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Sample records for advanced modular incoherent

  1. Imaging of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes with the 450 MHz Poker Flat Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolls, M. J.; Heinselman, C. J.; Hope, E. A.; Ranjan, S.; Kelley, M. C.; Kelly, J. D.

    2007-10-01

    Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) occur near the mesopause during the polar summer months. PMSE are primarily studied at VHF, however there have been some detections at higher frequencies. Here, we report on some of the first detections of PMSE with the 450 MHz (67 cm) Poker Flat Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR). Echoes were observed with volume reflectivities (radar scattering cross section per unit volume) near 2-3 × 10-17 m-1. On 11 June 2007, PFISR was operating in a 26-beam position mode, with look directions spread over an approximately 80 by 80 km2 region at 85 km altitude with elevation angles as low as ~50°. The measurements showed patchy (tens of kilometer) irregularity regions drifting in from the north, in addition to smaller, more localized structures. There was no evidence for strong aspect sensitivity of these UHF echoes, as PMSE was observed in all look directions with relatively uniform intensity. The observations indicate the presence of fossilized irregularities drifting with the background wind field as well as areas of developing irregularities possibly associated with the presence of active neutral air turbulence.

  2. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks

  3. Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, C.; Wagener, T.; Gooseff, M.; McGlynn, B.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Sharma, P.; Zuppe, S.; Pfeiffer, C.

    2008-12-01

    In-class hydrology education is typically strongly biased towards the instructor's background and overcoming this limitation is burdensome within the time-constraints academia. This problem is particularly true for academics in tenure-track positions when most of the material development must occur. To overcome this challenge and advance a broader perspective of hydrology education, we are in the process of establishing the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). The objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to, developed, and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and a modular core curriculum based on modern pedagogical standards. The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty in educating hydrologists that can solve today's and tomorrow's interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced.

  4. The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Kelleher, C.; Gooseff, M.; McGlynn, B.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Sharma, P.; Zappe, S.

    2009-04-01

    In-class hydrology education is typically strongly biased towards the instructor's background and overcoming this limitation is overly burdensome within the time-constraints of the academic life. This is particularly true for academics in tenure-track positions when most of the material development has to occur. To overcome this issue, we are in the process of establishing the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). Our overall objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and a modular core curriculum based on modern pedagogical standards. The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty in educating hydrologists that can solve today's and tomorrow's interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced.

  5. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the data collection work performed for an advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) economics analysis activity at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology development and analytical results are described in separate, stand-alone documents as listed in the references. The economics analysis effort for the AdvSMR program combines the technical and fuel cycle aspects of advanced (non-light water reactor [LWR]) reactors with the market and production aspects of SMRs. This requires the collection, analysis, and synthesis of multiple unrelated and potentially high-uncertainty data sets from a wide range of data sources. Further, the nature of both economic and nuclear technology analysis requires at least a minor attempt at prediction and prognostication, and the far-term horizon for deployment of advanced nuclear systems introduces more uncertainty. Energy market uncertainty, especially the electricity market, is the result of the integration of commodity prices, demand fluctuation, and generation competition, as easily seen in deregulated markets. Depending on current or projected values for any of these factors, the economic attractiveness of any power plant construction project can change yearly or quarterly. For long-lead construction projects such as nuclear power plants, this uncertainty generates an implied and inherent risk for potential nuclear power plant owners and operators. The uncertainty in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle costs is in some respects better understood and quantified than the energy market uncertainty. The LWR-based fuel cycle has a long commercial history to use as its basis for cost estimation, and the current activities in LWR construction provide a reliable baseline for estimates for similar efforts. However, for advanced systems, the estimates and their associated uncertainties are based on forward-looking assumptions for performance after the system has been built and has achieved commercial operation

  6. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  7. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  8. Solar Power Satellite Development: Advances in Modularity and Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Space solar power satellites require innovative concepts in order to achieve economically and technically feasible designs. The mass and volume constraints of current and planned launch vehicles necessitate highly efficient structural systems be developed. In addition, modularity and in-space deployment will be enabling design attributes. This paper reviews the current challenges of launching and building very large space systems. A building block approach is proposed in order to achieve near-term solar power satellite risk reduction while promoting the necessary long-term technology advances. Promising mechanical systems technologies anticipated in the coming decades including modularity, material systems, structural concepts, and in-space operations are described

  9. Health Monitoring to Support Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) are based on advanced reactor concepts, some of which were promoted by the Generation IV International Forum, and are being considered for diverse missions including desalination of water, production of hydrogen, etc. While the existing fleet of commercial nuclear reactors provides baseload electricity, it is conceivable that aSMRs could be implemented for both baseload and load following applications. The effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on plant operations and maintenance (O&M) is not fully understood and limiting these costs will be essential to successful deployment of aSMRs. Integrated health monitoring concepts are proposed to support the safe and affordable operation of aSMRs over their lifetime by enabling management of significant in-vessel and in-containment active and passive components.

  10. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M; Cole, Daniel L; Fugate, David L; Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Muhlheim, Michael David; Rao, Nageswara S; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  11. Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

  12. ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    E. Blanford; E. Keldrauk; M. Laufer; M. Mieler; J. Wei; B. Stojadinovic; P.F. Peterson

    2010-09-20

    Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated with the design of nuclear and industrial safety systems, physical security systems, and international safeguards systems. Overall reliability will be increased, through the use of replaceable and modular equipment, and through design to facilitate on-line monitoring, in-service inspection, maintenance, replacement, and decommissioning. Economics will also receive high design priority, through integrated engineering efforts to optimize building arrangements to minimize building heights and footprints. Finally, the licensing approach will be transformed by becoming increasingly performance based and technology neutral, using best-estimate simulation methods with uncertainty and margin quantification. In this context, two structural engineering technologies, seismic base isolation and modular steel-plate/concrete composite structural walls, are investigated. These technologies have major potential to (1) enable standardized reactor designs to be deployed across a wider range of sites, (2) reduce the impact of uncertainties related to site-specific seismic conditions, and (3) alleviate reactor equipment qualification requirements. For Gen IV reactors the potential for deliberate crashes of large aircraft must also be considered in design. This report concludes that base-isolated structures should be decoupled from the reactor external event exclusion system. As an example, a scoping analysis is performed for a rectangular, decoupled external event shell designed as a grillage. This report also reviews modular construction technology, particularly steel-plate/concrete construction using

  13. Analysis of Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project is developing a modular approach to spacecraft power systems for exploration beyond Earth orbit. AMPS is intended to meet the need of reducing the cost of design development, test and integration and also reducing the operational logistics cost of supporting exploration missions. AMPS seeks to establish modular power building blocks with standardized electrical, mechanical, thermal and data interfaces that can be applied across multiple exploration vehicles. The presentation discusses the results of a cost analysis that compares the cost of the modular approach against a traditional non-modular approach.

  14. Development of a system model for advanced small modular reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a system model that can be used to analyze three advance small modular reactor (SMR) designs through their lifetime. Neutronics of these reactor designs were evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX/6). The system models were developed in Matlab and Simulink. A major thrust of this research was the initial scoping analysis of Sandias concept of a long-life fast reactor (LLFR). The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional light water reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs (e.g. high temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). The system model has subroutines for lifetime reactor feedback and operation calculations, thermal hydraulic effects, load demand changes and a simplified SCO2 Brayton cycle for power conversion.

  15. Johnson Noise Thermometry for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L.,Jr.; Roberts, M.; Bull, N.D.; Holcomb, D.E.; Wood, R.T.

    2012-09-15

    Temperature is a key process variable at any nuclear power plant (NPP). The harsh reactor environment causes all sensor properties to drift over time. At the higher temperatures of advanced NPPs the drift occurs more rapidly. The allowable reactor operating temperature must be reduced by the amount of the potential measurement error to assure adequate margin to material damage. Johnson noise is a fundamental expression of temperature and as such is immune to drift in a sensor’s physical condition. In and near the core, only Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) and radiation pyrometry offer the possibility for long-term, high-accuracy temperature measurement due to their fundamental natures. Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) place a higher value on long-term stability in their temperature measurements in that they produce less power per reactor core and thus cannot afford as much instrument recalibration labor as their larger brethren. The purpose of the current ORNL-led project, conducted under the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) research pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced SMR Research and Development (R&D) program, is to develop and demonstrate a drift free Johnson noise-based thermometer suitable for deployment near core in advanced SMR plants.

  16. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Steven Prescott; Tony Koonce

    2014-04-01

    A key area of the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) strategy is the development of methodologies and tools that will be used to predict the safety, security, safeguards, performance, and deployment viability of SMRs. The goal of the SMR PRA activity will be to develop quantitative methods and tools and the associated analysis framework for assessing a variety of risks. Development and implementation of SMR-focused safety assessment methods may require new analytic methods or adaptation of traditional methods to the advanced design and operational features of SMRs. We will need to move beyond the current limitations such as static, logic-based models in order to provide more integrated, scenario-based models based upon predictive modeling which are tied to causal factors. The development of SMR-specific safety models for margin determination will provide a safety case that describes potential accidents, design options (including postulated controls), and supports licensing activities by providing a technical basis for the safety envelope. This report documents the progress that was made to implement the PRA framework, specifically by way of demonstration of an advanced 3D approach to representing, quantifying and understanding flooding risks to a nuclear power plant.

  17. Johnson Noise Thermometry for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr, Charles L; Roberts, Michael; Bull, Nora D; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Temperature is a key process variable at any nuclear power plant (NPP). The harsh reactor environment causes all sensor properties to drift over time. At the higher temperatures of advanced NPPs the drift occurs more rapidly. The allowable reactor operating temperature must be reduced by the amount of the potential measurement error to assure adequate margin to material damage. Johnson noise is a fundamental expression of temperature and as such is immune to drift in a sensor s physical condition. In and near core, only Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) and radiation pyrometry offer the possibility for long-term, high-accuracy temperature measurement due to their fundamental natures. Small, Modular Reactors (SMRs) place a higher value on long-term stability in their temperature measurements in that they produce less power per reactor core and thus cannot afford as much instrument recalibration labor as their larger brethren. The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a drift free Johnson noise-based thermometer suitable for deployment near core in advanced SMR plants.

  18. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Loflin, Leonard; McRimmon, Beth

    2014-12-18

    This report summarizes a project by EPRI to include requirements for small modular light water reactors (smLWR) into the EPRI Utility Requirements Document (URD) for Advanced Light Water Reactors. The project was jointly funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report covers the scope and content of the URD, the process used to revise the URD to include smLWR requirements, a summary of the major changes to the URD to include smLWR, and how to use the URD as revised to achieve value on new plant projects.

  19. MIDEX Advanced Modular and Distributed Spacecraft Avionics Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffa, John A.; Castell, Karen; Flatley, Thomas; Lin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    MIDEX (Medium Class Explorer) is the newest line in NASA's Explorer spacecraft development program. As part of the MIDEX charter, the MIDEX spacecraft development team has developed a new modular, distributed, and scaleable spacecraft architecture that pioneers new spaceflight technologies and implementation approaches, all designed to reduce overall spacecraft cost while increasing overall functional capability. This resultant "plug and play" system dramatically decreases the complexity and duration of spacecraft integration and test, providing a basic framework that supports spacecraft modularity and scalability for missions of varying size and complexity. Together, these subsystems form a modular, flexible avionics suite that can be modified and expanded to support low-end and very high-end mission requirements with a minimum of redesign, as well as allowing a smooth, continuous infusion of new technologies as they are developed without redesigning the system. This overall approach has the net benefit of allowing a greater portion of the overall mission budget to be allocated to mission science instead of a spacecraft bus. The MIDEX scaleable architecture is currently being manufactured and tested for use on the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), an inhouse program at GSFC.

  20. Advanced Control and Protection system Design Methods for Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Wilson Jr, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The project supported the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in identifying and evaluating the regulatory implications concerning the control and protection systems proposed for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP, using modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology, is to provide commercial industries with electricity and high-temperature process heat for industrial processes such as hydrogen production. Process heat temperatures range from 700 to 950 C, and for the upper range of these operation temperatures, the modular HTGR is sometimes referred to as the Very High Temperature Reactor or VHTR. Initial NGNP designs are for operation in the lower temperature range. The defining safety characteristic of the modular HTGR is that its primary defense against serious accidents is to be achieved through its inherent properties of the fuel and core. Because of its strong negative temperature coefficient of reactivity and the capability of the fuel to withstand high temperatures, fast-acting active safety systems or prompt operator actions should not be required to prevent significant fuel failure and fission product release. The plant is designed such that its inherent features should provide adequate protection despite operational errors or equipment failure. Figure 1 shows an example modular HTGR layout (prismatic core version), where its inlet coolant enters the reactor vessel at the bottom, traversing up the sides to the top plenum, down-flow through an annular core, and exiting from the lower plenum (hot duct). This research provided NRC staff with (a) insights and knowledge about the control and protection systems for the NGNP and VHTR, (b) information on the technologies/approaches under consideration for use in the reactor and process heat applications, (c) guidelines for the design of highly integrated control rooms, (d) consideration for modeling of control and protection system designs for

  1. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  2. Advanced modularity-specialized label propagation algorithm for detecting communities in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Murata, T.

    2010-04-01

    A modularity-specialized label propagation algorithm (LPAm) for detecting network communities was recently proposed. This promising algorithm offers some desirable qualities. However, LPAm favors community divisions where all communities are similar in total degree and thus it is prone to get stuck in poor local maxima in the modularity space. To escape local maxima, we employ a multistep greedy agglomerative algorithm (MSG) that can merge multiple pairs of communities at a time. Combining LPAm and MSG, we propose an advanced modularity-specialized label propagation algorithm (LPAm+). Experiments show that LPAm+ successfully detects communities with higher modularity values than ever reported in two commonly used real-world networks. Moreover, LPAm+ offers a fair compromise between accuracy and speed.

  3. Requirements for Prognostic Health Management of Passive Components in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. aSMRs are conceived for applications in remote locations and for diverse missions that include providing process or district heating, water desalination, and hydrogen production. Several challenges exist with respect to cost-effective operations and maintenance (O&M) of aSMRs, including the impacts of aggressive operating environments and modularity, and limiting these costs and staffing needs will be essential to ensuring the economic feasibility of aSMR deployment. In this regard, prognostic health management (PHM) systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of aSMR systems. This paper identifies requirements and technical gaps associated with implementation of PHM systems for passive aSMR components.

  4. Modular, Reconfigurable, and Rapid Response Space Systems: The Remote Sensing Advanced Technology Microsatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime; Andary, Jim; Oberright, John; So, Maria; Wegner, Peter; Hauser, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Modular, Reconfigurable, and Rapid-response (MR(sup 2)) space systems represent a paradigm shift in the way space assets of all sizes are designed, manufactured, integrated, tested, and flown. This paper will describe the MR(sup 2) paradigm in detail, and will include guidelines for its implementation. The Remote Sensing Advanced Technology microsatellite (RSAT) is a proposed flight system test-bed used for developing and implementing principles and best practices for MR(sup 2) spacecraft, and their supporting infrastructure. The initial goal of this test-bed application is to produce a lightweight (approx. 100 kg), production-minded, cost-effective, and scalable remote sensing micro-satellite capable of high performance and broad applicability. Such applications range from future distributed space systems, to sensor-webs, and rapid-response satellite systems. Architectures will be explored that strike a balance between modularity and integration while preserving the MR(sup 2) paradigm. Modularity versus integration has always been a point of contention when approaching a design: whereas one-of-a-kind missions may require close integration resulting in performance optimization, multiple and flexible application spacecraft benefit &om modularity, resulting in maximum flexibility. The process of building spacecraft rapidly (< 7 days), requires a concerted and methodical look at system integration and test processes and pitfalls. Although the concept of modularity is not new and was first developed in the 1970s by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft), it was never modernized and was eventually abandoned. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years technology has advanced considerably, and the time is ripe to reconsider modularity in its own right, as enabler of R(sup 2), and as a key element of transformational systems. The

  5. An effective method for incoherent scattering radar's detecting ability evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ziqing; Yao, Ming; Deng, Xiaohua

    2016-06-01

    Ionospheric incoherent scatter radar (ISR), which is used to detect ionospheric electrons and ions, generally, has megawatt class transmission power and hundred meter level antenna aperture. The crucial purpose of this detecting technology is to get ionospheric parameters by acquiring the autocorrelation function and power spectrum of the target ionospheric plasma echoes. Whereas the ISR's echoes are very weak because of the small radar cross section of its target, estimating detecting ability will be significantly instructive and meaningful for ISR system design. In this paper, we evaluate the detecting ability through signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The soft-target radar equation is deduced to be applicable to ISR, through which we use data from International Reference Ionosphere model to simulate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of echoes, and then comparing the measured SNR from European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association and Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar with the simulation. The simulation results show good consistency with the measured SNR. For ISR, the topic of this paper is the first comparison between the calculated SNR and radar measurements; the detecting ability can be improved through increasing SNR. The effective method for ISR's detecting ability evaluation provides basis for design of radar system.

  6. Modular advanced oxidation process enabled by cathodic hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Barazesh, James M; Hennebel, Tom; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L

    2015-06-16

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d(-1). The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO(•) scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m(-3), with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices.

  7. Modular Advanced Oxidation Process Enabled by Cathodic Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO•) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d–1. The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO• scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m–3, with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices. PMID:26039560

  8. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Rogers, F.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  9. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, M. S.; Klaus, K.; Rogers, F.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  10. A double-multilayer monochromator using a modular design for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    A novel double-multilayer monochromator has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source X-ray undulator beamline at Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator consists of two ultra high-vacuum (UHV) compatible modular vessels, each with a sine-bar driving structure and a water-cooled multilayer holder. A high precision Y-Z stage is used to provide compensating motion for the second multilayer from outside the vacuum chamber so that the monochromator can fix the output monochromatic beam direction and angle during the energy scan in a narrow range. The design details for this monochromator are presented in this paper.

  11. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Technical Exchange Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    During FY13, the INL developed an advanced SMR PRA framework which has been described in the report Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Technical Framework Specification, INL/EXT-13-28974 (April 2013). In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August 2013. This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.

  12. It takes a community to raise a hydrologist: the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Kelleher, C.; Weiler, M.; McGlynn, B.; Gooseff, M.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Gregg, S.; Sharma, P.; Zappe, S.

    2012-02-01

    Protection from hydrological extremes and the sustainable supply of hydrological services in the presence of climate change and increasing population pressure are the defining societal challenges for hydrology in the 21st century. A review of the existing literature shows that these challenges and their educational consequences for hydrology were foreseeable and were predicted by some. Surveys of the current educational basis, however, also clearly demonstrate that hydrology education is not yet prepared to deal with this challenge. We present our own vision of the necessary future evolution of hydrology education, which we implemented in the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). The MOCHA project is directly aimed at developing a community-driven basis for hydrology education. In this paper we combine literature review, surveys, discussion and assessment to provide a holistic baseline for future hydrology education.

  13. First operations of the RISR-C incoherent scatter radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, R. G.; Van Eyken, A. P.; Spanswick, E.; Nicolls, M. J.; Kelly, J. D.; Greffen, M. J.; Knudsen, D. J.; Connors, M. G.; Schutzer, M.; Valentic, T. A.; Malone, M.; St-Maurice, J. P.; Donovan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian face of the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-C), the newest Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR), recently began routine operations and has been taking detailed measurements of the polar cap ionosphere. Like other AMISR radars, RISR-C has the ability to use electronic beam steering to simultaneously sample ionospheric plasma parameters in several different line-of-sight directions (over 4000 possible beam directions, of which, typically 10-50 are used in a given experiment). Electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and line-of-sight (LOS) plasma velocities are measured along these beam directions at several ranges in (typically) 1-minute intervals. Combining LOS velocity measurements from several different beam directions allows full 3-d ionospheric plasma velocities to be resolved within the field-of-view of the radar. Ionospheric measurements from the southward facing RISR-C are complemented by measurements by the co-located northward facing RISR-N radar operated by SRI International and the REGO redline optical camera operated by the University of Calgary. Initial comparisons between these instruments demonstrate that RISR-C is operating well and will provide vital new measurements of the polar cap ionosphere.

  14. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  15. Incorporating Equipment Condition Assessment in Risk Monitors for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can complement the current fleet of large light-water reactors in the USA for baseload and peak demand power production and process heat applications (e.g., water desalination, shale oil extraction, hydrogen production). The day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance (O&M); however, the effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on O&M is not fully understood. These costs could potentially be reduced by optimized scheduling, with risk-informed scheduling of maintenance, repair, and replacement of equipment. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a “living” probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), which reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant and combine event probabilities with population-based probability of failure (POF) for key components. “Risk monitors” extend the PRA by incorporating the actual and dynamic plant configuration (equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions, etc.) into risk assessment. In fact, PRAs are more integrated into plant management in today’s nuclear power plants than at any other time in the history of nuclear power. However, population-based POF curves are still used to populate fault trees; this approach neglects the time-varying condition of equipment that is relied on during standard and non-standard configurations. Equipment condition monitoring techniques can be used to estimate the component POF. Incorporating this unit-specific estimate of POF in the risk monitor can provide a more accurate estimate of risk in different operating and maintenance configurations. This enhanced risk assessment will be especially important for aSMRs that have advanced component designs, which don’t have an available operating history to draw from, and often use passive design features, which present challenges to PRA. This paper presents the requirements and technical gaps for developing a framework to integrate unit

  16. Toward an Online Community of Educators: The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, C.; Wagener, T.; Gooseff, M. N.; Gregg, S.; McGlynn, B. L.; Sharma, P.; Meixner, T.; Marshall, L. A.; McGuire, K. J.; Weiler, M.

    2009-12-01

    The field of hydrology encompasses a wide range of departments and disciplines, ranging from civil engineering to geography to geosciences. As a consequence, in-class hydrology education is often strongly biased towards the background of a single instructor, limiting the educational experience of the students and not allowing for a holistic approach to hydrology education. Recently established, the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA) creates an online community of hydrologists from a range of backgrounds and disciplines to define the boundaries of an unbiased hydrology education and to jointly develop resources to overcome previous instructional limitations (http://www.mocha.psu.edu/). Our first objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to, developed, evolved and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. On a larger scale, we hope to raise the standard of hydrology education and to foster international collaboration and exchange. Our work began with an initial survey including over 100 hydrology educators to assess the state of current hydrology education. Based on the survey results, the MOCHA project was designed and implemented, and initial teaching material and pedagogical guidelines for good practice in teaching were prepared. This past fall and spring, we piloted the website and teaching material across several universities. The web-based MOCHA project has recently been opened to solicit contributions from the global hydrology community. Our presentation will focus on the overall vision behind MOCHA, lessons learned from our initial piloting, and current steps to achieve our vision.

  17. It takes a community to raise a hydrologist: the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Kelleher, C.; Weiler, M.; McGlynn, B.; Gooseff, M.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Gregg, S.; Sharma, P.; Zappe, S.

    2012-09-01

    Protection from hydrological extremes and the sustainable supply of hydrological services in the presence of changing climate and lifestyles as well as rocketing population pressure in many parts of the world are the defining societal challenges for hydrology in the 21st century. A review of the existing literature shows that these challenges and their educational consequences for hydrology were foreseeable and were even predicted by some. However, surveys of the current educational basis for hydrology also clearly demonstrate that hydrology education is not yet ready to prepare students to deal with these challenges. We present our own vision of the necessary evolution of hydrology education, which we implemented in the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). The MOCHA project is directly aimed at developing a community-driven basis for hydrology education. In this paper we combine literature review, community survey, discussion and assessment to provide a holistic baseline for the future of hydrology education. The ultimate objective of our educational initiative is to enable educators to train a new generation of "renaissance hydrologists," who can master the holistic nature of our field and of the problems we encounter.

  18. SMAHTR - A Concept for a Small, Modular Advanced High Temperaure Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Greene, Sherrell R; Holcomb, David Eugene; Carbajo, Juan J; Cisneros, Anselmo T; Corwin, William R; Ilas, Dan; Wilson, Dane F; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Bradley, Eric Craig; Yoder, III, Graydon L

    2010-01-01

    Several new high temperature reactor concepts, referred to as Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactors (FHRs), have been developed over the past decade. These FHRs use a liquid salt coolant combined with high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels (TRISO) and graphite structural materials to provide a reactor that operates at very high temperatures and is scalable to large sizes perhaps exceeding 2400 MWt. This paper presents a new small FHR the Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor or SmAHTR . SmAHTR is targeted at applications that require compact, high temperature heat sources either for high efficiency electricity production or process heat applications. A preliminary SmAHTR concept has been developed that delivers 125 MWt of energy in an integral primary system design that places all primary and decay heat removal heat exchangers inside the reactor vessel. The current reactor baseline concept utilizes a prismatic fuel block core, but multiple removable fuel assembly concepts are under evaluation as well. The reactor vessel size is such that it can be transported on a standard tractor-trailer to support simplified deployment. This paper will provide a summary of the current SmAHTR system concept and on-going technology and system architecture trades studies.

  19. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different

  20. Challenges and Opportunities for Hydrology Education in a Changing World - The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Brian; Wagener, Thorsten; Marshall, Lucy; McGuire, Kevin; Meixner, Thomas; Weiler, Markus; Gooseff, Michael; Kelleher, Christa; Gregg, Susan

    2010-05-01

    ‘It takes a village to raise a child', but who does it take to educate a hydrologist who can solve today's and tomorrow's problems? Hydrology is inherently an interdisciplinary science, and therefore requires interdisciplinary training. We believe that the demands on current and future hydrologists will continue to increase, while training at undergraduate and graduate levels has not kept pace. How do we, as university faculty, educate hydrologists capable of solving complex problems in an interdisciplinary environment considering that current educators have often been taught in narrow traditional disciplines? We suggest a unified community effort to change the way that hydrologists are educated. The complexity of the task is ever increasing. Analysis techniques and tools required for solving emerging problems have to evolve away from focusing mainly on the analysis of past behavior because baselines are shifting as the world changes. The difficulties of providing an appropriate education are also increasing, especially given the growing demands on faculty time. To support hydrology educators and improve hydrology education, we have started a faculty community of educators (REACH) and implemented the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA, http://www.mocha.psu.edu/). The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty as they educate hydrologists that can solve interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced as students. Our current objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for university hydrology education, based on modern pedagogical standards, freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and capacity building. In this presentation we discuss the results of a recent survey on current hydrology education (to compare with the state of

  1. Incoherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Dietrich; Born, Matthias; Jüstel, Thomas

    Since the invention and industrialization of incandescent lamps at the end radiation of the 19th century electrical lighting has become a commodity in our daily life. Today, incoherent light sources are used for numerous application areas. Major improvements have been achieved over the past decades with respect to lamp efficiency (Fig. 10.1), lifetime and color properties.

  2. Incoherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Dietrich; Born, Matthias; Jüstel, Thomas

    Since the invention and industrialization of incandescent lamps at the end of the 19th century electrical lighting has become a commodity in our daily life. Today, incoherent light sources are used for numerous application areas. Major improvements have been achieved over the past decades with respect to lamp efficiency Fig. 10.1, lifetime and color properties.

  3. INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

    2014-04-01

    It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each

  4. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 4: Data processing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The computation and logical functions which are performed by the data processing assembly of the modular space station are defined. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements analysis, (2) baseline data processing assembly configuration, (3) information flow study, (4) throughput simulation, (5) redundancy study, (6) memory studies, and (7) design requirements specification.

  5. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 5: Software assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The development of uniform computer program standards and conventions for the modular space station is discussed. The accomplishments analyzed are: (1) development of computer program specification hierarchy, (2) definition of computer program development plan, and (3) recommendations for utilization of all operating on-board space station related data processing facilities.

  6. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 2: Communications terminal breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of the communications terminal breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) history of communications terminal breadboard, (2) requirements analysis, (3) technology goals in terminal design, and (4) communications terminal board integration tests.

  7. Pre-Conceptual Design of a Fluoride-Salt-Cooled Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Sherrell R; Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Carbajo, Juan J; Ilas, Dan; Cisneros, Anselmo T; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Corwin, William R; Wilson, Dane F; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Qualls, A L; Peretz, Fred J; Flanagan, George F; Clayton, Dwight A; Bradley, Eric Craig; Bell, Gary L; Hunn, John D; Pappano, Peter J; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2011-02-01

    This document presents the results of a study conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 2010 to explore the feasibility of small modular fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors (FHRs). A preliminary reactor system concept, SmATHR (for Small modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor) is described, along with an integrated high-temperature thermal energy storage or salt vault system. The SmAHTR is a 125 MWt, integral primary, liquid salt cooled, coated particle-graphite fueled, low-pressure system operating at 700 C. The system employs passive decay heat removal and two-out-of-three , 50% capacity, subsystem redundancy for critical functions. The reactor vessel is sufficiently small to be transportable on standard commercial tractor-trailer transport vehicles. Initial transient analyses indicated the transition from normal reactor operations to passive decay heat removal is accomplished in a manner that preserves robust safety margins at all times during the transient. Numerous trade studies and trade-space considerations are discussed, along with the resultant initial system concept. The current concept is not optimized. Work remains to more completely define the overall system with particular emphasis on refining the final fuel/core configuration, salt vault configuration, and integrated system dynamics and safety behavior.

  8. Self-Driven Desalination and Advanced Treatment of Wastewater in a Modularized Filtration Air Cathode Microbial Desalination Cell.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Kuichang; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zuo, Jiaolan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-05

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) extract organic energy from wastewater for in situ desalination of saline water. However, to desalinate salt water, traditional MDCs often require an anolyte (wastewater) and a catholyte (other synthetic water) to produce electricity. Correspondingly, the traditional MDCs also produced anode effluent and cathode effluent, and may produce a concentrate solution, resulting in a low production of diluate. In this study, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube membranes and Pt carbon cloths were utilized as filtration material and cathode to fabricate a modularized filtration air cathode MDC (F-MDC). With real wastewater flowing from anode to cathode, and finally to the middle membrane stack, the diluate volume production reached 82.4%, with the removal efficiency of salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 93.6% and 97.3% respectively. The final diluate conductivity was 68 ± 12 μS/cm, and the turbidity was 0.41 NTU, which were sufficient for boiler supplementary or industrial cooling. The concentrate production was only 17.6%, and almost all the phosphorus and salt, and most of the nitrogen were recovered, potentially allowing the recovery of nutrients and other chemicals. These results show the potential utility of the modularized F-MDC in the application of municipal wastewater advanced treatment and self-driven desalination.

  9. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  10. A Framework to Expand and Advance Probabilistic Risk Assessment to Support Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Robert Nourgaliev; Cherie Phelan; Diego Mandelli; Kellie Kvarfordt; Robert Youngblood

    2012-09-01

    During the early development of nuclear power plants, researchers and engineers focused on many aspects of plant operation, two of which were getting the newly-found technology to work and minimizing the likelihood of perceived accidents through redundancy and diversity. As time, and our experience, has progressed, the realization of plant operational risk/reliability has entered into the design, operation, and regulation of these plants. But, to date, we have only dabbled at the surface of risk and reliability technologies. For the next generation of small modular reactors (SMRs), it is imperative that these technologies evolve into an accepted, encompassing, validated, and integral part of the plant in order to reduce costs and to demonstrate safe operation. Further, while it is presumed that safety margins are substantial for proposed SMR designs, the depiction and demonstration of these margins needs to be better understood in order to optimize the licensing process.

  11. Ultra-High-Performance Concrete And Advanced Manufacturing Methods For Modular Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sawab, Jamshaid; Lim, Ing; Mo, Yi-Lung; Li, Mo; Wang, Hong; Guimaraes, Maria

    2016-04-13

    Small modular reactors (SMR) allow for less onsite construction, increase nuclear material security, and provide a flexible and cost-effective energy alternative. SMR can be factory-built as modular components, and shipped to desired locations for fast assembly. This project successfully developed a new class of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), which features a compressive strength greater than 22 ksi (150 MPa) without special treatment and self-consolidating characteristics desired for SMR modular construction. With an ultra-high strength and dense microstructure, it will facilitate rapid construction of steel plate-concrete (SC) beams and walls with thinner and lighter modules, and can withstand harsh environments and mechanical loads anticipated during the service life of nuclear power plants. In addition, the self-consolidating characteristics are crucial for the fast construction and assembly of SC modules with reduced labor costs and improved quality. Following the UHPC material development, the capacity of producing self-consolidating UHPC in mass quantities was investigated and compared to accepted self-consolidating concrete standards. With slightly adjusted mixing procedure using large-scale gravity-based mixers (compared with small-scale force-based mixer), the self-consolidating UHPC has been successfully processed at six cubic yards; the product met both minimum compressive strength requirements and self-consolidating concrete standards. Steel plate-UHPC beams (15 ft. long, 12 in. wide and 16 in. deep) and wall panels (40 in. X 40 in. X 3 in.) were then constructed using the self-consolidating UHPC without any external vibration. Quality control guidelines for producing UHPC in large scale were developed. When the concrete is replaced by UHPC in a steel plate concrete (SC) beam, it is critical to evaluate its structural behavior with both flexure and shear-governed failure modes. In recent years, SC has been widely used for buildings and nuclear

  12. The superconducting coil system of the advanced modular stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.

    1994-11-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W 7-X) is the largest stellarator experiment envisaged worldwide. It is prepared in the Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics in Garching near Munich, Germany. The main goal of the experiment is demonstration of the optimized stellarator concept as an appropriate route for a fusion reactor. Essential physics and technical goals of this experiment are: demonstration of stationary operation, achievement of plasma parameters which allow a reliable prediction of the properties of a future stellarator reactor plasma without striving for ignition, and generation of the magnetic confinement with superconducting modular coils in a stellarator for the first time. The optimization criteria of the coil system are described and the status of the engineering development programme for the coils which is a common task of IPP and the nuclear research center KfK in Karlsruhe are reported.

  13. Accelerating incoherent dedispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsdell, B. R.; Bailes, M.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2012-05-01

    Incoherent dedispersion is a computationally intensive problem that appears frequently in pulsar and transient astronomy. For current and future transient pipelines, dedispersion can dominate the total execution time, meaning its computational speed acts as a constraint on the quality and quantity of science results. It is thus critical that the algorithm be able to take advantage of trends in commodity computing hardware. With this goal in mind, we present an analysis of the 'direct', 'tree' and 'sub-band' dedispersion algorithms with respect to their potential for efficient execution on modern graphics processing units (GPUs). We find all three to be excellent candidates, and proceed to describe implementations in C for CUDA using insight gained from the analysis. Using recent CPU and GPU hardware, the transition to the GPU provides a speed-up of nine times for the direct algorithm when compared to an optimized quad-core CPU code. For realistic recent survey parameters, these speeds are high enough that further optimization is unnecessary to achieve real-time processing. Where further speed-ups are desirable, we find that the tree and sub-band algorithms are able to provide three to seven times better performance at the cost of certain smearing, memory consumption and development time trade-offs. We finish with a discussion of the implications of these results for future transient surveys. Our GPU dedispersion code is publicly available as a C library at .

  14. Advanced Modular "All in One" Battery System with Intelligent Autonomous Cell Balancing Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, X.; Pasquier, E.; Defer, M.; Koch, M.; Knorr, W.

    2008-09-01

    A new generation of energy storage systems based on Li-ion technology emerged at the end of the last century.To perform the first tests in safe conditions, Saft designed a simple electronic.Today, all Li-ion batteries for autonomous applications such as drones, launchers, missiles, torpedoes and "human" applications such as cellular, laptop, hybrid vehicle and nearly sub-marines need a Battery Management System.The minimum in terms of functions is the overcharge and over-discharge protections.For a battery made of 2 cells connected in series or more, a balancing system is added to maintain the available energy during all the life of the battery. For stringent/demanding applications, the state of charge and state of health are calculated by one or more computers.It is now time to take benefit of the past 10 years of Saft's experience in the domain to re-evaluate the constraints of Li-ion batteries and provide customers with improved products by optimizing the battery management.Benefits of electronic for satellite applications:• Full control over battery.• Confidence whatever the possible change of conditions in environment.• The battery system can resist long exposure to gradient conditions with mitigated and stabilized impact on performances.• The balancing function allow to use all the energy of all the cells: optimize of installed energy (compact design, mass saving). It started out with the basic fact that electrochemists are not intended to be space rated electronic experts and vice versa, even if Saft has a good heritage in the electronic battery management system. Consequently, considering heritage and expertise in their respective core businesses, Saft and ASP teamed up.It became necessary to provide an "all in one" modular energy storage system with intelligent autonomous cell balancing management.

