Science.gov

Sample records for advanced module design

  1. The Design and Implementation of NASA's Advanced Flight Computing Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkakaj, Leon; Straedy, Richard; Jarvis, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a working flight computer Multichip Module developed jointly by JPL and TRW under their respective research programs in a collaborative fashion. The MCM is fabricated by nCHIP and is packaged within a 2 by 4 inch Al package from Coors. This flight computer module is one of three modules under development by NASA's Advanced Flight Computer (AFC) program. Further development of the Mass Memory and the programmable I/O MCM modules will follow. The three building block modules will then be stacked into a 3D MCM configuration. The mass and volume of the flight computer MCM achieved at 89 grams and 1.5 cubic inches respectively, represent a major enabling technology for future deep space as well as commercial remote sensing applications.

  2. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This ACDR was performed following completed of the Conceptual Design Report in July 1992; the work encompassed August 1992 to January 1994. Mission of the WRAP Module 2A facility is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage at Hanford and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford from about DOE sites. This volume provides an introduction to the ACDR process and the scope of the task along with a project summary of the facility, treatment technologies, cost, and schedule. Major areas of departure from the CDR are highlighted. Descriptions of the facility layout and operations are included.

  3. CPV module design optimization for advanced multi-junction solar cell concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Marc; Kiefel, Peter; Siefer, Gerald; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Dimroth, Frank; Krause, Rainer; Gombert, Andreas; Bett, Andreas W.

    2015-09-01

    A network model for multi-junction solar cells has been combined with ray tracing and finite element simulations of a Fresnel lens in order to interpret experimentally derived measurement results. This combined model reveals a good agreement between simulation and measurement for advanced four-junction solar cells under a Fresnel lens when the cell-to-lens distance was varied. Thus, the effect of fill factor drop caused by distributed series resistance losses due to chromatic aberration is well described by this model. Eventually, this model is used to calculate I-V characteristics of a four-junction cell, as well as of a upright metamorphic and lattice-matched triple-junction solar cell under the illumination profile of a Fresnel lens. A significant fill factor drop at distinct cell-to-lens distances was found for all three investigated solar cell types. In this work we discuss how this fill factor drop can be avoided. It is shown that already a halving of the sheet resistance within one of the lateral conduction layer in the solar cell increases the module efficiency significantly.

  4. Recent advances in the analysis, design and optimization of Digital Delta-Sigma Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael Peter

    Digital Delta-Sigma Modulators (DDSMs) are almost univerally used in integrated circuits for wireless communications and digital audio, particularly in fractional-N frequency synthesizers and oversampled digital-to-analog converters (DACs). A DDSM is a nonlinear dynamical system which reduces the wordlength of an oversampled digital signal without significantly degrading the SNR in the signal band. DDSMs can exhibit a number of behaviors that are characteristic of nonlinear dynamical systems such as oscillation, coexisting steady-state solutions, sensitivity to initial conditions, and sensitivity to the input. This paper explains the root cause of deterministic spurious and idle tones in DDSMs—short periodic cycles—and describes strategies to eliminate them. The use of a DDSM simplifies the design of analog circuitry in a mixed-signal system. By reducing the bus width in a prescribed way, a DDSM can also permit more efficient downstream digital signal processing—in terms of power and speed—with negligible degradation in performance.

  5. Advanced module development overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smokler, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    Crystalline silicon solar power modules are examined for reliability and cost effectiveness. A goal of 12% solar energy conversion efficiency is considered feasible at a cost of 12/kWh, and a decision is made to limit consideration to float zone silicon wafer and dendritic web silicone modules. A preliminary module packaging configuration of glass/ethylene vinyl acetate/plastic film is selected. Anticipated module efficiency levels are 12.6% at 25 C and 11.5% at NOCT (Nominal Operating Cell Temperature).

  6. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  7. Rational Design of Advanced Photosensitizers Based on Orthogonal BODIPY Dimers to Finely Modulate Singlet Oxygen Generation.

    PubMed

    Epelde-Elezcano, Nerea; Palao, Eduardo; Manzano, Hegoi; Prieto-Castañeda, Alejandro; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Tabero, Andrea; Villanueva, Angeles; de la Moya, Santiago; López-Arbeloa, Íñigo; Martínez-Martínez, Virginia; Ortiz, María J

    2017-04-06

    The synthesis, photophysical characterization, and modeling of a new library of halogen-free photosensitizers (PS) based on orthogonal boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dimers are reported. Herein we establish key structural factors in order to enhance singlet oxygen generation by judiciously choosing the substitution patterns according to key electronic effects and synthetic accessibility factors. The photosensitization mechanism of orthogonal BODIPY dimers is demonstrated to be strongly related to their intrinsic intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character through the spin-orbit charge-transfer intersystem crossing (SOCT-ISC) mechanism. Thus, singlet oxygen generation can be effectively modulated through the solvent polarity and the presence of electron-donating or withdrawing groups in one of the BODIPY units. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity is demonstrated by in vitro experiments, showing that selected photosensitizers are efficiently internalized into HeLa cells, exhibiting low dark toxicity and high phototoxicity, even at low PS concentration (0.05-5×10(-6)  m).

  8. More training modules for an advanced interactive course on optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Brian; Malaka, Heidi

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain in more detail some of the ideas first presented at earlier Institute of Physics and S.P.I.E. conferences, and to give an update on the work that has been done by the authors and others to develop online tutorial materials, particularly for those who do not intend to specialise in optical design. The latest additions to these courses, involving real lens design and analysis tasks, are now available on the Ancient and Modern Optics web site in unrestricted download format.

  9. Research studies on advanced optical module/head designs for optical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James J.

    1991-01-01

    A summary is presented of research in optical data storage materials and of research at the center. The first section contains summary reports under the general headings of: (1) Magnetooptic media: modeling, design, fabrication, characterization, and testing; (2) Optical heads: holographic optical elements; and (3) Optical heads: integrated optics. The second section consist of a proposal entitled, Signal Processing Techniques for Optical Data Storage. And section three presents various publications prepared by the center.

  10. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Objective of this document is to provide descriptions of all WRAP 2A feed streams, including physical and chemical attributes, and describe the pathway that was used to select data for volume estimates. WRAP 2A is being designed for nonthermal treatment of contact-handled mixed low-level waste Category 1 and 3. It is based on immobilization and encapsulation treatment using grout or polymer.

  11. Research Studies on Advanced Optical Module/Head Designs for Optical Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Preprints are presented from the recent 1992 Optical Data Storage meeting in San Jose. The papers are divided into the following topical areas: Magneto-optical media (Modeling/design and fabrication/characterization/testing); Optical heads (holographic optical elements); and Optical heads (integrated optics). Some representative titles are as follow: Diffraction analysis and evaluation of several focus and track error detection schemes for magneto-optical disk systems; Proposal for massively parallel data storage system; Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems; Modeling and measurement of a micro-optic beam deflector; Oxidation processes in magneto-optic and related materials; and A modal analysis of lamellar diffraction gratings in conical mountings.

  12. Advanced Fuel-Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, William F., III; Martin, Ronald E.; Struning, Albin J.; Whitehill, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Modules designed for long life, light weight, reliability, and low cost. Stack of alkaline fuel cells based on modules, consisting of three fuel cells and cooler. Each cell includes following components: ribbed carbon fine-pore anode electrolyte-reservoir plate; platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode; potassium titanate matrix bonded with butyl rubber; gold-plated nickel-foil electrode substrates; and silver plated, gold-flashed molded polyphenylene sulfide cell holder. Each cell has active area of 1ft to the 2nd power (0.09 m to the 2nd power). Materials and configurations of parts chosen to extend life expectancy, reduce weight and manufacturing cost, and increase reliability.

  13. Siemens SOFC Test Article and Module Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, Joseph F.

    2011-03-31

    Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.

  14. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  15. Advanced infrared laser modulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, P. K.; Wagner, R.; Gilden, M.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to develop an electrooptic waveguide modulator for generating continuous tunable sideband power from an infrared CO2 laser. Parameters included were the waveguide configurations, microstrip dimensions device impedance, and effective dielectric constants. An optimum infrared laser modulator was established and was fabricated. This modulator represents the state-of-the-art integrated optical device, which has a three-dimensional topology to accommodate three lambda/4 step transformers for microwave impedance matching at both the input and output terminals. A flat frequency response of the device over 20 HGz or = 3 dB) was achieved. Maximum single sideband to carrier power greater than 1.2% for 20 W microwave input power at optical carrier wavelength of 10.6 microns was obtained.

  16. Optimized solar module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santala, T.; Sabol, R.; Carbajal, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The minimum cost per unit of power output from flat plate solar modules can most likely be achieved through efficient packaging of higher efficiency solar cells. This paper outlines a module optimization method which is broadly applicable, and illustrates the potential results achievable from a specific high efficiency tandem junction (TJ) cell. A mathematical model is used to assess the impact of various factors influencing the encapsulated cell and packing efficiency. The optimization of the packing efficiency is demonstrated. The effect of encapsulated cell and packing efficiency on the module add-on cost is shown in a nomograph form.

  17. Recent Advances in the Design and Development of Novel Negative Allosteric Modulators of mGlu5

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) have remained attractive to researchers as potential therapies for a number of central nervous system related diseases, including anxiety, pain, gastresophageal reflux disease (GERD), addiction, Parkinson’s disease (PD), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). In addition to the many publications with supportive preclinical data with key tool molecules, recent positive reports from the clinic have bolstered the confidence in this approach. During the 2 year time span from 2009 through 2010, a number of new mGlu5 NAM chemotypes have been disclosed and discussed in the primary and patent literature. A summary of several efforts representing many diverse chemotypes are presented here, along with a discussion of representative structure–activity relationships (SAR) and synthetic approaches to the templates where possible. PMID:21927649

  18. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  19. High Performance Composites. "Designed" Materials for the New Millennium. 2nd Module in a Series on Advanced Materials. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    1994-01-01

    This learning module on composites such as polymer matrix, metal matrix, ceramic matrix, particulate, and laminar includes a design brief giving context, objectives, evaluation, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)

  20. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  1. Advanced Modulation and Coding Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objectives, approach, and status of all current LeRC-sponsored industry contracts and university grants are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) the LeRC Space Communications Program, and Advanced Modulation and Coding Projects; (2) the status of four contracts for development of proof-of-concept modems; (3) modulation and coding work done under three university grants, two small business innovation research contracts, and two demonstration model hardware development contracts; and (4) technology needs and opportunities for future missions.

  2. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    The analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs for the development of photovoltaic modules is presented. Analytical models are developed to test optical, thermal, electrical and structural properties of the various encapsulation systems. Model data is compared to relevant test data to improve model accuracy and develop general principles for the design of photovoltaic modules.

  3. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  4. G2 Flywheel Module Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Ralph H.; Dever, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a flywheel module, designated the G2 module, is described. The G2 flywheel is a 60,000 RPM, 525 W-hr, 1 kW system designed for a laboratory environment; it will be used for component testing and system demonstrations, with the goal of applying flywheels to aerospace energy storage and integrated power and attitude control (IPACS) applications. G2 has a modular design, which allows for new motors, magnetic bearings, touchdown bearings, and rotors to be installed without a complete redesign of the system. This design process involves several engineering disciplines, and requirements are developed for the speed, energy storage, power level, and operating environment. The G2 rotor system consists of a multilayer carbon fiber rim with a titanium hub on which the other components mount, and rotordynamics analysis is conducted to ensure rigid and flexible rotor modes are controllable or outside of the operating speed range. Magnetic bearings are sized using 1-D magnetic circuit analysis and refined using 3-D finite element analysis. The G2 magnetic bearing system was designed by Texas A&M and has redundancy which allows derated operation after the loss of some components, and an existing liquid cooled two pole permanent magnet motor/generator is used. The touchdown bearing system is designed with a squeeze film damper system allowing spin down from full operating speed in case of a magnetic bearing failure. The G2 flywheel will enable module level demonstrations of component technology, and will be a key building block in system level attitude control and IPACS demonstrations.

  5. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    2013-01-01

    The layout of power modules is one of the key points in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, along with the design example, an automatic design processes by using a genetic algorithm are presented. Some practical considerations and implementations are introduced in the optimization of module layout design.

  6. High-speed multilevel phase/amplitude spatial light modulator advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauchert, Kipp A.; Serati, Steven A.

    1999-03-01

    Recent and near-term advancements in our multi-level (analog) phase/amplitude liquid crystal spatial light modulators will be presented. These advancements include higher resolution, smaller pixel pitch, planarized pixel pads, and higher speed modulation for phase-only, amplitude-only, and phase- amplitude-coupled modulation. These devices have applications in optical processing, optical storage, holographic display, and beam steering. Design criteria and experimental data will be presented.

  7. Advances in robust flight design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Kelvin K.; Dhand, Sanjeev K.

    1991-01-01

    Current launch vehicle trajectory design philosophies, generally based on maximizing payload capability, result in an expensive and time-consuming iteration in trajectory design for each mission. However, for a launch system that is not performance-driven, a flight design that is robust to variations in missions and provides single-engine-out capability can be highly cost-effective. This philosophy has led to the development of two flight design concepts to reduce recurring costs: standard trajectories and command multiplier steering. Preliminary analyses of these two concepts had proven the feasibility and showed encouraging results in applications to an Advanced Launch System vehicle. Recent progress has demonstrated the effective and efficient integration of the two concepts with minimal payload penalty.

  8. Design, fabrication and test of block 4 design solar cell modules. Part 2: Residential module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of the Block IV residential load module are reported. Design changes from the proposed module design through three iterations to the discontinuance of testing are outlined.

  9. Solar dynamic power module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, Richard R.; Labus, Thomas L.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Studies have shown that use of solar dynamic (SD) power for the growth eras of the Space Station Freedom program will result in life cycle cost savings when compared to power supplied by photovoltaic sources. In the SD power module, a concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver which has integral thermal energy storage. A power conversion unit (PCU) based on the closed Brayton thermodynamic cycle removes thermal energy from the receiver and converts that energy to electrical energy. Since the closed Brayton cycle is a single phase gas cycle, the conversion hardware (heat exchangers, turbine, compressor, etc.) can be designed for operation in low earth orbit, and tested with confidence in test facilities on earth before launch into space. The concentrator subassemblies will be aligned and the receiver/PCU/radiator combination completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling liquid on earth before launch to, and assembly on orbit.

  10. Design and fabrication of solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    A program conducted for design, fabrication and evaluation of twelve silicon solar cell modules is described. The purpose of the program was to develop a module design consistent with the requirements and objectives of JPL specification and to also incorporate elements of new technologies under development to meet LSSA Project goals. Module development emphasized preparation of a technically and economically competitive design based upon utilization of ion implanted solar cells and a glass encapsulation system. The modules fabricated, tested and delivered were of nominal 2 X 2 foot dimensions and 20 watt minimum rating. Basic design, design rationale, performance and results of environmental testing are described.

  11. Advances in Ureteral Stent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denstedt, John D.

    2007-04-01

    Ureteral stents are commonly used in urolithiasis patients for relief of obstruction or in association with stone treatments such as ureteroscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. There are currently many different bulk materials and coatings available for the manufacture of ureteral stents, however the ideal material has yet to be discovered. All potential biomaterials must undergo rigorous physical and biocompatibility testing before commercialization and use in humans. Despite significant advances in basic science research involving biocompatibility issues and biofilm formation, infection and encrustation remain associated with the use of biomaterials in the urinary tract. There have been many significant advances in the design of ureteral stents in recent years and these will be highlighted along with a discussion of future aspects of biomaterials and use of stents in association with urolithiasis.

  12. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  13. Basic avionics module design for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, R. K.; Smyth, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The design of an advanced digital avionics system (basic avionics module) for general aviation aircraft operated with a single pilot under IFR conditions is described. The microprocessor based system provided all avionic functions, including flight management, navigation, and lateral flight control. The mode selection was interactive with the pilot. The system used a navigation map data base to provide operation in the current and planned air traffic control environment. The system design included software design listings for some of the required modules. The distributed microcomputer uses the IEEE 488 bus for interconnecting the microcomputer and sensors.

  14. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1982-01-01

    An analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs was developed. From these methods design sensitivities are established for the development of photovoltaic module criteria and the definition of needed research tasks. Analytical models were developed to perform optical, thermal, electrical and analyses on candidate encapsulation systems. From these analyses several candidate systems were selected for qualification testing. Additionally, test specimens of various types are constructed and tested to determine the validity of the analysis methodology developed. Identified deficiencies and/or discrepancies between analytical models and relevant test data are corrected. Prediction capability of analytical models is improved. Encapsulation engineering generalities, principles, and design aids for photovoltaic module designers is generated.

  15. Silicon high speed modulator for advanced modulation: device structures and exemplary modulator performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milivojevic, Biljana; Wiese, Stefan; Whiteaway, James; Raabe, Christian; Shastri, Anujit; Webster, Mark; Metz, Peter; Sunder, Sanjay; Chattin, Bill; Anderson, Sean P.; Dama, Bipin; Shastri, Kal

    2014-03-01

    Fiber optics is well established today due to the high capacity and speed, unrivaled flexibility and quality of service. However, state of the art optical elements and components are hardly scalable in terms of cost and size required to achieve competitive port density and cost per bit. Next-generation high-speed coherent optical communication systems targeting a data rate of 100-Gb/s and beyond goes along with innovations in component and subsystem areas. Consequently, by leveraging the advanced silicon micro and nano-fabrication technologies, significant progress in developing CMOS platform-based silicon photonic devices has been made all over the world. These achievements include the demonstration of high-speed IQ modulators, which are important building blocks in coherent optical communication systems. In this paper, we demonstrate silicon photonic QPSK modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor structure, address different modulator configuration structures and report our progress and research associated with highspeed advanced optical modulation in silicon photonics

  16. Design and Analysis of Mirror Modules for IXO and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Powell, Cory; Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in X-ray astronomy demand thin, light, and closely packed thin optics which lend themselves to segmentation of the annular mirrors and, in turn, a modular approach to the mirror design. The functionality requirements of such a mirror module are well understood. A baseline modular concept for the proposed International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) consisting of 14,000 glass mirror segments divided into 60 modules was developed and extensively analyzed. Through this development, our understanding of module loads, mirror stress, thermal performance, and gravity distortion have greatly progressed. The latest progress in each of these areas is discussed herein. Gravity distortion during horizontal X-ray testing and on-orbit thermal performance have proved especially difficult design challenges. In light of these challenges, fundamental trades in modular X-ray mirror design have been performed. Future directions in module X-ray mirror design are explored including the development of a 1.8 m diameter FMA utilizing smaller mirror modules. The effect of module size on mirror stress, module self-weight distortion, thermal control, and range of segment sizes required is explored with advantages demonstrated from smaller module size in most cases.

  17. Encapsulated Thermoelectric Modules for Advanced Thermoelectric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Jinushi, Takahiro; Ishijima, Zenzo

    2014-06-01

    An encapsulated thermoelectric (TE) module consists of a vacuum-tight stainless-steel container in which an SiGe or BiTe TE module is encapsulated. This construction enables maximum performance and durability because: the thermal expansion mismatch between the hot and cold sides of the container can be accommodated by a sliding sheet in the container; the TE module inside is always kept in a vacuum environment, therefore no oxidation can occur; and the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the container reduces thermal contact resistance inside the container. Our encapsulated SiGe module features higher operating temperature—up to 650°C for both hot and cold sides. Other high-temperature modules and conventional BiTe modules, including both-sides and one-side skeleton types, have been encapsulated. Several variants of the encapsulated module are available. Encapsulated thermoelectric modules with integrated coolers contain cooling panels through which water can pass. If the module hot side is heated by a radiating heat source (radiation coupling) or convection of a hot gas or fluid (convection coupling), no pressing force on the module is necessary. It therefore features minimum contact resistance with the cooling duct, because no pressure is applied, maximum TE power, and minimum installation cost. Another, larger, variant is a quadruple flexible container in which four modules (each of maximum size 40 mm × 40 mm) are encapsulated. These encapsulated modules were used in a powder metallurgy furnace and were in use for more than 3000 h. Application to cryogenic temperatures simulating the liquid nitrogen gas vaporizer has been also attempted.

  18. ROMPS critical design review. Volume 2: Robot module design documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobbs, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    The robot module design documentation for the Remote Operated Materials Processing in Space (ROMPS) experiment is compiled. This volume presents the following information: robot module modifications; Easylab commands definitions and flowcharts; Easylab program definitions and flowcharts; robot module fault conditions and structure charts; and C-DOC flow structure and cross references.

  19. Designed Proteins To Modulate Cellular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cortajarena, Aitziber L.; Liu, Tina Y.; Hochstrasser, Mark; Regan, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge of protein design is to create useful new proteins that interact specifically with biological targets in living cells. Such binding modules have many potential applications, including the targeted perturbation of protein networks. As a general approach to create such modules, we designed a library with approximately 109 different binding specificities based on a small 3-tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif framework. We employed a novel strategy, based on split GFP reassembly, to screen the library for modules with the desired binding specificity. Using this approach, we identified modules that bind tightly and specifically to Dss1, a small human protein that interacts with the tumor suppressor protein BRCA2. We showed that these modules also bind the yeast homologue of Dss1, Sem1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these modules inhibit Sem1 activity in yeast. This strategy will be generally applicable to make novel genetically encoded tools for systems/synthetic biology applications. PMID:20020775

  20. Demonstration of transparent solar array module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the design, development, fabrication and testing of IR transparent solar array modules. Three modules, consisting of a baseline design using back surface reflector cells, and two modules using gridded back contact, IR transparent cells, were subjected to vacuum thermal balance testing to verify analytical predictions of lower operating emperature and increased efficiency. As a result of this test program, LMSC has verified that a significant degree of IR transparency can be designed into a flexible solar array. Test data correlates with both steady state and transient thermal analysis.

  1. Linear semiconductor optical amplifiers for amplification of advanced modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Bonk, R; Huber, G; Vallaitis, T; Koenig, S; Schmogrow, R; Hillerkuss, D; Brenot, R; Lelarge, F; Duan, G-H; Sygletos, S; Koos, C; Freude, W; Leuthold, J

    2012-04-23

    The capability of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) to amplify advanced optical modulation format signals is investigated. The input power dynamic range is studied and especially the impact of the SOA alpha factor is addressed. Our results show that the advantage of a lower alpha-factor SOA decreases for higher-order modulation formats. Experiments at 20 GBd BPSK, QPSK and 16QAM with two SOAs with different alpha factors are performed. Simulations for various modulation formats support the experimental findings.

  2. Modeling Tool Advances Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Continuum Dynamics Inc. (CDI), founded in 1979, specializes in advanced engineering services, including fluid dynamic modeling and analysis for aeronautics research. The company has completed a number of SBIR research projects with NASA, including early rotorcraft work done through Langley Research Center, but more recently, out of Ames Research Center. NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants on helicopter wake modeling resulted in the Comprehensive Hierarchical Aeromechanics Rotorcraft Model (CHARM), a tool for studying helicopter and tiltrotor unsteady free wake modeling, including distributed and integrated loads, and performance prediction. Application of the software code in a blade redesign program for Carson Helicopters, of Perkasie, Pennsylvania, increased the payload and cruise speeds of its S-61 helicopter. Follow-on development resulted in a $24 million revenue increase for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, of Stratford, Connecticut, as part of the company's rotor design efforts. Now under continuous development for more than 25 years, CHARM models the complete aerodynamics and dynamics of rotorcraft in general flight conditions. CHARM has been used to model a broad spectrum of rotorcraft attributes, including performance, blade loading, blade-vortex interaction noise, air flow fields, and hub loads. The highly accurate software is currently in use by all major rotorcraft manufacturers, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.

  3. Advanced Structural and Inflatable Hybrid Spacecraft Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Edeen, Gregg A. (Inventor); Kennedy, Kriss J. (Inventor); Lester, James D. (Inventor); Gupta, Shalini (Inventor); Hess, Linda F. (Inventor); Lin, Chin H. (Inventor); Malecki, Richard H. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An inflatable module comprising a structural core and an inflatable shell, wherein the inflatable shell is sealingly attached to the structural core. In its launch configuration, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is collapsed by vacuum. Also in this configuration, the inflatable shell is collapsed and efficiently folded around the structural core. Upon deployment, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is inflated; whereby the inflatable shell itself, is thereby inflated around the structural core, defining therein a large enclosed volume. A plurality of removable shelves are arranged interior to the structural core in the launch configuration. The structural core also includes at least one longeron that, in conjunction with the shelves, primarily constitute the rigid, strong, and lightweight load-bearing structure of the module during launch. The removable shelves are detachable from their arrangement in the launch configuration so that, when the module is in its deployed configuration and launch loads no longer exist, the shelves can be rearranged to provide a module interior arrangement suitable for human habitation and work. In the preferred embodiment, to provide efficiency in structural load paths and attachments, the shape of the inflatable shell is a cylinder with semi-toroidal ends.

  4. WRAP 2A advanced conceptual design report comments

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1994-10-04

    This report contains the compilation of the 393 comments that were submitted during the review of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A. The report was prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Englewood, Colorado for the United States Department of Energy. The review was performed by a variety of organizations identified in the report. The comments were addressed first by the Westinghouse cognizant engineers and then by the Raytheon cognizant engineers, and incorporated into the final issue of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report.

  5. Audible Noise Design of ISS Cargo Module "Cygnus"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Stefano; Paron, Alberto; Bandini, Flavio

    2014-06-01

    Orbital developed the Cygnus advanced manoeuvring spacecraft to demonstrate cargo delivery services under a NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Space Act Agreement.In addition to the COTS development and demonstration program, Orbital will utilize Cygnus to perform ISS resupply flights under the Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) contract.Starting in January 2014 Orbital launched its first of eight missions to deliver approximately 20,000 kilograms of cargo to the ISS (International Space Station). Cygnus will carry crew supplies, spares and scientific experiments to the ISS.Cygnus consists of a common service module and a pressurized cargo module. The pressurized cargo module is based on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), developed by Thales Alenia Space for NASA. Since Cygnus pressurized cargo module will host astronauts performing daily tasks, it is required to be compliant with NASA guidelines related to acoustic comfort (working areas noise not to exceed NC-50 requirement) and safety (caution and warning alarms audibility).The main source of noise inside Cygnus is the ventilation fan, which happens to be the same model already installed on the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) cargo module: however, the strategy adopted to limit its acoustic disturbance had to be differently tailored.This paper presents the activities (assumptions, design, characterization, testing) that led to define the type of noise control devices used on Cygnus, up to its first successful flight (module labelled "PCM0") to the ISS, where it reached 2nd place in the "quietest visiting modules" ranking.

  6. Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks

    SciTech Connect

    Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

  7. Advanced transport design using multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnum, Jennifer; Bathras, Curt; Beene, Kirk; Bush, Michael; Kaupin, Glenn; Lowe, Steve; Sobieski, Ian; Tingen, Kelly; Wells, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the first implementation of multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) techniques by undergraduates ina design course. The objective of the work was to design a civilian transport aircraft of the Boeing 777 class. The first half of the two semester design course consisted of application of traditional sizing methods and techniques to form a baseline aircraft. MDO techniques were then applied to this baseline design. This paper describes the evolution of the design with special emphasis on the application of MDO techniques, and presents the results of four iterations through the design space. Minimization of take-off gross weight was the goal of the optimization process. The resultant aircraft derived from the MDO procedure weighed approximately 13,382 lbs (2.57 percent) less than the baseline aircraft.

