-01-01

    SPIKE is a mission planning software system developed by a team of programmers at the STScI for use with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). SPIKE has been developed for the purpose of automating observatory scheduling to increase the effective utilization and ultimately, scientific return from orbiting telescopes. High-level scheduling strategies using both rule-based and neural network approaches have been incorporated. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. Although SPIKE was originally developed for the HST, it can be used for other astronomy missions including ground-based observatories. One of the missions that has decided to use SPIKE is ASTRO-D, a Japanese X-ray satellite for which the U.S. is providing a part of the scientific payload. Scheduled to fly in Feb. 1993, its four telescopes will focus X-rays over a wide energy range onto CCD's and imaging gas proportional counters. ASTRO-D will be the first X-ray imaging mission operating over the 0.5-12 keV band with high energy resolution. This combination of capabilities will enable a varied and exciting program of astronomical research to be carried out. ASTRO-D is expected to observe 5 to 20 objects per day and a total of several thousands per year. This requires the implementation of an efficient planning and scheduling system which SPIKE can provide. Although the version of SPIKE that will be used for ASTRO-D mission is almost identical to that used for the HST, there are a few differences. For example, ASTRO-D will use two ground stations for data downlinks, instead of the TDRSS system for data transmission. As a consequence ASTRO-D is constrained by limited on-board data storage capacity to schedule high data-rate observations during periods of frequent high bit rate observations accordingly. We will demonstrate the ASTRO-D version of SPIKE to show what SPIKE can provide and how efficiently it creates an observational schedule.

  15. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  16. Pluto/Kuiper Missions with Advanced Electric Propulsion and Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, S. R.; Patterson, M. J.; Schrieber, J.; Gefert, L. P.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a request by NASA Code SD Deep Space Exploration Technology Program, NASA Glenn Research center performed a study to identify advanced technology options to perform a Pluto/Kuiper mission without depending on a 2004 Jupiter Gravity Assist, but still arriving before 2020. A concept using a direct trajectory with small, sub-kilowatt ion thrusters and Stirling radioisotope power system was shown to allow the same or smaller launch vehicle class (EELV) as the chemical 2004 baseline and allow launch in any year and arrival in the 2014 to 2020 timeframe. With the nearly constant power available from the radioisotope power source such small ion propelled spacecraft could explore many of the outer planetary targets. Such studies are already underway. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Mission planning for Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) with a real-time interactive planning software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, Su K.

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission will operate from the payload bay of the space shuttle for 8 days, gathering Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data over specific sites on the Earth. The short duration of the mission and the requirement for realtime planning offer challenges in mission planning and in the design of the Planning and Analysis Subsystem (PAS). The PAS generates shuttle ephemerides and mission planning data and provides an interactive real-time tool for quick mission replanning. It offers a multi-user and multiprocessing environment, and it is able to keep multiple versions of the mission timeline data while maintaining data integrity and security. Its flexible design allows one software to provide different menu options based on the user's operational function, and makes it easy to tailor the software for other Earth orbiting missions.

  18. The SNAP spacecraft, optics, and primary mission plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2000-12-01

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission uses frequent deep reobservation of selected survey fields to deliver its planned detection rate of Type 1a supernovae at cosmological distances. The primary science mission is conducted in two alternating phases: discovery, which demands large sky coverage and sensitivity, and follow-up spectroscopy of detected SNe. The combination of sky area and sensitivity will be achieved in part through the use of a two-meter-aperture three-mirror-anastigmat telescope that delivers nearly diffraction-limited images in the visible and near-IR throughout its one square degree field of view. The spacecraft will include an attitude control system with focal plane sensors giving sustained pointing accuracy better than 0.03 arc seconds. Additional features include a 50Mb/s downlink data rate that will allow the image processing and data processing to be conducted at our ground facility rather than onboard. The orbits being studied for SNAP are high Earth orbits that keep the spacecraft well outside the geomagnetically trapped energetic particle environment, with inclinations high enough to minimize or eliminate eclipses to achieve the best possible thermal stability. This research has been supported in part by the U.S.Department of Energy.

  19. A Maneuvering Flight Noise Model for Helicopter Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Rau, Robert; May, Benjamin; Hobbs, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A new model for estimating the noise radiation during maneuvering flight is developed in this paper. The model applies the Quasi-Static Acoustic Mapping (Q-SAM) method to a database of acoustic spheres generated using the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique. A method is developed to generate a realistic flight trajectory from a limited set of waypoints and is used to calculate the quasi-static operating condition and corresponding acoustic sphere for the vehicle throughout the maneuver. By using a previously computed database of acoustic spheres, the acoustic impact of proposed helicopter operations can be rapidly predicted for use in mission-planning. The resulting FRAME-QS model is applied to near-horizon noise measurements collected for the Bell 430 helicopter undergoing transient pitch up and roll maneuvers, with good agreement between the measured data and the FRAME-QS model.

  20. Advancing the Community College Strategic Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbkersman, Neil; Hibbert-Jones, Karla

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing a comprehensive grants development process to advance community college strategic plans, especially in the current economic climate. Details the process as developed and implemented by Sinclair Community College (Ohio). States that colleges that employ methodical processes and effective operating systems to…

  1. Advancement of a 30K W Solar Electric Propulsion System Capability for NASA Human and Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Nazario, Margaret L.; Manzella, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion has evolved into a demonstrated operational capability performing station keeping for geosynchronous satellites, enabling challenging deep-space science missions, and assisting in the transfer of satellites from an elliptical orbit Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) to a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). Advancing higher power SEP systems will enable numerous future applications for human, robotic, and commercial missions. These missions are enabled by either the increased performance of the SEP system or by the cost reductions when compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems. Higher power SEP systems that provide very high payload for robotic missions also trade favorably for the advancement of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Demonstrated reliable systems are required for human space flight and due to their successful present day widespread use and inherent high reliability, SEP systems have progressively become a viable entrant into these future human exploration architectures. NASA studies have identified a 30 kW-class SEP capability as the next appropriate evolutionary step, applicable to wide range of both human and robotic missions. This paper describes the planning options, mission applications, and technology investments for representative 30kW-class SEP mission concepts under consideration by NASA

  2. A Revolution in the Making: Advances in Materials That May Transform Future Exploration Infrastructures and Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Dicus, Dennis L.; Shuart, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan identifies the long-term goal to provide safe and affordable space access, orbital transfer, and interplanetary transportation capabilities to enable research, human exploration, and the commercial development of space; and to conduct human and robotic missions to planets and other bodies in our solar system. Numerous scientific and engineering breakthroughs will be required to develop the technology necessary to achieve this goal. Critical technologies include advanced vehicle primary and secondary structure, radiation protection, propulsion and power systems, fuel storage, electronics and devices, sensors and science instruments, and medical diagnostics and treatment. Advanced materials with revolutionary new capabilities are an essential element of each of these technologies. This paper discusses those materials best suited for aerospace vehicle structure and highlights the enormous potential of one revolutionary new material, carbon nanotubes.

  3. Space Station Mission Planning Study (MPS) development study. Volume 3: Software development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klus, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    A software development plan is presented for the definition, design, and implementation of the Space Station (SS) Payload Mission Planning System (MPS). This plan is an evolving document and must be updated periodically as the SS design and operations concepts as well as the SS MPS concept evolve. The major segments of this plan are as follows: an overview of the SS MPS and a description of its required capabilities including the computer programs identified as configurable items with an explanation of the place and function of each within the system; an overview of the project plan and a detailed description of each development project activity breaking each into lower level tasks where applicable; identification of the resources required and recommendations for the manner in which they should be utilized including recommended schedules and estimated manpower requirements; and a description of the practices, standards, and techniques recommended for the SS MPS Software (SW) development.

  4. Science Planning for the Solar Probe Plus NASA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterer, M. B.; Fox, N. J.; Turner, F. S.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    With a planned launch in 2018, there are a number of challenges for the Science Planning Team (SPT) of the Solar Probe Plus mission. The geometry of the celestial bodies and the spacecraft during some of the Solar Probe Plus mission orbits cause limited uplink and downlink opportunities. The payload teams must manage the volume of data that they write to the spacecraft solid-state recorders (SSR) for their individual instruments for downlink to the ground. The aim is to write the instrument data to the spacecraft SSR for downlink before a set of data downlink opportunities large enough to get the data to the ground and before the start of another data collection cycle. The SPT also intend to coordinate observations with other spacecraft and ground based systems. To add further complexity, two of the spacecraft payloads have the capability to write a large volumes of data to their internal payload SSR while sending a smaller "survey" portion of the data to the spacecraft SSR for downlink. The instrument scientists would then view the survey data on the ground, determine the most interesting data from their payload SSR, send commands to transfer that data from their payload SSR to the spacecraft SSR for downlink. The timing required for downlink and analysis of the survey data, identifying uplink opportunities for commanding data transfers, and downlink opportunities big enough for the selected data within the data collection period is critical. To solve these challenges, the Solar Probe Plus Science Working Group has designed a orbit-type optimized data file priority downlink scheme to downlink high priority survey data quickly. This file priority scheme would maximize the reaction time that the payload teams have to perform the survey and selected data method on orbits where the downlink and uplink availability will support using this method. An interactive display and analysis science planning tool is being designed for the SPT to use as an aid to planning. The

  5. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  6. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  7. Collaborative mission planning for UAV cluster to optimize relay distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanil, Cagatay; Warty, Chirag; Obiedat, Esam

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) coordinated path planning and intercommunication for visual exploration of a geographical region has recently become crucial. Multiple UAVs cover larger area than a single UAV and eliminate blind spots. To improve the surveillance, survivability and quality of the communication, we propose two algorithms for the route planning of UAV cluster operated in obstacle rich environment: (i) Multiple Population Genetic Algorithm (MPGA) (ii) Relay Selection Criteria (RSC). The main objective of MPGA is to minimize the total mission time while maintaining an optimal distance for communication between the neighboring nodes. MPGA utilizes evolutionary speciation techniques with a novel Feasible Population Creation Method (FPCM) and enhanced Inter-species Crossover Mechanism (ISCM) to obtain diversified routes in remarkably short time. In obtaining collision-free optimum paths, UAVs are subjected to constraints such as limited communication range, maximum maneuverability and fuel capacity. In addition to the path planning, RSC is developed for selection of UAVs relay nodes that is based on the location of the relay relative to source and destination. It is crucial since the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the link significantly depends on the location of the selected relay. In this paper, path planning and relay allocation algorithms are combined to have a seamless high quality monitoring of the region and to provide superior Quality of Service (QoS) for audio-video applications. Also, simulations in different operation zones with a cluster of up to six UAVs are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed algorithms both in optimality and computation time.

  8. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  9. 14 CFR 431.39 - Mission rules, procedures, contingency plans, and checklists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... mission rules, procedures, checklists, emergency plans, and contingency abort plans, if any, that ensure..., procedures, checklists, emergency plans, and contingency abort plans must be contained in a safety directive... plans, and checklists. 431.39 Section 431.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE...

  10. 14 CFR 431.39 - Mission rules, procedures, contingency plans, and checklists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mission rules, procedures, checklists, emergency plans, and contingency abort plans, if any, that ensure..., procedures, checklists, emergency plans, and contingency abort plans must be contained in a safety directive... plans, and checklists. 431.39 Section 431.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE...

  11. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  12. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-09-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  13. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  14. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission waste feed delivery plan

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.D.

    1998-01-08

    This document is a plan presenting the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Program. This WFD Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project`s Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission.

  15. Future Plans for MetNet Lander Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Guerrero, H.; Vázquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    For the next decade several Mars landing missions and the construction of major installations on the Martian surface are planned. To be able to bring separate large landing units safely to the surface in sufficiently close vicinity to one another, the knowledge of the Martian weather patterns, especially dust and wind, is important. The Finnish - Russian - Spanish low-mass meteorological stations are designed to provide the necessary observation data network which can provide the in-situ observations for model verification and weather forecasts. As the requirements for a transfer vehicle are not very extensive, the MetNet Landers (MNLs) [1] could be launched with any mission going to Mars. This could be a piggy-bag solution to a Martian orbiter from ESA, NASA, Russia or China or an add-on to a planned larger Martian Lander like ExoMars. Also a dedicated launch with several units from LEO is under discussion. The data link implementation uses the UHF-band with Proximity-1 protocol as other current and future Mars lander missions which makes any Mars-orbiting satellite a potential candidate for a data relay to Earth. Currently negotiations for possible opportunities with the European and the Chinese space agencies are ongoing aiming at a launch window in the 2015/16 time frame. In case of favorable results the details will be presented at the EGU. During 2011 the Mars MetNet Precursor Mission (MMPM) has completed all flight qualifications for Lander system and payload. At least two units will be ready for launch in the 2013/14 launch window or beyond. With an entry mass of 22.2kg per unit and 4kg payload allocation the MNL(s) can be easily deployed from a wide range of transfer vehicles. The simple structure allows the manufacturing of further units on short notice and to reasonable prices. The autonomous operations concept makes the implementation of complex commanding options unnecessary while offering a flexible adaptation to different operational scenarios. This

  16. Future Plans for MetNet Lander Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Guerrero, H.; Vázquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    For the next decade several Mars landing missions and the construction of major installations on the Martian surface are planned. To be able to bring separate large landing units safely to the surface in sufficiently close vicinity to one another, the knowledge of the Martian weather patterns, especially dust and wind, is important. The Finnish - Russian - Spanish low-mass meteorological stations are designed to provide the necessary observation data network which can provide the in-situ observations for model verification and weather forecasts. As the requirements for a transfer vehicle are not very extensive, the MetNet Landers (MNLs) [1] could be launched with any mission going to Mars. This could be a piggy-bag solution to a Martian orbiter from ESA, NASA, Russia or China or an add-on to a planned larger Martian Lander like ExoMars. Also a dedicated launch with several units from LEO is under discussion. The data link implementation uses the UHF-band with Proximity-1 protocol as other current and future Mars lander missions which makes any Mars-orbiting satellite a potential candidate for a data relay to Earth. Currently negotiations for possible opportunities with the European and the Chinese space agencies are ongoing aiming at a launch window in the 2015/16 time frame. In case of favorable results the details will be presented at the EGU. During 2011 the Mars MetNet Precursor Mission (MMPM) has completed all flight qualifications for Lander system and payload. At least two units will be ready for launch in the 2013/14 launch window or beyond. With an entry mass of 22.2kg per unit and 4kg payload allocation the MNL(s) can be easily deployed from a wide range of transfer vehicles. The simple structure allows the manufacturing of further units on short notice and to reasonable prices. The autonomous operations concept makes the implementation of complex commanding options unnecessary while offering a flexible adaptation to different operational scenarios. This

  17. Crewed Mission to Callisto Using Advanced Plasma Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; White, S.; Patton, B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Hopkins, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering of several vehicles designed for a crewed mission to the Jovian satellite Callisto. Each subsystem is discussed in detail. Mission and trajectory analysis for each mission concept is described. Crew support components are also described. Vehicles were developed using both fission powered magneto plasma dynamic (MPD) thrusters and magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion systems. Conclusions were drawn regarding the usefulness of these propulsion systems for crewed exploration of the outer solar system.

  18. Towards a new generation of mission planning systems: Flexibility and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some new approaches which are required for a better adequacy of Mission Planning Systems. In particular, the performance flexibility and genericity issues are discussed based on experience acquired through various Mission Planning systems developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Food Supply for Long Term Space Missions Using Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruthirds, John E.

    2003-01-01

    A habitat for long duration missions which utilizes Advanced Life Support (ALS), the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), is currently being built at JSC. In this system all consumables will be recycled and reused. In support of this effort, a menu is being planned utilizing ALS crops that will meet nutritional and psychological requirements. The need exists in the food system to identify specific physical quantities that define life support systems from an analysis and modeling perspective. Once these quantities are defined, they need to be fed into a mathematical model that takes into consideration other systems in the BIO-Plex. This model, if successful, will be used to understand the impacts of changes in the food system on the other systems and vice versa. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been used to describe systems and subsystems, including the food system options, in terms of the single parameter, mass. There is concern that this approach might not adequately address the important issues of food quality and psychological impact on crew morale of a supply of fiesh food items. In fact, the mass of food can also depend on the quality of the food. This summer faculty fellow project will involve creating an appropriate mathematical model for the food plan developed by the Food Processing System for BIO-Plex. The desired outcome of this work will be a quantitative model that can be applied to the various options of supplying food on long-term space missions.

  20. Advances in Sensor Webs for NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, R.; Moe, K.; Smith, S.; Prescott, G.

    2007-12-01

    The world is slowly evolving into a web of interconnected sensors. Innovations such as camera phones that upload directly to the internet, networked devices with built-in GPS chips, traffic sensors, and the wireless networks that connect these devices are transforming our society. Similar advances are occurring in science sensors at NASA. NASA developed autonomy software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events. This software has also enabled NASA satellites to coordinate with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor web. A vision for NASA sensor webs for Earth science is to enable "on-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit." Several technologies for improved autonomous science and sensor webs are being developed at NASA. Each of these technologies advances the state of the art in sensorwebs in different areas including enabling model interactions with sensorwebs, smart autonomous sensors, and sensorweb communications. Enabling model interactions in sensor webs is focused on the creation and management of new sensor web enabled information products. Specifically, the format of these data products and the sensor webs that use them must be standardized so that sensor web components can more easily communicate with each other. This standardization will allow new components such as models and simulations to be included within sensor webs. Smart sensing implies sophistication in the sensors themselves. The goal of smart sensing is to enable autonomous event detection and reconfiguration. This may include onboard processing, self-healing sensors, and self-identifying sensors. The goal of communication enhancements, especially session layer management, is to support dialog control for autonomous operations

  1. Using AI/expert system technology to automate planning and replanning for the HST servicing missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogovich, L.; Johnson, J; Tuchman, A.; Mclean, D.; Page, B.; Kispert, A.; Burkhardt, C.; Littlefield, R.; Potter, W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a knowledge-based system that has been developed to automate planning and scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Missions. This new system is the Servicing Mission Planning and Replanning Tool (SM/PART). SM/PART has been delivered to the HST Flight Operations Team (FOT) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) where it is being used to build integrated time lines and command plans to control the activities of the HST, Shuttle, Crew and ground systems for the next HST Servicing Mission. SM/PART reuses and extends AI/expert system technology from Interactive Experimenter Planning System (IEPS) systems to build or rebuild time lines and command plans more rapidly than was possible for previous missions where they were built manually. This capability provides an important safety factor for the HST, Shuttle and Crew in case unexpected events occur during the mission.

  2. Piloted Mars mission planning: NEP technology and power levels

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.A.; Hack, K.J.; Dudzinski, L.A.; Gefert, L.P. ); Gilland, J.H. )

    1993-01-10

    This paper examines the strong interrelationship between assumed technology and mission performance requirements for NEP. Recent systems analysis efforts by NASA, DOE, and various contractors are used to project achievable system performance as a function of technological sophistication for two piloted Mars mission applications. Specific mass regimes for each collection of technologies are presented as a function of power level for piloted applications. Low thrust mission analyses are presented which relate these system performance projections to achievable mission performance. Mission performance maps'' are constructed which link prime mission figures-of-merit of time and initial mass with system requirements on power level and specific mass, and hence technology. Both opposition and conjunction class piloted Mars missions are presented for the 2016 opportunity, analogous to those proposed in the 90-Day Study'' and Synthesis'' architecture studies. Mass and time breakdowns are presented for 10 MWe piloted and 5 MWe cargo point designs.

  3. Planning the FUSE Mission Using the SOVA Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, James; Heatwole, Scott; Ward, Philip R.; Civeit, Thomas; Calvani, Humberto; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Suchkov, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Three documents discuss the Sustainable Objective Valuation and Attainability (SOVA) algorithm and software as used to plan tasks (principally, scientific observations and associated maneuvers) for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. SOVA is a means of managing risk in a complex system, based on a concept of computing the expected return value of a candidate ordered set of tasks as a product of pre-assigned task values and assessments of attainability made against qualitatively defined strategic objectives. For the FUSE mission, SOVA autonomously assembles a week-long schedule of target observations and associated maneuvers so as to maximize the expected scientific return value while keeping the satellite stable, managing the angular momentum of spacecraft attitude- control reaction wheels, and striving for other strategic objectives. A six-degree-of-freedom model of the spacecraft is used in simulating the tasks, and the attainability of a task is calculated at each step by use of strategic objectives as defined by use of fuzzy inference systems. SOVA utilizes a variant of a graph-search algorithm known as the A* search algorithm to assemble the tasks into a week-long target schedule, using the expected scientific return value to guide the search.

  4. Communication of Science Plans in the Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Albrecht; Grieger, Björn; Völk, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Rosetta is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to rendez-vous with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in mid-2014. The trajectories and their corresponding operations are both flexible and particularly complex. To make informed decisions among the many free parameters, novel ways to communicate operations to the community have been explored. To support science planning by communicating operational ideas and disseminating operational scenarios, the science ground segment makes use of Web-based visualisation technologies. To keep the threshold to analysing operations proposals as low as possible, various implementation techniques have been investigated. An important goal was to use the Web to make the content as accessible as possible. By adopting the recent standard WebGL and generating static pages of time-dependent three-dimensional views of the spacecraft as well as the corresponding field-of-views of instruments, directly from the operational and for-study files, users are given the opportunity to explore interactively in their Web browsers what is being proposed in addition to using the traditional file products and analysing them in detail. The scenes and animations can be viewed in any modern Web browser and be combined with other analyses. This is to facilitate verification and cross-validation of complex products, often done by comparing different independent analyses and studies. By providing different timesteps in animations, it is possible to focus on long-term planning or short-term planning without distracting the user from the essentials. This is particularly important since the information that can be displayed in a Web browser is somewhat related to data volume that can be transferred across the wire. In Web browsers, it is more challenging to do numerical calculations on demand. Since requests for additional data have to be passed through a Web server, they are more complex and also require a more complex infrastructure. The volume of data that

  5. Multi-objective optimization to support rapid air operations mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Burge, Janet E.

    2005-05-01

    Within the context of military air operations, Time-sensitive targets (TSTs) are targets where modifiers such, "emerging, perishable, high-payoff, short dwell, or highly mobile" can be used. Time-critical targets (TCTs) further the criticality of TSTs with respect to achievement of mission objectives and a limited window of opportunity for attack. The importance of TST/TCTs within military air operations has been met with a significant investment in advanced technologies and platforms to meet these challenges. Developments in ISR systems, manned and unmanned air platforms, precision guided munitions, and network-centric warfare have made significant strides for ensuring timely prosecution of TSTs/TCTs. However, additional investments are needed to further decrease the targeting decision cycle. Given the operational needs for decision support systems to enable time-sensitive/time-critical targeting, we present a tool for the rapid generation and analysis of mission plan solutions to address TSTs/TCTs. Our system employs a genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization scheme that is well suited to the rapid generation of approximate solutions in a dynamic environment. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) allow for the effective exploration of the search space for potentially novel solutions, while addressing the multiple conflicting objectives that characterize the prosecution of TSTs/TCTs (e.g. probability of target destruction, time to accomplish task, level of disruption to other mission priorities, level of risk to friendly assets, etc.).

  6. Planning and Management of Real-Time Geospatialuas Missions Within a Virtual Globe Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebiker, S.; Eugster, H.; Flückiger, K.; Christen, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a hardware and software framework supporting all phases of typical monitoring and mapping missions with mini and micro UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). The developed solution combines state-of-the art collaborative virtual globe technologies with advanced geospatial imaging techniques and wireless data link technologies supporting the combined and highly reliable transmission of digital video, high-resolution still imagery and mission control data over extended operational ranges. The framework enables the planning, simulation, control and real-time monitoring of UAS missions in application areas such as monitoring of forest fires, agronomical research, border patrol or pipeline inspection. The geospatial components of the project are based on the Virtual Globe Technology i3D OpenWebGlobe of the Institute of Geomatics Engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW). i3D OpenWebGlobe is a high-performance 3D geovisualisation engine supporting the web-based streaming of very large amounts of terrain and POI data.

  7. Advanced Directives and Advanced Care Planning for Healthcare Professionals.

    PubMed

    Booth, Adam T; Lehna, Carlee

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess healthcare professionals' need for information on advanced directives and to implement and evaluate an educational plan for change in knowledge and behaviors related to advanced directives. End-of-life (EOL) care is an important topic for patients to discuss with their families and healthcare professionals (HP). Needs assessment data were collected from healthcare providers at an urban trauma intensive care unit (ICU) in Louisville, Kentucky on concepts related to end-of-life. Next, healthcare professionals participated in an educational intervention focused on: knowledge about advanced directives; communication techniques for healthcare professionals to use with patients and their families; awareness of the patient's level of illness in advanced care planning; and specifics about living wills in Kentucky and how to complete one. Pre- and post-test data were collected to evaluate change in knowledge, capability an average of 8.7 years (SD = 9.1; range = 1.9-35 years) in healthcare and worked an average of 8.4 years (SD = 9.3; range = 4 months to 35 years) in their respective ICUs. Eighty-seven percent did not have an AD in place even though their perceived knowledge about AD remained moderate throughout pre- and post-test scores (3.3 to 3.8 on a 5 point scale, respectively). Total post-test scores revealed a 2% improvement in correct responses. These findings point to the need for education of healthcare providers in the ICU to increase early AD and ACP discussions with patients and their families. PMID:27183766

  8. Advanced simulation and analysis of a geopotential research mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulations have been performed for an orbital gradiometer mission to assist in the study of high degree and order gravity field recovery. The simulations were conducted for a satellite in near-circular, frozen orbit at a 160-km altitude using a gravitational field complete to degree and order 360. The mission duration is taken to be 32 days. The simulation provides a set of measurements to assist in the evaluation of techniques developed for the determination of the gravity field. Also, the simulation provides an ephemeris to study available tracking systems to satisfy the orbit determination requirements of the mission.