  15. Technical Readiness and Gaps Analysis of Commercial Optical Materials and Measurement Systems for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Qiao, Hong; Andersen, Eric S.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bliss, Mary; Cannon, Bret D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Mendoza, Albert; Sheen, David M.

    2013-08-06

    This report intends to support Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap and industry stakeholders by evaluating optical-based instrumentation and control (I&C) concepts for advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. These advanced designs will require innovative thinking in terms of engineering approaches, materials integration, and I&C concepts to realize their eventual viability and deployability. The primary goals of this report include: 1. Establish preliminary I&C needs, performance requirements, and possible gaps for AdvSMR designs based on best available published design data. 2. Document commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) optical sensors, components, and materials in terms of their technical readiness to support essential AdvSMR in-vessel I&C systems. 3. Identify technology gaps by comparing the in-vessel monitoring requirements and environmental constraints to COTS optical sensor and materials performance specifications. 4. Outline a future research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program plan that addresses these gaps and develops optical-based I&C systems that enhance the viability of future AdvSMR designs. The development of clean, affordable, safe, and proliferation-resistant nuclear power is a key goal that is documented in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. This roadmap outlines RD&D activities intended to overcome technical, economic, and other barriers, which currently limit advances in nuclear energy. These activities will ensure that nuclear energy remains a viable component to this nation’s energy security.

  16. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.

    2007-06-18

    Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.

  17. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Benedetto, E.; Rumolo, G.; Schulte, D.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, Frank; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Sonnad, K.G.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Pivi, M.T.F.; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; /SLAC

    2008-01-24

    Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e{sup +}e{sup -} scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.

  18. Implications of Results from the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program on Licensing of Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti

    2001-10-01

    The high level of safety of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs is achieved by passively maintaining core temperatures below fission product release thresholds under all envisioned accident scenarios. This level of fuel performance and fission product retention reduces the radioactive source term by many orders of magnitude relative to other reactor types but is predicated on exceptionally high coated-particle fuel fabrication quality and excellent fuel performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program decided to qualify for uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) TRISO coated-particle fuel in an operating envelope that would bound both pebble bed and prismatic modular HTGR options. By using a mixture of uranium oxide and uranium carbide, the kernel composition is engineered to minimize CO formation and fuel kernel migration, which is key to maintain to fuel integrity at the higher burnups, temperatures, and temperature gradients anticipated in prismatic HTGRs. Fuel fabrication conducted at both laboratory and engineering scale has demonstrated the ability to fabricate high quality UCO TRISO fuel with very low defects. The first irradiation (AGR 1) exposed about 300,000 TRISO fuel particles to a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA, a peak fast-neutron fluence of about 4.3 × 1025 n/m2, and a maximum time-averaged fuel temperature of about 1,200°C without a single particle failure. The very low release of key metallic fission products (except silver) measured in post-irradiation examination (PIE) confirms the excellent performance measured under irradiation. Very low releases have been measured in accident simulation heatup testing (''safety testing'') after hundreds of hours at 1600 and 1700°C and no particle failures (no noble gas release measured) have been observed. Even after hundreds of hours at 1800°C, the releases are still very low

  19. Study for requirement of advanced long life small modular fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, Taewoo; Choe, Jiwon; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung; Kim, T. K.

    2016-01-01

    To develop an advanced long-life SMR core concept, the feasibility of the long-life breed-and-burn core concept has been assessed and the preliminary selection on the reactor design requirement such as fuel form, coolant material has been performed. With the simplified cigar-type geometry of 8m-tall CANDLE reactor concept, it has demonstrated the strengths of breed-and-burn strategy. There is a saturation region in the graph for the multiplication factors, which means that a steady breeding is being proceeded along the axial direction. The propagation behavior of the CANDLE core can be also confirmed through the evolution of the axial power profile. Coolant material is expected to have low melting point, density, viscosity and absorption cross section and a high boiling point, specific heat, and thermal conductivity. In this respect, sodium is preferable material for a coolant of this nuclear power plant system. The metallic fuel has harder spectrum compared to the oxide and carbide fuel, which is favorable to increase the breeding and extend the cycle length.

  20. Study for requirement of advanced long life small modular fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tak, Taewoo Choe, Jiwon Jeong, Yongjin Lee, Deokjung; Kim, T. K.

    2016-01-22

    To develop an advanced long-life SMR core concept, the feasibility of the long-life breed-and-burn core concept has been assessed and the preliminary selection on the reactor design requirement such as fuel form, coolant material has been performed. With the simplified cigar-type geometry of 8m-tall CANDLE reactor concept, it has demonstrated the strengths of breed-and-burn strategy. There is a saturation region in the graph for the multiplication factors, which means that a steady breeding is being proceeded along the axial direction. The propagation behavior of the CANDLE core can be also confirmed through the evolution of the axial power profile. Coolant material is expected to have low melting point, density, viscosity and absorption cross section and a high boiling point, specific heat, and thermal conductivity. In this respect, sodium is preferable material for a coolant of this nuclear power plant system. The metallic fuel has harder spectrum compared to the oxide and carbide fuel, which is favorable to increase the breeding and extend the cycle length.

  1. Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-05-17

    This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and

  2. Assembly of a Modular Fluorimeter and Associated Software: Using LabVIEW in an Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algar, W. Russ; Massey, Melissa; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory activity for an upper-level undergraduate course in instrumental analysis has been created around LabVIEW. Students learn rudimentary programming and interfacing skills during the construction of a fluorimeter assembled from common modular components. The fluorimeter consists of an inexpensive data acquisition module, LED light…

  3. Advanced imaging techniques III: a scalable and modular dome illumination system for scientific microphotography on a budget

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A scalable and modular LED illumination dome for microscopic scientific photography is described and illustrated, and methods for constructing such a dome are detailed. Dome illumination for insect specimens has become standard practice across the field of insect systematics, but many dome designs ...

  4. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  5. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  6. Modular entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  7. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  8. The Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar: Initial Results and Future Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeter, J. L.; Dahlgren, H.; Sundberg, T.; Perry, G. W.; St-Maurice, J.; Shiokawa, K.; Hosokawa, K.; Zettergren, M. D.; Donovan, E.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR) is the most recent facility developed under the NSF Advanced Modular ISR (AMISR) program, and the first ever ISR deployed to the geomagnetic polar cap region. The AMISR radars are electronically steerable, enabling the acquisition of three-dimensional, time-dependent, information over a significant regional volume. This paper provides a review of science results from the first two years of RISR operations. Of particular interest are studies that synthesize the new information about the intrinsic state variables (Ne, Te, Ti) with measurements by extant common-volume sensors (HF radar, all-sky imager, Fabry-Perot interferometer). The careful co-registration of these heterogeneous measurements is shown to provide new constraints on the nature of time-dependent solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions in open magnetic-field regions. This capability will be further enhanced with the commissioning of the collocated Canadian facility (RISR-C) and the launch of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP), both expected in 2013.

  9. Incoherent method for rotation-invariant recognition.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, H H; Hsu, Y N; Yang, Y

    1982-02-15

    An optodigital hybrid system using an incoherent circular correlator that has features suitable for space and industrial applications is introduced. The incoherent circular correlator uses a fiber-optics sampler and carries out the correlations in white light. The trade offs involved for efficient detection of objects are discussed. The system has been built, and experimental results on a real air photograph are presented.

  10. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Ritter, Bob; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-­-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-­- orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce lifecycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  11. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  12. A one- and two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path of the AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) modular code system

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    AARE, a code package to perform Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering, is a linked modular system for fission reactor core and shielding, as well as fusion blanket, analysis. Its cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path presently includes the cross-section processing and reformatting code TRAMIX, cross-section homogenization and library reformatting code MIXIT, the 1-dimensional transport code ONEDANT, the 2-dimensional transport code TRISM, and the 1- and 2- dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty code SENSIBL. IN the present work, a short description of the whole AARE system is given, followed by a detailed description of the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Evaluation of the applicability of existing nuclear power plant regulatory requirements in the U.S. to advanced small modular reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Middleton, Bobby D.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Baum, Gregory A.

    2013-05-01

    The current wave of small modular reactor (SMR) designs all have the goal of reducing the cost of management and operations. By optimizing the system, the goal is to make these power plants safer, cheaper to operate and maintain, and more secure. In particular, the reduction in plant staffing can result in significant cost savings. The introduction of advanced reactor designs and increased use of advanced automation technologies in existing nuclear power plants will likely change the roles, responsibilities, composition, and size of the crews required to control plant operations. Similarly, certain security staffing requirements for traditional operational nuclear power plants may not be appropriate or necessary for SMRs due to the simpler, safer and more automated design characteristics of SMRs. As a first step in a process to identify where regulatory requirements may be met with reduced staffing and therefore lower cost, this report identifies the regulatory requirements and associated guidance utilized in the licensing of existing reactors. The potential applicability of these regulations to advanced SMR designs is identified taking into account the unique features of these types of reactors.

  14. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics.

    PubMed

    Santos, Emanuel; Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Couto, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system.

  15. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Emanuel; Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Couto, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system. PMID:26710335

  16. Modular shield

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Keith W.

    2002-01-01

    A modular system for containing projectiles has a sheet of material including at least a polycarbonate layer held by a metal frame having a straight frame member corresponding to each straight edge of the sheet. Each frame member has a U-shaped shield channel covering and holding a straight edge of the sheet and an adjacent U-shaped clamp channel rigidly held against the shield channel. A flexible gasket separates each sheet edge from its respective shield channel; and each frame member is fastened to each adjacent frame member only by clamps extending between adjacent clamp channels.

  17. Modular Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly software-intensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes. In this report, we examine the issues in modular certification of software components and propose an approach based on assume-guarantee reasoning. We extend the method from verification to certification by considering behavior in the presence of failures. This exposes the need for partitioning, and separation of assumptions and guarantees into normal and abnormal cases. We then identify three classes of property that must be verified within this framework: safe function, true guarantees, and controlled failure. We identify a particular assume-guarantee proof rule (due to McMillan) that is appropriate to the applications considered, and formally verify its soundness in PVS.

  18. Rapidly pulsed, high intensity, incoherent light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A rapid pulsing, high intensity, incoherent light is produced by selectively energizing a plurality of discharge lamps with a triggering circuit. Each lamp is connected to a capacitor, and a power supply is electrically connected to all but one of the capacitors. This last named capacitor is electrically connected to a discharge lamp which is connected to the triggering circuit.

  19. Incoherent Multifocus Hololens Design and Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallison, Richard D.

    1990-04-01

    Several 5 x 5 multifocus Hololenses have been produced with diffraction efficiencies between 20% and 75%. Low intermodulation noise was achieved by going off axis 16 degrees and using SHG and DCG materials to record the master and copies respectively. Astigmatism and Bragg tilt errors were minimized but images showed more coma than prior art. Both coherent and incoherent copies were made, the oherent copies were always low in efficiency because of very high intermodulation noise or because beam ratios were made high to avoid intermodulation noise. Incoherent copies proved to be only a little more difficult to fabricate and the master copy process in an index matching fluid proved to be more versatile as well as optically cleaner. Problems with uniformity from exposure to exposure were found and cured or probable causes were found. A limit to uniformity probably exists that relates to random coherent phasing of overlapping Bragg structures added to very small thermal and mechanical instabilities during exposure. All copies are made in a contact copy jig with each exposure running about 2 seconds. The process for obtaining an unaberrated master at 633 nm while making copies at 488 nm is described for both the coherent and incoherent methods. Test results for an incoherent 5x5 array working at 633 nm are given including an intensity profile of a spot, power distribution and output with crosstalk. Suggestions for further improvements are given.

  20. Modular biometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  1. Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  3. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  4. Incoherently pumped continuous wave dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, E.; Zander, C.; Drexhage, K. H.

    1987-05-01

    Continuous wave operation of a dye laser, pumped by an incoherent light source, is reported. A jet of a water-based solution of Rhodamine 6G is used as the laser medium in a spherical cavity with high reflectivity mirrors. Two high pressure arcs generated by electrical discharge between tungsten electrodes serve as pump source. They produce a power density of 0.5-10 kW/cm 2 in the jet causing the dye to lase at 615 nm.

  5. Modular arctic structures system

    SciTech Connect

    Reusswig, G. H.

    1984-12-04

    A modular and floatable offshore exploration and production platform system for use in shallow arctic waters is disclosed. A concrete base member is floated to the exploration or production site, and ballated into a predredged cavity. The cavity and base are sized to provide a stable horizontal base 30 feet below the mean water/ice plane. An exploration or production platform having a massive steel base is floated to the site and ballasted into position on the base. Together, the platform, base and ballast provide a massive gravity structure that is capable of resisting large ice and wave forces that impinge on the structure. The steel platform has a sloping hourglass profile to deflect horizontal ice loads vertically, and convert the horizontal load to a vertical tensile stress, which assists in breaking the ice as it advances toward the structure.

  6. Portable modular detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  7. Depth-resolved incoherent and coherent wide-field high-content imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Peter T.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in depth-resolved wide-field imaging technique has enabled many high throughput applications in biology and medicine. Depth resolved imaging of incoherent signals can be readily accomplished with structured light illumination or nonlinear temporal focusing. The integration of these high throughput systems with novel spectroscopic resolving elements further enable high-content information extraction. We will introduce a novel near common-path interferometer and demonstrate its uses in toxicology and cancer biology applications. The extension of incoherent depth-resolved wide-field imaging to coherent modality is non-trivial. Here, we will cover recent advances in wide-field 3D resolved mapping of refractive index, absorbance, and vibronic components in biological specimens.

  8. Universal diffusion in incoherent black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike

    2016-10-01

    We study charge and energy diffusion in simple holographic theories with broken translational symmetry. We find that when the effects of momentum relaxation are very strong the diffusion constants take universal values Dc˜De˜ℏvB2/(kBT ) . Here vB is the velocity of the butterfly effect and the coefficients of proportionality depend only on the scaling exponents of the infra-red fixed point. Our results suggest that diffusion in these incoherent black holes is controlled by τ ˜ℏ/(kBT ) independently of the mechanism of momentum relaxation.

  9. Incoherent and Laser Photodeposition on Thin Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    wavelength, an incoherent Oriel Mercury arc lamp (model HR-l) with a 1000 watt u-v out- a put centered at 2537A was used. This source emitted o down...Royal Society of London Series A, 156: 108-129 (1936). 18. Gutowsky, H.S.. "The Infra-Red and Raman Spectra of Dimethyl Mercury and Dimethyl Zinc," The...II), - Cadmium (II) and - Mercury (II)," Spectrochimica Acta, 33A: 669-680 (1977). 20. Bakke, A.M.W.. "A Molecular Structure Study of Dimethylmercury

  10. Quantum Radiation Reaction: From Interference to Incoherence.

    PubMed

    Dinu, Victor; Harvey, Chris; Ilderton, Anton; Marklund, Mattias; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-01-29

    We investigate quantum radiation reaction in laser-electron interactions across different energy and intensity regimes. Using a fully quantum approach which also accounts exactly for the effect of the strong laser pulse on the electron motion, we identify in particular a regime in which radiation reaction is dominated by quantum interference. We find signatures of quantum radiation reaction in the electron spectra which have no classical analogue and which cannot be captured by the incoherent approximations typically used in the high-intensity regime. These signatures are measurable with presently available laser and accelerator technology.

  11. Is the Precautionary Principle Really Incoherent?

    PubMed

    Boyer-Kassem, Thomas

    2017-02-28

    The Precautionary Principle has been an increasingly important principle in international treaties since the 1980s. Through varying formulations, it states that when an activity can lead to a catastrophe for human health or the environment, measures should be taken to prevent it even if the cause-and-effect relationship is not fully established scientifically. The Precautionary Principle has been critically discussed from many sides. This article concentrates on a theoretical argument by Peterson (2006) according to which the Precautionary Principle is incoherent with other desiderata of rational decision making, and thus cannot be used as a decision rule that selects an action among several ones. I claim here that Peterson's argument fails to establish the incoherence of the Precautionary Principle, by attacking three of its premises. I argue (i) that Peterson's treatment of uncertainties lacks generality, (ii) that his Archimedian condition is problematic for incommensurability reasons, and (iii) that his explication of the Precautionary Principle is not adequate. This leads me to conjecture that the Precautionary Principle can be envisaged as a coherent decision rule, again.

  12. Dephasing-assisted selective incoherent quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Behzadi, Naghi; Ahansaz, Bahram; Kasani, Hadi

    2015-10-01

    Selective energy transport throughout a quantum network connected to more than one reaction center can play an important role in many natural and technological considerations in photosystems. In this work, we propose a method in which an excitation can be transported from the original site of the network to one of the reaction centers arbitrarily using independent sources of dephasing noises. We demonstrate that in the absence of dephasing noises, the coherent evolution of the system does not have any role in energy transport in the network. Therefore, incoherent evolution via application of dephasing noises throughout a selected path of the network leads to complete transferring of the excitation to a desired reaction center.

  13. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min

    2011-10-15

    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  14. Robust incoherent fiber optic bundle decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Hilary E. (Inventor); DePlachett, Charles P. (Inventor); Deason, Brent E. (Inventor); Pilgrim, Robert A. (Inventor); Sanford, Harold S. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Apparatus and method for calibrating an incoherent fiber optic bundle for use in transmitting visual or infrared coherent images. The apparatus includes a computer, a computer video monitor, an objective lens adjacent to the input end of the bundle, a second lens adjacent the output end of the bundle, and a CCD camera. The camera transmits video data to the monitor to produce an illuminated fiber optic image. The coordinates for the center of each fiber is found through an imaging process and the output fibers coordinates are related to the input fiber coordinates and processed in the computer to produce a mapping lookup-table (LUT) unique to the specific fiber bundle. Remapping of the LUT due to changes in the lens focus, CCD camera, or the addition of an infrared filter is accomplished by a software utility in the computer.

  15. Incoherent correlator system for satellite orientation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouris, Aristodemos; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Christopher R.; Birch, Philip M.

    2002-03-01

    An incoherent correlator configuration is proposed and experimentally demonstrated that is capable of recognizing star patterns. The device may thus be employed for the orientation and navigation of a satellite or spacecraft. The correlator employs starlight directly and requires no laser or input spatial light modulator for operation. The filter is constructed form an array of mirrors that may be individually appropriately tilted so as recognize a particular star arrangement. The only other components of the system are a converging lens and CCD array detector. The device is capable of determining the pointing direction and rotation of a satellite or space vehicle. Experimental results employing the mirror array device illuminated with a point source early to simulate starlight are presented.

  16. Coherent and incoherent processes in resonant photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, M.; Karis, O.; Weinelt, M.

    1997-04-01

    In this contribution the authors present the distinction between coherent and incoherent processes in resonant photoemission. As a first step they determine whether an autoionization process is photoemission-like or Auger-like. The discussion is based on measurements for a weakly bonded adsorption system, Ar/Pt(111). This type of system is well adapted to investigate these effects since it yields distinctly shifted spectral features depending on the nature of the process. After this, the question of resonance photoemission in metallic systems is addressed. This is done in connection with measurements at the 2p edges for Ni metal. Ni has been one of the prototype systems for resonant photoemission. The resonances have been discussed in connection with the strong correlation and d-band localization effects in this system. Based on the results some general comments about the appearance of resonant effects in metallic systems are made.

  17. Long working distance incoherent interference microscope

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; De Boer, Maarten P.

    2006-04-25

    A full-field imaging, long working distance, incoherent interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. A long working distance greater than 10 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-dimensional height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer while being actively probed, and, optionally, through a transparent window. An optically identical pair of sample and reference arm objectives is not required, which reduces the overall system cost, and also the cost and time required to change sample magnifications. Using a LED source, high magnification (e.g., 50.times.) can be obtained having excellent image quality, straight fringes, and high fringe contrast.

  18. Modular Buildings Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that child care program directors who are expanding their programs or opening new child care centers investigate the possibility of renting, leasing, or purchasing a modular building. Discusses the advantages of modular buildings over conventional building construction or rented space in an occupied building. Provides information about…

  19. Modular tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is concerned with the modular tokamak configuration, and presents information on the following topics: modularity; external vacuum boundary; vertical maintenance; combined reactor building/biological shield with totally remote maintenance; independent TF coils; minimum TF coil bore; saddle PF coils; and heat transport system in bore.

  20. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-03

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

  1. Improved SPGD algorithm to avoid local extremum for incoherent beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guoqing; Liu, Lisheng; Jiang, Zhenhua; Wang, Tingfeng; Guo, Jin

    2017-01-01

    The stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm and the fast steering mirrors (FSM) are applied for incoherent beam combining in this paper. An equation is derived to calculate the wavefront reflected from the FSM under certain control voltages and the relationship between the strength of random disturbances and the combing efficiency is discussed via simulations, indicating that the combining efficiency is inversely proportional to the square of the strength of disturbance. The maximum value of the acceptable disturbance can be determined though the fitting curve which presents an instructional way to reduce the disturbance in advance. Besides, the SPGD algorithm is improved to overcome the weakness of tending to be trapped in the local extremum in incoherent beam combining. In the proposed algorithm, pattern recognition is used to check whether the algorithm is trapped and an "additional move" can be applied to get out of local extremum. The results of simulations show that the proposed algorithm can improve the performance of the incoherent beam combining. Comparative simulations are conducted where the value of evaluation function is increased about 60% compared to the conventional algorithm under the same conditions. The threshold of disturbance also increases about 15% when the accepted value of evaluation function set to 0.8 in the normalized form showing the feasibility of the method. Also, statistical data shows the proposed method depends less on the gain coefficient.

  2. Incidental experiences of affective coherence and incoherence influence persuasion.

    PubMed

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R

    2013-06-01

    When affective experiences are inconsistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience what is called affective incoherence; when affective experiences are consistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience affective coherence. The present research asked whether incidental feelings of affective coherence and incoherence would regulate persuasion. Experiences of affective coherence and incoherence were predicted and found to influence the processing of persuasive messages when evoked prior to receipt of such messages (Experiments 1 and 3), and to influence the confidence with which thoughts generated by persuasive messages were held when evoked after presentation of such messages (Experiments 2 and 3). These results extend research on affective coherence and incoherence by showing that they exert a broader impact on cognitive activity than originally assumed.

  3. Introduction to Wave Turbulence Formalisms for Incoherent Optical Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, Antonio; Garnier, Josselin; Xu, Gang; Rica, Sergio

    We provide an introduction to different wave turbulence formalisms describing the propagation of partially incoherent optical waves in nonlinear media. We consider the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a representative model accounting for a nonlocal or a noninstantaneous nonlinearity, as well as higher-order dispersion effects. We discuss the wave turbulence kinetic equation describing, e.g., wave condensation or wave thermalization through supercontinuum generation; the Vlasov formalism describing incoherent modulational instabilities and the formation of large scale incoherent localized structures in analogy with long-range gravitational systems; and the weak Langmuir turbulence formalism describing spectral incoherent solitons, as well as spectral shock or collapse singularities. Finally, recent developments and some open questions are discussed, in particular in relation with a wave turbulence formulation of laser systems and different mechanisms of breakdown of thermalization.

  4. Incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagfors, Tor

    1989-01-01

    Incoherent scatter radar (ISR) has become the most powerful means of studying the ionosphere from the ground. Many of the ideas and methods underlying the troposphere and stratosphere (ST) radars have been taken over from ISR. Whereas the theory of refractive index fluctuations in the lower atmosphere, depending as it does on turbulence, is poorly understood, the theory of the refractivity fluctuations in the ionosphere, which depend on thermal fluctuations, is known in great detail. The underlying theory is one of the most successful theories in plasma physics, and allows for many detailed investigations of a number of parameters such as electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, electron mean velocity, and ion mean velocity as well as parameters pertaining to composition, neutral density and others. Here, the author reviews the fundamental processes involved in the scattering from a plasma undergoing thermal or near thermal fluctuations in density. The fundamental scattering properties of the plasma to the physical parameters characterizing them from first principles. He does not discuss the observation process itself, as the observational principles are quite similar whether they are applied to a neutral gas or a fluctuating plasma.

  5. Processing oscillatory signals by incoherent feedforward loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Carolyn; Wu, Feilun; Tsoi, Ryan; Shats, Igor; You, Lingchong

    From the timing of amoeba development to the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency,many biological signaling pathways exhibit the ability to differentiate between pulsatile and sustained signals in the regulation of downstream gene expression.While networks underlying this signal decoding are diverse,many are built around a common motif, the incoherent feedforward loop (IFFL),where an input simultaneously activates an output and an inhibitor of the output.With appropriate parameters,this motif can generate temporal adaptation,where the system is desensitized to a sustained input.This property serves as the foundation for distinguishing signals with varying temporal profiles.Here,we use quantitative modeling to examine another property of IFFLs,the ability to process oscillatory signals.Our results indicate that the system's ability to translate pulsatile dynamics is limited by two constraints.The kinetics of IFFL components dictate the input range for which the network can decode pulsatile dynamics.In addition,a match between the network parameters and signal characteristics is required for optimal ``counting''.We elucidate one potential mechanism by which information processing occurs in natural networks with implications in the design of synthetic gene circuits for this purpose. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (CZ).

  6. Incoherent digital holography with phase-only spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Joseph; Kelner, Roy; Kashter, Yuval

    2015-10-01

    Today, spatial light modulators (SLMs) offer the world of digital holography a robust technology that can be incorporated into hologram recorders. This review surveys recent developments related to the role of SLMs in a family of incoherent digital hologram recorders termed Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH). Two systems branching out from FINCH, and discussed herein, are a confocal version of FINCH and a synthetic aperture FINCH-based system.

  7. Revolutionising incoherent scatter science with EISCAT_3D: A European three-dimensional imaging radar for atmospheric and geospace research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Esa; McCrea, Ian; Kosch, Mike

    2010-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be Europe's next-generation radar for the study of the high-latitude atmosphere and geospace, located in northern Fenno-Scandinavia, with capabilities going well beyond anything currently available to the international research community. The facility will consist of several very large active phased-array antenna transmitters/receivers, and multiple passive sites located in three countries. Depending on the available funding, EISCAT_3D will be comprised of tens of thousands, up to more than 100 000, individual antenna elements. EISCAT_3D combines several key attributes which have never before been available together in a single radar, such as volumetric imaging and tracking, aperture synthesis imaging, multistatic configuration, improved sensitivity and transmitter flexibility. The use of advanced beam-forming technology allows the beam direction to be switched in milliseconds, rather than the minutes which it can take to re-position dish-based radars. This allows very wide spatial coverage to be obtained, by interleaving multiple beam directions to carry out quasi-simultaneous volumetric imaging. It also allows objects such as satellites and space debris to be tracked across the sky. At the passive sites, the design allows for at least five simultaneous beams at full bandwidth, rising to over twenty beams if the bandwidth is limited to the ion line, allowing the whole range of the transmitted beam to be imaged from each passive site, using holographic radar techniques. EISCAT_3D has a modular configuration, which allows an active array to be split into smaller elements to be used for aperture synthesis imaging. The result will be an entirely new data product, consisting of range-dependent images of small sub-beamwidth scale structures, with sizes down to 20 m. EISCAT_3D will be the first phased array incoherent scatter radar to use a multistatic configuration. A minimum of five radar sites, consisting of two pairs located around 120 km and 250 km

  8. Propagation behavior of incoherent beams in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fei-Na; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Jie-Long

    2010-03-01

    The propagation properties of Gaussian Schell-model spatially incoherent beams through a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) are investigated. The dynamical evolution of incoherent beams in 1DPC and the Goos-Hänchen lateral shift of the transmitted beams are obtained. The mutual effects of coherence and bandgap of the PC on the evolution of incoherent beams are analyzed. The incidence angle of the incoherent beam also has an influence on the incoherent electric field and the lateral shift.

  9. Successful modular cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.

    2003-07-01

    We present a modular cosmology scenario where the difficulties encountered in conventional modular cosmology are solved in a self-consistent manner, with definite predictions to be tested by observation. Notably, the difficulty of the dilaton finding its way to a precarious weak coupling minimum is made irrelevant by having eternal modular inflation at the vacuum supersymmetry breaking scale after the dilaton is stabilised. Neither this eternal inflation nor the subsequent non-slow-roll modular inflation destabilise the dilaton from its precarious minimum due to the low energy scale of the inflation and consequent small back reaction on the dilaton potential. The observed flat CMB spectrum is obtained from fluctuations in the angular component of a modulus near a symmetric point, which are hugely magnified by the roll down of the modulus to Planckian values, allowing them to dominate the final curvature perturbation. We also give precise calculations of the spectral index and its running.

  10. Modular tokamak magnetic system

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Tien-Fang

    1988-01-01

    A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking moldules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, moldular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

  11. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  12. Modularity and mental architecture.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Debates about the modularity of cognitive architecture have been ongoing for at least the past three decades, since the publication of Fodor's landmark book The Modularity of Mind. According to Fodor, modularity is essentially tied to informational encapsulation, and as such is only found in the relatively low-level cognitive systems responsible for perception and language. According to Fodor's critics in the evolutionary psychology camp, modularity simply reflects the fine-grained functional specialization dictated by natural selection, and it characterizes virtually all aspects of cognitive architecture, including high-level systems for judgment, decision making, and reasoning. Though both of these perspectives on modularity have garnered support, the current state of evidence and argument suggests that a broader skepticism about modularity may be warranted. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:641-649. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1255 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  13. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  14. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high specific power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and DOE called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provide about 50 to 450 watts DC to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific power may be slightly lower than the ASRG and

  15. Incoherent shock waves in long-range optical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Garnier, J.; Faccio, D.; Trillo, S.; Picozzi, A.

    2016-10-01

    Considering the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation as a representative model, we report a unified presentation of different forms of incoherent shock waves that emerge in the long-range interaction regime of a turbulent optical wave system. These incoherent singularities can develop either in the temporal domain through a highly noninstantaneous nonlinear response, or in the spatial domain through a highly nonlocal nonlinearity. In the temporal domain, genuine dispersive shock waves (DSW) develop in the spectral dynamics of the random waves, despite the fact that the causality condition inherent to the response function breaks the Hamiltonian structure of the NLS equation. Such spectral incoherent DSWs are described in detail by a family of singular integro-differential kinetic equations, e.g. Benjamin-Ono equation, which are derived from a nonequilibrium kinetic formulation based on the weak Langmuir turbulence equation. In the spatial domain, the system is shown to exhibit a large scale global collective behavior, so that it is the fluctuating field as a whole that develops a singularity, which is inherently an incoherent object made of random waves. Despite the Hamiltonian structure of the NLS equation, the regularization of such a collective incoherent shock does not require the formation of a DSW - the regularization is shown to occur by means of a different process of coherence degradation at the shock point. We show that the collective incoherent shock is responsible for an original mechanism of spontaneous nucleation of a phase-space hole in the spectrogram dynamics. The robustness of such a phase-space hole is interpreted in the light of incoherent dark soliton states, whose different exact solutions are derived in the framework of the long-range Vlasov formalism.

  16. Wavelength conversion of incoherent light by sum-frequency generation.

    PubMed

    Arahira, Shin; Murai, Hitoshi

    2014-06-02

    In this paper, we reveal that some kinds of optical nonlinearities are further enhanced when incoherent light, instead of a laser, is used as a pump light. This idea was confirmed both theoretically and experimentally in the case of sum-frequency generation (SFG) using the optical second nonlinearity. The conversion efficiency of the SFG with incoherent light pumping increased as the bandwidth of the incoherent pump light decreased, finally reaching twice the conversion efficiency of conventional second harmonic generation (SHG) by laser pumping. This method dramatically relaxes the severe requirements of phase matching in the nonlinear optical process. The conversion efficiency became less sensitive to misalignment of the wavelength of pump light and also of device operation temperature when the bandwidth of the incoherent pump light was sufficiently broad, although the improvement of the conversion efficiency had an inverse relationship with the insensitivity to the phase-matching condition. The temperature tuning range was enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the conventional SHG method. As an example of a promising application of this new idea, we performed the generation of quantum entangled photon-pairs using cascaded optical nonlinearities (SFG and the subsequent spontaneous parametric down conversion) in a single periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide device, in which the incoherent light was used as the pump source for both the parametric processes. We have achieved high fidelity exceeding 99% in quantum-state tomography experiments.

  17. CINCH (confocal incoherent correlation holography) super resolution fluorescence microscopy based upon FINCH (Fresnel incoherent correlation holography)

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Nisan; Storrie, Brian; Bruce, Marc

    2016-01-01

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates high resolution super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. The simple addition of a real-time Nipkow disk confocal image scanner in a conjugate plane of this incoherent holographic system is shown to reduce the depth of focus, and the combination of both techniques provides a simple way to enhance the axial resolution of FINCH in a combined method called “CINCH”. An important feature of the combined system allows for the simultaneous real-time image capture of widefield and holographic images or confocal and confocal holographic images for ready comparison of each method on the exact same field of view. Additional GPU based complex deconvolution processing of the images further enhances resolution. PMID:26839443

  18. Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash

    PubMed Central

    Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

  19. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge

    SciTech Connect

    Serebryakov, D. A. Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2015-12-15

    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration, and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau–Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  20. Spotlight-mode incoherently synthetic aperture imaging ladar: fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liren

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a concept of spotlight-mode incoherently-synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) is proposed on the basis of computer tomography (CT). This incoherent SAIL has three operations of conventional, inverse and CT spotlight-modes with two sensing techniques of range and Doppler resolutions, and supplies a variety of dimensional transformations for 2-D range- and Doppler-resolved imaging of 2-D objects and for 3-D range-resolved imaging or in the depth compressed 2-D range- and Doppler-resolved imaging of 3-D objects. Due to the simplification in both the construction and the algorithm the difficulties in the signal collection and data processing are importantly relaxed. The incoherent SAIL provides a great potential for applications in the extensive fields. The paper gives the detailed analysis.

  1. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryakov, D. A.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration, and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau-Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  2. EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radars Probing High-Latitude Near-Earth Geospace for the EURIPOS Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, E.

    2009-04-01

    EISCAT Scientific Association operates currently three incoherent scatter radars in Northern Scandinavia on behalf of its associate members in Finland, China, Germany, Japan, Norway, Sweden and United Kingdom, as well as currently supporting partners in France and Russia. The radar sites include transmitter/receiver site in Tromsø, Norway with a monostatic VHF radar and a tristatic UHF radar transmitter/receiver, UHF receiver sites in Kiruna, Sweden and Sodankylä, Finland and a 2-dish monostatic radar in Longyearbyen, Svalbard. Incoherent scatter radar method is known to be the most sophisticated radio method to remotely sense the ionosphere. The standard parameters analysed from the recorded scattered signals are the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, line-of-sight plasma velocity, ion-neutral collision frequency and ion mass. With more assumptions also information for example on neutral density and temperature, neutral velocity, Pedersen and Hall conductivities, electric current density and heat flux is available. Current applications of the radars include also interferometric applications for small-scale structures, mapping of meteroid orbits and monitoring space debris, as well as high-resolution mapping the radar reflectivity of the Moon surface. In addition to incoherent scatter radars, EISCAT also has a powerful HF heating facility for ionospheric modification experiments, and a dynasonde in Tromsø, as well as another dynasonde in Svalbard for routine ionospheric observations. All the current EISCAT facilities would serve the EURIPOS proposal quantifying the ionospheric variability and response to space weather events at high latitudes. Although the main ISR facilities cannot be run continuously, regular Common Programmes, measurement campaign modes - especially combined with coordinated satellite observations and specific model studies, and the continuous operation of supporting dynasondes, would greatly enhance the EURIPOS proposal

  3. Symmetric modular torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  4. Self Evolving Modular Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Kazuhiro; Kawabata, Nobuyuki; Furukawa, Tetsuo

    We propose a novel modular network called the Self-Evolving Modular Network (SEEM). The SEEM has a modular network architecture with a graph structure and these following advantages: (1) new modules are added incrementally to allow the network to adapt in a self-organizing manner, and (2) graph's paths are formed based on the relationships between the models represented by modules. The SEEM is expected to be applicable to evolving functions of an autonomous robot in a self-organizing manner through interaction with the robot's environment and categorizing large-scale information. This paper presents the architecture and an algorithm for the SEEM. Moreover, performance characteristic and effectiveness of the network are shown by simulations using cubic functions and a set of 3D-objects.