  8. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  9. Advanced Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.117.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and considers design and operation…

  10. Travel and Tourism Module. An Advanced-Level Option For Distribution and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Intended as an advanced option for distributive education students in the twelfth grade, this travel and tourism module is designed to cover a minimum of ten weeks or a maximum of twenty weeks. Introductory material includes information on employment demands, administrative considerations, course format, teaching suggestions, expected outcomes,…

  11. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Plant Floor Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Leii

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 16-hour introduction to plant floor operations. The guide is designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding the characteristics and components of personal computer (PC) networks; (2) computer networking…

  12. Advanced Beamline Design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  13. Advanced coding and modulation schemes for TDRSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrell, Linda; Kaplan, Ted; Berman, Ted; Chang, Susan

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the Ungerboeck and pragmatic 8-Phase Shift Key (PSK) Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) coding techniques with and without a (255,223) Reed-Solomon outer code as they are used for Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) S-Band and Ku-Band return services. The performance of these codes at high data rates is compared to uncoded Quadrature PSK (QPSK) and rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK in the presence of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), self-interference, and hardware distortions. This paper shows that the outer Reed-Solomon code is necessary to achieve a 10(exp -5) Bit Error Rate (BER) with an acceptable level of degradation in the presence of RFI. This paper also shows that the TCM codes with or without the Reed-Solomon outer code do not perform well in the presence of self-interference. In fact, the uncoded QPSK signal performs better than the TCM coded signal in the self-interference situation considered in this analysis. Finally, this paper shows that the E(sub b)/N(sub 0) degradation due to TDRSS hardware distortions is approximately 1.3 dB with a TCM coded signal or a rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK signal and is 3.2 dB with an uncoded QPSK signal.

  14. Advanced coding and modulation schemes for TDRSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Linda; Kaplan, Ted; Berman, Ted; Chang, Susan

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes the performance of the Ungerboeck and pragmatic 8-Phase Shift Key (PSK) Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) coding techniques with and without a (255,223) Reed-Solomon outer code as they are used for Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) S-Band and Ku-Band return services. The performance of these codes at high data rates is compared to uncoded Quadrature PSK (QPSK) and rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK in the presence of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), self-interference, and hardware distortions. This paper shows that the outer Reed-Solomon code is necessary to achieve a 10(exp -5) Bit Error Rate (BER) with an acceptable level of degradation in the presence of RFI. This paper also shows that the TCM codes with or without the Reed-Solomon outer code do not perform well in the presence of self-interference. In fact, the uncoded QPSK signal performs better than the TCM coded signal in the self-interference situation considered in this analysis. Finally, this paper shows that the E(sub b)/N(sub 0) degradation due to TDRSS hardware distortions is approximately 1.3 dB with a TCM coded signal or a rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK signal and is 3.2 dB with an uncoded QPSK signal.

  15. Advanced lightweight ceramic candle filter module

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.

    1992-11-01

    To determine the economic effect of light weight ceramics, several sizes of filters were cost estimated for operation at 217.5 psi (15 bar) based on the use of all light weight ceramics (Fibro/Fibro) vs. the use of cooled alloy (RA300) tubesheets and silicon carbide candles (Alloy/SiC). A jet pulse delivery system was included in both estimates. The Fibro/Fibro system was estimated with the plenum design while the Alloy/SiC system was based on header/nozzle design. Battery limits were the filters and jet pulse delivery systems, Ex-works, with no main valves or dust removal systems. It was found that the cost of Fibro/Fibro components were consistently lower than the cost of the Alloy/SiC components; this comparison is illustrated in Figure 8.

  16. Advanced lightweight ceramic candle filter module

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the economic effect of light weight ceramics, several sizes of filters were cost estimated for operation at 217.5 psi (15 bar) based on the use of all light weight ceramics (Fibro/Fibro) vs. the use of cooled alloy (RA300) tubesheets and silicon carbide candles (Alloy/SiC). A jet pulse delivery system was included in both estimates. The Fibro/Fibro system was estimated with the plenum design while the Alloy/SiC system was based on header/nozzle design. Battery limits were the filters and jet pulse delivery systems, Ex-works, with no main valves or dust removal systems. It was found that the cost of Fibro/Fibro components were consistently lower than the cost of the Alloy/SiC components; this comparison is illustrated in Figure 8.

  17. An Advanced Photovoltaic Array Regulator Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Unit (SCBU). The SCBU uses any isolating DC-DC converter and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBU topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 W/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBU technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBU makes an ideal photovoltaic an-ay regulator. A set of photovoltaic power system requirements are presented that can be applied to almost any low Earth orbit satellite. Finally, a modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  18. Designing Online Learning Modules in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlin, Brian K.; Weintraub, Randi J.; Breslin, Whitney; Carpenter, Katie C.; Strohacker, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Online-learning environment can substantially improve student learning and retention of key health concepts. In this case report, we describe our approach for the design of online learning modules to teach concepts in an undergraduate health science/kinesiology curriculum. This report describes our use of these concepts in two lower division and…

  19. Engineering Design Modules as Physics Teaching Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Douglas L.; Kane, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Pre-engineering is increasingly being taught as a high school subject. This development presents challenges as well as opportunities for the physics education community. If pre-engineering is taught as a separate class, it may divert resources and students from traditional physics classes. However, design modules can be used as physics teaching…

  20. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Don

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  1. Development and testing of advanced fire-resistant photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    The evaluation of back-surface materials flammability in order to identify fire resistant module designs is examined. The fire test apparatus, burning-brand test sequence, and spread-of-flame test sequence are described. Video recordings and time-temperature profiles of module back surfaces are utilized to study the flammability failure mechanism and identify high-temperature materials. A table of flammability test results for various module designs is provided. The data reveals that 2-mil kapton, fiberglass cloth coated or impregnated with a material to plug pores, and metal foil back-surface materials achieve class A and B fire-resistance levels, and are applicable for photovoltaic module designs.

  2. Ion Propulsion Module design and mission performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, J. E.; Boain, R. J.; Pawlik, E. V.; Pless, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design options, processes and tradeoffs that occur during the establishment of viable Ion Drive vehicle and mission designs. The options identify those internal vehicle design alternatives which are being considered for future Ion Drive missions, such as sunlight concentrating arrays and direct drive thrust subsystems, and their effect on mission performance. Also, the highly interactive nature of the Ion Drive design process, which occurs between the spacecraft and mission designers, is described. The results of design tradeoffs, performed for three Ion Drive comet rendezvous missions, are presented. These results include the following: (1) the power profile is determined primarily by the trajectory while second order effects include the solar cell characteristics and array concentration factor and degradation; and (2) the dominant parameter in mission performance determination, Ion Propulsion Module (IPM) mass, and IPM design, is the total cell power evaluated without concentration, at the beginning of life and at 1 AU.

  3. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, S. Alex; Bogacz, S.; Chevtsov, P.; Derbenev, Ya.; Evtushenko, P.; Krafft, G.; Hutton, A.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Sayed, H.; Qiang, J.

    2008-06-16

    A conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF with a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 has been proposed at JLab to fulfil science requirements. Here, we summarize design progress including collider ring and interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation. Electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, stacking of ion beams in an accumulator-cooler ring, beam-beam simulations and a faster kicker for the circulator electron cooler ring are also discussed.

  4. Microfiltration: Membrane development and module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesink, Hendrik Dirk Willem

    The development of a type of hydrophilic microfiltration membranes is described. Studies which may result in a design of microfiltration modules containing capillary membranes are presented. The membranes are prepared from a solution containing two polymers and are of flat or cylindrical geometry. Attention is focused an capillary membranes, which are tubular membranes of outer diameter 0.5 to 5 mm, prepared by means of a dry-wet spining process. Different flow conditions of the feed suspension in the modules are described. The most favorable configuration appears to be transverse flow. A model to calculate the pressure drop in the bore of the capillary membrane during filtration and backflushing is presented.

  5. High-concentration photovoltaic module design

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.L.; Stoddard, L.E.

    1986-08-01

    Over the past 3 years, Black and Veatch has been leading a team in the ongoing design of a high-concentration, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) module for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The current design consists of a deep-drawn aluminized steel housing containing 48 cell packages in a 4-row by 12-column matrix. Each cell package includes an anodized aluminum secondary optical element, a 27.5% efficient Stanford University/EPRI 500X concentration point contact silicon PV cell, an alumina substrate, and a copper heat spreader. Developmental efforts underway for a comolded glass/polymer Fresnel lens parquet indicate the potential for a substantial decrease in molding time and, thereby, cost, in comparison to more conventional compression molding of acrylic lenses. Further development is necessary to achieve comparable optical performance of the lens. Current activities have included the development of PVOPTICS, a Monte Carlo computer code particularly suited to the module optical design. The module is projected to produce 287 watts at an efficiency of 22%. The module cost, at large production rates, is estimated to be $275 ($0.96 per watt).

  6. Advances in Information Barrier Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R. B.; Frame, K. C.; Landry, R. P.; MacArthur, D. W.; Smith, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of an information barrier, or IB, has been widely discussed for a number of years. An IB is used in a measurement system that contains classified information to prevent the release (either intentional or inadvertent) of the classified information while still allowing an inspecting party to reach independent conclusions as to the contents of a storage container. Typically, an IB would be used in a measurement system regime that requires the owner of certain storage containers to declare the contents of the containers (in unclassified terms) and an inspecting party to confirm this declaration. The IB allows the owner's declaration to be confirmed without releasing any classified information to the inspecting party. Most IB design concepts are based on two attribute measruement systems (AMSs) that were built and demonstrated in the US in 1999 and 2000. These IBs relied heavily on simple hardware implementations and performed well in a 'one-time' demonstration mode. However, implementation of an AMS in a long-term verification regime will place a different set of requirements on the entire AMS system - and the IB, in particular. In this paper, they will concentrate on the effects of changing constraints on IB design, new IB concepts that have been developed since the earlier demonstrations, and design concepts that have been developed within a number of related verification regimes.

  7. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  8. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  9. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  10. FLIR Common Module Design Manual. Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    detailed cross section of the cooler module. The necessary compression and expansion of the gas are accomplished by an out-of-phase motion of...Description A cross - section of the cooler showing the internal configuration (except for the motor) is shown in Figure A-20...tion 3.0 which discusses design procedures and special system considerations. This section makes recommendations which should facilitate the

  11. Plant Growth Module (PGM) conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Rasmussen, Daryl

    1987-01-01

    The Plant Growth Module for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), designed to answer basic science questions related to growing plants in closed systems, is described functionally with artist's conception drawings. Subsystems are also described, including enclosure and access; data acquisition and control; gas monitor and control; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; air delivery; nutrient monitor and control; microbial monitoring and control; plant support and nutrient delivery; illumination; and internal operations. The hardware development plan is outlined.

  12. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  13. Designed TPR Modules as Novel Anticancer Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cortajarena,A.; Yi, F.; Regan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Molecules specifically designed to modulate protein-protein interactions have tremendous potential as novel therapeutic agents. One important anticancer target is the chaperone Hsp90, whose activity is essential for the folding of many oncogenic proteins, including HER2, IGFIR, AKT, RAF-1, and FLT-3. Here we report the design and characterization of new tetratricopeptide repeat modules, which bind to the C-terminus of Hsp90 with higher affinity and with greater specificity than natural Hsp90-binding co-chaperones. Thus, when these modules are introduced into the cell, they out-compete endogenous co-chaperones for binding, thereby inhibiting Hsp90 function. The effect of Hsp90 inhibition in this fashion is dramatic; HER2 levels are substantially decreased and BT474 HER2 positive breast cancer cells are killed. Our designs thus provide new tools with which to dissect the mechanism of Hsp90-mediated protein folding and also open the door to the development of an entirely new class of anticancer agents.

  14. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  15. Advanced Screencasting With Embedded Assessments in Pathophysiology and Therapeutics Course Modules

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Megan; Loeffler, William; Avery, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To implement and assess the effectiveness of a hybrid learning model using advanced screencasting with embedded assessments in pathophysiology and therapeutics modules. Design. Two pathophysiology and therapeutics course modules on viral hepatitis and the clinical pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides were chosen for study. The preclass portion of the hybrid model involved student completion of interactive e-lectures that were created with the use of advanced screencasting and included embedded assessments. Students viewed the e-lectures and completed the assessment questions prior to in-class lecture. Assessment. Preimplementation and postimplementation test scores were compared and student survey data were analyzed. Test scores improved significantly and students’ perceptions of the learning method were favorable. Test scores improved most significantly on higher-level Bloom’s taxonomy questions. Conclusion. A hybrid model that used advanced screencasting with embedded assessments offered a novel method to afford students active-learning opportunities to progress to higher cognitive domains of learning. PMID:25147400

  16. Highly Automated Module Production Incorporating Advanced Light Management

    SciTech Connect

    Perelli-Minetti, Michael; Roof, Kyle

    2015-08-11

    The objective was to enable a high volume, cost effective solution for increasing the amount of light captured by PV modules through utilization of an advanced Light Re-directing Film and to follow a phased approach to develop and implement this new technology in order to achieve an expected power gain of up to 12 watts per module. Full size PV modules were manufactured using a new Light Redirecting Film (LRF) material applied to two different areas of PV modules in order to increase the amount of light captured by the modules. One configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the tabbing ribbon on the cells in order to redirect the light that is normally absorbed by the tabbing ribbon to the active areas of the cells. A second configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the white spaces between cells within a module in order to capture some of the light that is normally reflected from the white areas back through the front glass of the modules. Significant power increases of 1.4% (3.9 watts) and 1.0% (3.2 watts), respectively, compared to standard PV modules were measured under standard test conditions. The performance of PV modules with LRF applied to the tabbing ribbon was modeled. The results showed that the power increase provided by LRF depended greatly on the angle of incident light with the optimum performance only occurring when the light was within a narrow range of being perpendicular to the solar module. The modeling showed that most of the performance gain would be lost when the angle of incident light was greater than 28 degrees off axis. This effect made the orientation of modules with LRF applied to tabbing ribbons very important as modules mounted in “portrait” mode were predicted to provide little to no power gain from LRF under real world conditions. Based on these results, modules with LRF on tabbing ribbons would have to be mounted in “landscape” mode to realize a performance advantage. In addition

  17. Advanced design concepts for shuttle airframe structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.; Davis, J. G., Jr.; Shideler, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development of weight-saving advanced design concepts for shuttle airframe structure is presented. Design concepts under investigation employ selective composite reinforcement and/or efficient geometric arrangements. An effort to develop metallic panel designs which exploit the relaxation of smooth external-surface requirements for skin structure is reviewed. Available highlights from research and development studies which investigate the application of composite reinforcement to the design of two types of fuselage panels, a shear web, a large fuselage frame, and a landing-gear-door assembly are presented. Preliminary results from these studies suggest weight savings of 25 percent can be obtained.

  18. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  19. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P; Sherwin, R

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  20. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P.; Sherwin, R.

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  1. Simulator design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    This simulation design task completion report documents the simulation techniques associated with the network models of both the Interim Service ISDN (integrated services digital network) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures. The ISIS network model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communication satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete events simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  2. 50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

  3. Interactive Web-based Learning Modules Prior to General Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Alison M.; Nisly, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement and evaluate interactive web-based learning modules prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on inpatient general medicine. Design. Three clinical web-based learning modules were developed for use prior to APPEs in 4 health care systems. The aim of the interactive modules was to strengthen baseline clinical knowledge before the APPE to enable the application of learned material through the delivery of patient care. Assessment. For the primary endpoint, postassessment scores increased overall and for each individual module compared to preassessment scores. Postassessment scores were similar among the health care systems. The survey demonstrated positive student perceptions of this learning experience. Conclusion. Prior to inpatient general medicine APPEs, web-based learning enabled the standardization and assessment of baseline student knowledge across 4 health care systems. PMID:25995515

  4. Technical Workshop: Advanced Helicopter Cockpit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemingway, J. C. (Editor); Callas, G. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Information processing demands on both civilian and military aircrews have increased enormously as rotorcraft have come to be used for adverse weather, day/night, and remote area missions. Applied psychology, engineering, or operational research for future helicopter cockpit design criteria were identified. Three areas were addressed: (1) operational requirements, (2) advanced avionics, and (3) man-system integration.

  5. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  6. New engine and advanced component design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on new engine and advance component design. Topics covered include: development of low emission high performance four valve engines, the effect of engine build options on powerplant inertias, silicon nitride turbocharger rotor for high performance automotive engines and development of Toyota reflex Burn (TRB) system in DI diesel.

  7. MMI based Electro-Absorption Modulator Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, A.; Sikorski, Y.

    2007-05-01

    Electro-Absorption Modulators (EAM) are among the most important components of high-speed WDM optical communications devices and systems. During the last decade, multiple EAM designs were proposed and fabricated as stand alone devices, as part of Electro-Absorption Modulated Lasers (EML), and as part of multi component Planar Lightguide Circuits (PLC). Vast majority of all designed and fabricated EAMs employ a straight section of single mode waveguide. In this work, we present a new approach for EAM design which is based on the use of 1*1 Multimode Interference structure (MMI). We demonstrate improvements in the extinction ratio of the EAM based on a combination of electro-absorption and optical interference effects in the MMI structure. The increase in extinction ratio is not accompanied by an increase in insertion loss or chirp, nor does it lead to higher drive voltage or lower bandwidth. The MMI based EAM devices can be easily fabricated using current InP based fabrication technologies and, in-fact, allow for less stringent tolerance requirements than currently used for traditional EAM devices. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.P1.4

  8. Digital optical module design for PINGU

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Perry; Collaboration: IceCube-PINGU Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU) will require optical sensors with similar performance as the digital optical modules (DOMs) of IceCube, but implemented in a higher-density array. A new design for the PINGU DOM (PDOM) is being pursued that retains the proven mechanical elements of the IceCube DOM, yet takes advantage of recently commercialized high-speed digitizer technology. The main features of the proposed PDOM electronics are discussed, along with status and plans for development. Proposed modifications to the IceCube string architecture that will accommodate the smaller vertical PDOM spacing are presented.

  9. The Advanced Design Program at Penn State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Roger C.; Melton, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program (ADP) instituted by Penn State for students in space-related fields. ADP class instruction is structured in such a way as to simulate the working environment in which design engineers from different disciplines must interact, at various levels, in the course of defining a spacecraft-related system. Student groups are assigned a mission objective, for which they are to complete a preliminary design encompassing all aspects of the mission from launch to recovery. Two major writen reports are required from each group.

  10. [Advances of portable electrocardiogram monitor design].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shenping; Wang, Yinghai; Wu, Weirong; Deng, Lingli; Lu, Jidong

    2014-06-01

    Portable electrocardiogram monitor is an important equipment in the clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases due to its portable, real-time features. It has a broad application and development prospects in China. In the present review, previous researches on the portable electrocardiogram monitors have been arranged, analyzed and summarized. According to the characteristics of the electrocardiogram (ECG), this paper discusses the ergonomic design of the portable electrocardiogram monitor, including hardware and software. The circuit components and software modules were parsed from the ECG features and system functions. Finally, the development trend and reference are provided for the portable electrocardiogram monitors and for the subsequent research and product design.

  11. The design of repairable advanced composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the repair of advanced composite structures by mechanical fasteners or by adhesive bonding. It is shown that many of today's composite designs are unreasonably difficult to repair. Conversely, the knowledge to design repairable structures is already available, if only it is applied during the initial design stage. Bolted or riveted repairs require only the avoidance of extremely orthotropic composite fiber patterns; those near the quasi-isotropic layup are the most suitable. Mildly orthotropic fiber patterns are appropriate for structures in which there is a dominant load direction. Thick composite structures are shown to require bolted or riveted repairs while thin structures favor adhesively bonded permanent repairs, although provisions can be easily made for temporary mechanical repairs. The reasons why integrally stiffened cocured composite designs are usually impractical to repair are explained and alternative repairable design concepts are presented.

  12. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  13. Aerodynamics of the advanced launch system (ALS) propulsion and avionics (P/A) module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Stan; Savage, Dick

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and testing of candidate Advanced Launch System (ALS) Propulsion and Avionics (P/A) Module configurations. The P/A Module is a key element of future launch systems because it is essential to the recovery and reuse of high-value propulsion and avionics hardware. The ALS approach involves landing of first stage (booster) and/or second stage (core) P/A modules near the launch site to minimize logistics and refurbishment cost. The key issue addressed herein is the aerodynamic design of the P/A module, including the stability characteristics and the lift-to-drag (L/D) performance required to achieve the necessary landing guidance accuracy. The reference P/A module configuration was found to be statically stable for the desired flight regime, to provide adequate L/D for targeting, and to have effective modulation of the L/D performance using a body flap. The hypersonic aerodynamic trends for nose corner radius, boattail angle and body flap deflections were consistent with pretest predictions. However, the levels for the L/D and axial force for hypersonic Mach numbers were overpredicted by impact theories.

  14. On the design of pole modules for inverse systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyman, B. F.; Sain, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    When a linear dynamical system admits more than one inverse, it is known that the pole module of any inverse must contain, either as a submodule or as a factor module, a module of fixed poles isomorphic to the zero module of the original system. Design of the pole module for such an inverse system is resolved by introducing a variable pole module for the inverse, by determining necessary and sufficient conditions for a desired module to be a variable pole module, and by studying the manner in which the fixed and variable modules assemble into the pole module of the inverse. If the fixed and variable pole spectra are disjoint, the pole module of the inverse system is a direct sum of the fixed- and variable-pole modules; if not, procedures for addressing the Jordan structure are presented.

  15. Planck payload module design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riti, Jean-Bernard; Dubruel, Denis; Nadarassin, Madivanane; Martin, Philippe P.; Gavila, Emmanuel; Lasic, Thierry; de Chambure, Daniel; Guillaume, Bernard

    2003-03-01

    Planck associated to Herschel is one of the next ESA scientific missions. Both satellites will be launched in 2007 on a single ARIANE V launcher to the 2nd Lagrange libration point L2. Planck is a Principal Investigator Survey mission and the Planck spacecraft will provide the environment for two full sky surveys in the frequency range from 30 to 857 GHz. Planck aims to image the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) over the whole sky with a sensitivity of ΔT/T = 2 .10-6 and an angular resolution of 10 arc-minutes. This will be obtained thanks to a wide wavelength range telescope associated to a cryogenic Payload Module. The Planck mission leads to very stringent requirements (straylight, thermal stability) that can only be achieved by designing the spacecraft at system level, combining optical, radio frequency and thermal engineering. The PLANCK Payload Module (PPLM) is composed of a cryo-structure supporting and a 1.5 m aperture off-axis telescope equipped of two scientific instruments HFI (High Frequency Instrument) and LFI (Low Frequency Instrument). The LFI detectors are based on HETM amplifier technology and need to be cooled down to 20 K. The detectors for the HFI are bolometers operating at 0.1 K. These temperature levels are obtained using 3 different active coolers, a 20K sorption cooler stage, which need pre-cooling stages for normal operation (the coldest one is around 60 K). Finally, the telescope temperature must be lower than 60 K. To meet those requirements, a specific cryo-structure accommodating a multi-stages cryogenic passive radiator has been developed. The design of this high efficiency radiator is basically a black painted open honeycomb surface radiatively insulated from the warm spacecraft by a set of angled shields opened towards cold space, also called "V-grooves". The coldest stage offers a ~1.5 W net cooling capacity around 55 K. Specific design are implemented to guarantee the straylight performance. The

  16. Advanced EMU electrochemically regenerable CO2 and moisture absorber module breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Sudar, M.; Chang, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of the Electrochemically Regenerable Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Absorption Technology to the advanced extravehicular mobility unit was demonstrated by designing, fabricating, and testing a breadboard Absorber Module and an Electrochemical Regenerator. Test results indicated that the absorber module meets or exceeds the carbon dioxide removal requirements specified for the design and can meet the moisture removal requirement when proper cooling is provided. CO2 concentration in the vent gas stream was reduced from 0.52 to 0.027 kPa (3.9 to 0.20 mm Hg) for the full five hour test period. Vent gas dew point was reduced from inlet values of 294 K (69 F) to 278 K (41 F) at the outlet. The regeneration of expended absorbent was achieved by the electrochemical method employed in the testing. An absorbent bed using microporous hydrophobic membrane sheets with circulating absorbent is shown to be the best approach to the design of an Absorber Module based on sizing and performance. Absorber Module safety design, comparison of various absorbents and their characteristics, moisture absorption and cooling study and subsystem design and operation time-lining study were also performed.

  17. Design of an advanced flight planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1985-01-01

    The demand for both fuel conservation and four-dimensional traffic management require that the preflight planning process be designed to account for advances in airborne flight management and weather forecasting. The steps and issues in designing such an advanced flight planning system are presented. Focus is placed on the different optimization options for generating the three-dimensional reference path. For the cruise phase, one can use predefined jet routes, direct routes based on a network of evenly spaced grid points, or a network where the grid points are existing navaid locations. Each choice has its own problem in determining an optimum solution. Finding the reference path is further complicated by choice of cruise altitude levels, use of a time-varying weather field, and requiring a fixed time-of-arrival (four-dimensional problem).

  18. Layout and Design. Module 2. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benke, Tom; And Others

    This module is the second of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on layout and design are eight instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit includes some or…

  19. Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Informatics Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This is a description of the software design for the 2013 edition of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Informatics computer assembly. The Informatics system is an optional part of the space suit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and caution and warning information. In the future it will display maps with GPS position data, and video and still images captured by the astronaut.

  20. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-08-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  1. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  2. ESD protection design for advanced CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin B.; Wang, Gewen

    2001-10-01

    ESD effects in integrated circuits have become a major concern as today's technologies shrink to sub-micron/deep- sub-micron dimensions. The thinner gate oxide and shallower junction depth used in the advanced technologies make them very vulnerable to ESD damages. The advanced techniques like silicidation and STI (shallow trench insulation) used for improving other device performances make ESD design even more challenging. For non-silicided technologies, a certain DCGS (drain contact to gate edge spacing) is needed to achieve ESD hardness for nMOS output drivers and nMOS protection transistors. The typical DCGS values are 4-5um and 2-3um for 0.5um and 0.25um CMOS, respectively. The silicidation reduces the ballast resistance provided by DCGS with at least a factor of 10. As a result, scaling of the ESD performance with device width is lost and even zero ESD performance is reported for standard silicided devices. The device level ESD design is focused in this paper, which includes GGNMOS (gate grounded NMOS) and GCNMOS (gate coupled NMOS). The device level ESD testing including TLP (transmission line pulse) is given. Several ESD issues caused by advanced technologies have been pointed out. The possible solutions have been developed and summarized including silicide blocking, process optimization, back-end ballasting, and new protection scheme, dummy gate/n-well resistor ballsting, etc. Some of them require process cost increase, and others provide novel, compact, and simple design but involving royalty/IP (intellectual property) issue. Circuit level ESD design and layout design considerations are covered. The top-level ESD protection strategies are also given.

  3. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  4. Designing modulators of monoamine transporters using virtual screening techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Ole V.; Kortagere, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    The plasma-membrane monoamine transporters (MATs), including the serotonin (SERT), norepinephrine (NET) and dopamine (DAT) transporters, serve a pivotal role in limiting monoamine-mediated neurotransmission through the reuptake of their respective monoamine neurotransmitters. The transporters are the main target of clinically used psychostimulants and antidepressants. Despite the availability of several potent and selective MAT substrates and inhibitors the continuing need for therapeutic drugs to treat brain disorders involving aberrant monoamine signaling provides a compelling reason to identify novel ways of targeting and modulating the MATs. Designing novel modulators of MAT function have been limited by the lack of three dimensional structure information of the individual MATs. However, crystal structures of LeuT, a bacterial homolog of MATs, in a substrate-bound occluded, substrate-free outward-open, and an apo inward-open state and also with competitive and non-competitive inhibitors have been determined. In addition, several structures of the Drosophila DAT have also been resolved. Together with computational modeling and experimental data gathered over the past decade, these structures have dramatically advanced our understanding of several aspects of SERT, NET, and DAT transporter function, including some of the molecular determinants of ligand interaction at orthosteric substrate and inhibitor binding pockets. In addition progress has been made in the understanding of how allosteric modulation of MAT function can be achieved. Here we will review all the efforts up to date that has been made through computational approaches employing structural models of MATs to design small molecule modulators to the orthosteric and allosteric sites using virtual screening techniques. PMID:26483692

  5. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  6. Summary of advanced LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor) evaluations: PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) and SAFR (Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Kennett, R.J.; Cheng, H.S.; Kroeger, P.G. )

    1989-10-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed independent analyses of two advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) concepts. The designs, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) (Berglund, 1987) and the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) (Baumeister, 1987), were developed primarily by General Electric (GE) and Rockwell International (RI), respectively. Technical support was provided to DOE, RI, and GE, by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), particularly with respect to the characteristics of the metal fuels. There are several examples in both PRISM and SAFR where inherent or passive systems provide for a safe response to off-normal conditions. This is in contrast to the engineered safety systems utilized on current US Light Water Reactor (LWR) designs. One important design inherency in the LMRs is the inherent shutdown'', which refers to the tendency of the reactor to transition to a much lower power level whenever temperatures rise significantly. This type of behavior was demonstrated in a series of unscrammed tests at EBR-II (NED, 1986). The second key design feature is the passive air cooling of the vessel to remove decay heat. These systems, designated RVACS in PRISM and RACS in SAFR, always operate and are believed to be able to prevent core damage in the event that no other means of heat removal is available. 27 refs., 78 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Designing high-quality interactive multimedia learning modules.