  9. An advanced environment for spacecraft engineering subsystem mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Harris, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Engineering Analysis Subsystem Environment (EASE) is under development at the JPL with a view to prospective small and large space missions. EASE is a modular multimission/multisystem architecture for spacecraft analysis that encompases monitoring and sequence support; its collection of software analysis modules is specific to a given mission, thereby easily accommodating mission scale. An EASE subsystem analysis module can be developed in modular program sets or packages, and a level of automation can then be introduced within such sets to achieve intramodule automation.

  10. Mission planning parameters for the Space Shuttle large format camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of various Space Shuttle mission parameters on the efficient and meaningful utilization of the large format camera (LFC) as a photographic acquisition system. Some of the LFC's vital statistics and its mounting within the Orbiter payload are described. LFC characteristics and mounting dictate certain mission parameters. The controlling parameters are orbit inclinations, launch time of year, launch time of day, orbital altitude, mission duration, overlap selection, film capacity, and climatological prediction. A mission case is evaluated relative to controlling parameters and geographical area(s) of interest.

  11. Walking the Walk/Talking the Talk: Mission Planning with Speech-Interactive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Benjamin; Short, Philip; Webb, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The application of simulation technology to mission planning and rehearsal has enabled realistic overhead 2-D and immersive 3-D "fly-through" capabilities that can help better prepare tactical teams for conducting missions in unfamiliar locales. For aircrews, detailed terrain data can offer a preview of the relevant landmarks and hazards, and threat models can provide a comprehensive glimpse of potential hot zones and safety corridors. A further extension of the utility of such planning and rehearsal techniques would allow users to perform the radio communications planned for a mission; that is, the air-ground coordination that is critical to the success of missions such as close air support (CAS). Such practice opportunities, while valuable, are limited by the inescapable scarcity of complete mission teams to gather in space and time during planning and rehearsal cycles. Moreoever, using simulated comms with synthetic entities, despite the substantial training and cost benefits, remains an elusive objective. In this paper we report on a solution to this gap that incorporates "synthetic teammates" - intelligent software agents that can role-play entities in a mission scenario and that can communicate in spoken language with users. We employ a fielded mission planning and rehearsal tool so that our focus remains on the experimental objectives of the research rather than on developing a testbed from scratch. Use of this planning tool also helps to validate the approach in an operational system. The result is a demonstration of a mission rehearsal tool that allows aircrew users to not only fly the mission but also practice the verbal communications with air control agencies and tactical controllers on the ground. This work will be presented in a CAS mission planning example but has broad applicability across weapons systems, missions and tactical force compositions.

  12. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) Acceptance Test Plan [Draft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, Edwin; Hughes, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The information presented in this Acceptance Test Plan document shows the current status of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). GMAT is a software system developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in collaboration with the private sector. The GMAT development team continuously performs acceptance tests in order to verify that the software continues to operate properly after updates are made. The GMAT Development team consists of NASA/GSFC Code 583 software developers, NASA/GSFC Code 595 analysts, and contractors of varying professions. GMAT was developed to provide a development approach that maintains involvement from the private sector and academia, encourages collaborative funding from multiple government agencies and the private sector, and promotes the transfer of technology from government funded research to the private sector. GMAT contains many capabilities, such as integrated formation flying modeling and MATLAB compatibility. The propagation capabilities in GMAT allow for fully coupled dynamics modeling of multiple spacecraft, in any flight regime. Other capabilities in GMAT inclucle: user definable coordinate systems, 3-D graphics in any coordinate system GMAT can calculate, 2-D plots, branch commands, solvers, optimizers, GMAT functions, planetary ephemeris sources including DE405, DE200, SLP and analytic models, script events, impulsive and finite maneuver models, and many more. GMAT runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux platforms. Both the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the GMAT engine were built and tested on all of the mentioned platforms. GMAT was designed for intuitive use from both the GUI and with an importable script language similar to that of MATLAB.

  13. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  14. Mission analysis and guidance, navigation, and control design for rendezvous and docking phase of advanced reentry vehicle mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strippoli, L.; Colmenarejo, P.; Strauch, H.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV) belongs to the family of vehicles designed to perform rendezvous and docking (RvD) with the International space station (ISS) [1]. Differently from its predecessor ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle), the ARV will transport a reentry capsule, equipped with a heatshield and able to bring back cargo, experiments, or, as a possible future development, even crew, being this latter scenario very attracting in view of the Space Shuttle retirement. GMV, as subcontractor of EADS-Astrium Germany, is in charge of the RvD and departure mission analysis and GNC (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) design of ARV mission. This paper will present the main outcomes of the study.

  15. Plans and objectives of the remaining Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The three remaining Apollo missions will have significantly increased scientific capabilities. These result from increased payload, more time on the surface, improved range, and more sophisticated experiments on the surface and in orbit. Landing sites for the last three missions will be carefully selected to maximize the total scientific return.

  16. Combined EDL-Mobility Planning for Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J. (Bob)

    2011-01-01

    Goals:(A) Develop data products that support decision making for coupled, multi-opportunity EDL/Mobility problems: (1) Site-specific decisions (2) Site selection motivated quantitative comparisons between different sites. (B) Provide an mission analysis/study tool for: (1) Systematic tradeoff between EDL and Mobility (2) Determining the relationship between selected Figure-of-Merits and key mission & system parameters

  17. Applications of presently planned interplanetary missions to testing gravitational theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L. D.

    1971-01-01

    A summary of the probable interplanetary missions for the 1970's is presented, which may prove useful in testing the general theory of relativity. Mission characteristics are discussed, as well as instrumentation. This last includes a low-level accelerometer and S-/X-band transponders and antennas.

  18. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  19. Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 1: Space shuttle rescue capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle rescue capability is analyzed as a part of the advanced mission safety study. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission evaluation, (2) shuttle configurations and performance, (3) performance of shuttle-launched tug system, (4) multiple pass grazing reentry from lunar orbit, (5) ground launched ascent and rendezvous time, (6) cost estimates, and (7) parallel-burn space shuttle configuration.

  20. Applications of advanced V/STOL aircraft concepts to civil utility missions. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The linear performance definition curves for the lift fan aircraft, tilt rotor aircraft, and advanced helicopter are given. The computer program written to perform the mission analysis for this study is also documented, and examples of its use are shown. Methods used to derive the performance coefficients for use in the mission analysis of the lift fan aircraft are described.

  1. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. H.; Sostaric, R. R.; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-06-01

    Advanced mid-L/D entry vehicles can provide performance advantages significant to mid-term robotic and human missions. Preliminary simulations with new paradigms show transonic Mach vehicle staging possible for retro-propulsion, descent and landing.

  2. Frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates can be high, bit rates are low, and data is unique precious.

  3. Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik; Keith Perry

    2007-07-01

    Twenty-first century energy challenges include demand growth, national energy security, and global climate protection. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding the educational opportunities at the Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed this strategic plan based on the Balanced Scorecard approach. A Strategy Map (Section 7) summarizes the CAES vision, mission, customers, and strategic objectives. Identified strategic objectives encompass specific outcomes related to three main areas: Research, Education, and Policy. Technical capabilities and critical enablers needed to support these objectives are also identified. This CAES strategic plan aligns with and supports the strategic objectives of the four CAES institutions. Implementation actions are also presented which will be used to monitor progress towards fulfilling these objectives.

  4. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2010-13. Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Technology envisions Alberta's prosperity through innovation and lifelong learning. Advanced Education and Technology's mission is to lead the development of a knowledge-driven future through a dynamic and integrated advanced learning and innovation system. This paper presents the highlights of the business…

  5. Automated trajectory planning for multiple-flyby interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englander, Jacob

    Many space mission planning problems may be formulated as hybrid optimal control problems (HOCP), i.e. problems that include both real-valued variables and categorical variables. In interplanetary trajectory design problems the categorical variables will typically specify the sequence of planets at which to perform flybys, and the real-valued variables will represent the launch date, ight times between planets, magnitudes and directions of thrust, flyby altitudes, etc. The contribution of this work is a framework for the autonomous optimization of multiple-flyby interplanetary trajectories. The trajectory design problem is converted into a HOCP with two nested loops: an "outer-loop" that finds the sequence of flybys and an "inner-loop" that optimizes the trajectory for each candidate yby sequence. The problem of choosing a sequence of flybys is posed as an integer programming problem and solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). This is an especially difficult problem to solve because GAs normally operate on a fixed-length set of decision variables. Since in interplanetary trajectory design the number of flyby maneuvers is not known a priori, it was necessary to devise a method of parameterizing the problem such that the GA can evolve a variable-length sequence of flybys. A novel "null gene" transcription was developed to meet this need. Then, for each candidate sequence of flybys, a trajectory must be found that visits each of the flyby targets and arrives at the final destination while optimizing some cost metric, such as minimizing ▵v or maximizing the final mass of the spacecraft. Three different classes of trajectory are described in this work, each of which requireda different physical model and optimization method. The choice of a trajectory model and optimization method is especially challenging because of the nature of the hybrid optimal control problem. Because the trajectory optimization problem is generated in real time by the outer-loop, the inner

  6. North Idaho College Long-Range Plan and Statement of Institutional Mission and Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargol, Owen F.

    Based upon a planning project initiated at North Idaho College (NIC) in 1981 and approved by the Board of Trustees in 1982, this long-range plan states the mission of NIC and specifies goals and objectives to be attained in the next 3 years. First, introductory sections consider the qualities of a good long-range plan, address the responsibilities…

  7. Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meer, David W.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, GRC has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

  8. Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meer, Dave; Oriti, Sal

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, NASA?s Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

  9. Development and Execution of End-of-Mission Operations Case Study of the UARS and ERBS End-of-Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John; Marius, Julio L.; Montoro, Manuel; Patel, Mehul; Bludworth, David

    2006-01-01

    This Paper is a case study of the development and execution of the End-of-Mission plans for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The goals of the End-of-Mission Plans are to minimize the time the spacecraft remains on orbit and to minimize the risk of creating orbital debris. Both of these Missions predate the NASA Management Instructions (NMI) that directs missions to provide for safe mission termination. Each spacecrafts had their own unique challenges, which required assessing End-of-Mission requirements versus spacecraft limitations. Ultimately the End-of- Mission operations were about risk mitigation. This paper will describe the operational challenges and the lessons learned executing these End-of-Mission Plans

  10. Advanced Power and Propulsion: Insuring Human Survival and Productivity in Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Chang-Diaz gave an intriguing presentation of his research in advanced rocket propulsion and its relevance for planning and executing crewed deep space explorations. Though not necessarily exclusively Martian, his thrust looks critically at future Mars missions. Initially Dr. Chang-Diaz showed the time constraints of Mars missions due to orbital mechanics and our present chemically powered rocket technology. Since essentially all the energy required to place current generation spacecraft into a Martian trajectory must be expended in the early minutes of a flight, most of such a mission is spent in free-fall drift, captive to the gravitational forces among Earth, the Sun, and Mars. The simple physics of such chemically powered missions requires nearly a year in transit for each direction of a Mars mission. And the optimal orientations of Earth and Mars for rendezvous require further time on or around Mars to await return. These extensions of mission duration place any crew under a three-fold jeopardy: (1) physiological deconditioning (which in some aspects is still unknown and unpreventable), (2) psychological stress, and (3) ionizing radiation. This latter risk is due to exposure of crew members for extended time to the highly unpredictable and potentially lethal radiations of open space. Any gains in shortening mission duration would reap equivalent or greater benefits for these crew concerns. Dr. Chang-Diaz has applied his training and expertise (Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in applied plasma physics) toward development of continuous rocket propulsion which would offer great time advantages in travel, and also more launch options than are now available. He clearly explained the enormous gains from a relatively low thrust accelerative force applied essentially continuously versus the high, but short-lived propulsion of present chemical rockets. In fact, such spacecraft could be powered throughout the mission, accelerating to approximately

  11. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew; Ghosh, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very diserable. This work presents such as an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  12. Advanced hybrid nuclear propulsion Mars mission performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Noffsinger, K.E.; Segna, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), can effectively deliver the same mass to Mars using much less propellant, consequently requiring less mass delivered to Earth orbit. The lower thrust of NEP requires a spiral trajectory near planetary bodies, which significantly increases the travel time. Although the total travel time is long, the portion of the flight time spent during interplanetary transfer is shorter, because the vehicle is thrusting for much longer periods of time. This has led to the supposition that NEP, although very attractive for cargo missions, is not suitable for piloted missions to Mars. However, with the application of a hybrid approach to propulsion, the benefits of NEP can be utilized while drastically reducing the overall travel time required. Development of a dual-mode system, which utilizes high-thrust NTP to propel the spacecraft from the planetary gravitational influence and low-thrust NEP to accelerate in interplanetary space, eliminates the spiral trajectory and results in a much faster transit time than could be obtained by either NEP or NTP alone. This results in a mission profile with a lower initial mass in low Earth orbit. In addition, the propulsion system would have the capability to provide electrical power for mission applications.

  13. Technology assessment of advanced automation for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Six general classes of technology requirements derived during the mission definition phase of the study were identified as having maximum importance and urgency, including autonomous world model based information systems, learning and hypothesis formation, natural language and other man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators and robot systems, and computer science and technology.

  14. 14 CFR 151.111 - Advance planning proposals: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Engineering Proposals § 151.111 Advance planning proposals: General. (a) Each advance planning and engineering... application, under §§ 151.21(c) and 151.27, or both. (c) Each proposal must relate to planning and engineering... “Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers” (published jointly by FAA and the...

  15. 14 CFR 151.111 - Advance planning proposals: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Engineering Proposals § 151.111 Advance planning proposals: General. (a) Each advance planning and engineering... application, under §§ 151.21(c) and 151.27, or both. (c) Each proposal must relate to planning and engineering... “Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers” (published jointly by FAA and the...

  16. 14 CFR 151.111 - Advance planning proposals: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Engineering Proposals § 151.111 Advance planning proposals: General. (a) Each advance planning and engineering... application, under §§ 151.21(c) and 151.27, or both. (c) Each proposal must relate to planning and engineering... “Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers” (published jointly by FAA and the...

  17. 14 CFR 151.111 - Advance planning proposals: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Engineering Proposals § 151.111 Advance planning proposals: General. (a) Each advance planning and engineering... application, under §§ 151.21(c) and 151.27, or both. (c) Each proposal must relate to planning and engineering... “Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers” (published jointly by FAA and the...

  18. 14 CFR 151.111 - Advance planning proposals: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Engineering Proposals § 151.111 Advance planning proposals: General. (a) Each advance planning and engineering... application, under §§ 151.21(c) and 151.27, or both. (c) Each proposal must relate to planning and engineering... “Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers” (published jointly by FAA and the...

  19. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2008-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Technology's 2008-11 business plan identifies how it plans to work over the next three years to enhance advanced learning opportunities and innovation for all Albertans. Alberta's advanced learning system is composed of public board-governed institutions, the apprenticeship and industry training system,…

  20. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  1. Work Package 5: Contingency Management. Mission Planning Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify the general flight/mission planning requirements for same-day file-and-fly access to the NAS for both civil and military High-Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Currently the scope of this document is limited to Step 1, operations above flight level 43,000 feet (FL430). This document describes the current applicable mission planning requirements and procedures for both manned and unmanned aircraft and addresses HALE UAS flight planning considerations in the future National Airspace System (NAS). It also discusses the unique performance and operational capabilities of HALE UAS associated with the Access 5 Project, presents some of the projected performance characteristics and conceptual missions for future systems, and provides detailed analysis of the recommended mission planning elements for operating HALE UAS in the NAS.

  2. Planning Coverage Campaigns for Mission Design and Analysis: CLASP for DESDynl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell L.; McLaren, David A.; Hu, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Mission design and analysis presents challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, automated planning tools are used that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations, while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. This approach was applied to the DESDynl mission design using the CLASP planning system, but since this adaptation, many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP, and the DESDynl mission concept has undergone drastic changes. The software produces mission evaluation products, such as memory highwater marks, coverage percentages, given a mission design in the form of coverage targets, concept of operations, spacecraft parameters, and orbital parameters. It tries to overcome the lack of fidelity and timeliness of mission requirements coverage analysis during mission design. Previous techniques primarily use Excel in ad hoc fashion to approximate key factors in mission performance, often falling victim to overgeneralizations necessary in such an adaptation. The new program allows designers to faithfully represent their mission designs quickly, and get more accurate results just as quickly.

  3. Apollo experience report: Evolution of the rendezvous-maneuver plan for the lunar-landing missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. D.; Becker, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of the nominal rendezvous-maneuver plan for the lunar landing missions is presented along with a summary of the significant development for the lunar module abort and rescue plan. A general discussion of the rendezvous dispersion analysis that was conducted in support of both the nominal and contingency rendezvous planning is included. Emphasis is placed on the technical developments from the early 1960's through the Apollo 15 mission (July to August 1971), but pertinent organizational factors also are discussed briefly. Recommendations for rendezvous planning for future programs relative to Apollo experience also are included.

  4. Use of magnetic sails for advanced exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Dana G.; Zubrin, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic sail, or magsail, is a field effect device which interacts with the ambient solar wind or interstellar medium over a considerable volume of space to generate drag and lift forces. Two theories describing the method of thrust generation are analyzed and data results are presented. The techniques for maintaining superconductor temperatures in interplanetary space are analyzed and low risk options presented. Comparisons are presented showing mission performance differences between currently proposed spacecraft using chemical and electric propulsion systems, and a Magsail propelled spacecraft capable of generating an average thrust of 250 Newtons at a radius of one A.U. The magsail also provides unique capabilities for interstellar missions, in that at relativistic speeds the magnetic field would ionize and deflect the interstellar medium producing a large drag force. This would make it an ideal brake for decelerating a spacecraft from relativistic speeds and then maneuvering within the target star system.

  5. A mission planning tool for the Characterization of Sea Ice (CASIE) mission to Svalbard, Norway, in July 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. M.; Enomoto, F.; Johan, S.; Crocker, R. I.; Fladeland, M. M.; Long, D.; Maslanik, J. A.; Sullivan, D.; Wegrzyn, K.

    2009-12-01

    Team members from NASA Ames Research Center developed a mission planning tool using Google Earth to support mission planning and monitoring during the Characterization of Sea Ice (CASIE) 2009 Mission to Svalbard, Norway. The tool allowed both deployed and non-deployed team members to view near-real time satellite imagery, ancillary information and flight paths before, during and after flights. MODIS, QuikSCAT, and AMSR-E data were displayed in Google Earth as ground overlays. MODIS data included two true color images (one each from Aqua and Terra) and a false color image (bands 3, 6, and 7) from Terra. The images were converted from GeoTIFF format to KML format using GDAL and provided cloud information to flight planners. The QuikSCAT and AMSR-E satellite imagery provided information on ice location and concentration, which allowed flight planners to locate areas for data collection. Ancillary information included sounding data, icing and snow cover forecasts, cloud pressure, perceptible water, and surface temperature data. Before flying, flight paths were created in Google Earth and then converted into shapefiles for input into flight software. While in-flight, the plane sent position, temperature, and humidity data to the base station in Ny-Ålesund. These data were converted into KML format and displayed within Google Earth in near-real time. The simultaneous display of satellite data, weather forecasts, and real-time data from the aircraft allowed mission planners to make real time mission operation decisions and allowed for remote mission monitoring by team members not deployed to Svalbard.

  6. Advances in Radiation-Tolerant Solar Arrays for SEP Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    As the power levels of commercial communications satellites reach the 20 kWe and higher, new options begin to emerge for transferring the satellite from LEO to GEO. In the past electric propulsion has been demonstrated successfully for this mission - albeit under unfortunate circumstances when the kick motor failed. The unexpected use of propellant for the electric propulsion (EP) system compromised the life of that vehicle, but did demonstrate the viability of such an approach. Replacing the kick motor on a satellite and replacing that mass by additional propellant for the EP system as well as mass for additional revenue-producing transponders should lead to major benefits for the provider. Of course this approach requires that the loss in solar array power during transit of the Van Allen radiation belts is not excessive and still enables the 15 to 20 year mission life. In addition, SEP missions to Jupiter, with its exceptional radiation belts, would mandate a radiation-resistant solar array to compete with a radioisotope alternative. Several critical issues emerge as potential barriers to this approach: reducing solar array radiation damage, operating the array at high voltage (>300 V) for extended times for Hall or ion thrusters, designing an array that will be resistant to micrometeoroid impacts and the differing environmental conditions as the vehicle travels from LEO to GEO (or at Jupiter), producing an array that is light weight to preserve payload mass fraction - and to do this at a cost that is lower than today's arrays. This paper will describe progress made to date on achieving an array that meets all these requirements and is also useful for deep space electric propulsion missions.

  7. Nuclear powered Mars cargo transport mission utilizing advanced ion propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Galecki, D.L.; Patterson, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear-powered ion propulsion technology was combined with detailed trajectory analysis to determine propulsion system and trajectory options for an unmanned cargo mission to Mars in support of manned Mars missions. A total of 96 mission scenarios were identified by combining two power levels, two propellants, four values of specific impulse per propellant, three starting altitudes, and two starting velocities. Sixty of these scenarios were selected for a detailed trajectory analysis; a complete propulsion system study was then conducted for 20 of these trajectories. Trip times ranged from 344 days for a xenon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from lunar orbit with escape velocity, to 770 days for an argon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from nuclear start orbit with circular velocity. Trip times for the 3 MW cases studied ranged from 356 to 413 days. Payload masses ranged from 5700 to 12,300 kg for the 300 kW power level, and from 72,200 to 81,500 kg for the 3 MW power level.

  8. Advanced Nuclear Power Concepts for Human Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Cataldo; Lee S. Mason

    2000-06-04

    The design reference mission for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) human mission to Mars supports a philosophy of living off the land in order to reduce crew risk, launch mass, and life-cycle costs associated with logistics resupply to a Mars base. Life-support materials, oxygen, water, and buffer gases, and the crew's ascent-stage propellant would not be brought from Earth but rather manufactured from the Mars atmosphere. The propellants would be made over {approx}2 yr, the time between Mars mission launch window opportunities. The production of propellants is very power intensive and depends on type, amount, and time to produce the propellants. Closed-loop life support and food production are also power intensive. With the base having several habitats, a greenhouse, and propellant production capability, total power levels reach well over 125 kW(electric). The most mass-efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept, described in this paper, using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters.

  9. Planning, Implementation and Optimization of Future space Missions using an Immersive Visualization Environement (IVE) Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E.

    Planning, Implementation and Optimization of Future Space Missions using an Immersive Visualization Environment (IVE) Machine E. N. Harris, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, CO and George.W. Morgenthaler, U. of Colorado at Boulder History: A team of 3-D engineering visualization experts at the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company have developed innovative virtual prototyping simulation solutions for ground processing and real-time visualization of design and planning of aerospace missions over the past 6 years. At the University of Colorado, a team of 3-D visualization experts are developing the science of 3-D visualization and immersive visualization at the newly founded BP Center for Visualization, which began operations in October, 2001. (See IAF/IAA-01-13.2.09, "The Use of 3-D Immersive Visualization Environments (IVEs) to Plan Space Missions," G. A. Dorn and G. W. Morgenthaler.) Progressing from Today's 3-D Engineering Simulations to Tomorrow's 3-D IVE Mission Planning, Simulation and Optimization Techniques: 3-D (IVEs) and visualization simulation tools can be combined for efficient planning and design engineering of future aerospace exploration and commercial missions. This technology is currently being developed and will be demonstrated by Lockheed Martin in the (IVE) at the BP Center using virtual simulation for clearance checks, collision detection, ergonomics and reach-ability analyses to develop fabrication and processing flows for spacecraft and launch vehicle ground support operations and to optimize mission architecture and vehicle design subject to realistic constraints. Demonstrations: Immediate aerospace applications to be demonstrated include developing streamlined processing flows for Reusable Space Transportation Systems and Atlas Launch Vehicle operations and Mars Polar Lander visual work instructions. Long-range goals include future international human and robotic space exploration missions such as the development of a Mars

  10. TWRS retrieval and storage mission, immobilized low-activity waste disposal plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1998-01-07

    The TWRS mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the encapsulated cesium and strontium) in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner (TWRS JMN Justification for mission need). The mission includes retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, interim storage and disposal, and tank closure. As part of this mission, DOE has established the TWRS Office to manage all Hanford Site tank waste activities. The TWRS program has identified the need to store, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the highly radioactive Hanford Site tank waste and encapsulated cesium and strontium materials in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. To support environmental remediation and restoration at the Hanford Site a two-phase approach to using private contractors to treat and immobilize the low-activity and high-level waste currently stored in underground tanks is planned. The request for proposals (RFP) for the first phase of waste treatment and immobilization was issued in February 1996 (Wagoner 1996) and initial contracts for two private contractor teams led by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. and Lockheed-Martin Advanced Environmental Services were signed in September 1996. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept and commercial demonstration effort to demonstrate the technical and business feasibility of using private facilities to treat Hanford Site waste, maintain radiological, nuclear, process, and occupational safety; and maintain environmental protection and compliance while reducing lifecycle costs and waste treatment times. Phase 1 production of ILAW is planned to begin in June 2002 and could treat up to about 13 percent of the waste. Phase 1 production is expected to be completed in 2007 for minimum order quantities or 2011 for maximum order quantities. Phase 2 is a full-scale production effort that will begin after Phase 1 and treat and immobilize most of the waste. Phase 2 production is

  11. Preparing GMAT for Operational Maneuver Planning of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qureshi, Rizwan Hamid; Hughes, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is an open-source space mission design, analysis and trajectory optimization tool. GMAT is developed by a team of NASA, private industry, public and private contributors. GMAT is designed to model, optimize and estimate spacecraft trajectories in flight regimes ranging from low Earth orbit to lunar applications, interplanetary trajectories and other deep space missions. GMAT has also been flight qualified to support operational maneuver planning for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission. ACE was launched in August, 1997 and is orbiting the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. The primary science objective of ACE is to study the composition of both the solar wind and the galactic cosmic rays. Operational orbit determination, maneuver operations and product generation for ACE are conducted by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF). This paper discusses the entire engineering lifecycle and major operational certification milestones that GMAT successfully completed to obtain operational certification for the ACE mission. Operational certification milestones such as gathering of the requirements for ACE operational maneuver planning, gap analysis, test plans and procedures development, system design, pre-shadow operations, training to FDF ACE maneuver planners, shadow operations, Test Readiness Review (TRR) and finally Operational Readiness Review (ORR) are discussed. These efforts have demonstrated that GMAT is flight quality software ready to support ACE mission operations in the FDF.