  5. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  6. Short-time-interaction quantum measurement through an incoherent mediator

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, J.; Romero, G.; Lizuain, I.; Muga, J. G.; Retamal, J. C.; Roos, C. F.; Solano, E.

    2010-06-15

    We propose a method of indirect measurements where a probe is able to read, in short interaction times, the quantum state of a remote system through an incoherent third party, hereafter called a mediator. The probe and system can interact briefly with the mediator in an incoherent state but not directly among themselves and, nevertheless, the transfer of quantum information can be achieved with robustness. We exemplify our measurement scheme with a paradigmatic example of this tripartite problem--a qubit-oscillator-qubit setup--and discuss different physical scenarios, pointing out the associated advantages and limitations.

  7. The Interaction of Intense Incoherent Light and Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wagenen, Lindsey Gay

    One of the long standing difficulties in working with intense incoherent light has been the lack of a theory for predicting and explaining experimental results. This thesis investigates the diagrammatic theory of Freidberg and Hartmann which provides a solution to this problem. Photon echo experiments are performed with intense incoherent light in atomic sodium vapor, the dependence of the resulting echo signal on the intensity of the constituent pulses is studied and experimental results are then compared with theoretical predictions. When the finite lifetimes of the sodium sample are included in the calculations, experimental results show good qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions for the two and three-pulse echo.

  8. Modular Optofluidic Systems (MOPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Tobias N.; Dietvorst, Jiri; Sanchis, Ana; Salvador, Juan P.; Munoz-Berbel, Xavier; Alvarez-Conde, Erica; Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans; Marco, M.-Pilar; Llobera, Andreu

    2016-12-01

    Elementary PDMS-based building blocks of fluidic, optical and optofluidic components for Lab on a chip (LOC) platforms has here been developed. All individual modules are compatible and can be anchored and released with the help of puzzle-type connectors This approach is a powerful toolbox to create modular optofluidic systems (MOPS), which can be modified/upgraded to user needs and in-situ reconfigurable. In addition, the PDMS can locally be functionalized, defining a modular biosensor. Measurements in absorbance and fluorescence have been pursued as demonstrator.

  9. Modular biowaste monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the Modular Biowaste Monitoring System Program was to generate and evaluate hardware for supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs. An initial conceptual design effort established requirements and defined an overall modular system for the collection, measurement, sampling and storage of urine and feces biowastes. This conceptual design effort was followed by the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a flight prototype model urine collection, volume measurement and sampling capability. No operational or performance deficiencies were uncovered as a result of the performance evaluation tests.

  10. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  11. Design and construction of a prototype advanced on-line fuel burn-up monitoring system for the modular pebble bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Bingjing; Hawari, Ayman, I.

    2004-03-30

    Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR) is a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear power reactor currently under study as a next generation reactor system. In addition to its inherently safe design, a unique feature of this reactor is its multi-pass fuel circulation in which the fuel pebbles are randomly loaded and continuously cycled through the core until they reach their prescribed End-of-Life burn-up limit. Unlike the situation with a conventional light water reactor, depending solely on computational methods to perform in-core fuel management for MPBR will be highly inaccurate. An on-line measurement system is needed to accurately assess whether a given pebble has reached its End-of-Life burn-up limit and thereby provide an on-line, automated go/no-go decision on fuel disposition on a pebble-by-pebble basis. This project investigated approaches to analyzing fuel pebbles in real time using gamma spectroscopy and possibly using passive neutron counting of spontaneous fission neutrons to provide the speed, accuracy, and burn-up range required for burnup determination of MPBR. It involved all phases necessary to develop and construct a burn-up monitor, including a review of the design requirements of the system, identification of detection methodologies, modeling and development of potential designs, and finally, the construction and testing of an operational detector system. Based upon the research work performed in this project, the following conclusions are made. In terms of using gamma spectrometry, two possible approaches were identified for burnup assay. The first approach is based on the measurement of the absolute activity of Cs-137. However, due to spectral interference and the need for absolute calibration of the spectrometer, the uncertainty in burnup determination using this approach was found to range from {approx} {+-}40% at beginning of life to {approx} {+-}10% at the discharge burnup. An alternative approach is to use a relative burnup indicator. In this

  12. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Butterfield, Karla

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  13. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  14. Modular core holder

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.; Cole, C.W.; Hamid, S.; Lucas, J.K.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a modular core holder. It comprises: a sleeve, forming an internal cavity for receiving a core. The sleeve including segments; support means, overlying the sleeve, for supporting the sleeve; and access means, positioned between at least two of the segments of the sleeve, for allowing measurement of conditions within the internal cavity.

  15. Modular Perspectives on Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    This research review traces the current discussion on models of bilingualism to the contributions of Vygotsky and Luria. Proposes that a modular approach to studying the different aspects of bilingual development promises to chart a course toward finding a broader common ground around research findings and interpretations that appear to be…

  16. Modular invariant inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-08

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential V{sub ht}, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from V{sub ht}. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  17. A Modular CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Mast, Charles

    The experimental CAI system which is being tested at Delft University of Technology is structured in a modular manner to account for high changeability. The concept formulated for this project was the outcome of research into technological, organizational, and educational developments in CAI, and the enumeration of the common aspects of the…

  18. Modular invariant inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential Vht, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from Vht. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  19. Modular, Multilayer Perceptron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Tsuen-Hsi

    1991-01-01

    Combination of proposed modular, multilayer perceptron and algorithm for its operation recognizes new objects after relatively brief retraining sessions. (Perceptron is multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network fully connected and trained via back-propagation learning algorithm.) Knowledge pertaining to each object to be recognized resides in subnetwork of full network, therefore not necessary to retrain full network to recognize each new object.

  20. Chimera-like States in Modular Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizanidis, Johanne; Kouvaris, Nikos E.; Gorka, Zamora-López; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Antonopoulos, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Chimera states, namely the coexistence of coherent and incoherent behavior, were previously analyzed in complex networks. However, they have not been extensively studied in modular networks. Here, we consider a neural network inspired by the connectome of the C. elegans soil worm, organized into six interconnected communities, where neurons obey chaotic bursting dynamics. Neurons are assumed to be connected with electrical synapses within their communities and with chemical synapses across them. As our numerical simulations reveal, the coaction of these two types of coupling can shape the dynamics in such a way that chimera-like states can happen. They consist of a fraction of synchronized neurons which belong to the larger communities, and a fraction of desynchronized neurons which are part of smaller communities. In addition to the Kuramoto order parameter ρ, we also employ other measures of coherence, such as the chimera-like χ and metastability λ indices, which quantify the degree of synchronization among communities and along time, respectively. We perform the same analysis for networks that share common features with the C. elegans neural network. Similar results suggest that under certain assumptions, chimera-like states are prominent phenomena in modular networks, and might provide insight for the behavior of more complex modular networks.

  1. Coherent and incoherent ultrasound backscatter from cell aggregates.

    PubMed

    de Monchy, Romain; Destrempes, François; Saha, Ratan K; Cloutier, Guy; Franceschini, Emilie

    2016-09-01

    The effective medium theory (EMT) was recently developed to model the ultrasound backscatter from aggregating red blood cells [Franceschini, Metzger, and Cloutier, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2668-2679 (2011)]. The EMT assumes that aggregates can be treated as homogeneous effective scatterers, which have effective properties determined by the aggregate compactness and the acoustical characteristics of the cells and the surrounding medium. In this study, the EMT is further developed to decompose the differential backscattering cross section of a single cell aggregate into coherent and incoherent components. The coherent component corresponds to the squared norm of the average scattering amplitude from the effective scatterer, and the incoherent component considers the variance of the scattering amplitude (i.e., the mean squared norm of the fluctuation of the scattering amplitude around its mean) within the effective scatterer. A theoretical expression for the incoherent component based on the structure factor is proposed and compared with another formulation based on the Gaussian direct correlation function. This theoretical improvement is assessed using computer simulations of ultrasound backscatter from aggregating cells. The consideration of the incoherent component based on the structure factor allows us to approximate the simulations satisfactorily for a product of the wavenumber times the aggregate radius krag around 2.

  2. Coherent and incoherent inference in phylogeography and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Alan R

    2010-04-06

    A hypothesis is nested within a more general hypothesis when it is a special case of the more general hypothesis. Composite hypotheses consist of more than one component, and in many cases different composite hypotheses can share some but not all of these components and hence are overlapping. In statistics, coherent measures of fit of nested and overlapping composite hypotheses are technically those measures that are consistent with the constraints of formal logic. For example, the probability of the nested special case must be less than or equal to the probability of the general model within which the special case is nested. Any statistic that assigns greater probability to the special case is said to be incoherent. An example of incoherence is shown in human evolution, for which the approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method assigned a probability to a model of human evolution that was a thousand-fold larger than a more general model within which the first model was fully nested. Possible causes of this incoherence are identified, and corrections and restrictions are suggested to make ABC and similar methods coherent. Another coalescent-based method, nested clade phylogeographic analysis, is coherent and also allows the testing of individual components of composite hypotheses, another attribute lacking in ABC and other coalescent-simulation approaches. Incoherence is a highly undesirable property because it means that the inference is mathematically incorrect and formally illogical, and the published incoherent inferences on human evolution that favor the out-of-Africa replacement hypothesis have no statistical or logical validity.

  3. Modular Strategies for PET Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Jacob M

    2009-01-01

    Summary of Recent Advances In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging. PMID:19880343

  4. ATIS - A modular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirson, Allan

    The author describes a modular approach to the design of an in-vehicle navigation and route guidance system that supports a phased implementation of the technology, and anticipates expected differences in implementation in different parts of the world and for different makes and models of vehicle. A series of sensors in the vehicle are used to determine the vehicle's position by dead reckoning and map-matching. The system then calculates the best route to the selected destination, taking into account the real-time traffic information received from a traffic management center, and presents route guidance instructions to the user as the route is traversed. Attention is given to modularity considerations, vehicle positioning, driver support, vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, and the role of standards.

  5. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  6. MPP: A modular library of models of nuclear reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M.A.; Guimaraes, L.; Ugolini, D. ); March-Leuba, C.; Nypaver, D.J. ); Ford, C.E. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the Modular Power Plant (MPP) library and its application to simulate the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. The MPP library is being developed as part of the Advanced Controls Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The general purpose of the library is to provide a set of modular models of components needed to simulate nuclear power plants. To give the MPP models modularity characteristics, each model is developed as a stand-alone system. The MPP contains 28 models coded in either the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL), or the Generalized Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (GOOSE). The MPP development is parallel to the GOOSE development, and we are currently translating the MPP components from ACSL to GOOSE.

  7. MPP: A modular library of models of nuclear reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M.A.; Guimaraes, L.; Ugolini, D.; March-Leuba, C.; Nypaver, D.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents the Modular Power Plant (MPP) library and its application to simulate the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. The MPP library is being developed as part of the Advanced Controls Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The general purpose of the library is to provide a set of modular models of components needed to simulate nuclear power plants. To give the MPP models modularity characteristics, each model is developed as a stand-alone system. The MPP contains 28 models coded in either the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL), or the Generalized Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (GOOSE). The MPP development is parallel to the GOOSE development, and we are currently translating the MPP components from ACSL to GOOSE.

  8. Quantum spaces are modular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2016-11-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.

  9. Understanding Modularity in Molecular Networks Requires Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Roger P.; Kim, Philip M.; Emonet, Thierry; Gerstein, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    The era of genome sequencing has produced long lists of the molecular parts from which cellular machines are constructed. A fundamental goal in systems biology is to understand how cellular behavior emerges from the interaction in time and space of genetically encoded molecular parts, as well as non-genetically encoded small molecules. Networks provide a natural framework for the organization and quantitative representation of all the available data about molecular interactions. The structural and dynamic properties of molecular networks have been the subject of intense research. Despite major advances, bridging network structure to dynamics – and therefore to behavior – remains challenging. A key concept of modern engineering that recurs in the functional analysis of biological networks is modularity. Most approaches to molecular network analysis rely to some extent on the assumption that molecular networks are modular – that is, they are separable and can be studied to some degree in isolation. We describe recent advances in the analysis of modularity in biological networks, focusing on the increasing realization that a dynamic perspective is essential to grouping molecules into modules and determining their collective function. PMID:19638611

  10. Incoherent holography to obtain depth information by a rotational shearing interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kaho; Nomura, Takanori

    2015-09-01

    The system to record incoherent holograms using a rotational shearing interferometer is proposed. It enables us to record a hologram without coherent illumination such as a laser. The systems can record an incoherent hologram by self-interference. A rotational shearing interferometer to record incoherent cosine hologram is described. Furthermore, a rotational shearing interferometer with lenses to record incoherent hologram is described. It has the advantage of obtaining depth information by the reconstruction owing to lenses for the shear which is parallel to the optical axis. The preliminary experiments were performed. An LED and a liquid crystal display with an LED backlight were used as incoherent objects. The incoherent holograms were recorded. The object images were reconstructed numerically. The experimental results confirm the proposed incoherent holography using a rotational shearing interferometer.

  11. Efficient Solutions for New Homes Case Study: BrightBuilt Home, Modular Zero Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-11

    When done well, modular home production can provide lower costs and excellent quality control (QC)—compared to conventional home building methods— while still allowing a great deal of customization. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) is a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team that worked with three Maine companies to compare standard codecompliant modular homes with a modular zero energy home. Those companies were BrightBuilt Home (BBH), Black Bros. Builders, and Keiser Homes.

  12. Regaining quantum incoherence for matter fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Driaaaz, P.F. )

    1992-01-15

    The possible quantum state of wormholes or little baby universes should be described by a nonfactorizable density matrix given by the path integral over the class of asymptotically flat four-geometries and asymptotically vanishing matter-field configurations which suitably match the prescribed data on three-surfaces which do not divide the manifold on the inner boundary. An instanton is here obtained which can represent such a nonsimply connected wormhole manifold, and is used to evaluate the asymptotic effective interaction of the resulting correlated baby universes with ordinary quantum fields at low energies in the Fock representation. It is argued that the demand of locality on the interacting quantum field commutators is no longer valid for correlated baby universes, and it is therefore concluded that quantum coherence in the matter-field sector is lost as a consequence of the interaction with nonsimply connected wormholes. A proposal is advanced that wormholes may provide us with a complementary quantum state sector that would induce the collapse of the state vector in the quantum measurement of any observable for ordinary microscopic matter systems.

  13. CosmoSIS: Modular cosmological parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Zuntz, J.; Paterno, M.; Jennings, E.; Rudd, D.; Manzotti, A.; Dodelson, S.; Bridle, S.; Sehrish, S.; Kowalkowski, J.

    2015-06-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. Here we present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmic shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. Lastly, we illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis

  14. CosmoSIS: Modular cosmological parameter estimation

    DOE PAGES

    Zuntz, J.; Paterno, M.; Jennings, E.; ...

    2015-06-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. Here we present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmicmore » shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. Lastly, we illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis« less

  15. Coherent and incoherent structural dynamics in laser-excited antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldecker, Lutz; Vasileiadis, Thomas; Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph; Zier, Tobias; Valencia, Felipe H.; Garcia, Martin E.; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the excitation of phonons in photoexcited antimony and demonstrate that the entire electron-lattice interactions, in particular coherent and incoherent electron-phonon coupling, can be probed simultaneously. Using femtosecond electron diffraction (FED) with high temporal resolution, we observe the coherent excitation of the fully symmetric A1 g optical phonon mode via the shift of the minimum of the atomic potential energy surface. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on laser excited potential energy surfaces are performed to quantify the change in lattice potential and the associated real-space amplitude of the coherent atomic oscillations. Good agreement is obtained between the parameter-free calculations and the experiment. In addition, our experimental configuration allows observing the energy transfer from electrons to phonons via incoherent electron-lattice scattering events. The electron-phonon coupling is determined as a function of electronic temperature from our DFT calculations and the data by applying different models for the energy transfer.

  16. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang

    2017-04-01

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication.

  17. Incoherent magnetization reversal in 30-nm Ni particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. A.; Chantrell, R.; Hwang, M.; Farhoud, M.; Savas, T. A.; Hao, Y.; Smith, Henry I.; Ross, F. M.; Redjdal, M.; Humphrey, F. B.

    2000-12-01

    The magnetic properties of a 100-nm-period large-area array of regular, 30-nm polycrystalline nickel particles have been studied. The particles are found to reverse incoherently, and their hysteresis behavior has been compared with a computational model over a range of temperatures. Excellent agreement with the model is obtained, indicating that switching of the particles is dominated by the reversal of approximately 10-nm-diameter volumes within each particle. These switching volumes are identified with the columnar grains in the polycrystalline nickel, showing that the microstructure determines the magnetic behavior of the particles. This explains the anisotropy distribution and the onset of superparamagnetism in the sample. Incoherent reversal occurs even though the particles are only 1.5 times the exchange length in nickel, a size at which nearly uniform rotation is expected to occur if the particles were homogeneous.

  18. Revealing proton shape fluctuations with incoherent diffraction at high energy

    DOE PAGES

    Mantysaari, H.; Schenke, B.

    2016-08-30

    The di erential cross section of exclusive di ractive vector meson production in electron proton collisions carries important information on the geometric structure of the proton. More speci cally, the coherent cross section as a function of the transferred transverse momentum is sensitive to the size of the proton, while the incoherent, or proton dissociative cross section is sensitive to uctuations of the gluon distribution in coordinate space. We show that at high energies the experimentally measured coherent and incoherent cross sections for the production of J= mesons are very well reproduced within the color glass condensate framework when strongmore » geometric uctuations of the gluon distribution in the proton are included. For meson production we also nd reasonable agreement. We study in detail the dependence of our results on various model parameters, including the average proton shape, analyze the e ect of saturation scale and color charge uctuations and constrain the degree of geometric uctuations.« less

  19. Revealing proton shape fluctuations with incoherent diffraction at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantysaari, H.; Schenke, B.

    2016-08-30

    The di erential cross section of exclusive di ractive vector meson production in electron proton collisions carries important information on the geometric structure of the proton. More speci cally, the coherent cross section as a function of the transferred transverse momentum is sensitive to the size of the proton, while the incoherent, or proton dissociative cross section is sensitive to uctuations of the gluon distribution in coordinate space. We show that at high energies the experimentally measured coherent and incoherent cross sections for the production of J= mesons are very well reproduced within the color glass condensate framework when strong geometric uctuations of the gluon distribution in the proton are included. For meson production we also nd reasonable agreement. We study in detail the dependence of our results on various model parameters, including the average proton shape, analyze the e ect of saturation scale and color charge uctuations and constrain the degree of geometric uctuations.

  20. Spectrum of second-harmonic radiation generated from incoherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Stabinis, A.; Pyragaite, V.; Tamosauskas, G.; Piskarskas, A.

    2011-10-15

    We report on the development of the theory of second-harmonic generation by an incoherent pump with broad angular and frequency spectra. We show that spatial as well as temporal walk-off effects in a nonlinear crystal result in angular dispersion of the second-harmonic radiation. We demonstrate that the acceptance angle in second-harmonic generation by incoherent light is caused by the width of the pump angular spectrum and the resulting angular dispersion of second-harmonic radiation but does not depend on crystal length. In this case the frequency spectrum of second-harmonic radiation is determined by its angular dispersion and the pump angular spectrum. The theory is supported by an experiment in which a LiIO{sub 3} crystal was pumped by a tungsten halogen lamp.

  1. Quantum-electrodynamical parametric instability in the incoherent photon gas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunliang; Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B

    2013-02-01

    We present a theory for the quantum-electrodynamical (QED) parametric scattering instability of an intense photon pulse in an incoherent radiation background. The pump electromagnetic (EM) wave can decay into a scattered daughter EM wave and an acousticlike wave due to the QED vacuum polarization nonlinearity. By a linear instability analysis we obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation for the growth rate of the scattering instability. The nonlinear QED scattering instability can give rise to the exchange of orbital angular momentum between intense Laguerre-Gaussian mode photon pulses and the two daughter waves, which may be a useful method to detect the highly energetic photon gases existing in the vicinity of rotating dense bodies in the Universe, such as pulsars and magnetars. The observation of the scattered waves may reveal information about the twisted acoustic waves in the incoherent photon gas.

  2. Axial asymmetry in holographic and incoherent correlation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Běhal, Jaromír.; Bouchal, Petr; Schovánek, Petr; Fordey, Tomáš; Bouchal, Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    In optical lens imaging, the main attention has traditionally been paid to the lateral resolution roughly estimated by a two-dimensional point spread function (PSF) describing sharp image of a point object. In three-dimensional (3D) imaging and methods based on depth information, an axial profile of the PSF becomes of particular importance. In studies on the 3D PSF, the axial image asymmetry and shift of the intensity maximum out of the focal plane were revealed for optical systems characterized by low Fresnel numbers. In this paper, the 3D PSF is examined in terms of digital imaging, where a point object is recorded optically and its image reconstructed numerically. The analysis includes methods of digital holography, in which the axial image asymmetry is examined in relation to different geometries of coherent recording waves. Attention is also devoted to the Fresnel incoherent correlation imaging that enables recording of 3D objects in spatially incoherent light.

  3. Preliminary results toward injection locking of an incoherent laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daher, J.

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary results of phase locking an incoherent laser array to a master source in an attempt to achieve coherent operation are presented. The techniques necessary to demonstrate phase locking are described along with some topics for future consideration. As expected, the results obtained suggest that injection locking of an array, where the spacing between adjacent longitudinal modes of its elements is significantly larger than the locking bandwidth, may not be feasible.

  4. Incoherent Neutron Scattering Measurements of Hydrogen-Charged Zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Elena; Choo, Hahn; Garlea, Vasile O; Liaw, Peter K; Hubbard, Camden R

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative phase measurements were conducted on Zircaloy-4 round bars using neutron scattering techniques. The mapping through the thickness of the specimens using neutron diffraction showed the presence of the face-centered-cubic delta zirconium hydride ({delta}-ZrH{sub 2}) phase on the surface. To determine the relative amount of hydrogen in the Zircaloy-4 samples, the increase of the incoherent scattering with the hydrogen content was calibrated using standard samples for which the hydrogen content was known.

  5. Evidence of strong proton shape fluctuations from incoherent diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Mantysaari, H.; Schenke, B.

    2016-07-25

    We show within the saturation framework that measurements of exclusive vector meson production at high energy provide evidence for strong geometric fluctuations of the proton. In comparison, the effect of saturation scale and color charge fluctuations is weak. This knowledge will allow detailed future measurements of the incoherent cross section to tightly constrain the fluctuating geometry of the proton as a function of the parton momentum fraction x.

  6. Incoherent GaAlAs/GaAs semiconductor laser arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, C. J.; Chen, J. S.; Fu, R. J.; Wu, D. H.; Wang, C. S.

    1988-01-01

    The fabrication of an incoherent laser array is reported. The main features of the arrays are low threshold index-guided laser elements, single-lobe far-field pattern, low astigmatism, low current operation, dense packing, and total electrical and optical isolation. With further development, this device should have applications in multihead optical-disk reading and writing, multifiber optical communications, and line-of-sight communications.

  7. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  8. Fresnel incoherent correlation holography and its imaging properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Ma, Haotong; Ren, Ge; Xie, Zongliang; Yu, Huan

    2016-09-01

    The incoherent digital holography makes it possible to record holograms under incoherent illumination, which lowers requirement for the coherence of light sources and results in expanding its application to white-light and fluorescence illuminating circumstances. The Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holography (FINCH) technology achieves diverging the incident beam and shifting phase by mounting phase masks on the phase modulator. Then it obtains holograms with phase difference and reconstructs the image. In this paper, we explain the principles of the FINCH technology, and introduce the n-step phase-shifting method which is utilized to eliminate the twin image and bias term in holograms. During the research, we studied what impact the term n may have on imaging performance, compared imaging performances when different phase masks are mounted on SLM, and established simulation system on imaging with which imaging performances are deeply inspected. At last, it is shown in the research that the FINCH technology could record holograms of objects, from which clear images could be reconstructed digitally.

  9. Blind separation of incoherent and spatially disjoint sound sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bin; Antoni, Jérôme; Pereira, Antonio; Kellermann, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Blind separation of sound sources aims at reconstructing the individual sources which contribute to the overall radiation of an acoustical field. The challenge is to reach this goal using distant measurements when all sources are operating concurrently. The working assumption is usually that the sources of interest are incoherent - i.e. statistically orthogonal - so that their separation can be approached by decorrelating a set of simultaneous measurements, which amounts to diagonalizing the cross-spectral matrix. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is traditionally used to this end. This paper reports two new findings in this context. First, a sufficient condition is established under which "virtual" sources returned by PCA coincide with true sources; it stipulates that the sources of interest should be not only incoherent but also spatially orthogonal. A particular case of this instance is met by spatially disjoint sources - i.e. with non-overlapping support sets. Second, based on this finding, a criterion that enforces both statistical and spatial orthogonality is proposed to blindly separate incoherent sound sources which radiate from disjoint domains. This criterion can be easily incorporated into acoustic imaging algorithms such as beamforming or acoustical holography to identify sound sources of different origins. The proposed methodology is validated on laboratory experiments. In particular, the separation of aeroacoustic sources is demonstrated in a wind tunnel.

  10. Robust Mapping of Incoherent Fiber-Optic Bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Harry E.; Deason, Brent E.; DePlachett, Charles P.; Pilgrim, Robert A.; Sanford, Harold S.

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for mapping between the positions of fibers at opposite ends of incoherent fiber-optic bundles have been invented to enable the use of such bundles to transmit images in visible or infrared light. The method is robust in the sense that it provides useful mapping even for a bundle that contains thousands of narrow, irregularly packed fibers, some of which may be defective. In a coherent fiber-optic bundle, the input and output ends of each fiber lie at identical positions in the input and output planes; therefore, the bundle can be used to transmit images without further modification. Unfortunately, the fabrication of coherent fiber-optic bundles is too labor-intensive and expensive for many applications. An incoherent fiber-optic bundle can be fabricated more easily and at lower cost, but it produces a scrambled image because the position of the end of each fiber in the input plane is generally different from the end of the same fiber in the output plane. However, the image transmitted by an incoherent fiber-optic bundle can be unscrambled (or, from a different perspective, decoded) by digital processing of the output image if the mapping between the input and output fiber-end positions is known. Thus, the present invention enables the use of relatively inexpensive fiber-optic bundles to transmit images.

  11. Neutron Incoherent Scattering Measurements on Hydrogen-Charged Zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Elena; Garlea, Vasile O; Choo, Hahn; Hubbard, Camden R; Liaw, Peter K

    2006-01-01

    Neutron incoherent scattering measurements were conducted on Zircaloy-4 round bars. The specimens were charged in a tube furnace at 430 C, using a 12.5 vol. % hydrogen in an argon mixture for 30, 60, and 90 minutes at 13.8 kPa pressure. The volume-average neutron diffraction measurements showed the presence of the face-centered-cubic delta zirconium hydride ({delta}.ZrH{sub 2}) phase in the hydrogenated specimens. The assessment of the background in the diffraction profiles due to the incoherent scattering from the hydrogen atoms was carried out by performing inelastic scans around zero energy transfer and at a fixed two-theta value for which there was only flat background and no coherent scattering. To estimate the relative amount of hydrogen in the Zircaloy-4 samples, the increase in incoherent scattering intensities with hydrogen content was calibrated using samples for which the hydrogen content was known. Measurement of the background scattering from locations within the round bar was also performed to map the distribution of hydrogen content.

  12. Plasma parameter estimation from multistatic, multibeam incoherent scatter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I. I.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Vierinen, J.; Aikio, A.; Fallows, R.; Roininen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Multistatic incoherent scatter radars are superior to monostatic facilities in the sense that multistatic systems can measure plasma parameters from multiple directions in volumes limited by beam dimensions and measurement range resolution. We propose a new incoherent scatter analysis technique that uses data from all receiver beams of a multistatic, multibeam radar system and produces, in addition to the plasma parameters typically measured with monostatic radars, estimates of ion velocity vectors and ion temperature anisotropies. Because the total scattered energy collected with remote receivers of a modern multistatic, multibeam radar system may even exceed the energy collected with the core transmit-and-receive site, the remote data improve the accuracy of all plasma parameter estimates, including those that could be measured with the core site alone. We apply the new multistatic analysis method for data measured by the tristatic European Incoherent Scatter VHF radar and the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) multibeam receiver and show that a significant improvement in accuracy is obtained by adding KAIRA data in the multistatic analysis. We also demonstrate the development of a pronounced ion temperature anisotropy during high-speed ionospheric plasma flows in substorm conditions.

  13. Incoherent acousto-optic image correlator with the kinoform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, Sergey N.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Solyakin, Ivan V.; Shapkarina, Ekaterina A.; Chervonkin, Alexander P.

    2004-04-01

    Fourier holograms are commonly used for reference images storing in diffraction correlators with spatially coherent or spatially incoherent illumination. Kinoforms can be a real alternative to Fourier holograms in the correlators. The kinoform represents a computer-synthesized optical element which performs only a phase modulation of a light wave. The kinoform restores true intensity of the recorded image and random distribution of phase. Therefore, it can be utilized for storing reference images, first of all, in correlators with spatially incoherent illumination. The absence of carrier frequency reduces demanded number of pixels of the spatial light modulator being used. Since the kinoform provides reconstruction of reference image in zero diffraction order, requirement on monochromaticity of illumination are decreased as well. The diffraction correlator with the kinoform used as spatial frequency filter is considered. The 2-D acoustooptic deflector was employed to form input images in real time by monochromatic spatially incoherent light. The reference images were recorded on the commercially available kinoforms. The input and reference images were of 256×256 pixels and 200×200 pixels respectively. Since input images were consisted of approximately 400 pixels with non-zero brightness, the image update frequency was gained at 200 Hz. The experimental setup and experimental results on images recognition are presented.

  14. Fiftieth Anniversary of the First Incoherent Scatter Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Robert M.; van Eyken, Anthony; Farley, Donald

    2009-08-01

    In the 11 November 2008 issue of Eos (89(46), 458), Henry Rishbeth asked whether the years 2008-2010 feature any important anniversaries in solar-terrestrial physics other than those he mentioned. One such milestone is the fiftieth anniversary of the first incoherent scatter radar (ISR) experiment. At a Cornell University (Ithaca, N. Y.) departmental seminar in the spring of 1958, William Gordon showed that a powerful radar system could detect the uncorrelated and extremely weak scattered signals from individual ionospheric electrons. This process is called incoherent scatter, and studying the properties of the resulting radar echoes can reveal information about the density, temperature, and velocity of ionospheric particles. Gordon discussed this idea with Ken Bowles, a recent Ph.D. graduate of Cornell, and in a few weeks Bowles built a large but inexpensive antenna array that he connected to an existing transmitter near Havana, Ill. Using this crude radar (the data processing consisted of taking a time exposure photograph of the signal amplitude displayed on an oscilloscope), Bowles successfully measured an incoherently scattered signal on 21 October 1958. By a happy coincidence, 21 October was also the day that Gordon gave his first formal talk on the ISR concept at an International Union of Radio Science (URSI) conference at Pennsylvania State University. After calling Bowles for an update on his experiment, Gordon presented his research and added the dramatic and newsworthy note to the end of his talk on the success of the first ISR experiment!

  15. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self­interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex-i.e., amplitude plus phase-hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  16. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  17. Modular analysis of biological networks.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of complex biological networks has traditionally relied on decomposition into smaller, semi-autonomous units such as individual signaling pathways. With the increased scope of systems biology (models), rational approaches to modularization have become an important topic. With increasing acceptance of de facto modularity in biology, widely different definitions of what constitutes a module have sparked controversies. Here, we therefore review prominent classes of modular approaches based on formal network representations. Despite some promising research directions, several important theoretical challenges remain open on the way to formal, function-centered modular decompositions for dynamic biological networks.

  18. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  19. Modular gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  20. Modularity of music processing.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Coltheart, Max

    2003-07-01

    The music faculty is not a monolithic entity that a person either has or does not. Rather, it comprises a set of neurally isolable processing components, each having the potential to be specialized for music. Here we propose a functional architecture for music processing that captures the typical properties of modular organization. The model rests essentially on the analysis of music-related deficits in neurologically impaired individuals, but provides useful guidelines for exploring the music faculty in normal people, using methods such as neuroimaging.

  1. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  2. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  3. Design of a modular digital computer system, DRL 4. [for meeting future requirements of spaceborne computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design is reported of an advanced modular computer system designated the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System, which anticipates requirements for higher computing capacity and reliability for future spaceborne computers. Subjects discussed include: an overview of the architecture, mission analysis, synchronous and nonsynchronous scheduling control, reliability, and data transmission.

  4. Modular and Hierarchically Modular Organization of Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, David; Lambiotte, Renaud; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Brain networks are increasingly understood as one of a large class of information processing systems that share important organizational principles in common, including the property of a modular community structure. A module is topologically defined as a subset of highly inter-connected nodes which are relatively sparsely connected to nodes in other modules. In brain networks, topological modules are often made up of anatomically neighboring and/or functionally related cortical regions, and inter-modular connections tend to be relatively long distance. Moreover, brain networks and many other complex systems demonstrate the property of hierarchical modularity, or modularity on several topological scales: within each module there will be a set of sub-modules, and within each sub-module a set of sub-sub-modules, etc. There are several general advantages to modular and hierarchically modular network organization, including greater robustness, adaptivity, and evolvability of network function. In this context, we review some of the mathematical concepts available for quantitative analysis of (hierarchical) modularity in brain networks and we summarize some of the recent work investigating modularity of structural and functional brain networks derived from analysis of human neuroimaging data. PMID:21151783

  5. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    SciTech Connect

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-12-15

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  6. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    SciTech Connect

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, Michael R.; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2016-11-01

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  7. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  8. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark A; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-02-10

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  9. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  10. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  11. MACOP modular architecture with control primitives

    PubMed Central

    Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot. PMID:23888140

  12. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Butterfield, Karla

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  13. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John

    2002-01-01

    similarity to multiple missions. It then becomes possible to procure solar array modules in advance of mission definition and respond quickly and inexpensively to a selected mission's unique requirements. The solar array modular architecture allows the procurement of solar array modules before the array geometry has been frozen. This reduces the effect of procurement lead-time on the mission integration and test flow by as much as 50%. Second, by spreading the non-recurring costs over multiple missions, the cost per unit area is also reduced. In the case of the SMEX-Lite procurement, this reduction was by about one third of the cost per unit area compared to previous SMEX mission-unique procurements. Third, the modular architecture greatly facilitates the infusion of new solar cell technologies into flight programs as these technologies become available. New solar cell technologies need only be fabricated onto a standard-sized module to be incorporated into the next available mission. The modular solar array can be flown in a mixed configuration with some new and some standard cell technologies. Since each module has its own wiring terminals, the array can be arranged as desired electrically with little impact to cost and schedule. The solar array modular architecture does impose some additional constraints on systems and subsystem engineers. First, they must work with discrete solar array modules rather than size the array to fit exactly within an available envelope. The array area is constrained to an integer multiple of the module area. Second, the modular design is optimized for space radiation and thermal environments not greatly different from a typical SMEX LEO environment. For example, a mission with a highly elliptical orbit (e.g., Polar, SMEX/FAST) would require thicker coverglasses to protect the solar cells from the more intense radiation environment.