    PubMed

    Huang, Camillan

    2005-01-01

    Modern research has broadened scientific knowledge and revealed the interdisciplinary nature of the sciences. For today's students, this advance translates to learning a more diverse range of concepts, usually in less time, and without supporting resources. Students can benefit from technology-enhanced learning supplements that unify concepts and are delivered on-demand over the Internet. Such supplements, like imaging informatics databases, serve as innovative references for biomedical information, but could improve their interaction interfaces to support learning. With information from these digital datasets, multimedia learning tools can be designed to transform learning into an active process where students can visualize relationships over time, interact with dynamic content, and immediately test their knowledge. This approach bridges knowledge gaps, fosters conceptual understanding, and builds problem-solving and critical thinking skills-all essential components to informatics training for science and medicine. Additional benefits include cost-free access and ease of dissemination over the Internet or CD-ROM. However, current methods for the design of multimedia learning modules are not standardized and lack strong instructional design. Pressure from administrators at the top and students from the bottom are pushing faculty to use modern technology to address the learning needs and expectations of contemporary students. Yet, faculty lack adequate support and training to adopt this new approach. So how can faculty learn to create educational multimedia materials for their students? This paper provides guidelines on best practices in educational multimedia design, derived from the Virtual Labs Project at Stanford University. The development of a multimedia module consists of five phases: (1) understand the learning problem and the users needs; (2) design the content to harness the enabling technologies; (3) build multimedia materials with web style standards and

  8. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF.

  9. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70 000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

  10. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windisch, C. F., Jr.; Huettig, F. R.

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. The reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  11. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. ); Huettig, F.R. )

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  12. Design specifications for manufacturability of MCM-C multichip modules

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.; Blazek, R.; Desch, J.; Elarton, J.; Kautz, D.; Markley, D.; Morgenstern, H.; Stewart, R.; Warner, L.

    1995-06-01

    The scope of this document is to establish design guidelines for electronic circuitry packaged as multichip modules of the ceramic substrate variety, although many of these guidelines are applicable to other types of multichip modules. The guidelines begin with prerequisite information which must be developed between customer and designer of the multichip module. The core of the guidelines focuses on the many considerations that must be addressed during the multichip module design. The guidelines conclude with the resulting deliverables from the design which satisfy customer requirements and/or support the multichip module fabrication and testing processes. Considerable supporting information, checklists, and design constraints are captured in specific appendices and used as reference information in the main body text. Finally some real examples of multichip module design are presented.

  13. Advanced Control Considerations for Turbofan Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the application of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model for an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. The nonlinear engine model is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the advanced control methodology over a wide range of operating points and life cycle conditions. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from the nonlinear engine model and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. MBEC is used here to show how advanced control architectures can improve efficiency during the design phase of a turbofan engine by reducing conservative operability margins. The operability margins that can be reduced, such as stall margin, can expand the engine design space and offer potential for efficiency improvements. Application of MBEC architecture to a nonlinear engine simulation is shown to reduce the thrust specific fuel consumption by approximately 1% over the baseline design, while maintaining safe operation of the engine across the flight envelope.

  14. Advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The research performed by GTE Government Systems and the University of Colorado in support of the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program is summarized. Two levels of research were undertaken. The first dealt with providing interim services Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) satellite (ISIS) capabilities that accented basic rate ISDN with a ground control similar to that of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The ISIS Network Model development represents satellite systems like the ACTS orbiting switch. The ultimate aim is to move these ACTS ground control functions on-board the next generation of ISDN communications satellite to provide full-service ISDN satellite (FSIS) capabilities. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design are obtainable from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models of the major subsystems of the ISDN communications satellite architecture. Discrete event simulation experiments would generate data for analysis against NASA SCAR performance measure and the data obtained from the ISDN satellite terminal adapter hardware (ISTA) experiments, also developed in the program. The Basic and Option 1 phases of the program are also described and include the following: literature search, traffic mode, network model, scenario specifications, performance measures definitions, hardware experiment design, hardware experiment development, simulator design, and simulator development.

  15. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  16. ASDA - Advanced Suit Design Analyzer computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Conger, Bruce C.; Iovine, John V.; Chang, Chi-Min

    1992-01-01

    An ASDA model developed to evaluate the heat and mass transfer characteristics of advanced pressurized suit design concepts for low pressure or vacuum planetary applications is presented. The model is based on a generalized 3-layer suit that uses the Systems Integrated Numerical Differencing Analyzer '85 in conjunction with a 41-node FORTRAN routine. The latter simulates the transient heat transfer and respiratory processes of a human body in a suited environment. The user options for the suit encompass a liquid cooled garment, a removable jacket, a CO2/H2O permeable layer, and a phase change layer.

  17. Advanced Avionics Breadboard Executive Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The advanced avionics breadboard (AAB) executive evolved from an effort to design and develop an avionics system. This executive is unique in that it supervises a triple redundant avionics computer system. Three IBM System 4 Pi/CP computers, operating synchronously and executing identical software, comprise the central processors which route data to and from a data bus via an input/output controller. The executive's basic function is to provide application programs with an efficient software structure within which to perform specific avionics application tasks. Although implemented in a triplex data management system, the AAB executive contains the flexibility to be adapted to other systems with minimal change.

  18. Advanced surface design for logistics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim R.; Hansen, Scott D.

    The development of anthropometric arm/hand and tool models and their manipulation in a large system model for maintenance simulation are discussed. The use of Advanced Surface Design and s-fig technology in anthropometrics, and three-dimensional graphics simulation tools, are found to achieve a good balance between model manipulation speed and model accuracy. The present second generation models are shown to be twice as fast to manipulate as the first generation b-surf models, to be easier to manipulate into various configurations, and to more closely approximate human contours.

  19. Design of vibration compensation interferometer for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, G. S.; Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zhu, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Zeng, L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Wei, X. C.; Lan, T.

    2014-11-01

    A vibration compensation interferometer (wavelength at 0.532 μm) has been designed and tested for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). It is designed as a sub-system for EAST far-infrared (wavelength at 432.5 μm) poloarimeter/interferometer system. Two Acoustic Optical Modulators have been applied to produce the 1 MHz intermediate frequency. The path length drift of the system is lower than 2 wavelengths within 10 min test, showing the system stability. The system sensitivity has been tested by applying a periodic vibration source on one mirror in the system. The vibration is measured and the result matches the source period. The system is expected to be installed on EAST by the end of 2014.

  20. GPM Avionics Module Heat Pipes Design and Performance Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura; DeChristopher, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international network of satellites that provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow. The GPM core satellite carries an advanced radar / radiometer system to measure precipitation from space and serve as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites. Through improved measurements of precipitation globally, the GPM mission will help to advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle, improve forecasting of extreme events that cause natural hazards and disasters, and extend current capabilities in using accurate and timely information of precipitation to directly benefit society. The avionics module on the core satellite contains a number of electronics boxes which are cooled by a network of aluminum/ammonia heat pipes and a honeycomb radiator which contains thirteen embedded aluminum/ammonia heat pipes. All heat pipes were individually tested by the vendor (Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.) prior to delivery. Following delivery to NASA, the flight avionics radiator and the flight spare transport heat pipes were mounted to flight-like test structure and a system level thermal vacuum test was performed. This test, which used simulators in place of all electronics boxes, was done to verify the operation of the thermal control system as a whole. This presentation will discuss the design of the avionics module heat pipes, and then discuss performance tests results for the individual heat pipes prior to delivery and for the system level thermal vacuum test. All heat pipes met their performance requirements. However, it was found that the power was too low in some instances to start all of the smaller radiator spreader heat pipes when they were tested in a reflux configuration (which is the nominal test configuration). Although this lowered the efficiency of the radiator somewhat, it did not impact the operating

  1. Designing Career Development Programs for Business and Industry. Module 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Zandy; Schlossberg, Nancy

    This staff development module is part of one of three groups of career guidance modules developed, field-tested, and revised by a six-state consortium coordinated by the American Institutes for Research. This module is designed for helping professionals who have the responsibility of providing career development services to adults employed in…

  2. High Performance Concentrating Photovoltaic Module Designs Employing Reflective Lens Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylyev, Sergey V.; Vasylyev, Viktor P.

    2011-12-01

    The present study is aimed at advancing the optical component as well as optimizing the design of concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules in order to increase the conversion efficiency and improve the utility of CPV while obtaining the prescribed concentration ratio. In this work, we turn to non-traditional concentrating optics, namely Reflective Lenses™ (RL), first introduced in early 2000s. The optical configuration of RLs is unique since it combines the very low F/D number (hence resulting in a very low profile of the unit) of mirrors with a rear-focus of lenses and uses only a single-stage reflection. A liner-focus version of RLs, the Slat-Array Concentrator (SAC), is a capable alternative to the parabolic troughs for mid-concentration CPV. A point-focus version called the Ring-Array Concentrator (RAC) is deemed suitable for high concentration photovoltaics.

  3. NASA/USRA University advanced design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lembeck, Michael F.; Prussing, John

    1989-01-01

    The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program for the 1988 to 1989 academic year is reviewed. The University's design project was the Logistics Resupply and Emergency Crew Return System for Space Station Freedom. Sixty-one students divided into eight groups, participated in the spring 1989 semester. A presentation prepared by three students and a graduate teaching assistant for the program's summer conference summarized the project results. Teamed with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the University received support in the form of remote telecon lectures, reference material, and previously acquired applications software. In addition, a graduate teaching assistant was awarded a summer 1989 internship at MSFC.

  4. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash.

  5. Advanced physical assessment skills: implementation of a module.

    PubMed

    Aldridge-Bent, Sharon

    2011-02-01

    This article aims to explore and examine advanced physical assessment skills and the role of the district nurse. It will particularly highlight district nurses' perceptions of how they may implement skills learnt on a new module introduced into the Community Health Care Nursing degree at a university in London. Physical assessment skills have traditionally been viewed as part of a doctor's role; however, with the advancement of nursing roles, it is argued that it has become a key nursing skill. As Government policy continues to expect health professionals to keep patients in the community who have complex health and social care needs, the role of the district nurse presents as 'best placed' to take on this challenge (Department of Health (DH), 2005a; 2005b). Evaluation of the district nurses' perceptions of their practice is shared here, highlighting some of the challenges that they face. The article will address the complexity of developing a curriculum in response to the DH initiatives and the importance of listening to students on courses.

  6. COMPRES Mineral Physics Educational Modules for Advanced Undergraduates and Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnley, P. C.; Thomas, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences (COMPRES) is a community-based consortium whose goal is to advance and facilitate experimental high pressure research in the Earth Sciences. An important aspect of this goal is sharing our knowledge with the next generation of researchers. To facilitate this, we have created a group of web-based educational modules on mineral physics topics. The modules reside in the On Cutting Edge, Teaching Mineralogy collection on the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) website. Although the modules are designed to function as part of a full semester course, each module can also stand alone. Potential users of the modules include mineral physics faculty teaching "bricks and mortar" classes at their own institutions, or in distance education setting, mineralogy teachers interested in including supplementary material in their mineralogy class, undergraduates doing independent study projects and graduate students and colleagues in other sub-disciplines who wish to brush up on a mineral physics topic. We used the modules to teach an on-line course entitled "Introduction to Mineral Physics" during the spring 2012 semester. More than 20 students and postdocs as well as 15 faculty and senior scientists participated in the course which met twice weekly as a webinar. Recordings of faculty lectures and student-led discussions of journal articles are now available upon request and edited versions of the lectures will be incorporated into the educational modules. Our experience in creating the modules and the course indicates that the use of 1) community-generated internet-based resources and 2) webinars to enable shared teaching between faculty at different universities, has the potential to both enrich graduate education and create efficiencies for university faculty.;

  7. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  8. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

  9. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

  10. Recent advances in coupled laser cavity design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, James R.; Chiang, Hung-Sheng; Nilsson, Johan; Ji, Junhau; Sahu, Jayanta

    2013-03-01

    External cavity coherent beam combining represents a path forward to higher fiber laser radiance, with several groups demonstrating scalable approaches. In this paper, we review recent advances in coupled laser cavity design. In particular, we compare various designs and describe the pros and cons of each with regard to sensitivity to path length errors. Experimental measurements using a specially designed dual-core fiber demonstrate the modal loss from a superposition architecture. A second area of investigation is concerned with Q-switch suppression in coupled laser cavities. The increased cavity loss that accompanies path length errors in the laser arms can suppress lasing, causing an energy build-up in the laser inversion. When the path length errors are removed and the cavity resumes its low loss state, the stored energy can be released in a manner analogous to Q-switching, creating a giant laser pulse. Since the peak power of this pulse can be many orders of magnitude larger than the cw power, the high instantaneous intensity can cause irreparable damage to optical components. We investigate passive systems that are designed to suppress this unwanted Q-switching by allowing alternative lasing paths to clamp the gain.

  11. Advanced photovoltaic solar array - Design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Stella, Paul

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an ultralightweight flexible blanket, flatpack, foldout solar array design that can provide 3- to 4-fold improvement on specific power performance of current rigid panel arrays and a factor of two improvement over a first-generation flexible blanket array developed as a forerunner to the Space Station Freedom array. To date a prototype wing has been built with a projected specific power performance of about 138 W/kg at beginning-of-life (BOL) and 93 W/kg end-of-life (EOL) at 12 kW (BOL) for a 10-year geosynchronous (GEO) mission. The prototype wing hardware has been subjected to a series of system-level tests to demonstrate design feasibility. The design of the array is summarized. The major trade studies that led to the selection of the baseline design are discussed. Key system-level and component-level testing are described. Array-level performance projections are presented as a function of existing and advanced solar array component technology for various mission applications.

  12. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  13. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  14. Reflections on Designing a Biology/Humanities Interdisciplinary Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, David; Battey, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the reflections of a recent workshop on biology and the humanities subject areas to consider the potential for designing a first year interdisciplinary module that brings together teachers and learners in the Biosciences with their counterparts in English and History. It considers three building blocks of module design: aims and…

  15. Study of curved glass photovoltaic module and module electrical isolation design requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design of a 1.2 by 2.4 m curved glass superstrate and support clip assembly is presented, along with the results of finite element computer analysis and a glass industry survey conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Installed costs for four curved glass module array configurations are estimated and compared with cost previously reported for comparable flat glass module configurations. Electrical properties of candidate module encapsulation systems are evaluated along with present industry practice for the design and testing of electrical insulation systems. Electric design requirements for module encapsulation systems are also discussed.

  16. Computational and design methods for advanced imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gabriel C.

    This dissertation merges the optical design and computational aspects of imaging systems to create novel devices that solve engineering problems in optical science and attempts to expand the solution space available to the optical designer. This dissertation is divided into two parts: the first discusses a new active illumination depth sensing modality, while the second part discusses a passive illumination system called plenoptic, or lightfield, imaging. The new depth sensing modality introduced in part one is called depth through controlled aberration. This technique illuminates a target with a known, aberrated projected pattern and takes an image using a traditional, unmodified imaging system. Knowing how the added aberration in the projected pattern changes as a function of depth, we are able to quantitatively determine depth of a series of points from the camera. A major advantage this method permits is the ability for illumination and imaging axes to be coincident. Plenoptic cameras capture both spatial and angular data simultaneously. This dissertation present a new set of parameters that permit the design and comparison of plenoptic devices outside the traditionally published plenoptic 1.0 and plenoptic 2.0 configurations. Additionally, a series of engineering advancements are presented, including full system raytraces of raw plenoptic images, Zernike compression techniques of raw image files, and non-uniform lenslet arrays to compensate for plenoptic system aberrations. Finally, a new snapshot imaging spectrometer is proposed based off the plenoptic configuration.

  17. Advanced Gate Drive for the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.A.; Anderson, D.E.; /Oak Ridge

    2009-05-07

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a next generation H-bridge switch plate [1], a critical component of the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator [2]. As part of that effort, a new IGBT gate driver has been developed. The drivers are an integral part of the switch plate, which are essential to ensuring fault-tolerant, high-performance operation of the modulator. The redesigned driver improves upon the existing gate drive in several ways. The new gate driver has improved fault detection and suppression capabilities; suppression of shoot-through and over-voltage conditions, monitoring of dI/dt and Vce(sat) for fast over-current detection and suppression, and redundant power isolation are some of the added features. In addition, triggering insertion delay is reduced by a factor of four compared to the existing driver. This paper details the design and performance of the new IGBT gate driver. A simplified schematic and description of the construction are included. The operation of the fast over-current detection circuits, active IGBT over-voltage protection circuit, shoot-through prevention circuitry, and control power isolation breakdown detection circuit are discussed.

  18. Progress in developing HCPV modules of SMALFOC-design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, V. D.; Andreev, V. M.; Chekalin, A. V.; Davidyuk, N. Yu.; Im, O. A.; Khazova, E. V.; Sadchikov, N. A.

    2013-09-01

    This work presents a module generation which has been named as "SMALFOC module design". The abbreviation reflects the main features of the modules: Small-size concentrators; Multi-junction cells; "All-glass" structure; Lamination technology; Fresnel Optics for Concentration. Investigated modules have revealed a quite low over-heating temperature of cells in the MPP regime of operation and a real way for increasing the PV efficiency, if the rear glass base is supplied with an antireflection coating. Outdoor and high/low temperature tests have shown a good potential for long-term operation of such a type of modules.

  19. Special Features of the Advanced Loans Module of the ABCD Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Smet, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "advanced loans" module of the relatively new library software, ABCD, is an addition to the normal loans module and it offers a "generic transaction decision-making engine" functionality. The module requires extra installation effort and parameterisation, so this article aims to explain to the many potentially interested libraries,…

  20. Integration of a Communicating Science Module into an Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Jessica; Squier, Christopher; Larsen, Sarah C.

    2006-01-01

    A communicating science module was introduced into an advanced undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. The module was integrated into the course such that students received formal instruction in communicating science interwoven with the chemistry laboratory curriculum. The content of the communicating science module included three…

  1. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Fundementals of Workplace Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraeling, Vicki

    This module is one of a series of instructional guides developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees whose basic technical skills are in need of upgrading. The module is a 27-hour overview course…

  2. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Interpersonal and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Joan S.

    This module was developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees needing upgrading. The module is a 6-hour overview course intended to develop competencies in the following interpersonal and…

  3. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Job Search Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Joan S.

    This module is one of a series developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees needing upgrading. This module is a 3-hour overview course intended to develop competencies in the following job search…

  4. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  5. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  6. Development of a High Fidelity Dynamic Module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) Using Adams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, B. T.; Thompson, W. K.; Lewandowski, B. E.; Cadwell, E. E.; Newby, N. J.; Fincke, R. S.; Sheehan, C.; Mulugeta, L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. DAP provides expertise and computation tools to its research customers for model development, integration, or analysis. DAP is currently supporting the NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project by integrating their biomechanical models of specific exercise movements with dynamic models of the devices on which the exercises were performed. This presentation focuses on the development of a high fidelity dynamic module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on board the ISS. The ARED module, illustrated in the figure below, was developed using the Adams (MSC Santa Ana, California) simulation package. The Adams package provides the capabilities to perform multi rigid body, flexible body, and mixed dynamic analyses of complex mechanisms. These capabilities were applied to accurately simulate: Inertial and mass properties of the device such as the vibration isolation system (VIS) effects and other ARED components, Non-linear joint friction effects, The gas law dynamics of the vacuum cylinders and VIS components using custom written differential state equations, The ARED flywheel dynamics, including torque limiting clutch. Design data from the JSC ARED Engineering team was utilized in developing the model. This included solid modeling geometry files, component/system specifications, engineering reports and available data sets. The Adams ARED module is importable into LifeMOD (Life Modeler, Inc., San Clemente, CA) for biomechanical analyses of different resistive exercises such as squat and dead-lift. Using motion capture data from ground test subjects, the ExPC developed biomechanical exercise models in LifeMOD. The Adams ARED device module was then integrated with the exercise subject model into one integrated dynamic model. This presentation will describe the

  7. Robotic endoscope motor module and gearing design.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jillian M; Chen, Yi; Hunter, Ian W

    2011-01-01

    Actuation of a robotic endoscope with increased torque output is presented. This paper will specifically focus on the motor module section of a robotic endoscope, which comprises of a pair of motors and gear reduction assemblies. The results for the endoscope and biopsy tool stiffness, as well as the stall force and force versus speed characteristics of the motor module assembly are shown. The scope stiffness was found to be 0.006 N/degree and additional stiffness of the biopsy tools were found to be in the range of 0.09 to 0.13 N/degree. Calculations for worm gearing and efficiency are discussed.

  8. Design of the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) has initiated a program to design and build a Marx-topology modulator to produce a relatively compact, low-cost, high availability klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Building upon the success of the P1 Marx, the SLAC P2 Marx is a second-generation modulator whose design further emphasizes the qualities of modularity and high-availability. This paper outlines highlights of this design and presents single-cell performance data obtained during the proof-of-concept phase of the project.

  9. Crystalline-silicon photovoltaics summary module design and reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the design and reliability of solar modules was described. Design requirements involved 14 different considerations, including residential building and material electrical codes, wind-loading, hail impact, operating temperature levels, module flammability, and interfaces for both the array structure and the operation of the system. Reliability research involved in diverse investigations including glass-fracture strength, soiling levels, electrochemical corrosion, and bypass-diode qualification tests. Based on these internationally recognized studies, performance assessments, and failure analyses, the Flat-plate Solar Array Project in its 11-year duration served to nuture the development of 45 different solar module designs from 15 PV manufacturers.

  10. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.

  11. Indoor Unmanned Airship System Airborne Control Module Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YongXia, Gao; YiBo, Li

    By adopting STC12C5A60S2 SCM as a system control unit, assisted by appropriate software and hardware resources, we complete the airborne control module's design of unmanned airship system. This paper introduces hardware control module's structure, airship-driven composition and software realization. Verified by the China Science and Technology Museum special-shaped airship,this control module can work well.

  12. Designing Customizable Reading Modules for a High School Literature Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, L. Roxanne; Cuevas, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This design case follows an ongoing collaboration between an instructional technologist and a high school literature teacher promoting reading comprehension through modules that provide visually interesting display of text on a computer screen along with cognitive tools. The modules were found to boost comprehension of specific content in even one…

  13. Lunar Module Electrical Power System Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and redesign considerations of the Apollo lunar module electrical power system. Included in the work are graphics showing the lunar module power system. It describes the in-flight failures, and the lessons learned from these failures.

  14. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  15. Design guideline for plasmonic 16-QAM optical modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-mfrji, Alhuda A.; Tawfeeq, Shelan K.; Fyath, Raad S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design and investigation of 16-QAM optical modulator based on plasmonic-polymer hybrid slot waveguides. The design is CMOS-compatible and uses dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) followed by a phase modulator (PM). Careful consideration is given to design low loss photonic-plasmonic interfaces to ensure efficient coupling between silicon and plasmonic waveguide. The effect of slot widths on device performance is investigated comprehensively using COMSOL software simulation along with analytical analysis for both gold and silver contact. The results can be used as a guideline to design compact and high speed all-plasmonic 16-QAM modulators for 1550 nm wavelength communication systems.

  16. Athermal diode-pumped laser designator modules for targeting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepy, B.; Closse, G.; Da Cruz, J.; Sabourdy, D.; Montagne, J.; Nguyen, L.

    2012-10-01

    We report on the development and characteristics of athermal diode-pumped designator modules as Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for targeting application. These modules are designed with the latest diode-pumped technology minimizing volume and power consumption. The core technology allows to address multi-platforms requirements such as land or airborne. Products are composed of a Laser Transmitter Unit (LTU) and Laser Electronic Unit (LEU) for modular approach.

  17. MSFC Skylab airlock module, volume 1. [systems design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The history and development of the Skylab Airlock Module and Payload Shroud is presented from initial concept through final design. A summary is given of the Airlock features and systems. System design and performance are presented for the Spent Stage Experiment Support Module, structure and mechanical systems, mass properties, thermal and environmental control systems, EVA/IVA suite system, electrical power system, sequential system, sequential system, and instrumentation system.

  18. Advanced modulation technology development for earth station demodulator applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. C.; Wernlund, J. V.; Gann, J. A.; Roesch, J. F.; Wright, T.; Crowley, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to develop a high rate (200 Mbps), bandwidth efficient, modulation format using low cost hardware, in 1990's technology. The modulation format chosen is 16-ary continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK). The implementation of the modulation format uses a unique combination of a limiter/discriminator followed by an accumulator to determine transmitted phase. An important feature of the modulation scheme is the way coding is applied to efficiently gain back the performance lost by the close spacing of the phase points.

  19. A coded modulation design for the INMARSAT geostationary GLONASS augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, B.; Tsang, W.

    A cold modulation scheme is proposed to carryout the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) geostationary augmentation which includes both integrity and navigation functions over the next generation International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) satellites. A baseline coded modulation scheme for the GLONASS augmentation broadcast proposes a forward error correction code over a differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation. The use of a concatenated code over the same signaling is considered. The proposed coded modulation design is more powerful and robust, yet not overly more complex in system implementation than the baseline scheme. Performance results of concatenated codes over a DPSK signaling used in the design are presented. The sensitivity analysis methodology in selecting the coded modulation scheme is also discussed.

  20. Design and Fabrication of a Fabry-Perot Electrooptic Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, C.; Yelleswarapu, C.; Sharma, A.; Frazier, D.; Penn, B.; Abdeldayem, H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research to design a Fabry-Perot electrooptic modulator with an intracavity electrooptically active organic material is based on the initial results of Wang et. al. using poled polymer thin films. The main feature of the proposed device is the observation that in traditional electrooptic modulators like a Pockels cell, it requires few kilovolts of driving voltage to cause a 3 dB modulation even in high figure-of-merit electrooptic materials like LiNbO3. The driving voltage for the modulator can be reduced to as low as 10 volts by introducing the electrooptic material inside the resonant cavity of a Fabry-Perot modulator. This is because the transmission of the Fabry-Perot cavity varies nonlinearly with the change of refractive index or phase of light due to applied electric field. We describe in this report the progress made so far in the design and fabrication of the proposed device.

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Fabry-Perot Electrooptic Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, C.; Yelleswarapu, C.; Sharma, A.; Frazier, D.; Penn, B.; Abdeldayem, H.; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research to design a Fabry-Perot electrooptic modulator with an intracavity electrooptically active organic material is based on the initial results of Wang et. al. [1] using poled polymer thin films. The main feature of the proposed device is the observation that in traditional electrooptic modulators like a Pockels cell, it requires few kilovolts of driving voltage to cause a 3 dB modulation even in high figure-of-merit electrooptic. materials like LiNbO3. The driving voltage for the modulator can be reduced to as low as 10 volts by introducing the electrooptic material inside the resonant cavity of a Fabry-Perot modulator. This is because the transmission of the Fabry-Perot cavity varies nonlinearly with the change of refractive index or phase of light due to applied electric field. We describe in this report the progress made so far in the design and fabrication of the proposed device.