  12. Cassini CIRS: Lessons Learned from the Prime Mission and Plans for Rings Observations in the Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spilker, L. J.; Pilorz, S. H.; Edgington, S. G.; Leyrat, C.; Altobelli, N.; Flandes, A.

    2008-12-01

    During its four-year mission to Saturn Cassini has produced a great wealth of data with its twelve instruments, providing many new insights into Saturn's rings. The four-year measurement baseline of ring observations has allowed ring scientists to observe the rings during a significant portion of the southern hemisphere's summer. The Cassini Extended Mission promises the exciting possibility of extending this observation baseline through the upcoming equinox period in August 2009 and beyond. In this talk, we will discuss the lessons that we have learned from the CIRS observations of Saturn's rings during the Cassini prime mission and the scientific results that have been obtained. Ring temperatures derived from spectra taken with CIRS' FP1 detector (sensitive to wavenumbers from 10 to 600 cm-1 ) vary with the phase angle, inclination angle and local hour angle of the measurement. CIRS has also successfully recorded the occultation of an infrared star, CW Leo, while it passed behind the rings as seen from Cassini. To take advantage of this information and the discoveries of the other Cassini instruments, such as the wake-like structure in the A and B rings, as well as the new geometries offered by the Extended Mission, we have modified our observing strategy during the Extended Mission. Observations that exploit the high-inclination orbits at the beginning of the Extended Mission and the Sun's crossing of the ring plane have been planned. These new strategies will be discussed, as well as some preliminary results from the beginning of the Cassini Extended Mission. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2008 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  13. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often may thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  14. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The methods is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  15. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2010-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the business plan of the Ministry of Advanced Education and Technology for 2010 to 2013. Advanced Education and Technology supports the advanced learning system by providing funding for advanced learning providers, coordinating and approving programs of study at public institutions, licensing and approving programs at private…

  16. Advanced Planetary Protection Technologies for the Proposed Future Mission Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, J. Andy; Conley, Catharine A

    2013-01-01

    Planetary protection is the discipline of protecting solar system objects from harmful contamination resulting from the activities of interplanetary spacecraft, and of similarly protecting the Earth from uncontrolled release of a putative extra-terrestrial organism from returned extra-terrestrial samples. Planetary protection requirements for Mars are becoming further refined as more is understood about the nature of the Martian environment as a potential habitat. Likewise, increased understanding of the limits of life on Earth is informing planetary protection policy. This presentation will discuss recent technology developments, ongoing work and future challenges of implementing planetary protection for the proposed future mission set.

  17. Space Power Architectures for NASA Missions: The Applicability and Benefits of Advanced Power and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.

    2001-01-01

    The relative importance of electrical power systems as compared with other spacecraft bus systems is examined. The quantified benefits of advanced space power architectures for NASA Earth Science, Space Science, and Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) missions is then presented. Advanced space power technologies highlighted include high specific power solar arrays, regenerative fuel cells, Stirling radioisotope power sources, flywheel energy storage and attitude control, lithium ion polymer energy storage and advanced power management and distribution.

  18. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  19. Advanced Planning for Tsunamis in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.; Larkin, D.; Reade, S.; Carnathan, D.; Davis, M.; Nicolini, T.; Johnson, L.; Boldt, E.; Tardy, A.

    2013-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program is comprised of the California Governor's Office of Emergency Services (CalOES) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) and funded through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The program works closely with the 20 coastal counties in California, as well as academic, and industry experts to improve tsunami preparedness and mitigation in shoreline communities. Inundation maps depicting 'worst case' inundation modeled from plausible sources around the Pacific were released in 2009 and have provided a foundation for public evacuation and emergency response planning in California. Experience during recent tsunamis impacting the state (Japan 2011, Chile 2010, Samoa 2009) has brought to light the desire by emergency managers and decision makers for even more detailed information ahead of future tsunamis. A solution to provide enhanced information has been development of 'playbooks' to plan for a variety of expected tsunami scenarios. Elevation 'playbook' lines can be useful for partial tsunami evacuations when enough information about forecast amplitude and arrival times is available to coastal communities and there is sufficient time to make more educated decisions about who to evacuate for a given scenario or actual event. NOAA-issued Tsunami Alert Bulletins received in advance of a distant event will contain an expected wave height (a number) for each given section of coast. Provision of four elevation lines for possible inundation enables planning for different evacuation scenarios based on the above number potentially alleviating the need for an 'all or nothing' decision with regard to evacuation. Additionally an analytical tool called FASTER is being developed to integrate storm, tides, modeling errors, and local tsunami run-up potential with the forecasted tsunami amplitudes in real-time when a tsunami Alert is sent out. Both of these products will help

  20. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  1. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2011-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Education and Technology's mission is to lead the development of a knowledge-driven future through a dynamic and integrated advanced learning and innovation system. Its core businesses are to: (1) provide strategic leadership for Campus Alberta and Alberta Innovates; and (2) engage learners, industry and the community in learning…

  2. Advance care planning in South Korea: Social work perspective.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung Ae; Kolomer, Stacey

    2016-08-01

    As ethical issues arise concerning the continuation of futile medical treatment for dying patients in Korean society, advance directive planning initiatives have been put into place to guide practice. This article describes the awareness and attitudes of social workers in Korea regarding advance care planning and related factors. A total of 246 gerontological/geriatric social workers completed a mailed or in-person survey regarding awareness and attitudes toward advance care planning. Seventy-three percent (n = 180) of the participants reported no knowledge of advance directives. Social workers who emphasized self-determination as a professional value, professed a preference for hospice care, and who were comfortable discussing death were more likely to have a positive attitudes toward advance care planning. This study reinforces the need for the infusion of advance care planning and end-of-life training in social work education in Korea. PMID:27428654

  3. An Analysis of the Mission and Vision Statements on the Strategic Plans of Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdem, Guven

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the mission and vision statements on the strategic plans of higher education institutions. The sample of the study consisted of 72 public universities. Strategic plans of the universities were accessed over the internet, and the data collected were analyzed using content analysis. The findings show that statements on…

  4. Rover Traverse Planning to Support a Lunar Polar Volatiles Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J.L.; Colaprete, A.C.; Elphic, R. C.; Bussey, B.; McGovern, A.; Beyer, R.; Lees, D.; Deans, M. C.; Otten, N.; Jones, H.; Wettergreen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of lunar polar volatile depositsare of interest for scientific purposes to understandthe nature and evolution of the volatiles, and alsofor exploration reasons as a possible in situ resource toenable long term exploration and settlement of theMoon. Both theoretical and observational studies havesuggested that significant quantities of volatiles exist inthe polar regions, although the lateral and horizontaldistribution remains unknown at the km scale and finerresolution. A lunar polar rover mission is required tofurther characterize the distribution, quantity, andcharacter of lunar polar volatile deposits at thesehigher spatial resolutions. Here we present two casestudies for NASA’s Resource Prospector (RP) missionconcept for a lunar polar rover and utilize this missionarchitecture and associated constraints to evaluatewhether a suitable landing site exists to support an RPflight mission.

  5. A Medical Mission to Guatemala as an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Skoy, Elizabeth T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development and outcomes of an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) for a medical mission trip to Guatemala. Design. Pre-mission preparation and post-mission reflection activities were combined with in-country activities to create a 5-week APPE. During the 10-day medical mission trip, pharmacy students dispensed medications, counseled patients, conducted quality improvement assessments, and presented their findings and experiences as part of an interdisciplinary health care team. Assessment. The students who completed the mission trip met the objectives of the APPE and reported substantial learning in the areas of interdisciplinary teamwork and cultural competency. All students’ scores on the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence—Student Version (IAPCC-SV) increased. The majority (81%) of student-generated quality improvement recommendations were implemented by the mission team. Conclusions. The medical mission APPE provided a rich learning environment for pharmacy students and resulted in modifications to the medical mission operation. This type of APPE could be implemented in other colleges of pharmacy via formation of partnerships with established medical mission teams as this one was. PMID:23129855

  6. Combined EDL-Mobility Planning for Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis framework for planetary missions that have coupled mobility and EDL (Entry-Descent-Landing) systems. Traditional systems engineering approaches to mobility missions such as MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) and MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) independently study the EDL system and the mobility system, and does not perform explicit trade-off between them or risk minimization of the overall system. A major challenge is that EDL operation is inherently uncertain and its analysis results such as landing footprint are described using PDF (Probability Density Function). The proposed approach first builds a mobility cost-to-go map that encodes the driving cost of any point on the map to a science target location. The cost could include variety of metrics such as traverse distance, time, wheel rotation on soft soil, and closeness to hazards. It then convolves the mobility cost-to-go map with the landing PDF given by the EDL system, which provides a histogram of driving cost, which can be used to evaluate the overall risk of the mission. By capturing the coupling between EDL and mobility explicitly, this analysis framework enables quantitative tradeoff between EDL and mobility system performance, as well as the characterization of risks in a statistical way. The simulation results are presented with a realistic Mars terrain data

  7. Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for four of the five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight

  8. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  9. Titan exploration with advanced systems. A study of future mission concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities, and programmatic issues associated with science-intensive mission concepts for the advanced exploration of Saturn's largest satellite are assessed. The key questions to be answered by a Titan exploratory mission are: (1) the atmospheric composition; (2) the atmospheric structure; (3) the nature of the surface; and (4) the nature of the interior of Titan. Five selected mission concepts are described in terms of their design requirements. Mission hardware concepts include balloons and/or blimps which will allow both atmospheric and surface observations for a long period of time. Key aspects of performance analysis are presented. Mission profiles and cost summaries are given. Candidate payloads are identified for imaging and nonimaging orbiters, a buoyant station, a haze probe, and a penetrator.

  10. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  11. Development of advanced entry, descent, and landing technologies for future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Cheng-Chih (Chester)

    2006-01-01

    Future Mars missions may need the capability to land much closer to a desired target and/or advanced methods of detecting, avoiding, or tolerating landing hazards. Therefore, technologies that enable 'pinpoint landing' (within tens of meters to 1 km of a target site) will be crucial to meet future mission requirements. As part of NASA Research Announcement, NRA 03-OSS-01, NASA solicited proposals for technology development needs of missions to be launched to Mars during or after the 2009 launch opportunity. Six technology areas were identified as of high priority including advanced entry, descent, and landing (EDL) technologies. In May 2004, 11 proposals with PIs from universities, industries, and NASA centers, were awarded in the area of advanced EDL by NASA for further study and development. This paper presents an overview of these developing technologies.

  12. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  13. Mission planning for an Earth observation low Earth orbiter: ERS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockyer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    ERS-1, the first European Remote Sensing satellite, has a payload which consists primarily of microwave instruments and is in a polar sun-synchronous orbit. All ground and on-board activities from user requests to delivery of data products are combined into one integrated system. In view of the high number of products which can be generated by ERS-1, the Mission Planning System (MPS), which plans the on-board activities of ERS-1, is an essential tool for operations since manual planning of the large number of daily operations is out of the question. In addition the MPS, in line with the integrated nature of the ERS-1 system, also plans activities at the prime ground station, including among others, the operation of the payload data processing systems there. This paper outlines the operations concepts for ERS-1 mission planning, and describes the Mission Planning System used at the ERS-1 Control Center. Novel functionalities, such as automatic resource clash resolution, are described. A critical discussion gives lessons learned for future mission planning systems.

  14. 45 CFR 1355.54 - Submittal of advance planning documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with procedures specified by 45 CFR part 95, subpart F. ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submittal of advance planning documents. 1355.54... § 1355.54 Submittal of advance planning documents. The State title IV-E agency must submit an APD for...

  15. 14 CFR 151.119 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. 151.119 Section 151.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.119 Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. The funding...

  16. 14 CFR 151.119 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. 151.119 Section 151.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.119 Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. The funding...

  17. 14 CFR 151.119 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. 151.119 Section 151.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.119 Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. The funding...

  18. 14 CFR 151.119 - Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. 151.119 Section 151.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.119 Advance planning proposals: Procedures; funding. The funding...

  19. Advanced solar-propelled cargo spacecraft for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, J.; Beall, M.; Burianek, J.; Cinniger, A.; Dunmire, B.; Haberman, E.; Iwamoto, J.; Johnson, S.; Mccracken, S.; Miller, M.

    1989-01-01

    At the University of Washington, three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars-support missions have been investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: a solar radiation absorption (SRA) system, a solar-pumped laser (SPL) system, and a solar powered mangetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process developed at the University of Washington. A solar concentrator focuses sunlight into an absorption chamber. A mixture of hydrogen and potassium vapor absorbs the incident radiation and is heated to approximately 3700 K. The hot propellant gas exhausts through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SRA has an I(sub sp) of approximately 1000 sec and produces a thrust of 2940 N using two thrust chambers. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sun-synchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The laser beams are transmitted to the spacecraft via laser relay satellites. The laser energy heats the hydrogen propellant through a plasma breakdown process in the center of an absorption chamber. Propellant flowing through the chamber, heated by the plasma core, expands through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SPL has an I(sub sp) of 1285 sec and produces a thrust of 1200 N using two thrust chambers. The MPD system uses indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. In this system, the argon propellant is ionized and electromagnetically accelerated by a magnetoplasmadynamic arc to produce thrust. The MPD spacecraft has an I(sub sp) of 2490 sec and produces a thrust of 100 N. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary

  20. Tools of the Future: How Decision Tree Analysis Will Impact Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterstatter, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    The universe is infinitely complex; however, the human mind has a finite capacity. The multitude of possible variables, metrics, and procedures in mission planning are far too many to address exhaustively. This is unfortunate because, in general, considering more possibilities leads to more accurate and more powerful results. To compensate, we can get more insightful results by employing our greatest tool, the computer. The power of the computer will be utilized through a technology that considers every possibility, decision tree analysis. Although decision trees have been used in many other fields, this is innovative for space mission planning. Because this is a new strategy, no existing software is able to completely accommodate all of the requirements. This was determined through extensive research and testing of current technologies. It was necessary to create original software, for which a short-term model was finished this summer. The model was built into Microsoft Excel to take advantage of the familiar graphical interface for user input, computation, and viewing output. Macros were written to automate the process of tree construction, optimization, and presentation. The results are useful and promising. If this tool is successfully implemented in mission planning, our reliance on old-fashioned heuristics, an error-prone shortcut for handling complexity, will be reduced. The computer algorithms involved in decision trees will revolutionize mission planning. The planning will be faster and smarter, leading to optimized missions with the potential for more valuable data.

  1. The Implementation of Advanced Solar Array Technology in Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.; White, Steve; Douglas, Mark; Spence, Brian; Jones, P. Alan

    2003-01-01

    Advanced solar array technology is expected to be critical in achieving the mission goals on many future NASA space flight programs. Current PV cell development programs offer significant potential and performance improvements. However, in order to achieve the performance improvements promised by these devices, new solar array structures must be designed and developed to accommodate these new PV cell technologies. This paper will address the use of advanced solar array technology in future NASA space missions and specifically look at how newer solar cell technologies impact solar array designs and overall power system performance.

  2. Generic procedure for designing and implementing plan management systems for space science missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaizy, P. A.; Dimbylow, T. G.; Allan, P. M.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper is one of the components of a larger framework of activities whose purpose is to improve the performance and productivity of space mission systems, i.e. to increase both what can be achieved and the cost effectiveness of this achievement. Some of these activities introduced the concept of Functional Architecture Module (FAM); FAMs are basic blocks used to build the functional architecture of Plan Management Systems (PMS). They also highlighted the need to involve Science Operations Planning Expertise (SOPE) during the Mission Design Phase (MDP) in order to design and implement efficiently operation planning systems. We define SOPE as the expertise held by people who have both theoretical and practical experience in operations planning, in general, and in space science operations planning in particular. Using ESA's methodology for studying and selecting science missions we also define the MDP as the combination of the Mission Assessment and Mission Definition Phases. However, there is no generic procedure on how to use FAMs efficiently and systematically, for each new mission, in order to analyse the cost and feasibility of new missions as well as to optimise the functional design of new PMS; the purpose of such a procedure is to build more rapidly and cheaply such PMS as well as to make the latter more reliable and cheaper to run. This is why the purpose of this paper is to provide an embryo of such a generic procedure and to show that the latter needs to be applied by people with SOPE during the MDP. The procedure described here proposes some initial guidelines to identify both the various possible high level functional scenarii, for a given set of possible requirements, and the information that needs to be associated with each scenario. It also introduces the concept of catalogue of generic functional scenarii of PMS for space science missions. The information associated with each catalogued scenarii will have been identified by the above procedure and

  3. Apollo Soyuz test project, USA-USSR. [mission plan of spacecraft docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The mission plan of the docking of a United States Apollo and a Soviet Union Soyuz spacecraft in Earth orbit to test compatible rendezvous and docking equipment and procedures is presented. Space experiments conducted jointly by the astronauts and cosmonauts during the joint phase of the mission as well as experiments performed solely by the U.S. astronauts and spread over the nine day span of the flight are included. Biographies of the astronauts and cosmonauts are given.

  4. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  5. Natural environment application for NASP-X-30 design and mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Brown, S. C.; Batts, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Mission Analysis Program has recently been utilized in various National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) mission and operational planning scenarios. This paper focuses on presenting various atmospheric constraint statistics based on assumed NASP mission phases using established natural environment design, parametric, threshold values. Probabilities of no-go are calculated using atmospheric parameters such as temperature, humidity, density altitude, peak/steady-state winds, cloud cover/ceiling, thunderstorms, and precipitation. The program although developed to evaluate test or operational missions after flight constraints have been established, can provide valuable information in the design phase of the NASP X-30 program. Inputting the design values as flight constraints the Mission Analysis Program returns the probability of no-go, or launch delay, by hour by month. This output tells the X-30 program manager whether the design values are stringent enough to meet his required test flight schedules.

  6. End-of-Mission Planning Challenges for a Satellite in a Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boain, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    At the end of a mission, satellites embedded in a constellation must first perform propulsive maneuvers to safely exit the constellation before they can begin with the usual end-of-mission activities: deorbit, passivation, and decommissioning. The target orbit for these exit maneuvers must be sufficiently below the remaining constellation satellites such that, once achieved, there is no longer risk of close conjunctions. Yet, the exit maneuvers must be done based on the spacecraft's state of health and operational capability when the decision to end the mission is made. This paper focuses on the recently developed exit strategy for the CloudSat mission to highlight problems and issues, which forced the discarding of CloudSat's original EoM Plan and its replacement with a new plan consistent with changes to the spacecraft's original operational mode. The analyses behind and decisions made in formulating this new exit strategy will be of interest to other missions in a constellation currently preparing to update their End-of-Mission Plan.

  7. A close-up of the sun. [solar probe mission planning conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Davies, R. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    NASA's long-range plan for the study of solar-terrestrial relations includes a Solar Probe Mission in which a spacecraft is put into an eccentric orbit with perihelion near 4 solar radii (0.02 AU). The scientific experiments which might be done with such a mission are discussed. Topics include the distribution of mass within the Sun, solar angular momentum, the fine structure of the solar surface and corona, the acceleration of the solar wind and energetic particles, and the evolution of interplanetary dust. The mission could also contribute to high-accuracy tests of general relativity and the search for cosmic gravitational radiation.

  8. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Garvin, James B.; Rice, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September, 2012. The LRO mission has been extended for two years under SMD. The extended mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution Of the Solar System. Here we will review the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for the extended science phase out to 2014. Results from the LRO mission include but are not limited to the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the day and night time temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs, evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon, and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions as the poles. The objectives for the second and extended science phases of the mission under SMD include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5

  9. Automated Planning and Scheduling for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Jonsson, Ari; Knight, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Research Trends: a) Finite-capacity scheduling under more complex constraints and increased problem dimensionality (subcontracting, overtime, lot splitting, inventory, etc.) b) Integrated planning and scheduling. c) Mixed-initiative frameworks. d) Management of uncertainty (proactive and reactive). e) Autonomous agent architectures and distributed production management. e) Integration of machine learning capabilities. f) Wider scope of applications: 1) analysis of supplier/buyer protocols & tradeoffs; 2) integration of strategic & tactical decision-making; and 3) enterprise integration.

  10. The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Abeelen, L.

    Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

  11. Formulation of consumables management models. Development approach for the mission planning processor working model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The mission planning processor is a user oriented tool for consumables management and is part of the total consumables subsystem management concept. The approach to be used in developing a working model of the mission planning processor is documented. The approach includes top-down design, structured programming techniques, and application of NASA approved software development standards. This development approach: (1) promotes cost effective software development, (2) enhances the quality and reliability of the working model, (3) encourages the sharing of the working model through a standard approach, and (4) promotes portability of the working model to other computer systems.

  12. The Planning and Execution of Surgical Hand Mission Trips in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Ajani G; Panthaki, Zubin; Thaller, Seth

    2015-06-01

    An important teaching tool and overall humanitarian good, medical mission trips are a common theme among health care professionals. These trips encompass large potential for education, global health progress, and cultural exposure, but the logistics of planning and execution are just as great and if not given serious consideration can limit success. This article sets out to explain the importance of planning and to provide specifics that are unique to surgical hand mission trips. Establishing trustworthy relationships, adapting to the host nation's limited resources, and preparing the proper surgical procedures for the particular areas' most common surgical needs are all discussed in this article.

  13. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 4: Project planning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Planning data are presented for the development phases of interim upper stage (IUS) and tug systems. Major project planning requirements, major event schedules, milestones, system development and operations process networks, and relevant support research and technology requirements are included. Topics discussed include: IUS flight software; tug flight software; IUS/tug ground control center facilities, personnel, data systems, software, and equipment; IUS mission events; tug mission events; tug/spacecraft rendezvous and docking; tug/orbiter operations interface, and IUS/orbiter operations interface.

  14. The Operational plans for Ptolemy during the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Andrew; Andrews, Dan; Barber, Simeon; Sheridan, Simon; Morgan, Geraint; Wright, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Ptolemy is a Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio - Mass Spectrometer (GC-IR-MS) instrument within the Philae Lander, part of ESA's Rosetta mission [1]. The primary aim of Ptolemy is to analyse the chemical and isotopic composition of solid comet samples. Samples are collected by the Sampler, Drill and Distribution (SD2) system [2] and placed into ovens for analysis by three instruments on the Lander: COSAC [3], ÇIVA[4] and/or Ptolemy. In the case of Ptolemy, the ovens can be heated with or without oxygen and the evolved gases separated by chemical and GC techniques for isotopic analysis. In addition Ptolemy can measure gaseous (i.e. coma) samples by either directly measuring the ambient environment within the mass spectrometer or by passively trapping onto an adsorbent phase in order to pre-concentrate coma species before desorbing into the mass spectrometer. At the time of this presentation the Rosetta spacecraft should have come out of hibernation and Ptolemy's Post Hibernation Commissioning phase will have been completed. During the Comet Approach phase of the mission Ptolemy will attempt to measure the coma composition both in sniffing and pre-concentration modes. Previous work has demonstrated that spacecraft outgassing is a significant component of the gaseous environment and highlighted the advantage of obtaining complementary measurements with different instruments [5]. In principle Ptolemy could study the spatial evolution of gases through the coma during the lander's descent to the comet surface, but in practice it is likely that mission resources will need to be fully directed towards ensuring a safe landing. Once on the surface of the comet the lander begins its First Science Sequence which continues until the primary batteries are exhausted after some 42 hours. SD2 will collect a sample from a depth of ~5cm and deliver it to a Ptolemy high temperature oven which will then be analysed in five temperature steps to determine the carbon isotopic

  15. Development of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems for NASA's Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A. K.

    2005-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of NASA's current efforts on development of advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) for future science missions. The current efforts include development of flight qualified Multimission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) systems with nominal 100 watts power level and capability to operate in both deep space and planetary environments. In addition, advanced technology development efforts are being conducted to increase the specific power of both RTG and SRG systems to enable future science missions. The efforts also include new technologies that have the potential to provide significant increases in specific power of RPS system. A notional RPS technology development roadmap will be presented and various potential mission opportunities identified.

  16. Advanced Exploration Technologies: Micro and Nano Technologies Enabling Space Missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Some of the many new and advanced exploration technologies which will enable space missions in the 21st century and specifically the Manned Mars Mission are explored in this presentation. Some of these are the system on a chip, the Computed-Tomography imaging Spectrometer, the digital camera on a chip, and other Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology for space. Some of these MEMS are the silicon micromachined microgyroscope, a subliming solid micro-thruster, a micro-ion thruster, a silicon seismometer, a dewpoint microhygrometer, a micro laser doppler anemometer, and tunable diode laser (TDL) sensors. The advanced technology insertion is critical for NASA to decrease mass, volume, power and mission costs, and increase functionality, science potential and robustness.

  17. The Evolvable Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS): Making Systems Interoperable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Maldague, Pierre F.; Bui, Tung; Lam, Doris T.; McKinney, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) provides a common Mission Operation System (MOS) infrastructure to NASA deep space missions. The evolution of AMMOS has been driven by two factors: increasingly challenging requirements from space missions, and the emergence of new IT technology. The work described in this paper focuses on three key tasks related to IT technology requirements: first, to eliminate duplicate functionality; second, to promote the use of loosely coupled application programming interfaces, text based file interfaces, web-based frameworks and integrated Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to connect users, data, and core functionality; and third, to build, develop, and deploy AMMOS services that are reusable, agile, adaptive to project MOS configurations, and responsive to industrially endorsed information technology standards.