  14. Quantum modular forms, mock modular forms, and partial theta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimport, Susanna

    Defined by Zagier in 2010, quantum modular forms have been the subject of an explosion of recent research. Many of these results are aimed at discovering examples of these functions, which are defined on the rational numbers and have "nice" modularity properties. Though the subject is in its early stages, numerous results (including Zagier's original examples) show these objects naturally arising from many areas of mathematics as limits of other modular-like functions. One such family of examples is due to Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades, who connected these new objects to partial theta functions (introduced by Rogers in 1917) and mock modular forms (about which there is a rich theory, whose origins date back to Ramanujan in 1920). In this thesis, we build off of the work of Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades by providing an infinite family of quantum modular forms of arbitrary positive half-integral weight. Further, this family of quantum modular forms "glues" mock modular forms to partial theta functions and is constructed from a so-called "universal" mock theta function by extending a method of Eichler and Zagier (originally defined for holomorphic Jacobi forms) into a non-holomorphic setting. In addition to the infinite family, we explore the weight 1/2 and 3/2 functions in more depth. For both of these weights, we are able to explicitly write down the quantum modular form, as well as the corresponding "errors to modularity," which can be shown to be Mordell integrals of specific theta functions and, as a consequence, are real-analytic functions. Finally, we turn our attention to the partial theta functions associated with these low weight examples. Berndt and Kim provide asymptotic expansions for a certain class of partial theta functions as q approaches 1 radially within the unit disk. Here, we extend this work to not only obtain asymptotic expansions for this class of functions as q approaches any root of unity, but also for a certain class of derivatives of these functions

  15. Modular Wideband Active Vibration Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David R.; Zewari, Wahid; Lee, Kenneth Y.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of space experiments with previous missions shows a common theme. Some of the recent experiments are based on the scientific fundamentals of instruments of prior years. However, the main distinguishing characteristic is the embodiment of advances in engineering and manufacturing in order to extract clearer and sharper images and extend the limits of measurement. One area of importance to future missions is providing vibration free observation platforms at acceptable costs. It has been shown by researchers that vibration problems cannot be eliminated by passive isolation techniques alone. Therefore, various organizations have conducted research in the area of combining active and passive vibration control techniques. The essence of this paper is to present progress in what is believed to be a new concept in this arena. It is based on the notion that if one active element in a vibration transmission path can provide a reasonable vibration attenuation, two active elements in series may provide more control options and better results. The paper presents the functions of a modular split shaft linear actuator developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and University of Massachusetts Lowell. It discusses some of the control possibilities facilitated by the device. Some preliminary findings and problems are also discussed.

  16. Standardized Modular Power Interfaces for Future Space Explorations Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies show that future human explorations missions are composed of multi-vehicle assemblies with interconnected electric power systems. Some vehicles are often intended to serve as flexible multi-purpose or multi-mission platforms. This drives the need for power architectures that can be reconfigured to support this level of flexibility. Power system developmental costs can be reduced, program wide, by utilizing a common set of modular building blocks. Further, there are mission operational and logistics cost benefits of using a common set of modular spares. These benefits are the goals of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project. A common set of modular blocks requires a substantial level of standardization in terms of the Electrical, Data System, and Mechanical interfaces. The AMPS project is developing a set of proposed interface standards that will provide useful guidance for modular hardware developers but not needlessly constrain technology options, or limit future growth in capability. In 2015 the AMPS project focused on standardizing the interfaces between the elements of spacecraft power distribution and energy storage. The development of the modular power standard starts with establishing mission assumptions and ground rules to define design application space. The standards are defined in terms of AMPS objectives including Commonality, Reliability-Availability, Flexibility-Configurability and Supportability-Reusability. The proposed standards are aimed at assembly and sub-assembly level building blocks. AMPS plans to adopt existing standards for spacecraft command and data, software, network interfaces, and electrical power interfaces where applicable. Other standards including structural encapsulation, heat transfer, and fluid transfer, are governed by launch and spacecraft environments and bound by practical limitations of weight and volume. Developing these mechanical interface standards is more difficult but

  17. New Modular Camera No Ordinary Joe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Although dubbed 'Little Joe' for its small-format characteristics, a new wavefront sensor camera has proved that it is far from coming up short when paired with high-speed, low-noise applications. SciMeasure Analytical Systems, Inc., a provider of cameras and imaging accessories for use in biomedical research and industrial inspection and quality control, is the eye behind Little Joe's shutter, manufacturing and selling the modular, multi-purpose camera worldwide to advance fields such as astronomy, neurobiology, and cardiology.

  18. Performance Comparison between Stereausis and Incoherent Wideband Music for Localization of Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    PERFORMANCE COMPARISON BETWEEN STEREAUSIS AND INCOHERENT WIDEBAND MUSIC FOR LOCALIZATION OF GROUND VEHICLES September 1999 Tien Pham U.S. Army...present experimental results comparing the incoherent wideband MUSIC (IWM) algorithm developed by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)1, 2 and the...Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Performance Comparison Between Stereausis and Incoherent Wideband Music for

  19. Modular Flooring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  20. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-03-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, e.g., lenslet arrays for sensing or multi-acuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach to adaptive optics based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile is possible not only with the conventional coherent type of digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates complex - i.e. amplitude plus phase - hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using a guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. The adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  1. Two-step phase-shifting fluorescence incoherent holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Yao, Hai; Qu, Xinghua; Gao, Bruce Z

    2014-06-01

    Fluorescence holographic microscope (FINCHSCOPE) is a motionless fluorescence holographic imaging technique based on Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) that shows promise in reconstructing three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens with three holograms. We report a developing two-step phase-shifting method that reduces the required number of holograms from three to two. Using this method, we resolved microscopic fluorescent beads that were three-dimensionally distributed at different depths with two interferograms captured by a CCD camera. The method enables the FINCHSCOPE to work in conjunction with the frame-straddling technique and significantly enhance imaging speed.

  2. Speed and efficiency limits of multilevel incoherent heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, V.; Niedenzu, W.; Kofman, A. G.; Kurizki, G.

    2016-12-01

    We present a comprehensive theory of heat engines (HE) based on a quantum-mechanical "working fluid" (WF) with periodically modulated energy levels. The theory is valid for any periodicity of driving Hamiltonians that commute with themselves at all times and do not induce coherence in the WF. Continuous and stroke cycles arise in opposite limits of this theory, which encompasses hitherto unfamiliar cycle forms, dubbed here hybrid cycles. The theory allows us to discover the speed, power, and efficiency limits attainable by incoherently operating multilevel HE depending on the cycle form and the dynamical regimes.

  3. Two-step phase-shifting fluorescence incoherent holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Yingying; Peng, Xiang; Yao, Hai; Qu, Xinghua; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence holographic microscope (FINCHSCOPE) is a motionless fluorescence holographic imaging technique based on Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) that shows promise in reconstructing three-dimensional fluorescence images of biological specimens with three holograms. We report a developing two-step phase-shifting method that reduces the required number of holograms from three to two. Using this method, we resolved microscopic fluorescent beads that were three-dimensionally distributed at different depths with two interferograms captured by a CCD camera. The method enables the FINCHSCOPE to work in conjunction with the frame-straddling technique and significantly enhance imaging speed. PMID:24972355

  4. Characterization of a space orbited incoherent fiber optic bundle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewalt, Stephen A.; Taylor, Edward W.

    1993-01-01

    The results of a study performed to determine the effects of adverse space environments on a bundle of over 1800 optical fibers orbited for 69 months are reported. Experimental results are presented on an incoherent fiber optic bundle oriented in low Earth orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite as part of the Space Environment Effects Experiment (M0006). Measurements were performed to determine if space induced radiation effects changed the fiber bundle characteristics. Data demonstrating the success of light transmitting fibers to withstand the adverse space environment are presented.

  5. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  6. Modular Optical PDV System

    SciTech Connect

    Araceli Rutkowski, David Esquibel

    2008-12-11

    A modular optical photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) detector system has been developed by using readily available optical components with a 20-GHz Miteq optical detector into eight channels of single-wide modules integrated into a 3U rack unit (1U = 1.75 inches) with a common power supply. Optical fibers were precisely trimmed, welded, and timed within each unit. This system has been used to collect dynamic velocity data on various physics experiments. An optical power meter displays the laser input power to the module and optical power at the detector. An adjustable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical attenuator is used to adjust the amount of unshifted light entering the detector. Front panel LEDs show the presence of power to the module. A fully loaded chassis with eight channels consumes 45 watts of power. Each chassis requires 1U spacing above and below for heat management. Modules can be easily replaced.

  7. Modular error embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Ettinger, J. Mark

    1999-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

  8. Modular weapon control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  9. QR code optical encryption using spatially incoherent illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, P. A.; Krasnov, V. V.; Rodin, V. G.; Starikov, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    Optical encryption is an actively developing field of science. The majority of encryption techniques use coherent illumination and suffer from speckle noise, which severely limits their applicability. The spatially incoherent encryption technique does not have this drawback, but its effectiveness is dependent on the Fourier spectrum properties of the image to be encrypted. The application of a quick response (QR) code in the capacity of a data container solves this problem, and the embedded error correction code also enables errorless decryption. The optical encryption of digital information in the form of QR codes using spatially incoherent illumination was implemented experimentally. The encryption is based on the optical convolution of the image to be encrypted with the kinoform point spread function, which serves as an encryption key. Two liquid crystal spatial light modulators were used in the experimental setup for the QR code and the kinoform imaging, respectively. The quality of the encryption and decryption was analyzed in relation to the QR code size. Decryption was conducted digitally. The successful decryption of encrypted QR codes of up to 129  ×  129 pixels was demonstrated. A comparison with the coherent QR code encryption technique showed that the proposed technique has a signal-to-noise ratio that is at least two times higher.

  10. Coherence and incoherence collective behavior in financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shangmei; Xie, Qiuchao; Lu, Qing; Jiang, Xin; Chen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Financial markets have been extensively studied as highly complex evolving systems. In this paper, we quantify financial price fluctuations through a coupled dynamical system composed of phase oscillators. We find that a Financial Coherence and Incoherence (FCI) coexistence collective behavior emerges as the system evolves into the stable state, in which the stocks split into two groups: one is represented by coherent, phase-locked oscillators, the other is composed of incoherent, drifting oscillators. It is demonstrated that the size of the coherent stock groups fluctuates during the economic periods according to real-world financial instabilities or shocks. Further, we introduce the coherent characteristic matrix to characterize the involvement dynamics of stocks in the coherent groups. Clustering results on the matrix provides a novel manifestation of the correlations among stocks in the economic periods. Our analysis for components of the groups is consistent with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) classification and can also figure out features for newly developed industries. These results can provide potentially implications on characterizing the inner dynamical structure of financial markets and making optimal investment into tragedies.

  11. Visual resolution in incoherent and coherent light: preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnowska-Habrat, Katarzyna; Dubik, Boguslawa; Zajac, Marek

    2001-05-01

    In ophthalmology and optometry a number of measures are used for describing quality of human vision such as resolution, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity function, etc. In this paper we will concentrate on the vision quality understood as a resolution of periodic object being a set of equidistant parallel lines of given spacing and direction. The measurement procedure is based on presenting the test to the investigated person and determining the highest spatial frequency he/she can still resolve. In this paper we describe a number of experiments in which we use test tables illuminated with light both coherent and incoherent of different spectral characteristics. Our experiments suggest that while considering incoherent polychromatic illumination the resolution in blue light is substantially worse than in white light. In coherent illumination speckling effect causes worsening of resolution. While using laser light it is easy to generate a sinusoidal interference pattern which can serve as test object. In the paper we compare the results of resolution measurements with test tables and interference fringes.

  12. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOEpatents

    Vanstraelen, G.F.

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a 0'' to 1'' transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  13. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOEpatents

    Vanstraelen, Guy F.

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a "0" to "1" transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  14. Generic small modular reactor plant design.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

    2012-12-01

    This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

  15. Comparison of atomic oxygen measurements by incoherent scatter and satellite-borne mass spectrometer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Alcayde, D.

    1974-01-01

    Atomic oxygen densities determined by the incoherent scatter technique are compared to densities deduced from satellite-borne mass spectrometer measurements and are found to agree within experimental error. The diurnal variations inferred from the incoherent scatter measurements do show, however, some departure from diurnal variations found by modeling the mass spectrometer results. Some implications of these departures are briefly discussed.

  16. Modularization of genetic elements promotes synthetic metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Liu, Duo; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-11-15

    In the context of emerging synthetic biology, metabolic engineering is moving to the next stage powered by new technologies. Systematical modularization of genetic elements makes it more convenient to engineer biological systems for chemical production or other desired purposes. In the past few years, progresses were made in engineering metabolic pathway using synthetic biology tools. Here, we spotlighted the topic of implementation of modularized genetic elements in metabolic engineering. First, we overviewed the principle developed for modularizing genetic elements and then discussed how the genetic modules advanced metabolic engineering studies. Next, we picked up some milestones of engineered metabolic pathway achieved in the past few years. Last, we discussed the rapid raised synthetic biology field of "building a genome" and the potential in metabolic engineering.

  17. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite servicing has been a proven capability of NASA since the first servicing missions in the 1980s with astronauts on the space shuttle. This capability enabled the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and saved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mission following the discovery of the flawed primary mirror. The effectiveness and scope of servicing opportunities, especially using robotic servicers, is a function of how cooperative a spacecraft is. In this paper, modularity will be presented as a critical design aspect for a spacecraft that is cooperative from a servicing perspective. Different features of modularity are discussed using examples from HST and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) program from the 1980s and 1990s. The benefits of modularity will be presented including those directly related to servicing and those outside of servicing including reduced costs and increased flexibility. The new Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) concept is introduced as an affordable implementation of modularity that provides cost savings and flexibility. Key aspects of the ROSE architecture are discussed such as the module design and the distributed avionics architecture. The ROSE concept builds on the experience from MMS and due to its modularity, would be highly suitable as a future client for on-orbit servicing.

  18. Modular Approach to Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-06-11

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics.

  19. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5’UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments. PMID:27812193

  20. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.

  1. Modular Approach to Spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  2. Regimes of strong light-matter coupling under incoherent excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, E. del; Laussy, F. P.

    2011-10-15

    We study a two-level system (atom, superconducting qubit, or quantum dot) strongly coupled to a single photonic mode of a cavity, in the presence of incoherent pumping and including detuning and dephasing. This system displays a striking quantum-to-classical transition. On the grounds of several approximations that reproduce to various degrees exact results obtained numerically, we separate five regimes of operations, that we term ''linear,''''quantum,''''lasing,''''quenching,'' and ''thermal.'' In the fully quantized picture, the lasing regime arises as a condensation of dressed states and manifests itself as a Mollow triplet structure in the direct emitter photoluminescence spectrum, which embeds fundamental features of the full-field quantization description of light-matter interaction.

  3. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent light: theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel B; Howey, Dylan J; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2013-07-25

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I((4)) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and new opportunities.

  4. Lineshape analysis of coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy using incoherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Ulness, Darin J.; Turner, Daniel B.

    2015-06-07

    Coherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent (noisy) light, I{sup (4)} 2D ES, holds intriguing challenges and opportunities. One challenge is to determine how I{sup (4)} 2D ES compares to femtosecond 2D ES. Here, we merge the sophisticated energy-gap Hamiltonian formalism that is often used to model femtosecond 2D ES with the factorized time-correlation formalism that is needed to describe I{sup (4)} 2D ES. The analysis reveals that in certain cases the energy-gap Hamiltonian is insufficient to model the spectroscopic technique correctly. The results using a modified energy-gap Hamiltonian show that I{sup (4)} 2D ES can reveal detailed lineshape information, but, contrary to prior reports, does not reveal dynamics during the waiting time.

  5. Incoherent systems and coverings in finite dimensional Banach spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Temlyakov, V N

    2014-05-31

    We discuss the construction of coverings of the unit ball of a finite dimensional Banach space. There is a well-known technique based on comparing volumes which gives upper and lower bounds on covering numbers. However, this technique does not provide a method for constructing good coverings. Here we study incoherent systems and apply them to construct good coverings. We use the following strategy. First, we build a good covering using balls with a radius close to one. Second, we iterate this construction to obtain a good covering for any radius. We shall concentrate mainly on the first step of this strategy. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  6. Weak value measurement with an incoherent measuring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hyang-Tag; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2010-02-01

    In the Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman (AAV) weak measurement, it is assumed that the measuring device or the pointer is in a quantum mechanical pure state. In reality, however, it is often not the case. In this paper, we generalize the AAV weak measurement scheme to include more generalized situations in which the measuring device is in a mixed state. We also report an optical implementation of the weak value measurement in which the incoherent pointer is realized with the pseudo-thermal light. The theoretical and experimental results show that the measuring device under the influence of partial decoherence could still be used for amplified detection of minute physical changes and is applicable for implementing the weak value measurement for massive particles.

  7. Fault Tolerant Algorithm for Structured Illumination Microscopy with Incoherent Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Heidingsfelder, Philipp; Gao, Jun; Yu, Liandong; Ott, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we present a new algorithm for structured illumination microscopy with incoherent light. Existing algorithms for determining the contrast values of the focal depth response require a high accurate phase shift of the fringe pattern illumination. The presented algorithm, which is robust against inaccurate phase shift of the fringe pattern, reduces significantly the requirements for the phase shift and consequently the costs of the microscope. The new algorithm was tested by a preliminary experiment, whereby the grating was shifted by an elastic guided micro-motion mechanism employing a low-cost stepper motor replacing the conventional expensive piezo drive. The determined focal depth response is very smooth and corresponds very well to the theoretical focal depth response.

  8. Incoherent neutron scattering in acetanilide and three deuterated derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthes, Mariette; Almairac, Robert; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis; Moret, Jacques; Currat, Roland; Dianoux, José

    1991-03-01

    Incoherent-neutron-scattering measurements of the vibrational density of states of acetanilide and three deuterated derivatives are presented. These data allow one to identify an intense maximum, assigned to the N-H out-of-plane bending mode. The data display the specific behavior of the methyl torsional modes: large isotopic shift and strong low-temperature intensity; confirm our previous inelastic-neutron-scattering studies, indicating no obvious anomalies in the range of frequency of the acoustic phonons. In addition, the data show the existence of thermally activated quasielastic scattering above 100 K, assigned to the random diffusive motion of the methyl protons. These results are discussed in the light of recent theoretical models proposed to explain the anomalous optical properties of this crystal.

  9. Color transparency in incoherent electroproduction of {rho} mesons off nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nemchik, J.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.

    2013-04-15

    Color transparency (CT) phenomena in elastic electroproduction of vector mesons off nuclei are usually infected by the onset of coherence length (CL) effects. However, at low energies corresponding to the CLAS experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab), one can study practically the net CT effects, since CL is much shorter than the nuclear radius. We investigate various manifestations of CT effects using rigorous quantum mechanical approach based on the path integral technique. We include also the effects of {rho} meson decay inside the nucleus leading to a rise of the nuclear suppression towards small values of Q{sup 2}. Motivated by the last CLAS data we predict the A, Q{sup 2} and l{sub c} dependence of nuclear transparency for {rho}{sup 0} mesons produced incoherently off nuclei. We also perform predictions for expected signal of CT corresponding to the planned JLab upgrade to 12 GeV electron beam.

  10. Generation and detection of incoherent phonons in picosecond ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Perrin, B; Péronne, E; Belliard, L

    2006-12-22

    In picosecond ultrasonics experiments the absorption of a femtosecond laser pulse in a thin metallic transducer is used to generate very short acoustic pulses. These pulses are made of coherent longitudinal waves with a frequency spectrum that can reach 100-200 GHz. The laser pulse absorption gives rise to a heating of the film of a few Kelvin within a typical time of 1 ps. Later on, the heat goes in the substrate through an interface thermal resistance and is diffused by thermal conduction. At very low temperature and in pure crystals the thermal phonons emitted by the heated metallic film can propagate ballistically over large distances and produce a so-called heat pulse. We report on the experimental evidence of the coexistence of the coherent acoustic pulse and the incoherent heat pulse generated and detected by laser ultrasonics.

  11. Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Amol S.

    Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction

  12. Eigenvalue Spectra of Modular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2013-08-01

    A large variety of dynamical processes that take place on networks can be expressed in terms of the spectral properties of some linear operator which reflects how the dynamical rules depend on the network topology. Often, such spectral features are theoretically obtained by considering only local node properties, such as degree distributions. Many networks, however, possess large-scale modular structures that can drastically influence their spectral characteristics and which are neglected in such simplified descriptions. Here, we obtain in a unified fashion the spectrum of a large family of operators, including the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian matrices, for networks with generic modular structure, in the limit of large degrees. We focus on the conditions necessary for the merging of the isolated eigenvalues with the continuous band of the spectrum, after which the planted modular structure can no longer be easily detected by spectral methods. This is a crucial transition point which determines when a modular structure is strong enough to affect a given dynamical process. We show that this transition happens in general at different points for the different matrices, and hence the detectability threshold can vary significantly, depending on the operator chosen. Equivalently, the sensitivity to the modular structure of the different dynamical processes associated with each matrix will be different, given the same large-scale structure present in the network. Furthermore, we show that, with the exception of the Laplacian matrix, the different transitions coalesce into the same point for the special case where the modules are homogeneous but separate otherwise.

  13. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS), Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, A. J.; Bailey, D. G.; Gaabo, R. J.; Lahn, T. G.; Larson, J. C.; Peterson, E. M.; Schuck, J. W.; Rodgers, D. L.; Wroblewski, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstration advanced anionics system (DAAS) function description, hardware description, operational evaluation, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) are provided. Projected advanced avionics system (PAAS) description, reliability analysis, cost analysis, maintainability analysis, and modularity analysis are discussed.

  14. Modular control of fusion power heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, D. R.

    2012-08-24

    This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment.

  15. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  16. Transform-limited-pulse representation of excitation with natural incoherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Chenu, Aurélia Brumer, Paul

    2016-01-28

    The excitation of molecular systems by natural incoherent light relevant, for example, to photosynthetic light-harvesting is examined. We show that the result of linear excitation with natural incoherent light can be obtained using incident light described in terms of transform limited pulses, as opposed to conventional classical representations with explicit random character. The derived expressions allow for computations to be done directly for any thermal light spectrum using a simple wave function formalism and provide a route to the experimental determination of natural incoherent excitation using pulsed laser techniques. Pulses associated with solar and cosmic microwave background radiation are provided as examples.

  17. Single-shot self-interference incoherent digital holography using off-axis configuration

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a single-shot incoherent holographic imaging technique that adopts self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) with slight tilt of the plane mirror in the optical configuration. The limited temporal coherence length of the illumination leads the guide-star hologram of the proposed system to have a Gaussian envelope of elliptical ring shape. The observation shows that the reconstruction by cross correlation with the guide-star hologram achieves better quality than the usual propagation methods. Experimentally, we verify that the hologram and 3D reconstruction can be implemented incoherently with the proposed single-shot off-axis SIDH. PMID:24281544

  18. Incoherent vector mesons production in PbPb ultraperipheral collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ya-Ping; Chen, Xurong

    2017-03-01

    The incoherent rapidity distributions of vector mesons are computed in dipole model in PbPb ultraperipheral collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The IIM model fitted from newer data is employed in the dipole amplitude. The Boosted Gaussian and Gaus-LC wave functions for vector mesons are implemented in the calculations as well. Predictions for the J / ψ, ψ (2 s), ρ and ϕ incoherent rapidity distributions are evaluated and compared with experimental data and other theoretical predictions in this paper. We obtain closer predictions of the incoherent rapidity distributions for J / ψ than previous calculations in the IIM model.

  19. Generation of coherent waves by frequency up-conversion and down-conversion of incoherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Piskarskas, A.; Pyragaite, V.; Stabinis, A.

    2010-11-15

    It is revealed that the generation of a coherent wave by frequency conversion of incoherent waves is a characteristic feature of three-wave interaction in a nonlinear medium when angular dispersion of input waves is properly chosen. In this case the combining action of the pairs of spectral components of incoherent waves may result in the cumulative driving of a single plane monochromatic wave in up-conversion and down-conversion processes. As a fundamental result we point out an enhancement of the spectral radiance of the generated wave in comparison with incoherent waves.

  20. Coherence-incoherence patterns in a ring of non-locally coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omel'chenko, O. E.

    2013-09-01

    We consider a paradigmatic spatially extended model of non-locally coupled phase oscillators which are uniformly distributed within a one-dimensional interval and interact depending on the distance between their sites' modulo periodic boundary conditions. This model can display peculiar spatio-temporal patterns consisting of alternating patches with synchronized (coherent) or irregular (incoherent) oscillator dynamics, hence the name coherence-incoherence pattern, or chimera state. For such patterns we formulate a general bifurcation analysis scheme based on a hierarchy of continuum limit equations. This provides the possibility of classifying known coherence-incoherence patterns and of suggesting directions for the search for new ones.

  1. Control of transient gain absorption via tunneling and incoherent pumping in triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Si-Cong; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wan, Ren-Gang; Wang, Li-Jie; Shu, Shi-Li; Wang, Tao; Lu, Ze-Feng; Sun, Fang-Yuan; Tong, Cun-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    The transient gain-absorption properties of the probe field in vertical triple quantum dots assisted by double tunneling and incoherent pumping are investigated. With a proper intensity value and detuning of the second tunneling, the transient gain in triple quantum dots with incoherent pumping can be completely eliminated. In addition, the incoherent pumping affects both the amplitude of the transient absorption and the steady-state value. The dependence of transient behaviors on other parameters, such as the radiative decay rate and the pure dephasing decay rate of the quantum dots, is also discussed. The scheme may have important applications in quantum information networks and communication.

  2. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design.

  3. Modular multivariable control improves hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Chia, T.L.; Lefkowitz, I.; Tamas, P.D.

    1996-10-01

    Modular multivariable control (MMC), a system of interconnected, single process variable controllers, can be a user-friendly, reliable and cost-effective alternative to centralized, large-scale multivariable control packages. MMC properties and features derive directly from the properties of the coordinated controller which, in turn, is based on internal model control technology. MMC was applied to a hydrocracking unit involving two process variables and three controller outputs. The paper describes modular multivariable control, MMC properties, tuning considerations, application at the DCS level, constraints handling, and process application and results.

  4. Modular multichannel surface plasmon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuert, G.; Kufer, S.; Benoit, M.; Gaub, H. E.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a modular multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometer on the basis of a commercially available hybrid sensor chip. Due to its modularity this inexpensive and easy to use setup can readily be adapted to different experimental environments. High temperature stability is achieved through efficient thermal coupling of individual SPR units. With standard systems the performance of the multichannel instrument was evaluated. The absorption kinetics of a cysteamine monolayer, as well as the concentration dependence of the specific receptor-ligand interaction between biotin and streptavidin was measured.

  5. Modular Firewalls for Storage Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Giant honeycomb structures assembled in modular units. Flammable materials stored in cells. Walls insulated with firebrick to prevent spread of fire among cells. Portable, modular barrier withstands heat of combustion for limited time and confines combustion products horizontally to prevent fire from spreading. Barrier absorbs heat energy by ablation and not meant to be reused. Designed to keep fires from spreading among segments of solid rocket propellant in storage, barrier erected between storage units of other flammable or explosive materials; tanks of petroleum or liquid natural gas. Barrier adequate for most industrial purposes.

  6. Sparse synthetic aperture with Fresnel elements (S-SAFE) using digital incoherent holograms

    PubMed Central

    Kashter, Yuval; Rivenson, Yair; Stern, Adrian; Rosen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Creating a large-scale synthetic aperture makes it possible to break the resolution boundaries dictated by the wave nature of light of common optical systems. However, their implementation is challenging, since the generation of a large size continuous mosaic synthetic aperture composed of many patterns is complicated in terms of both phase matching and time-multiplexing duration. In this study we present an advanced configuration for an incoherent holographic imaging system with super resolution qualities that creates a partial synthetic aperture. The new system, termed sparse synthetic aperture with Fresnel elements (S-SAFE), enables significantly decreasing the number of the recorded elements, and it is free from positional constrains on their location. Additionally, in order to obtain the best image quality we propose an optimal mosaicking structure derived on the basis of physical and numerical considerations, and introduce three reconstruction approaches which are compared and discussed. The super-resolution capabilities of the proposed scheme and its limitations are analyzed, numerically simulated and experimentally demonstrated. PMID:26367947

  7. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  8. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  9. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  10. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  11. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  12. 48 CFR 3417.70 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Modular contracting. 3417... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Modular Contracting 3417.70 Modular contracting. (a) FSA—May incrementally conduct successive procurements of modules of...

  13. Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor for High Precision Astronomical Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke-Xun; Allen, G.; Buchman, S.; Byer, R. L.; Conklin, J. W.; DeBra, D. B.; Gill, D.; Goh, A.; Higuchi, S.; Lu, P.; Robertson, N.; Swank, A.

    2006-12-01

    We review the progress in developing the Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (modular GRS) [1], which was first proposed as a simplified core sensor for space gravitational wave detection missions. In a modular GRS, laser beam from the remote the sensor does not illuminate the proof mass directly. The internal measurement from housing to proof mass is separated from the external interferometry. A double side grating may further simplify the structure and may better preserve the measurement precision. We review the recent progress in developing modular GRS at Stanford. We have further studied optical sensing design that combines advantage of high precision interferometric measurement and robust optical shadow sensing scheme. We have made critical progress in optical measurement of the center of mass position of a spherical proof mass at a precision without costing the dynamic range while spinning. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating localized grating pattern onto the dielectric and gold materials. We have conducted an initial experiment of rf heterodyne of cavity reflection and thus lowered optical power than that in the direct detection. We have further studied UV LED that will be used for AC charge management experiment. The modular GRS will be an in-time, cost effective product for the advanced Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) and the Big Bang Observatory (BBO). [1] K. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. L. Byer, “Advanced Architecture for High Precision Space Laser Interferometers”, 5th International LISA Symposium, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 12-16 July 2004. Class. Quantum Grav. 22 (2005) S287-S296.

  14. Single-shot incoherent digital holography using a dual-focusing lens with diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiangyu; Matoba, Osamu; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2017-02-01

    A new optical configuration of incoherent digital holography is presented to improve the quality of reconstructed images when the random polarization state of incoherent light is used. The proposed system improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the holograms by suppressing the unmodulated terms of a spatial light modulator. To generate the self-interference of a quasi-incoherent point-like source, we use a dual-focusing lens with diffraction gratings. The preliminary experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed method by reconstructing two point-like sources generated by a LED light source. When the pixel pitch of the phase-mode SLM is small enough, the off-axis hologram can be generated. The single-shot recording of the incoherent digital holography is expected.

  15. In situ nanoindentation study on plasticity and work hardening in aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufford, D.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2014-09-01

    Nanotwinned metals have been the focus of intense research recently, as twin boundaries may greatly enhance mechanical strength, while maintaining good ductility, electrical conductivity and thermal stability. Most prior studies have focused on low stacking-fault energy nanotwinned metals with coherent twin boundaries. In contrast, the plasticity of twinned high stacking-fault energy metals, such as aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries, has not been investigated. Here we report high work hardening capacity and plasticity in highly twinned aluminium containing abundant Σ3{112} incoherent twin boundaries based on in situ nanoindentation studies in a transmission electron microscope and corresponding molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations also reveal drastic differences in deformation mechanisms between nanotwinned copper and twinned aluminium ascribed to stacking-fault energy controlled dislocation-incoherent twin boundary interactions. This study provides new insight into incoherent twin boundary-dominated plasticity in high stacking-fault energy twinned metals.

  16. Incoherent holography by a Michelson type interferometer with a lens for a radial shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kaho; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-06-01

    The modified Michelson type interferometer with lenses for a radial shear to record incoherent holograms is proposed. It enables us to record a hologram by self-interference without coherent illumination such as a laser. The interferometer has two wave plates which can realize phase-shifting incoherent holography. The feature can avoid a very large bias term and the twin image, which are the inherent problem of incoherent holography by self-interference. The advantages of the proposed method using lenses and wave plates are easy adjustment of the zone plate and simplification of the optical system. A preliminary experiment using an LED as an incoherent object was performed to confirm the four step phase-shifting by wave plates.

  17. Intuitive (in)coherence judgments are guided by processing fluency, mood and affect.

    PubMed

    Sweklej, Joanna; Balas, Robert; Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Godlewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed accounts of intuitive judgments of semantic coherence assume that processing fluency results in a positive affective response leading to successful assessment of semantic coherence. The present paper investigates whether processing fluency may indicate semantic incoherence as well. In two studies, we employ a new paradigm in which participants have to detect an incoherent item among semantically coherent words. In Study 1, we show participants accurately indicating an incoherent item despite not being able to provide an accurate solution to coherent words. Further, this effect is modified by affective valence of solution words that are not retrieved from memory. Study 2 replicates those results and extend them by showing that mood moderates incoherence judgments independently of affective valence of solutions. The results support processing fluency account of intuitive semantic coherence judgments and show that it is not fluency per se but fluency variations that drive judgments.

  18. In situ nanoindentation study on plasticity and work hardening in aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries.

    PubMed

    Bufford, D; Liu, Y; Wang, J; Wang, H; Zhang, X

    2014-09-10

    Nanotwinned metals have been the focus of intense research recently, as twin boundaries may greatly enhance mechanical strength, while maintaining good ductility, electrical conductivity and thermal stability. Most prior studies have focused on low stacking-fault energy nanotwinned metals with coherent twin boundaries. In contrast, the plasticity of twinned high stacking-fault energy metals, such as aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries, has not been investigated. Here we report high work hardening capacity and plasticity in highly twinned aluminium containing abundant Σ3{112} incoherent twin boundaries based on in situ nanoindentation studies in a transmission electron microscope and corresponding molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations also reveal drastic differences in deformation mechanisms between nanotwinned copper and twinned aluminium ascribed to stacking-fault energy controlled dislocation-incoherent twin boundary interactions. This study provides new insight into incoherent twin boundary-dominated plasticity in high stacking-fault energy twinned metals.

  19. Modular Instruction Under Restricted Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utomo, Tjipto; Ruijter, Kees

    1984-01-01

    Describes the evaluation and reconstruction of a transport phenomena course given at the Bandung Institute of Technology which had a 70 percent failure rate. Discusses the teacher-paced modular instruction technique designed to replace the original course material and its results in terms of student performance over a three-year period. (JM)

  20. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  1. First observations from the RISR-C incoherent scatter radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, R. G.; Eyken, A.; Spanswick, E.; Nicolls, M.; Kelly, J.; Greffen, M.; Knudsen, D.; Connors, M.; Schutzer, M.; Valentic, T.; Malone, M.; Buonocore, J.; St.-Maurice, J.-P.; Donovan, E.

    2016-10-01

    First-light measurements from the Canadian face of the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-C) were taken in August of 2015. Data were taken for roughly 25 h on both RISR-C and the North face of the Resolute Bay radar (RISR-N) in an 11-beam World Day mode. Overall, the measurements from the RISR-C radar are of high quality and consistent with results from the RISR-N radar. During the 25 h period analyzed in this study, the ionosphere responded to changes in orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field . During one particular event, a change from Bz negative to positive and By positive to negative caused the antisunward flow to stall, and a strong dawn-to-dusk flow, with decreased electron density and increased ion temperature, replaced it in the RISR-C field of view. Overall, it is clear that measurements from the RISR-C radar will complement and greatly expand the scope of ionospheric polar cap measurements.