  2. Advanced technology's impact on compressor design and development - A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  3. Advanced technologies impact on compressor design and development: A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  4. Design principles for advanced carburized bearing steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, James Anthony

    Rolling contact fatigue behavior of carburized C69-1 steel was measured and analyzed using an NTN rolling contact fatigue tester. Core precipitation of nanoscale 6 phase in C69-2 steel was measured with 1DAP microanalysis. Precipitation behavior in M50NiL-0.38C was examined using small angle neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy, one-dimensional atom probe microanalysis, three-dimensional atom probe microanalysis, Vickers microhardness, and ThermoCalc thermodynamic modeling software. Five different carbide phases were tentatively identified as Fe3C, M2C, MC, M6C, and M 23C6. The hardness evolution was modeled with the measured microstructural data and scaled to measured microhardness. A multiphase precipitation model was developed to predict the volume fraction of each phase during tempering. Stress relaxation during tempering of M50NiL-0.38C was shown to be controlled by carbide precipitation kinetics using tensile and split-ring methods. From these experiments design principles for advanced carburized steels were deduced. Because of their role in fatigue nucleation, no primary carbides should be present after solution treatment. A single phase M2C precipitate dispersion should be over-aged to be slightly larger than its peak strength state to avoid cyclic shearing and improve rolling contact fatigue resistance. Other carbide phases can be avoided because they are less efficient strengtheners than the M2C phase. The embrittling sigma phase should be avoided in the low carbon core by reducing the driving force for precipitation. The steel should have some residual austenite in the carburized case after quenching from the solution treatment; this retained austenite should be completely transformed upon a cryogenic treatment after tempering to restore favorable, residual compressive stress in the case.

  5. Development and design of advanced two-photon microscope used in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, M. S.; Popov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    This work represents the real steps to development and design advanced two-photon microscope by efforts of laboratory staff. Self-developed microscopy system provides possibility to service it and modify the structure of microscope depending on highly specialized experimental design and scientific goals. We are presenting here module-based microscopy system which provides an opportunity to looking for new applications of this setup depending on laboratories needs using with galvo and resonant scanners.

  6. A New OEO Design Using Optical Phase Modulation and Modulation Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Yu, Nan

    2006-01-01

    We present the design for a phase-modulated Opto-Electronic Oscillator (OEO) that incorporates asymmetric Mach- Zehnder (AMZ) interferometers as phase demodulators together with PM modulation suppression. The new design promises to obtain in the electro-optical domain the low-noise advantages previously achieved in RF and microwave oscillators by the use of carrier suppression but which have been achieved only to a limited extent in OEO's.

  7. Hydrogen exchange, core modules, and new designed proteins.

    PubMed

    Carulla, Natàlia; Barany, George; Woodward, Clare

    2002-12-10

    A strategy for design of new proteins that mimic folding properties of native proteins is based on peptides modeled on the slow exchange cores of natural proteins. We have synthesized peptides, called core modules, that correspond to the elements of secondary structure that carry the very slowest exchanging amides in a protein. The expectation is that, if soluble in water, core modules will form conformational ensembles that favor native-like structure. Core modules modeled on natural bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor have been shown by NMR studies to meet this expectation. The next step toward production of a native state mimic is to further shift the conformational bias of a core module toward more ordered structure by promoting module-module interactions that are mutually stabilizing. For this, two core modules were incorporated into a single molecule by means of a long cross-link. From a panel of several two-module peptides, one very promising lead emerged; it is called BetaCore. BetaCore is monomeric in water and forms a new fold composed of a four-stranded, antiparallel beta-sheet. The single, dominant conformation of BetaCore is characterized by various NMR experiments. Here we compare the individual core module to the two-module BetaCore and discuss the progressive stabilization of intramodule structure and the formation of new intermodule interactions.

  8. Advanced Trickling Filters. Training Module 2.112.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Ronald F.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of a trickling filter wastewater treatment plant. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and considers…

  9. Advanced Stabilization. Training Module 2.226.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, W. L.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor knowledgeable in the chemistry of water stabilization and familiar with control of deposition and corrosion in a water supply system. This is the second level of a two module series. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and…

  10. Advanced Mathematics. Training Module 1.303.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with mathematics as applied to water and wastewater treatment plant operation. Included are objectives, instructor guides and student handouts. This is the third level of a three module series and is concerned with statistics, total head, steady…

  11. Design, fabrication, test, qualification and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules. Part 1: Intermediate load module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottenberg, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    The updated program plan and narrative reflects the design and development work done and progress made in establishing a viable design for these modules. Design alterations from the preproduction plan are discussed based on experience gained during the preproduction phase of the program.

  12. Design and demonstration of an advanced data collection/position location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The final report on a breadboard evaluation and demonstration program is reported concerning the applicability of MSK modulation and chirp-z transformer technology in Advanced Data Collection/Position Location (ADC/PL) systems. The program effort consisted of three phases - design, testing, and evaluation. Section 2 describes the breadboard hardware built during the design phase of the program, Section 3 describes the tests conducted on the breadboard and the results of the tests, and Section 4 presents a brief analysis and summary of the findings of the breadboard tests and develops a sample ADC/PL system which incorporates both MSK modulation and a chirp-z transformer.

  13. Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

  14. Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.; Ancheta, T.; Johannesson, R.; Lauer, G.; Lee, L.

    1976-01-01

    The joint optimization of the coding and modulation systems employed in telemetry systems was investigated. Emphasis was placed on formulating inner and outer coding standards used by the Goddard Spaceflight Center. Convolutional codes were found that are nearly optimum for use with Viterbi decoding in the inner coding of concatenated coding systems. A convolutional code, the unit-memory code, was discovered and is ideal for inner system usage because of its byte-oriented structure. Simulations of sequential decoding on the deep-space channel were carried out to compare directly various convolutional codes that are proposed for use in deep-space systems.

  15. Design, fabrication and performance of high efficiency photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Kreisman, W. S.; Younger, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Design details and performance and environmental test results of newly developed high performance and reliability photovoltaic modules are presented. Efficiencies averaging 14.3% for 3040 cells were obtained by using ion implantation for cell junction and back surface field formation. 152 rectangular (6.0 cm x 4.6 cm) cells arranged with a 97% local packing density comprise the circuit assembly, and cells are wired 4 in parallel by 38 in series. The top cover of the superstrate design module is composed of tempered low-iron glass to provide transparent protection for the optical surface. Results show that this design has an encapsulation system which does not fail in the event of reverse-bias operation, and an average module efficiency of 12.2% was achieved at a 58.6W power which varied only 2% among all 20 modules.

  16. Interconnect fatigue design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, Jr., R. G.

    1982-03-01

    Fatigue of solar cell electrical interconnects due to thermal cycling has historically been a major failure mechanism in photovoltaic arrays; the results of a comprehensive investigation of interconnect fatigue that has led to the definition of useful reliability-design and life-prediction algorithms are presented. Experimental data gathered in this study indicate that the classical strain-cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material is a good model of mean interconnect fatigue performance, but it fails to account for the broad statistical scatter, which is critical to reliability prediction. To fill this shortcoming the classical fatigue curve is combined with experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data to yield statistical fatigue curves (having failure probability as a parameter) which enable: (1) the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field; and (2) the unambiguous - i.e., quantitative - interpretation of data from field-service qualification (accelerated thermal cycling) tests. Optimal interconnect cost-reliability design algorithms are derived based on minimizing the cost of energy over the design life of the array field. This procedure yields not only the minimum break-even cost of delivered energy, but also the required degree of interconnect redundancy and an estimate of array power degradation during the design life of the array field. The usefulness of the design algorithms is demonstrated with realistic examples of design optimization, prediction, and service qualification testing.

  17. Advanced system design for solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, V.; Korupp, K. H.

    The state-of-the-art in applied photovoltaic (PV) systems and system subcomponents is assessed. The control systems vary from microcomputers in large installations to analogous control units and simpler systems with increasingly less output. Module wiring aand various module connection techniques are reviewed, including the usage of shunt diodes to isolate malfunctioning modules. Junction boxes anad plug connections are cited as the most economic connection technique. Charge regulators are required to match the gassing voltage threshold with the temperature of the lead-acid batteries to optimize the charging as well as introduce a delay in the protective circuit against overdischarge. Inverters are necessarily matched to the load, and several types are discussed.

  18. Interconnect fatigue design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The results of comprehensive investigation of interconnect fatigue that has led to the definition of useful reliability-design and life-prediction algorithms are presented. Experimental data indicate that the classical strain-cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material is a good model of mean interconnect fatigue performance, but it fails to account for the broad statistical scatter, which is critical to reliability prediction. To fill this shortcoming the classical fatigue curve is combined with experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data to yield statistical fatigue curves (having failure probability as a parameter) which enable (1) the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field, and (2) the unambiguous--ie., quantitative--interpretation of data from field-service qualification (accelerated thermal cycling) tests. Optimal interconnect cost-reliability design algorithms are derived based on minimizing the cost of energy over the design life of the array field.

  19. Design, fabrication and completion of Troll Drilling Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalayini, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    As the offshore drilling industry undergoes revolutionary change, with newer and more sophisticated drilling rigs, equipment, and techniques, problems associated with the design, fabrication and completion of these drilling structures become more complex and challenging. This paper describes the design, fabrication and completion of Troll Drilling Module which is designed using the Package Drilling Rig concept to overcome these difficulties. The Packaged Drilling Rig concept, designated the PDR, is basically a solution which provides drilling facilities to drill a shallow 148m TVD wells, in discrete packages for assembly and disassembly on the platform with package weight limitations dictated by crane capacities and package location. In this context packages can be self contained structural boxes containing equipment or skid mounted assemblies. The packages can be sequentially installed or removed to cater for platform drilling requirements at any given time, such as full or partial rig-up or rig-down. The Troll Drilling Module concept is a feasible solution to reduce drilling facilities installation time. The time and cost to design and fabricate Troll Drilling Module were higher than those of any other conventional drilling module. However, substantial reductions in cost and time were obtained during assembly and disassembly of this module. Three phases of the project which include design, fabrication and completion are successfully completed.

  20. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  1. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  2. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 μm ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakalā, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of

  3. Update on ORNL TRANSFORM Tool: Simulating Multi-Module Advanced Reactor with End-to-End I&C

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Richard Edward; Fugate, David L.; Cetiner, Sacit M.; Qualls, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the fourth year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled reactor) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The focus of this report is the development of a steam generator and drum system model that includes the complex dynamics of typical steam drum systems, the development of instrumentation and controls for the steam generator with drum system model, and the development of multi-reactor module models that reflect the full power reactor innovative small module design concept. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor models; ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface technical area; and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the TRANSFORM tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the Advanced Reactors Technology program; (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using available geometry, design, and thermal-hydraulic data; (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models; and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.

  4. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  5. The Advanced Light Source: Technical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1984-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation source consisting of a 50-MeV linear accelerator, a 1.3-GeV 'booster' synchrotron, a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring, and a number of photon beam lines, as shown in Figure 1. As an introduction to a detailed description of the Advanced Light Source, this section provides brief discussions on the characteristics of synchrotron radiation and on the theory of storage rings. Appendix A contents: Introduction to Synchrotron-Radiation Sources; Storage Ring; Injection System; Control System; Insertion Devices; Photon Beam Lines; and References.

  6. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  7. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during Phase 1 operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) to achieve modularization. Design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  8. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for the Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during phase I operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units to achieve modularization. The design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  9. Design and development of a prototype 25 kV, 10 A long pulse Marx modulator for high power klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-02-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are in progress at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator at repetition rate of 1 Hz has been designed and developed which serves as a proof of principle and technology assessment stage for further development of high repetition rate high voltage high average power modulators. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) based modules of 2.8 kV switching capability have been used as main modules. The modulator had 8.2% droop in output voltage pulse without any droop compensation circuit. A droop compensation involving 15 corrector modules has been used to reduce the droop up to 1%. We have used IGBT based 250 V switches to realize the corrector module. A microcontroller based control unit was designed and developed for triggering the main and corrector modules. With this control unit, programmable output pulse has been achieved. Electrical isolation between high voltage circuits and control circuit has been achieved by the use of fiber optic based control signal transmission. Output pulses of 1 ms pulse width, 800 ns rise time, and 5 μs fall time have been achieved. The modulator has advantages of modular design, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time, and fall time.

  10. Design and development of a prototype 25 kV, 10 A long pulse Marx modulator for high power klystron.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-02-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are in progress at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator at repetition rate of 1 Hz has been designed and developed which serves as a proof of principle and technology assessment stage for further development of high repetition rate high voltage high average power modulators. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) based modules of 2.8 kV switching capability have been used as main modules. The modulator had 8.2% droop in output voltage pulse without any droop compensation circuit. A droop compensation involving 15 corrector modules has been used to reduce the droop up to 1%. We have used IGBT based 250 V switches to realize the corrector module. A microcontroller based control unit was designed and developed for triggering the main and corrector modules. With this control unit, programmable output pulse has been achieved. Electrical isolation between high voltage circuits and control circuit has been achieved by the use of fiber optic based control signal transmission. Output pulses of 1 ms pulse width, 800 ns rise time, and 5 μs fall time have been achieved. The modulator has advantages of modular design, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time, and fall time.

  11. NASA. Lewis Research Center Advanced Modulation and Coding Project: Introduction and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Modulation and Coding Project at LeRC is sponsored by the Office of Space Science and Applications, Communications Division, Code EC, at NASA Headquarters and conducted by the Digital Systems Technology Branch of the Space Electronics Division. Advanced Modulation and Coding is one of three focused technology development projects within the branch's overall Processing and Switching Program. The program consists of industry contracts for developing proof-of-concept (POC) and demonstration model hardware, university grants for analyzing advanced techniques, and in-house integration and testing of performance verification and systems evaluation. The Advanced Modulation and Coding Project is broken into five elements: (1) bandwidth- and power-efficient modems; (2) high-speed codecs; (3) digital modems; (4) multichannel demodulators; and (5) very high-data-rate modems. At least one contract and one grant were awarded for each element.

  12. Tooth form design supporting system in module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Junji; Namiki, Ryou; Tanaka, Souichi; Aoyama, Shigeru

    A lot of time was spent in designing the tooth form because there was no Computer Aided Design (CAD) system suitable for designing the tooth form of gears. A CAD system to support the tooth form design to promote efficiency of the tooth form design of gears for a wristwatch was developed. This system can perform calculation of torque transmission factor of gears, automatic drawing of tooth form drawing, and engagement simulation, and by utilizing this system the tooth form can be designed in less than one fourth of the time required by the conventional method. The characteristics of the system used to calculate the torque transmission factor of a pair of gears are summarized and the displayed results are shown.

  13. Advances in the design and development of oncolytic measles viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hutzen, Brian; Raffel, Corey; Studebaker, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    A successful oncolytic virus is one that selectively propagates and destroys cancerous tissue without causing excessive damage to the normal surrounding tissue. Oncolytic measles virus (MV) is one such virus that exhibits this characteristic and thus has rapidly emerged as a potentially useful anticancer modality. Derivatives of the Edmonston MV vaccine strain possess a remarkable safety record in humans. Promising results in preclinical animal models and evidence of biological activity in early phase trials contribute to the enthusiasm. Genetic modifications have enabled MV to evolve from a vaccine agent to a potential anticancer therapy. Specifically, alterations of the MV genome have led to improved tumor selectivity and delivery, therapeutic potency, and immune system modulation. In this article, we will review the advancements that have been made in the design and development of MV that have led to its use as a cancer therapy. In addition, we will discuss the evidence supporting its use, as well as the challenges associated with MV as a potential cancer therapeutic. PMID:27512675

  14. Advanced modulation technology development for earth station demodulator applications. Coded modulation system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Susan P.; Kappes, J. Mark; Layer, David H.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1990-04-01

    A jointly optimized coded modulation system is described which was designed, built, and tested by COMSAT Laboratories for NASA LeRC which provides a bandwidth efficiency of 2 bits/s/Hz at an information rate of 160 Mbit/s. A high speed rate 8/9 encoder with a Viterbi decoder and an Octal PSK modem are used to achieve this. The BER performance is approximately 1 dB from the theoretically calculated value for this system at a BER of 5 E-7 under nominal conditions. The system operates in burst mode for downlink applications and tests have demonstrated very little degradation in performance with frequency and level offset. Unique word miss rate measurements were conducted which demonstrate reliable acquisition at low values of Eb/No. Codec self tests have verified the performance of this subsystem in a stand alone mode. The codec is capable of operation at a 200 Mbit/s information rate as demonstrated using a codec test set which introduces noise digitally. The measured performance is within 0.2 dB of the computer simulated predictions. A gate array implementation of the most time critical element of the high speed Viterbi decoder was completed. This gate array add-compare-select chip significantly reduces the power consumption and improves the manufacturability of the decoder. This chip has general application in the implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders.

  15. Advanced modulation technology development for earth station demodulator applications. Coded modulation system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Susan P.; Kappes, J. Mark; Layer, David H.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1990-01-01

    A jointly optimized coded modulation system is described which was designed, built, and tested by COMSAT Laboratories for NASA LeRC which provides a bandwidth efficiency of 2 bits/s/Hz at an information rate of 160 Mbit/s. A high speed rate 8/9 encoder with a Viterbi decoder and an Octal PSK modem are used to achieve this. The BER performance is approximately 1 dB from the theoretically calculated value for this system at a BER of 5 E-7 under nominal conditions. The system operates in burst mode for downlink applications and tests have demonstrated very little degradation in performance with frequency and level offset. Unique word miss rate measurements were conducted which demonstrate reliable acquisition at low values of Eb/No. Codec self tests have verified the performance of this subsystem in a stand alone mode. The codec is capable of operation at a 200 Mbit/s information rate as demonstrated using a codec test set which introduces noise digitally. The measured performance is within 0.2 dB of the computer simulated predictions. A gate array implementation of the most time critical element of the high speed Viterbi decoder was completed. This gate array add-compare-select chip significantly reduces the power consumption and improves the manufacturability of the decoder. This chip has general application in the implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders.

  16. Advances in Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svihla, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) is a core methodology of the Learning Sciences. Historically rooted as a movement away from the methods of experimental psychology, it is a means to develop "humble" theory that takes into account numerous contextual effects for understanding how and why a design supported learning. DBR involves iterative…

  17. Design of compact Marx module with square pulse output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongwei; Xie, Weiping; Yuan, Jianqiang; Wang, Lingyun; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Compact pulsed power system based on compact Marx generator is widely used in terms of drive resistance and capacitive loads. This system usually adopts high performance components such as high energy density capacitors, compact switches, and integrated structure. Traditional compact Marx generator can only output double-exponential pulse profile. In this paper a compact, low-impedance Marx module which can output rectangular pulse profile is design and tested. This module has multiple circuits of different discharge frequencies in parallel to generate quasi-rectangular pulse. Discharge characteristic of an ideal module with infinite branches is calculated theoretically. A module with two branches has been designed and tested. Test results show that the impedance of the module is 1.2 Ω. When charging voltage is 100.6 kV and load resistance is 1 Ω, the peak output pulse is 45.2 kV voltage, the peak power is about 2 GW, the pulse width is about 130 ns, and the rise time is about 35 ns. The energy density and power density of the module are 15 kJ/m3 and 140 GW/m3, respectively.

  18. Conceptual design of the Space Station combustion module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morilak, Daniel P.; Rohn, Dennis W.; Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of the Combustion Module for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). This module is part of the Space Station Fluids/Combustion Facility (SS FCF) under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Fluids/Combustion Facility is one of several science facilities which are being developed to support microgravity science investigations in the US Laboratory Module of the ISSA. The SS FCF will support a multitude of fluids and combustion science investigations over the lifetime of the ISSA and return state-of-the-art science data in a timely and efficient manner to the scientific communities. This will be accomplished through modularization of hardware, with planned, periodic upgrades; modularization of like scientific investigations that make use of common facility functions; and through the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) for incorporation of new technology and new functionality. The SS FCF is scheduled to become operational on-orbit in 1999. The Combustion Module is presently scheduled for launch to orbit and integration with the Fluids/Combustion Facility in 1999. The objectives of this paper are to describe the history of the Combustion Module concept, the types of combustion science investigations which will be accommodated by the module, the hardware design heritage, the hardware concept, and the hardware breadboarding efforts currently underway.

  19. Conceptual Design of the Space Station Fluids Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Dennis W.; Morilak, Daniel P.; Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Peterson, Todd T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual design of the Fluids Module for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). This module is part of the Space Station Fluids/Combustion Facility (SS FCF) under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Fluids/Combustion Facility is one of several science facilities which are being developed to support microgravity science investigations in the US Laboratory Module of the ISSA. The SS FCF will support a multitude of fluids and combustion science investigations over the lifetime of the ISSA and return state-of-the-art science data in a timely and efficient manner to the scientific communities. This will be accomplished through modularization of hardware, with planned, periodic upgrades; modularization of like scientific investigations that make use of common facility functions; and use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) for incorporation of new technology and new functionality. Portions of the SS FCF are scheduled to become operational on-orbit in 1999. The Fluids Module is presently scheduled for launch to orbit and integration with the Fluids/Combustion Facility in 2001. The objectives of this paper are to describe the history of the Fluids Module concept, the types of fluids science investigations which will be accommodated by the module, the hardware design heritage, the hardware concept, and the hardware breadboarding efforts currently underway.

  20. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  1. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  2. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  3. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  4. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  5. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Savrasov, Sergey; Kotliar, Gabriel; Haule, Kristjan

    2014-06-03

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  6. Advanced solar concentrator: Preliminary and detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Maraschin, R. A.; Matsushita, M. T.; Erskine, D.; Carlton, R.; Jakovcevic, A.; Yasuda, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    A single reflection point focusing two-axis tracking paraboloidal dish with a reflector aperture diameter of approximately 11 m has a reflective surface made up of 64 independent, optical quality gores. Each gore is a composite of a thin backsilvered mirror glass face sheet continuously bonded to a contoured substrate of lightweight, rigid cellular glass. The use of largely self-supporting gores allows a significant reduction in the weight of the steel support structure as compared to alternate design concepts. Primary emphasis in the preliminary design package for the low-cost, low-weight, mass producible concentrator was placed on the design of the higher cost subsystems. The outer gore element was sufficiently designed to allow fabrication of prototype gores.

  7. NASA/USRA advanced design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes and presents a preliminary design for an experimental hypersonic vehicle. This plane will have a cruise speed of Mach 12 for one minute at an altitude of 120,000 feet. The major design areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and weights are discussed in depth. An elementary analysis of thermal protection, trajectory, and cost is also presented. Finally, a discussion of future plans and recommendations is given, and overall conclusions are drawn.

  8. Safety aspects of the US advanced LMR (liquid metal reactor) design

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.R.; Gyorey, G.L.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Rosen, S.; General Electric Co., San Jose, CA; Argonne National Lab., IL; USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC )

    1989-01-01

    The cornerstones of the United States Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program sponsored by the Department of Energy are: the plant design program at General Electric based on the PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module) concept, and the Integral Fast Reactor program (IFR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The goal of the US program is to produce a standard, commercial ALMR, including the associated fuel cycle. This paper discusses the US regulatory framework for design of an ALMR, safety aspects of the IFR program at ANL, the IFR fuel cycle and actinide recycle, and the ALMR plant design program at GE. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Design, fabrication and characterization of miniaturized high resolution camera modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Goetz, M.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-05-01

    Camera systems become more and more important in everyday life. Some of those systems place special requirements concerning the environmental conditions they are exposed to especially in harsh environment. High temperature and humidity difficult to access areas require individual packaging and joining technologies for the setup of a camera module. Environmental conditions have an influence on optical design and tolerance calculation. In case of high temperatures the different thermal expansion coefficients of the used materials lead to stress in joints, lenses and their fittings. This, in turn, can lead to a loss of adjustment of the mechanical and optical components that have a direct influence on the optical performance of the camera module. The recent work shows the development of miniaturized high resolution camera modules designed for use in harsh environment applications.

  10. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  11. ATLAS, an integrated structural analysis and design system. Volume 6: Design module theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backman, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    The automated design theory underlying the operation of the ATLAS Design Module is decribed. The methods, applications and limitations associated with the fully stressed design, the thermal fully stressed design and a regional optimization algorithm are presented. A discussion of the convergence characteristics of the fully stressed design is also included. Derivations and concepts specific to the ATLAS design theory are shown, while conventional terminology and established methods are identified by references.

  12. Improving FCS Accountability: Increasing STEM Awareness with Interior Design Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheredge, Jessica; Moody, Dana; Cooper, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates ways in which family and consumer sciences (FCS) educators can explore more opportunities to integrate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) principles into secondary education curriculum. Interior design is used as a case study for creating learning modules that incorporate STEM principles in a creative and…

  13. A new conceptual design approach for habitative space modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burattini, C.; Bisegna, F.; Gugliermetti, F.; Marchetti, M.

    2014-04-01

    Existing Space modules were designed to meet the standards established by NASA, basically oriented to functionality. In future Space environments a high level of habitability in long duration missions will become a priority: besides comfort and ergonomics, these habitats will require the application of criteria to address human needs for living in confined environments.

  14. Intercultural Language Learning at Work: A Student-Designed Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoux, Marion

    2016-01-01

    During the academic year 2014-15, the Language Centre at the University of Nottingham Ningbo China (UNNC) worked in partnership with students on the design and validation of accredited work placement modules in the Language Centre. This initiative, endorsed by the UK campus within the Students As Change Agents (SACA) programme, aimed to address…

  15. Designing an Affordable Usability Test for E-Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Johnson, Donald M.; Shores-Ellis, Katrina D.; Crandall, Philip G.; Marcy, John A.; Seideman, Steve C.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides background and an introduction to a user-centered design and usability test in an inexpensive format that allows content experts who are novices in e-learning development to perform testing on newly developed technical training modules prior to their release. The use of a small number of test participants, avoidance of…

  16. Reconfigurable Advanced Receiver Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jianjing

    2005-01-01

    While the demand for real-time broadband information access has grown and continues to grow at a rapid Pace, the need for a reconfigurable receiver system has increased. To achieve the goal to communicate with multiple shuttles at a time, a filter bank in polyphase structure is introduced. This paper presents the design and implementation for high-speed, high-performance, and fixed-point polyphase filter banks. The polyphase filter structure is designed such that the use of a fixed-point system has minimum impact on the performance of the filter. The final hardware implementation is done on a Xilinx FPGA chip.

  17. Optimization of system parameters for modulator design in x-ray scatter correction using primary modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hewei; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the system parameters of the modulator on X-ray scatter correction using primary modulation is studied and an optimization of the modulator design is presented. Recently, a promising scatter correction method for X-ray computed tomography (CT) that uses a checkerboard pattern of attenuating blockers (primary modulator) placed between the X-ray source and the object has been developed and experimentally verified. The blocker size, d, and the blocker transmission factor, α, are critical to the performance of the primary modulation method. In this work, an error caused by aliasing of primary whose magnitude depends on the choices of d and α, and the scanned object, is set as the object function to be minimized, with constraints including the X-ray focal spot, the physical size of the detector element, and the noise level. The optimization is carried out in two steps. In the first step, d is chosen as small as possible but should meet a lower-bound condition. In the second step, α should be selected to balance the error level in the scatter estimation and the noise level in the reconstructed image. The lower bound of d on our tabletop CT system is 0.83 mm. Numerical simulations suggest 0.6 < α < 0.8 is appropriate. Using a Catphan 600 phantom, a copper modulator (d = 0.89 mm, α = 0.70) expectedly outperforms an aluminum modulator (d = 2.83 mm, α = 0.90). With the aluminum modulator, our method reduces the average error of CT number in selected contrast rods from 371.4 to 25.4 Hounsfield units (HU) and enhances the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) from 10.9 to 17.2; when the copper modulator is used, the error is further reduced to 21.9 HU and the CNR is further increased to 19.2.