  18. Advanced Test Reactor Capabilities and Future Irradiation Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the most versatile operating research reactors in the Untied States. The ATR has a long history of supporting reactor fuel and material research for the US government and other test sponsors. The INL is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and currently operated by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The ATR is the third generation of test reactors built at the Test Reactor Area, now named the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC), whose mission is to study the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The current experiments in the ATR are for a variety of customers--US DOE, foreign governments and private researchers, and commercial companies that need neutrons. The ATR has several unique features that enable the reactor to perform diverse simultaneous tests for multiple test sponsors. The ATR has been operating since 1967, and is expected to continue operating for several more decades. The remainder of this paper discusses the ATR design features, testing options, previous experiment programs, future plans for the ATR capabilities and experiments, and some introduction to the INL and DOE's expectations for nuclear research in the future.

  19. Advanced missions safety. Volume 2: Technical discussion, Part 2: Experiment safety, guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, M. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technical analysis of a portion of the advanced missions safety study is presented. The potential hazards introduced when experimental equipment is carried aboard the Earth Orbit Shuttle are identified. Safety guidelines and requirements for eliminating or reducing these hazards are recommended.

  20. Advances in Laser/Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

  1. Precious bits: frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates are high, bit rates are low, and every bit is precious. Frame synchronization and data extraction as performed by AMMOS enhanced data acquisition and reliability for maximum data return and validity.

  2. Planning For Multiple NASA Missions With Use Of Enabling Radioisotope Power

    SciTech Connect

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2013-02-01

    Since the early 1960’s the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have provided radioisotope power systems (RPS) to NASA as an enabling technology for deep space and various planetary missions. They provide reliable power in situations where solar and/or battery power sources are either untenable or would place an undue mass burden on the mission. In the modern era of the past twenty years there has been no time that multiple missions have been considered for launching from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the same year. The closest proximity of missions that involved radioisotope power systems would be that of Galileo (October 1989) and Ulysses (October 1990). The closest that involved radioisotope heater units would be the small rovers Spirit and Opportunity (May and July 2003) used in the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission. It can be argued that the rovers sent to Mars in 2003 were essentially a special case since they staged in the same facility and used a pair of small launch vehicles (Delta II). This paper examines constraints on the frequency of use of radioisotope power systems with regard to launching them from Kennedy Space Center using currently available launch vehicles. This knowledge may be useful as NASA plans for its future deep space or planetary missions where radioisotope power systems are used as an enabling technology. Previous descriptions have focused on single mission chronologies and not analyzed the timelines with an emphasis on multiple missions.

  3. Apollo experience report: Mission planning for lunar module descent and ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, F. V.

    1972-01-01

    The premission planning, the real-time situation, and the postflight analysis for the Apollo 11 lunar descent and ascent are described. A comparison between premission planning and actual results is included. A navigation correction capability, developed from Apollo 11 postflight analysis was used successfully on Apollo 12 to provide the first pinpoint landing. An experience summary, which illustrates typical problems encountered by the mission planners, is also included.

  4. Adversaries at the Bedside: Advance Care Plans and Future Welfare.

    PubMed

    Kestigian, Aidan; London, Alex John

    2016-10-01

    Advance care planning refers to the process of determining how one wants to be cared for in the event that one is no longer competent to make one's own medical decisions. Some have argued that advance care plans often fail to be normatively binding on caretakers because those plans do not reflect the interests of patients once they enter an incompetent state. In this article, we argue that when the core medical ethical principles of respect for patient autonomy, honest and adequate disclosure of information, institutional transparency, and concern for patient welfare are upheld, a policy that would allow for the disregard of advance care plans is self-defeating. This is because when the four principles are upheld, a patient's willingness to undergo treatment depends critically on the willingness of her caretakers to honor the wishes she has outlined in her advance care plan. A patient who fears that her caretakers will not honor her wishes may choose to avoid medical care so as to limit the influence of her caretakers in the future, which may lead to worse medical outcomes than if she had undergone care. In order to avoid worse medical outcomes and uphold the four core principles, caregivers who are concerned about the future welfare of their patients should focus on improving advance care planning and commit to honoring their patients' advance care plans. PMID:27212709

  5. Adversaries at the Bedside: Advance Care Plans and Future Welfare.

    PubMed

    Kestigian, Aidan; London, Alex John

    2016-10-01

    Advance care planning refers to the process of determining how one wants to be cared for in the event that one is no longer competent to make one's own medical decisions. Some have argued that advance care plans often fail to be normatively binding on caretakers because those plans do not reflect the interests of patients once they enter an incompetent state. In this article, we argue that when the core medical ethical principles of respect for patient autonomy, honest and adequate disclosure of information, institutional transparency, and concern for patient welfare are upheld, a policy that would allow for the disregard of advance care plans is self-defeating. This is because when the four principles are upheld, a patient's willingness to undergo treatment depends critically on the willingness of her caretakers to honor the wishes she has outlined in her advance care plan. A patient who fears that her caretakers will not honor her wishes may choose to avoid medical care so as to limit the influence of her caretakers in the future, which may lead to worse medical outcomes than if she had undergone care. In order to avoid worse medical outcomes and uphold the four core principles, caregivers who are concerned about the future welfare of their patients should focus on improving advance care planning and commit to honoring their patients' advance care plans.

  6. Advance Care Planning in Nursing Homes: Correlates of Capacity and Possession of Advance Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rebecca S.; DeLaine, Shermetra R.; Chaplin, William F.; Marson, Daniel C.; Bourgeois, Michelle S.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Burgio, Louis D.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The identification of nursing home residents who can continue to participate in advance care planning about end-of-life care is a critical clinical and bioethical issue. This study uses high quality observational research to identify correlates of advance care planning in nursing homes, including objective measurement of capacity. Design…

  7. Plan of advanced satellite communication experiments using ETS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, Tetsushi

    1989-01-01

    In 1992, an Engineering Test Satellite 6 is scheduled to be launched by an H-2 rocket. The missions of ETS-6 are to establish basic technologies of inter-satellite communications using S-band, millimeter waves and optical beams and of fixed and mobile satellite communications using multibeam antenna on board the satellite. A plan of the experiments is introduced.

  8. The Mars Microprobe Mission: Advanced Micro-Avionics for Exploration Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, Randel

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Microprobe Mission is the second spacecraft developed as part of the New Millennium Program deep space missions. The objective of the Microprobe Project is to demonstrate the applicability of key technologies for future planetary missions by developing two probes for deployment on Mars. The probes are designed with a single stage entry, descent, and landing system and impact the Martian surface at speeds of approximately 200 meters per second. The microprobes are composed of two main sections, a forebody section that penetrates to a depth below the Martian surface of 0.5 to 2 meters, and an aftbody section that remains on the surface. Each probe system consists of a number of advanced technology components developed specifically for this mission. These include a non-erosive aeroshell for entry into. the atmosphere, a set of low temperature batteries to supply probe power, an advanced microcontroller to execute the mission sequence, collect the science data, and react to possible system fault conditions, a telecommunications subsystem implemented on a set of custom integrated circuits, and instruments designed to provide science measurements from above and below the Martian surface. All of the electronic components have been designed and fabricated to withstand the severe impact shock environment and to operate correctly at predicted temperatures below -100 C.

  9. Advanced Education Business Plan 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In collaboration with learning providers, the advanced education system, industry, communities, government agencies and non-governmental organizations, Advanced Education strives to create accessible, affordable and quality learning opportunities that are responsive to the ongoing learning needs of Albertans. The Ministry's 2005-08 Business Plan…

  10. Development Roadmap of an Evolvable and Extensible Multi-Mission Telecom Planning and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Tung, Ramona H.; Lee, Charles H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development roadmap and discuss the various challenges of an evolvable and extensible multi-mission telecom planning and analysis framework. Our long-term goal is to develop a set of powerful flexible telecommunications analysis tools that can be easily adapted to different missions while maintain the common Deep Space Communication requirements. The ability of re-using the DSN ground models and the common software utilities in our adaptations has contributed significantly to our development efforts measured in terms of consistency, accuracy, and minimal effort redundancy, which can translate into shorter development time and major cost savings for the individual missions. In our roadmap, we will address the design principles, technical achievements and the associated challenges for following telecom analysis tools (i) Telecom Forecaster Predictor - TFP (ii) Unified Telecom Predictor - UTP (iii) Generalized Telecom Predictor - GTP (iv) Generic TFP (v) Web-based TFP (vi) Application Program Interface - API (vii) Mars Relay Network Planning Tool - MRNPT.

  11. Skirting Saturn's Rings and Skimming Its Cloud Tops: Planning Cassini's End of Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily; Magee, Kari; Brooks, Shawn; Edgington, Scott; Heventhal, William; Sturm, Erick

    2014-01-01

    In October 2010, the Cassini spacecraft embarked on the seven-year Solstice Mission. The mission will culminate with a spectacular series of orbits that bring Cassini between Saturn's innermost ring, the D ring, and the cloud tops of the planet. The spacecraft will make its closest passages ever to the planet allowing for unprecedented science to be collected on Saturn and its rings. These final orbits will expose the spacecraft to new environments, which presents a number of challenges to planning the final mission phase. While these challenges will require adaptations to planning processes and operations, they are not insurmountable. This paper describes the challenges identified and the steps taken to mitigate them to enable collection of unique Saturn system science.

  12. Expert mission planning and replanning scheduling system for NASA KSC payload operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Roger

    1987-01-01

    EMPRESS (Expert Mission Planning and REplanning Scheduling System) is an expert system created to assist payload mission planners at Kennedy in the long range planning and scheduling of horizontal payloads for space shuttle flights. Using the current flight manifest, these planners develop mission and payload schedules detailing all processing to be performed in the Operations and Checkout building at Kennedy. With the EMPRESS system, schedules are generated quickly using standard flows that represent the tasks and resources required to process a specific horizontal carrier. Resources can be tracked and resource conflicts can be determined and resolved interactively. Constraint relationships between tasks are maintained and can be enforced when a task is moved or rescheduled. The domain, structure, and functionality of the EMPRESS system is briefly designed. The limitations of the EMPRESS system are described as well as improvements expected with the EMPRESS-2 development.

  13. STS-52 Mission Specialist (MS) Jernigan during food planning session at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist (MS) Tamara E. Jernigan sips a beverage from a plastic container using a straw. She appears to be pondering what beverages she would like to have on her 10-day flight this coming autumn. Other crewmembers joined Jernigan for this food planning session conducted by JSC's Man-Systems Division.

  14. Interlacing Mission, Strategic Planning, and Vision to Lean: Powerful DNA for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Alison; Flumerfelt, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The authors' purpose for this article is to describe a K-12 public school district's journey to internalize and actualize its mission, strategic planning and vision as one coherent engagement using Lean principles and tools. Lean jointly comprises an organizational philosophy and management toolkit prominent in private, government, and nonprofit…

  15. Use of hardware-in-the-loop simulation for spacecraft mission preparation, planning and support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slafer, Loren I.

    1993-02-01

    For spacecraft which involve complex attitude or payload control subsystems, and in addition, complex mission operations, a hardware-in-the loop (HIL) simulation environment is shown to be an essential and cost effective technique for developing and validating mission software, procedures and operations, and is an essential tool for on-orbit problem diagnosis. This paper presents a case history of the application of HIL simulation to the mission development of the new Hughes HS601 family of body-stabilized geosynchronous communications satellites. By integrating the HIL simulation used in the development, qualification and acceptance testing of the attitude control subsystem, with a realtime, digital simulation of the remaining non-ACS spacecraft subsystems (power, thermal, propulsion, telemetry and command, and payload), a comprehensive, high fidelity spacecraft simulator was developed which incorporated critical flight attitude control electronics hardware and software. The simulator system architecture is reviewed, describing applications of this system to ground station software development and its use for validation and mission operations procedure development and evaluation are discussed. The use of the simulator for real-time mission rehearsals, with the simulator linked to the actual mission ground station is described. Planned use of the system for mission support and on-orbit anomaly investigations is reviewed.

  16. Impact risk assessment and planetary defense mission planning for asteroid 2015 PDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardaxis, George; Sherman, Peter; Wie, Bong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integrated utilization of analytic keyhole theory, B-plane mapping, and planetary encounter geometry, augmented by direct numerical simulation, is shown to be useful in determining the impact risk of an asteroid with the Earth on a given encounter, as well on potential future encounters via keyhole passages. The accurate estimation of the impact probability of hazardous asteroids is extremely important for planetary defense mission planning. Asteroids in Earth resonant orbits are particularly troublesome because of the continuous threat they pose in the future. Based on the trajectories of the asteroid and the Earth, feasible mission trajectories can be found to mitigate the impact threat of hazardous asteroids. In order to try to ensure mission success, trajectories are judged based on initial and final mission design parameters that would make the mission easier to complete. Given the potential of a short-warning time scenario, a disruption mission considered in this paper occurs approximately one year prior to the anticipated impact date. Expanding upon the established theory, a computational method is developed to estimate the impact probability of the hazardous asteroid, in order to assess the likelihood of an event, and then investigate the fragmentation of the asteroid due to a disruption mission and analyze its effects on the current and future encounters of the fragments with Earth. A fictional asteroid, designated as 2015 PDC - created as an example asteroid risk exercise for the 2015 Planetary Defence Conference, is used as a reference target asteroid to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of computational tools being developed for impact risk assessment and planetary defense mission planning for a hazardous asteroid or comet.

  17. Advanced X-Ray Timing Array Mission: Conceptual Spacecraft Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Johnson, L.; Thomas, H. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Baysinger, M.; Maples, C. D.; Fabisinski, L.L.; Hornsby, L.; Thompson, K. S.; Miernik, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for submillisecond timing of bright galactic x-ray sources. The two science instruments are the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) (a collimated instrument with 2-50-keV coverage and over 3 square meters of effective area) and a Sky Monitor (SM), which acts as a trigger for pointed observations of x-ray transients. The spacecraft conceptual design team developed two spacecraft concepts that will enable the AXTAR mission: A minimal configuration to be launched on a Taurus II and a larger configuration to be launched on a Falcon 9 or similar vehicle.

  18. Legal Briefing: Medicare Coverage of Advance Care Planning.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2015-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers the recent decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to expand Medicare coverage of advance care planning, beginning 1 January 2016. Since 2009, most "Legal Briefings" in this journal have covered a wide gamut of judicial, legislative, and regulatory developments concerning a particular topic in clinical ethics. In contrast, this "Legal Briefing" is more narrowly focused on one single legal development. This concentration on Medicare coverage of advance care planning seems warranted. Advance care planning is a frequent subject of articles in JCE. After all, it has long been seen as an important, albeit only partial, solution to a significant range of big problems in clinical ethics. These problems range from medical futility disputes to decision making for incapacitated patients who have no available legally authorized surrogate. Consequently, expanded Medicare coverage of advance care planning is a potentially seismic development. It may materially reduce both the frequency and severity of key problems in clinical ethics. Since the sociological, medical, and ethical literature on advance care planning is voluminous, I will not even summarize it here. Instead, I focus on Medicare coverage. I proceed, chronologically, in six stages: 1. Prior Medicare Coverage of Advance Care Planning 2. Proposed Expanded Medicare Coverage in 2015 3. Proposed Expanded Medicare Coverage in 2016 4. The Final Rule Expanding Medicare Coverage in 2016 5. Remaining Issues for CMS to Address in 2017 6. Pending Federal Legislation.

  19. Legal Briefing: Medicare Coverage of Advance Care Planning.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2015-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers the recent decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to expand Medicare coverage of advance care planning, beginning 1 January 2016. Since 2009, most "Legal Briefings" in this journal have covered a wide gamut of judicial, legislative, and regulatory developments concerning a particular topic in clinical ethics. In contrast, this "Legal Briefing" is more narrowly focused on one single legal development. This concentration on Medicare coverage of advance care planning seems warranted. Advance care planning is a frequent subject of articles in JCE. After all, it has long been seen as an important, albeit only partial, solution to a significant range of big problems in clinical ethics. These problems range from medical futility disputes to decision making for incapacitated patients who have no available legally authorized surrogate. Consequently, expanded Medicare coverage of advance care planning is a potentially seismic development. It may materially reduce both the frequency and severity of key problems in clinical ethics. Since the sociological, medical, and ethical literature on advance care planning is voluminous, I will not even summarize it here. Instead, I focus on Medicare coverage. I proceed, chronologically, in six stages: 1. Prior Medicare Coverage of Advance Care Planning 2. Proposed Expanded Medicare Coverage in 2015 3. Proposed Expanded Medicare Coverage in 2016 4. The Final Rule Expanding Medicare Coverage in 2016 5. Remaining Issues for CMS to Address in 2017 6. Pending Federal Legislation. PMID:26752396

  20. Promoting perioperative advance care planning: a systematic review of advance care planning decision aids.

    PubMed

    Aslakson, Rebecca A; Schuster, Anne L R; Reardon, Jessica; Lynch, Thomas; Suarez-Cuervo, Catalina; Miller, Judith A; Moldovan, Rita; Johnston, Fabian; Anton, Blair; Weiss, Matthew; Bridges, John F P

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review identifies possible decision aids that promote perioperative advance care planning (ACP) and synthesizes the available evidence regarding their use. Using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, SCOPUS, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Sociological Abstracts, researchers identified and screened articles for eligibility. Data were abstracted and risk of bias assessed for included articles. Thirty-nine of 5327 articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. Primarily completed in outpatient ambulatory populations, studies evaluated a variety of ACP decision aids. None were evaluated in a perioperative population. Fifty unique outcomes were reported with no head-to-head comparisons conducted. Findings are likely generalizable to a perioperative population and can inform development of a perioperative ACP decision aid. Future studies should compare the effectiveness of ACP decision aids.

  1. Advance Care Planning for Serious Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... conversations Caring Connections National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Links to every state’s advance care directive forms http: / / www. caringinfo. org/ i4a/ pages/ index. cfm? ...

  2. Advancing the state of the art in healthcare strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2006-01-01

    A recent survey of the state of strategic planning among healthcare organizations indicates that planners and executives believe that healthcare strategic planning practices are effective and provide the appropriate focus and direction for their organizations. When compared to strategic planning practices employed outside of the healthcare field, however, most healthcare strategic planning processes have not evolved to the more advanced, state-of-the-art levels of planning being used successfully outside of healthcare. While organizations that operate in stable markets may be able to survive using basic strategic planning practices, the volatile healthcare market demands that providers be nimble competitors with advanced, ongoing planning processes that drive growth and organizational effectiveness. What should healthcare organizations do to increase the rigor and sophistication of their strategic planning practices? This article identifies ten current healthcare strategic planning best practices and recommends five additional innovative approaches from pathbreaking companies outside of healthcare that have used advanced strategic planning practices to attain high levels of organizational success.

  3. The New Millennium Program: Validating Advanced Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, Charles P.; Luers, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities of the New Millennium Program (NMP) in validating advanced technologies for space missions. The focus of these breakthrough technologies are to enable new capabilities to fulfill the science needs, while reducing costs of future missions. There is a broad spectrum of NMP partners, including government agencies, universities and private industry. The DS-1 was launched on October 24, 1998. Amongst the technologies validated by the NMP on DS-1 are: a Low Power Electronics Experiment, the Power Activation and Switching Module, Multi-Functional Structures. The first two of these technologies are operational and the data analysis is still ongoing. The third program is also operational, and its performance parameters have been verified. The second program, DS-2, was launched January 3 1999. It is expected to impact near Mars southern polar region on 3 December 1999. The technologies used on this mission awaiting validation are an advanced microcontroller, a power microelectronics unit, an evolved water experiment and soil thermal conductivity experiment, Lithium-Thionyl Chloride batteries, the flexible cable interconnect, aeroshell/entry system, and a compact telecom system. EO-1 on schedule for launch in December 1999 carries several technologies to be validated. Amongst these are: a Carbon-Carbon Radiator, an X-band Phased Array Antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a wideband advanced recorder processor, an atmospheric corrector, lightweight flexible solar arrays, Advanced Land Imager and the Hyperion instrument

  4. Formulation of consumables management models: Mission planning processor payload interface definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torian, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Consumables models required for the mission planning and scheduling function are formulated. The relation of the models to prelaunch, onboard, ground support, and postmission functions for the space transportation systems is established. Analytical models consisting of an orbiter planning processor with consumables data base is developed. A method of recognizing potential constraint violations in both the planning and flight operations functions, and a flight data file storage/retrieval of information over an extended period which interfaces with a flight operations processor for monitoring of the actual flights is presented.

  5. International solar-terrestrial physics program: A plan for the core spaceflight missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This brochure has been prepared by NASA on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) (ISAS), and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to describe the scope of the science problems to be investigated and the mission plan for the core International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. This information is intended to stimulate discussions and plans for the comprehensive worldwide ISTP Program. The plan for the study of the solar - terrestrial system is included. The Sun, geospace, and Sun-Earth interaction is discussed as is solar dynamics and the origins of solar winds.

  6. Search Problems in Mission Planning and Navigation of Autonomous Aircraft. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krozel, James A.

    1988-01-01

    An architecture for the control of an autonomous aircraft is presented. The architecture is a hierarchical system representing an anthropomorphic breakdown of the control problem into planner, navigator, and pilot systems. The planner system determines high level global plans from overall mission objectives. This abstract mission planning is investigated by focusing on the Traveling Salesman Problem with variations on local and global constraints. Tree search techniques are applied including the breadth first, depth first, and best first algorithms. The minimum-column and row entries for the Traveling Salesman Problem cost matrix provides a powerful heuristic to guide these search techniques. Mission planning subgoals are directed from the planner to the navigator for planning routes in mountainous terrain with threats. Terrain/threat information is abstracted into a graph of possible paths for which graph searches are performed. It is shown that paths can be well represented by a search graph based on the Voronoi diagram of points representing the vertices of mountain boundaries. A comparison of Dijkstra's dynamic programming algorithm and the A* graph search algorithm from artificial intelligence/operations research is performed for several navigation path planning examples. These examples illustrate paths that minimize a combination of distance and exposure to threats. Finally, the pilot system synthesizes the flight trajectory by creating the control commands to fly the aircraft.

  7. Revised Faculty Compensation, Evaluation, and Advancement Plan. March, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joe

    This report provides the revised faculty compensation, evaluation, and advancement plan for Pueblo Community College (PCC) in Colorado. Section 1 contains the PCC three-level salary plan and discusses guidelines for initial appointment and level placement of faculty, initial salary computations, and minimum initial employment requirements. Section…

  8. Mission science value-cost savings from the Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    An Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS) was proposed in the mid-1970s as an alternative to the Voyager data/communication system architecture. The AICS achieved virtually error free communication with little loss in the downlink data rate by concatenating a powerful Reed-Solomon block code with the Voyager convolutionally coded, Viterbi decoded downlink channel. The clean channel allowed AICS sophisticated adaptive data compression techniques. Both Voyager and the Galileo mission have implemented AICS components, and the concatenated channel itself is heading for international standardization. An analysis that assigns a dollar value/cost savings to AICS mission performance gains is presented. A conservative value or savings of $3 million for Voyager, $4.5 million for Galileo, and as much as $7 to 9.5 million per mission for future projects such as the proposed Mariner Mar 2 series is shown.

  9. An independent assessment of the technical feasibility of the Mars One mission plan - Updated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Sydney; Owens, Andrew; Ho, Koki; Schreiner, Samuel; de Weck, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the Mars One program has gained significant publicity for its plans to colonize the red planet. Beginning in 2025, the program plans to land four people on Mars every 26 months via a series of one-way missions, using exclusively existing technology. This one-way approach has frequently been cited as a key enabler of accelerating the first crewed landing on Mars. While the Mars One program has received considerable attention, little has been published in the technical literature regarding the formulation of its mission architecture. In light of this, we perform an independent analysis of the technical feasibility of the Mars One mission plan, focusing on the architecture of the life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) systems, and their impact on sparing and space logistics. To perform this analysis, we adopt an iterative analysis approach in which we model and simulate the mission architecture, assess its feasibility, implement any applicable modifications while attempting to remain within the constraints set forth by Mars One, and then resimulate and reanalyze the revised version of the mission architecture. Where required information regarding the Mars One mission architecture is not available, we assume numerical values derived from standard spaceflight design handbooks and documents. Through four iterations of this process, our analysis finds that the Mars One mission plan, as publicly described, is not feasible. This conclusion is obtained from analyses based on mission assumptions derived from and constrained by statements made by Mars One, and is the result of the following findings: (1) several technologies including ISRU, life support, and entry, descent, and landing (EDL) are not currently "existing, validated and available" as claimed by Mars One; (2) the crop growth area described by Mars One is insufficient to feed their crew; (3) increasing the crop growth area to provide sufficient food for the crew leads to atmospheric

  10. A Conceptual Titan Orbiter with Probe Mission Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Shirley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    With the remarkable success of the Cassini-Huygens mission, considerable new knowledge has been obtained regarding the surface topography, composition and atmospheric characteristics of Titan. However, Cassini-Huygens represents only a bold beginning for the exploration of Titan, as high resolution mapping will have been performed for only a small fraction of the surface of Titan by the end of the nominal mission. Large gaps in knowledge will remain in key scientific areas including global surface topography, atmospheric and surface composition, precipitation rates, and the density, thickness, and formation processes of clouds. This study details a conceptual follow-on Titan orbiter mission that would provide full global topographic coverage, surface imaging, and meteorological characterization of the atmosphere over a nominal 2-year science mission duration. The reference power requirement is ~1 kWe at EOM and is driven by a high power radar instrument that would provide 3-dimensional measurements of atmospheric clouds, precipitation, and surface topography. While this power level is moderately higher than that of the Cassini spacecraft, higher efficiency advanced RPSs could potentially reduce the plutonium usage to less than 1/3 of that used on the Cassini spacecraft. The Titan Orbiter mission is assumed to launch in 2015. It would utilize advanced RPSs to provide all on-board power, and would employ an aeroshell to aerocapture into Titan orbit. A conceptual advanced Stirling RPS was selected due to its high specific power and conversion efficiency which enabled the ability to include a 500 kg ``black box'' deployed entry probe.