  2. Enhanced detection of broadband incoherent light with nanoridge plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Yeo, Jong-Souk

    2015-04-08

    Emerging photonic integrated circuit technologies require integrative functionality at ultrahigh speed and dimensional compatibility with ultrasmall electronics. Plasmonics offers a promise of addressing these challenges with novel nanophotonic approaches for on-chip information processing or sensing applications. Short communication range and strong light-matter interaction enabled by on-chip plasmonics allow us to extend beyond a conventional approach of integrating coherent and narrowband light source. Such hybrid electronic and photonic interconnection desires a on-chip photodetector that is highly responsive to broadband incoherent light, yet provides elegant design for nanoscale integration. Here we demonstrate an ultracompact broadband photodetection with greatly enhanced photoresponsivity using plasmonic nanoridge geometry. The nanoridge photodetector confines a wide spectrum of electromagnetic energy in a nanostructure through the excitation of multiple plasmons, which thus enables the detection of weak and broadband light. With nanoscale design, material, and dimensional compatibility for the integration, the nanoridge photodetector opens up a new possibility of highly sensitive on-chip photodetection for future integrated circuits and sensing applications.

  3. Concentration of hydrogen in titanium measured by neutron incoherent scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chen-Mayer, H.H.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Lamaze, G.P.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Paul, R.L.; Kvardakov, V.V.; Richards, W.J.

    1998-12-31

    Mass fractions of hydrogen in titanium matrices have been measured using neutron incoherent scattering (NIS) and compared with results from prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). Qualitatively, NIS is a more efficient technique than PGAA which involves neutron absorption, and the former may be suitable for on-line analysis. However, for NIS the scattering contribution comes from both the hydrogen and the matrix, whereas prompt gamma emission has minimal matrix effect. To isolate the signal due to hydrogen scattering, a set of polypropylene films is used to simulate the increasing amount of hydrogen, and the scattered intensity is monitored. From this response, an unknown amount of the hydrogen can be deduced empirically. The authors have further attempted a first principle calculation of the intensity of the scattered signal from the experimental systems, and have obtained good agreement between calculation and the measurements. The study can be used as a reference for future applications of the scattering method to other hydrogen-in-metal systems.

  4. Probe and object function reconstruction in incoherent stem imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nellist, P.D.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1996-09-01

    Using the phase-object approximation it is shown how an annular dark- field (ADF) detector in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) leads to an image which can be described by an incoherent model. The point spread function is found to be simply the illuminating probe intensity. An important consequence of this is that there is no phase problem in the imaging process, which allows various image processing methods to be applied directly to the image intensity data. Using an image of a GaAs<110>, the probe intensity profile is reconstructed, confirming the existence of a 1.3 {Angstrom} probe in a 300kV STEM. It is shown that simply deconvolving this reconstructed probe from the image data does not improve its interpretability because the dominant effects of the imaging process arise simply from the restricted resolution of the microscope. However, use of the reconstructed probe in a maximum entropy reconstruction is demonstrated, which allows information beyond the resolution limit to be restored and does allow improved image interpretation.

  5. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamalas, Joan T.; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the T - S plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy in all layers (coherent), and others that don't (incoherent). This second group of players is responsible for the surprising fact of a non full-cooperation in the Harmony Game on multiplex, never observed before, as well as a higher-than-expected cooperation rates in some regions of the other three social dilemmas.

  6. Long-working-distance incoherent-light interference microscope.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Michael B; de Boer, Maarten P; Corwin, Alex D

    2005-12-20

    We describe the design and operation of a long-working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope that has been developed to address the growing demand for new microsystem characterization tools. The design of the new microscope is similar to that of a Linnik interference microscope and thus preserves the full working distance of the long-working-distance objectives utilized. However, in contrast to a traditional Linnik microscope, the new microscope does not rely on the use of matched objectives in the sample and the reference arms of the interferometer. An adjustable optical configuration has been devised that allows the total optical path length, wavefront curvature, and dispersion of the reference arm to be matched to the sample arm of the interferometer. The reference arm configuration can be adjusted to provide matching for 5x, 10x, and 20x long-working-distance objectives in the sample arm. In addition to retaining the full working distance of the sample arm objectives, the new design allows interference images to be acquired in situations in which intervening windows are necessary, such as occur with packaged microsystems, microfluidic devices, and cryogenic, vacuum, or environmental chamber studies of microsystem performance. The interference microscope is compatible with phase-shifting interferometry, vertical scanning interferometry, and stroboscopic measurement of dynamic processes.

  7. Long working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David

    2005-06-01

    We describe the design and operation of a long-working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope that has been developed to address the growing demand for new microsystem characterization tools. The design of the new microscope is similar to that of a Linnik interference microscope and thus preserves the full working distance of the long-working-distance objectives utilized. However, in contrast to a traditional Linnik microscope, the new microscope does not rely on the use of matched objectives in the sample and the reference arms of the interferometer. An adjustable optical configuration has been devised that allows the total optical path length, wavefront curvature, and dispersion of the reference arm to be matched to the sample arm of the interferometer. The reference arm configuration can be adjusted to provide matching for 5x, 10x, and 20x long-working-distance objectives in the sample arm. In addition to retaining the full working distance of the sample arm objectives, the new design allows interference images to be acquired in situations in which intervening windows are necessary, such as occur with packaged microsystems, microfluidic devices, and cryogenic, vacuum, or environmental chamber studies of microsystem performance. The interference microscope is compatible with phase-shifting interferometry, vertical scanning interferometry, and stroboscopic measurement of dynamic processes.

  8. Incoherent exciton trapping in self-similar aperiodic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez-Adame, F.; Macia, E. ); Sanchez, A. Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, C./Butarque 15, E-28911 Leganes, Madrid )

    1995-01-01

    Incoherent exciton dynamics in one-dimensional perfect lattices with traps at sites arranged according to aperiodic deterministic sequences is studied. We focus our attention on Thue-Morse and Fibonacci systems as canonical examples of self-similar aperiodic systems. Solving numerically the corresponding master equation we evaluate the survival probability and the mean-square displacement of an exciton initially created at a single site. Results are compared to systems of the same size with the same concentration of traps randomly as well as periodically distributed over the whole lattice. Excitons progressively extend over the lattice on increasing time and, in this sense, they act as a probe of the particular arrangements of traps in each system considered. The analysis of the characteristic features of their time decay indicates that exciton dynamics in self-similar aperiodic arrangements of traps is quite close to that observed in periodic ones, but differs significantly from that corresponding to random lattices. We also report on characteristic features of exciton motion suggesting that Fibonacci and Thue-Morse orderings might be clearly observed by appropriate experimental measurements. In the conclusions we comment on the implications of our work on the way towards a unified theory of the ordering of matter.

  9. Experimental photonic generation of chirped pulses using nonlinear dispersion-based incoherent processing.

    PubMed

    Rius, Manuel; Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2015-05-18

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a chirped microwave pulses generator based on the processing of an incoherent optical signal by means of a nonlinear dispersive element. Different capabilities have been demonstrated such as the control of the time-bandwidth product and the frequency tuning increasing the flexibility of the generated waveform compared to coherent techniques. Moreover, the use of differential detection improves considerably the limitation over the signal-to-noise ratio related to incoherent processing.

  10. Enhanced resolution in Fourier incoherent single channel holography (FISCH) with reduced optical path difference.

    PubMed

    Kelner, Roy; Rosen, Joseph; Brooker, Gary

    2013-08-26

    Fourier incoherent single channel holography (FISCH) is a method for recording spatially incoherent digital Fourier holograms. We present a general design of enhanced FISCH with a smaller optical path difference between interfering beams, when compared to our initial design [Opt. Lett. 37, 3723 (2012)]. This reduction enables a proper system operation with a wider bandwidth. Potential resolution enhancement of the images reconstructed from the FISCH holograms consequentially follows.

  11. Sparse Modeling with Universal Priors and Learned Incoherent Dictionaries(PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-09

    SPARSE MODELING WITH UNIVERSAL PRIORS AND LEARNED INCOHERENT DICTIONARIES By Ignacio Ramı́rez Federico Lecumberry and Guillermo Sapiro IMA Preprint...Priors and Learned Incoherent Dictionaries Ignacio Ramı́rez University of Minnesota ramir048@umn.edu, Federico Lecumberry Universidad de la República...Self-taught learning: transfer learning from unlabeled data. In ICML, pages 759–766, 2007. [26] I. Ramirez, F. Lecumberry , , and G. Sapiro. Universal

  12. Comparative Characteristics Of Coherent And Incoherent Radiation In The Photography Of Ulcer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. F.; Paramonov, L. V.

    1985-01-01

    The efficiency of He-Ne laser radiation and incoherent radiation by red light sources with different spectral bandwidths is compared for the endoscopic phototherapy of gastric and duodenal ulcers. Coherent and incoherent radiation is determined to result in the same theraputic effect when doing the treatment of ulcer deseases. The methods of ulcer treatment is suggested with a conventional fibrogastroscope fitted with red glass filter.

  13. Reasons for the formation of incoherent additional microwaves in fresh ice under plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordonskiy, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    It is supposed that incoherent additional waves that appear in fresh ice in the microwave range are associated with the spontaneous decomposition of an unstable phase. This decomposition produces periodic phases. The unstable phase may result from the plastic deformation of the ice, from vapor condensation on a cold substrate, or from other effects causing spinodals. Experimental data obtained for millimeter and centimeter waves have been presented that support the above supposition regarding the formation of the incoherent additional waves.

  14. Reprint of : Effect of incoherent scattering on three-terminal quantum Hall thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-08-01

    A three-terminal conductor presents peculiar thermoelectric and thermal properties in the quantum Hall regime: it can behave as a symmetric rectifier and as an ideal thermal diode. These properties rely on the coherent propagation along chiral edge channels. We investigate the effect of breaking the coherent propagation by the introduction of a probe terminal. It is shown that chiral effects not only survive the presence of incoherence but they can even improve the thermoelectric performance in the totally incoherent regime.

  15. Quasispecies Theory for Evolution of Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent. PMID:25679649

  16. Quasispecies theory for evolution of modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent.

  17. Relaxation labeling using modular operators

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.S.; Frei, W.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic relaxation labeling has been shown to be useful in image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The approaches taken to date have been encumbered with computationally extensive summations which generally prevent real-time operation and/or easy hardware implementation. The authors present a new and unique approach to the relaxation labeling problem using modular, VLSI-oriented hierarchical complex operators. One of the fundamental concepts of this work is the representation of the probability distribution of the possible labels for a given object (pixel) as an ellipse, which may be summed with neighboring object's distribution ellipses, resulting in a new, relaxed label space. The mathematical development of the elliptical approach will be presented and compared to more classical approaches, and a hardware block diagram that shows the implementation of the relaxation scheme using vlsi chips will be presented. Finally, results will be shown which illustrate applications of the modular scheme, iteratively, to both edges and lines. 13 references.

  18. Modular hydrodam: concept definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the potential for developing economical new ultra low-head (6 to 10 ft) sites using an innovative concept known as the Modular Hydrodam (MH). This concept combines the benefits of shop fabrication, installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, and prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. The size and weight of the power module permits it to be fully assembled and checked out in the manufacturer's shop. The module can then be broken down into four pieces and shipped by truck to the site. Once in place, concrete ballast will be added, as necessary, to prevent flotation. The following aspects were investigated: tubular and cross flow turbines; modularized components; the use of a cable support system for horizontal stability of the dam and powerhouse; and construction in the wet as well as in the dry.

  19. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR.

  20. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2013-02-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks.

  1. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks

  2. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  3. Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics

    DOEpatents

    Chirica, Gabriela S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2013-08-27

    A multidimensional chemical separation and analysis system is described including a prototyping platform and modular microfluidic components capable of rapid and convenient assembly, alteration and disassembly of numerous candidate separation systems. Partial or total computer control of the separation system is possible. Single or multiple alternative processing trains can be tested, optimized and/or run in parallel. Examples related to the separation and analysis of human bodily fluids are given.

  4. Estimation of inter-modular connectivity from the local field potentials in a hierarchical modular network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xue-Mei; Kim, Won Sup; Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung Kee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method of estimating inter-modular connectivity in a hierarchical modular network. The method is based on an analysis of inverse phase synchronization applied to the local field potentials on a hierarchical modular network of phase oscillators. For a strong-coupling strength, the inverse phase synchronization index of the local field potentials for two modules depends linearly on the corresponding inter-modular connectivity defined as the number of links connecting the modules. The method might enable us to estimate the inter-modular connectivity in various complex systems from the inverse phase synchronization index of the mesoscopic modular activities.

  5. Incoherent Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Recurrences and Unconstrained Thermalization Mediated by Strong Phase Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasoni, M.; Garnier, J.; Rumpf, B.; Sugny, D.; Fatome, J.; Amrani, F.; Millot, G.; Picozzi, A.

    2017-01-01

    The long-standing and controversial Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem addresses fundamental issues of statistical physics, and the attempt to resolve the mystery of the recurrences has led to many great discoveries, such as chaos, integrable systems, and soliton theory. From a general perspective, the recurrence is commonly considered as a coherent phase-sensitive effect that originates in the property of integrability of the system. In contrast to this interpretation, we show that convection among a pair of waves is responsible for a new recurrence phenomenon that takes place for strongly incoherent waves far from integrability. We explain the incoherent recurrence by developing a nonequilibrium spatiotemporal kinetic formulation that accounts for the existence of phase correlations among incoherent waves. The theory reveals that the recurrence originates in a novel form of modulational instability, which shows that strongly correlated fluctuations are spontaneously created among the random waves. Contrary to conventional incoherent modulational instabilities, we find that Landau damping can be completely suppressed, which unexpectedly removes the threshold of the instability. Consequently, the recurrence can take place for strongly incoherent waves and is thus characterized by a reduction of nonequilibrium entropy that violates the H theorem of entropy growth. In its long-term evolution, the system enters a secondary turbulent regime characterized by an irreversible process of relaxation to equilibrium. At variance with the expected thermalization described by standard Gibbsian statistical mechanics, our thermalization process is not dictated by the usual constraints of energy and momentum conservation: The inverse temperatures associated with energy and momentum are zero. This unveils a previously unrecognized scenario of unconstrained thermalization, which is relevant to a variety of weakly dispersive wave systems. Our work should stimulate the development of new

  6. Safety and control of modular liquid-metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I. ); Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C. )

    1989-01-01

    As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs Argonne National Laboratory has proposed the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular-sized reactors, which would be built in multiple power packs together with an integrated fuel-cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept, as applied to modular designs, has significant advantages in regard to anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). Attention is now focused on whether or not those advantages derived from the IFR traits can be translated to the operational/design-basis-accident class of transients. Inherent operability, in which reactor power control is effected through the use of primary pumps and balance-of-plant (BOP) swings rather than through the active motion of control rods, is a proposal to utilize the enhanced inherent feedback response of the IFR to improve the operating characteristics of liquid-metal reactors (LMRs). The scheme has associated with it potential advantages in the areas of plant control and design simplification. This study on inherent operability in modular LMRs therefore has implications for both operational and ATWS events. Current intentions are to analytically explore possibilities of applying various schemes to advanced LMRs with the aid of the SASSYS system code and then to test viable alternatives in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) plant under the auspices of the inherent safety operability testing program.

  7. Influence of incoherent pumping field on spatial evolution of gain without inversion in a four-level quantum dot nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, R.; Asadpour, S. H.; Batebi, S.; Rahimpour Soleimani, H.

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the propagation effect on gain without inversion (GWI) phenomena in an open four level quantum dot nanostructure in the presence and absence of incoherent pumping field. The simulation results show that, the ratio of the injection rates and strength of incoherent pumping field has remarkable effect on spatial evolution of GWI and output. We can obtain the optimal GWI and output by choosing appropriate values of parameters. The theoretical results show that, in the open system the value of gain (output) in the absence of incoherent pumping field is much larger than that in the presence of incoherent pumping field.

  8. Partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation for incoherent excitation of multilevel quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tscherbul, Timur V. Brumer, Paul

    2015-03-14

    We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an unambiguous distinction between the regimes of quantum coherent vs. incoherent energy transfer under incoherent light illumination. The fully incoherent regime is characterized by orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, leading to a dynamical evolution governed by a coherence-free Pauli-type master equation. The coherent regime requires non-orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis and leads to the generation of noise-induced quantum coherences and population-to-coherence couplings. As a first application, we consider the dynamics of excited state coherences arising under incoherent light excitation from a single ground state and observe population-to-coherence transfer and the formation of non-equilibrium quasisteady states in the regime of small excited state splitting. Analytical expressions derived earlier for the V-type system [T. V. Tscherbul and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113601 (2014)] are found to provide a nearly quantitative description of multilevel excited-state populations and coherences in both the small- and large-molecule limits.

  9. Research on Doppler frequency in incoherent FM/CW laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Cui, Zhanzhong

    2010-10-01

    The principle of transmitted and received laser in incoherent FM/CW laser detection is different from the one in coherent FM/CW laser detection. The methods for distance solution in both detections are similar. Incoherent FM/CW laser detection uses subcarrier to modulate the intensity of laser, and the photodetector detects the intensity of received signal. The amplified photocurrent is mixed with local oscillator signal, and the intermediate frequency (IF) signal contains the information of distance from sensor to target. The Doppler frequency for this detection is related with the relative radial velocity between sensor and target. The optical frequency is directly modulated with electro-optic device in coherent FM/CW laser detection and the received laser signal is photomixed with transmitted laser signal. The Doppler frequency in the detection relates to the optical frequency. In distance-measuring lidar, the Doppler frequency affects the solution. The Doppler frequency in incoherent FM/CW laser detection is unrelated with optical frequency, and it is much less than the one in coherent FM/CW laser detection, correspondingly. The error in incoherent FM/CW laser detection is smaller. As a result, the incoherent FM/CW laser detection is more suitable for the use of distance-measuring lidar.

  10. From coherent to incoherent mismatched interfaces. A generalized continuum formulation of surface stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Dingreville, Rémi; Hallil, Abdelmalek; Berbenni, Stéphane

    2014-08-19

    The equilibrium of coherent and incoherent mismatched interfaces is reformulated in the context of continuum mechanics based on the Gibbs dividing surface concept. Two surface stresses are introduced: a coherent surface stress and an incoherent surface stress, as well as a transverse excess strain. Additionally, the coherent surface stress and the transverse excess strain represent the thermodynamic driving forces of stretching the interface while the incoherent surface stress represents the driving force of stretching one crystal while holding the other fixed and thereby altering the structure of the interface. These three quantities fully characterize the elastic behavior of coherent and incoherent interfaces as a function of the in-plane strain, the transverse stress and the mismatch strain. The isotropic case is developed in detail and particular attention is paid to the case of interfacial thermo-elasticity. This exercise provides an insight on the physical significance of the interfacial elastic constants introduced in the formulation and illustrates the obvious coupling between the interface structure and its associated thermodynamics quantities. Finally, an example based on atomistic simulations of Cu/Cu2O interfaces is given to demonstrate the relevance of the generalized interfacial formulation and to emphasize the dependence of the interfacial thermodynamic quantities on the incoherency strain with an actual material system.

  11. From coherent to incoherent mismatched interfaces. A generalized continuum formulation of surface stresses

    DOE PAGES

    Dingreville, Rémi; Hallil, Abdelmalek; Berbenni, Stéphane

    2014-08-19

    The equilibrium of coherent and incoherent mismatched interfaces is reformulated in the context of continuum mechanics based on the Gibbs dividing surface concept. Two surface stresses are introduced: a coherent surface stress and an incoherent surface stress, as well as a transverse excess strain. Additionally, the coherent surface stress and the transverse excess strain represent the thermodynamic driving forces of stretching the interface while the incoherent surface stress represents the driving force of stretching one crystal while holding the other fixed and thereby altering the structure of the interface. These three quantities fully characterize the elastic behavior of coherent andmore » incoherent interfaces as a function of the in-plane strain, the transverse stress and the mismatch strain. The isotropic case is developed in detail and particular attention is paid to the case of interfacial thermo-elasticity. This exercise provides an insight on the physical significance of the interfacial elastic constants introduced in the formulation and illustrates the obvious coupling between the interface structure and its associated thermodynamics quantities. Finally, an example based on atomistic simulations of Cu/Cu2O interfaces is given to demonstrate the relevance of the generalized interfacial formulation and to emphasize the dependence of the interfacial thermodynamic quantities on the incoherency strain with an actual material system.« less

  12. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Benz, Jacob; Tolk, Keith; Weber, Tom

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  13. Modular microrobot for swimming in heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, U. Kei; Meshkati, Meshkati; Fu, Henry; Kim, Minjun; Drexel University Team; University of Nevada, Reno Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the difficulties in navigating in vivo is to overcome many types of environments. This includes blood vessels of different diameters, fluids with different mechanical properties, and physical barriers. Inspired by conventional modular robotics, we demonstrate modular microrobotics using magnetic particles as the modular units to change size and shape through docking and undocking. Much like the vast variety of microorganisms navigating many different bio-environments, modular microswimmers have the ability to dynamically adapt different environments by reconfiguring the swimmers' physical characteristics. We model the docking as magnetic assembly and undocking mechanisms as deformation by hydrodynamic forces. We characterize the swimming capability of the modular microswimmer with different size and shapes. Finally, we demonstrate modular microrobotics by assembling a three-bead microswimmer into a nine-bead microswimmer, and then disassemble it into several independently swimming microswimmers..

  14. Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1996-01-01

    Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

  15. Wave passage and incoherency effects on seismic response of high arch dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzabozorg, Hasan; Akbari, M.; Hariri Ardebili, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of incoherency and wave-passage on the nonlinear responses of concrete arch dams are investigated in this study. A double curvature arch dam is selected as a numerical example. The reservoir is modeled as a compressible material and the foundation is modeled as a massless medium. Ground motion time-histories are artificially generated using the Monte Carlo simulation approach. Four different finite element models (FEM) are considered: uniform excitation; incoherence effect; wave passage effect; and both incoherence and wave passage effects. It was revealed that modeling multiple-supports excitation could have a significant impact on the structural response of the dam by inducing a pseudo-static effect. Also, it was concluded that the coherency effect overshadows the wave passage effect and the results obtained from non-uniform excitation of FEM, including the wave passage effect, is close to the results of the FEM when it is uniformly excited.

  16. Four-dimensional tracking of spatially incoherent illuminated samples using self-interference digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Tianlong; Wan, Yuhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Dayong

    2015-11-01

    We present a new method for the four-dimensional tracking of a spatially incoherent illuminated object. Self-interference digital holography is utilized for recording the hologram of the spatially incoherent illuminated object. Three-dimensional spatial coordinates encoded in the hologram are extracted by holographic reconstruction procedure and tracking algorithms, while the time information is reserved by the single-shot configuration. Applications of the holographic tracking methods are expanded to the incoherent imaging areas. Speckles and potential damage to the samples of the coherent illuminated tracking methods are overcome. Results on the quantitative tracking of three-dimensional spatial position over time are reported. In practical, living zebra fish larva is used to demonstrate one of the applications of the method.

  17. Cascading dynamics in modular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galstyan, Aram; Cohen, Paul

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we study a simple cascading process in a structured heterogeneous population, namely, a network composed of two loosely coupled communities. We demonstrate that under certain conditions the cascading dynamics in such a network has a two-tiered structure that characterizes activity spreading at different rates in the communities. We study the dynamics of the model using both simulations and an analytical approach based on annealed approximation and obtain good agreement between the two. Our results suggest that network modularity might have implications in various applications, such as epidemiology and viral marketing.

  18. Integrated modular engine - Reliability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsley, R. C.; Ward, T. B.

    1992-07-01

    A major driver in the increased interest in integrated modular engine configurations is the desire for ultra reliability for future rocket propulsion systems. The concept of configuring multiple sets of turbomachinery networked to multiple thrust chamber assemblies has been identified as an approach with potential to achieve significant reliability enhancement. This paper summarizes the results of a reliability study comparing networked systems vs. discrete engine installations, both with and without major module and engine redundancy. The study was conducted for gas generator, expander, and staged combustion cycles. The results are representative of either booster or upper-stage applications and are indicative of either plug or nonplug installation philosophies.

  19. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

  20. Modular passive solar heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, B.D.

    1985-03-19

    A modular passive solar energy storage system comprises a plurality of heat tubes which are arranged to form a flat plate solar collector and are releasably connected to a water reservoir by, and are part of, double-walled heat exchangers which penetrate to the water reservoir and enhance the heat transfer characteristics between the collector and the reservoir. The flat plate collector-heat exchanger disassembly, the collector housing, and the reservoir are integrated into a relatively light weight, unitary structural system in which the reservoir is a primary structural element. In addition to light weight, the system features high efficiency and ease of assembly and maintenance.

  1. Comparison between microwave coherent and incoherent scattering models for wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Liao, Jingjuan

    2014-11-01

    In order to reveal more deeply the scattering characteristics of wetland vegetation and determine the microwave scattering model suitable for the inversion of wetland vegetation parameters, the comparison and analysis between microwave coherent and incoherent scattering models for wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake area were performed in this paper. In the research, we proposed a coherent scattering model exclusive for wetland vegetation, in which, Generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) approach and infinite-length dielectric cylinder were used to calculate single-scattering matrices of wetland vegetation leaves and stalks. In addition, coherent components produced from interaction among the scattering mechanisms and different scatterers were also considered and this coherent model was compared with Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS) model. The measured data collected in 2011 in Poyang Lake wetland were used as the input parameters of the coherent and incoherent models. We simulated backscattering coefficients of VV, VH and HH polarization at C band and made a comparison between the simulation results and C-band data from the Radarsat-2 satellite. For both coherent and incoherent scattering model, simulation results for HH and VV polarization were better than the simulation results for HV polarization. In addition, comparisons between coherent and incoherent scattering models proved that the coherence triggered by the scattering mechanism and different scatterers can't be ignored. In the research, we analyzed differences between coherent and incoherent scattering models with change of incident angle. In most instances, the difference between coherent and incoherent scattering models is of the order of several dB.

  2. Non-collinear upconversion of incoherent light: designing infrared spectrometers and imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Upconversion of incoherent mid-infrared radiation to near visible wavelengths, offers very attractive sensitivity compared to conventional means of infrared detection. Incoherent light, focused into a nonlinear crystal, results in noncollinear phase matching of a narrow range of wavelengths for each angle of propagation. Non-collinear phase matching has been an area of limited attention for many years due to inherent incompatibility with tightly focused laser beams typically used for most second order processes in order to achieve acceptable conversion efficiency. The development of periodically poled crystals have allowed for non-critical collinear phase matching of most wavelengths, virtually eliminating the need for non-collinear phase matching. When considering upconversion of thermal light, spectral radiance is limited due to the finite temperature of the Planck radiation source. It is, however, straightforward to increase the incoherent power by increasing the receiving aperture of the upconversion unit i.e. the diameter of the upconversion laser beam. Hence, the optimal conversion efficiency for incoherent light is not achieved by tightly focused beams. In this paper we show that filling the nonlinear crystal with as large a pump beam as possible yields the best conversion as this allows for upconversion of large angles of incoming incoherent light. We present results of non-collinear mixing and how it affects spectral and spatial resolution in the image and compare against experiments. We finally discuss how it can be used to design and predict system performance and how incoherent upconversion can be used for mid-IR spectroscopy and imaging.

  3. The effect of dispersion on spectral broadening of incoherent continuous-wave light in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Soh, Daniel B S; Koplow, Jeffrey P; Moore, Sean W; Schroder, Kevin L; Hsu, Wen L

    2010-10-11

    In addition to fiber nonlinearity, fiber dispersion plays a significant role in spectral broadening of incoherent continuous-wave light. In this paper we have performed a numerical analysis of spectral broadening of incoherent light based on a fully stochastic model. Under a wide range of operating conditions, these numerical simulations exhibit striking features such as damped oscillatory spectral broadening (during the initial stages of propagation), and eventual convergence to a stationary, steady state spectral distribution at sufficiently long propagation distances. In this study we analyze the important role of fiber dispersion in such phenomena. We also demonstrate an analytical rate equation expression for spectral broadening.

  4. Acceleration of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using graphic processing unit.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyeong-Min; Kim, Hee-Seung; Hong, Sung-In; Lee, Sung-Keun; Jo, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Soo; Lim, Hong-Gi; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2012-10-08

    Speed enhancement of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using a graphic processing unit is reported. Integral imaging based method enables exact hologram capture of real-existing three-dimensional objects under regular incoherent illumination. In our implementation, we apply parallel computation scheme using the graphic processing unit, accelerating the processing speed. Using enhanced speed of hologram capture, we also implement a pseudo real-time hologram capture and optical reconstruction system. The overall operation speed is measured to be 1 frame per second.

  5. Nonlinear Instability of the Incoherent State for the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi-Fokker-Plank Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Xiao, Qinghua

    2015-07-01

    We study the nonlinear instability of the incoherent solution to the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi-Fokker-Plank (KSFP) equation in a large coupling strength regime. For our instability analysis, we construct an approximate, exponentially growing perturbation mode using an elementary energy method. This method does not require spectral information from the linearized KSFP equation or an explicit growing solution for the corresponding linear equation. When the distribution function of oscillator's natural frequencies is either a Dirac measure or a bounded function with a compact support (in a small interval around the origin), the incoherent solution is nonlinearly unstable depending on the relative sizes of the coupling strength and diffusion coefficient.

  6. Tomographic incoherent phase imaging, a diffraction tomography alternative for any white-light microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bon, Pierre; Aknoun, Shérazade; Savatier, Julien; Wattellier, Benoit; Monneret, Serge

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the possibility of making tomographic reconstruction of the refractive index of a microscopic sample using a quadriwave lateral shearing interferometer, under incoherent illumination. A Z-stack is performed and the acquired incoherent elecromagnetic fields are deconvoluted before to retrieve in a quantitative manner the refractive index. The results are presented on polystyrene beads and can easily be expanded to biological samples. This technique is suitable to any white-light microscope equipped with nanometric Z-stack module.

  7. Impact of anisotropic atomic motions in proteins on powder-averaged incoherent neutron scattering intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneller, Gerald R.; Chevrot, Guillaume

    2012-12-14

    This paper addresses the question to which extent anisotropic atomic motions in proteins impact angular-averaged incoherent neutron scattering intensities, which are typically recorded for powder samples. For this purpose, the relevant correlation functions are represented as multipole series in which each term corresponds to a different degree of intrinsic motional anisotropy. The approach is illustrated by a simple analytical model and by a simulation-based example for lysozyme, considering in both cases the elastic incoherent structure factor. The second example shows that the motional anisotropy of the protein atoms is considerable and contributes significantly to the scattering intensity.

  8. Compact stellarators with modular coils.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, P R

    2000-07-18

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan.

  9. Compact stellarators with modular coils

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan. PMID:10899993

  10. Learning modular policies for robotics

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

  11. A modular BLSS simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    A bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on Earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processors or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing the examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

  12. Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.

  13. The Iterative Structure Analysis of Montgomery Modular Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinbo, Wang

    2007-09-01

    Montgomery modular multiplication (MMM) plays a crucial role in the implementation of modular exponentiations of public-key cryptography. In this paper, we discuss the iterative structure and extend the iterative bound condition of MMM. It can be applied to complicated modular exponentiations. Based on the iterative condition of MMM, we can directly use non-modular additions, subtractions and even simple multiplications instead of the modular forms, which make modular exponentiation operation very efficient but more importantly iterative applicability of MMM.

  14. Modular Construction: The Wave of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Chuck

    1989-01-01

    Modular construction of school buildings offers speed of construction, with 100 percent contractor responsibility for the completed structures. Under negotiated terms, modular projects can be purchased outright or through long-term leasing arrangements that provide ownership at the end of the lease period. (MLF)

  15. Modular Buildings Are Here To Stay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Steven; Roman, Michael I.; Tiernan, Maury; Savage, Chuck; Airikka, Robert; Brosius, Jerry L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents several examples of modular building construction being used be school districts to support their need for more space, building flexibility, and enhancement of the learning environment. Comparisons with traditionally built school facilities are offered as are answers to commonly held myths concerning modular construction. (GR)

  16. Detectability thresholds of general modular graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the detectability thresholds of various modular structures in the stochastic block model. Our analysis reveals how the detectability threshold is related to the details of the modular pattern, including the hierarchy of the clusters. We show that certain planted structures are impossible to infer regardless of their fuzziness.

  17. The Modular Clock Algorithm for Blind Rendezvous

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 vi Page...50 Random Strategy vs. Modular Clock Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Modified Modular Clock Algorithm...Spectrum has become such a precious commodity that the auction of five blocks of 700 MHz spectrum raised $20 billion dollars from big market players

  18. Modular Building Institute 2000 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. The articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Elementary K-8 Modular Courtyard"; (2) "School District #33, Chilliwack, BC"; (3) "New Elementary School for Briarwood, NY"; (4) "Addition to Queens Intermediate…

  19. A Modular Laser Graphics Projection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newswanger, Craig D.

    1984-05-01

    WED Enterprises has designed and built a modular projection system for the presentation of animated laser shows. This system was designed specifically for use in Disney theme shows. Its modular design allows it to be adapted to many show situations with simple hardware and software adjustments. The primary goals were superior animation, long life, low maintenance and stand alone operation.

  20. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modular contracting. 39.103 Section 39.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... extent practicable, use modular contracting to acquire major systems (see 2.101) of...

  1. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modular contracting. 39.103 Section 39.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... extent practicable, use modular contracting to acquire major systems (see 2.101) of...

  2. Modular and orthogonal synthesis of hybrid polymers and networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Dicker, Kevin T; Jia, Xinqiao

    2015-03-28

    Biomaterials scientists strive to develop polymeric materials with distinct chemical make-up, complex molecular architectures, robust mechanical properties and defined biological functions by drawing inspirations from biological systems. Salient features of biological designs include (1) repetitive presentation of basic motifs; and (2) efficient integration of diverse building blocks. Thus, an appealing approach to biomaterials synthesis is to combine synthetic and natural building blocks in a modular fashion employing novel chemical methods. Over the past decade, orthogonal chemistries have become powerful enabling tools for the modular synthesis of advanced biomaterials. These reactions require building blocks with complementary functionalities, occur under mild conditions in the presence of biological molecules and living cells and proceed with high yield and exceptional selectivity. These chemistries have facilitated the construction of complex polymers and networks in a step-growth fashion, allowing facile modulation of materials properties by simple variations of the building blocks. In this review, we first summarize features of several types of orthogonal chemistries. We then discuss recent progress in the synthesis of step growth linear polymers, dendrimers and networks that find application in drug delivery, 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. Overall, orthogonal reactions and modulular synthesis have not only minimized the steps needed for the desired chemical transformations but also maximized the diversity and functionality of the final products. The modular nature of the design, combined with the potential synergistic effect of the hybrid system, will likely result in novel hydrogel matrices with robust structures and defined functions.

  3. Small modular reactor (SMR) development plan in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Yong-Hoon Park, Sangrok; Kim, Byong Sup; Choi, Swongho; Hwang, Il Soon

    2015-04-29

    Since the first nuclear power was engaged in Korean electricity grid in 1978, intensive research and development has been focused on localization and standardization of large pressurized water reactors (PWRs) aiming at providing Korean peninsula and beyond with economical and safe power source. With increased priority placed on the safety since Chernobyl accident, Korean nuclear power R and D activity has been diversified into advanced PWR, small modular PWR and generation IV reactors. After the outbreak of Fukushima accident, inherently safe small modular reactor (SMR) receives growing interest in Korea and Europe. In this paper, we will describe recent status of evolving designs of SMR, their advantages and challenges. In particular, the conceptual design of lead-bismuth cooled SMR in Korea, URANUS with 40∼70 MWe is examined in detail. This paper will cover a framework of the program and a strategy for the successful deployment of small modular reactor how the goals would entail and the approach to collaboration with other entities.