  18. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications: Advanced parachute design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in high-performance parachute systems and the technologies needed to design them are presented in this paper. New parachute design and performance prediction codes are being developed to assist the designer in meeting parachute system performance requirements after a minimum number of flight tests. The status of advanced design codes under development at Sandia National Laboratories is summarized. An integral part of parachute performance prediction is the rational use of existing test data. The development of a data base for parachute design has been initiated to illustrate the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. Examples of advancements in parachute materials are presented, and recent problems with Mil-Spec broadgoods are reviewed. Finally, recent parachute systems tested at Sandia are summarized to illustrate new uses of old parachutes, new parachute configurations, and underwater recovery of payloads.

  19. Advanced photovoltaic concentrator system low-cost prototype module

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminar, N.R.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. )

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the continued development of an extruded lens and the development of a PV receiver, both of which will be used in the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation (SEA) 10X concentrator. These efforts were pare of a pre-Concentrator Initiative Program. The 10X concentrator consists of an inexpensive, extruded linear Fresnel lens which focuses on one-sun cells which are adhesive-bonded to an anodized aluminum heat sink. Module sides are planned to be molded along with the lens and are internally reflective for improved on- and off-track performance. End caps with molded-in bearings complete the module. Ten modules are mounted in a stationary frame for simple, single-axis tracking in the east-west direction. This configuration an array, is shipped completely assembled and requires only setting on a reasonably flat surface, installing 4 fasteners, and hooking up the wires. Development of the 10-inch wide extruded lens involved one new extrusion die and a series of modifications to this die. Over 76% lens transmission was measured which surpassed the program goal of 75%. One-foot long receiver sections were assembled and subjected to evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories. A first group had some problem with cell delamination and voids but a second group performed very well, indicating that a full size receiver would pass the full qualification test. Cost information was updated and presented in the report. The cost study indicated that the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation concentrator system can exceed the DOE electricity cost goals of less than 6cents per KW-hr. 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Photovoltaic-module encapsulation design and materials selection: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1982-06-01

    Encapsulation-material system requirements, material-selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available to the module manufacturer are presented in detail. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described for material suppliers to assist them in assessing the suitability of materials in their product lines and the potential of new-material products. A comprehensive discussion of available encapsulation technology and data is presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. A basis is provided for specifying the operational and environmental loads that encapsulation material systems must resist. Potential deployment sites for which cost effectiveness may be achieved at a module price much greater than $0.70/W/sub p/, are also considered; data on higher-cost encapsulant materials and processes that may be in use and other material candidates that may be justified for special application are discussed. Described are encapsulation-system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that have been identified and analyzed as having the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. The available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  1. Design of multi-mission chemical propulsion modules for planetary orbiters. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a conceptual design and feasibility study of chemical propulsion stages that can serve as modular propulsion units, with little or no modification, on a variety of planetary orbit missions, including orbiters of Mercury, Saturn, and Uranus. Planetary spacecraft of existing design or currently under development, viz., spacecraft of the Pioneer and Mariner families, are assumed as payload vehicles. Thus, operating requirements of spin-stabilized and 3-axis stabilized spacecraft have to be met by the respective propulsion module designs. As launch vehicle for these missions the Shuttle orbiter and interplanetary injection stage, or Tug, plus solid-propellant kick motor was assumed. Accommodation constraints and interfaces involving the payloads and the launch vehicle are considered in the propulsion module design. The applicability and performance advantages were evaluated of the space-storable high-energy bipropellants. The incentive for using this advanced propulsion technology on planetary missions is the much greater performance potential when orbit insertion velocities in excess of 4 km/sec are required, as in the Mercury orbiter. Design analyses and performance tradeoffs regarding earth-storable versus space-storable propulsion systems are included. Cost and development schedules of multi-mission versus custom-designed propulsion modules are examined.

  2. Advanced Computational Techniques for Power Tube Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    fixturing applications, in addition to the existing computer-aided engineering capabilities. o Helix TWT Manufacturing has Implemented a tooling and fixturing...illustrates the ajor features of this computer network. ) The backbone of our system is a Sytek Broadband Network (LAN) which Interconnects terminals and...automatic network analyzer (FANA) which electrically characterizes the slow-wave helices of traveling-wave tubes ( TWTs ) -- both for engineering design

  3. Advanced designs for fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research was carried out on existing and new designs for minimally intrusive measurement of flow fields in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell and the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment. The following topics are discussed: (1) identification and removal of foreign particles, (2) search for higher dielectric photochromic solutions, (3) selection of uv light source, (4) analysis of refractive techniques and (5) examination of fresnel lens applicability.

  4. Advances in structure-based vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Daniel W; Schief, William R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the tremendous successes of current vaccines, infectious diseases still take a heavy toll on the global population, and that provides strong rationale for broadening our vaccine development repertoire. Structural vaccinology, in which protein structure information is utilized to design immunogens, has promise to provide new vaccines against traditionally difficult targets. Crystal structures of antigens containing one or more protection epitopes, especially when in complex with a protective antibody, are the launching point for immunogen design. Integrating structure and sequence information for families of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has recently enabled the creation of germline-targeting immunogens that bind and activate germline B-cells in order to initiate the elicitation of such antibodies. The contacts between antigen and neutralizing antibody define a structural epitope, and methods have been developed to transplant epitopes to scaffold proteins for structural stabilization, and to design minimized antigens that retain one or more key epitopes while eliminating other potentially distracting or unnecessary features. To develop vaccines that protect against antigenically variable pathogens, pioneering structure-based work demonstrated that multiple strain-specific epitopes could be engineered onto a single immunogen. We review these recent structural vaccinology efforts to engineer germline-targeting, epitope-specific, and/or broad coverage immunogens. PMID:23806515

  5. 2eVME VME64x slave module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wei; Li, Cong; Chen, Xinglin; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-one cards access VME64x IPC in the wafer stage control system. So many dedicated boards share one bus lead to increased latency data transmission on the bus. This article uses a low-cost bus upgrade logic module to improve the data transmission capacity of the bus. This module use the 2eVME protocol which VME64x protocol support. The logical interface designed introduced in detail in this paper. Also a simulation experiment is conducted. The simulation results are consistent with the theory. Transferring large amounts of data, the speed of the bus protocol can reach 2 times the ordinary VME protocol speed.

  6. Development of an agility assessment module for preliminary fighter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngan, Angelen; Bauer, Brent; Biezad, Daniel; Hahn, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program is presented to perform agility analysis on fighter aircraft configurations. This code is one of the modules of the NASA Ames ACSYNT (AirCraft SYNThesis) design code. The background of the agility research in the aircraft industry and a survey of a few agility metrics are discussed. The methodology, techniques, and models developed for the code are presented. FORTRAN programs were developed for two specific metrics, CCT (Combat Cycle Time) and PM (Pointing Margin), as part of the agility module. The validity of the code was evaluated by comparing with existing flight test data. Example trade studies using the agility module along with ACSYNT were conducted using Northrop F-20 Tigershark and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet aircraft models. The sensitivity of thrust loading and wing loading on agility criteria were investigated. The module can compare the agility potential between different configurations and has the capability to optimize agility performance in the preliminary design process. This research provides a new and useful design tool for analyzing fighter performance during air combat engagements.

  7. Design, fabrication, test qualification and price analysis of a third generation solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The design, fabrication, test, and qualification of a third generation intermediate load solar cell module are presented. A technical discussion of the detailed module design, preliminary design review, design modifications, and environmental testing are included. A standardized pricing system is utilized to establish the cost competitiveness of this module design.

  8. Design of the Atlas 240 kV Marx modules

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.W.; Bennett, G.; Biehl, F.

    1997-06-01

    A prototype 240 kV, oil-insulated Marx module has been designed and constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The prototype will be used for testing and certifying the design of the Marx module and certain components, including the closing switches, series resistor, and the capacitors themselves. The prototype will also be used to evaluate proposed mechanical systems designs. Information gained from the construction and testing of the 4-capacitor prototype will be folded into the design of the 16-capacitor maintenance unit. The prototype module consists of four 60 kV capacitors, two closing switches, one shunt resistor, and one series resistor. Cables are used to deliver the current to a dummy load scaled to match Atlas system parameters. The Marx unit is contained in a structure made from G-10, suspended from a steel frame that also serves to support components of the trigger, charging, and control system. Appropriate safety and charging systems are an integral part of the prototype design.

  9. A band-modulation device in advanced FDSOI technology: Sharp switching characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Dirani, Hassan; Solaro, Yohann; Fonteneau, Pascal; Legrand, Charles-Alex; Marin-Cudraz, David; Golanski, Dominique; Ferrari, Philippe; Cristoloveanu, Sorin

    2016-11-01

    A band-modulation device is demonstrated experimentally in advanced FDSOI (Fully Depleted SOI). The Z2-FET (Zero Impact Ionization and Zero Subthreshold Slope FET) is a very recent sharp switching device which achieves remarkable performance in terms of leakage current and triggering control. The device is fabricated with Ultra-Thin Body and Buried Oxide (UTBB) Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology, features an extremely sharp on-switch, low leakage and an adjustable triggering voltage (VON). The Z2-FET operation relies on the modulation of electrons and holes injection barriers. In this paper, we show, for the first time, experimental data obtained with the most advanced FDSOI node.

  10. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  11. Design, fabrication, test, qualification, and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cell modules is detailed with emphasis upon laminating and interconnecting the panels that hold the simicrystalline silicon cells. Design problems and enviromental tests are described as well as performance characteristics.

  12. Design, fabrication, test, qualification, and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The fabrication of solar cell modules is detailed with emphasis upon laminating and interconnecting the panels that hold the simicrystalline silicon cells. Design problems and enviromental tests are described as well as performance characteristics.

  13. Engineering Design Handbook. Joining of Advanced Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    347 A0-830 291 350 AD·881 357 355 A0830 268 356 AD-817 023 357 AD-873 103 3591 ADA-035 445 360 A0-783 697 361 AOA-013 769 4101 AOA- 038 803...A0·873 103 3581 ADA·035 445 360 AD·7B3 697 361 ADA·013 769 4101 AOA· 038 803 411 lSI AOC·008 827 412 ICI ADC·OOB 828 413iS) ADC·OOB 829 414...t17. 50 Helicopter Engineering. Part Two, Detail Design

  14. Recovery Act: Advanced Interaction, Computation, and Visualization Tools for Sustainable Building Design

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Donald P.; Hencey, Brandon M.

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.

  15. High-speed coherent silicon modulator module using photonic integrated circuits: from circuit design to packaged module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé, S.; Olivier, S.; Myko, A.; Fournier, M.; Blampey, B.; Abraham, A.; Menezo, S.; Hauden, J.; Mottet, A.; Frigui, K.; Ngoho, S.; Frigui, B.; Bila, S.; Marris-Morini, D.; Pérez-Galacho, D.; Brindel, P.; Charlet, G.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon photonics technology is an enabler for the integration of complex circuits on a single chip, for various optical link applications such as routing, optical networks on chip, short range links and long haul transmitters. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) transmitters is one of the typical circuits that can be achieved using silicon photonics integrated circuits. The achievement of 25GBd QPSK transmitter modules requires several building blocks to be optimized: the pn junction used to build a BPSK (Binary Shift Phase Keying) modulator, the RF access and the optical interconnect at the package level. In this paper, we describe the various design steps of a BPSK module and the related tests that are needed at every stage of the fabrication process.

  16. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  17. Performance Characteristics Of An Intensity Modulated Advanced X-Ray Source (IMAXS) For Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Brown, Craig; Condron, Cathie; Ingle, Mike; Christensen, Phil A.; Johnson, William A.; Owen, Roger D.; Ross, Randy

    2011-06-01

    X-ray cargo inspection systems for the detection and verification of threats and contraband must address stringent, competitive performance requirements. High x-ray intensity is needed to penetrate dense cargo, while low intensity is desirable to minimize the radiation footprint, i.e. the size of the controlled area, required shielding and the dose to personnel. In a collaborative effort between HESCO/PTSE Inc., XScell Corp., Stangenes Industries, Inc. and Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., an Intensity Modulated Advanced X-ray Source (IMAXS) was designed and produced. Cargo inspection systems utilizing such a source have been projected to achieve up to 2 inches steel-equivalent greater penetration capability, while on average producing the same or smaller radiation footprint as present fixed-intensity sources. Alternatively, the design can be used to obtain the same penetration capability as with conventional sources, but reducing the radiation footprint by about a factor of three. The key idea is to anticipate the needed intensity for each x-ray pulse by evaluating signal strength in the cargo inspection system detector array for the previous pulse. The IMAXS is therefore capable of changing intensity from one pulse to the next by an electronic signal provided by electronics inside the cargo inspection system detector array, which determine the required source intensity for the next pulse. We report on the completion of a 9 MV S-band (2998 MHz) IMAXS source and comment on its performance.

  18. Module Design, Materials, and Packaging Research Team: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Kennedy, C.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K

    2005-01-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples will be described.

  19. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  20. Robust flight design for an advanced launch system vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhand, Sanjeev K.; Wong, Kelvin K.

    1991-01-01

    Current launch vehicle trajectory design philosophies are generally based on maximizing payload capability. This approach results in an expensive trajectory design process for each mission. Two concepts of robust flight design have been developed to significantly reduce this cost: Standardized Trajectories and Command Multiplier Steering (CMS). These concepts were analyzed for an Advanced Launch System (ALS) vehicle, although their applicability is not restricted to any particular vehicle. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the feasibility of these concepts at minimal loss in payload capability.

  1. CFD analyses for advanced pump design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, F. J.; Choi, S.-K.; Govindan, T. R.

    1994-01-01

    As one of the activities of the NASA/MSFC Pump Stage Technology Team, the present effort was focused on using CFD in the design and analysis of high performance rocket engine pumps. Under this effort, a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code was used for various inducer and impeller flow field calculations. An existing algebraic grid generation procedure was-extended to allow for nonzero blade thickness, splitter blades, and hub/shroud cavities upstream or downstream of the (main) blades. This resulted in a fast, robust inducer/impeller geometry/grid generation package. Problems associated with running a compressible flow code to simulate an incompressible flow were resolved; related aspects of the numerical algorithm (viz., the matrix preconditioning, the artificial dissipation, and the treatment of low Mach number flows) were addressed. As shown by the calculations performed under the present effort, the resulting code, in conjunction with the grid generation package, is an effective tool for the rapid solution of three-dimensional viscous inducer and impeller flows.

  2. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  3. Status of high efficiency module design and fabrication. [of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Spitzer, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    The status of an ongoing DOE program to develop an AM1 photoelectric module with 15 percent conversion efficiency at normal heating temperatures, is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the efforts of a private company to develop a high efficiency module which also has high durability in normal operating conditions. The main design options considered are: high efficiency modules; large area modules; and optimized module fabrication techniques. The design of an automatic system for encapsulating module stacks is described.

  4. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Brenda

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 3-hour introduction to computers. The purpose is to develop the following competencies: (1) orientation to data processing; (2) use of data entry devices; (3) use of computer menus; and (4) entry of data with accuracy and…

  5. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Industrial Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenhunt, James E.

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour introduction to industrial physics that explains and demonstrates to industrial maintenance mechanics the direct relationship of physics to machinery. Project TEAM is intended to upgrade basic technical competencies of…

  6. Synthetic biology: advancing the design of diverse genetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Hsiang; Wei, Kathy Y.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    A main objective of synthetic biology is to make the process of designing genetically-encoded biological systems more systematic, predictable, robust, scalable, and efficient. The examples of genetic systems in the field vary widely in terms of operating hosts, compositional approaches, and network complexity, ranging from a simple genetic switch to search-and-destroy systems. While significant advances in synthesis capabilities support the potential for the implementation of pathway- and genome-scale programs, several design challenges currently restrict the scale of systems that can be reasonably designed and implemented. Synthetic biology offers much promise in developing systems to address challenges faced in manufacturing, the environment and sustainability, and health and medicine, but the realization of this potential is currently limited by the diversity of available parts and effective design frameworks. As researchers make progress in bridging this design gap, advances in the field hint at ever more diverse applications for biological systems. PMID:23413816

  7. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  8. Caveolin-1 Modulates Androgen Receptor Signaling in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    is now a major focus for the design of novel drugs with potential clinical application [76,77]. Another recent study by Kim et al. demonstrates a...AUTHOR(S) Michael L. Lu, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: mlu3@fau.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME (S...MONITORING AGENCY NAME (S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland

  9. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  10. Design, analysis, and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A.; Minning, C.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal, optical, structural, and electrical isolation analyses are decribed. Major factors in the design of terrestrial photovoltaic modules are discussed. Mechanical defects in the different layers of an encapsulation system, it was found, would strongly influence the minimum pottant thickness required for electrical isolation. Structural, optical, and electrical properties, a literature survey indicated, are hevily influenced by the presence of moisture. These items, identified as technology voids, are discussed. Analyses were based upon a 1.2 meter square module using 10.2 cm (4-inch) square cells placed 1.3 mm apart as shown in Figure 2-2. Sizing of the structural support member of a module was determined for a uniform, normal pressure load of 50 psf, corresponding to the pressure difference generated between the front and back surface of a module by a 100 mph wind. Thermal and optical calculations were performed for a wind velocity of 1 meter/sec parallel to the ground and for module tilt (relative to the local horizontal) of 37 deg. Placement of a module in a typical array field is illustrated.

  11. Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Lauermann, M; Palmer, R; Koeber, S; Schindler, P C; Korn, D; Wahlbrink, T; Bolten, J; Waldow, M; Elder, D L; Dalton, L R; Leuthold, J; Freude, W; Koos, C

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators that enable quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) with high signal quality and record-low energy consumption. SOH integration combines highly efficient electro-optic organic materials with conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) slot waveguides, and allows to overcome the intrinsic limitations of silicon as an optical integration platform. We demonstrate QPSK and 16QAM signaling at symbol rates of 28 GBd with peak-to-peak drive voltages of 0.6 V(pp). For the 16QAM experiment at 112 Gbit/s, we measure a bit-error ratio of 5.1 × 10⁻⁵ and a record-low energy consumption of only 19 fJ/bit.

  12. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Summer Conference: NASA/USRA University Advanced Aeronautics Design Program and Advanced Space Design Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program was established in 1984 as an attempt to add more and better design education to primarily undergraduate engineering programs. The original focus of the pilot program encompassing nine universities and five NASA centers was on space design. Two years later, the program was expanded to include aeronautics design with six universities and three NASA centers participating. This year marks the last of a three-year cycle of participation by forty-one universities, eight NASA centers, and one industry participant. The Advanced Space Design Program offers universities an opportunity to plan and design missions and hardware that would be of usc in the future as NASA enters a new era of exploration and discovery, while the Advanced Aeronautics Design Program generally offers opportunities for study of design problems closer to the present time, ranging from small, slow-speed vehicles to large, supersonic and hypersonic passenger transports. The systems approach to the design problem is emphasized in both the space and aeronautics projects. The student teams pursue the chosen problem during their senior year in a one- or two-semester capstone design course and submit a comprehensive written report at the conclusion of the project. Finally, student representatives from each of the universities summarize their work in oral presentations at the Annual Summer Conference, sponsored by one of the NASA centers and attended by the university faculty, NASA and USRA personnel and aerospace industry representatives. As the Advanced Design Program has grown in size, it has also matured in terms of the quality of the student projects. The present volume represents the student work accomplished during the 1992-1993 academic year reported at the Ninth Annual Summer Conference hosted by NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, June 14-18, 1993.

  13. Aerodynamic Design Study of Advanced Multistage Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Medd, Adam J.; Dang, Thong Q.

    2002-01-01

    As a direct response to the need for further performance gains from current multistage axial compressors, an investigation of advanced aerodynamic design concepts that will lead to compact, high-efficiency, and wide-operability configurations is being pursued. Part I of this report describes the projected level of technical advancement relative to the state of the art and quantifies it in terms of basic aerodynamic technology elements of current design systems. A rational enhancement of these elements is shown to lead to a substantial expansion of the design and operability space. Aerodynamic design considerations for a four-stage core compressor intended to serve as a vehicle to develop, integrate, and demonstrate aerotechnology advancements are discussed. This design is biased toward high efficiency at high loading. Three-dimensional blading and spanwise tailoring of vector diagrams guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to manage the aerodynamics of the high-loaded endwall regions. Certain deleterious flow features, such as leakage-vortex-dominated endwall flow and strong shock-boundary-layer interactions, were identified and targeted for improvement. However, the preliminary results were encouraging and the front two stages were extracted for further aerodynamic trimming using a three-dimensional inverse design method described in part II of this report. The benefits of the inverse design method are illustrated by developing an appropriate pressure-loading strategy for transonic blading and applying it to reblade the rotors in the front two stages of the four-stage configuration. Multistage CFD simulations based on the average passage formulation indicated an overall efficiency potential far exceeding current practice for the front two stages. Results of the CFD simulation at the aerodynamic design point are interrogated to identify areas requiring additional development. In spite of the significantly higher aerodynamic loadings, advanced CFD

  14. Electrical safety requirements: Implications for the module designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial photovoltaic array installations, which include residential and intermediate applications, are subject to building and electrical codes and to product safety standards. The National Electrical Code (NEC) Article 690, titled Solar Photovoltaic Systems, contains provisions defining acceptable levels of system safety and emphasizes the system design and its installation. The Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL), document titled: Proposed First Edition of the Standard for Flat Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels, UL-1703, identifies module and panel construction requirements that ensure product safety. Together these documents describe requirements intended to minimize hazards such as shock and fire. Although initial focus of these requirements is on single crystal silicon modules, they are generic in nature, and are equally applicable to high voltage ( 30 Vdc), multikilowatt, thin film systems. A major safety concern is insulation breakdown within the module or array wiring system, or discontinuities within the electrical conductors. These failures can result in ground faults, in circuit arcs, or exposure to hazardous electrical parts. Safeguards are discussed.

  15. Advanced photovoltaic power systems using tandem GaAs/GaSb concentrator modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraas, L. M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Pietila, D. A.; Sundaram, V. S.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Avery, J. E.; Dihn, V.; Ballantyne, R.; Samuel, C.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, Boeing announced the fabrication of a tandem gallium concentrator solar cell with an energy conversion efficiency of 30 percent. This research breakthrough has now led to panels which are significantly smaller, lighter, more radiation resistant, and potentially less expensive than the traditional silicon flat plate electric power supply. The new Boeing tandem concentrator (BTC) module uses an array of lightweight silicone Fresnel lenses mounted on the front side of a light weight aluminum honeycomb structure to focus sunlight onto small area solar cells mounted on a thin back plane. This module design is shown schematically. The tandem solar cell in this new module consists of a gallium arsenide light sensitive cell with a 24 percent energy conversion efficiency stacked on top of a gallium antimonide infrared sensitive cell with a conversion efficiency of 6 percent. This gives a total efficiency 30 percent for the cell-stack. The lens optical efficiency is typically 85 percent. Discounting for efficiency losses associated with lens packing, cell wiring, and cell operating temperature still allows for a module efficiency of 22 percent which leads to a module power density of 300 Watts/sq. m. This performance provides more than twice the power density available from a single crystal silicon flat plate module and at least four times the power density available from amorphous silicon modules. The fact that the lenses are only 0.010 ft. thick and the aluminum foil back plane is only 0.003 ft. thick leads to a very lightweight module. Although the cells are an easy to handle thickness of 0.020 ft., the fact that they are small, occupying one-twenty-fifth of the module area, means that they add little to the module weight. After summing all the module weights and given the high module power, we find that we are able to fabricate BTC modules with specific power of 100 watts/kg.

  16. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - cost module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiciak, R.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    The design-constructional process is a creation activity which strives to fulfil, as well as it possible at the certain moment of time, all demands and needs formulated by a user taking into account social, technical and technological advances. Engineer knowledge and skills and their inborn abilities have the greatest influence on the final product quality and cost. They have also deciding influence on product technical and economic value. Taking into account above it seems to be advisable to make software tools that support an engineer in the process of manufacturing cost estimation. The Cost module is built with analytical procedures which are used for relative manufacturing cost estimation. As in the case of the Generator module the Cost module was written in object programming language C# in Visual Studio environment. During the research the following eight factors, that have the greatest influence on overall manufacturing cost, were distinguished and defined: (i) a gear wheel teeth type it is straight or helicoidal, (ii) a gear wheel design shape A, B with or without wheel hub, (iii) a gear tooth module, (iv) teeth number, (v) gear rim width, (vi) gear wheel material, (vii) heat treatment or thermochemical treatment, (viii) accuracy class. Knowledge of parameters (i) to (v) is indispensable for proper modelling of 3D gear wheels models in CAD system environment. These parameters are also processed in the Cost module. The last three parameters it is (vi) to (viii) are exclusively used in the Cost module. The estimation of manufacturing relative cost is based on indexes calculated for each particular parameter. Estimated in this way the manufacturing relative cost gives an overview of design parameters influence on the final gear wheel manufacturing cost. This relative manufacturing cost takes values from 0.00 to 1,00 range. The bigger index value the higher relative manufacturing cost is. Verification whether the proposed algorithm of relative manufacturing

  17. Advanced radial inflow turbine rotor program: Design and dynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The advancement of small, cooled, radial inflow turbine technology in the area of operation at higher turbine inlet temperature is discussed. The first step was accomplished by designing, fabricating, and subjecting to limited mechanical testing an advanced gas generator rotating assembly comprising a radial inflow turbine and two-stage centrifugal compressor. The radial inflow turbine and second-stage compressor were designed as an integrally machined monorotor with turbine cooling taking place basically by conduction to the compressor. Design turbine inlet rotor gas temperature, rotational speed, and overall gas generator compressor pressure ratio were 1422 K (2560 R), 71,222 rpm, and 10/1 respectively. Mechanical testing on a fabricated rotating assembly and bearing system covered 1,000 cold start/stop cycles and three spins to 120 percent design speed (85,466 rpm).

  18. Problems of design and development of advanced superheavy launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniluk, A. Yu.; Klyushnikov, V. Yu.; Kuznetsov, I. I.; Osadchenko, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    The article analyzes problems of design and development of advanced superheavy launch vehicles. Mass and energy characteristics and design layout of launch vehicles are substantiated. Delivery methods of bulky superheavy launch vehicle components to the spacecraft launch site are discussed. Methods of reduction of financial and technical risks of development and operation of superheavy launch vehicles are analyzed. The problem of environmental impacts of superheavy launch vehicle launches is posed.

  19. Advances in design and performance of SHE system components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, J. R.; Novak, R. F.; Schmatz, D. J.; Copple, W. B.; Brockway, J. T.

    The sodium heat engine (SHE), a thermoelectric energy conversion device that operates with no moving parts at conversion efficiencies projected to reach 25-30 percent, is discussed. Recent progress in the design and performance of components used in the development of a 1000-W SHE is reported. Advances in long-life electrodes, high-temperature ceramic-to-metal seals, electromagnetic pumps, radiation shields, and current-gathering systems are discussed. Parasitic losses and modular designs are considered.