  11. Planned Data Products and Science Processing Paradigm for the Proposed NASA-ISRO SAR Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The proposed NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or NISAR, Mission will make global integrated measurements of the causes and consequences of land surface changes. NISAR would provide a means of disentangling highly spatial and temporally complex processes ranging from ecosystem disturbances, to ice sheet collapse and natural hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides. The mission would capable of performing repeat-pass interferometry and collecting polarimetric data. The core of the payload would consist of an L-band SAR to meet all of the NASA science requirements. A secondary S-band SAR would be contributed by ISRO, the Indian Space Research Organisation. The instrument would comprise a large diameter deployable reflector and a dual frequency antenna feed and associated electronics to implement the fine-resolution, polarimetric, 240-km swath imaging system. Combined with an ambitious data acquisition plan that supports continuous mapping of Earth's land and ice-covered surfaces at every opportunity over the life of the mission, the mission would generate over 1 Petabyte of raw data each year, which expands to greater data volumes for higher level products. Since many of the science requirements propose time-series analysis, which often involve combinatorial manipulation of images acquired over time, it would be impractical and inadvisable to create global time-series science products. As a result, the processing plan for the mission would be for the project to create a complete set of products through Level 2, and only selected Level 3 products over extended areas of calibration and validation. These sites would be chosen to be scientifically interesting, so that the mission products would include significant scientific results. In addition, the project will develop higher-level processing software to the community that will allow scientists to apply the mission data from Level 0 to 2 to their science problems.

  12. Plan for an Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.; Parks, W.P.

    1993-03-01

    A draft version of this paper was presented at the Clemson Clean, affordable, and reliable natural gas utilization technologies will play a growing role in meeting future power generation needs in the United States. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Energy Strategy projected that total demand for natural gas will rise from 18.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 1990 to 24.2 tcf by the year 2000. Much of this increase is attributed to the increased use of natural gas as a fuel for electric power generation. Candidate technologies for gas fired power generation include gas turbine and fuel cell systems. The first workshop on research needs for advanced gas turbine systems for power generation was held on April 8-10, 1991 in Greenville, South Carolina. The goals of the Clemson-I Workshop were to identify research needs which would accelerate the development of advanced gas turbines and to consider new approaches to implement this research. The Clemson-I Workshop focused on advanced gas turbine systems which would have a lower cost of electricity or better environmental performance than systems currently under development. The workshop was cosponsored by the DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Clemson University, and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center. The proceedings from the workshop have been published. The 75 participants in the Clemson-I Workshop represented a broad spectrum of the gas turbine Research & Development (R&D) community as well as potential users of advanced gas turbines. Gas turbine manufacturers, the electric utility industry, the university community, as well as government and private sector R&D sponsors were represented. Participants in the Clemson-I Workshop concluded that it is technically feasible to develop advanced turbine systems and that Government participation would accelerate the developmental effort. Advanced turbine systems could be operated on natural gas or adapted to coal or biomass firing.

  13. Plan for an Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A. ); Parks, W.P. )

    1993-01-01

    A draft version of this paper was presented at the Clemson Clean, affordable, and reliable natural gas utilization technologies will play a growing role in meeting future power generation needs in the United States. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Strategy projected that total demand for natural gas will rise from 18.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 1990 to 24.2 tcf by the year 2000. Much of this increase is attributed to the increased use of natural gas as a fuel for electric power generation. Candidate technologies for gas fired power generation include gas turbine and fuel cell systems. The first workshop on research needs for advanced gas turbine systems for power generation was held on April 8-10, 1991 in Greenville, South Carolina. The goals of the Clemson-I Workshop were to identify research needs which would accelerate the development of advanced gas turbines and to consider new approaches to implement this research. The Clemson-I Workshop focused on advanced gas turbine systems which would have a lower cost of electricity or better environmental performance than systems currently under development. The workshop was cosponsored by the DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Clemson University, and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center. The proceedings from the workshop have been published. The 75 participants in the Clemson-I Workshop represented a broad spectrum of the gas turbine Research Development (R D) community as well as potential users of advanced gas turbines. Gas turbine manufacturers, the electric utility industry, the university community, as well as government and private sector R D sponsors were represented. Participants in the Clemson-I Workshop concluded that it is technically feasible to develop advanced turbine systems and that Government participation would accelerate the developmental effort. Advanced turbine systems could be operated on natural gas or adapted to coal or biomass firing.

  14. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  15. Science opportunity analyzer - a multi-mission approach to science planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, B. A.; Polanskey, C. A.; O'Reilly, T.; Colwell, J.

    2003-01-01

    In the past Science Planning for space missions has been comprised of using ad-hoc software toolscollected or reconstructed from previous missions, tools used by other groups who often speak a different 'technical' language or even 'the backs of envelopes'. In addition to the tools being rough, the work done with these tools often has had to be redone or at least re-entered when it came time to determine actual observations. Science Opportunity Analyzer (SOA), a Java-based application, has been built for scientists to enable them to identify/analyze observation opportunities and then, to create corresponding observation designs.

  16. NASA activities and plans. [on satellite tracking, data acquisition, communication and mission control systems and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smylie, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is provided of the NASA tracking, data acquisition, communications, and mission control systems and capabilities. These systems include the NASA Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) which supports earth-orbital spacecraft, the Deep Space Network (DSN) which supports the planetary exploration and deep space missions, and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) currently under development and scheduled to come into service in 1983. TDRSS will then displace STDN for support of low earth orbital spacecraft. A description is presented of the current status of the considered systems, and plans are discussed for future developments and new capabilities.

  17. The Evolution of Health Care Advance Planning Law and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Charles P

    2010-01-01

    Context: The legal tools of health care advance planning have substantially changed since their emergence in the mid-1970s. Thirty years of policy development, primarily at the state legislative level addressing surrogate decision making and advance directives, have resulted in a disjointed policy landscape, yet with important points of convergence evolving over time. An understanding of the evolution of advance care planning policy has important implications for policy at both the state and federal levels. Methods: This article is a longitudinal statutory and literature review of health care advance planning from its origins to the present. Findings: While considerable variability across the states still remains, changes in law and policy over time suggest a gradual paradigm shift from what is described as a “legal transactional approach” to a “communications approach,” the most recent extension of which is the emergence of Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment, or POLST. The communications approach helps translate patients’ goals into visible and portable medical orders. Conclusions: States are likely to continue gradually moving away from a legal transactional mode of advance planning toward a communications model, albeit with challenges to authentic and reliable communication that accurately translates patients’ wishes into the care they receive. In the meantime, the states and their health care institutions will continue to serve as the primary laboratory for advance care planning policy and practice. PMID:20579283

  18. Ethics and advance care planning in a culturally diverse society.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2009-10-01

    Emerging international research suggests that in multicultural countries, such as Australia and the United States, there are significant disparities in end-of-life care planning and decision making by people of minority ethnic backgrounds compared with members of mainstream English-speaking background populations. Despite a growing interest in the profound influence of culture and ethnicity on patient choices in end-of-life care, and the limited uptake of advance care plans and advance directives by ethnic minority groups in mainstream health care contexts, there has been curiously little attention given to cross-cultural considerations in advance care planning and end-of-life care. Also overlooked are the possible implications of cross-cultural considerations for nurses, policy makers, and others at the forefront of planning and providing end-of-life care to people of diverse cultural and language backgrounds. An important aim of this article is to redress this oversight.

  19. The Solar-B Mission: First Light, Future Plans and Community Participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.

    2006-01-01

    The Solar-B spacecraft was launched from the Uchinoura Space Center into a circular, sun-synchronous, polar orbit by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency in late September 2006. The spacecraft carries thee scientific instruments designed to follow the flow of magnetic energy from the photosphere to the corona to improve our understanding of both steady state and transient energy release. This goal will be achieved through coordinated observations of three highly advanced solar telescopes developed cooperatively by teams from Japan, the United States and the United Kingdom. The three telescopes are a 0.5m aperture, diffraction limited, solar optical telescope (SOT), an X-ray telescope (XRT) designed for full sun imaging with 1.0 arcsec pixels and an EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS) with an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over past instruments. The SOT focal plane contains three instruments, a spectropolarimeter for measuring vector magnetic fields, a broadband filter imager for recording images of the photosphere and chromosphere at the highest resolution the telescope is capable of, and a narrow band filter imager that will record Doppler grams and vector magnetograms. The XRT has broad temperature coverage and a spatial a resolution three times as high as Yohkoh. EIS covers a broad range of transition region and coronal temperatures in two spectral bands. Both XRT and EIS have 2 arcsec spatial resolution (1 arcsec pixels). Instrument first light occurred after five weeks on orbit to allow for out gassing and the opening of the telescopes doors. The initial observation sequences are designed to test the functionality of the different operating modes and for calibration. After this commissioning phase is complete a series of observations are planned to demonstrate the ability of the instruments to meet NASA's mission minimum success criteria. Data is downloaded every orbit to the Norwegian high latitude ground station at Svalbard. The data are

  20. SLS-PLAN-IT: A knowledge-based blackboard scheduling system for Spacelab life sciences missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Cheng-Yan; Lee, Seok-Hua

    1992-01-01

    The primary scheduling tool in use during the Spacelab Life Science (SLS-1) planning phase was the operations research (OR) based, tabular form Experiment Scheduling System (ESS) developed by NASA Marshall. PLAN-IT is an artificial intelligence based interactive graphic timeline editor for ESS developed by JPL. The PLAN-IT software was enhanced for use in the scheduling of Spacelab experiments to support the SLS missions. The enhanced software SLS-PLAN-IT System was used to support the real-time reactive scheduling task during the SLS-1 mission. SLS-PLAN-IT is a frame-based blackboard scheduling shell which, from scheduling input, creates resource-requiring event duration objects and resource-usage duration objects. The blackboard structure is to keep track of the effects of event duration objects on the resource usage objects. Various scheduling heuristics are coded in procedural form and can be invoked any time at the user's request. The system architecture is described along with what has been learned with the SLS-PLAN-IT project.

  1. Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment 7 (CanX-7) Mission Analysis, Payload Design and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmuel, Barbara

    A deorbiting drag device is being designed and built by the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies/Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS/SFL) to be demonstrated on the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment 7 (CanX-7) satellite. CanX-7 will address the growing issue of space debris by designing a drag sail device that will be demonstrated for cubesat-sized satellites. Mission analysis done to ensure the drag device functions properly and deorbits within the required lifetime is performed while varying different properties such as drag coefficient, effective drag area, and solar cycle variations. The design evolution of the device is documented and the chosen design, along with several stages of prototyping, is described. The individual components that make up the device are described as are preliminary numerical analyzes. Finally, the test plan required for the device is described with several deployment experiments and risk reduction tests documented.

  2. Center for Advanced Energy Studies Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik

    2005-09-01

    The world is facing critical energy-related challenges regarding world and national energy demands, advanced science and energy technology delivery, nuclear engineering educational shortfalls, and adequately trained technical staff. Resolution of these issues is important for the United States to ensure a secure and affordable energy supply, which is essential for maintaining U.S. national security, continued economic prosperity, and future sustainable development. One way that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing these challenges is by tasking the Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) with developing the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). By 2015, CAES will be a self-sustaining, world-class, academic and research institution where the INL; DOE; Idaho, regional, and other national universities; and the international community will cooperate to conduct critical energy-related research, classroom instruction, technical training, policy conceptualization, public dialogue, and other events.

  3. Advanced Simulation and Computing Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rummel, E.

    2015-07-09

    To maintain a credible nuclear weapons program, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA’s) Office of Defense Programs (DP) needs to make certain that the capabilities, tools, and expert staff are in place and are able to deliver validated assessments. This requires a complete and robust simulation environment backed by an experimental program to test ASC Program models. This ASC Business Plan document encapsulates a complex set of elements, each of which is essential to the success of the simulation component of the Nuclear Security Enterprise. The ASC Business Plan addresses the hiring, mentoring, and retaining of programmatic technical staff responsible for building the simulation tools of the nuclear security complex. The ASC Business Plan describes how the ASC Program engages with industry partners—partners upon whom the ASC Program relies on for today’s and tomorrow’s high performance architectures. Each piece in this chain is essential to assure policymakers, who must make decisions based on the results of simulations, that they are receiving all the actionable information they need.

  4. Formulation of consumables management models. Volume 2: Mission planning processor user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    A user guide for the MPP (Mission Planning Processor) is presented. The MPP is used in the evaluation of particular missions, with appropriate display and storage of related consumables data. Design goals are accomplished by the use of an on-line/demand mode computer terminal Cathode Ray Tube Display. The process is such that the user merely adds specific mission/flight functions to a skeleton flight and/or alters the skeleton. The skeleton flight includes operational aspects from prelaunch through ground support equipment connect after rollout as required to place the STS (Space Transportation System) in a parking orbit, maintain the spacecraft and crew for the stated on-orbit period and return.

  5. EO-1/Hyperion: Nearing Twelve Years of Successful Mission Science Operation and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Landis, David R.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Pollack, Nathan H.; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite is a technology demonstration mission that was launched in November 2000, and by July 2012 will have successfully completed almost 12 years of high spatial resolution (30 m) imaging operations from a low Earth orbit. EO-1 has two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments have served as prototypes for NASA's newer satellite missions, including the forthcoming (in early 2013) Landsat-8 and the future Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). As well, EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German satellite, EnMAP (2015). Here, we provide an overview of the mission, and highlight the capabilities of the Hyperion for support of science investigations, and present prototype products developed with Hyperion imagery for the HyspIRI and other space-borne spectrometers.

  6. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from short-duration shuttle missions lasting no more than several days to the medium-to-long-duration missions planned for the International Space Station, face a number of hazards that must be understood and mitigated for the mission to be carried out safely. Among these hazards are those posed by the internal environment of the spacecraft itself; through outgassing of toxic vapors from plastics and other items, failures or off-nominal operations of spacecraft environmental control systems, accidental exposure to hazardous compounds used in experiments: all present potential hazards that while small, may accumulate and pose a danger to crew health. The first step toward mitigating the dangers of these hazards is understanding the internal environment of the spacecraft and the compounds contained within it. Future spacecraft will have integrated networks of redundant sensors which will not only inform the crew of hazards, but will pinpoint the problem location and, through analysis by intelligent systems, recommend and even implement a course of action to stop the problem. This strategic plan details strategies to determine NASA's requirements for environmental monitoring and control systems for future spacecraft, and goals and objectives for a program to answer these needs.

  7. A Plan for Measuring Climatic Scale Global Precipitation Variability: The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The outstanding success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) stemmed from a near flawless launch and deployment, a highly successful measurement campaign, achievement of all original scientific objectives before the mission life had ended, and the accomplishment of a number of unanticipated but important additional scientific advances. This success and the realization that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool in the understanding of decadal climate variability has helped motivate a comprehensive global rainfall measuring mission, called 'The Global Precipitation Mission' (GPM). The intent of this mission is to address looming scientific questions arising in the context of global climate-water cycle interactions, hydrometeorology, weather prediction, the global carbon budget, and atmosphere-biosphere-cryosphere chemistry. This paper addresses the status of that mission currently planed for launch in the early 2007 time frame. The GPM design involves a nine-member satellite constellation, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like 'core' satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band radar (df-PR) and a TMI-like radiometer. The other eight members of the constellation can be considered drones to the core satellite, each carrying some type of passive microwave radiometer measuring across the 10.7-85 GHz frequency range, likely based on both real and synthetic aperture antenna technology and to include a combination of new lightweight dedicated GPM drones and both co-existing operational and experimental satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers (i.e., SSM/l, AMSR, etc.). The constellation is designed to provide a minimum of three-hour sampling at any spot on the globe using sun-synchronous orbit architecture, with the core satellite providing relevant measurements on internal cloud precipitation microphysical processes. The core satellite also enables 'training' and 'calibration' of the drone retrieval process. Additional

  8. Artificial intelligence for the EChO long-term mission planning tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Piquer, Álvaro; Ribas, Ignasi; Colomé, Josep

    2014-08-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) was an ESA mission candidate competing for a launch opportunity within the M3 call. Its main aim was to carry out research on the physics and chemistry of atmospheres of transiting planets. This requires the observation of two types of events: primary and secondary eclipses. The events of each exoplanet have to be observed several times in order to obtain measurements with adequate Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Furthermore, several criteria must be considered to perform an observation, among which we can highlight the exoplanet visibility, its event duration, and the avoidance of overlapping with other tasks. It is important to emphasize that, since the communications for transferring data from ground stations to the spacecraft are restricted, it is necessary to compute a long-term plan of observations in order to provide autonomy to the observatory. Thus, a suitable mission plan will increase the efficiency of telescope operation, and this will result in a raise of the scientific return and a reduction of operational costs. Obtaining a long-term mission plan becomes unaffordable for human planners due to the complexity of computing the large amount of possible combinations for finding a near-optimal solution. In this contribution we present a long-term mission planning tool based on Genetic Algorithms, which are focused on solving optimization problems such as the planning of several tasks. Specifically, the proposed tool finds a solution that highly optimizes the objectives defined, which are based on the maximization of the time spent on scientific observations and the scientific return (e.g., the coverage of the mission survey). The results obtained on the large experimental set up support that the proposed scheduler technology is robust and can function in a variety of scenarios, offering a competitive performance which does not depend on the collection of objects to be observed. Finally, it is noteworthy that the

  9. The need for safeguards in advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Billings, J Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The recent uproar about Medicare "death panels" draws attention to public and professional concerns that advance care planning might restrict access to desired life-sustaining care. The primary goal of advance care planning is to promote the autonomy of a decisionally incapacitated patient when choices about life-sustaining treatments are encountered, but the safety of this procedure has not received deserved scrutiny. Patients often do not understand their decisions or they may change their mind without changing their advance care directives. Likewise, concordance between patients' wishes and the understanding of the physicians and surrogate decision makers who need to represent these wishes is disappointingly poor. A few recent reports show encouraging outcomes from advance care planning, but most studies indicate that the procedure is ineffective in protecting patients from unwanted treatments and may even undermine autonomy by leading to choices that do not reflect patient values, goals, and preferences. Safeguards for advance care planning should be put in place, such as encouraging physicians to err on the side of preserving life when advance care directives are unclear, requiring a trained advisor to review non-emergent patient choices to limit life-sustaining treatment, training of clinicians in conducting such conversations, and structured discussion formats that first address values and goals rather than particular life-sustaining procedures. Key targets for research include: how to improve completion rates for person wanting advance care directives, especially among minorities; more effective and standardized approaches to advance care planning discussions, including how best to present prognostic information to patients; methods for training clinicians and others to assist patients in this process; and systems for assuring that directives are available and up-to-date.

  10. Student perceptions about the mission of dental schools to advance global dentistry and philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Yaneva, Krassimira; Hottel, Timothy L; Proctor, Hannah L

    2013-10-01

    In this study, 491 dental students at one dental school in the United States and one in Bulgaria were surveyed to assess their perceptions about the mission of dental schools to advance global dentistry and philanthropy. The study included questions about prior involvement in charitable dental missions. Many respondents felt that their dental school does not advance global dentistry nor adequately teaches students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. The majority agreed, however, that dental schools have a moral obligation to raise the level of oral health care worldwide and help underserved communities access basic dental care. They reported that an opportunity to spend a semester at a foreign dental school would enhance their dental education in ways that are not presently fulfilled; help them better understand cultural diversity; and teach them about philanthropy and volunteerism. In their opinion, international exchange programs that provide clinical rotations and field experiences in economically challenged and underserved areas of the world would a) foster the global advancement of dentistry; b) promote an appreciation for cultural diversity and socioeconomic disparity in the communities that graduates will be serving; and c) teach students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. This study may contribute to understanding factors affecting student involvement in programs to advance global dentistry.

  11. Using virtual reality for science mission planning: A Mars Pathfinder case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jacqueline H.; Weidner, Richard J.; Sacks, Allan L.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Mars Pathfinder Project requires a Ground Data System (GDS) that supports both engineering and scientific payloads with reduced mission operations staffing, and short planning schedules. Also, successful surface operation of the lander camera requires efficient mission planning and accurate pointing of the camera. To meet these challenges, a new software strategy that integrates virtual reality technology with existing navigational ancillary information and image processing capabilities. The result is an interactive workstation based applications software that provides a high resolution, 3-dimensial, stereo display of Mars as if it were viewed through the lander camera. The design, implementation strategy and parametric specification phases for the development of this software were completed, and the prototype tested. When completed, the software will allow scientists and mission planners to access simulated and actual scenes of Mars' surface. The perspective from the lander camera will enable scientists to plan activities more accurately and completely. The application will also support the sequence and command generation process and will allow testing and verification of camera pointing commands via simulation.

  12. Mission planning for space based satellite surveillance experiments with the MSX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, R.; Fishman, T.; Robinson, E.; Viggh, H.; Wiseman, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment is a BMDO-sponsored scientific satellite set for launch within the year. The satellite will collect phenomenology data on missile targets, plumes, earth limb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds in the LWIR, visible and ultra-violet spectral bands. It will also conduct functional demonstrations for space-based space surveillance. The Space-Based Visible sensor, built by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the primary sensor on board the MSX for demonstration of space surveillance. The SBV Processing, Operations and Control Center (SPOCC) is the mission planning and commanding center for all space surveillance experiments using the SBV and other MSX instruments. The guiding principle in the SPOCC Mission Planning System was that all routine functions be automated. Manual analyst input should be minimal. Major concepts are: (I) A high level language, called SLED, for user interface to the system; (2) A group of independent software processes which would generally be run in a pipe-line mode for experiment commanding but can be run independently for analyst assessment; (3) An integrated experiment cost computation function that permits assessment of the feasibility of the experiment. This paper will report on the design, implementation and testing of the Mission Planning System.

  13. Designing and Implementing a Distributed System Architecture for the Mars Rover Mission Planning Software (Maestro)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldgof, Gregory M.

    2005-01-01

    Distributed systems allow scientists from around the world to plan missions concurrently, while being updated on the revisions of their colleagues in real time. However, permitting multiple clients to simultaneously modify a single data repository can quickly lead to data corruption or inconsistent states between users. Since our message broker, the Java Message Service, does not ensure that messages will be received in the order they were published, we must implement our own numbering scheme to guarantee that changes to mission plans are performed in the correct sequence. Furthermore, distributed architectures must ensure that as new users connect to the system, they synchronize with the database without missing any messages or falling into an inconsistent state. Robust systems must also guarantee that all clients will remain synchronized with the database even in the case of multiple client failure, which can occur at any time due to lost network connections or a user's own system instability. The final design for the distributed system behind the Mars rover mission planning software fulfills all of these requirements and upon completion will be deployed to MER at the end of 2005 as well as Phoenix (2007) and MSL (2009).

  14. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  15. [Advances and challenges of the Unified Health System planning].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabíola Sulpino

    2009-10-01

    Since the Unified Health System creation, managers have been expending efforts to discuss the planning and, made attempts to institutionalize it, considering that it's a basic management component. However, despite advances obtained, there are aspects that are priorities and that constitute challenges for the institutionalization of the planning at the Unified Health System. In this direction, this study describes the planning evolution in the system, by legal and technician material analysis of published documents by Ministry of Health. From the planning conception in these publications, it leads a reflection on the used approach, considering the established management instruments, and its entailing to the more currently accepted theory and methodology of health planning. Aspects that need to be observed are pointed for the effectiveness to ascendant planning at the Unified Health System.

  16. Recommendation of a More Effective Alternative to the NASA Launch Services Program Mission Integration Reporting System (MIRS) and Implementation of Updates to the Mission Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of my internship in the Flight Projects Office of NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), I worked on two major projects, both of which dealt with updating current systems to make them more accurate and to allow them to operate more efficiently. The first project dealt with the Mission Integration Reporting System (MIRS), a web-accessible database application used to manage and provide mission status reporting for the LSP portfolio of awarded missions. MIRS had not gone through any major updates since its implementation in 2005, and it was my job to formulate a recommendation for the improvement of the system. The second project I worked on dealt with the Mission Plan, a document that contains an overview of the general life cycle that is followed by every LSP mission. My job on this project was to update the information currently in the mission plan and to add certain features in order to increase the accuracy and thoroughness of the document. The outcomes of these projects have implications in the orderly and efficient operation of the Flight Projects Office, and the process of Mission Management in the Launch Services Program as a whole.

  17. Selection and Prioritization of Advanced Propulsion Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberle, Bill; Farris, Bob; Johnson, Les; Jones, Jonathan; Kos, Larry; Woodcock, Gordon; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system will require spacecraft with much greater capability than spacecraft which have been launched in the past. This is particularly true for exploration of the outer planets. Outer planet exploration requires shorter trip times, increased payload mass, and ability to orbit or land on outer planets. Increased capability requires better propulsion systems, including increased specific impulse. Chemical propulsion systems are not capable of delivering the performance required for exploration of the solar system. Future propulsion systems will be applied to a wide variety of missions with a diverse set of mission requirements. Many candidate propulsion technologies have been proposed but NASA resources do not permit development of a] of them. Therefore, we need to rationally select a few propulsion technologies for advancement, for application to future space missions. An effort was initiated to select and prioritize candidate propulsion technologies for development investment. The results of the study identified Aerocapture, 5 - 10 KW Solar Electric Ion, and Nuclear Electric Propulsion as high priority technologies. Solar Sails, 100 Kw Solar Electric Hall Thrusters, Electric Propulsion, and Advanced Chemical were identified as medium priority technologies. Plasma sails, momentum exchange tethers, and low density solar sails were identified as high risk/high payoff technologies.