  4. Small modular reactor (SMR) development plan in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sangrok; Kim, Byong Sup; Choi, Swongho; Hwang, Il Soon

    2015-04-01

    Since the first nuclear power was engaged in Korean electricity grid in 1978, intensive research and development has been focused on localization and standardization of large pressurized water reactors (PWRs) aiming at providing Korean peninsula and beyond with economical and safe power source. With increased priority placed on the safety since Chernobyl accident, Korean nuclear power R&D activity has been diversified into advanced PWR, small modular PWR and generation IV reactors. After the outbreak of Fukushima accident, inherently safe small modular reactor (SMR) receives growing interest in Korea and Europe. In this paper, we will describe recent status of evolving designs of SMR, their advantages and challenges. In particular, the conceptual design of lead-bismuth cooled SMR in Korea, URANUS with 40˜70 MWe is examined in detail. This paper will cover a framework of the program and a strategy for the successful deployment of small modular reactor how the goals would entail and the approach to collaboration with other entities.

  5. Modular and Orthogonal Synthesis of Hybrid Polymers and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Dicker, Kevin T.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials scientists strive to develop polymeric materials with distinct chemical make-up, complex molecular architectures, robust mechanical properties and defined biological functions by drawing inspirations from biological systems. Salient features of biological designs include (1) repetitive presentation of basic motifs; and (2) efficient integration of diverse building blocks. Thus, an appealing approach to biomaterials synthesis is to combine synthetic and natural building blocks in a modular fashion employing novel chemical methods. Over the past decade, orthogonal chemistries have become powerful enabling tools for the modular synthesis of advanced biomaterials. These reactions require building blocks with complementary functionalities, occur under mild conditions in the presence of biological molecules and living cells and proceed with high yield and exceptional selectivity. These chemistries have facilitated the construction of complex polymers and networks in a step-growth fashion, allowing facile modulation of materials properties by simple variations of the building blocks. In this review, we first summarize features of several types of orthogonal chemistries. We then discuss recent progress in the synthesis of step growth linear polymers, dendrimers and networks that find application in drug delivery, 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. Overall, orthogonal reactions and modulular synthesis have not only minimized the steps needed for the desired chemical transformations but also maximized the diversity and functionality of the final products. The modular nature of the design, combined with the potential synergistic effect of the hybrid system, will likely result in novel hydrogel matrices with robust structures and defined functions. PMID:25572255

  6. Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2006-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) is a graphical simulation environment designed for the development of advanced control algorithms and rapid testing of these algorithms on a generic computational model of a turbofan engine and its control system. MAPSS is a nonlinear, non-real-time simulation comprising a Component Level Model (CLM) module and a Controller-and-Actuator Dynamics (CAD) module. The CLM module simulates the dynamics of engine components at a sampling rate of 2,500 Hz. The controller submodule of the CAD module simulates a digital controller, which has a typical update rate of 50 Hz. The sampling rate for the actuators in the CAD module is the same as that of the CLM. MAPSS provides a graphical user interface that affords easy access to engine-operation, engine-health, and control parameters; is used to enter such input model parameters as power lever angle (PLA), Mach number, and altitude; and can be used to change controller and engine parameters. Output variables are selectable by the user. Output data as well as any changes to constants and other parameters can be saved and reloaded into the GUI later.

  7. Modularity maximization using completely positive programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.

    2017-04-01

    Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.

  8. Finding network communities using modularity density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Federico; del Genio, Charo I.

    2016-12-01

    Many real-world complex networks exhibit a community structure, in which the modules correspond to actual functional units. Identifying these communities is a key challenge for scientists. A common approach is to search for the network partition that maximizes a quality function. Here, we present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed function, namely modularity density. We show that it does not incur in the drawbacks suffered by traditional modularity, and that it can identify networks without ground-truth community structure, deriving its analytical dependence on link density in generic random graphs. In addition, we show that modularity density allows an easy comparison between networks of different sizes, and we also present some limitations that methods based on modularity density may suffer from. Finally, we introduce an efficient, quadratic community detection algorithm based on modularity density maximization, validating its accuracy against theoretical predictions and on a set of benchmark networks.

  9. The emergence of modularity in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Dirk M.; Jeng, Alice; Deem, Michael W.

    2011-06-01

    In this review, we discuss modularity and hierarchy in biological systems. We review examples from protein structure, genetics, and biological networks of modular partitioning of the geometry of biological space. We review theories to explain modular organization of biology, with a focus on explaining how biology may spontaneously organize to a structured form. That is, we seek to explain how biology nucleated from among the many possibilities in chemistry. The emergence of modular organization of biological structure will be described as a symmetry-breaking phase transition, with modularity as the order parameter. Experimental support for this description will be reviewed. Examples will be presented from pathogen structure, metabolic networks, gene networks, and protein-protein interaction networks. Additional examples will be presented from ecological food networks, developmental pathways, physiology, and social networks.

  10. Modular Architecture for the Measurement of Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaune, Paul; Turner, Kathryn; Holland, S. Douglas; Carson, William R.; Riman, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    A modular architecture has been conceived for the design of radiation-monitoring instruments used aboard spacecraft and in planetary-exploration settings. This architecture reflects lessons learned from experience with prior radiation-monitoring instruments. A prototype instrument that embodies the architecture has been developed as part of the Mars Advanced Radiation Acquisition (MARA) project. The architecture is also applicable on Earth for radiation-monitoring instruments in research of energetic electrically charged particles and instruments monitoring radiation for purposes of safety, military defense, and detection of hidden nuclear devices and materials.

  11. Standardized strapdown inertial component modularity study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, J.

    1974-01-01

    To obtain cost effective strapdown navigation, guidance and stabilization systems to meet anticipated future needs a standardized modularized strapdown system concept is proposed. Three performance classes, high, medium and low, are suggested to meet the range of applications. Candidate inertial instruments are selected and analyzed for interface compatibility. Electronic packaging and processing, materials and thermal considerations applying to the three classes are discussed and recommendations advanced. Opportunities for automatic fault detection and redundancy are presented. The smallest gyro and accelerometer modules are projected as requiring a volume of 26 cubic inches and 23.6 cubic inches, respectively. Corresponding power dissipation is projected as 5 watts, and 2.6 watts respectively.

  12. Field-aligned electric currents and their measurement by the incoherent backscatter technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, P.; Cole, K. D.; Lejeume, G.

    1975-01-01

    Field aligned electric currents flow in the magnetosphere in many situations of fundamental geophysical interest. It is shown here that the incoherent backscatter technique can be used to measure these currents when the plasma line can be observed. The technique provides a ground based means of measuring these currents which complements the rocket and satellite ones.

  13. The Wigner–Yanase information can increase under phase sensitive incoherent operations

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Shuanping Bai, Zhaofang

    2015-08-15

    We found that the Wigner-Yanase skew information, which has been recently proposed as a measure of coherence in Girolami (2014), can increase under a class of operations which may be interpreted as incoherent following the framework of Baumgratz et al., while being phase sensitive.

  14. Study of plasmasphere dynamics using incoherent scatter data from Chatanika, Alaska radar facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the study of Chatanika incoherent scatter radar data and Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory satellite data are reported. Specific topics covered include: determination of the effective recombination coefficient in the auroral E region; determination of the location of the auroral oval; auroral boundary characteristics; and the relationship of auroral current systems, particle precipitation, visual aurora, and radar aurora.

  15. Interference detection and correction applied to incoherent-scatter radar power spectrum measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ying, W. P.; Mathews, J. D.; Rastogi, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    A median filter based interference detection and correction technique is evaluated and the method applied to the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar D-region ionospheric power spectrum is discussed. The method can be extended to other kinds of data when the statistics involved in the process are still valid.

  16. Nematic liquid crystals: a suitable medium for self-confinement of coherent and incoherent light.

    PubMed

    Peccianti, Marco; Assanto, Gaetano

    2002-03-01

    Nematic liquid crystals exhibit a saturable, non-instantaneous nonlinear response through light-induced reorientation. In such a material, we demonstrate that (2+1)-dimensional spatial solitary waves can be generated at milliwatt power levels not only with a coherent optical beam, but also with incoherent excitations. Self-trapping also allows the efficient guidance of a weak co-polarized probe.

  17. Conceptual Incoherence as a Result of the Use of Multiple Historical Models in School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gericke, Niklas M.; Hagberg, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the occurrence of conceptual incoherence in upper secondary school textbooks resulting from the use of multiple historical models. Swedish biology and chemistry textbooks, as well as a selection of books from English speaking countries, were examined. The purpose of the study was to identify which models are used to represent…

  18. Incoherent off-axis Fourier holography for different colors using a curved mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Dilband; Nguyen, Cuong M.; Lee, Jihoon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2017-06-01

    Herein we describe an incoherent off-axis Fourier holographic system that uses a curved mirror in conjunction with color filters to capture holograms. Conceptually, our system is similar to both the Fourier incoherent single channel holography (FISCH) and the incoherent off-axis Fourier holographic (IOFH) systems. Our proposed system, which is termed incoherent off-axis Fourier holography with curved mirror (IOFH-CM), is not as robust in its response to environmental changes when compared to single channel light systems because it relies on dual light pathways. However, IOFH-CM and IOFH have the same three advantages over FISCH. First, replacing the spatial light modulator (SLM) with a curved mirror makes it cost-effective and simple. Second, its light throughput is high; and the third advantage is its ability to capture holograms of samples placed on an optical axis by tilting one mirror. A fourth advantage, compared to IOFH, is its use for different colors because, IOFH-CM requires only a filter change to capture different colors and no other movements of any optical component or camera is necessary. Here, we demonstrate the holographic capabilities of IOFH-CM using three different color filters.

  19. Incoherent chimera and glassy states in coupled oscillators with frustrated interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Chol-Ung; Ri, Ji-Song; Kim, Ryong-Son

    2016-09-01

    We suggest a site disorder model that describes the population of identical oscillators with quenched random interactions for both the coupling strength and coupling phase. We obtain the reduced equations for the suborder parameters, on the basis of Ott-Antonsen ansatz theory, and present a complete bifurcation analysis of the reduced system. New effects include the appearance of the incoherent chimera and glassy state, both of which are caused by heterogeneity of the coupling phases. In the incoherent chimera state, the system displays an exotic symmetry-breaking behavior in spite of the apparent structural symmetry where the oscillators for both of the two subpopulations are in a frustrated state, while the phase distribution for each subpopulation approaches a steady state that differs from each other. When the incoherent chimera undergoes Hopf bifurcation, the system displays a breathing incoherent chimera. The glassy state that occurs on a surface of three-dimensional parameter space exhibits a continuum of metastable states with zero value of the global order parameter. Explicit formulas are derived for the system's Hopf, saddle-node, and transcritical bifurcation curves, as well as the codimension-2 crossing points, including the Takens-Bogdanov point.

  20. Study of auroral dynamics with combined spacecraft and incoherent scatter radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Delabeaujardiere, Odile; Watermann, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to study the coupling between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, and to understand how this coupling was affected by changes in the solar wind. The data used consisted of satellite measurements coordinated with Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations. We focused our efforts on the study of temporal and spatial changes in the dayside auroral precipitation and electric field.

  1. Fraunhofer diffraction of coherent and incoherent nuclear matter waves by complementary screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, R.; Leclercq-Willain, Ch.

    2013-06-01

    The analogy between Fraunhofer diffraction effects observed in nuclear and subnuclear collisions and those observed with light diffracted by complementary screens is revisited. Emphasis will be put on the collision mechanisms playing a role analogous to that of an aperture in light diffraction. These analogies are illustrated with examples involving coherent and incoherent nuclear matter waves.

  2. Optical sectioning using a digital Fresnel incoherent-holography-based confocal imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new type of confocal microscope using Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH). Presented here is a confocal configuration of FINCH using a phase pinhole and point illumination that is able to suppress out-of-focus information from the recorded hologram and hence combine the super-resolution capabilities of FINCH with the sectioning capabilities of confocal microscopy. PMID:26413560

  3. BESST: A Miniature, Modular Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert; Good, William; Baldwin-Stevens, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A new radiometer assembly has been developed that incorporates modular design principles in order to provide flexibility and versatility. The assembly, shown in Figure 1, is made up of six modules plus a central cubical frame. A small thermal imaging detector is used to determine the temperature of remote objects. To improve the accuracy of the temperature reading, frequent calibration is required. The detector must view known temperature targets before viewing the remote object. Calibration is achieved by using a motorized fold mirror to select the desired scene the detector views. The motor steps the fold mirror through several positions, which allows the detector to view the calibration targets or the remote object. The details, features, and benefits of the radiometer are described in this paper.

  4. A bioinspired modular aquatic robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Pollard, Beau

    2016-11-01

    Several bio inspired swimming robots exist which seek to emulate the morphology of fish and the flapping motion of the tail and fins or other appendages and body of aquatic creatures. The locomotion of such robots and the aquatic animals that they seek to emulate is determined to a large degree by the changes in the shape of the body, which produce periodic changes in the momentum of the body and the creation and interaction of the vorticity field in the fluid with the body. We demonstrate an underactuated robot which swims due to the periodic changes in the angular momentum of the robot effected by the motion of an internal rotor. The robot is modular, unactuated tail like segments can be easily added to the robot. These segments modulate the interaction of the body with the fluid to produce a variety of passive shape changes that can allow the robot to swim in different modes.

  5. Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.

  6. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  7. Frequency-resolved nonlinear interferometry with incoherent light and applications to coherent Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimson, Michael Jay

    1997-12-01

    Demonstrations of several frequency resolved incoherent field non-linear interferometric spectroscopies are presented with emphasis on applications to coherent Raman scattering (two incoherent field actions- I(2)CRS). The properties of the incoherent (noisy) laser sources used for time resolution of ultrafast dynamics are explored in detail theoretically and experimentally. A new technique for the measurement of noisy light correlation functions (I(2)FROG-two incoherent field actions in frequency resolved optical gating) is developed theoretically and used for experimental explorations of the nature of noisy optical fields and their relation to coherent short pulsed optical fields. I(2)FROG and I(2)CRS signals are frequency dispersed and multichannel detected, which when combined with interferometric time resolution allows the creation of two-dimensional representations of these signals (spectrally resolved interferograms, or spectrograms). Spectrograms offer a large redundancy in the sampling of signals, thus allowing great precision in the measurement of observable parameters. In I(2)FROG, the observable parameters characterize the noisy light in the form of the intensity and phase of cross correlation functions between beams of broadband light. In I(2)CRS, the observable parameters quantify material properties such as lineshape parameters, transition frequencies and ratios of resonant to non-resonant contributions to molecular hyperpolarizability tensor elements. Algorithms for the recovery of the observable parameters are developed and applied to the spectrograms derived from many condensed phase materials. Systems explored via spectrogram representation include pure substances and non-reactive mixtures. A novel modification of the original I(2)CRS experiment is presented in which spectrally tailored fields are used to control the properties of the I(2)CRS signals. Newly predicted fifth order signals (I(3)FOOCRS-three incoherent field actions in fifth order

  8. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  9. Rational design of efficient modular cells.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Cong T; Liu, Yan; Conner, David J

    2015-11-01

    The modular cell design principle is formulated to devise modular (chassis) cells. These cells can be assembled with exchangeable production modules in a plug-and-play fashion to build microbial cell factories for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of novel molecules, requiring minimal iterative strain optimization steps. A modular cell is designed to be auxotrophic, containing core metabolic pathways that are necessary but insufficient to support cell growth and maintenance. To be functional, it must tightly couple with an exchangeable production module containing auxiliary metabolic pathways that not only complement cell growth but also enhance production of targeted molecules. We developed a MODCELL (modular cell) framework based on metabolic pathway analysis to implement the modular cell design principle. MODCELL identifies genetic modifications and requirements to construct modular cell candidates and their associated exchangeable production modules. By defining the degree of similarity and coupling metrics, MODCELL can evaluate which exchangeable production module(s) can be tightly coupled with a modular cell candidate. We first demonstrated how MODCELL works in a step-by-step manner for example metabolic networks, and then applied it to design modular Escherichia coli cells for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of five alcohols (ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol and isobutanol) and five butyrate esters (ethyl butyrate, propyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, butyl butyrate and isobutyl butyrate) from pentose sugars (arabinose and xylose) and hexose sugars (glucose, mannose, and galactose) under anaerobic conditions. We identified three modular cells, MODCELL1, MODCELL2 and MODCELL3, that can couple well with Group 1 of modules (ethanol, isobutanol, butanol, ethyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, butyl butyrate), Group 2 (isopropanol, isopropyl butyrate), and Group 3 (propanol, isopropanol), respectively. We validated the design of MODCELL1 for anaerobic

  10. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Kim, Inhun; O'Brien, James; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts’ characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and components.

  11. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-like to the causal completion of the region.

  12. Generalized epidemic process on modular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-05-01

    Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

  13. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be `passive control laws`, i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust.

  14. Genotype-phenotype relationships in light of a modular protein interaction landscape.

    PubMed

    Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-06-01

    Recent progress in genomic sequencing has revealed genotype-phenotype information of enormous complexity and challenges earlier hypotheses on how phenotypes emerge from altered gene structures. The field of proteomics has advanced in parallel and offers promising new concepts for a modern interpretation of complex and nonlinear genotype-phenotype relationships. We are beginning to decipher global proteome organization with increasing throughput and accuracy. These efforts revealed a highly modular organization of the protein landscape. Here we discuss the challenges and implications emerging from a modular protein landscape for a better understanding of complex genotype-phenotype patterns.

  15. Architecture for in-space robotic assembly of a modular space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nicolas; Backes, Paul; Burdick, Joel; Pellegrino, Sergio; Fuller, Christine; Hogstrom, Kristina; Kennedy, Brett; Kim, Junggon; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan; Seubert, Carl; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2016-10-01

    An architecture and conceptual design for a robotically assembled, modular space telescope (RAMST) that enables extremely large space telescopes to be conceived is presented. The distinguishing features of the RAMST architecture compared with prior concepts include the use of a modular deployable structure, a general-purpose robot, and advanced metrology, with the option of formation flying. To demonstrate the feasibility of the robotic assembly concept, we present a reference design using the RAMST architecture for a formation flying 100-m telescope that is assembled in Earth orbit and operated at the Sun-Earth Lagrange Point 2.

  16. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  17. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  18. Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

  19. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  20. Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.

  1. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

  2. Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks Anthony Cowley, Hwa-Chow Hsu, Camillo J. Taylor GRASP Laboratory University of...network, distributed computing , software design 1. INTRODUCTION As efforts to field sensor networks, or teams of mobile robots, become more...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  3. Optimal Network Modularity for Information Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ferrara, Emilio; Flammini, Alessandro; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the impact of community structure on information diffusion with the linear threshold model. Our results demonstrate that modular structure may have counterintuitive effects on information diffusion when social reinforcement is present. We show that strong communities can facilitate global diffusion by enhancing local, intracommunity spreading. Using both analytic approaches and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal network modularity, where global diffusion requires the minimal number of early adopters.

  4. Adaptive Coupled Oscillators for Modular Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartono, Pitoyo; Nakane, Aito

    In this research we physically built several robotics modules that are able to self-discover a connection topology which allows them to generate a coordinated behavior as an integrated modular robot. We consider that this self-configurability of hardware module can potentially simplify the costly designing process of complicated robots and at the same time improve the resiliency of modular robots in the face of internal and external changes.

  5. Rapid 2D incoherent mirror fabrication by laser interference lithography and wet etching for III-V MQW solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Freundlich, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Optimization of non-planar antireflective coating and back- (or front-) surface texturing are widely studied as advanced light management approach to further reduce the reflection losses and increase the sunlight absorption path in solar cells. Rear reflectors have been developed from coherent mirrors to incoherent mirrors in order to further increase light path, which can significantly improve the efficiency and allow for much thinner devices. A Lambertian surface, which has the most random texture, can theoretically raise the light path to 4n2 times that of a smooth surface. It's a challenge however to fabricate ideal Lambertian texture, especially in a fast and low cost way. In this work, a method is developed to overcome this challenge that combines the use of laser interference lithography (LIL) and selective wet etching. This approach allows for a rapid (10 min) wafer scale (3 inch wafer) texture processing with sub-wavelength (nano)-scale control of the pattern and the pitch. The technique appears as being particularly attractive for the development of ultrathin III-V devices, or in overcoming the weak sub-bandgap absorption in devices incorporating quantum dots or quantum wells. The structure of the device is demonstrated, without affecting active layers.

  6. Multi-color γ-rays from comb-like electron beams driven by incoherent stacks of laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2017-03-01

    Trains of fs-length, GeV-scale electron bunches with controlled energy spacing and a 5-D brightness up to 1017 A/m2 may be produced in a mm-scale uniform plasma. The main element of the scheme is an incoherent stack of 10-TW-scale laser pulses of different colors, with mismatched focal spots, with the highest-frequency pulse advanced in time. While driving an electron density bubble, this stack remains almost proof against nonlinear red-shift and self-compression. As a consequence, the unwanted continuous injection of background electrons is minimized. Weak focusing of the trailing (lower-frequency) component of the stack enforces expansions and contractions of the bubble, inducing controlled periodic injection. The resulting train of electron bunches maintains exceptional quality while being accelerated beyond the energy limits predicted by accepted scalings. Inverse Thomson scattering from this comb-like beam generates a sequence of quasi-monochromatic, fs-length γ-ray beams, an asset for nuclear forensics and pump-probe experiments in dense plasmas.

  7. The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor: A Promising Option for Near Term Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    LaBar, Malcolm P.

    2002-07-01

    The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is an advanced nuclear power system that offers unparalleled safety, high thermal efficiency, environmental advantages, and competitive electricity generation costs. The GT-MHR module couples a gas-cooled modular helium reactor (MHR) with a high efficiency modular Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) energy conversion system. The reactor and power conversion systems are located in a below grade concrete silo that provides protection against sabotage. The GT-MHR safety is achieved through a combination of inherent safety characteristics and design selections that take maximum advantage of the gas-cooled reactor coated particle fuel, helium coolant and graphite moderator. The GT-MHR is projected to be economically competitive with alternative electricity generation technologies due to the high operating temperature of the gas-cooled reactor, high thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle power conversion system, high fuel burnup (>100,000 MWd/MT), and low operation and maintenance requirements. (author)

  8. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

  9. Managing in an age of modularity.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, C Y; Clark, K B

    1997-01-01

    Modularity is a familiar principle in the computer industry. Different companies can independently design and produce components, suck as disk drives or operating software, and those modules will fit together into a complex and smoothly functioning product because the module makers obey a given set of design rules. Modularity in manufacturing is already common in many companies. But now a number of them are beginning to extend the approach into the design of their products and services. Modularity in design should tremendously boost the rate of innovation in many industries as it did in the computer industry. As businesses as diverse as auto manufacturing and financial services move toward modular designs, the authors say, competitive dynamics will change enormously. No longer will assemblers control the final product: suppliers of key modules will gain leverage and even take on responsibility for design rules. Companies will compete either by specifying the dominant design rules (as Microsoft does) or by producing excellent modules (as disk drive maker Quantum does). Leaders in a modular industry will control less, so they will have to watch the competitive environment closely for opportunities to link up with other module makers. They will also need to know more: engineering details that seemed trivial at the corporate level may now play a large part in strategic decisions. Leaders will also become knowledge managers internally because they will need to coordinate the efforts of development groups in order to keep them focused on the modular strategies the company is pursuing.

  10. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagliesi, M. G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-05-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5 μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  11. Modular verification of concurrent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.E.K.

    1986-01-01

    During the last ten years, a number of authors have proposed verification techniques that allow one to prove properties of individual processes by using global assumptions about the behavior of the remaining processes in the distributed program. As a result, one must justify these global assumptions before drawing any conclusions regarding the correctness of the entire program. This justification is often the most difficult part of the proof and presents a serious obstacle to hierarchical program development. This thesis develops a new approach to the verification of concurrent systems. The approach is modular and supports compositional development of programs since the proofs of each individual process of a program are completely isolated from all others. The generality of this approach is illustrated by applying it to a representative set of contemporary concurrent programming languages, namely: CSP, ADA, Distributed Processes, and a shared variable language. In addition, it is also shown how the approach may be used to deal with a number of other constructs that have been proposed for inclusion in concurrent languages: FORK and JOIN primitives, nested monitor calls, path expressions, atomic transactions, and asynchronous message passing. These results allow argument that the approach is universal and can be used to design proof systems for any concurrent language.

  12. Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

    2013-03-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

  13. Fitness, environmental changes and the growth of modularity- a quasispecies theory for the evolutionary dynamics of modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestemski, Liang; Park, Jeong-Man; Deem, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Although the modularity of a biological system is demonstrated and recognized, the evolution of the modularity is not well understood. We here present a quasispecies theory for the evolutionary dynamics of modularity. Complemented with numerical models, this analytical theory shows the calculation of the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment, the relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity, as well as a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state.

  14. Compressive sensing sectional imaging for single-shot in-line self-interference incoherent holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Jiawen; Clark, David C.; Kim, Myung K.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical reconstruction method based on compressive sensing (CS) for self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) is proposed to achieve sectional imaging by single-shot in-line self-interference incoherent hologram. The sensing operator is built up based on the physical mechanism of SIDH according to CS theory, and a recovery algorithm is employed for image restoration. Numerical simulation and experimental studies employing LEDs as discrete point-sources and resolution targets as extended sources are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the method. The intensity distribution and the axial resolution along the propagation direction of SIDH by angular spectrum method (ASM) and by CS are discussed. The analysis result shows that compared to ASM the reconstruction by CS can improve the axial resolution of SIDH, and achieve sectional imaging. The proposed method may be useful to 3D analysis of dynamic systems.

  15. E- and F- region incoherent scatter radar spectral measurements at mid and low-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeki, Erhan; Milla, Marco

    2016-07-01

    In this talk we will contrast and compare incoherent scatter radar spectral measurements conducted using the Arecibo, ALTAIR, and Jicamarca incoherent scatter radars at ionospheric heights ranging from E-region into the topside F-region. Arecibo measurements from mid-latitudes exemplify high SNR ISR techniques utilized with large magnetic aspect angles. Low-latitude measurements at ALTAIR and Jicamarca make use of and combine large and small magnetic aspect angle techniques. Examples presented will include both natural and naturally enhanced electron and ion lines detected in the lower F region near the geomagnetic equator as well as the results of search for proton gyro-resonance peaks in the Jicamarca topside spectra.

  16. Directional superradiant emission from statistically independent incoherent nonclassical and classical sources.

    PubMed

    Oppel, S; Wiegner, R; Agarwal, G S; von Zanthier, J

    2014-12-31

    Superradiance has been an outstanding problem in quantum optics since Dicke introduced the concept of enhanced directional spontaneous emission by an ensemble of identical two-level atoms. The effect is based on the correlated collective Dicke states which turn out to be highly entangled. Here we show that enhanced directional emission of spontaneous radiation can be produced also with statistically independent incoherent sources, via the measurement of higher-order correlation functions of the emitted radiation. Our analysis is applicable to a wide variety of quantum emitters, like trapped atoms, ions, quantum dots, or nitrogen-vacancy centers, and is also valid for incoherent classical emitters. This is experimentally confirmed with up to eight statistically independent thermal light sources. The arrangement to measure the higher-order correlation functions corresponds to a generalized Hanbury Brown-Twiss setup, demonstrating that the two phenomena, superradiance and the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, stem from the same interference phenomenon.

  17. Spin-incoherent one-dimensional spin-1 Bose Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, H. H.; Yip, S.-K.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid of a one-dimensional spin-1 Bose gas in a harmonic trap. In this regime highly degenerate spin configurations emerge since the energy splitting between different spin states is much less than the thermal energy of the system, while the temperature is low enough that the lowest energetic orbitals are occupied. As an example we numerically study the momentum distribution of a one-dimensional spin-1 Bose gas in Tonks-Girardeau gas limit and in the sector of zero magnetization. We find that the momentum distributions broaden as the number of atoms increase due to the averaging of spin function overlaps. Large momentum (p ) asymptotic is analytically derived, showing the universal 1 /p4 dependence. We demonstrate that the spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid has a momentum distribution also distinct from spinless bosons at finite temperature.

  18. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-15

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  19. Simulation of the Recharging Method of Implantable Biosensors Based on a Wearable Incoherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Kong, Xianyue; Hu, Lanxin; Cao, Jie; Gao, Tianxin

    2014-01-01

    Recharging implantable electronics from the outside of the human body is very important for applications such as implantable biosensors and other implantable electronics. In this paper, a recharging method for implantable biosensors based on a wearable incoherent light source has been proposed and simulated. Firstly, we develop a model of the incoherent light source and a multi-layer model of skin tissue. Secondly, the recharging processes of the proposed method have been simulated and tested experimentally, whereby some important conclusions have been reached. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer a convenient, safe and low-cost recharging method for implantable biosensors, which should promote the application of implantable electronics. PMID:25372616

  20. Coherent Raman scattering with incoherent light for a multiply resonant mixture: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, Jason C.; Ulness, Darin J.; Stimson, Michael J.; Albrecht, A. C.

    1998-02-01

    The theory for coherent Raman scattering (CRS) with broadband incoherent light is presented for a multiply resonant, multicomponent mixture of molecules that exhibits simultaneous multiple resonances with the frequencies of the driving fields. All possible pairwise hyperpolarizability contributions to the signal intensity are included in the theoretical treatment-(resonant-resonant, resonant-nonresonant, and nonresonant-nonresonant correlations between chromophores) and it is shown how the different types of correlations manifest themselves as differently behaved components of the signal intensity. The Raman resonances are modeled as Lorentzians in the frequency domain, as is the spectral density of the incoherent light. The analytic results for this multiply resonant mixture are presented and applied to a specific binary mixture. These analytic results will be used to recover frequencies and dephasing times in a series of experiments on multiply resonant mixtures.

  1. Toward a unified description of spin incoherent behavior at zero and finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanieh-Ha, Mohammad; Feiguin, Adrian

    2013-03-01

    While the basic theoretical understanding of spin-charge separation in one-dimension, known as ``Luttinger liquid theory'', has existed for some time, recently a previously unidentified regime of strongly interacting one-dimensional systems at finite temperature came to light: The ``spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid'' (SILL). This occurs when the temperature is larger than the characteristic spin energy scale. I will show that the spin-incoherent state can be written exactly as a generalization of Ogata and Shiba's factorized wave function in an enlarged Hilbert space, using the so-called ``thermo-field formalism.'' Interestingly, this wave-function can also describe the *ground-state* of other model Hamiltonians, such as t-J ladders, and the Kondo lattice. This allows us to develop a unified formalism to describe SILL physics both at zero, and finite temperatures.

  2. Toward a unified description of spin incoherent behavior at zero and finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanieh-Ha, Mohammad; Feiguin, Adrian

    2012-02-01

    While the basic theoretical understanding of spin-charge separation in one-dimension, known as ``Luttinger liquid theory'', has existed for some time, recently a previously unidentified regime of strongly interacting one-dimensional systems at finite temperature came to light: The ``spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid'' (SILL). This occurs when the temperature is larger than the characteristic spin energy scale. I will show that the spin-incoherent state can be written exactly as a generalization of Ogata and Shiba's factorized wave function in an enlarged Hilbert space, using the so-called ``thermo-field formalism.'' Interestingly, this wave-function can also describe the *ground-state* of other model Hamiltonians, such as t-J ladders, and the Kondo lattice. This allows us to develop a unified formalism to describe SILL physics both at zero, and finite temperatures.

  3. Non-Hermitian coupled-mode theory for incoherently pumped exciton-polariton condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S.; Türeci, H. E.

    2016-11-01

    The generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation (gGPE) is an effective phenomenological description for the dynamics of incoherently pumped exciton-polariton condensates. However, a brute force numerical simulation of the gGPE provides little physical insight into condensate formation under arbitrary pumping configurations, and is demanding in terms of computational resources. We introduce in this paper a modal description of polariton condensation under incoherent pumping of arbitrary spatial profile, based on eigenmodes of the non-Hermitian generator of the linearized dynamics. A pump-dependent basis is then introduced to formulate a temporal coupled-mode theory that captures condensate dynamics in the presence of all nonlinear interactions. Simulations using a single set of modes for a given pumping and trapping configuration agree very well with a full integration of the gGPE in diverse dynamical regimes, supporting the validity of this modal description, while also providing a speedup in simulation times.

  4. From coherent shocklets to giant collective incoherent shock waves in nonlocal turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Vocke, D; Faccio, D; Garnier, J; Roger, T; Trillo, S; Picozzi, A

    2015-09-08

    Understanding turbulent flows arising from random dispersive waves that interact strongly through nonlinearities is a challenging issue in physics. Here we report the observation of a characteristic transition: strengthening the nonlocal character of the nonlinear response drives the system from a fully turbulent regime, featuring a sea of coherent small-scale dispersive shock waves (shocklets) towards the unexpected emergence of a giant collective incoherent shock wave. The front of such global incoherent shock carries most of the stochastic fluctuations and is responsible for a peculiar folding of the local spectrum. Nonlinear optics experiments performed in a solution of graphene nano-flakes clearly highlight this remarkable transition. Our observations shed new light on the role of long-range interactions in strongly nonlinear wave systems operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium, which reveals analogies with, for example, gravitational systems, and establishes a new scenario that can be common to many turbulent flows in photonic quantum fluids, hydrodynamics and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  5. Structure of hydrogenous liquids: separation of coherent and incoherent cross sections using polarised neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunault, A.; Vial, S.; Pusztai, L.; Cuello, G. J.; Temleitner, L.

    2016-04-01

    The determination of the coherent structure factor of hydrogenous liquids is very difficult: while X-rays are barely sensitive to hydrogen, neutrons results still lack accuracy due to the contamination of the scattering intensities by a huge spin-incoherent signal from the 1H atoms. Using polarised neutrons with polarisation analysis, one can experimentally separate the coherent and incoherent contributions to the scattered intensity. We present the upgrade of the D3 polarised hot neutron diffractometer at ILL to study hydrogenated liquids. We show first data obtained from a test sample of water and detail the data reduction leading to an unprecedented accuracy in the extraction of the coherent signal, representative of the structure.

  6. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  7. Fiber-Optic Delay Line Signal Processing: Coherent and Incoherent Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Kenneth Paul

    Single-mode optical fiber is an attractive delay line medium due to its extremely low-loss (fractional dB/km) and large modulation bandwidth ((GREATERTHEQ)100 GHz(.)km). By connecting lengths of single-mode fiber in prescribed ways, two basic delay line devices can be constructed: the tapped delay line and the recirculating delay line.These two devices form the basis of fiber-optic delay line signal processing in which a variety of operations can be performed. The operations include coded sequence generation, convolution, correlation, matrix-vector multiplication, frequency filtering and many other operations based on delay line concepts. Because of the unique characteristics of single-mode fiber (low -loss and large modulation bandwidth), these operations can be performed at speeds far higher than those that are possible with more conventional signal processing techniques such as surface acoustic wave or charge-coupled devices. Fiber delay line devices can be operated either coherently or incoherently. If incoherent, the device discards optical phase whereas if coherent, the device retains phase. Coherent and incoherent fiber delay line processors each have advantages depending on the application. The goal of this work has been to demonstrate the feasibility of single-mode fibers for delay line signal processing. This goal was achieved through the development of several delay line devices capable of providing elementary processing functions. The work described here develops and analyzes the basic concepts of fiber-optic delay line signal processing with both coherent and incoherent systems. Prototype devices are presented that demonstrate simple processing capabilities. Presently, the processing speed of these fiber -optic devices is limited by the electro-optic interfaces (i.e. sources, modulators and detectors). However, with recent developments in high-speed sources, modulators and detectors, the possibility of performing real time signal processing operations

  8. Image contrast of diffraction-limited telescopes for circular incoherent sources of uniform radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackleford, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A simple approximate formula is derived for the background intensity beyond the edge of the image of uniform incoherent circular light source relative to the irradiance near the center of the image. The analysis applies to diffraction-limited telescopes with or without central beam obscuration due to a secondary mirror. Scattering off optical surfaces is neglected. The analysis is expected to be most applicable to spaceborne IR telescopes, for which diffraction can be the major source of off-axis response.