  20. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  1. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  2. Instructional Design Theory: Advancements from Cognitive Science and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    Scientific advancements in cognitive science and instructional technology extend the behaviorally-oriented learning paradigm of instructional design and management in three major areas: (1) analysis of information-to-be-learned; (2) means of evaluating learners; and (3) linkage of learning theory to instructional prescriptions. The two basic types…

  3. Advanced Jewelry Design. Art Education: 6684.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinaccio, Louis M.

    See SO 007 721 for an introduction to the Visual Arts Education Curriculum of which this course in jewelry design is a part. In the course students further skills in forming complex objects through experience with casting, bezeling stones, and welding. Course content includes an historical perspective on jewelry production and advanced methods in…

  4. Cost and accuracy of advanced breeding trial designs in apple

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Julia M; Evans, Kate M; Hardner, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Trialing advanced candidates in tree fruit crops is expensive due to the long-term nature of the planting and labor-intensive evaluations required to make selection decisions. How closely the trait evaluations approximate the true trait value needs balancing with the cost of the program. Designs of field trials of advanced apple candidates in which reduced number of locations, the number of years and the number of harvests per year were modeled to investigate the effect on the cost and accuracy in an operational breeding program. The aim was to find designs that would allow evaluation of the most additional candidates while sacrificing the least accuracy. Critical percentage difference, response to selection, and correlated response were used to examine changes in accuracy of trait evaluations. For the quality traits evaluated, accuracy and response to selection were not substantially reduced for most trial designs. Risk management influences the decision to change trial design, and some designs had greater risk associated with them. Balancing cost and accuracy with risk yields valuable insight into advanced breeding trial design. The methods outlined in this analysis would be well suited to other horticultural crop breeding programs. PMID:27019717

  5. Waste receiving and processing facility module 1, detailed design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    WRAP 1 baseline documents which guided the technical development of the Title design included: (a) A/E Statement of Work (SOW) Revision 4C: This DOE-RL contractual document specified the workscope, deliverables, schedule, method of performance and reference criteria for the Title design preparation. (b) Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Revision 1: This DOE-RL technical criteria document specified the overall operational criteria for the facility. The document was a Revision 0 at the beginning of the design and advanced to Revision 1 during the tenure of the Title design. (c) Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Revision 3: This baseline criteria document prepared by WHC for DOE-RL augments the FDC by providing further definition of the process, operational safety, and facility requirements to the A/E for guidance in preparing the design. The document was at a very preliminary stage at the onset of Title design and was revised in concert with the results of the engineering studies that were performed to resolve the numerous technical issues that the project faced when Title I was initiated, as well as, by requirements established during the course of the Title II design.

  6. Assessment of advanced practice palliative care nursing competencies in nurse practitioner students: implications for the integration of ELNEC curricular modules.

    PubMed

    Shea, Joyce; Grossman, Sheila; Wallace, Meredith; Lange, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Advanced practice nurses (APRNs) have key roles in the care of patients who are nearing death and those living with a disabling chronic disease. This article describes a mixed-method formative assessment of 36 graduate nursing students' knowledge about and attitudes toward palliative care preliminary to curricular integration of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) graduate core modules. Students' knowledge about palliative care was assessed using the 106-item ELNEC examination. In addition, qualitative data were gathered regarding students' definitions of palliative care, the role of the APRN in palliative care, and their definitions of a "good" and "bad" death. Results revealed students' limited knowledge about palliative care. Qualitative findings indicated that most students exclusively linked palliative care with end-of-life care and believed that the treatment they provide should have the goal of prolonging life over maintaining quality of life. Implications for curriculum design, advanced practice role development, and collaboration with community health partners are discussed.

  7. The Light Microscopy Module Design and Performance Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Hovenac, Edward A.

    2003-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is a state-of-the-art space station payload to provide investigations in the fields of fluids, condensed matter physics, and biological sciences. The LMM hardware will reside inside the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), a multi-user facility class payload that will provide fundamental services for the LMM and future payloads. LMM and FIR will be launched in 2005 and both will reside in the Destiny module of the International Space Station (ISS). There are five experiments to be performed within the LMM. This paper will provide a description of the initial five experiments: the supporting FIR subsystems; LMM design; capabilities and key features; and a summary of performance demonstrations.

  8. Depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulator in zero-change advanced CMOS.

    PubMed

    Shainline, Jeffrey M; Orcutt, Jason S; Wade, Mark T; Nammari, Kareem; Moss, Benjamin; Georgas, Michael; Sun, Chen; Ram, Rajeev J; Stojanović, Vladimir; Popović, Miloš A

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate the first (to the best of our knowledge) depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulator fabricated in a standard advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic process (45 nm node SOI CMOS) with no process modifications. The zero-change CMOS photonics approach enables this device to be monolithically integrated into state-of-the-art microprocessors and advanced electronics. Because these processes support lateral p-n junctions but not efficient ridge waveguides, we accommodate these constraints with a new type of resonant modulator. It is based on a hybrid microring/disk cavity formed entirely in the sub-90 nm thick monocrystalline silicon transistor body layer. Electrical contact of both polarities is made along the inner radius of the multimode ring cavity via an array of silicon spokes. The spokes connect to p and n regions formed using transistor well implants, which form radially extending lateral junctions that provide index modulation. We show 5 Gbps data modulation at 1265 nm wavelength with 5.2 dB extinction ratio and an estimated 40 fJ/bit energy consumption. Broad thermal tuning is demonstrated across 3.2 THz (18 nm) with an efficiency of 291 GHz/mW. A single postprocessing step to remove the silicon handle wafer was necessary to support low-loss optical confinement in the device layer. This modulator is an important step toward monolithically integrated CMOS photonic interconnects.

  9. Development of Advanced Seed Laser Modules for Lidar and Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Rosiewicz, Alex; Coleman, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent progress made in the development of highly compact, single mode, distributed feedback laser (DFB) seed laser modules for lidar and spectroscopy applications from space based platforms. One of the intended application of this technology is in the NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The DFB laser modules operating at 1571 nm and 1262 nm have advanced current and temperature drivers built into them. A combination of temperature and current tuning allows coarse and fine adjustment of the diode wavelengths.

  10. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  11. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  12. Recent Advances in Power System Design at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Wingard, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The recent trends in power system design at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have reflected the agency's move toward faster, better and cheaper spacecraft. The demand for a less expensive and standardized spacecraft bus, in addition to a push for accelerated development times has resulted in fewer custom-designed components and more use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The more recent power system designs at GSFC have utilized the advances in technology to meet mission requirements while also shrinking weight, volume, cost and development time.

  13. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  14. Advances in Experiment Design for High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Engene A.

    1998-01-01

    A general overview and summary of recent advances in experiment design for high performance aircraft is presented, along with results from flight tests. General theoretical background is included, with some discussion of various approaches to maneuver design. Flight test examples from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are used to illustrate applications of the theory. Input forms are compared using Cramer-Rao bounds for the standard errors of estimated model parameters. Directions for future research in experiment design for high performance aircraft are identified.

  15. Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines; Part I: Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to give wind turbine engineers information and examples of the design, testing through simulation, field implementation, and field testing of advanced wind turbine controls.

  16. Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; Veronica Rutledge; Candido Pereira; Jackie Copple; Kurt Frey; John Krebs; Laura Maggos; Kevin Nichols; Kent Wardle; Pratap Sadasivan; Valmor DeAlmieda; David Depaoli

    2011-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has been established to create and deploy next generation, verified and validated nuclear energy modeling and simulation capabilities for the design, implementation, and operation of future nuclear energy systems to improve the U.S. energy security. As part of the NEAMS program, Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC's) are being produced to significantly advance the status of modeling and simulation of energy systems beyond what is currently available to the extent that the new codes be readily functional in the short term and extensible in the longer term. The four IPSC areas include Safeguards and Separations, Reactors, Fuels, and Waste Forms. As part of the Safeguards and Separations (SafeSeps) IPSC effort, interoperable process models are being developed that enable dynamic simulation of an advanced separations plant. A SafeSepss IPSC 'toolkit' is in development to enable the integration of separation process modules and safeguards tools into the design process by providing an environment to compose, verify and validate a simulation application to be used for analysis of various plant configurations and operating conditions. The modules of this toolkit will be implemented on a modern, expandable architecture with the flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options while preserving their stand-alone usability. Modules implemented at the plant-level will initially incorporate relatively simple representations for each process through a reduced modeling approach. Final versions will incorporate the capability to bridge to subscale models to provide required fidelity in chemical and physical processes. A dynamic solvent extraction model and its module implementation are needed to support the development of this integrated plant model. As a stand-alone application, it will also support solvent development of extraction flowsheets and integrated

  17. Design and Development of Physics Module Based on Learning Style and Appropriate Technology by Employing Isman Instructional Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at designing and developing a Physics module based on learning style and appropriate technology in secondary educational setting by employing Isman Instructional Design Model and to test the effectiveness of the module. The paper draws attention to the design principles which employs Isman Instructional Design Model. The…

  18. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  19. Advanced hydrogen/oxygen thrust chamber design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of the advanced hydrogen/oxygen thrust chamber design analysis program. The primary objectives of this program were to: (1) provide an in-depth analytical investigation to develop thrust chamber cooling and fatigue life limitations of an advanced, high pressure, high performance H2/O2 engine design of 20,000-pounds (88960.0 N) thrust; and (2) integrate the existing heat transfer analysis, thermal fatigue and stress aspects for advanced chambers into a comprehensive computer program. Thrust chamber designs and analyses were performed to evaluate various combustor materials, coolant passage configurations (tubes and channels), and cooling circuits to define the nominal 1900 psia (1.31 x 10 to the 7th power N/sq m) chamber pressure, 300-cycle life thrust chamber. The cycle life capability of the selected configuration was then determined for three duty cycles. Also the influence of cycle life and chamber pressure on thrust chamber design was investigated by varying in cycle life requirements at the nominal chamber pressure and by varying the chamber pressure at the nominal cycle life requirement.

  20. Design of the advanced regional aircraft, the DART-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, Steve; Gislason, Jason; Huffstetler, Mark; Mann, Jon; Withers, Ashley; Zimmerman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The need for regional aircraft stems from the problem of hub airport congestion. Regional travel will allow a passenger to commute from one spoke city to another spoke city without entering the congested hub airport. In addition, those people traveling longer routes may begin the flight at home instead of traveling to the hub airport. At this time, there is no American aerospace company that produces a regional transport for under 100 passengers. The intention of the Developmental Advanced Regional Transport (DART-75) is to fill this void with a modern, efficient regional aircraft. This design achieves the efficiency through a number of advanced features including three lifting surfaces, partial composite construction, and an advanced engine design. Efficiency is not the only consideration. Structural integrity, fatigue life, ease of maintenance, passenger comfort and convenience, and environmental aspects must all be considered. These factors force the design team to face many tradeoffs that are studied to find the best solution. The final consideration that cannot be overlooked is that of cost. The DART-75 is a 75-passenger medium-range regional transport intended for spoke-to-spoke, spoke-to-hub, and some hub-to-hub operations. Included are the general descriptions of the structures, weight and balance, stability and control, performance, and engine design.

  1. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  2. Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor

    2012-05-31

    Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) present higher efficiency, larger production rate, and can be operated in deeper wells than the other geothermal artificial lifting systems. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) applications recommend lifting 300 C geothermal water at 80kg/s flow rate in a maximum 10-5/8-inch diameter wellbore to improve the cost-effectiveness. In this paper, an advanced ESP design tool comprising a 1D theoretical model and a 3D CFD analysis has been developed to design ESPs for geothermal applications. Design of Experiments was also performed to optimize the geometry and performance. The designed mixed-flow type centrifugal impeller and diffuser exhibit high efficiency and head rise under simulated EGS conditions. The design tool has been validated by comparing the prediction to experimental data of an existing ESP product.

  3. Methodology Series Module 8: Designing Questionnaires and Clinical Record Forms

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    As researchers, we often collect data on a clinical record form or a questionnaire. It is an important part of study design. If the questionnaire is not well designed, the data collected will not be useful. In this section of the module, we have discussed some practical aspects of designing a questionnaire. It is useful to make a list of all the variables that will be assessed in the study before preparing the questionnaire. The researcher should review all the existing questionnaires. It may be efficient to use an existing standardized questionnaire or scale. Many of these scales are freely available and may be used with an appropriate reference. However, some may be under copyright protection and permissions may be required to use the same questionnaire. While designing their own questionnaire, researchers may use open- or close-ended questions. It is important to design the responses appropriately as the format of responses will influence the analysis. Sometimes, one can collect the same information in multiple ways - continuous or categorical response. Besides these, the researcher can also use visual analog scales or Likert's scale in the questionnaire. Some practical take-home points are: (1) Use specific language while framing the questions; (2) write detailed instructions in the questionnaire; (3) use mutually exclusive response categories; (4) use skip patterns; (5) avoid double-barreled questions; and (6) anchor the time period if required.

  4. Advanced Free Flight Planner and Dispatcher's Workstation: Preliminary Design Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.; Wright, C.; Couluris, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has implemented the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) program to investigate future improvements to the national and international air traffic management systems. This research, as part of the AATT program, developed preliminary design requirements for an advanced Airline Operations Control (AOC) dispatcher's workstation, with emphasis on flight planning. This design will support the implementation of an experimental workstation in NASA laboratories that would emulate AOC dispatch operations. The work developed an airline flight plan data base and specified requirements for: a computer tool for generation and evaluation of free flight, user preferred trajectories (UPT); the kernel of an advanced flight planning system to be incorporated into the UPT-generation tool; and an AOC workstation to house the UPT-generation tool and to provide a real-time testing environment. A prototype for the advanced flight plan optimization kernel was developed and demonstrated. The flight planner uses dynamic programming to search a four-dimensional wind and temperature grid to identify the optimal route, altitude and speed for successive segments of a flight. An iterative process is employed in which a series of trajectories are successively refined until the LTPT is identified. The flight planner is designed to function in the current operational environment as well as in free flight. The free flight environment would enable greater flexibility in UPT selection based on alleviation of current procedural constraints. The prototype also takes advantage of advanced computer processing capabilities to implement more powerful optimization routines than would be possible with older computer systems.

  5. Failure to Modulate Attentional Control in Advanced Aging Linked to White Matter Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Koene R. A.; Shire, Emily H.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced aging is associated with reduced attentional control and less flexible information processing. Here, the origins of these cognitive effects were explored using a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that systematically varied demands to shift attention and inhibit irrelevant information across task blocks. Prefrontal and parietal regions previously implicated in attentional control were recruited by the task and most so for the most demanding task configurations. A subset of older individuals did not modulate activity in frontal and parietal regions in response to changing task requirements. Older adults who did not dynamically modulate activity underperformed their peers and scored more poorly on neuropsychological measures of executive function and speed of processing. Examining 2 markers of preclinical pathology in older adults revealed that white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), but not high amyloid burden, were associated with failure to modulate activity in response to changing task demands. In contrast, high amyloid burden was associated with alterations in default network activity. These results suggest failure to modulate frontal and parietal activity reflects a disruptive process in advanced aging associated with specific neuropathologic processes. PMID:21765181

  6. Getting Down to Business: Software Design Company, Module 20. Teacher Guide. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Norma

    This is the twentieth in a set of 36 teacher guides to the Entrepreneurial Training modules and accompanies CE 031 068. The purpose of this module is to give students some idea of what it is like to own and operate a software design company. Following an overview are general notes on use of the module. Suggested steps for module use contain…

  7. Advanced composites: Design and application. Proceedings of the meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R.; Willard, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of advanced composites is discussed with emphasis on aerospace, aircraft, automotive, marine, and industrial applications. Failure modes in advanced composites are also discussed.

  8. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  9. Design of an advanced 500-HP helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braddock, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    A 500-hp Advanced Technology Demonstrator helicopter transmission was designed by an American aerospace company under a NASA contract. The project was mainly concerned with designing a 500-hp version of the OH-58C 317-hp transmission which would have the capabilities for a long, quiet life at a minimum increase in cost, weight, and space, which usually increase along with power increases. This objective was accomplished by implementing advanced technology which has been developed during the last decade and by making improvements dictated by field experience. The improvements are related to bearings made of cleaner gear steels, spiral bevel gears made of cleaner gear steels, high contact ratio spur gear teeth in the planetary which will reduce noise level and increase gear life, and modifications concerning the sun gear.

  10. Conceptual design study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Warren, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s was defined. Uncertainties in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include thermal infrared, linear array detectors, automatic georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communication links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. A preferred system configuration was defined that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  11. AGBT Advanced Counter-Rotating Gearbox Detailed Design Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, D. C.; Sundt, C. V.; Mckibbon, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    An Advanced Counter-Rotating (CR) Gearbox was designed and fabricated to evaluate gearbox efficiency, durability and weight characteristics for emerging propfan-powered airplanes. Component scavenge tests showed that a constant volume collector had high scavenge effectiveness, which was uneffected by added airflow. Lubrication tests showed that gearbox losses could be reduced by controlling the air/oil mixture and by directing the oil jets radially, with a slight axial component, into the sun/planet gears.

  12. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  13. Advanced 3D inverse method for designing turbomachine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, T.

    1995-10-01

    To meet the goal of 60% plant-cycle efficiency or better set in the ATS Program for baseload utility scale power generation, several critical technologies need to be developed. One such need is the improvement of component efficiencies. This work addresses the issue of improving the performance of turbo-machine components in gas turbines through the development of an advanced three-dimensional and viscous blade design system. This technology is needed to replace some elements in current design systems that are based on outdated technology.

  14. Design of an AdvancedTCA board management controller (IPMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J.; Bobillier, V.; Haas, S.; Joos, M.; Mico, S.; Vasey, F.

    2017-03-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the upgrade of the back-end electronics of the CMS and ATLAS experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . In this context, the electronic systems for experiments group at CERN is running a project to evaluate, specify, design and support xTCA equipment. As part of this project, an Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC) for ATCA blades, based on a commercial solution, has been designed to be used on existing and future ATCA blades. This paper reports on the status of this project presenting the hardware and software developments.

  15. VVANTAGE 6 - an advanced fuel assembly design for VVER reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, P.K.; DeMario, E.E.; Knott, R.P.

    1993-12-31

    Over the last 25 years, Westinghouse fuel assemblies for pressurized water reactors (PWR`s) have undergone significant changes to the current VANTAGE 5. VANTAGE 5 PWR fuel includes features such as removable top nozzles, debris filter bottom nozzles, low-pressure-drop zircaloy grids, zircaloy intermediate flow mixing grids, optimized fuel rods, in-fuel burnable absorbers, and increased burnup capability to region average values of 48000 MWD/MTU. These features have now been adopted to the VVER reactors. Westinghouse has completed conceptual designs for an advanced fuel assembly and other core components for VVER-1000 reactors known as VANTAGE 6. This report describes the VVANTAGE 6 fuel assembly design.

  16. Advanced Sensor Fish Device for ImprovedTurbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    2009-09-14

    Juvenile salmon (smolts) passing through hydroelectric turbines are subjected to environmental conditions that can potentially kill or injure them. Many turbines are reaching the end of their operational life expectancies and will be replaced with new turbines that incorporate advanced “fish friendly” designs devised to prevent injury and death to fish. To design a fish friendly turbine, it is first necessary to define the current conditions fish encounter. One such device used by biologists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was the sensor fish device to collect data that measures the forces fish experience during passage through hydroelectric projects.

  17. Advanced designs for IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced designs for individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells have been concieved which should improve the cycle life at deep depths-of-discharge. Features of the designs which are new and not incorporated in either of the contemporary cells (Air Force/Hughes, Comsat) are: (1) use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, (2) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate movement of gas within the cell while still maintaining required physical contact with the wall wick, and (3) use of an expandable stack to accommodate some of the nickel electrode expansion. The designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over the life of the cells, and are fully compatible with the Air Force/Hughes design.

  18. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  19. Design, fabrication, test, and qualification and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.

    1980-01-01

    The Block 4 shingle type module makes it possible to apply a photovoltaic array to the sloping roof of a residential building by simply nailing the overlapping hexagon shaped shingles to the plywood roof sheathing. This third-generation shingle module design consists of nineteen series connected 100 mm diameter solar cells which are arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration to provide in excess of 75 watts/sq m of exposed module area under standard operating conditions. The solar cells are individually bonded to the embossed underside of a 4.4 mm thick thermally tempered piece of glass. An experimental silicone pottant was used as the transparent bonding adhesive between the cells and glass. The semi-flexible portion of each shingle module is a composite laminate construction consisting of an outer layer of FLEXSEAL bonded to an inner core of closed cell polyethylene foam. Silaprene is used as the substrate laminating adhesive. The module design has satisfactorily survived qualification testing program which includes 50 thermal cycles between -40 and +90 C, a seven day temperature-humidity exposure test, and a wind resistance test.

  20. Aerodynamic Design Study of an Advanced Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An Advanced Active Twist Rotor (AATR) is currently being developed by the U.S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center. As a part of this effort, an analytical study was conducted to determine the impact of blade geometry on active-twist performance and, based on those findings, propose a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR. The process began by creating a baseline design which combined the dynamic design of the original Active Twist Rotor and the aerodynamic design of a high lift rotor concept. The baseline model was used to conduct a series of parametric studies to examine the effect of linear blade twist and blade tip sweep, droop, and taper on active-twist performance. Rotor power requirements and hub vibration were also examined at flight conditions ranging from hover to advance ratio = 0.40. A total of 108 candidate designs were analyzed using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) code. The study concluded that the vibration reduction capabilities of a rotor utilizing controlled, strain-induced twisting are enhanced through the incorporation of blade tip sweep, droop, and taper into the blade design, while they are degraded by increasing the nose-down linear blade twist. Based on the analysis of rotor power, hub vibration, and active-twist response, a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR consisting of a blade with approximately 10 degrees of linear blade twist and a blade tip design with 30 degree sweep, 10 degree droop, and 2.5:1 taper ratio over the outer five percent of the blade is proposed.

  1. Application Evaluation of Air-Sparging and Aerobic Bioremediation in PAM(Physical Aquifer Model) with Advanced and Integrated Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, U.; Ko, J.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Kwon, S.; Ha, J.; Lim, J.; Han, K.

    2010-12-01

    It is generally difficult for a single process to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated with various organic compounds such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) because those contaminants show different chemical properties in two phases (e.g. soil and groundwater). Therefore, it is necessary to design an in-situ remediation system which can remove various contaminants simultaneously. For the purpose, we constructed integrated well module which can apply several remediation process such as air sparging, soil vapor extraction, and bioventing. The advanced integrated module consisted of three main parts such as head, body, and end cap. First of all, head part has three 3.6-cm-diameter stainless lines and can simultaneously inject air or extract NAPL, respectively. Secondly, body part has two 10-cm-height screen intervals with 100-mesh stainless inserts for unsaturated and smear zone. Lastly, we constructed three different sizes of end caps for injection and extraction from a saturated zone. We assumed that the integrated module can play bioremediation, air sparging, cometabolic sparging, chemical oxidation. In this study, we examined application of air sparing and aerobic bioremediation of toluene in Physical Aquifer Model (PAM) with an integrated well module. During air sparging experiments, toluene concentration decreased by injection of air. In addition, we accomplished bioremediation experiment to evaluate removal of toluene by indigenous microbes in PAM with continuous air injection. From the two experiments result, we confirmed that air sparging and aerobic bioremediation processes can be simultaneously carried out by an intergrated well module.

  2. Update on quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, S. M.; Barton, M. A.; Bell, A. S.; Beveridge, N.; Bland, B.; Brummitt, A. J.; Cagnoli, G.; Cantley, C. A.; Carbone, L.; Cumming, A. V.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, R. M.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Hammond, G. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayler, T. M.; Heptonstall, A.; Heefner, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hough, J.; Jones, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kumar, R.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Martin, I. W.; Murray, P. G.; O'Dell, J.; Plissi, M. V.; Reid, S.; Romie, J.; Robertson, N. A.; Rowan, S.; Shapiro, B.; Speake, C. C.; Strain, K. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torrie, C.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vecchio, A.; Wilmut, I.

    2012-12-01

    We describe the design of the suspension systems for the major optics for Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The design is based on that used in GEO600—the German/UK interferometric gravitational wave detector, with further development to meet the more stringent noise requirements for Advanced LIGO. The test mass suspensions consist of a four-stage or quadruple pendulum for enhanced seismic isolation. To minimize suspension thermal noise, the final stage consists of a silica mirror, 40 kg in mass, suspended from another silica mass by four silica fibres welded to silica ears attached to the sides of the masses using hydroxide-catalysis bonding. The design is chosen to achieve a displacement noise level for each of the seismic and thermal noise contributions of 10-19 m/√Hz at 10 Hz, for each test mass. We discuss features of the design which has been developed as a result of experience with prototypes and associated investigations.

  3. Design of Optical Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Translating Receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-06-19

    M-ary pulse position modulation (M-ary PPM) signaling is a means of transmitting multiple bits per symbol in an intensity modulated/direct detection (IM/DD) system. PPM is used in applications with average power limitations. In optical communication systems, PPM becomes challenging to implement at gigabit rates and/or large M, since pulsed signaling requires higher electronic processing bandwidths than the fundamental transmission rate. they have thus been exploring techniques for PPM communications using optical processing. Previous work described a transmitter algorithm that directly translates a bit sequence of N digital bits to the optical pulse position m for any M = 2{sup N}. It has been considerably more difficult to define a similar receiver algorithm that translates the received optical pulse position directly back to a bit sequence with minimal electronic processing. Designs for specific Ms (e.g., 4-ary) have been shown and implemented, but are difficult to scale to larger M. In this work, they present for the first time a generalized PPM translating receiver that is applicable to all M and data rates.

  4. Design and manufacture of angle modulated surface plasmon resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinlei; Chen, Ke; Mao, Xuefeng; Yu, Qingxu; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    As an emerging biosensing technology, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique, characterized by high sensitivity, label-free detection and real-time monitoring, has been extensively applied in biochemical analysis, environmental monitoring and refractive index measurement. In this paper, an angle modulated SPR spectrometer with high resolution is designed and manufactured. First, according to the modeling and simulation for the SPR spectrometer, several key parameters such as the light source, the thickness of golden film and Cr film are determined. Then, an angle modulated SPR spectrometer system based on 5-layers Kretchmann prism structure is developed for biochemical analysis. System performance is tested after the SPR spectrometer established. We test the power stability of the laser first, which is up to 1.504% (5min). Different concentrations of glycerol are measured to demarcate the system. Then, we measured the deionized water ten times continuously, and a resolution of 1.5×10-5 RIU is achieved. At last, different concentrations of glucose solution are measured, and the resonance angles are used to calculate the refractive index of the glucose solutions, which is more accurate than the result of Abbe refractometer. The relationship between concentration and refractive index is presented by liner fitting.

  5. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  6. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm · rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.

  7. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  8. Numerical optimization design of advanced transonic wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, G. B.; Holst, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A computationally efficient and versatile technique for use in the design of advanced transonic wing configurations has been developed. A reliable and fast transonic wing flow-field analysis program, TWING, has been coupled with a modified quasi-Newton method, unconstrained optimization algorithm, QNMDIF, to create a new design tool. Fully three-dimensional wing designs utilizing both specified wing pressure disributions and drag-to-lift ratio minimization as design objectives are demonstrated. Because of the high computational efficiency of each of the components of the design code, in particular the vectorization of TWING and the high speed of the Cray X-MP vector computer, the computer time required for a typical wing design is reduced by approximately an order of magnitude over previous methods. In the results presented here, this computed wave drag has been used as the quantity to be optimized (minimized) with great success, yielding wing designs with nearly shock-free (zero wave drag) pressure distributions and very reasonable wing section shapes.

  9. Numerical optimization design of advanced transonic wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, G. B.; Holst, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    A computationally efficient and versatile technique for use in the design of advanced transonic wing configurations has been developed. A reliable and fast transonic wing flow-field analysis program, TWING, has been coupled with a modified quasi-Newton method, unconstrained optimization algorithm, QNMDIF, to create a new design tool. Fully three-dimensional wing designs utilizing both specified wing pressure distributions and drag-to-lift ration minimization as design objectives are demonstrated. Because of the high computational efficiency of each of the components of the design code, in particular the vectorization of TWING and the high speed of the Cray X-MP vector computer, the computer time required for a typical wing design is reduced by approximately an order of magnitude over previous methods. In the results presented here, this computed wave drag has been used as the quantity to be optimized (minimized) with great success, yielding wing designs with nearly shock-free (zero wave drag) pressure distributions and very reasonable wing section shapes.