  18. Advanced systems engineering and network planning support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.

  19. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  20. Joint operations planning for space surveillance missions on the MSX satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Grant; Good, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite, sponsored by BMDO, is intended to gather broad-band phenomenology data on missiles, plumes, naturally occurring earthlimb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds. In addition the MSX will be used to conduct functional demonstrations of space-based space surveillance. The JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), located in Laurel, MD, is the integrator and operator of the MSX satellite. APL will conduct all operations related to the MSX and is charged with the detailed operations planning required to implement all of the experiments run on the MSX except the space surveillance experiments. The non-surveillance operations are generally amenable to being defined months ahead of time and being scheduled on a monthly basis. Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (LL), located in Lexington, MA, is the provider of one of the principle MSX instruments, the Space-Based Visible (SBV) sensor, and the agency charged with implementing the space surveillance demonstrations on the MSX. The planning timelines for the space surveillance demonstrations are fundamentally different from those for the other experiments. They are generally amenable to being scheduled on a monthly basis, but the specific experiment sequence and pointing must be refined shortly before execution. This allocation of responsibilities to different organizations implies the need for a joint mission planning system for conducting space surveillance demonstrations. This paper details the iterative, joint planning system, based on passing responsibility for generating MSX commands for surveillance operations from APL to LL for specific scheduled operations. The joint planning system, including the generation of a budget for spacecraft resources to be used for surveillance events, has been successfully demonstrated during ground testing of the MSX and is being validated for MSX launch within the year. The planning system developed for the MSX forms a

  1. A Multifaceted Approach to Modernizing NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, Jeff A.; Giovannoni, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) is NASA's premier space mission operations product line offering for use in deep-space robotic and astrophysics missions. The general approach to AMMOS modernization over the course of its 29-year history exemplifies a continual, evolutionary approach with periods of sponsor investment peaks and valleys in between. Today, the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) office-the program office that manages the AMMOS for NASA-actively pursues modernization initiatives and continues to evolve the AMMOS by incorporating enhanced capabilities and newer technologies into its end-user tool and service offerings. Despite the myriad of modernization investments that have been made over the evolutionary course of the AMMOS, pain points remain. These pain points, based on interviews with numerous flight project mission operations personnel, can be classified principally into two major categories: 1) information-related issues, and 2) process-related issues. By information-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the management and flow of MOS data across the various system interfaces. By process-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the MOS activities performed by mission operators (i.e., humans) and supporting software infrastructure used in support of those activities. In this paper, three foundational concepts-Timeline, Closed Loop Control, and Separation of Concerns-collectively form the basis for expressing a set of core architectural tenets that provides a multifaceted approach to AMMOS system architecture modernization intended to address the information- and process-related issues. Each of these architectural tenets will be further explored in this paper. Ultimately, we envision the application of these core tenets resulting in a unified vision of a future-state architecture for the AMMOS-one that is intended to result in a highly adaptable, highly efficient, and highly cost

  2. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  3. Stardust Entry: Landing and Population Hazards in Mission Planning and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, P.; Wawrzyniak, G.

    2006-01-01

    The 385 kg Stardust mission was launched on Feb 7, 1999 on a mission to collect samples from the tail of comet Wild 2 and from interplanetary space. Stardust returned to Earth in the early morning of January 15, 2006. The sample return capsule landed in the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) southwest of Salt Lake City. Because Stardust was landing on Earth, hazard analysis was required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, UTTR, and the Stardust Project to ensure the safe return of the landing capsule along with the safety of people, ground assets, and aircraft. This paper focuses on the requirements affecting safe return of the capsule and safety of people on the ground by investigating parameters such as probability of impacting on UTTR, casualty expectation, and probability of casualty. This paper introduces the methods for the calculation of these requirements and shows how they affected mission planning, site selection, and mission operations. By analyzing these requirements before and during entry it allowed for the selection of a robust landing point that met all of the requirements during the actual landing event.

  4. 45 CFR 95.610 - Submission of advance planning documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... will comply with all State and Federal requirements including the retention of software ownership... conversion, vendor and state personnel, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, hardware, software... contained at §§ 1355.54 through 1355.57, § 307.15 and 42 CFR subchapter C, part 433. (c) Advance...

  5. 45 CFR 95.610 - Submission of advance planning documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... will comply with all State and Federal requirements including the retention of software ownership... conversion, vendor and state personnel, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, hardware, software... contained at §§ 1355.54 through 1355.57, § 307.15 and 42 CFR subchapter C, part 433. (c) Advance...

  6. 45 CFR 95.610 - Submission of advance planning documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... will comply with all State and Federal requirements including the retention of software ownership... conversion, vendor and state personnel, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, hardware, software... contained at §§ 1355.54 through 1355.57, § 307.15 and 42 CFR subchapter C, part 433. (c) Advance...

  7. 45 CFR 95.610 - Submission of advance planning documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... will comply with all State and Federal requirements including the retention of software ownership... conversion, vendor and state personnel, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, hardware, software... contained at §§ 1355.54 through 1355.57, § 307.15 and 42 CFR subchapter C, part 433. (c) Advance...

  8. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable advance planning costs. 151.125 Section 151.125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... as preliminary topographic and soil exploration; (2) Site evaluation; (3) Preliminary...

  9. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable advance planning costs. 151.125 Section 151.125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... as preliminary topographic and soil exploration; (2) Site evaluation; (3) Preliminary...

  10. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable advance planning costs. 151.125 Section 151.125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... as preliminary topographic and soil exploration; (2) Site evaluation; (3) Preliminary...

  11. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable advance planning costs. 151.125 Section 151.125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... as preliminary topographic and soil exploration; (2) Site evaluation; (3) Preliminary...

  12. 14 CFR 151.125 - Allowable advance planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable advance planning costs. 151.125 Section 151.125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... as preliminary topographic and soil exploration; (2) Site evaluation; (3) Preliminary...

  13. Career Advancement of Nurse Executives: Planned or Accidental?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sylvia A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 12 nurse executives indicated that most did not originally plan to be administrators when they entered nursing. However, all had pursued advanced degrees and most had been involved in nursing education prior to their administrator-level position. (CH)

  14. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2009-12. Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Education and Technology provides strategic leadership for the development of the next generation economy in Alberta through the provision of accessible, affordable and quality learning opportunities for all Albertans and support for a dynamic and integrated innovation system. This paper provides the highlights of the business plan of the…

  15. An unequivocal good? Acknowledging the complexities of advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Robins-Browne, K; Palmer, V; Komesaroff, P

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades advance care planning (ACP) has become the subject of debate, research and legislation in many countries. Encouraging people to express their preference for treatment in advance, ideally in written form, seems a natural way to identify what someone might have wanted when they can no longer participate in decision-making. The notion of ACP as an unequivocal good permeates much of the research and policy work in this area. For example, ACP is now actively encouraged in Australian federal and state government policies and the Victorian Government has recently published a practical ACP strategy for Victorian health services (2014-2018). However, advance care plan is ethically complex and the introduction of the Victorian health services strategy provides an opportunity to reflect on this complexity, particularly on the benefits and risks of ACP.

  16. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  17. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  18. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

  19. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  20. Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  1. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  2. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  3. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  4. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  5. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

    1999-03-10

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  6. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-08-28

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  7. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  8. A 2D chaotic path planning for mobile robots accomplishing boundary surveillance missions in adversarial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan; Volosencu, Constantin

    2014-10-01

    The path-planning algorithm represents a crucial issue for every autonomous mobile robot. In normal circumstances a patrol robot will compute an optimal path to ensure its task accomplishment, but in adversarial conditions the problem is getting more complicated. Here, the robot’s trajectory needs to be altered into a misleading and unpredictable path to cope with potential opponents. Chaotic systems provide the needed framework for obtaining unpredictable motion in all of the three basic robot surveillance missions: area, points of interests and boundary monitoring. Proficient approaches have been provided for the first two surveillance tasks, but for boundary patrol missions no method has been reported yet. This paper addresses the mentioned research gap by proposing an efficient method, based on chaotic dynamic of the Hénon system, to ensure unpredictable boundary patrol on any shape of chosen closed contour.

  9. Crystal Growth Furnace System Configuration and Planned Experiments on the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, R.; Hambright, G.; Ainsworth, M.; Fiske, M.; Schaefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) is currently undergoing modifications and refurbishment and is currently undergoing modifications and refurbishment and is manifested to refly on the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) mission scheduled for launch in September 1995. The CGF was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) programs at NASA Headquarters. The refurbishment and reflight program is being managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Funding and program support for the CGF project is provided to MSFC by the office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications at NASA Headquarters. This paper presents an overview of the CGF system configuration for the USML-2 mission, and provides a brief description of the planned on-orbit experiment operation.

  10. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing advanced High Energy and Ultra High Energy lithium-ion cells to address these needs. In order to meet the performance goals, advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level. This paper will provide an update on the performance of experimental materials through the completion of two years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  11. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently looking well into the future toward realizing Exploration mission possibilities to destinations including the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. These are stepping stones to our ultimate destination Mars. New ideas will be required to conquer the significant challenges that await us, some just conceptions and others beginning to be realized. Bringing these ideas to fruition and enabling further expansion into space will require varying degrees of change, from engineering and integration approaches used in spacecraft design and operations, to high-level architectural capabilities bounded only by the limits of our ideas. The most profound change will be realized by paradigm change, thus enabling our ultimate goals to be achieved. Inherent to achieving these goals, higher entry, descent, and landing (EDL) performance has been identified as a high priority. Increased EDL performance will be enabled by highly-capable thermal protection systems (TPS), the ability to deliver larger and heavier payloads, increased surface access, and tighter landing footprints to accommodate multiple asset, single-site staging. In addition, realizing reduced cost access to space will demand more efficient approaches and reusable launch vehicle systems. Current operational spacecraft and launch vehicles do not incorporate the technologies required for these far-reaching missions and goals, nor what is needed to achieve the desired launch vehicle cost savings. To facilitate these missions and provide for safe and more reliable capabilities, NASA and its partners will need to make ideas reality by gaining knowledge through the design, development, manufacturing, implementation and flight testing of robotic and human spacecraft. To accomplish these goals, an approach is recommended for integrated development and implementation of three paradigm-shifting capabilities into an advanced entry vehicle system with additional application to launch

  12. 25 CFR 1000.49 - Who can apply for an advance planning grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Tribe and needs advance funding to complete the planning phase requirement may apply. Tribes/Consortia... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can apply for an advance planning grant? 1000.49...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Section 402(d) Planning and Negotiation Grants Advance Planning Grant...

  13. Planning and scheduling the Hubble Space Telescope: Practical application of advanced techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a major astronomical facility that was launched in April, 1990. In late 1993, the first of several planned servicing missions refurbished the telescope, including corrections for a manufacturing flaw in the primary mirror. Orbiting above the distorting effects of the Earth's atmosphere, the HST provides an unrivaled combination of sensitivity, spectral coverage and angular resolution. The HST is arguably the most complex scientific observatory ever constructed and effective use of this valuable resource required novel approaches to astronomical observation and the development of advanced software systems including techniques to represent scheduling preferences and constraints, a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) based scheduler and a rule based planning system. This paper presents a discussion of these systems and the lessons learned from operational experience.

  14. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Gabriele; Cococcioni, Marco; Alvarez, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality), used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called Aη, is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support). The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided and show that So

  15. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Gabriele; Cococcioni, Marco; Alvarez, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality), used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called A η , is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support). The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided and show that So

  16. Mission management, planning, and cost: PULSE Attitude And Control Systems (AACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Pluto unmanned long-range scientific explorer (PULSE) is a probe that will do a flyby of Pluto. It is a low weight, relatively low costing vehicle which utilizes mostly off-the-shelf hardware, but not materials or techniques that will be available after 1999. A design, fabrication, and cost analysis is presented. PULSE will be launched within the first decade of the twenty-first century. The topics include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion systems; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  17. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Gabriele; Cococcioni, Marco; Alvarez, Alberto

    2015-12-26

    This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality), used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called A η , is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support). The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided and show that So

  18. Scientific visualization tools for the ISTP project: Mission planning, data analysis and model interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peredo, M.; Goodrich, C. C.; McNabb, D.; Kulkarni, R.; Lyon, J.

    1995-01-01

    Visualization tools are being developed to meet the challenges of mission planning and data analysis presented by the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program. ISTP encompasses a large number of spacecraft, multiple ground-based observatories, and several theoretical investigations, with the goal of understanding the global behavior of the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere system. The tools include three-dimensional displays of key boundaries in geospace along with spacecraft trajectories, which can be animated and synchronized to universal time. Magnetic field models and MHD simulation results can be invoked to reveal the magnetic topology or to identify magnetic conjunctions between spacecraft and/or ground-based facilities. Simultaneous displays of satellite trajectories, spacecraft-borne observations, and model predictions are available to facilitate data processing and interpretation efforts. The current status of these tools is described, and their implementation at the ISTP Science Planning and Operations Facility and distribution to the entire ISTP community are discussed.

  19. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  20. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Escape/rescue analysis and plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the technical analysis of escape/rescue/survival situations, crew survival techniques, alternate escape/rescue approaches and vehicles, and the advantages and disadvantages of each for advanced lunar exploration. Candidate escape/rescue guidelines are proposed and elements of a rescue plan developed. The areas of discussions include the following: lunar arrival/departure operations, lunar orbiter operations, lunar surface operations, lunar surface base escape/rescue analysis, lander tug location operations, portable airlock, emergency pressure suit, and the effects of no orbiting lunar station, no lunar surface base, and no foreign lunar orbit/surface operations on the escape/rescue plan.

  1. Advancing fundamental physics with the Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity. The LATOR mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, S. G.; Shao, M.; Nordtvedt, K. L.; Dittus, H.; Laemmerzahl, C.; Theil, S.; Salomon, C.; Reynaud, S.; Damour, T.; Johann, U.; Bouyer, P.; Touboul, P.; Foulon, B.; Bertolami, O.; Páramos, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity (LATOR) is an experiment designed to test the metric nature of gravitation—a fundamental postulate of the Einstein’s general theory of relativity. The key element of LATOR is a geometric redundancy provided by the long-baseline optical interferometry and interplanetary laser ranging. By using a combination of independent time-series of gravitational deflection of light in the immediate proximity to the Sun, along with measurements of the Shapiro time delay on interplanetary scales (to a precision respectively better than 0.1 picoradians and 1 cm), LATOR will significantly improve our knowledge of relativistic gravity and cosmology. The primary mission objective is i) to measure the key post-Newtonian Eddington parameter γ with accuracy of a part in 109. 1/2(1-γ) is a direct measure for presence of a new interaction in gravitational theory, and, in its search, LATOR goes a factor 30,000 beyond the present best result, Cassini’s 2003 test. Other mission objectives include: ii) first measurement of gravity’s non-linear effects on light to ˜0.01% accuracy; including both the traditional Eddington β parameter and also the spatial metric’s 2nd order potential contribution (never measured before); iii) direct measurement of the solar quadrupole moment J 2 (currently unavailable) to accuracy of a part in 200 of its expected size of ≃ 10 - 7; iv) direct measurement of the “frame-dragging” effect on light due to the Sun’s rotational gravitomagnetic field, to 0.1% accuracy. LATOR’s primary measurement pushes to unprecedented accuracy the search for cosmologically relevant scalar-tensor theories of gravity by looking for a remnant scalar field in today’s solar system. We discuss the science objectives of the mission, its technology, mission and optical designs, as well as expected performance of this experiment. LATOR will lead to very robust advances in the tests of fundamental physics: this mission could

  2. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, Gary; Williams, David; Smith, Rick

    2013-07-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  3. Advance care planning: thinking ahead to achieve our patients' goals.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    The End of Life Care Strategy for England describes advance care planning (ACP) as a 'voluntary process of discussion about future care...concerns and wishes...values or personal goals for care, their understanding of their illness and prognosis...wishes for types of care or treatment and the availability of these' (Department of Health (DH), 2008). In Scotland, Living and Dying Well: Building on Progress (Scottish Government (SG), 2011) referred to adopting a 'thinking ahead' philosophy.

  4. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-Ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, liberation points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project battery development effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is continuing advanced lithium-ion cell development efforts begun under the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level in order to meet the performance goals for NASA s High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells. NASA s overall approach to advanced cell development and interim progress on materials performance for the High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells after approximately 1 year of development has been summarized in a previous paper. This paper will provide an update on these materials through the completion of 2 years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  5. Advances In Understanding Global Water Cycle With Advent of GPM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    During the coming decade, the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space based on an international fleet of satellites operated as a constellation. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the Earth's water cycle from a global measurement perspective and on down to regional scales and below. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper first presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its overriding scientific objectives for climate, weather, and hydrology flow from the anticipated improvements that are being planned for the constellation-based measuring system. Next, the paper shows how the GPM observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is simply part of the natural

  6. Maintaining a Twitter Feed to Advance an Internal Medicine Residency Program’s Educational Mission

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Akhil; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-01-01

    Background Residency programs face many challenges in educating learners. The millennial generation’s learning preferences also force us to reconsider how to reach physicians in training. Social media is emerging as a viable tool for advancing curricula in graduate medical education. Objective The authors sought to understand how social media enhances a residency program’s educational mission. Methods While chief residents in the 2013-2014 academic year, two of the authors (PB, AN) maintained a Twitter feed for their academic internal medicine residency program. Participants included the chief residents and categorical internal medicine house staff. Results At the year’s end, the authors surveyed residents about uses and attitudes toward this initiative. Residents generally found the chief residents’ tweets informative, and most residents (42/61, 69%) agreed that Twitter enhanced their overall education in residency. Conclusions Data from this single-site intervention corroborate that Twitter can strengthen a residency program’s educational mission. The program’s robust following on Twitter outside of the home program also suggests a need for wider adoption of social media in graduate medical education. Improved use of data analytics and dissemination of these practices to other programs would lend additional insight into social media’s role in improving residents’ educational experiences.

  7. Performance of High-Efficiency Advanced Triple-Junction Solar Panels for the LILT Mission Dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.; Sharma, Surya; Buitrago, Oscar; Sharps, Paul R.; Blok, Ron; Kroon, Martin; Jalink, Cees; Harris, Robin; Stella, Paul; Distefano, Sal

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Discovery Mission Dawn is designed to (LILT) conditions. operate within the solar system's Asteroid belt, where the large distance from the sun creates a low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) condition. To meet the mission power requirements under LlLT conditions, very high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft to be built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) under contract with JPL. Emcore's InGaP/InGaAs/Ge advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of greater than 27.6% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the solar panels [1]. The two solar array wings, to be built by Dutch Space, with 5 large- area panels each (total area of 36.4 sq. meters) are projected to produce between 10.3 kWe and 1.3 kWe of end-of life (EOL) power in the 1.0 to 3.0 AU range, respectively. The details of the solar panel design, testing and power analysis are presented.

  8. On-board Attitude Determination System (OADS). [for advanced spacecraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P.; Milillo, M.; Tate, V.; Wilson, J.; Yong, K.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities and system design for an on-board attitude determination system (OADS) to be flown on advanced spacecraft missions were determined. Based upon the OADS requirements and system performance evaluation, a preliminary on-board attitude determination system is proposed. The proposed OADS system consists of one NASA Standard IRU (DRIRU-2) as the primary attitude determination sensor, two improved NASA Standard star tracker (SST) for periodic update of attitude information, a GPS receiver to provide on-board space vehicle position and velocity vector information, and a multiple microcomputer system for data processing and attitude determination functions. The functional block diagram of the proposed OADS system is shown. The computational requirements are evaluated based upon this proposed OADS system.

  9. High altitude airborne remote sensing mission using the advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J.; Platt, R. H.; Spencer, Roy; Hood, Robbie

    1991-01-01

    The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR) is an airborne multichannel imaging radiometer used to better understand how the earth's climate structure works. Airborne data results from the October 1990 Florida thunderstorm mission in Jacksonville, FL, are described. AMPR data on atmospheric precipitation in mesoscale storms were retrieved at 10.7, 19.35, 37.1, and 85.5 GHz onboard the ER-2 aircraft at an altitude of 20 km. AMPR's three higher-frequency data channels were selected to operate at the same frequencies as the spaceborne special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) presently in orbit. AMPR uses two antennas to receive the four frequencies: the lowest frequency channel uses a 9.7-in aperture lens antennas, while the three higher-frequency channels share a separate 5.3-in aperture lens antenna. The radiometer's temperature resolution performance is summarized.

  10. OPTIMA: advanced methods for the analysis, integration, and optimization of PRISMA mission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzi, Donatella; Pippi, Ivan; Aiazzi, Bruno; Baronti, Stefano; Carlà, Roberto; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Raimondi, Valentina; Santurri, Leonardo; Selva, Massimo; Alparone, Luciano; Garzelli, Andrea; Lopinto, Ettore; Ananasso, Cristina; Barducci, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    PRISMA is an Earth observation system that combines a hyperspectral sensor with a panchromatic, medium-resolution camera. OPTIMA is one of the five independent scientific research projects funded by the Italian Space Agency in the framework of PRISMA mission for the development of added-value algorithms and advanced applications. The main goal of OPTIMA is to increase and to strengthen the applications of PRISMA through the implementation of advanced methodologies for the analysis, integration and optimization of level 1 and 2 products. The project is comprehensive of several working packages: data simulation, data quality, data optimization, data processing and integration and, finally, evaluation of some applications related to natural hazards. Several algorithms implemented during the project employ high-speed autonomous procedures for the elaboration of the upcoming images acquired by PRISMA. To assess the performances of the developed algorithms and products, an end-to-end simulator of the instrument has been implemented. Data quality analysis has been completed by introducing noise modeling. Stand-alone procedures of radiometric and atmospheric corrections have been developed, allowing the retrieval of at-ground spectral reflectance maps. Specific studies about image enhancement, restoration and pan-sharpening have been carried out for providing added-value data. Regarding the mission capability of monitoring environmental processes and disasters, different techniques for estimating surface humidity and for analyzing burned areas have been investigated. Finally, calibration and validation activities utilizing the CAL/VAL test site managed by CNR-IFAC and located inside the Regional Park of San Rossore (Pisa), Italy have been considered.

  11. Validation for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission: Lessons Learned and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, David B.; Amitai, E.; Marks, D. A.; Silberstein, D.; Lawrence, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was launched in November 1997 and is a highly regarded and successful mission. A major component of the TRMM program was its Ground Validation (GV) program. Through dedicated research and hard work by many groups, both the GV and satellite-retrieved rain estimates have shown a convergence at key GV sites, lending credibility to the global TRMM estimates. To be sure, there are some regional differences between the various satellite estimates themselves, which still need to be addressed; however, it can be said with some certainty that TRMM has provided a high-quality, long-term climatological data set for researchers that provides errors on the order of 10-20%, rather than pre-TRMM era error estimates on the order of 50-100%. The TRMM GV program's main operational task is to provide rainfall products for four sites: Darwin, Australia (DARW); Houston, Texas (HSTN); Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands (KWAJ); and, Melbourne, Florida (MELB). A comparison between TRMM Ground Validation (Version 5) and Satellite (Version 6) rain intensity estimates is presented. The gridded satellite product (3668) will be compared to GV Level II rain-intensity and -type maps (2A53 and 2A54, respectively). The 3G68 product represents a 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg data grid providing estimates of rain intensities from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), Microwave Imager (TMI) and Combined (COM) algorithms. The comparisons will be sub-setted according to geographical type (land, coast and ocean). The convergence of the GV and satellite estimates bodes well for expectations for the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) program and this study and others are being leveraged towards planning GV goals for GPM. A discussion of lessons learned and future plans for TRMM GV in planning for GPM will also be provided.

  12. Implications of Wind-Assisted Aerial Navigation for Titan Mission Planning and Science Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, A.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Fathpour, N.; Blackmore, L.; Newman, C.; Kuwata, Y.; Wolf, M.; Assad, C.

    2010-01-01

    The recent Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) proposal incorporates a montgolfiere (hot air balloon) as part of its architecture. Standard montgolfiere balloons generate lift through heating of the atmospheric gases inside the envelope, and use a vent valve for altitude control. A Titan aerobot (robotic aerial vehicle) would have to use radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electric power, and the excess heat generated can be used to provide thermal lift for a montgolfiere. A hybrid montgolfiere design could have propellers mounted on the gondola to generate horizontal thrust; in spite of the unfavorable aerodynamic drag caused by the shape of the balloon, a limited amount of lateral controllability could be achieved. In planning an aerial mission at Titan, it is extremely important to assess how the moon-wide wind field can be used to extend the navigation capabilities of an aerobot and thereby enhance the scientific return of the mission. In this paper we explore what guidance, navigation and control capabilities can be achieved by a vehicle that uses the Titan wind field. The control planning approach is based on passive wind field riding. The aerobot would use vertical control to select wind layers that would lead it towards a predefined science target, adding horizontal propulsion if available. The work presented in this paper is based on aerodynamic models that characterize balloon performance at Titan, and on TitanWRF (Weather Research and Forecasting), a model that incorporates heat convection, circulation, radiation, Titan haze properties, Saturn's tidal forcing, and other planetary phenomena. Our results show that a simple unpropelled montgolfiere without horizontal actuation will be able to reach a broad array of science targets within the constraints of the wind field. The study also indicates that even a small amount of horizontal thrust allows the balloon to reach any area of interest on Titan, and to do so in a fraction of the time needed

  13. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration Plans: A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to

  14. Mission Design Evaluation Using Automated Planning for High Resolution Imaging of Dynamic Surface Processes from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; Donnellan, Andrea; Green, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge for any proposed mission is to demonstrate convincingly that the proposed systems will in fact deliver the science promised. Funding agencies and mission design personnel are becoming ever more skeptical of the abstractions that form the basis of the current state of the practice with respect to approximating science return. To address this, we have been using automated planning and scheduling technology to provide actual coverage campaigns that provide better predictive performance with respect to science return for a given mission design and set of mission objectives given implementation uncertainties. Specifically, we have applied an adaptation of ASPEN and SPICE to the Eagle-Eye domain that demonstrates the performance of the mission design with respect to coverage of science imaging targets that address climate change and disaster response. Eagle-Eye is an Earth-imaging telescope that has been proposed to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. Re-Engineering JPL's Mission Planning Ground System Architecture for Cost Efficient Operations in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, Jess

    1996-01-01

    Work carried out to re-engineer the mission analysis segment of JPL's mission planning ground system architecture is reported on. The aim is to transform the existing software tools, originally developed for specific missions on different support environments, into an integrated, general purpose, multi-mission tool set. The issues considered are: the development of a partnership between software developers and users; the definition of key mission analysis functions; the development of a consensus based architecture; the move towards evolutionary change instead of revolutionary replacement; software reusability, and the minimization of future maintenance costs. The current status and aims of new developments are discussed and specific examples of cost savings and improved productivity are presented.