  9. Incoherent Combining of High-Power Fiber Lasers for Directed-Energy Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-16

    fiber lasers , IPG Photonics currently holds the record, producing over 3 kW per fiber of single-mode laser ...energy laser systems. The first field demonstration of incoherent beam combining using kilowatt -class, single-mode fiber lasers over a kilometer...combining using kilowatt -class, single-mode fiber lasers . The experiment combined four fiber lasers using a beam director consisting of

  10. Using Time-Reversal Symmetry for Sensitive Incoherent Matter-Wave Sagnac Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Japha, Y.; Arzouan, O.; Avishai, Y.; Folman, R.

    2007-08-10

    We present a theory of the transmission of guided matter-waves through Sagnac interferometers. Interferometer configurations with only one input and one output port have a property similar to the phase rigidity observed in the transmission through Aharonov-Bohm interferometers in coherent mesoscopic electronics. This property enables their operation with incoherent matter-wave sources. High rotation sensitivity is predicted for high finesse configurations.

  11. Proposed ground-based incoherent Doppler lidar with iodine filter discriminator for atmospheric wind profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.S.; Chen, W.B.; Hair, J.W.; She, C.Y.

    1996-12-31

    A new incoherent lidar for measuring atmospheric wind using iodine molecular filter is proposed. A unique feature of the proposed lidar lies in its capability for simultaneous measurement of aerosol mixing ratio, with which the radial wind can be determined uniquely from lidar return. A preliminary laboratory experiment using a dye laser at 589 nm and a rotating wheel has been performed demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed wind measurement.

  12. Interaural fluctuations and the detection of interaural incoherence. III. Narrowband experiments and binaural models.

    PubMed

    Goupell, Matthew J; Hartmann, William M

    2007-08-01

    In the first two articles of this series, reproducible noises with a fixed value of interaural coherence (0.992) were used to study the human ability to detect interaural incoherence. It was found that incoherence detection is strongly correlated with fluctuations in interaural differences, especially for narrow noise bandwidths, but it remained unclear what function of the fluctuations best agrees with detection data. In the present article, ten different binaural models were tested against detection data for 14- and 108-Hz bandwidths. These models included different types of binaural processing: independent-interaural-phase-difference/interaural-level-difference, lateral-position, and short-term cross-correlation. Several preprocessing transformations of the interaural differences were incorporated: compression of binaural cues, temporal averaging, and envelope weighting. For the 14-Hz bandwidth data, the most successful model postulated that incoherence is detected via fluctuations of interaural phase and interaural level processed by independent centers. That model correlated with detectability at r=0.87. That model proved to be more successful than short-term cross-correlation models incorporating standard physiologically-based model features (r=0.78). For the 108-Hz bandwidth data, detection performance varied much less among different waveforms, and the data were less able to distinguish between models.

  13. The estimation of space debris distribution by Kharkiv incoherent scatter radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Iurii

    Currently in near space are a large number of artificial origin objects. Among them are operable spacecrafts and the so-called "space debris". The Kharkiv radar is a sole incoherent scatter instrument on the middle latitudes of European region. The radar located near Kharkiv, Ukraine (geographic coordinates: 49.6N, 36.3E, geomagnetic coordinates: 45.7N, 117.8E). This powerful radar facility operates with 100-m zenith parabolic antenna at 158 MHz with peak transmitted power 2.0 MW, and can registered scattering of electromagnetic waves from small volumes (about ten square centimeters at distance 500 km). During the ionosphere parameters measurement by incoherent scatter radar are received different radar signals, different by nature from the signal, incoherent scattered ionosphere plasma. The paper presents the results of data analysis of several measurements cycles. It was obtained the distribution characteristics of the radar reflections from objects on Earth orbit. There are two main peak reflections appearance intensity at distances 800 km and 1000 km. Two other peaks at the altitude of 600 km and 1400 km. It is from distance above 1700 km the number of reflections is insignificant. Based on the experimental data was constructed height-temporal distribution of reflection signals. The total analysis time was about 200 hours. The intensity of reflections and their peak distances not significantly changed during day. The average number of observed reflections per day was about 500.

  14. Overview of techniques applicable to self-interference incoherent digital holography.

    PubMed

    Hong, J; Kim, M K

    Self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) retrieves the complex hologram from the object illuminated by the incoherent light. Supported by the adaptive optic feature, SIDH is readily applicable to the ocular imaging to investigate the human retinal cells. Considering the practical issues, issues related to resolution, phase-shifting, and contrast should be addressed to implement the viable SIDH system which is capable of recording the holographic information of human retinal cells under the incoherent illumination. Super resolution image reconstruction technique can be directly applied to SIDH to enhance the resolution of the system without any change of configuration. We present the improved way to incorporate the phase-shifting itself into the lateral shift required by the super resolution technique. To deal with the phase-shifting issue, we present an arbitrary phase shift retrieval algorithm which can reduce the number of phase-shift and accept the blind phase-shift. The single-shot imaging is also possible by adopting the off-axis configuration of SIDH. We will provide the detailed procedures to retrieve the complex hologram using the proposed arbitrary phase shifting algorithm and the off-axis configuration.

  15. A comparison between using incoherent or coherent sources to align and test an adaptive optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The concept in the initial alignment of the segmented mirror adaptive optics telescope called the phased array mirror extendable large aperture telescope (Pamela) is to produce an optical transfer function (OTF) which closely approximates the diffraction limited value which would correspond to a system pupil function that is unity over the aperture and zero outside. There are differences in the theory of intensity measurements between coherent and incoherent radiation. As a result, some of the classical quantities which describe the performance of an optical system for incoherent radiation can not be defined for a coherent field. The most important quantity describing the quality of an optical system is the OTF and for a coherent source the OTF is not defined. Instead a coherent transfer function (CTF) is defined. The main conclusion of the paper is that an incoherent collimated source and not a collimated laser source is preferred to calibrate the Hartmann wavefront sensor (WFS) of an aligned adaptive optical system. A distant laser source can be used with minimum problems to correct the system for atmospheric turbulence. The collimation of the HeNe laser alignment source can be improved by using a very small pin hole in the spatial filter so only the central portion of the beam is transmitted and the beam from the filter is nearly constant in amplitude. The size of this pin hole will be limited by the sensitivity of the lateral effect diode (LEDD) elements.

  16. Application of particle swarm optimization method to incoherent scatter radar measurement of ionosphere parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li-Li; Zhou, Qihou H.; Chen, Tie-Jun; Liang, J. J.; Wu, Xin

    2015-09-01

    Simultaneous derivation of multiple ionospheric parameters from the incoherent scatter power spectra in the F1 region is difficult because the spectra have only subtle differences for different combinations of parameters. In this study, we apply a particle swarm optimizer (PSO) to incoherent scatter power spectrum fitting and compare it to the commonly used least squares fitting (LSF) technique. The PSO method is found to outperform the LSF method in practically all scenarios using simulated data. The PSO method offers the advantages of not being sensitive to initial assumptions and allowing physical constraints to be easily built into the model. When simultaneously fitting for molecular ion fraction (fm), ion temperature (Ti), and ratio of ion to electron temperature (γT), γT is largely stable. The uncertainty between fm and Ti can be described as a quadratic relationship. The significance of this result is that Ti can be retroactively corrected for data archived many years ago where the assumption of fm may not be accurate, and the original power spectra are unavailable. In our discussion, we emphasize the fitting for fm, which is a difficult parameter to obtain. PSO method is often successful in obtaining fm, whereas LSF fails. We apply both PSO and LSF to actual observations made by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar. The results show that PSO method is a viable method to simultaneously determine ion and electron temperatures and molecular ion fraction when the last is greater than 0.3.

  17. Incoherent combining of 100-W Yb-fiber laser beams by PTR Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciapurin, Igor V.; Glebov, Leonid B.; Glebova, Larissa N.; Smirnov, Vadim I.; Rotari, Eugeniu V.

    2003-07-01

    Volume diffractive gratings (Bragg gratings) in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) inorganic glass are proposed for incoherent laser beam combining because they have narrow spectral selectivity and diffraction efficiency greater than 95% from visible to near IR regions. They showed no laser-induced damage, no thermal lens, and no Bragg angle shift under CW Yb-fiber laser (1096 nm) irradiation at 100 kW/cm2. It opens the way to rugged, low-cost, efficient optics for high-power laser systems. Based on theoretical modeling of PTR Bragg gratings, we have designed a high-efficient technology for incoherent combining of two or several laser beams with certain wavelength shift. Two 100 W beams of Yb-fiber lasers in the range of 1080-1100 nm with the wavelength separation of 11 nm were combined with efficiency exceeding 75% while material losses did not exceed 2-4%. No fading or parameter change of PTR Bragg grating working in two 100 W beams were found. It was found that the process limiting efficiency of incoherent beam combining is the spectral widening of radiation of Yb-doped fiber lasers. At high power, their spectral width exceeds spectral selectivity of Bragg grating and causes a decrease of diffraction efficiency.

  18. Three-photon resonant atomic excitation in spatially incoherent laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, Victor; Shchemeljov, Sergei

    2003-10-01

    Two-color excitation by spatially coherent and incoherent laser beams has been used to study three-photon-resonant excitation and subsequent ionization of xenon in conditions, when internally generated sum-frequency field plays an important role in excitation of atomic resonances through interfering one-photon excitation pathway. We show that the incoherence in one of the pumping fields reduces the efficiency of generated sum-frequency field, and thus suppresses the interference between the three- and the one-photon excitation channels. The degree of suppression is controlled by varying the crossing angle between coherent and incoherent laser beams. We show that ionization profiles can be analyzed on the basis of the well-studied interference of one- and three-photon transition amplitudes, but with pumping field decomposed into multiple small-scale uncorrelated domains where coherent process of four-wave mixing occurs. The gain length for a coherent process in these domains depends on the coherence degree and excitation geometry. It gives a possibility of controlling the contribution of coherent processes to the excitation of multiphoton resonances.

  19. Pseudo-random Center Placement O-space Imaging for Improved Incoherence Compressed Sensing Parallel MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Leo K.; Galiana, Gigi; Stockmann, Jason P.; Tagare, Hemant; Peters, Dana C.; Constable, R. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic (SEM) field strategies such as O-space imaging have previously reported dispersed artifacts during accelerated scans. Compressed sensing (CS) has shown a sparsity-promoting convex program allows image reconstruction from a reduced data set when using the appropriate sampling. The development of a pseudo-random center placement (CP) O-space CS approach optimizes incoherence through SEM field modulation to reconstruct an image with reduced error. Theory and Methods The incoherence parameter determines the sparsity levels for which CS is valid and the related transform point spread function measures the maximum interference for a single point. The O-space acquisition is optimized for CS by perturbing the Z2 strength within 30% of the nominal value and demonstrated on a human 3T scanner. Results Pseudo-random CP O-space imaging is shown to improve incoherence between the sensing and sparse domains. Images indicate pseudo-random CP O-space has reduced mean squared error compared with a typical linear SEM field acquisition method. Conclusion Pseudo-random CP O-space imaging, with a nonlinear SEM field designed for CS, is shown to reduce mean squared error of images at high acceleration over linear encoding methods for a 2D slice when using an eight channel circumferential receiver array for parallel imaging. PMID:25042143

  20. Parallel electron streaming in the high-latitude E region and its effect on the incoherent scatter spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcivan, H.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Tsunoda, R. T.

    2006-07-01

    This article investigates the combined electron heating and streaming effects of low-frequency parallel electric fields on the incoherent scatter measurements of the high-latitude E region. The electric fields distort the electron distribution function, inducing changes on the amplitude and frequency of the ion-acoustic line in the measured incoherent scatter spectrum. If one assumes Maxwellian electrons, the measurements of electron and ion temperatures and electron density are subject to significant percentage errors during geomagnetically active conditions.

  1. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre

    2006-12-15

    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

  2. Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot

  3. Robust modular product family design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lan; Allada, Venkat

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a modified Taguchi methodology to improve the robustness of modular product families against changes in customer requirements. The general research questions posed in this paper are: (1) How to effectively design a product family (PF) that is robust enough to accommodate future customer requirements. (2) How far into the future should designers look to design a robust product family? An example of a simplified vacuum product family is used to illustrate our methodology. In the example, customer requirements are selected as signal factors; future changes of customer requirements are selected as noise factors; an index called quality characteristic (QC) is set to evaluate the product vacuum family; and the module instance matrix (M) is selected as control factor. Initially a relation between the objective function (QC) and the control factor (M) is established, and then the feasible M space is systemically explored using a simplex method to determine the optimum M and the corresponding QC values. Next, various noise levels at different time points are introduced into the system. For each noise level, the optimal values of M and QC are computed and plotted on a QC-chart. The tunable time period of the control factor (the module matrix, M) is computed using the QC-chart. The tunable time period represents the maximum time for which a given control factor can be used to satisfy current and future customer needs. Finally, a robustness index is used to break up the tunable time period into suitable time periods that designers should consider while designing product families.

  4. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  5. Local modularity for community detection in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ju; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Ke; Li, Jian-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Liu, Cui-Cui; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-01

    Community detection is a topic of interest in the study of complex networks such as the protein-protein interaction networks and metabolic networks. In recent years, various methods were proposed to detect community structures of the networks. Here, a kind of local modularity with tunable parameter is derived from the Newman-Girvan modularity by a special self-loop strategy that depends on the community division of the networks. By the self-loop strategy, one can easily control the definition of modularity, and the resulting modularity can be optimized by using the existing modularity optimization algorithms. The local modularity is used as the target function for community detection, and a self-consistent method is proposed for the optimization of the local modularity. We analyze the behaviors of the local modularity and show the validity of the local modularity in detecting community structures on various networks.

  6. Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-06-07

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing approximately 46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2 cm x 4.2 cm x 5.8 cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of approximately 24 mm(2). This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings.

  7. A novel technique for studying F-region ionization patches with the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar - North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, G. W.; Hosokawa, K.; St-Maurice, J.; Shiokawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The northward facing Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar - North (RISR-N) and the soon to be operational southward facing RISR-Canada (RISR-C) systems are both exceptional platforms for investigating F-region ionization patches and the polar ionosphere. To advance patch research using these systems, an algorithm has been developed for detecting F-region ionization patches with the RISR-N system. The algorithm is based on the definition of a patch put forward by Crowley [1996]: a volume of F-region plasma with a density that is twice that of the background ionosphere. In this work, the algorithm is applied to the sizeable RISR-N dataset, providing valuable insight into the prevalence of patches over Resolute Bay over a time frame of several years. Additional questions concerning patches are also addressed using the algorithm, including: when compared to each other, do the occurrence rates of patches identified by the Optical Mesosphere and Thermosphere Imagers (OMTI), Polar Dual Auroral Radar Network (PolarDARN) and RISR-N instruments (whose fields-of-view overlap over Resolute Bay) agree? Namely, for every patch that is detected with RISR-N and/or PolarDARN, is there a corresponding patch seen optically? Lastly, using the algorithm, is it possible to advance our ability to distinguish patches from other coherent backscatter echoes detected by PolarDARN? Crowley, G. (1996), Critical review of ionospheric patches and blobs, in Review of Radio Science: 1993-1996, edited by W. R. Stone, pp. 619 648, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U. K.

  8. Compact, Light-weight and Cost-effective Microscope based on Lensless Incoherent Holography for Telemedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing ~46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2cm × 4.2cm × 5.8cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of ~24 mm2. This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings. PMID:20401422

  9. Ultra modular plastic mini AUV platform for VSW mine reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Samuel M.; Kronen, David; Dunn, Richard; Whitney, Jim; Frankenfield, John; An, Edgar; Pantelakis, Tom; Burn, Aaron; Heatzig, Eric

    1999-07-01

    The Advanced Marine Systems Lab at FAU has developed a new ultra modular plastic mini AUV for coastal applications including very shallow water MCM. This vehicle is composed of modular injection molded plastic pressure vessels and a cabling system that allows the modules to be rearranged without rewiring bulkheads. The plastic pressure vessels are inexpensive, inherently mass producible, extremely corrosion resistant, and have low magnetic signature. The pressure vessels are small but are sized to fit most standard electronic board standards such as PC104, 3U VME, Compact PCI, STD 32, and even full size PCI. The mini AUV can be anywhere from 4 ft. to 10 ft. in length depending on its mission. A unique feature is the support for hovering capability with optional cross body thruster sections. The vehicle architecture is an adaptation of the Ocean Explorer AUV system and use a LonTalk distributed control network for connecting all sensor and actuator subsystems as smart nodes. The modularity is contained, control, and power makes this vehicle rapidly reconfigurable and easy to repair or upgrade. The small size of this AUV minimize top side support requirements. But because the Mini pressure vessels are still big enough to house most electronics systems almost all the sensor payloads designed for the larger Ocean Explorer AUV can be repacked to fit the Mini. Planned configurations include a rapid environmental assessment and mine reconnaissance package with side scan sonar, video, acoustic modem, Doppler velocity log, altimeter, Doppler current profiler, and CTD. A networkable acoustic modem system has also been developed at FAU and will enable multiple vehicle communications for coordinated multiple vehicle search and survey operations or for remote diver control. 3 AUVs are undergoing development and testing. This paper will present details of the design and construction of the new Mini AUV as well as explores applications to VSM MCM.

  10. Reconfiguration of EVA Modular Truss Assemblies using an Anthropomorphic Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diftler, Myron A.; Doggett, William R.; Mehling, Joshua S.; King, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    NASA relies heavily on astronauts to perform Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) as part of space construction and maintenance operations. Astronauts provide an unmatched capability and flexibility. In the future, this capability will be in even greater demand as space platforms become more modular making on-orbit servicing, repair and reconfiguration routine. To assist crew, NASA is developing Robonaut, an anthropomorphic robot with human sized arms and hands that can work with many of the same interfaces designed for the space suited astronaut. Recently Robonaut has been used to investigate techniques for automated assembly, disassembly, and repair of space platforms. The current work focuses on techniques to reconfigure a modular truss system representative of the tasks necessary to convert a space solar power tug to a lunar orbiting solar power station in support of lunar exploration missions. An overview of these activities is given, detailing the assembly sequence and the infrastructure used by Robonaut to perform the reconfiguration operations. Advances in Robonaut's capabilities are described and include: a grip surface augmentation to Robonaut's gloves that provides a close approximation to the latest astronaut gloves, ensuring a secure grasp during truss coupler manipulation, and a shared control strategy that divides the Cartesian control of Robonaut's hands between the teleoperator and the robot's on-board controller to minimize human workload during constrained tasks. To support truss reconfiguration experiments, infrastructure is required to stabilize and register the structure during reconfiguration. Details on the design and operation of the infrastructure, a small fixture, are given.

  11. Completely modular Thermionic Reactor Ion Propulsion System (TRIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Kikin, G. M.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear reactor powered ion propulsion system described is an advanced completely modularized system which lends itself to development of prototype and/or flight type components without the need for complete system tests until late in the development program. This modularity is achieved in all of the subsystems and components of the electric propulsion system including (1) the thermionic fuel elements, (2) the heat rejection subsystem (heat pipes), (3) the power conditioning modules, and (4) the ion thrusters. Both flashlight and external fuel type in-core thermionic reactors are considered as the power source. The thermionic fuel elements would be useful over a range of reactor power levels. Electrical heated acceptance testing in their flight configuration is possible for the external fuel case. Nuclear heated testing by sampling methods could be used for acceptance testing of flashlight fuel elements. The use of heat pipes for cooling the collectors and as a means of heat transport to the radiator allows early prototype or flight configuration testing of a small module of the heat rejection subsystem as opposed to full scale liquid metal pumps and radiators in a large vacuum chamber. The power conditioner (p/c) is arranged in modules with passive cooling.

  12. A modular PMAD system for small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Unit (SCBU). The SCBU uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBU topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBU technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBU makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  13. A Modular PMAD System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Regulator (SCBR). The SCBR uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBR topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBR technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBR makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  14. An Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoofs, T.; Santos, S.; Tatibana, C.; Anjos, J.; Rufino, J.; Windsor, J.

    2009-05-01

    The ARINC 653 standard has taken a leading role within the aeronautical industry in the development of safety-critical systems based upon the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept. The related cost savings in reduced integration, verification and validation effort has raised interest in the European space industry for developing a spacecraft IMA approach and for the definition of an ARINC 653-for-Space software framework. As part of this process, it is necessary to establish an effective way to develop, test and analyse on-board applications without having access to the final IMA target platform for all engineers. Target platforms are usually extremely expensive considering hardware and software prices as well as training costs. This paper describes the architecture of an Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment (IMADE) based on the Linux Operating System and the ARINC 653 simulator for Modular On-Board Applications that was developed by Skysoft Portugal, S.A. In cooperation with ESA, 2007-2008.

  15. A Modular Re-configurable Rover System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouloubasis, A.; McKee, G.; Active Robotics Lab

    design allows the MTR to lift, lower, roll or tilt its body. It also provides the ability to lift any of the legs by nearly 300mm, enhancing internal re-configurability and therefore rough terrain stability off the robotic vehicle. A modular software and control architecture will be used so that integration to, and operation through the MTR, of different Packs can be demonstrated. An on-board high-level controller [4] will communicate with a small network of micro-controllers through an RS485 bus. Additional processing power could be obtained through a Pack with equivalent or higher computational capabilities. 1 The nature of the system offers many opportunities for behavior based control. The control system must accommodate not only rover based behaviors like obstacle avoidance and vehicle stabilization, but also any additional behaviors that different Packs may introduce. The Ego-Behavior Architecture (EBA) [5] comprises a number of behaviors which operate autonomously and independent of each other. This facilitates the design and suits the operation of the MTR since it fulfills the need for uncomplicated assimilation of new behaviors in the existing architecture. Our work at the moment focuses on the design and construction of the mechanical and electronic systems for the MTR and an associated Pack. References [1] NASA, Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission (Version 3.0 with June, 1998 Addendum) of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team, Exploration Office, Advanced Development Office, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, June, 1998. [2] A. Trebi-Ollennu, H Das Nayer, H Aghazarian, A ganino, P Pirjanian, B Kennedy, T Huntsberger and P Schenker, Mars Rover Pair Cooperatively Transporting a Long Payload, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, May 2002, pp. 3136-3141. [3] A. K. Bouloubasis, G. T McKee, P. S. Schenker, A Behavior-Based Manipulator for Multi-Robot Transport Tasks, in proceedings of the

  16. Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements

    PubMed Central

    Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed. PMID:28010165

  17. Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements.

    PubMed

    Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz

    2017-03-04

    Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed.

  18. [Modular tumor prostheses of the humerus].

    PubMed

    Funovics, P T; Dominkus, M

    2010-10-01

    The humerus is a common location of musculoskeletal tumors. Modular prostheses of the humerus, besides APC and biological reconstructions, allow restoration of resulting bone defects. The functional outcome is determined by the extent of bone and soft tissue loss. Anatomical shoulder prostheses have a limited abductor function, while shoulder function could be improved by an inverse prosthetic design and implants for ligament repair. Elbow prostheses provide satisfactory function. Our own results in 101 patients showed a 23% revision rate. The median overall survival was 171 months with an overall 5-year survival of 53%. With respect to good oncological outcomes modular reconstruction of the humerus is a feasible treatment option for cancer patients.

  19. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.

  20. Dynamics of overlapping structures in modular networks.

    PubMed

    Almendral, J A; Leyva, I; Li, D; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

    2010-07-01

    Modularity is a fundamental feature of real networks, being intimately bounded to their functionality, i.e., to their capability of performing parallel tasks in a coordinated way. Although the modular structure of real graphs has been intensively studied, very little is known on the interactions between functional modules of a graph. Here, we present a general method based on synchronization of networking oscillators, that is able to detect overlapping structures in multimodular environments. We furthermore report the full analytical and theoretical description on the relationship between the overlapping dynamics and the underlying network topology. The method is illustrated by means of a series of applications.

  1. Online Gait Learning for Modular Robots with Arbitrary Shapes and Sizes.

    PubMed

    Weel, Berend; D'Angelo, M; Haasdijk, Evert; Eiben, A E

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary robotics using real hardware is currently restricted to evolving robot controllers, but the technology for evolvable morphologies is advancing quickly. Rapid prototyping (3D printing) and automated assembly are the main enablers of robotic systems where robot offspring can be produced based on a blueprint that specifies the morphologies and the controllers of the parents. This article addresses the problem of gait learning in newborn robots whose morphology is unknown in advance. We investigate a reinforcement learning method and conduct simulation experiments using robot morphologies with different size and complexity. We establish that reinforcement learning does the job well and that it outperforms two alternative algorithms. The experiments also give insights into the online dynamics of gait learning and into the influence of the size, shape, and morphological complexity of the modular robots. These insights can potentially be used to predict the viability of modular robotic organisms before they are constructed.

  2. Modular Apparatus and Method for Attaching Multiple Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for attaching sensors and electronics is disclosed. The modular apparatus includes a square recess including a plurality of cavities and a reference cavity such that a pressure sensor can be connected to the modular apparatus. The modular apparatus also includes at least one voltage input hole and at least one voltage output hole operably connected to each of the plurality of cavities such that voltage can be applied to the pressure sensor and received from the pressure sensor.

  3. The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation is a flexible turbofan engine simulation environment that provides the user a platform to develop advanced control algorithms. It is capable of testing the performance of control designs on a validated and verified generic engine model. In addition, it is able to generate state-space linear models of the engine model to aid in controller design. The engine model used in MAPSS is a generic high-pressure ratio, dual-spool, lowbypass, military-type, variable cycle turbofan engine with a digital controller. MAPSS is controlled by a graphical user interface (GUI) and this guide explains how to use it to take advantage of the capabilities of MAPSS.

  4. A modular, low-cost robot for zebrafish handling.

    PubMed

    Pfriem, Alexander; Pylatiuk, Christian; Alshut, Rüdiger; Ziegener, Bertram; Schulz, Stefan; Bretthauer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish (danio rerio) is one of the most important model organisms in modern drug discovery and disease modeling. Handling and analyzing large numbers of zebrafish larvae require an immense manpower and involve time-consuming manual processes. A novel modular, robotic platform for high-throughput screening is being developed at BioRobotLab (KIT). In this article the fish sorter, which is a robotic device for the automation of a manual process in bio analysis, is presented. The fish sorter detects randomly spread zebrafish eggs and larvae up to an age of 120 hours post fertilization (hpf) in Petri dishes and transfers them to standard 96- or 384- well plates. The robot is controlled by an advanced algorithm with sensor-based process control. Fast and precise hardware components lead to a high working speed and success rate >= 95%.

  5. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  6. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  7. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  8. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  9. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  10. On Classification of Modular Categories by Rank: Table A.1

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Ng, Siu-Hung; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-04-10

    The feasibility of a classification-by-rank program for modular categories follows from the Rank-Finiteness Theorem. We develop arithmetic, representation theoretic and algebraic methods for classifying modular categories by rank. As an application, we determine all possible fusion rules for all rank=5 modular categories and describe the corresponding monoidal equivalence classes.

  11. Clinical application of a modular ankle robot for stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Larry W.; Roy, Anindo; Goodman, Ronald N.; Rietschel, Jeremy; Barton, Joseph E.; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in our understanding of neuroplasticity and motor learning post-stroke are now being leveraged with the use of robotics technology to enhance physical rehabilitation strategies. Major advances have been made with upper extremity robotics, which have been tested for efficacy in multi-site trials across the subacute and chronic phases of stroke. In contrast, use of lower extremity robotics to promote locomotor re-learning has been more recent and presents unique challenges by virtue of the complex multi-segmental mechanics of gait. Objectives Here we review a programmatic effort to develop and apply the concept of joint-specific modular robotics to the paretic ankle as a means to improve underlying impairments in distal motor control that may have a significant impact on gait biomechanics and balance. Methods An impedance controlled ankle robot module (anklebot) is described as a platform to test the idea that a modular approach can be used to modify training and measure the time profile of treatment response. Results Pilot studies using seated visuomotor anklebot training with chronic patients are reviewed, along with results from initial efforts to evaluate the anklebot's utility as a clinical tool for assessing intrinsic ankle stiffness. The review includes a brief discussion of future directions for using the seated anklebot training in the earliest phases of sub-acute therapy, and to incorporate neurophysiological measures of cerebro-cortical activity as a means to reveal underlying mechanistic processes of motor learning and brain plasticity associated with robotic training. Conclusions Finally we conclude with an initial control systems strategy for utilizing the anklebot as a gait training tool that includes integrating an Internal Model-based adaptive controller to both accommodate individual deficit severities and adapt to changes in patient performance. PMID:23949045

  12. Coexistence of synchrony and incoherence in oscillatory media under nonlinear global coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Lennart; García-Morales, Vladimir; Schönleber, Konrad; Krischer, Katharina

    2014-03-15

    We report a novel mechanism for the formation of chimera states, a peculiar spatiotemporal pattern with coexisting synchronized and incoherent domains found in ensembles of identical oscillators. Considering Stuart-Landau oscillators, we demonstrate that a nonlinear global coupling can induce this symmetry breaking. We find chimera states also in a spatially extended system, a modified complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. This theoretical prediction is validated with an oscillatory electrochemical system, the electro-oxidation of silicon, where the spontaneous formation of chimeras is observed without any external feedback control.

  13. The effect of induced spatial incoherence on the absolute Raman instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzdar, P. N.; Tan, W.; Lee, Y. C.; Liu, C. S.; Lehmberg, R. H.

    1991-03-01

    A numerical and analytical study of the Raman instability in a homogeneous plasma is presented in which the pump has been modeled to include the effects of broad bandwidth and the induced spatial incoherence (ISI) method of beam smoothing. For a time-averaged homogeneous growth rate γ¯0 and a bandwidth σ, there is a significant reduction in Raman backscattering when σ≳2γ0, for γ¯20 near threshold intensity. However, for γ¯20 very large compared to the threshold, neither ISI nor bandwidth affects Raman scattering.

  14. Coherent (photon) vs incoherent (current) detection of multidimensional optical signals from single molecules in open junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Hua, Weijie; Zhang, Yu; Mukamel, Shaul; Harbola, Upendra

    2015-06-07

    The nonlinear optical response of a current-carrying single molecule coupled to two metal leads and driven by a sequence of impulsive optical pulses with controllable phases and time delays is calculated. Coherent (stimulated, heterodyne) detection of photons and incoherent detection of the optically induced current are compared. Using a diagrammatic Liouville space superoperator formalism, the signals are recast in terms of molecular correlation functions which are then expanded in the many-body molecular states. Two dimensional signals in benzene-1,4-dithiol molecule show cross peaks involving charged states. The correlation between optical and charge current signal is also observed.

  15. Application of input amplitude masks in scheme of optical image encryption with spatially-incoherent illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifrina, A. V.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Krasnov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Optical encryption with spatially incoherent illumination does not have drawbacks of coherent encryption techniques. In this case however, one of the factors affecting decrypted image quality is original image spectrum. In most cases, majority of image energy is concentrated in area of low spatial frequencies. Therefore, only this area in spectrum of encrypted image contains information about original image, while other areas contain only noise. Additional amplitude encoding of input scene can be used for increase of the size of the area of spatial frequencies containing useful information. Numerical simulation demonstrates reduction of decryption error up to 2.7 times.

  16. Quantum dynamics of incoherently driven V-type systems: Analytic solutions beyond the secular approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodin, Amro; Tscherbul, Timur V.; Brumer, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Closed-form analytic solutions to non-secular Bloch-Redfield master equations for quantum dynamics of a V-type system driven by weak coupling to a thermal bath, relevant to light harvesting processes, are obtained and discussed. We focus on noise-induced Fano coherences among the excited states induced by incoherent driving of the V-system initially in the ground state. For suddenly turned-on incoherent driving, the time evolution of the coherences is determined by the damping parameter ζ = /1 2 ( γ 1 + γ 2) / Δ p , where γi are the radiative decay rates of the excited levels i = 1, 2, and Δ p = √{ Δ 2 + ( 1 - p 2) γ 1 γ 2 } depends on the excited-state level splitting Δ > 0 and the angle between the transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The coherences oscillate as a function of time in the underdamped limit (ζ ≫ 1), approach a long-lived quasi-steady state in the overdamped limit (ζ ≪ 1), and display an intermediate behavior at critical damping (ζ = 1). The sudden incoherent turn-on is shown to generate a mixture of excited eigenstates |e1> and |e2> and their in-phase coherent superposition | ϕ + > = /1 √{ r 1 + r 2 } ( √{ r 1 } | e 1 > + √{ r 2 } | e 2 >) , which is remarkably long-lived in the overdamped limit (where r1 and r2 are the incoherent pumping rates). Formation of this coherent superposition enhances the decay rate from the excited states to the ground state. In the strongly asymmetric V-system where the coupling strengths between the ground state and the excited states differ significantly, additional asymptotic quasistationary coherences are identified, which arise due to slow equilibration of one of the excited states. Finally, we demonstrate that noise-induced Fano coherences are maximized with respect to populations when r1 = r2 and the transition dipole moments are fully aligned.

  17. Three-dimensional mapping of fluorescent nanoparticles using incoherent digital holography.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Takumi; Abe, Ryosuke; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2015-07-15

    Three-dimensional mapping of fluorescent nanoparticles was performed by using incoherent digital holography. The positions of the nanoparticles were quantitatively determined by using Gaussian fitting of the axial- and lateral-diffraction distributions through position calibration from the observation space to the sample space. It was found that the axial magnification was constant whereas the lateral magnification linearly depended on the axial position of the fluorescent nanoparticles. The mapping of multiple fluorescent nanoparticles fixed in gelatin and a single fluorescent nanoparticle manipulated with optical tweezers in water were demonstrated.

  18. Quantum dynamics of incoherently driven V-type systems: Analytic solutions beyond the secular approximation.

    PubMed

    Dodin, Amro; Tscherbul, Timur V; Brumer, Paul

    2016-06-28

    Closed-form analytic solutions to non-secular Bloch-Redfield master equations for quantum dynamics of a V-type system driven by weak coupling to a thermal bath, relevant to light harvesting processes, are obtained and discussed. We focus on noise-induced Fano coherences among the excited states induced by incoherent driving of the V-system initially in the ground state. For suddenly turned-on incoherent driving, the time evolution of the coherences is determined by the damping parameter ζ=12(γ1+γ2)/Δp, where γi are the radiative decay rates of the excited levels i = 1, 2, and Δp=Δ(2)+(1-p(2))γ1γ2 depends on the excited-state level splitting Δ > 0 and the angle between the transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The coherences oscillate as a function of time in the underdamped limit (ζ ≫ 1), approach a long-lived quasi-steady state in the overdamped limit (ζ ≪ 1), and display an intermediate behavior at critical damping (ζ = 1). The sudden incoherent turn-on is shown to generate a mixture of excited eigenstates |e1〉 and |e2〉 and their in-phase coherent superposition |ϕ+〉=1r1+r2(r1|e1〉+r2|e2〉), which is remarkably long-lived in the overdamped limit (where r1 and r2 are the incoherent pumping rates). Formation of this coherent superposition enhances the decay rate from the excited states to the ground state. In the strongly asymmetric V-system where the coupling strengths between the ground state and the excited states differ significantly, additional asymptotic quasistationary coherences are identified, which arise due to slow equilibration of one of the excited states. Finally, we demonstrate that noise-induced Fano coherences are maximized with respect to populations when r1 = r2 and the transition dipole moments are fully aligned.