  10. The Light Microscope Module Designed for Space Biological Science Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weibo; Zhang, Tao

    The real-time observation and imaging techniques for the space science experiments has become more and more important. This paper will introduce the Light Microscope Module (LMM), which is an automatic acquisition mini-microscope designed for space biological science re-searches. The sample features including the shape and fluorescence images would be observed. The LMM consists of an illumination system of super bright LEDs, an optical system, a colour CCD camera, and a moving machine. Illumination will be provided in three colors (white, blue, and ultraviolet). It would search for the samples, then automatic focus on them and produce digital images. The LLM had been used in the biological science experiments on the Shijian-8 Satellite, which observed sample features including rat embryos and plant flowers, and researched the influence of samples in the space environments.

  11. Thermodynamic design of a phase change thermal storage module

    SciTech Connect

    Conti, M.; Bellecci, C.; Charach, C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper analyzes the irreversibilities due to the heat transfer processes in a latent heat thermal storage system. The Thermal Storage Module (TSM) consists of a cylindrical shell that surrounds an internal coaxial tube. The shell side is filled by a Phase Change Material (PCM); a fluid flows through the inner tube and exchanges heat along the way. The most fundamental assumption underlying this study is that the exergy of the hot fluid stream in the active phase is discharged into the environment and completely destroyed, unless it is partially intercepted by the storage system. A numerical study is conducted to identify and to minimize the thermodynamic losses of the storage and removal processes. The dependence of the second-law efficiency of the system on various design parameters is investigated and discussed.

  12. Advanced Antenna Design for NASA's EcoSAR Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Deshpande, Manohar; Rincon, Rafael F.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced antenna arrays were designed for NASA's EcoSAR airborne radar instrument. EcoSAR is a beamforming synthetic aperture radar instrument designed to make polarimetric and "single pass" interferometric measurements of Earth surface parameters. EcoSAR's operational requirements of a 435MHz center frequency with up to 200MHz bandwidth, dual polarization, high cross-polarization isolation (> 30 dB), +/- 45deg beam scan range and antenna form-factor constraints imposed stringent requirements on the antenna design. The EcoSAR project successfully developed, characterized, and tested two array antennas in an anechoic chamber. EcoSAR's first airborne campaign conducted in the spring of 2014 generated rich data sets of scientific and engineering value, demonstrating the successful operation of the antennas.

  13. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Jim; McBrayer, John; Miller, Sam; Rodgers, Steve; montague, Steve; Sniegowski, Jeff; Jakubczak, Jay; Yarberry, Vic; Barnes, Steve; Priddy, Brian; Reyes, David; Westling, Belinda

    2002-06-13

    Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools is a 5-level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c)Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the process of having MEMS fabricated at SNL e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with the software AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. NOTE: THE CUSTOMER MUST PURCHASE HIS/HER OWN COPY OF AutoCAD TO USE WITH THESE FILES.

  14. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools v. 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Yarberry, Victor R.; Allen, James J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.; Priddy, Brian; Westlin, Belinda; Young, Andrew

    2016-08-25

    This is a major revision to the Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools. It replaces all previous versions. New features in this version: Revised to support AutoCAD 2014 and 2015 This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the process of having MEMS fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed. While there exists some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.

  15. Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors: Design, Specifications and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Insertion of new types of commercial, high volumetric efficiency wet tantalum capacitors in space systems requires reassessment of the existing quality assurance approaches that have been developed for capacitors manufactured to MIL-PRF-39006 requirements. The specifics of wet electrolytic capacitors is that leakage currents flowing through electrolyte can cause gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure and rupture of the case. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. This presentation gives a review of specifics of the design, performance, and potential reliability risks associated with advanced wet tantalum capacitors. Problems related to setting adequate requirements for DPA, leakage currents, hermeticity, stability at low and high temperatures, ripple currents for parts operating in vacuum, and random vibration testing are discussed. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  16. Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors: Design, Specifications and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Insertion of new types of commercial, high volumetric efficiency wet tantalum capacitors in space systems requires reassessment of the existing quality assurance approaches that have been developed for capacitors manufactured to MIL-PRF-39006 requirements. The specifics of wet electrolytic capacitors is that leakage currents flowing through electrolyte can cause gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure and rupture of the case. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. This presentation gives a review of specifics of the design, performance, and potential reliability risks associated with advanced wet tantalum capacitors. Problems related to setting adequate requirements for DPA, leakage currents, hermeticity, stability at low and high temperatures, ripple currents for parts operating in vacuum, and random vibration testing are discussed. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  17. Assessing Advanced High School and Undergraduate Students' Thinking Skills: The Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Dangur, Vered; Avargil, Shirly; Peskin, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry students in Israel have two options for studying chemistry: basic or honors (advanced placement). For instruction in high school honors chemistry courses, we developed a module focusing on abstract topics in quantum mechanics: Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics. The module adopts a visual-conceptual approach, which…

  18. Design, analysis, and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Minning, C.

    1982-01-01

    Design sensitivities are established for the development of photovoltaic module criteria and the definition of needed research tasks. The program consists of three phases. In Phase I, analytical models were developed to perform optical, thermal, electrical, and structural analyses on candidate encapsulation systems. From these analyses several candidate systems will be selected for qualification testing during Phase II. Additionally, during Phase II, test specimens of various types will be constructed and tested to determine the validity of the analysis methodology developed in Phase I. In Phse III, a finalized optimum design based on knowledge gained in Phase I and II will be developed. All verification testing was completed during this period. Preliminary results and observations are discussed. Descriptions of the thermal, thermal structural, and structural deflection test setups are included.

  19. Advancing IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Chen, S.; Obland, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) decadal survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, time shifted PN, sine wave modulated PN, and sine wave pulsed PN. Different PN code techniques are presented that are appropriate for different types of lidar hardware, including our current ASCENDS IM-CW concept space hardware. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties without sidelobes while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space.

  20. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  1. Numerical Design of Drawbeads for Advanced High Strength Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Y. T.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, G. S.

    2010-06-01

    The map for designing the drawbeads used in the stamping dies for advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets is numerically investigated and its application is introduced. The bending limit of AHSS sheet is determined from the extreme R/t's obtained simulating numerically the plane-strain process formed by the cylindrical punches and dies with various radii. In addition, the forming allowance defined by the difference between FLC0 and the strain after passing the drawbead, which is observed by the numerical simulation of drawbead pulling test, is computed. Based on the bending limit and forming allowance, the design map for determining the height, width, and shoulder radius of the drawbead which are key parameters in the drawbead design and depend on the restraining force is constructed by aid of the equivalent drawbead model. A drawbead of the stamping die for forming a channel-typed panel is designed by using the design map, and the formability and springback of the panel to be formed are numerically evaluated, from which the availability of the design map is demonstrated.

  2. Advances in designs for Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Gould, Heath; Zhong, Kate

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected. Disease-modification is supported by findings on staggered start and delayed withdrawal designs. Futility designs can use historical controls and may shorten trial duration. Combination therapy designs may allow investigation of additive or synergistic treatment effects. Novel trial selection criteria allow investigation of treatment effects in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, prodromal AD populations. The Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) can be considered as a single trial outcome in early disease populations. Alternate forms of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion (ADAS-cog), computerized measures, and pharmacoeconomic scales provide new and relevant information on drug effects. Comparative dose strategies are used in trials of symptomatic agents, and novel methods including withdrawal designs, symptom emergence analyses, and sequential designs are being utilized to assess the efficacy of putative psychotropic agents. The choice of trial design is driven by the question to be answered by the clinical trial; an increasing number of design approaches are available and may be useful in accelerating and refining AD drug development.

  3. Advances in designs for Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Gould, Heath; Zhong, Kate

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected. Disease-modification is supported by findings on staggered start and delayed withdrawal designs. Futility designs can use historical controls and may shorten trial duration. Combination therapy designs may allow investigation of additive or synergistic treatment effects. Novel trial selection criteria allow investigation of treatment effects in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, prodromal AD populations. The Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) can be considered as a single trial outcome in early disease populations. Alternate forms of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion (ADAS-cog), computerized measures, and pharmacoeconomic scales provide new and relevant information on drug effects. Comparative dose strategies are used in trials of symptomatic agents, and novel methods including withdrawal designs, symptom emergence analyses, and sequential designs are being utilized to assess the efficacy of putative psychotropic agents. The choice of trial design is driven by the question to be answered by the clinical trial; an increasing number of design approaches are available and may be useful in accelerating and refining AD drug development. PMID:23383393

  4. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, M. D.; Ismail, S.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper.

  5. Advances in aircraft design: Multiobjective optimization and a markup language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shubhangi

    Today's modern aerospace systems exhibit strong interdisciplinary coupling and require a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach. Analysis methods that were once considered feasible only for advanced and detailed design are now available and even practical at the conceptual design stage. This changing philosophy for conducting conceptual design poses additional challenges beyond those encountered in a low fidelity design of aircraft. This thesis takes some steps towards bridging the gaps in existing technologies and advancing the state-of-the-art in aircraft design. The first part of the thesis proposes a new Pareto front approximation method for multiobjective optimization problems. The method employs a hybrid optimization approach using two derivative free direct search techniques, and is intended for solving blackbox simulation based multiobjective optimization problems with possibly nonsmooth functions where the analytical formof the objectives is not known and/or the evaluation of the objective function(s) is very expensive (very common in multidisciplinary design optimization). A new adaptive weighting scheme is proposed to convert a multiobjective optimization problem to a single objective optimization problem. Results show that the method achieves an arbitrarily close approximation to the Pareto front with a good collection of well-distributed nondominated points. The second part deals with the interdisciplinary data communication issues involved in a collaborative mutidisciplinary aircraft design environment. Efficient transfer, sharing, and manipulation of design and analysis data in a collaborative environment demands a formal structured representation of data. XML, a W3C recommendation, is one such standard concomitant with a number of powerful capabilities that alleviate interoperability issues. A compact, generic, and comprehensive XML schema for an aircraft design markup language (ADML) is proposed here to provide a common language for data

  6. Design calculations for the ANS (Advanced Neutron Source) cold source

    SciTech Connect

    Lillie, R.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation procedure, based on discrete ordinates transport methods, that is being used to carry out design calculations for the Advanced Neutron Source cold source is described. Calculated results on the gain in cold neutron flux produced by a liquid deuterium cold source are compared with experimental data and with calculated data previously obtained by P. Ageron et al., at the Institute Max von Laue-Paul Langevin in Grenoble, France. Calculated results are also presented that indicated how the flux of cold neutrons vary with cold source parameters. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  8. Advanced Cryo-Tanks Structural Design Investigated in CHATT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Martin; Kopp, Alexander; Mattsson, David; Koussios, Sotiris

    2014-06-01

    An EU-funded study called CHATT (Cryogenic Hypersonic Advanced Tank Technologies) has been initiated early 2012 and recently passed its mid-term milestone. The project CHATT is part of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme and run on behalf of the Commission by DLR-SART in a multinational collaboration. One of the core objectives is to investigate Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) cryogenic pressure tanks. Four different subscale CFRP-tanks are planned to be designed, manufactured, and tested.The paper outlines the study logic of CHATT, gives a presentation of the technology development tasks, and summarizes available research results on the liner testing and CFRP-tank manufacturing.

  9. Advanced Materials for High Temperature, High Performance, Wide Bandgap Power Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Chad B.; McGee, Brad; McPherson, Brice; Stabach, Jennifer; Lollar, Richard; Liederbach, Ross; Passmore, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Advanced packaging materials must be utilized to take full advantage of the benefits of the superior electrical and thermal properties of wide bandgap power devices in the development of next generation power electronics systems. In this manuscript, the use of advanced materials for key packaging processes and components in multi-chip power modules will be discussed. For example, to date, there has been significant development in silver sintering paste as a high temperature die attach material replacement for conventional solder-based attach due to the improved thermal and mechanical characteristics as well as lower processing temperatures. In order to evaluate the bond quality and performance of this material, shear strength, thermal characteristics, and void quality for a number of silver sintering paste materials were analyzed as a die attach alternative to solder. In addition, as high voltage wide bandgap devices shift from engineering samples to commercial components, passivation materials become key in preventing premature breakdown in power modules. High temperature, high dielectric strength potting materials were investigated to be used to encapsulate and passivate components internal to a power module. The breakdown voltage up to 30 kV and corresponding leakage current for these materials as a function of temperature is also presented. Lastly, high temperature plastic housing materials are important for not only discrete devices but also for power modules. As the operational temperature of the device and/or ambient temperature increases, the mechanical strength and dielectric properties are dramatically reduced. Therefore, the electrical characteristics such as breakdown voltage and leakage current as a function of temperature for housing materials are presented.

  10. Planar holographic spectrum-splitting PV module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael; Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan M.; Luscombe, Christine K.; Shaheen, Sean E.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2012-10-01

    A design is presented for a planar spectrum-splitting photovoltaic (PV) module using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs). A repeating array of HOEs diffracts portions of the solar spectrum onto different PV materials arranged in alternating strips. Several combinations of candidate PV materials are explored, and theoretical power conversion efficiency is quantified and compared for each case. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) film, an inexpensive material which is easily encapsulated directly into the panel. If desired, the holograms can focus the light to achieve concentration. The side-by-side split spectrum layout has advantages compared to a stacked tandem cell approach: since the cells are electrically isolated, current matching constraints are eliminated. Combinations of dissimilar types of cells are also possible: including crystalline, thin film, and organic PV cells. Configurations which yield significant efficiency gain using relatively inexpensive PV materials are of particular interest. A method used to optimize HOE design to work with a different candidate cells and different package aspect ratios is developed and presented. (Aspect ratio is width of the cell strips vs. the thickness of the panel) The relationship between aspect ratio and HOE performance properties is demonstrated. These properties include diffraction efficiency, spectral selectivity, tracking alignment sensitivity, and uniformity of cell illumination.

  11. Advanced digital modulation: Communication techniques and monolithic GaAs technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Oliver, J. D., Jr.; Kot, R. C.; Richards, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Communications theory and practice are merged with state-of-the-art technology in IC fabrication, especially monolithic GaAs technology, to examine the general feasibility of a number of advanced technology digital transmission systems. Satellite-channel models with (1) superior throughput, perhaps 2 Gbps; (2) attractive weight and cost; and (3) high RF power and spectrum efficiency are discussed. Transmission techniques possessing reasonably simple architectures capable of monolithic fabrication at high speeds were surveyed. This included a review of amplitude/phase shift keying (APSK) techniques and the continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) methods, of which MSK represents the simplest case.

  12. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 13 AA - Advance Care Planning

    Cancer.gov

    The thirteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the attitudes and practices of African Americans related to completion of advance directives, and recommends effective strategies to improve decision-making in the setting of serious, life-threatening illness, in ways that augment patient autonomy and support patient-centered goal-setting and decision-making among African American patients and their families.

  13. Polymer planar lightwave circuit based hybrid-integrated coherent receiver for advanced modulation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Han, Yang; Liang, Zhongcheng; Chen, Yongjin

    2012-11-01

    Applying coherent detection technique to advanced modulation formats makes it possible to electronically compensate the signal impairments. A key issue for a successful deployment of coherent detection technique is the availability of cost-efficient and compact integrated receivers, which are composed of an optical 90° hybrid mixer and four photodiodes (PDs). In this work, three different types of optical hybrids are fabricated with polymer planar lightwave circuit (PLC), and hybridly integrated with four vertical backside illuminated III-V PDs. Their performances, such as the insertion loss, the transmission imbalance, the polarization dependence and the phase deviation of 90° hybrid will be discussed.

  14. User Preferences for Web-Based Module Design Layout and Design Impact on Information Recall Considering Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Rivera-Nivar, Mericia

    2015-01-01

    Research in design of Web-based modules should incorporate aging as an important factor given the diversity of the current workforce. This work aims to understand how Web-Based Learning modules can be designed to accommodate young (25-35 years) as well as older (55-65 years) users by: (1) identifying how information sources (instructor video,…

  15. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  16. Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Violette, John A.; Sullivan, William E.; Turnberg, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the design analysis of a very thin, highly swept, propeller blade to be used in the Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) test program. The report includes: design requirements and goals, a description of the blade configuration which meets requirements, a description of the analytical methods utilized/developed to demonstrate compliance with the requirements, and the results of these analyses. The methods described include: finite element modeling, predicted aerodynamic loads and their application to the blade, steady state and vibratory response analyses, blade resonant frequencies and mode shapes, bird impact analysis, and predictions of stalled and unstalled flutter phenomena. Summarized results include deflections, retention loads, stress/strength comparisons, foreign object damage resistance, resonant frequencies and critical speed margins, resonant vibratory mode shapes, calculated boundaries of stalled and unstalled flutter, and aerodynamic and acoustic performance calculations.

  17. Optimal design application on the advanced aeroelastic rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, F. S.; Jones, R.

    1985-01-01

    The vibration and performance optimization procedure using regression analysis was successfully applied to an advanced aeroelastic blade design study. The major advantage of this regression technique is that multiple optimizations can be performed to evaluate the effects of various objective functions and constraint functions. The data bases obtained from the rotorcraft flight simulation program C81 and Myklestad mode shape program are analytically determined as a function of each design variable. This approach has been verified for various blade radial ballast weight locations and blade planforms. This method can also be utilized to ascertain the effect of a particular cost function which is composed of several objective functions with different weighting factors for various mission requirements without any additional effort.

  18. Conceptual design of the advanced marine reactor MRX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-02-01

    Design studies on the advanced marine reactors have been done continuously since 1983 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in order to develop attractive marine reactors for the next generation. At present, two marine reactor concepts are being formulated. One is 100 MWt MRX (Marine Reactor X) for an icebreaker and the other is 300 kWe DRX (Deep-sea Reactor X) for a deep-sea research vessel. They are characterized by an integral type pressurized water reactor (PWR) built-in type control rod drive mechanisms, a water-filled container and a passive decay heat removal system, which realize highly passive safe and compact reactors. This paper is a detailed report including all major results of the MRX design study.

  19. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  20. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  1. Applications of all optical signal processing for advanced optical modulation formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuccio, Scott R.

    Increased data traffic demands, along with a continual push to minimize cost per bit, have recently motivated a paradigm shift away from traditional on-off keying (OOK) fiber transmission links towards systems utilizing more advanced modulation formats. In particular, modulation formats that utilize the phase of the optical signal, including differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) along with polarization multiplexing (Pol-MUX), have recently emerged as the most popular means for transmitting information over long-haul and ultra-long haul fiber transmission systems. DPSK is motivated by an increase in receiver sensitivity compared to traditional OOK. DQPSK is motivated by a doubling of the spectral efficiency, along with increased tolerance to dispersion and nonlinear distortions. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency (bits/sec/Hz) of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Polarization multiplexing of channels is a straight forward method to allow two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX (D)QPSK has grown in interest as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters may be possible. In addition to advanced modulation formats, it is expected that optical

  2. Aerodynamic optimization by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters with application to advanced propeller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.

  3. New technology for the design of advanced ultrasonic transducers for high-power applications.

    PubMed

    Parrini, Lorenzo

    2003-06-01

    A new high-frequency ultrasonic transducer for wire bonding has been conceived, designed, prototyped and tested. In the design phase an advanced approach was used and established. The method is based on the two basic principles of modularity and iteration. The transducer is decomposed to its elementary components. For each component an initial design is obtained with finite elements method (FEM) simulations. The simulated ultrasonic modules are then built and characterized experimentally through laser-interferometry measurements and electrical resonance spectra. The comparison of simulation results with experimental data allows the parameters of FEM models to be iteratively adjusted and optimized. The achieved FEM simulations exhibit a remarkably high-predictive potential and allow full control on the vibration behavior of the ultrasonic modules and of the whole transducer. The new transducer is fixed on the wire bonder with a flange whose special geometry was calculated by means of FEM simulations. This flange allows the converter to be attached on the wire bonder not only in longitudinal nodes but also in radial nodes of the ultrasonic field excited in the horn. This leads to a nearly complete decoupling of the transducer to the wire bonder, which has not been previously obtained. The new approach to mount ultrasonic transducers on a welding-device is of major importance not only for wire bonding but also for all high-power ultrasound applications and has been patented.

  4. Block 4 solar cell module design and test specification for intermediate load center applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for performance of terrestrial solar cell modules intended for use in various test applications are established. During the 1979-80 time period, such applications are expected to be in the 20 to 500 kilowatt size range. A series of characterization and qualification tests necessary to certify the module design for production, and the necessary performance test for acceptance of modules are specified.

  5. Advances in molecular design and synthesis of regioregular polythiophenes.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Itaru; McCullough, Richard D

    2008-09-01

    Regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s (rrP3ATs) are an important class of pi-conjugated polymers that can be used in plastic electronic devices such as solar cells and field-effect transistors. rrP3ATs can be ordered in three dimensions: conformational ordering along the backbone, pi-stacking of flat polymer chains, and lamellar stacking between chains. All of these features lead to the excellent electrical properties of these materials. Creative molecular design and advanced synthesis are critical in controlling the properties of the materials as well as their device performance. This Account reports the advances in molecular design of new functional polythiophenes as well as the associated polymerization methods. Many functionalized regioregular polythiophenes have been designed and synthesized and show fascinating properties such as high conductivity, mobility, chemosensitivity, liquid crystallinity, or chirality. The methods for the synthesis of rrP3ATs are also applicable to other functional side chains. Di- and triblock copolymers consisting of rrP3AT and polyacrylate or polystyrene have also been successfully synthesized, which can facilitate the assembly of the polythiophene segments. The synthesis of rrP3ATs has evolved into a simple and economical system in which the synthesis can be carried out quickly at room temperature and is thus suitable for large-scale manufacturing. Intensive study has revealed that the regioregular polymerization of 3-alkylthiophenes proceeds by a chain-growth mechanism and can be made into a living system. This feature enables precise control of the molecular weight and facile end-group functionalization of the polymer chains, leading to tailor-made regioregular polythiophenes for specific applications. In addition, researchers have recently designed and synthesized regiosymmetric polythiophenesthese are regioregular but not coupled in a head-to-tail fashionby various methods. These reports indicate that these regiosymmetric

  6. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  7. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  8. Thermal Protection System design studies for lunar crew module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.; Bouslog, Stanley A.; Rochelle, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The results of a study to predict aeroheating and Thermal Protection System (TPS) requirements for manned entry vehicles returning to Earth from the moon are presented. The effects of vehicle size and lunar-return strategies on the aerothermodynamic environment and TPS design were assessed. Study guidelines were based on an Apollo Command Module (CM) configuration and lunar return strategies included direct entry and aerocapture followed by Low Earth Orbit entry (LEO). Convective heating was obtained by the boundary layer integral matrix procedure (BLIMP) code, and radiative heating was computed with the QRAD program. The AESOP-STAB code and the AESOP-THERM code were used for TPS analysis for ablating materials and nonablating materials respectively. Results indicated that there was an optimum size for minimum heating and that direct entry had higher heating rates than aerocapture. Aerocapture resulted in higher heat loads and TPS weight. The TPS weight factor was 6-8 percent for all lunar return strategies, with the TPS weight being about 50 percent less than that of the original Apollo CM vehicle.

  9. Design of the SAC-D/NIRST camera module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvin, Jonny; Châteauneuf, François; Marchese, Linda; Coté, Patrice; Leclerc, Mélanie; Chevalier, Claude; Marraco, Hugo; Phong, Linh N.

    2007-09-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America (USA) and the Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission targets the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Jointly developed by CONAE and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the New IR Sensor Technology (NIRST) instrument will monitor high temperature events on the ground related to fires and volcanic events, and will measure their physical parameters. Furthermore, NIRST will take measurements of sea surface temperatures mainly off the coast of South America as well as other targeted opportunities. NIRST has one band in the mid-wave infrared centered at 3.8 um with a bandwidth of 0.8 um, and two bands in the thermal infrared, centered respectively at 10.85 and 11.85 um with a bandwidth of 0.9 um. The temperature range is from 300 to 600 K with an NEDT < 0.5 K for the mid-infrared band and from 200 to 400 K with an NEDT < 0.4 K for the thermal bands. The baseline design of the NIRST is based on micro-bolometer technology developed jointly by INO and the CSA. Two arrays of 512x3 uncooled bolometric sensors will be used to measure brightness temperatures. The instantaneous field-of-view is 534 microradians corresponding to a ground sampling distance of 350 m at the subsatellite point. A pointing mirror allows a total swath of +/- 500 km. This paper describes the detailed design of the NIRST camera module. Key performance parameters are also presented.

  10. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Design for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the design of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the V.35 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the V.35 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  11. Exploration of Advanced Probabilistic and Stochastic Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the three year research effort was to explore advanced, non-deterministic aerospace system design methods that may have relevance to designers and analysts. The research pursued emerging areas in design methodology and leverage current fundamental research in the area of design decision-making, probabilistic modeling, and optimization. The specific focus of the three year investigation was oriented toward methods to identify and analyze emerging aircraft technologies in a consistent and complete manner, and to explore means to make optimal decisions based on this knowledge in a probabilistic environment. The research efforts were classified into two main areas. First, Task A of the grant has had the objective of conducting research into the relative merits of possible approaches that account for both multiple criteria and uncertainty in design decision-making. In particular, in the final year of research, the focus was on the comparison and contrasting between three methods researched. Specifically, these three are the Joint Probabilistic Decision-Making (JPDM) technique, Physical Programming, and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory. The next element of the research, as contained in Task B, was focused upon exploration of the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) methodology developed at ASDL, especially with regards to identification of research needs in the baseline method through implementation exercises. The end result of Task B was the documentation of the evolution of the method with time and a technology transfer to the sponsor regarding the method, such that an initial capability for execution could be obtained by the sponsor. Specifically, the results of year 3 efforts were the creation of a detailed tutorial for implementing the TIES method. Within the tutorial package, templates and detailed examples were created for learning and understanding the details of each step. For both research tasks, sample files and

  12. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Yarberry, Victor; Allen, James; Lantz, Jeffery; Priddy, Brian; & Westling, Belinda

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.

  13. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.; Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P.

    1992-12-31

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  14. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A. ); Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P. . Langley Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  15. An advanced teleoperator control system - Design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Lee, Hahk S.

    1992-01-01

    The design goal of an advanced teleoperator control system is twofold: 1) to allow the operator's manual control to be robust to system nonlinearities such as time delays and operator's control errors, and 2) to support the high performance of teleoperation while reducing the operator's control burden by providing the master and slave arms with desirable dynamic properties and by allowing the slave arm to automatically perform such control tasks as compliance and force control in the form of task sharing. The authors present a novel teleoperator control system achieving the above design goal by taking the following into consideration: the human dynamics involved in generating control command based on visual and forced feedback is modeled and incorporated into the controller design and evaluation; the dynamic characteristics of slave and master arms are actively modified in such a way as to implement the desirable dynamic characteristics; and the force feedback is redefined in terms of the combination of opposition and force discrepancies in order to establish the required man/machine dynamic coordination under shared control. The proposed control system with human dynamics in the control loop is simulated and compared with a number of conventional methods in the presence of human control errors and time delays.

  16. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  17. Design and test of a 100 ampere-hour nickel cadmium battery module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Burgess, F. S.; Lehrfeld, D.; Winegard, A.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted on the design and construction of a flight-worthy replaceable battery module consisting of four 100 A.H. nickel-cadmium rechargeable cells for large manned space vehicles. The module is planned to weigh less than 43 pounds and be fully maintainable in a zero-g environment by one man without use of special tools. An active environmental control system was designed for the temperature control of the module.

  18. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America airborne investigation are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are being investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the mission science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of intervening optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the Earth's surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture to support the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) and ACT-America programs.

  19. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys: study design, participation and evaluation of bias.