  16. Star tracker constraint violations digital capability description and analysis results. Mission planning, mission analysis, and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poston, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of star tracker constraint violation analyses performed with the digital computer program Shuttle Attitude and Pointing Time Line Processor (SAPT) are presented. Results are typical of those utilized to provide the information required to update Baseline Reference Mission Attitude and Pointing Time Lines. Descriptions of SAPT modifications implemented to perform these analyses are also presented.

  17. 25 CFR 1000.52 - What criteria will the Director use to award advance planning grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... planning grants? 1000.52 Section 1000.52 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Section 402(d) Planning and Negotiation Grants Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.52 What criteria will the Director use to award advance planning...

  18. 25 CFR 1001.9 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance planning grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participate in self-governance. (e) Can tribes/consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a... planning grant funding. 1001.9 Section 1001.9 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... advance planning grant funding. (a) Who is eligible to apply for a planning grant that will be...

  19. Future Plans in US Flight Missions: Using Laser Remote Sensing for Climate Science Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Lisa W.

    2010-01-01

    Laser Remote Sensing provides critical climate science observations necessary to better measure, understand, model and predict the Earth's water, carbon and energy cycles. Laser Remote Sensing applications for studying the Earth and other planets include three dimensional mapping of surface topography, canopy height and density, atmospheric measurement of aerosols and trace gases, plume and cloud profiles, and winds measurements. Beyond the science, data from these missions will produce new data products and applications for a multitude of end users including policy makers and urban planners on local, national and global levels. NASA Missions in formulation including Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat 2) and the Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI), and future missions such as the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS), will incorporate the next generation of LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) instruments to measure changes in the surface elevation of the ice, quantify ecosystem carbon storage due to biomass and its change, and provide critical data on CO 2 in the atmosphere. Goddard's plans for these instruments and potential uses for the resulting data are described below. For the ICESat 2 mission, GSFC is developing a micro-pulse multi-beam lidar. This instrument will provide improved ice elevation estimates over high slope and very rough areas and result in improved lead detection for sea ice estimates. Data about the sea ice and predictions related to sea levels will continue to help inform urban planners as the changes in the polar ice accelerate. DESDynI is planned to be launched in 2017 and includes both lidar and radar instruments. GSFC is responsible for the lidar portion of the DESDynI mission and is developing a scanning laser altimeter that will measure the Earth's topography, the structure of tree canopies, biomass, and surface roughness. The DESDynI lidar will also measure and

  20. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  1. Advanced Stirling Duplex Materials Assessment for Potential Venus Mission Heater Head Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritzert, Frank; Nathal, Michael V.; Salem, Jonathan; Jacobson, Nathan; Nesbitt, James

    2011-01-01

    This report will address materials selection for components in a proposed Venus lander system. The lander would use active refrigeration to allow Space Science instrumentation to survive the extreme environment that exists on the surface of Venus. The refrigeration system would be powered by a Stirling engine-based system and is termed the Advanced Stirling Duplex (ASD) concept. Stirling engine power conversion in its simplest definition converts heat from radioactive decay into electricity. Detailed design decisions will require iterations between component geometries, materials selection, system output, and tolerable risk. This study reviews potential component requirements against known materials performance. A lower risk, evolutionary advance in heater head materials could be offered by nickel-base superalloy single crystals, with expected capability of approximately 1100C. However, the high temperature requirements of the Venus mission may force the selection of ceramics or refractory metals, which are more developmental in nature and may not have a well-developed database or a mature supporting technology base such as fabrication and joining methods.

  2. Technology advancement for the ASCENDS mission using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Antill, C.; Browell, E. V.; Campbell, J. F.; CHEN, S.; Cleckner, C.; Dijoseph, M. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Ismail, S.; Lin, B.; Meadows, B. L.; Mills, C.; Nehrir, A. R.; Notari, A.; Prasad, N. S.; Kooi, S. A.; Vitullo, N.; Dobler, J. T.; Bender, J.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Horney, S.; McGregor, D.; Neal, M.; Shure, M.; Zaccheo, T.; Moore, B.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Welch, W.

    2013-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center project funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technologies being advanced are: (1) multiple transmitter and telescope-aperture operations, (2) high-efficiency CO2 laser transmitters, (3) a high bandwidth detector and transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The instrument architecture is being developed for ACES to operate on a high-altitude aircraft, and it will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. The above technologies are critical for developing an airborne simulator and spaceborne instrument with lower platform consumption of size, mass, and power, and with improved performance. This design employs several laser transmitters and telescope-apertures to demonstrate column CO2 retrievals with alignment of multiple laser beams in the far-field. ACES will transmit five laser beams: three from commercial lasers operating near 1.57-microns, and two from the Exelis atmospheric oxygen (O2) fiber laser amplifier system operating near 1.26-microns. The Master Oscillator Power Amplifier at 1.57-microns measures CO2 column concentrations using an Integrated-Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar approach. O2 column amounts needed for calculating the CO2 mixing ratio will be retrieved using the Exelis laser system with a similar IPDA approach. The three aperture telescope design was built to meet the constraints of the Global Hawk high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This assembly integrates fiber-coupled transmit collimators for all of the laser transmitters and fiber-coupled optical signals from the three telescopes to the aft optics and detector package. The detector

  3. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Mars Surveyor Program Mission includes an orbiter with a gamma ray spectrometer and a multispectral thermal imager, and a lander with an extensive set of instrumentation, a robotic arm, and the Marie Curie Rover. The Mars 2001 Science Operations Working Group (SOWG) is a subgroup of the Project Science Group that has been formed to provide coordinated planning and implementation of scientific observations, particularly for the landed portion of the mission. The SOWG will be responsible for delivery of a science plan and, during operations, generation and delivery of conflict-free sequences. This group will also develop an archive plan that is compliant with Planetary Data System (PDS) standards, and will oversee generation, validation, and delivery of integrated archives to the PDS. In this report we cover one element of the SOWG planning activities, the development of a plan that maximizes the scientific return from lander-based observations by treating the instrument packages as an integrated payload. Scientific objectives for the lander mission have been defined. They include observations focused on determining the bedrock geology of the site through analyses of rocks and also local materials found in the soils, and the surficial geology of the site, including windblown deposits and the nature and history of formation of indurated sediments such as duricrust. Of particular interest is the identification and quantification of processes related to early warm, wet conditions and the presence of hydrologic or hydrothermal cycles. Determining the nature and origin of duricrust and associated salts is -very important in this regard. Specifically, did these deposits form in the vadose zone as pore water evaporated from soils or did they form by other processes, such as deposition of volcanic aerosols? Basic information needed to address these questions includes the morphology, topography, and geologic context of landforms and materials exposed at the site

  4. High-energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) for mission planning and predictive avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Jarred L.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Randall, Robb M.; Bartell, Richard J.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrates the development of a high energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) by the AFIT/CDE for mission planning High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon system engagements as well as centralized, decentralized, or hybrid predictive avoidance (CPA/DPA/HPA) assessments. Analyses of example HEL mission engagements are described as well as how mission planners are expected to employ the software. Example HEL engagement simulations are based on geographic location and recent/current atmospheric weather conditions. The atmospheric effects are defined through the AFIT/CDE Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model or the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model upon which the HELTDA is based. These models enable the creation of vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, and atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer extinction coefficient magnitude at wavelengths from the UV to the RF. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer/winter) and time of day variations for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered to determine optimum efficiency in a specific environment. Each atmospheric particulate/hydrometeor is evaluated based on its wavelength-dependent forward and off-axis scattering characteristics and absorption effects on the propagating environment to and beyond the target. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are included. Numerical weather model forecasts are incorporated in the model to develop comprehensive understanding of HEL weapon system performance.

  5. Mission to Mars: Plans and concepts for the first manned landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberg, J. E.

    The manned exploration and settlement of Mars is discussed. The topics considered include: the rationale for a manned landing; spaceships and propulsion for getting to Mars; human factors such as psychological stress, the effects of prolonged weightlessness, and radiation dangers; the return from Mars; site selection and relevant criteria; scientific problems that can be studied by landing men on Mars. Also addressed are economic resources of air and water on Mars and their relevance for transportation and mission planning; the exploration and utilization of Phobos and Deimos; cost factors; the possibilities of the Russians' going to Mars; political and social issues; colonies on Mars; and manipulation of the Martian environment to make it more habitable.

  6. The Maneuver Planning Process for the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesarch, Michael A.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission utilized a strategy combining highly eccentric phasing loops with a lunar gravity assist to provide a zero-cost insertion into a Lissajous orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 point. Maneuvers were executed at the phasing loop perigees to correct for launch vehicle errors and to target the lunar gravity assist so that a suitable orbit at L2 was achieved. This paper will discuss the maneuver planning process for designing, verifying, and executing MAP's maneuvers. This paper will also describe how commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) tools were used to execute these tasks and produce a command sequence ready for upload to the spacecraft. These COTS tools included Satellite Tool Kit, MATLAB, and Matrix-X.

  7. Plan for Subdividing Genesis Mission Diamond-on-Silicon 60000 Solar Wind Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, Patti J.; Allton, J. A.; Clemett, S. J.; Gonzales, C. P.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Rodriquez, M. C.; See, T. H.; Sutter, B.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Genesis solar wind sample return mission experienced an off nominal landing resulting in broken, albeit useful collectors. Sample 60000 from the collector is comprised of diamond-like-carbon film on a float zone (FZ) silicon wafer substrate Diamond-on-Silicon (DOS), and is highly prized for its higher concentration of solar wind (SW) atoms. A team of scientist at the Johnson Space Center was charged with determining the best, nondestructive and noncontaminating method to subdivide the specimen that would result in a 1 sq. cm subsample for allocation and analysis. Previous work included imaging of the SW side of 60000, identifying the crystallographic orientation of adjacent fragments, and devising an initial cutting plan.

  8. Rapid large- and site scale RPAS mission planning for remote sensing of rock falls and landslides in alpine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräupl, Thomas; Pschernig, Elias; Rokitansky, Carl-Herbert; Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Zobl, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Since landslides and rock falls are complex phenomena involving a multitude of factors, current and historic surface data play besides geologic conditions and others an important role in analyzing hazard situation and efficient site-specific remediation actions. Especially in displacement acceleration phases which are frequently linked to bad weather conditions, data acquisition remains difficult. Therefore RPAS with their small ground sampling distance and correspondingly high resolution open up possibilities for surveying ground situations not only for visual inspection but also for geodetic data acquisition. Both, visual and geodetic data provide valuable information for geologists and related decision makers. Slides or rock falls in alpine areas pose special challenges due to mostly acute and unforeseen displacements on the one hand and geographic conditions of narrow valleys along with steep slopes on the other hand. Rapid RPAS mission planning and mission adaption for individual requirements according to different project stages (initial investigation, repeat measurements, identification of hazard zones for urgent remediation actions, etc.) is therefore of particular importance. Here we present a computer-simulation supported approach to RPAS mission planning taking the identified thematic and remote sensing targets, the relevant terrain and obstacle databases, legal restrictions, aircraft performance, sensor characteristics, and communication ranges into account in order to produce a safe and mission-optimized flight route. For the RPAS mission planning, we combine and adapt tools developed at University of Salzburg, namely a flight track generator taking into account a 3D-model of the earth surface with both, focus on large area coverage (e.g. Austria) and the highest available resolution (e.g. sub-meter for specific areas), available obstacle data bases for the mission area (e.g. cable car lines, power lines, buildings, slope stabilization constructions

  9. Advanced planning activity. [for interplanetary flight and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Selected mission concepts for interplanetary exploration through 1985 were examined, including: (1) Jupiter orbiter performance characteristics; (2) solar electric propulsion missions to Mercury, Venus, Neptune, and Uranus; (3) space shuttle planetary missions; (4) Pioneer entry probes to Saturn and Uranus; (5) rendezvous with Comet Kohoutek and Comet Encke; (6) space tug capabilities; and (7) a Pioneer mission to Mars in 1979. Mission options, limitations, and performance predictions are assessed, along with probable configurational, boost, and propulsion requirements.

  10. Knowledge Management Platform in Advanced Product Quality Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiliban, Bogdan; Baral, Lal Mohan; Kifor, Claudiu

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge is an essential part of organizational competitiveness. This vital resource must be managed correctly within organizations in order to achieve desired performance levels within all undertakings. The process of managing knowledge is a very difficult one due to the illusive nature of the resource itself. Knowledge is stored within every aspect of an organization starting from people and ending with documents and processes. The Knowledge Management Platform is designed as a facilitator for managers and employees in all endeavours knowledge related within the Advanced Product Quality Planning Procedure

  11. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to performing ever more challenging and

  12. Advanced staring Si PIN visible sensor chip assembly for Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, R. E.; Drab, J. J.; Gin, A.

    2009-08-01

    The planet Mercury, by its near proximity to the sun, has always posed a formidable challenge to spacecraft. The Bepi-Colombo mission, coordinated by the European Space Agency, will be a pioneering effort in the investigation of this planet. Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has been given the opportunity to develop the radiation hardened, high operability, high SNR, advanced staring focal plane array (FPA) for the spacecraft destined (Fig. 1) to explore the planet Mercury. This mission will launch in 2013 on a journey lasting approximately 6 years. When it arrives at Mercury in August 2019, it will endure temperatures as high as 350°C as well as relatively high radiation environments during its 1 year data collection period from September 2019 until September 2020. To support this challenging goal, RVS has designed and produced a custom visible sensor based on a 2048 x 2048 (2k2) format with a 10 μm unit cell. This sensor will support both the High Resolution Imaging Camera (HRIC) and the Stereo Camera (STC) instruments. This dual purpose sensor was designed to achieve high sensitivity as well as low input noise (<100 e-) for space-based, low light conditions. It also must maintain performance parameters in a total ionizing dose environment up to 70 kRad (Si) as well as immunity to latch-up and singe event upset. This paper will show full sensor chip assembly data highlighting the performance parameters prior to irradiation. Radiation testing performance will be reported by an independent source in a subsequent paper.

  13. Practical Considerations of Waste Heat Reuse for a Mars Mission Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy conservation is a key issue in design optimization of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) for long-term space missions. By considering designs for conservation at the system level, energy saving opportunities arise that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper builds on a steady-state investigation of system-level waste heat reuse in an ALSS with a low degree of crop growth for a Mars mission. In past studies, such a system has been defined in terms of technology types, hot and cold stream identification and stream energy content. The maximum steady-state potential for power and cooling savings within the system was computed via the Pinch Method. In this paper, several practical issues are considered for achieving a pragmatic estimate of total system savings in terms of equivalent system mass (ESM), rather than savings solely in terms of power and cooling. In this paper, more realistic ESM savings are computed by considering heat transfer inefficiencies during material transfer. An estimate of the steady-state mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with heat exchange equipment is made by considering heat exchange equipment material type and configuration, stream flow characteristics and associated energy losses during the heat exchange process. Also, previously estimated power and cooling savings are adjusted to reflect the impact of such energy losses. This paper goes one step further than the traditional Pinch Method of considering waste heat reuse in heat exchangers to include ESM savings that occur with direct reuse of a stream. For example, rather than exchanging heat between crop growth lamp cooling air and air going to a clothes dryer, air used to cool crop lamps might be reused directly for clothes drying purposes. When thermodynamically feasible, such an approach may increase ESM savings by minimizing the mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with stream routing equipment.

  14. Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital missions using program SKYLARK 1. Section 4: Operational modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The operational modes for the guidance system operations plan for Program SKYLARK 1 are presented. The procedures control the guidance and navigation system interfaces with the flight crew and the mission control center. The guidance operational concept is designed to comprise a set of manually initiated programs and functions which may be arranged by the flight crew to implement a large class of flight plans. This concept will permit both a late flight plan definition and a capability for real time flight plan changes.

  15. Advanced Launch System advanced development oxidizer turbopump program: Technical implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlita, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) Advanced Development Oxidizer Turbopump Program has designed, fabricated and demonstrated a low cost, highly reliable oxidizer turbopump for the Space Transportation Engine that minimizes the recurring cost for the ALS engines. Pratt and Whitney's (P and W's) plan for integrating the analyses, testing, fabrication, and other program efforts is addressed. This plan offers a comprehensive description of the total effort required to design, fabricate, and test the ALS oxidizer turbopump. The proposed ALS oxidizer turbopump reduces turbopump costs over current designs by taking advantage of design simplicity and state-of-the-art materials and producibility features without compromising system reliability. This is accomplished by selecting turbopump operating conditions that are within known successful operating regions and by using proven manufacturing techniques.

  16. Development of advanced Si and GaAs solar cells for interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobl, G.; Uegele, P.; Kern, R.; Roy, K.; Flores, C.; Campesato, R.; Signorini, C.; Bogus, K.

    1995-01-01

    The deep space and planetary exploration project have been acquiring more and more importance and some of them are now well established both in ESA and NASA programs. This paper presents the possibility to utilize both silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells as spacecraft primary power source for missions far from the Sun, in order to overcome the drawbacks related to the utilisation of radioisotope thermoelectric generators - such as cost, safety and social acceptance. The development of solar cells for low illumination intensity and low temperature (LILT) applications is carried out in Europe by ASE (Germany) and CISE (Italy) in the frame of an ESA programme, aimed to provide the photovoltaic generators for ROSETTA: the cometary material investigation mission scheduled for launch in 2003. The LILT cells development and testing objectives are therefore focused on the following requirements: insolation intensity as low as 0.03 Solar Constant, low temperature down to -150 C and solar flare proton environment. At this stage of development, after the completion of the technology verification tests, it has been demonstrated that suitable technologies are available for the qualification of both silicon and gallium arsenide cells and both candidates have shown conversion efficiencies over 25% at an illumination of 0.03 SC and a temperature of -150 C. In particular, when measured at those LILT conditions, the newly developed 'Hl-ETA/NR-LILT' silicon solar cells have reached a conversion efficiency of 26.3%, that is the highest value ever measured on a single junction solar cell. A large quantity of both 'Hl-ETA/NR-LILT' silicon and 'GaAs/Ge-LILT' solar cells are presently under fabrication and they will be submitted to a qualification test plan, including radiation exposure, in order to verify their applicability with respect to the mission requirements. The availability of two valid options will minimize the risk for the very ambitious scientific project. The paper

  17. Site selection and traverse planning to support a lunar polar rover mission: A case study at Haworth Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Bussey, Ben; McGovern, Andrew; Beyer, Ross; Lees, David; Deans, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Studies of lunar polar volatile deposits are of interest for scientific purposes to understand the nature and evolution of the volatiles, and also for exploration reasons as a possible in situ resource to enable long term human exploration and settlement of the Moon. Both theoretical and observational studies have suggested that significant quantities of volatiles exist in the polar regions, although the lateral and horizontal distribution remains unknown at the km scale and finer resolution. A lunar polar rover mission is required to further characterize the distribution, quantity, and character of lunar polar volatile deposits at these higher spatial resolutions. Here we present a case study for NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission concept for a lunar polar rover and utilize this mission architecture and associated constraints to evaluate whether a suitable landing site exists to support an RP flight mission. We evaluate the landing site criteria to characterize the Haworth Crater region in terms of expected hydrogen abundance, surface topography, and prevalence of shadowed regions, as well as solar illumination and direct to Earth communications as a function of time to develop a notional rover traverse plan that addresses both science and engineering requirements. We also present lessons-learned regarding lunar traverse path planning focusing on the critical nature of landing site selection, the influence of illumination patterns on traverse planning, the effects of performing shadowed rover operations, the influence of communications coverage on traverse plan development, and strategic planning to maximize rover lifetime and science at end of mission. Here we present a detailed traverse path scenario for a lunar polar volatiles rover mission and find that the particular site north of Haworth Crater studied here is suitable for further characterization of polar volatile deposits.

  18. Planning, implementation and optimization of future space missions using an immersive visualization environment (IVE) machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan Harris, E.; Morgenthaler, George W.

    2004-07-01

    Beginning in 1995, a team of 3-D engineering visualization experts assembled at the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company and began to develop innovative virtual prototyping simulation tools for performing ground processing and real-time visualization of design and planning of aerospace missions. At the University of Colorado, a team of 3-D visualization experts also began developing the science of 3-D visualization and immersive visualization at the newly founded British Petroleum (BP) Center for visualization, which began operations in October, 2001. BP acquired ARCO in the year 2000 and awarded the 3-D flexible IVE developed by ARCO (beginning in 1990) to the University of Colorado, CU, the winner in a competition among 6 Universities. CU then hired Dr. G. Dorn, the leader of the ARCO team as Center Director, and the other experts to apply 3-D immersive visualization to aerospace and to other University Research fields, while continuing research on surface interpretation of seismic data and 3-D volumes. This paper recounts further progress and outlines plans in Aerospace applications at Lockheed Martin and CU.

  19. The Maneuver Planning Process for the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesarch, Michael A.; Andrews, Stephen; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was successfully launched from Kennedy Space Center's Eastern Range on June 30, 2001. MAP will measure the cosmic microwave background as a follow up to NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission from the early 1990's. MAP will take advantage of its mission orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 Lagrangian point to produce results with higher resolution, sensitivity, and accuracy than COBE. A strategy comprising highly eccentric phasing loops with a lunar gravity assist was utilized to provide a zero-cost insertion into a lissajous orbit about L2. Maneuvers were executed at the phasing loop perigees to correct for launch vehicle errors and to target the lunar gravity assist so that a suitable orbit at L2 was achieved. This paper will discuss the maneuver planning process for designing, verifying, and executing MAP's maneuvers. A discussion of the tools and how they interacted will also be included. The maneuver planning process was iterative and crossed several disciplines, including trajectory design, attitude control, propulsion, power, thermal, communications, and ground planning. Several commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) packages were used to design the maneuvers. STK/Astrogator was used as the trajectory design tool. All maneuvers were designed in Astrogator to ensure that the Moon was met at the correct time and orientation to provide the energy needed to achieve an orbit about L2. The Mathworks Matlab product was used to develop a tool for generating command quaternions. The command quaternion table (CQT) was used to drive the attitude during the perigee maneuvers. The MatrixX toolset, originally written by Integrated Systems, Inc., now distributed by Mathworks, was used to create HiFi, a high fidelity simulator of the MAP attitude control system. HiFi was used to test the CQT and to make sure that all attitude requirements were met during the maneuver. In addition, all ACS data plotting and output were generated in

  20. Reliability of an interactive computer program for advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Schubart, Jane R; Levi, Benjamin H; Camacho, Fabian; Whitehead, Megan; Farace, Elana; Green, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Despite widespread efforts to promote advance directives (ADs), completion rates remain low. Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future (MYWK) is an interactive computer program that guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, explaining health conditions and interventions that commonly involve life or death decisions, helps them articulate their values/goals, and translates users' preferences into a detailed AD document. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that (in the absence of major life changes) the AD generated by MYWK reliably reflects an individual's values/preferences. English speakers ≥30 years old completed MYWK twice, 4 to 6 weeks apart. Reliability indices were assessed for three AD components: General Wishes; Specific Wishes for treatment; and Quality-of-Life values (QoL). Twenty-four participants completed the study. Both the Specific Wishes and QoL scales had high internal consistency in both time periods (Knuder Richardson formula 20 [KR-20]=0.83-0.95, and 0.86-0.89). Test-retest reliability was perfect for General Wishes (κ=1), high for QoL (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.83), but lower for Specific Wishes (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.57). MYWK generates an AD where General Wishes and QoL (but not Specific Wishes) statements remain consistent over time. PMID:22512830

  1. Reliability of an Interactive Computer Program for Advance Care Planning

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Camacho, Fabian; Whitehead, Megan; Farace, Elana; Green, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite widespread efforts to promote advance directives (ADs), completion rates remain low. Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future (MYWK) is an interactive computer program that guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, explaining health conditions and interventions that commonly involve life or death decisions, helps them articulate their values/goals, and translates users' preferences into a detailed AD document. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that (in the absence of major life changes) the AD generated by MYWK reliably reflects an individual's values/preferences. English speakers ≥30 years old completed MYWK twice, 4 to 6 weeks apart. Reliability indices were assessed for three AD components: General Wishes; Specific Wishes for treatment; and Quality-of-Life values (QoL). Twenty-four participants completed the study. Both the Specific Wishes and QoL scales had high internal consistency in both time periods (Knuder Richardson formula 20 [KR-20]=0.83–0.95, and 0.86–0.89). Test-retest reliability was perfect for General Wishes (κ=1), high for QoL (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.83), but lower for Specific Wishes (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.57). MYWK generates an AD where General Wishes and QoL (but not Specific Wishes) statements remain consistent over time. PMID:22512830

  2. Advance Care Planning among People Living with Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Barbara A.; Gessert, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent nephrology literature focuses on the need for discussions regarding advance care planning (ACP) for people living with dialysis (PWD). PWD and their family members’ attitudes toward ACP and other aspects of late-life decision making were assessed in this qualitative study. Methodology: Thirty-one interviews were completed with 20 PWD over the age of 70 (mean dialysis 34 months) and 11 family members, related to life experiences, making medical decisions, and planning for the future. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed. Findings: Four themes regarding ACP emerged from this secondary analysis of the interviews: how completing ACP, advance directives (AD), and identifying an agent fit into PWD experiences; PWD understanding of their prognosis; what gives PWD lives meaning and worth; and PWD care preferences when their defined meaning and worth are not part of their experience. These PWD and family members revealed that ACP is ongoing and common among them. They did not seem to think their medical providers needed to be part of these discussions, since family members were well informed. Practical implications: These results suggest that if health care providers and institutions need AD forms completed, it will important to work with both PWD and their family members to assure personal wishes are documented and honored. PMID:27417605

  3. Manned Mars mission psychological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    The research on isolated environments over the last thirty years suggests that psychological factors associated with such environments will lead to negative changes in individual and group performance. A mission to Mars will be the greatest undertaking ever devised by the human species. The members of such a mission will be in an environment whose potential dangers are not even completely known at this time. The psychological factors generated by such an environment, and which might adversely affect accomplishment of mission goals, can be minimized or planned for in advance. It is hoped that these issues will not be ignored in planning for this great adventure.