  19. Coherent and incoherent terahertz beams measured from a terahertz photoconductive antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Ho Wu, Dong; Graber, Benjamin; Kim, Christopher; Qadri, S. B.; Garzarella, Anthony

    2014-02-03

    We have systematically measured and analyzed the terahertz beams of a photoconductive antenna fabricated on a GaAs substrate. Our data indicate that the antenna produces both coherent and incoherent terahertz beams. The former is produced largely by the plasmon, and the latter is believed to be due to the black body radiation resulting from the thermal excitations and Joule heating by both the femto-second laser and the bias voltage, applied across the electrodes of the antenna. The terahertz-beam property is greatly affected by the operating condition of the photoconductive antenna.

  20. Complex-valued acquisition of the diffraction imaging by incoherent quasimonochromatic light without a support constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Minghui; Xu Jianfei; Wang Xianfu; Wei Qing

    2010-10-15

    A scheme for complex-valued acquisition of the diffraction imaging with quasimonochromatic incoherent light is theoretically proposed. The main idea is to project the real and the imaginary parts of a Fraunhofer diffraction field on intensity distributions, respectively, with the use of a {pi}/2 phase-changing plate. The whole procedure is iterative algorithm free and needs no a priori knowledge of an arbitrary object. A numerical experiment and a quantitative confirmation are also given. To our knowledge, it was the first physical proposal for the complex-valued acquisition of a diffraction imaging by two-dimensional coherent patterns with thermal illumination.

  1. Electroacoustical imaging technique for encoding incoherent radiance fields as Gabor elementary signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, C. L.; Huck, F. O.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is presented for directly encoding incoherent radiance fields as Gabor elementary signals. This technique uses an electro-acoustic sensor to modulate the electronic charges induced by the incident radiance field with the electric fields generated by Gaussian modulated sinusoidal acoustic waves. The resultant signal carries the amplitude and phase information required for localizing spatial frequencies of the radiance field. These localized spatial frequency representations provide a link between the either geometric or Fourier transform representations currently used in computer vision and pattern recognition.

  2. Incoherent scatter radar observations during August 4-7, 1972. [of E and lower F regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddle, T.; Doupnik, J. R.; Banks, P. M.; Park, R. J.; Siren, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    E- and lower F-region data obtained by the incoherent scatter radar of Chatanika, Alaska were used to analyze the height-integrated Hall and Pedersen conductivities, electric fields, ionospheric currents, electron densities, and rate of heating of the neutral atmosphere by particle precipitation and by electric current dissipation during the period of intense solar flares, August 4-7, 1972. Although the magnetosphere was unusually disturbed magnetically, the radar data were in general not particularly larger than those seen during more quiet periods. Chatanika seemed to be in the auroral oval during nearly the whole of the time period studied, implying a greatly expanded size of the oval.

  3. Truncated thermalization of incoherent optical waves through supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barviau, Benoit; Garnier, Josselin; Xu, Gang; Kibler, Bertrand; Millot, Guy; Picozzi, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    We revisit the process of optical wave thermalization through supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers. We report theoretically and numerically a phenomenon of `truncated thermalization': The incoherent optical wave exhibits an irreversible evolution toward a Rayleigh-Jeans thermodynamic equilibrium state characterized by a compactly supported spectral shape. The theory then reveals the existence of a frequency cut-off which regularizes the ultraviolet catastrophe inherent to ensembles of classical nonlinear waves. This phenomenon sheds new light on the mechanisms underlying the formation of bounded supercontinuum spectra in photonic crystal fibers.

  4. Incoherent holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Nils H.

    2000-10-01

    Dennis Gabor invented in-line holography in 1947, but at that time the coherent light from a laser did not yet exist and therefore the holograms he produced were of very low quality. When the laser was born in 1960 beautiful 3-D off- center holograms were for the first time produced by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks. However, already as early as 1934 the inventor and artist Hans Weil patented a method to produce simple pictures that appeared floating in space, by scratching a transparent or metallic surface in certain directions. In 1995 William J. Beaty published a method for Hand-Drawn Holograms. Then it became possible for any artist to draw his own 3-D pictures of simple objects and using his ingenious techniques these hand drawn images will mimic many of the qualities of ordinary holograms.

  5. The Modular Market. Studies in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodossin, Ernest

    Origins of modular courses and the module in British postcompulsory education are considered, along with characteristics of modules, credit transfer, five case studies, and marketing in further and higher education. A module is a measured part (or course) of an extended learning experience that leads to specified qualifications. A designated…

  6. A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Una Società Galileo Avionica A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via...ES) METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via Mario Stoppani 21 34077 Ronchi dei Legionari (GO) ITALY 8. PERFORMING

  7. Modular Building Institute 2002 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Re-Educating Schools" (Chuck Savage); (2) "Tax-Exempt Financing for Public Schools" (John Kennedy); (3) "Help Us Rebuild America" (Michael Roman); (4) "Case…

  8. What Symbionts Teach us about Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Porcar, Manuel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of Synthetic Biology (SB) is to apply engineering principles to biotechnology in order to make life easier to engineer. These engineering principles include modularity: decoupling of complex systems into smaller, orthogonal sub-systems that can be used in a range of different applications. The successful use of modules in engineering is expected to be reproduced in synthetic biological systems. But the difficulties experienced up to date with SB approaches question the short-term feasibility of designing life. Considering the “engineerable” nature of life, here we discuss the existence of modularity in natural living systems, particularly in symbiotic interactions, and compare the behavior of such systems, with those of engineered modules. We conclude that not only is modularity present but it is also common among living structures, and that symbioses are a new example of module-like sub-systems having high similarity with modularly designed ones. However, we also detect and stress fundamental differences between man-made and biological modules. Both similarities and differences should be taken into account in order to adapt SB design to biological laws. PMID:25023877

  9. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.103 Modular contracting. (a) This section implements Section 5202, Incremental Acquisition of Information Technology, of the Clinger-Cohen... technology. Consistent with the agency's information technology architecture, agencies should, to the...

  10. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  11. Written Reformulation in a Modular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flottum, Kjersti

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between form and use of the reformulation sequence signalled by "c'est-a-dire" in written French and describes this sequence's various functions. The article attempts to show how a modular approach consisting of structural, semantic, pragmatic, and textual components contributes to a new and accurate description of…

  12. Design of a modular digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A design tradeoff study is reported for a modular spaceborne computer system that is responsive to many mission types and phases. The computer uses redundancy to maximize reliability, and multiprocessing to maximize processing capacity. Fault detection and recovery features provide optimal reliability.

  13. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  14. Modular Building Institute 1999 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Many articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Hightstown High School"; (2) "St. Pius X Parish, Vancouver BC"; (3) "Forrest Street Elementary School"; (4) "Kingman Academy of Learning"; (5) "Women Christian…

  15. Modular Systems Theory and Design Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-07

    interdisciplinary dlesign. Hlowever, many sub- systems and some simple large scale systems like heat exchangers 111 can be ultimately modular when...we are given tl~e independent variable X which gi- ves the potints it time or space or thto nutmber In it sequence of obser- 1 vations, etc.; anti, If

  16. A Modular Curriculum in Information Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, J. A.

    Prepared under a contract between UNESCO and IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations), this modular curriculum is intended as a resource from which curricula can be constructed by individual departments of information studies to meet local needs and circumstances. Following an introductory discussion and explanation of the…

  17. Modular Building Institute 2001 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "An Architect's Perspective: Convincing a Skeptic" (Robert M. Iamello); (2) "66 Portables for San Mateo High" (Steven Williams); (3) "Case Study: Charter Schools"…

  18. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CUNNINGHAM, L.T.

    1999-09-27

    This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2.

  19. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  20. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  1. Design of a modular digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A Central Control Element (CCE) module which controls the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular System (ARMS) and allows both redundant processing and multi-computing in the same computer with real time mode switching, is discussed. The same hardware is used for either reliability enhancement, speed enhancement, or for a combination of both.

  2. Diffraction pattern from thermal neutron incoherent elastic scattering and the holographic reconstruction of the coherent scattering length distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sur, B.; Anghel, V.N.P.; Rogge, R.B.; Katsaras, J.

    2005-01-01

    The diffraction of spherical waves (S waves) interacting with a periodic scattering length distribution produces characteristic intensity patterns known as Kossel and Kikuchi lines (collectively called K lines). The K-line signal can be inverted to give the three-dimensional structure of the coherent scattering length distribution surrounding the source of S waves - a process known as 'Gabor holography' or, simply, 'holography'. This paper outlines a kinematical formulation for the diffraction pattern of monochromatic plane waves scattering from a mixed incoherent and coherent S-wave scattering length distribution. The formulation demonstrates that the diffraction pattern of plane waves incident on a sample with a uniformly random distribution of incoherent scatterers is the same as that from a sample with a single incoherent scatterer per unit cell. In practice, one can therefore reconstruct the holographic data from samples with numerous incoherent S-wave scatterers per unit cell. Thus atomic resolution thermal neutron holography is possible for materials naturally rich in incoherent thermal neutron scatterers, such as hydrogen (e.g., biological and polymeric materials). Additionally, holographic inversions from single-wavelength data have suffered from the so-called conjugate or twin-image problem. The formulation presented for holographic inversion - different from those used previously [e.g., T. Gog et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3132 (1996)] - eliminates the twin-image problem for single-wavelength data.

  3. Conceptual Incoherence as a Result of the use of Multiple Historical Models in School Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, Niklas M.; Hagberg, Mariana

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores the occurrence of conceptual incoherence in upper secondary school textbooks resulting from the use of multiple historical models. Swedish biology and chemistry textbooks, as well as a selection of books from English speaking countries, were examined. The purpose of the study was to identify which models are used to represent the phenomenon of gene function in textbooks and to investigate how these models relate to historical scientific models and subject matter contexts. Models constructed for specific use in textbooks were identified using concept mapping. The data were further analyzed by content analysis. The study shows that several different historical models are used in parallel in textbooks to describe gene function. Certain historical models were used more often then others and the most recent scientific views were rarely referred to in the textbooks. Hybrid models were used frequently, i.e. most of the models in the textbooks consisted of a number of components of several historical models. Since the various historical models were developed as part of different scientific frameworks, hybrid models exhibit conceptual incoherence, which may be a source of confusion for students. Furthermore, the use of different historical models was linked to particular subject contexts in the textbooks studied. The results from Swedish and international textbooks were similar, indicating the general applicability of our conclusions.

  4. Transition from coherent to incoherent acceleration of nonthermal relativistic electron induced by an intense light pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. L.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T.; Chen, S. H.

    2017-03-01

    Nonthermal acceleration of relativistic electrons due to the wakefield induced by an intense light pulse is investigated. The spectra of the cosmic rays are well represented by power-law. Wakefield acceleration has been considered as a candidate for the origins of cosmic rays. The wakefield can be excited by an intense laser pulse as large-amplitude precursor waves in collisionless shocks in the universe. National Central University (NCU) 100-TW laser facility in Taiwan is able to provide high-repetition rate and short intense laser. To experimentally study the wakefield acceleration for the spectrum of the cosmic rays, particle-in-cell simulations are performed to calculate the energy distribution functions of electrons in fixed laser conditions with various plasma densities. The transitions of wakefields from coherent to inherent are observed as the plasma density increases. The distribution functions indicate that the smooth nonthermal power-law spectra with an index of -2 appear when the incoherent wakefields are excited. In contrast, the mono-peak appear in the spectra when the coherent wakefields are excited. The incoherent wakefields yielding the power-law spectra imply the stochastic accelerating of electrons. To explain the universal nonthermal power-law spectra with an index of -2, we described and extended the stochastic acceleration model based on Fokker-Planck equation by assuming the transition rate as an exponential function.

  5. Circuit theory of multiple Andreev reflections in diffusive SNS junctions: The incoherent case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglyi, E. V.; Bratus', E. N.; Shumeiko, V. S.; Wendin, G.; Takayanagi, H.

    2000-12-01

    The incoherent regime of multiple Andreev reflections (MAR) is studied in long diffusive SNS junctions at applied voltages larger than the Thouless energy. Incoherent MAR are treated as a transport problem in energy space by means of a circuit theory for an equivalent electrical network. The current through NS interfaces is explained in terms of diffusion flows of electrons and holes through ``tunnel'' and ``Andreev'' resistors. These resistors in diffusive junctions play roles analogous to the normal and Andreev reflection coefficients in Octavio-Tinkham-Blonder-Klapwijk theory for ballistic junctions. The theory is applied to the subharmonic gap structure (SGS); simple analytical results are obtained for the distribution function and current spectral density for the limiting cases of resistive and transparent NS interfaces. In the general case, the exact solution is found in terms of chain fractions, and the current is calculated numerically. SGS shows qualitatively different behavior for even and odd subharmonic numbers n=2Δ/eV, and the maximum slopes of the differential resistance correspond to the gap subharmonics, eV=2Δ/n. The influence of inelastic scattering on the subgap anomalies of the differential resistance is analyzed.

  6. Incoherent stress-mediated magnetization reversal in shape anisotropic multiferroic nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Al-Rashid, Md Mamun; Sampath, Vimal; D'Souza, Noel; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    Strain mediated switching of multiferroic nanomagnets promises to be extremely energy efficient with dissipation per switching event of ~1 aJ[ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. Most theoretical approaches to studying the switching dynamics use the macrospin approximation in which all the spins in the nanomagnet are assumed to rotate coherently. However, recent experiments show that while initial and final states are well approximated by this single domain assumption, intermediate states visited during the magnetization rotation process cannot be described by it. In such cases, an interplay between the exchange, magnetostatic and stress anisotropy energies can introduce incoherent magnetization dynamics. Hence, intermediate micromagnetic configurations such as vortex states can be stabilized, particularly in nanomagnets of larger dimensions. In this work, we present rigorous micromagnetic simulations to study the peculiarities of the incoherent switching process in the context of shape anisotropic nanomagnets subjected to stress. 1.Appl. Phys. Lett., 97, 173105, 2010. 2.Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 063108, 2011. 3.Nanotechnology, 23, 105201, 2012. This work is supported by NSF under grant CAREER grant CCF-1253370.

  7. ARTIFICIAL INCOHERENT SPECKLES ENABLE PRECISION ASTROMETRY AND PHOTOMETRY IN HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, N.; Guyon, O.; Pathak, P.; Kudo, T.; Martinache, F.; Hagelberg, J.

    2015-11-10

    State-of-the-art coronagraphs employed on extreme adaptive optics enabled instruments are constantly improving the contrast detection limit for companions at ever-closer separations from the host star. In order to constrain their properties and, ultimately, compositions, it is important to precisely determine orbital parameters and contrasts with respect to the stars they orbit. This can be difficult in the post-coronagraphic image plane, as by definition the central star has been occulted by the coronagraph. We demonstrate the flexibility of utilizing the deformable mirror in the adaptive optics system of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system to generate a field of speckles for the purposes of calibration. Speckles can be placed up to 22.5 λ/D from the star, with any position angle, brightness, and abundance required. Most importantly, we show that a fast modulation of the added speckle phase, between 0 and π, during a long science integration renders these speckles effectively incoherent with the underlying halo. We quantitatively show for the first time that this incoherence, in turn, increases the robustness and stability of the adaptive speckles, which will improve the precision of astrometric and photometric calibration procedures. This technique will be valuable for high-contrast imaging observations with imagers and integral field spectrographs alike.

  8. A novel semiconductor-based, fully incoherent amplified spontaneous emission light source for ghost imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Initially, ghost imaging (GI) was demonstrated with entangled light from parametric down conversion. Later, classical light sources were introduced with the development of thermal light GI concepts. State-of-the-art classical GI light sources rely either on complex combinations of coherent light with spatially randomizing optical elements or on incoherent lamps with monochromating optics, however suffering strong losses of efficiency and directionality. Here, a broad-area superluminescent diode is proposed as a new light source for classical ghost imaging. The coherence behavior of this spectrally broadband emitting opto-electronic light source is investigated in detail. An interferometric two-photon detection technique is exploited in order to resolve the ultra-short correlation timescales. We thereby quantify the coherence time, the photon statistics as well as the number of spatial modes unveiling a complete incoherent light behavior. With a one-dimensional proof-of-principle GI experiment, we introduce these compact emitters to the field which could be beneficial for high-speed GI systems as well as for long range GI sensing in future applications. PMID:28150737

  9. Femtowatt incoherent image conversion from mid-infrared light to near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Nan; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Zhaolu; Han, Jing; Zhang, Shuan

    2017-03-01

    We report on the experimental conversion imaging of an incoherent continuous-wave dim source from mid-infrared light to near-infrared light with a lowest input power of 31 femtowatt (fW). Incoherent mid-infrared images of light emission from a heat lamp bulb with an adjustable power supply at window wavelengths ranging from 2.9 µm to 3.5 µm are used for upconversion. The sum-frequency generation is realized in a laser cavity with the resonant wavelength of 1064 nm pumped by an LD at 806 nm built around a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. The converted infrared image in the wavelength range ~785 nm with a resolution of about 120  ×  70 is low-noise detected using a silicon-based camera. By optimizing the system parameters, the upconversion quantum efficiency is predicted to be 28% for correctly polarized, on-axis and phase-matching light.

  10. From coherent shocklets to giant collective incoherent shock waves in nonlocal turbulent flows

    PubMed Central

    Xu, G.; Vocke, D.; Faccio, D.; Garnier, J.; Roger, T.; Trillo, S.; Picozzi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding turbulent flows arising from random dispersive waves that interact strongly through nonlinearities is a challenging issue in physics. Here we report the observation of a characteristic transition: strengthening the nonlocal character of the nonlinear response drives the system from a fully turbulent regime, featuring a sea of coherent small-scale dispersive shock waves (shocklets) towards the unexpected emergence of a giant collective incoherent shock wave. The front of such global incoherent shock carries most of the stochastic fluctuations and is responsible for a peculiar folding of the local spectrum. Nonlinear optics experiments performed in a solution of graphene nano-flakes clearly highlight this remarkable transition. Our observations shed new light on the role of long-range interactions in strongly nonlinear wave systems operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium, which reveals analogies with, for example, gravitational systems, and establishes a new scenario that can be common to many turbulent flows in photonic quantum fluids, hydrodynamics and Bose–Einstein condensates. PMID:26348292

  11. A novel semiconductor-based, fully incoherent amplified spontaneous emission light source for ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Initially, ghost imaging (GI) was demonstrated with entangled light from parametric down conversion. Later, classical light sources were introduced with the development of thermal light GI concepts. State-of-the-art classical GI light sources rely either on complex combinations of coherent light with spatially randomizing optical elements or on incoherent lamps with monochromating optics, however suffering strong losses of efficiency and directionality. Here, a broad-area superluminescent diode is proposed as a new light source for classical ghost imaging. The coherence behavior of this spectrally broadband emitting opto-electronic light source is investigated in detail. An interferometric two-photon detection technique is exploited in order to resolve the ultra-short correlation timescales. We thereby quantify the coherence time, the photon statistics as well as the number of spatial modes unveiling a complete incoherent light behavior. With a one-dimensional proof-of-principle GI experiment, we introduce these compact emitters to the field which could be beneficial for high-speed GI systems as well as for long range GI sensing in future applications.

  12. A novel semiconductor-based, fully incoherent amplified spontaneous emission light source for ghost imaging.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2017-02-02

    Initially, ghost imaging (GI) was demonstrated with entangled light from parametric down conversion. Later, classical light sources were introduced with the development of thermal light GI concepts. State-of-the-art classical GI light sources rely either on complex combinations of coherent light with spatially randomizing optical elements or on incoherent lamps with monochromating optics, however suffering strong losses of efficiency and directionality. Here, a broad-area superluminescent diode is proposed as a new light source for classical ghost imaging. The coherence behavior of this spectrally broadband emitting opto-electronic light source is investigated in detail. An interferometric two-photon detection technique is exploited in order to resolve the ultra-short correlation timescales. We thereby quantify the coherence time, the photon statistics as well as the number of spatial modes unveiling a complete incoherent light behavior. With a one-dimensional proof-of-principle GI experiment, we introduce these compact emitters to the field which could be beneficial for high-speed GI systems as well as for long range GI sensing in future applications.

  13. Coherent and incoherent scatter radar observations during intense mid-latitude spread F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Wesley E.; Kelley, Michael C.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Collins, Stephen C.; Kudeki, Erhan; Franke, Steve; Urbina, Julio; Aponte, Nestor; Sulzer, Michael P.; González, Sixto A.

    2000-09-01

    An intense mid-latitude spread-F event occurred over Puerto Rico during the night of February 17, 1998. Simultaneous observations were made with the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) located near Isabela, PR, the University of Illinois VHF radar located at Salinas, PR, GPS receivers at Isabela and St. Croix, measuring total electron content, the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar, and the Cornell All-Sky imager located at the Arecibo Observatory. This was the first time that such a broad range of complementary instrumentation captured a mid-latitude spread-F space weather event. It was the first (and still only) time that a spread-F event over the Caribbean exhibited large Doppler shifts in the VHF spectra. This event was characterized with multiple filaments that initially produced receding Doppler velocities exceeding 300 m/s as seen by CUPRI and the Illinois radar. The Arecibo incoherent scatter radar recorded line-of-sight velocities exceeding 100 m/s that moved the F-layer peak to over 400-km altitude. Airglow images of 630.0 nm emissions from F-region heights showed depleted structures oriented southeast to northwest. The large velocities observed with the radars suggest that we caught this event in a stage of explosive development. It is interesting that the first fully documented Caribbean event occurred during a magnetically active period.

  14. On the classification of weakly integral modular categories

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Galindo, César; Ng, Siu-Hung; Plavnik, Julia Y.; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we classify all modular categories of dimension 4m, where m is an odd square-free integer, and all rank 6 and rank 7 weakly integral modular categories. This completes the classification of weakly integral modular categories through rank 7. In particular, our results imply that all integral modular categories of rank at most 7 are pointed (that is, every simple object has dimension 1). All the non-integral (but weakly integral) modular categories of ranks 6 and 7 have dimension 4m, with m an odd square free integer, so their classification is an application of our main result. The classification of rank 7 integral modular categories is facilitated by an analysis of the two group actions on modular categories: the Galois group of the field generated by the entries of the S-matrix and the group of invertible isomorphism classes of objects. We derive some valuable arithmetic consequences from these actions.

  15. Implicit Contractive Mappings in Modular Metric and Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, N.; Salimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of modular metric spaces being a natural generalization of classical modulars over linear spaces like Lebesgue, Orlicz, Musielak-Orlicz, Lorentz, Orlicz-Lorentz, and Calderon-Lozanovskii spaces was recently introduced. In this paper we investigate the existence of fixed points of generalized α-admissible modular contractive mappings in modular metric spaces. As applications, we derive some new fixed point theorems in partially ordered modular metric spaces, Suzuki type fixed point theorems in modular metric spaces and new fixed point theorems for integral contractions. In last section, we develop an important relation between fuzzy metric and modular metric and deduce certain new fixed point results in triangular fuzzy metric spaces. Moreover, some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results. PMID:25003157

  16. ARPES lineshapes, coherent to incoherent ratios, and the waterfall self-energy of Bi2212 cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Sun, Zhe; Das, Tanmoy; Balatsky, Alexander; Rotenberg, Eli; Berger, Helmuth; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Aiura, Yoshihiro; Dessau, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    We report a detailed lineshape analysis of ARPES data on Bi2212 in which we separate out the sharp coherent peaks from the higher energy incoherent ``background'' portions, which includes and makes up the famous waterfall regions. We find that the ratio of the incoherent to coherent weights scales quadratically with the peak energy of the coherent portion of the spectra over a very wide energy range. We show that this behavior, including the waterfalls, can be understood with a simple model electron self-energy, giving a new and powerful experimental tool for determining self-energy effects in correlated electron systems.

  17. Influence of Fano interference and incoherent processes on optical bistability in a four-level quantum dot nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyyed, Hossein Asadpour; G, Solookinejad; M, Panahi; E Ahmadi, Sangachin

    2016-03-01

    Role of Fano interference and incoherent pumping field on optical bistability in a four-level designed InGaN/GaN quantum dot nanostructure embedded in a unidirectional ring cavity are analyzed. It is found that intensity threshold of optical bistability can be manipulated by Fano interference. It is shown that incoherent pumping fields make the threshold of optical bistability behave differently by Fano interference. Moreover, in the presence of Fano interference the medium becomes phase-dependent. Therefore, the relative phase of applied fields can affect the behaviors of optical bistability and intensity threshold can be controlled easily.

  18. Robust and fault tolerant control of modular and reconfigurable robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, Sajan

    Modular and reconfigurable robot has been one of the main areas of robotics research in recent years due to its wide range of applications, especially in aerospace sector. Dynamic control of manipulators can be performed using joint torque sensing with little information of the link dynamics. From the modular robot perspective, this advantage offered by the torque sensor can be taken to enhance the modularity of the control system. Known modular robots though boast novel and diverse mechanical design on joint modules in one way or another, they still require the whole robot dynamic model for motion control, and modularity offered in the mechanical side does not offer any advantage in the control design. In this work, a modular distributed control technique is formulated for modular and reconfigurable robots that can instantly adapt to robot reconfigurations. Under this control methodology, a modular and reconfigurable robot is stabilized joint by joint, and modules can be added or removed without the need of re-tuning the controller. Model uncertainties associated with load and links are compensated by the use of joint torque sensors. Other model uncertainties at each joint module are compensated by a decomposition based robust controller for each module. The proposed distributed control technique offers a 'modular' approach, featuring a unique joint-by-joint control synthesis of the joint modules. Fault tolerance and fault detection are formulated as a decentralized control problem for modular and reconfigurable robots in this thesis work. The modularity of the system is exploited to derive a strategy dependent only on a single joint module, while eliminating the need for the motion states of other joint modules. While the traditional fault tolerant and detection schemes are suitable for robots with the whole dynamic model, this proposed technique is ideal for modular and reconfigurable robots because of its modular nature. The proposed methods have been

  19. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, W.E.; Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1988-10-25

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member. 41 figs.

  20. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, William E.; Kuban, Daniel P.; Martin, H. Lee

    1988-01-01

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member.

  1. Advanced high-performance computer system architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, V. I.

    2007-02-01

    Convergence of computer systems and communication technologies are moving to switched high-performance modular system architectures on the basis of high-speed switched interconnections. Multi-core processors become more perspective way to high-performance system, and traditional parallel bus system architectures (VME/VXI, cPCI/PXI) are moving to new higher speed serial switched interconnections. Fundamentals in system architecture development are compact modular component strategy, low-power processor, new serial high-speed interface chips on the board, and high-speed switched fabric for SAN architectures. Overview of advanced modular concepts and new international standards for development high-performance embedded and compact modular systems for real-time applications are described.

  2. A modular approach to adaptive structures.

    PubMed

    Pagitz, Markus; Pagitz, Manuel; Hühne, Christian

    2014-10-07

    A remarkable property of nastic, shape changing plants is their complete fusion between actuators and structure. This is achieved by combining a large number of cells whose geometry, internal pressures and material properties are optimized for a given set of target shapes and stiffness requirements. An advantage of such a fusion is that cell walls are prestressed by cell pressures which increases, decreases the overall structural stiffness, weight. Inspired by the nastic movement of plants, Pagitz et al (2012 Bioinspir. Biomim. 7) published a novel concept for pressure actuated cellular structures. This article extends previous work by introducing a modular approach to adaptive structures. An algorithm that breaks down any continuous target shapes into a small number of standardized modules is presented. Furthermore it is shown how cytoskeletons within each cell enhance the properties of adaptive modules. An adaptive passenger seat and an aircrafts leading, trailing edge is used to demonstrate the potential of a modular approach.

  3. Versatile microrobotics using simple modular subunits

    PubMed Central

    Cheang, U Kei; Meshkati, Farshad; Kim, Hoyeon; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Fu, Henry Chien; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-01-01

    The realization of reconfigurable modular microrobots could aid drug delivery and microsurgery by allowing a single system to navigate diverse environments and perform multiple tasks. So far, microrobotic systems are limited by insufficient versatility; for instance, helical shapes commonly used for magnetic swimmers cannot effectively assemble and disassemble into different size and shapes. Here by using microswimmers with simple geometries constructed of spherical particles, we show how magnetohydrodynamics can be used to assemble and disassemble modular microrobots with different physical characteristics. We develop a mechanistic physical model that we use to improve assembly strategies. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically changing the physical properties of microswimmers through assembly and disassembly in a controlled fluidic environment. Finally, we show that different configurations have different swimming properties by examining swimming speed dependence on configuration size. PMID:27464852

  4. Modular organization of axial microcircuits in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bagnall, Martha W.; McLean, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion requires precise control of spinal networks. In tetrapods and bipeds, dynamic regulation of locomotion is simplified by the modular organization of spinal limb circuits, but it is not known whether their predecessors, fish axial circuits, are similarly organized. Here, we demonstrate that the larval zebrafish spinal cord contains distinct, parallel microcircuits for independent control of dorsal and ventral musculature on each side of the body. During normal swimming, dorsal and ventral microcircuits are equally active; but during postural correction, fish differentially engage these microcircuits to generate torque for self-righting. These findings reveal greater complexity in the axial spinal networks responsible for swimming than previously recognized and suggest an early template of modular organization for more complex locomotor circuits in later vertebrates. PMID:24408436

  5. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  6. Modularity and community structure in networks

    PubMed Central

    Newman, M. E. J.

    2006-01-01

    Many networks of interest in the sciences, including social networks, computer networks, and metabolic and regulatory networks, are found to divide naturally into communities or modules. The problem of detecting and characterizing this community structure is one of the outstanding issues in the study of networked systems. One highly effective approach is the optimization of the quality function known as “modularity” over the possible divisions of a network. Here I show that the modularity can be expressed in terms of the eigenvectors of a characteristic matrix for the network, which I call the modularity matrix, and that this expression leads to a spectral algorithm for community detection that returns results of demonstrably higher quality than competing methods in shorter running times. I illustrate the method with applications to several published network data sets. PMID:16723398

  7. Implementing a modular system of computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1983-07-01

    A modular computation system has been developed for nuclear reactor core analysis. The codes can be applied repeatedly in blocks without extensive user input data, as needed for reactor history calculations. The primary control options over the calculational paths and task assignments within the codes are blocked separately from other instructions, admitting ready access by user input instruction or directions from automated procedures and promoting flexible and diverse applications at minimum application cost. Data interfacing is done under formal specifications with data files manipulated by an informed manager. This report emphasizes the system aspects and the development of useful capability, hopefully informative and useful to anyone developing a modular code system of much sophistication. Overall, this report in a general way summarizes the many factors and difficulties that are faced in making reactor core calculations, based on the experience of the authors. It provides the background on which work on HTGR reactor physics is being carried out.

  8. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  9. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  10. Stress promotes maleness in hermaphroditic modular animals

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R. N.; Manríquez, P. H.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Burrows, M. T.

    2003-01-01

    Sex-allocation theory developed for hermaphroditic plants predicts that impaired phenotype or reduced parental survivorship caused by environmental stress should induce relatively greater allocation to the male function. We provide experimental evidence of stress-induced maleness, already well documented in flowering plants, in a modular animal. By using cloned copies of replicate genotypes, we show that the marine bryozoan Celleporella hyalina increases the ratio of male to female modules in response to diverse environmental stressors. Mating trials confirmed that paternity is determined by fair-raffle sperm competition, which should obviate local mate competition at characteristic population density and promote the advantage of increased male allocation. The demonstrated similarity to plants transcends specific physiological pathways and suggests that stress-induced bias toward male function is a general response of hermaphroditic modular organisms to impaired prospects for parental productivity or survival. PMID:12930903

  11. Siberian company starts up modular refinery

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    Uraineftegas, a subsidiary of Russian oil giant Lukoil, has started up Siberia`s first modular crude distillation unit. The 2,000 b/d refinery was designed and manufactured by Ventech Engineers Inc., Pasadena, Tex. Uraineftegas is based in Urai, Siberia. Located in the Tyumen region on the Konda river, the remote town is accessible only by air and water. Most of Urai`s crude production--about 50,000 b/d, according to Ventech president Bill Stanley--is shipped by pipeline to the refining centers at Ufa and Omsk. Because there are no products pipelines in which to ship fuels back to Urai, the town needed a small refinery in order to produce its own fuels. This report briefly describes the design ad operation of these modular units. It describes construction techniques and temperature control equipment used to maintain an operational environment under severe winter weather.

  12. Modular, bluetooth enabled, wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) platform.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Joseph A; Witt, Tyler S; Beyette, Fred R

    2013-01-01

    A design for a modular, compact, and accurate wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) system is proposed. EEG is the only non-invasive measure for neuronal function of the brain. Using a number of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques, this neuronal function can be acquired and processed into meaningful representations of brain activity. The system described here utilizes Bluetooth to wirelessly transmit the digitized brain signal for an end application use. In this way, the system is portable, and modular in terms of the device to which it can interface. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) has become a popular extension of EEG systems in modern research. This design serves as a platform for applications using BCI capability.

  13. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John W.; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) missions have typically had three years between mission definition and launch. This short schedule has posed significant challenges with respect to solar array design and procurement. Typically, the solar panel geometry is frozen prior to going out with a procurement. However, with the SMEX schedule, it has been virtually impossible to freeze the geometry in time to avoid scheduling problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. A modular solar array architecture was developed to alleviate this problem. This approach involves procuring sufficient modules for multiple missions and assembling the modules onto a solar array framework that is unique to each mission. The modular approach removes the solar array from the critical path of the SMEX integration and testing schedule. It also reduces the cost per unit area of the solar arrays and facilitates the inclusion of experiments involving new solar cell or panel technologies in the SMEX missions.

  14. Modular quantum-information processing by dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Dissipation can be used as a resource to control and simulate quantum systems. We discuss a modular model based on fast dissipation capable of performing universal quantum computation, and simulating arbitrary Lindbladian dynamics. The model consists of a network of elementary dissipation-generated modules and it is in principle scalable. In particular, we demonstrate the ability to dissipatively prepare all single-qubit gates, and the controlled-not gate; prerequisites for universal quantum computing. We also show a way to implement a type of quantum memory in a dissipative environment, whereby we can arbitrarily control the loss in both coherence, and concurrence, over the evolution. Moreover, our dissipation-assisted modular construction exhibits a degree of inbuilt robustness to Hamiltonian and, indeed, Lindbladian errors, and as such is of potential practical relevance.

  15. Integrated modular propulsion for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, William; Crawford, Roger; Litchford, Ron

    1993-01-01

    The paper proposes a modular approach to rocket propulsion which offers a versatile method for realizing the goals of low cost, safety, reliability, and ease of operation. It is shown that, using practical modules made up of only 4-6 individual elements, it is possible to achieve thrust levels of 2-3 mln lbf and more, using turbomachinery, thrust chambers, lines, and valves about the size of SSME hardware. The approach is illustrated by a LOX/LH2 configuration.

  16. Modular Habitats Comprising Rigid and Inflatable Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2010-01-01

    Modular, lightweight, fully equipped buildings comprising hybrids of rigid and inflatable structures can be assembled on Earth and then transported to and deployed on the Moon for use as habitats. Modified versions of these buildings could also prove useful on Earth as shelters that can be rapidly and easily erected in emergency situations and/or extreme environments: examples include shelters for hurricane relief and for Antarctic exploration.

  17. Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert J.

    1996-12-03

    Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

  18. Bifurcated, modular syntheses of chiral annulet triazacyclononanes.

    PubMed

    Argouarch, Gilles; Stones, Graham; Gibson, Colin L; Kennedy, Alan R; Sherrington, David C

    2003-12-21

    Three chiral 2,6-disubstituted tri-N-methyl azamacrocycles have been prepared by modular methods. These macrocycles were accessed from three chiral 1,4,7-triazaheptanes intermediates that were prepared by two independent routes. The first of these routes involved the benzylamine opening of chiral tosyl aziridines followed by debenzylation but was problematic on solubility grounds. A second, more effective, route was developed which avoided debenzylation by using ammonia in the nucleophilic opening of chiral tosyl aziridines.

  19. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  20. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Ault, Earl R.; Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.