  4. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  5. Long-range planning cost model for support of future space missions by the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherif, J. S.; Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple model is suggested to do long-range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSP) support of future space missions. The model estimates total DSN preparation costs and the annual distribution of these costs for long-range budgetary planning. The cost model is based on actual DSN preparation costs from four space missions: Galileo, Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. The model was tested against the four projects and gave cost estimates that range from 18 percent above the actual total preparation costs of the projects to 25 percent below. The model was also compared to two other independent projects: Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS later became Voyager). The model gave cost estimates that range from 2 percent (for Viking) to 10 percent (for MJS) below the actual total preparation costs of these missions.

  6. The University of Maine at Augusta at the Lewiston-Auburn College Mission Statement and Long Range and Facilities Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Augusta.

    This document presents the strategic planning goals and mission statement of the University of Maine Augusta at Lewiston-Auburn College. The first and longest section outlines objectives concerning the college's academic programs including full-time and part-time faculty instruction, the core curriculum, strengthening the information…

  7. Guidance system operations plan for manned cm earth orbital and lunar missions using program Colossus 3. Section 2: Data links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1971-01-01

    The data links for use with the guidance system operations plan for manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program Colossus 3 are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) digital uplink to CMC, (2) command module contiguous block update, (3) CMC retrofire external data update, (4) CMC digital downlink, and (5) CMC entry update.

  8. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    or reasonable cost manufacturing techniques, manufacturability of the materials in dimensions required for integration into battery cells of practical capacities, low Technology Readiness levels (TRl), and the ability to achieve the desired performance by the customer need dates. The advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide (lithium NMC) cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success. Tasks over the next three years will focus on development of electrode materials, compatible electrolytes, and separator materials, and integration of promising components to assess their combined performance in working cells. Cells of the chosen chemistry will be developed to TRl 6 by 2014 and will then be transferred to the customers for infusion into their mission paths.

  9. Life sciences payloads analyses and technical program planning studies. [project planning of space missions of space shuttles in aerospace medicine and space biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Contractural requirements, project planning, equipment specifications, and technical data for space shuttle biological experiment payloads are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) urine collection and processing on the space shuttle, (2) space processing of biochemical and biomedical materials, (3) mission simulations, and (4) biomedical equipment.

  10. Living Our Mission, Building on Our Accomplishments: A Plan for Continued Change. 1994 Update. Five Year Strategic Plan, FY 1992-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Institutions, Denver. Div. of Developmental Disabilities.

    This report presents the 1994 update for a 5-year plan developed in 1992 which emphasizes changes resulting from restructuring Colorado state government and its departments. The first section presents the mission statement of the Division for Developmental Disabilities, a statement of the Division's operating principles, and a statement of desired…

  11. Intelligent mission planner for autonomous underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, C.; Ganesan, K.

    1994-03-01

    We describe the design of an architecture for an intelligent integrated mission planner for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Mission planning is an integral and important part of the software architecture of an AUV. Among the several functional modules of an AUV such as planner, controller, navigator, and perception, the planner plays the key role in generating, monitoring, and controlling of all mission tasks. In order to perform complex missions, the planner needs a wide range of knowledge and efficient reasoning techniques. Mission planning involves navigational planning, resource planning, safety planning, and mission-specific task planning. These functions require reasoning about the knowledge of the environment, vehicle, on-board resources, and mission tasks. The proposed design employs a mixture of hierarchical and heterarchical architectures. Case-based reasoning is employed for synthesizing mission plans. Among the different planner modules, design details of the navigational planner have been elaborated. The approach integrates advanced artificial intelligence techniques with AUV control architecture to make mission planning and execution simpler and flexible. The design takes into consideration the limited availability of AUV resources, scalability, and portability to other autonomous systems.

  12. 14 CFR 151.123 - Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance planning agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance... Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.123 Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance planning.... FAA's offer and the sponsor's acceptance constitute an advance planning grant agreement between...

  13. Assessment and Mission Planning Capability For Quantitative Aerothermodynamic Flight Measurements Using Remote Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Splinter, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wood, William; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin

    2008-01-01

    High resolution calibrated infrared imagery of vehicles during hypervelocity atmospheric entry or sustained hypersonic cruise has the potential to provide flight data on the distribution of surface temperature and the state of the airflow over the vehicle. In the early 1980 s NASA sought to obtain high spatial resolution infrared imagery of the Shuttle during entry. Despite mission execution with a technically rigorous pre-planning capability, the single airborne optical system for this attempt was considered developmental and the scientific return was marginal. In 2005 the Space Shuttle Program again sponsored an effort to obtain imagery of the Orbiter. Imaging requirements were targeted towards Shuttle ascent; companion requirements for entry did not exist. The engineering community was allowed to define observation goals and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved measurement capability over a series of flights. These imaging opportunities were extremely beneficial and clearly demonstrated capability to capture infrared imagery with mature and operational assets of the US Navy and the Missile Defense Agency. While successful, the usefulness of the imagery was, from an engineering perspective, limited. These limitations were mainly associated with uncertainties regarding operational aspects of data acquisition. These uncertainties, in turn, came about because of limited pre-flight mission planning capability, a poor understanding of several factors including the infrared signature of the Shuttle, optical hardware limitations, atmospheric effects and detector response characteristics. Operational details of sensor configuration such as detector integration time and tracking system algorithms were carried out ad hoc (best practices) which led to low probability of target acquisition and detector saturation. Leveraging from the qualified success during Return-to-Flight, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored an

  14. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  15. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  16. Syntactic flexibility and planning scope: the effect of verb bias on advance planning during sentence recall.

    PubMed

    van de Velde, Maartje; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-01-01

    In sentence production, grammatical advance planning scope depends on contextual factors (e.g., time pressure), linguistic factors (e.g., ease of structural processing), and cognitive factors (e.g., production speed). The present study tests the influence of the availability of multiple syntactic alternatives (i.e., syntactic flexibility) on the scope of advance planning during the recall of Dutch dative phrases. We manipulated syntactic flexibility by using verbs with a strong bias or a weak bias toward one structural alternative in sentence frames accepting both verbs (e.g., strong/weak bias: De ober schotelt/serveert de klant de maaltijd [voor] "The waiter dishes out/serves the customer the meal"). To assess lexical planning scope, we varied the frequency of the first post-verbal noun (N1, Experiment 1) or the second post-verbal noun (N2, Experiment 2). In each experiment, 36 speakers produced the verb phrases in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. On each trial, they read a sentence presented one word at a time, performed a short distractor task, and then saw a sentence preamble (e.g., De ober…) which they had to complete to form the presented sentence. Onset latencies were compared using linear mixed effects models. N1 frequency did not produce any effects. N2 frequency only affected sentence onsets in the weak verb bias condition and especially in slow speakers. These findings highlight the dependency of planning scope during sentence recall on the grammatical properties of the verb and the frequency of post-verbal nouns. Implications for utterance planning in everyday speech are discussed.

  17. Syntactic flexibility and planning scope: the effect of verb bias on advance planning during sentence recall.

    PubMed

    van de Velde, Maartje; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-01-01

    In sentence production, grammatical advance planning scope depends on contextual factors (e.g., time pressure), linguistic factors (e.g., ease of structural processing), and cognitive factors (e.g., production speed). The present study tests the influence of the availability of multiple syntactic alternatives (i.e., syntactic flexibility) on the scope of advance planning during the recall of Dutch dative phrases. We manipulated syntactic flexibility by using verbs with a strong bias or a weak bias toward one structural alternative in sentence frames accepting both verbs (e.g., strong/weak bias: De ober schotelt/serveert de klant de maaltijd [voor] "The waiter dishes out/serves the customer the meal"). To assess lexical planning scope, we varied the frequency of the first post-verbal noun (N1, Experiment 1) or the second post-verbal noun (N2, Experiment 2). In each experiment, 36 speakers produced the verb phrases in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. On each trial, they read a sentence presented one word at a time, performed a short distractor task, and then saw a sentence preamble (e.g., De ober…) which they had to complete to form the presented sentence. Onset latencies were compared using linear mixed effects models. N1 frequency did not produce any effects. N2 frequency only affected sentence onsets in the weak verb bias condition and especially in slow speakers. These findings highlight the dependency of planning scope during sentence recall on the grammatical properties of the verb and the frequency of post-verbal nouns. Implications for utterance planning in everyday speech are discussed. PMID:25368592

  18. Disentangling consumer and provider predictors of advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Kristin R; Ludwick, Ruth; Merolla, David; Palmisano, Barbara; Hazelett, Susan; Allen, Kyle R; Sanders, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    Factorial surveys were used to examine community-based long-term care providers' judgments about consumers' need for advance care planning (ACP) and comfort levels in discussing ACP. Providers (448 registered nurses and social workers) judged vignettes based on hypothetical consumers. Hierarchical linear models indicated providers judged consumers who were older, had end-stage diagnoses, multiple emergency department visits, and uninvolved caregivers as most in need of ACP. These variables explained 10% of the variance in judgments. Providers' beliefs about ACP predicted judgments of need for ACP and comfort level in discussing ACP. Provider characteristics explained more variance in comfort levels (44%) than in judgments of need (20%). This study demonstrates the need for tailored educational programs to increase comfort levels and address ACP misconceptions.

  19. Space Station Freedom advanced photovoltaics and battery technology development planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Cox, Spruce M.; Gates, Mark T.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) usable electrical power is planned to be built up incrementally during assembly phase to a peak of 75 kW end-of-life (EOL) shortly after Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) is achieved in 1999. This power will be provided by planar silicon (Si) arrays and nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries. The need for power is expected to grow from 75 kW to as much as 150 kW EOL during the evolutionary phase of SSF, with initial increases beginning as early as 2002. Providing this additional power with current technology may not be as cost effective as using advanced technology arrays and batteries expected to develop prior to this evolutionary phase. A six-month study sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and conducted by Boeing Defense and Space Group was initiated in Aug. 1991. The purpose of the study was to prepare technology development plans for cost effective advanced photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies with application to SSF growth, SSF upgrade after its arrays and batteries reach the end of their design lives, and other low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms. Study scope was limited to information available in the literature, informal industry contacts, and key representatives from NASA and Boeing involved in PV and battery research and development. Ten battery and 32 PV technologies were examined and their performance estimated for SSF application. Promising technologies were identified based on performance and development risk. Rough order of magnitude cost estimates were prepared for development, fabrication, launch, and operation. Roadmaps were generated describing key issues and development paths for maturing these technologies with focus on SSF application.

  20. A model for predicting the radiation exposure for mission planning aboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Jaby, Samy; Lewis, Brent J.; Tomi, Leena

    2014-04-01

    The International Space Station Cosmic Radiation Exposure Model (ISSCREM) has been developed as a possible tool for use in radiation mission planning as based on operational data collected with a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) aboard the ISS since 2000. It is able to reproduce the observed trapped radiation and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) contributions to the total dose equivalent to within ±20% and ±10%, respectively, as would be measured by the onboard TEPC at the Zvezda Service Module panel 327 (SM-327). Furthermore, when these contributions are combined, the total dose equivalent that would be measured at this location is estimated to within ±10%. The models incorporated into ISSCREM correlate the GCR dose equivalent rate to the cutoff rigidity magnetic shielding parameter and the trapped radiation dose equivalent rate to atmospheric density inside the South Atlantic Anomaly. The GCR dose equivalent rate is found to vary minimally with altitude and TEPC module location however, due to the statistics and data available, the trapped radiation model could only be developed for the TEPC located at SM-327. Evidence of the variation in trapped radiation dose with detector orientation and the East-West asymmetry were observed at this location.

  1. Multiple Discipline science assessment. [considering astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, gravitation and geophysics when planning planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    Various science disciplines were examined to determine where and when it is appropriate to include their objectives in the planning of planetary missions. The disciplines considered are solar astronomy, stellar and galactic astronomy, solar physics, cosmology and gravitational physics, the geosciences and the applied sciences. For each discipline, science objectives are identified which could provide a multiple discipline opportunity utilizing either a single spacecraft or two spacecraft delivered by a single launch vehicle. Opportunities using a common engineering system are also considered. The most promising opportunities identified include observations of solar images and relativistic effects using the Mercury orbiter; collection of samples exposed to solar radiation using the Mars surface sample return; studies of interstellar neutral H and He, magnetic fields, cosmic rays, and solar physics during Pluto or Neptune flybys; using the Mars orbiter to obtain solar images from 0.2 AU synchronous or from 90 deg orbit; and the study of the structure and composition of the atmosphere using atmospheric probes and remotely piloted vehicles.

  2. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 4: Technology advancement program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An overview study of the major technology definition tasks and subtasks along with their interfaces and interrelationships is presented. Although not specifically indicated in the diagram, iterations were required at many steps to finalize the results. The development of the integrated technology advancement plan was initiated by using the results of the previous two tasks, i.e., the trade studies and the preliminary cost and schedule estimates for the selected technologies. Descriptions for the development of each viable technology advancement was drawn from the trade studies. Additionally, a logic flow diagram depicting the steps in developing each technology element was developed along with descriptions for each of the major elements. Next, major elements of the logic flow diagrams were time phased, and that allowed the definition of a technology development schedule that was consistent with the space station program schedule when possible. Schedules show the major milestone including tests required as described in the logic flow diagrams.

  3. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  4. Advancing EDL Technologies for Future Space Missions: From Ground Testing Facilities to Ablative Heatshields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovitch, Jason

    Motivated by recent MSL results where the ablation rate of the PICA heatshield was over-predicted, and staying true to the objectives outlined in the NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report, this work focuses on advancing EDL technologies for future space missions. Due to the difficulties in performing flight tests in the hypervelocity regime, a new ground testing facility called the vertical expansion tunnel is proposed. The adverse effects from secondary diaphragm rupture in an expansion tunnel may be reduced or eliminated by orienting the tunnel vertically, matching the test gas pressure and the accelerator gas pressure, and initially separating the test gas from the accelerator gas by density stratification. If some sacrifice of the reservoir conditions can be made, the VET can be utilized in hypervelocity ground testing, without the problems associated with secondary diaphragm rupture. The performance of different constraints for the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE) method is investigated in the context of modeling reacting flows characteristic to ground testing facilities, and re-entry conditions. The effectiveness of different constraints are isolated, and new constraints previously unmentioned in the literature are introduced. Three main benefits from the RCCE method were determined: 1) the reduction in number of equations that need to be solved to model a reacting flow; 2) the reduction in stiffness of the system of equations needed to be solved; and 3) the ability to tabulate chemical properties as a function of a constraint once, prior to running a simulation, along with the ability to use the same table for multiple simulations. Finally, published physical properties of PICA are compiled, and the composition of the pyrolysis gases that form at high temperatures internal to a heatshield is investigated. A necessary link between the composition of the solid resin, and the composition of the pyrolysis gases created is provided

  5. An overview of advance care planning for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: The basics.

    PubMed

    Wasylynuk, Betty Ann; Davison, Sara N

    2016-01-01

    As the number of Canadians living with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) continues to grow, even higher numbers are living with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many of these people will eventually require renal replacement therapy (RRT), either dialysis or transplantation. More than 50% of patients starting RRT today are aged 65 or older, with the fastest growing group being patients 75 years and older. Despite advances to dialysis technology and dialysis care, the mortality rates remain high and dialysis patients' end-of-life care may not align with their preferences or values. Advance care planning (ACP) is an essential component of quality comprehensive kidney care. Kidney care teams develop strong relationships with their patients and are well positioned to integrate ACP into routine kidney care. This article defines ACP, outlines the essential components of ACP, and discusses the benefits, challenges, and special considerations of ACP. By enhancing the kidney care team's understanding of ACP, this article aims to assist in integrating ACP into routine kidney care for patients with advanced CKD. PMID:27215058

  6. Tracking and data system support for the Viking 1975 mission to Mars. Volume 1: Prelaunch planning, implementation, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgway, D. J.; Traxler, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    The tracking and data acquisition support for the 1975 Viking Missions to Mars is described. The history of the effort from its inception in late 1968 through the launches of Vikings 1 and 2 from Cape Kennedy in August and September 1975 is given. The Viking mission requirements for tracking and data acquisition support in both the near earth and deep space phases involved multiple radar tracking and telemetry stations, and communications networks together with the global network of tracking stations, communications, and control center. The planning, implementation, testing and management of the program are presented.

  7. Crystal growth furnace: An overview of the system configuration and planned experiments on the first United States Microgravity Laboratory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, R.; Lee, K. N.; Schaefer, D. A.

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF), currently in the Level IV integration cycle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in preparation for its maiden flight on the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) mission to be launched in May 1992, has been developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the Microgravity Science and Application Division (MSAD) programs at NASA Headquarters. The project is being managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, under contract NAS8-36637. This paper presents an overview of CGF system description and the system configuration for the USML-1 mission and also briefly describes the planned on-orbit experiments.

  8. The views of older Malaysians on advanced directive and advanced care planning: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Htut, Y; Shahrul, K; Poi, P J H

    2007-01-01

    The provision of optimum care for the ageing population is dependent on the understanding of their views and values on end of life issues. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to describe views of elderly Malaysians on Advanced Care Planning (henceforth ACP) and Advanced Directives (henceforth AD), and explore factors influencing these views. Fifteen elderly subjects with ages ranging from 65 to 83 years, representing different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia were selected for in-depth interviews guided by a questionnaire. Five core themes were extracted from the interviews: 1) Considering the future 2) Contingency plans for future illnesses 3) Attitudes towards life prolonging treatment procedures 4) Doctor-patient relationships and 5) Influence of religion on decisions related to future illness. Despite the lack of knowledge on ACP and AD, older respondents were very receptive to their concept. Although the majority agreed on the importance of planning for future medical management and having open discussion on end of life issues with their doctor, they felt it unnecessary to make a formal written AD. Most felt that the future was best left to fate or God, and none had made any contingency plan for severe future illnesses citing religion as reason for this view. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and dialysis were considered by most to be invasive life prolonging treatments. We suggest that doctors initiate discussions on end of life care with every older patient and their family so as to promote awareness and introduce the concept of ACP/AD to a Malaysian setting.

  9. Fuel qualification plan for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the development and qualification plan for the fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source. The reference fuel is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, dispersed in aluminum and clad in 6061 aluminum. This report was prepared in May 1994, at which time the reference design was for a two-element core containing highly enriched uranium (93% {sup 235}U) . The reactor was in the process of being redesigned to accommodate lowered uranium enrichment and became a three-element core containing a higher volume fraction of uranium enriched to 50% {sup 235}U. Consequently, this report was not issued at that time and would have been revised to reflect the possibly different requirements of the lower-enrichment, higher-volume fraction fuel. Because the reactor is now being canceled, this unrevised report is being issued for archival purposes. The report describes the fabrication and inspection development plan, the irradiation tests and performance modeling to qualify performance, the transient testing that is part of the safety program, and the interactions and interfaces of the fuel development with other tasks.

  10. Strategic targeting of advance care planning interventions: the Goldilocks phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Billings, J Andrew; Bernacki, Rachelle

    2014-04-01

    Strategically selecting patients for discussions and documentation about limiting life-sustaining treatments-choosing the right time along the end-of-life trajectory for such an intervention and identifying patients at high risk of facing end-of-life decisions-can have a profound impact on the value of advance care planning (ACP) efforts. Timing is important because the completion of an advance directive (AD) too far from or too close to the time of death can lead to end-of-life decisions that do not optimally reflect the patient's values, goals, and preferences: a poorly chosen target patient population that is unlikely to need an AD in the near future may lead to patients making unrealistic, hypothetical choices, while assessing preferences in the emergency department or hospital in the face of a calamity is notoriously inadequate. Because much of the currently studied ACP efforts have led to a disappointingly small proportion of patients eventually benefitting from an AD, careful targeting of the intervention should also improve the efficacy of such projects. A key to optimal timing and strategic selection of target patients for an ACP program is prognostication, and we briefly highlight prognostication tools and studies that may point us toward high-value AD interventions. PMID:24493203

  11. Strategic targeting of advance care planning interventions: the Goldilocks phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Billings, J Andrew; Bernacki, Rachelle

    2014-04-01

    Strategically selecting patients for discussions and documentation about limiting life-sustaining treatments-choosing the right time along the end-of-life trajectory for such an intervention and identifying patients at high risk of facing end-of-life decisions-can have a profound impact on the value of advance care planning (ACP) efforts. Timing is important because the completion of an advance directive (AD) too far from or too close to the time of death can lead to end-of-life decisions that do not optimally reflect the patient's values, goals, and preferences: a poorly chosen target patient population that is unlikely to need an AD in the near future may lead to patients making unrealistic, hypothetical choices, while assessing preferences in the emergency department or hospital in the face of a calamity is notoriously inadequate. Because much of the currently studied ACP efforts have led to a disappointingly small proportion of patients eventually benefitting from an AD, careful targeting of the intervention should also improve the efficacy of such projects. A key to optimal timing and strategic selection of target patients for an ACP program is prognostication, and we briefly highlight prognostication tools and studies that may point us toward high-value AD interventions.

  12. Development of Advanced Multi-Modality Radiation Treatment Planning Software

    SciTech Connect

    Nigg, D W; Hartmann Siantar, C

    2002-02-19

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has long been active in development of advanced Monte-Carlo based computational dosimetry and treatment planning methods and software for advanced radiotherapy, with a particular focus on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Fast-Neutron Therapy. The most recent INEEL software product system of this type is known as SERA, Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications. SERA is at a mature level in its life cycle, it has been licensed for research use worldwide, and it has become well established as a computational tool for research. However, along with its strengths, SERA also has some limitations in its structure and computational methodologies. More specifically, it is optimized only for neutron-based applications. Although photon transport can be computed with SERA, the simplified model that is used is designed primarily for photons produced in the neutron transport process. Thus SERA is not appropriate for applications to, for example, standard external-beam photon radiotherapy, which is by far more commonly used in the clinic than neutron based therapy.

  13. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  14. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  15. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  16. Advanced Communication Architectures and Technologies for Missions to the Outer Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K.; Hayden, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Missions to the outer planets would be considerably enhanced by the implementation of a future space communication infrastructure that utilizes relay stations placed at strategic locations in the solar system. These relay stations would operate autonomously and handle remote mission command and data traffic on a prioritized demand access basis. Such a system would enhance communications from that of the current direct communications between the planet and Earth. The system would also provide high rate data communications to outer planet missions, clear communications paths during times when the sun occults the mission spacecraft as viewed from Earth, and navigational "lighthouses" for missions utilizing onboard autonomous operations. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Distribution of a Generic Mission Planning and Scheduling Toolkit for Astronomical Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, Steven C.

    1996-01-01

    Work is progressing as outlined in the proposal for this contract. A working planning and scheduling system has been documented and packaged and made available to the WIRE Small Explorer group at JPL, the FUSE group at JHU, the NASA/GSFC Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics and the Advanced Planning and Scheduling Branch at STScI. The package is running successfully on the WIRE computer system. It is expected that the WIRE will reuse significant portions of the SWAS code in its system. This scheduling system itself was tested successfully against the spacecraft hardware in December 1995. A fully automatic scheduling module has been developed and is being added to the toolkit. In order to maximize reuse, the code is being reorganized during the current build into object-oriented class libraries. A paper describing the toolkit has been written and is included in the software distribution. We have experienced interference between the export and production versions of the toolkit. We will be requesting permission to reprogram funds in order to purchase a standalone PC onto which to offload the export version.

  18. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  19. The Continued Need for Modeling and Scaled Testing to Advance the Hanford Tank Waste Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, Loni M.; Fort, James A.; Rector, David R.

    2013-09-03

    Hanford tank wastes are chemically complex slurries of liquids and solids that can exhibit changes in rheological behavior during retrieval and processing. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) recently abandoned its planned approach to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) supported by testing at less than full scale to verify the design of vessels that process these wastes within the plant. The commercial CFD tool selected was deemed too difficult to validate to the degree necessary for use in the design of a nuclear facility. Alternative, but somewhat immature, CFD tools are available that can simulate multiphase flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Yet both CFD and scaled testing can play an important role in advancing the Hanford tank waste mission—in supporting the new verification approach, which is to conduct testing in actual plant vessels; in supporting waste feed delivery, where scaled testing is ongoing; as a fallback approach to design verification if the Full Scale Vessel Testing Program is deemed too costly and time-consuming; to troubleshoot problems during commissioning and operation of the plant; and to evaluate the effects of any proposed changes in operating conditions in the future to optimize plant performance.

  20. Payload/orbiter contamination control requirement study: Preliminary contamination mission support plan. [a management analysis of project planning of spacecraft sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, L. E.; Hooper, V. W.; Ress, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the mission support plan and those support activities envisioned to be applicable and necessary during premission and postmission phases of the Spacelab program. The purpose, role, and requirements of the contamination control operations for the first two missions of the Spacelab equipped Space Transportation System are discussed. The organization of the contamination control operation and its relationship to and interfaces with other mission support functions is also discussed. Some specific areas of contamination to be investigated are treated. They are: (1) windows and viewports, (2) experiment equipment, (3) thermal control surfaces, (4) the contaminant induced atmosphere (as differentiated from the normal ambient atmosphere at the orbit altitude), and (5) optical navigation instruments.