    PubMed

    Genuneit, Jon; Büchele, Gisela; Waser, Marco; Kovacs, Katalin; Debinska, Anna; Boznanski, Andrzej; Strunz-Lehner, Christine; Horak, Elisabeth; Cullinan, Paul; Heederik, Dick; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; von Mutius, Erika

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to farming environments has been shown to protect substantially against asthma and atopic disease across Europe and in other parts of the world. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys (GABRIELA) were conducted to determine factors in farming environments which are fundamental to protecting against asthma and atopic disease. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys have a multi-phase stratified design. In a first-screening phase, a comprehensive population-based survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of exposure to farming environments and of asthma and atopic diseases (n = 103,219). The second phase was designed to ascertain detailed exposure to farming environments and to collect biomaterial and environmental samples in a stratified random sample of phase 1 participants (n = 15,255). A third phase was carried out in a further stratified sample only in Bavaria, southern Germany, aiming at in-depth respiratory disease and exposure assessment including extensive environmental sampling (n = 895). Participation rates in phase 1 were around 60% but only about half of the participating study population consented to further study modules in phase 2. We found that consenting behaviour was related to familial allergies, high parental education, wheeze, doctor diagnosed asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis, and to a lesser extent to exposure to farming environments. The association of exposure to farm environments with asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis was not biased by participation or consenting behaviour. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys are one of the largest studies to shed light on the protective 'farm effect' on asthma and atopic disease. Bias with regard to the main study question was able to be ruled out by representativeness and high participation rates in phases 2 and 3. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys have created extensive collections of questionnaire data, biomaterial and environmental samples promising new insights into this area of research.

  20. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  1. Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Propulsion Design Options Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Future propulsion options for advanced single-aisle transports have been investigated in a number of previous studies by the authors. These studies have examined the system level characteristics of aircraft incorporating ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) turbofans (direct drive and geared) and open rotor engines. During the course of these prior studies, a number of potential refinements and enhancements to the analysis methodology and assumptions were identified. This paper revisits a previously conducted UHB turbofan fan pressure ratio trade study using updated analysis methodology and assumptions. The changes incorporated have decreased the optimum fan pressure ratio for minimum fuel consumption and reduced the engine design trade-offs between minimizing noise and minimizing fuel consumption. Nacelle drag and engine weight are found to be key drivers in determining the optimum fan pressure ratio from a fuel efficiency perspective. The revised noise analysis results in the study aircraft being 2 to 4 EPNdB (cumulative) quieter due to a variety of reasons explained in the paper. With equal core technology assumed, the geared engine architecture is found to be as good as or better than the direct drive architecture for most parameters investigated. However, the engine ultimately selected for a future advanced single-aisle aircraft will depend on factors beyond those considered here.

  2. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  3. Improved Standard Electronic Modules, Thermal and Mechanical Analyses and Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    the flow meter. A listing of test equipment is as follows: Flow Meter - Meriam Instruments Model 5OMW20 Flow Meter Manometer - Meriam Instruments Type...WM Module Array Duct Manometer - Meriam Instruments Type TM Air Moving Device - Dayton Model 2Z-563 Each load module contained twelve (12) 16-pin DIP

  4. A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Neil S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a teaching module designed to enhance engineering creativity in an introductory chemical engineering course. The module includes an exercise to design column packing material, and an open-ended research project to describe the societal impact of chemical engineering. These assignments were created to illustrate the benefit…

  5. System design package: Maxi-therm S-101 heating module, passive heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is the specification which establishes the requirements for the design, installation, and performance of a passive heat exchanger module with auxiliary heaters for use with solar heating systems. It designates the Interim Performance Criteria applicable to the subsystem and defines any deviations. This document also includes the manufacturing instructions and required materials and parts for the Maxitherm S101 Heating Module.

  6. Mars habitat modules: launch, scaling and functional design considerations.

    PubMed

    Bell, Larry; Hines, Gerald D

    2005-07-01

    The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) is undertaking a multi-year research, planning and design study that is exploring near- and long-term commercial space development opportunities. The central goal of this activity is to conceptualize a scenario of sequential, integrated private enterprise initiatives that can carry humankind forward to Mars. Each development stage is planned as a building block to provide the economic foundation, technology advancements and operational infrastructure to support others that follow. This report presents fundamental issues and requirements associated with planning human Mars initiatives that can transfer crews, habitats and equipment from Earth to Mars orbit, deliver them to the planet's surface, and return people and samples safely back to Earth. The study builds in part upon previous studies which are summarized in SICSA's: Commercial Space Development Plan and the Artificial Gravity Science and Excursion Vehicle reports. Information and conclusions produced in this study provide assumptions and a conceptual foundation for a subsequent report titled The First Mars Outpost: Planning and Concepts.

  7. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  8. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  9. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Kurakevych, Oleksandr O; Solozhenko, Vladimir L

    2016-10-20

    The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN) with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N₂. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc.) are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure-temperature conditions are considered.

  10. Scaffold pore space modulation through intelligent design of dissolvable microparticles.

    PubMed

    Liebschner, Michael A K; Wettergreen, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this area of research is to manipulate the pore space of scaffolds through the application of an intelligent design concept on dissolvable microparticles. To accomplish this goal, we developed an efficient and repeatable process for fabrication of microparticles from multiple materials using a combination of rapid prototyping (RP) and soft lithography. Phase changed 3D printing was used to create masters for PDMS molds. A photocrosslinkable polymer was then delivered into these molds to make geometrically complex 3D microparticles. This repeatable process has demonstrated to generate the objects with greater than 95% repeatability with complete pattern transfer. This process was illustrated for three different shapes of various complexities. The shapes were based on the extrusion of 2D shapes. This may allow simplification of the fabrication process in the future combined with a direct transfer of the findings. Altering the shapes of particles used for porous scaffold fabrication will allow for tailoring of the pore shapes, and therefore their biological function within a porous tissue engineering scaffold. Through permeation experiments, we have shown that the pore geometry may alter the permeability coefficient of scaffolds while influencing mechanical properties to a lesser extent. By selecting different porogen shapes, the nutrition transport and scaffold degradation can be significantly influenced with minimal effect on the mechanical integrity of the construct. In addition, the different shapes may allow a control of drug release by modifying their surface-to-volume ratio, which could modulate drug delivery over time. While soft lithography is currently used with photolithography, its high precision is offset by high cost of production. The employment of RP to a specific resolution offers a much less expensive alternative with increased throughput due to the speed of current RP systems.

  11. Design and Development of a Baseband Processor for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kerry D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the operational baseband processor (BBP) subsystem on board the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The BBP supports the network consisting of the NASA ground station (NGS) low burst rate (LBR) terminals, and the T1 very small aperture terminals (VSAT's), to provide flexible, demand assigned satellite switched (SS), baseband processed frequency division modulated (FDM)/time division multiple access (TDMA) operations. This paper presents an overview of the baseband processor and includes a description of the data flow, functional block diagrams, and a discussion of the implementation of BBP. A discussion of the supporting technologies for the BBP is presented. A brief summary of BBP-level performance testing is also presented. Finally, a discussion of the implications of current technology on the BBP design, if it were to be developed today, is presented.

  12. Analysis and Preliminary Design of an Advanced Technology Transport Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazzini, R.; Vaughn, D.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of an advanced technology transport aircraft flight control system using avionics and flight control concepts appropriate to the 1980-1985 time period are discussed. Specifically, the techniques and requirements of the flight control system were established, a number of candidate configurations were defined, and an evaluation of these configurations was performed to establish a recommended approach. Candidate configurations based on redundant integration of various sensor types, computational methods, servo actuator arrangements and data-transfer techniques were defined to the functional module and piece-part level. Life-cycle costs, for the flight control configurations, as determined in an operational environment model for 200 aircraft over a 15-year service life, were the basis of the optimum configuration selection tradeoff. The recommended system concept is a quad digital computer configuration utilizing a small microprocessor for input/output control, a hexad skewed set of conventional sensors for body rate and body acceleration, and triple integrated actuators.

  13. Isolating the Unique Effects of the Unified Protocol Treatment Modules Using Single Case Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Conklin, Laren R; Bullis, Jacqueline R; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kennedy, Katherine A

    2017-03-01

    The Unified Protocol (UP) for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to treat the range of anxiety, depressive, and related disorders. Thus far, the UP treatment modules have only been studied when they are delivered in their entirety and presented in a standard sequence. To personalize the presentation of the UP modules for a given patient's presentation (e.g., providing the modules in a varied order, dropping irrelevant modules), it is first necessary to establish that each module leads to change in the skill it is designed to promote, and that these changes can occur in the absence of the other modules. Using a multiple baseline design in accordance with the single-case reporting guidelines in behavioral interventions (SCRIBE), eight patients with heterogeneous emotional disorders were randomly assigned to a 1- or 3-week baseline assessment phase followed by four sessions of one of four UP modules (psychoeducation, emotional awareness, cognitive flexibility, and countering emotional behaviors). Results provide preliminary support for the notion that each UP module under study leads to change in its associated skill in the absence of the other modules (five of eight patients demonstrated reliable change in the module-specific skill). In addition, exploratory analyses suggest that the emotion awareness training and cognitive flexibility modules appeared to exhibit change specific to their associated skills, psychoeducation, and countering emotional behaviors demonstrated somewhat more broad-based change across skills.

  14. The Implications of Encoder/Modulator/ Phased Array Designs for Future Broadband LEO Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderaar, Mark; Jensen, Chris A.; Terry, John D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the effects of modulation and channel coding on the design of wide angle scan, broadband, phased army antennas. In the paper we perform several trade studies. First, we investigate the amplifier back-off requirement as a function of variability of modulation envelope. Specifically, we contrast constant and non-constant envelope modulations, as well as single and multiple carrier schemes. Additionally, we address the issues an(f concerns of using pulse shaping filters with the above modulation types. Second, we quantify the effects of beam steering on the quality of data, recovery using selected modulation techniques. In particular, we show that the frequency response of the array introduces intersymbol interference for broadband signals and that the mode of operation for the beam steering controller may introduce additional burst or random errors. Finally, we show that the encoder/modulator design must be performed in conjunction with the phased array antenna design.

  15. Advanced modeling and simulation to design and manufacture high performance and reliable advanced microelectronics and microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Nettleship, Ian (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Hinklin, Thomas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Tandon, Rajan; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dempsey, James Franklin; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Neilsen, Michael K.; Lanagan, Michael (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2007-07-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers having broad expertise in materials processing and properties, materials characterization, and computational mechanics was assembled to develop science-based modeling/simulation technology to design and reproducibly manufacture high performance and reliable, complex microelectronics and microsystems. The team's efforts focused on defining and developing a science-based infrastructure to enable predictive compaction, sintering, stress, and thermomechanical modeling in ''real systems'', including: (1) developing techniques to and determining materials properties and constitutive behavior required for modeling; (2) developing new, improved/updated models and modeling capabilities, (3) ensuring that models are representative of the physical phenomena being simulated; and (4) assessing existing modeling capabilities to identify advances necessary to facilitate the practical application of Sandia's predictive modeling technology.

  16. Design and application of 3D-printed stepless beam modulators in proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, C; Kumlin, J; Martinez, D M; Jirasek, A; Hoehr, C

    2016-06-07

    A new method for the design of stepless beam modulators for proton therapy is described and verified. Simulations of the classic designs are compared against the stepless method for various modulation widths which are clinically applicable in proton eye therapy. Three modulator wheels were printed using a Stratasys Objet30 3D printer. The resulting depth dose distributions showed improved uniformity over the classic stepped designs. Simulated results imply a possible improvement in distal penumbra width; however, more accurate measurements are needed to fully verify this effect. Lastly, simulations were done to model bio-equivalence to Co-60 cell kill. A wheel was successfully designed to flatten this metric.

  17. Design-oriented analytic model of phase and frequency modulated optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsurrò, Pietro; Saitto, Antonio; Tommasino, Pasquale; Trifiletti, Alessandro; Vannucci, Antonello; Cimmino, Rosario F.

    2016-07-01

    An analytic design-oriented model of phase and frequency modulated microwave optical links has been developed. The models are suitable for design of broadband high dynamic range optical links for antenna remoting and optical beamforming, where noise and linearity of the subsystems are a concern Digital filter design techniques have been applied to the design of optical filters working as frequency discriminator, that are the bottleneck in terms of linearity for these systems. The models of frequency modulated, phase modulated, and coherent I/Q link have been used to compare performance of the different architectures in terms of linearity and SFDR.

  18. Design and application of 3D-printed stepless beam modulators in proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C.; Kumlin, J.; Martinez, D. M.; Jirasek, A.; Hoehr, C.

    2016-06-01

    A new method for the design of stepless beam modulators for proton therapy is described and verified. Simulations of the classic designs are compared against the stepless method for various modulation widths which are clinically applicable in proton eye therapy. Three modulator wheels were printed using a Stratasys Objet30 3D printer. The resulting depth dose distributions showed improved uniformity over the classic stepped designs. Simulated results imply a possible improvement in distal penumbra width; however, more accurate measurements are needed to fully verify this effect. Lastly, simulations were done to model bio-equivalence to Co-60 cell kill. A wheel was successfully designed to flatten this metric.

  19. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  20. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  1. TMT DMs final design and advanced prototyping results at Cilas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, Jean-Christophe; Bastard, Arnaud; Boyer, Corinne; Cornette, Sébastien; Cousty, Raphaël.; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilbert, Xavier; Gourdet, Benoit; Grasser, Régis; Groeninck, Denis; Guillemard, Claude; Herriot, Glen; Iannacone, Albert; Jeulin, Antoine; Moreau, Aurélien; Pagès, Hubert; Wang, Lianqi

    2012-07-01

    In order to prepare for the construction phase of the two Deformable Mirrors (DMs), which will be used in the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system, Cilas has advanced the design of these two large size piezo DMs and has manufactured and tested a scaled demonstration prototype. The work done allowed significant reduction of the risks related to the demanding specifications of the TMT DMs; the main issues were: (i) Large pupil (up to 370 mm) and high order (up to 74x74); (ii) Relatively low operational temperature (DMs working at -30°C) (iii) New piezo material. It is important to develop such a prototype to take into account these three specifications all together (dimension, low temperature and new piezo material). The new prototype is a 6x60 actuators and has the same characteristics as the future TMT DMs. In this paper, we give the conclusions of the work through the presentation of the following items: (i) Design and finite element analysis of the two DMs and prototype; (ii) Test results obtained with the prototype with validation of the finite element analysis and compliance with the TMT AO specifications; (iii) Special focus on thermal behavior, actuator reliability and shape at rest stability.

  2. Cryogenic Evaluation of an Advanced DC/DC Converter Module for Deep Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard

    2003-01-01

    DC/DC converters are widely used in power management, conditioning, and control of space power systems. Deep space applications require electronics that withstand cryogenic temperature and meet a stringent radiation tolerance. In this work, the performance of an advanced, radiation-hardened (rad-hard) commercial DC/DC converter module was investigated at cryogenic temperatures. The converter was investigated in terms of its steady state and dynamic operations. The output voltage regulation, efficiency, terminal current ripple characteristics, and output voltage response to load changes were determined in the temperature range of 20 to -140 C. These parameters were obtained at various load levels and at different input voltages. The experimental procedures along with the results obtained on the investigated converter are presented and discussed.

  3. Sharp-switching band-modulation back-gated devices in advanced FDSOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Dirani, Hassan; Fonteneau, Pascal; Solaro, Yohann; Legrand, Charles-Alex; Marin-Cudraz, David; Ferrari, Philippe; Cristoloveanu, Sorin

    2017-02-01

    A band-modulation device with a free top surface, named Z3-FET (Zero front-gate, Zero swing slope and Zero impact ionization) and fabricated in the most advanced Fully Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator technology, is demonstrated experimentally. Since the device has no front gate, the operation mechanism is controlled by two adjacent heavily doped buried ground planes acting as back-gates. Characteristics such as sharp quasi-vertical switching, low leakage, and tunable trigger voltage are measured and discussed. We explore several variants (thin and thick silicon or SiGe body) and show promising results in terms of high current, switching performance and ESD capability with relatively low back-gate and drain bias operation.

  4. Design, fabrication, test, qualification and price analysis for third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An updated program plan is presented showing the task descriptions depicting the work, progress, achievements, and the cause of any deviations from the original plan (SC-1), and how this impacted on the original schedule of the program. In addition there is an update documenting all design alterations made during the pre-production phase and a complete up to date set of engineering and manufacturing documentation (CM-1). The purpose of the work in the original plan was to explore, design, develop, test, and deliver 1000 watts of prototype flat plate, photovoltaic modules appropriate for use in applications in the 20 to 500 kilowatt range and which show potential for meeting the 1986 cost goals.

  5. Antenna Design Considerations for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakula, Casey J.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios

    2015-01-01

    NASA is designing an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU)to support future manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A key component of the AEMU is the communications assembly that allows for the wireless transfer of voice, video, and suit telemetry. The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) currently used on the International Space Station (ISS) contains a radio system with a single omni-directional resonant cavity antenna operating slightly above 400 MHz capable of transmitting and receiving data at a rate of about 125 kbps. Recent wireless communications architectures are calling for the inclusion of commercial wireless standards such as 802.11 that operate in higher frequency bands at much higher data rates. The current AEMU radio design supports a 400 MHz band for low-rate mission-critical data and a high-rate band based on commercial wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to support video, communication with non-extravehicular activity (EVA) assets such as wireless sensors and robotic assistants, and a redundant path for mission-critical EVA data. This paper recommends the replacement of the existing EMU antenna with a new antenna that maintains the performance characteristics of the current antenna but with lower weight and volume footprints. NASA has funded several firms to develop such an antenna over the past few years, and the most promising designs are variations on the basic patch antenna. This antenna technology at UHF is considered by the authors to be mature and ready for infusion into NASA AEMU technology development programs.

  6. Terrestrial applications of FEP-encapsulated solar cell modules. [systems design and power output characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    FEP-encapsulated solar cell modules and arrays have been designed and built expressly for terrestrial applications. System design including solar cell array mechanical design and the approach to system sizing is outlined. Such solar cell systems have been installed at six sites. Individual modules have undergone marine environment tests. Results from seven months of operation indicate that system is meeting its electrical design requirements. No mechanical degradation has been reported. The array on Mammoth Mountain, California has been damaged by rime ice but shows no loss in electrical output. Marine environment tests on single modules have shown that elements of the module must be completely sealed by the FEP. Based on the limited test data available, the FEP-encapsulated solar cell module appears well suited to terrestrial applications.

  7. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  8. Designing and testing modules on non-formal education for teacher education candidates: A Brazilian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioppo, Christiane

    Two modules for preparing educators to use non-formal and informal education opportunities were developed and tested at the Federal University of Parana, Brazil. The first module prepared teacher candidates to create and teach lessons that use informal environments such as beaches and natural areas, while the second module focused on preparing museum interns to design and teach with activities prepared specifically for non-formal settings. The research was carried out in three steps. The first sought the perceptions of three groups of professionals about the use of non-formal/informal settings by school groups and their teachers, and asked for suggestions on designing educational modules. In the second step, the conception and development of the modules was enlightened by interview responses, research literature, and Biology Education program constraints. The third step tested both modules by having Biology Education majors develop and pilot activities for middle and high school students, with the results observed the research as post at. The results of testing Module I indicated that teacher candidates need a strong support system to become effective teachers. Data also showed that they needed additional instruction on preparing integrated inquiry lessons and how to use the module as a regular and permanent addition to the curriculum. Thus, the first module was redesigned but not further tested. Module II results indicated that museum personnel and administration became interested in designing more interactive activities and the school students who participated in the activities enjoyed being at the museum. Module II data also indicated need for revision and more study, especially regarding the use of inquiry, the implementation strategy for traditional museums, and the development of activities that are feasible for large group of museum visitors. This study indicated that such modules are valuable and could lead to change in informal and non-formal instruction

  9. 77 FR 56241 - Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive 1000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) ``retire'' the final design approval (FDA) for the Advanced Passive 1000 (AP1000) design upon the completion of rulemaking for the amendment to the...

  10. Fouling and its reversibility in relation to flow properties and module design in aerated hollow fibre modules for membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pollet, S; Guigui, C; Cabassud, C

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, most membrane bioreactors are using membranes submerged in the biomass and aeration in the concentrate compartment to limit or to control fouling. An important issue for the design of modules or membrane bundles in MBRs is to understand how the air/liquid flow is behaving and influencing fouling and its reversibility in relationship to the module properties. This paper focuses on an innovative and very specific process, in which HF membranes are put in a cartridge outside the activated sludge tank and a recycling loop is associated to the cartridge in order to decrease concentration of foulant species at the membrane surface and mass transfer resistance. Recycling operates with a very low liquid velocity in the module (a few cm.s(-1)) which constitutes a specificity of this process in terms of filtration operation. The aim of this study is to characterise two-phase flow and its effects on fouling and fouling reversibility at the scale of a semi-industrial bundle of outside/in hollow fibres, and as a function of bundle properties (packing density, fibre diameter), using specific methods to characterise the flow and fouling effects. Two modules were used showing a different packing density. Filtration was operated at constant permeate flux with clay suspension at 0.65 g.l(-1) in the same hydrodynamic conditions. Fouling kinetics and irreversibility were characterised by an adapted step method, and gas and liquid flows were characterised at global scale by residence time distribution analyses and gas hold-up. Fouling velocities are clearly influenced by gas velocity. The proportion of dead to total volume in the module is mainly affected by the liquid flow velocity and module design. The module with the higher fibre diameter and the lower packing density showed better performances in terms of fouling which was correlated with better flow properties.

  11. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements.

    PubMed

    Clark, G; Cohen, I; Westlake, J H; Andrews, G B; Brandt, P; Gold, R E; Gkioulidou, M A; Hacala, R; Haggerty, D; Hill, M E; Ho, G C; Jaskulek, S E; Kollmann, P; Mauk, B H; McNutt, R L; Mitchell, D G; Nelson, K S; Paranicas, C; Paschalidis, N; Schlemm, C E

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  12. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  13. Designing advanced alkaline polymer electrolytes for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Chen, Chen; Zhuang, Lin; Lu, Juntao

    2012-03-20

    Although the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is a superior power source for electric vehicles, the high cost of this technology has served as the primary barrier to the large-scale commercialization. Over the last decade, researchers have pursued lower-cost next-generation materials for fuel cells, and alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) have emerged as an enabling material for platinum-free fuel cells. To fulfill the requirements of fuel cell applications, the APE must be as conductive and stable as its acidic counterpart, such as Nafion. This benchmark has proved challenging for APEs because the conductivity of OH(-) is intrinsically lower than that of H(+), and the stability of the cationic functional group in APEs, typically quaternary ammonia (-NR(3)(+)), is usually lower than that of the sulfonic functional group (-SO(3)(-)) in acidic polymer electrolytes. To improve the ionic conductivity, APEs are often designed to be of high ion-exchange capacity (IEC). This modification has caused unfavorable changes in the materials: these high IEC APEs absorb excessive amounts of water, leading to significant swelling and a decline in mechanical strength of the membrane. Cross-linking the polymer chains does not completely solve the problem because stable ionomer solutions would not be available for PEFC assembly. In this Account, we report our recent progress in the development of advanced APEs, which are highly resistant to swelling and show conductivities comparable with Nafion at typical temperatures for fuel-cell operation. We have proposed two strategies for improving the performance of APEs: self-cross-linking and self-aggregating designs. The self-cross-linking design builds on conventional cross-linking methods and works for APEs with high IEC. The self-aggregating design improves the effective mobility of OH(-) and boosts the ionic conductivity of APEs with low IEC. For APEs with high IEC, cross-linking is necessary to restrict the swelling of the

  14. Design of star sensor imaging driver module based on IMX224

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zunzong; Wei, Xinguo; Wang, Gangyi

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces the design and implementation of a high sensitivity star sensor imaging driver module. The high sensitivity CMOS imaging chip IMX224 was used. It can capture high resolution color image in 0.005 lux in low light conditions. Using FPGA embedded ARM core to design and control the entire driver module to achieve the imaging driver acquisition and storage. Finally, through the actual field observing experiments, the experimental results show that the detection ability of magnitude of the high sensitivity star sensor imaging driver module can meet the design requirements.

  15. Advanced biomatrix designs for regenerative therapy of periodontal tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Park, C H; Perez, R A; Lee, H Y; Jang, J H; Lee, H H; Wall, I B; Shi, S; Kim, H W

    2014-12-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes loss of the tooth-supporting apparatus, including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. A broad range of treatment options is currently available to restore the structure and function of the periodontal tissues. A regenerative approach, among others, is now considered the most promising paradigm for this purpose, harnessing the unique properties of stem cells. How to make full use of the body's innate regenerative capacity is thus a key issue. While stem cells and bioactive factors are essential components in the regenerative processes, matrices play pivotal roles in recapitulating stem cell functions and potentiating therapeutic actions of bioactive molecules. Moreover, the positions of appropriate bioactive matrices relative to the injury site may stimulate the innate regenerative stem cell populations, removing the need to deliver cells that have been manipulated outside of the body. In this topical review, we update views on advanced designs of biomatrices-including mimicking of the native extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stimulation, activating cell-driven matrices, and delivering bioactive factors in a controllable manner-which are ultimately useful for the regenerative therapy of periodontal tissues.

  16. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  17. Recent advances in drugs and prodrugs design of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Vinsova, J; Vavrikova, E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to outline the recent advances in chitosan molecular modeling, especially its usage as a prodrug or drug in a field of antibacterial, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activity. Polymeric materials like peptides, polysaccharides and other natural products have recently attracted attention as biodegradabile drug carriers. They can optimize clinical drug application, minimize the undesirable drug properties and improve drug efficiency. They are used for the slow release of effective components as depot forms, to improve membrane permeability, solubility and site-specific targeting. Chitosan is such a prospective cationic polysaccharide which has shown number of functions in many fields, including bio medicinal, pharmaceutical, preservative, microbial and others. This article discusses the structure characteristics of chitosan, a number of factors such as degree of polymerization, level of deacetylation, types of quarternisation, installation of various hydrophilic substituents, metal complexation, and combination with other active agents. Biodegradable, non-toxic and non-allergenic nature of chitosan encourages its potential use as a carrier for drug delivery systems in all above mentioned targets. The use of chitosan prodrug conjugates is aimed at the site-specific transport to the target cells use, for example, a spacer tetrapeptide Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly, promotion of drug incorporation into cells via endocytosis, hybridization or synergism of two types of drugs or a drug with a bioactive carrier. The design of chitosan macromolecule prodrugs is also discussed.

  18. Current advances in precious metal core–shell catalyst design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; He, Beibei; Hu, Zhiyu; Zeng, Zhigang; Han, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Precious metal nanoparticles are commonly used as the main active components of various catalysts. Given their high cost, limited quantity, and easy loss of catalytic activity under severe conditions, precious metals should be used in catalysts at low volumes and be protected from damaging environments. Accordingly, reducing the amount of precious metals without compromising their catalytic performance is difficult, particularly under challenging conditions. As multifunctional materials, core–shell nanoparticles are highly important owing to their wide range of applications in chemistry, physics, biology, and environmental areas. Compared with their single-component counterparts and other composites, core–shell nanoparticles offer a new active interface and a potential synergistic effect between the core and shell, making these materials highly attractive in catalytic application. On one hand, when a precious metal is used as the shell material, the catalytic activity can be greatly improved because of the increased surface area and the closed interfacial interaction between the core and the shell. On the other hand, when a precious metal is applied as the core material, the catalytic stability can be remarkably improved because of the protection conferred by the shell material. Therefore, a reasonable design of the core–shell catalyst for target applications must be developed. We summarize the latest advances in the fabrications, properties, and applications of core–shell nanoparticles in this paper. The current research trends of these core–shell catalysts are also highlighted. PMID:27877695

  19. Lunar missions using advanced chemical propulsion: System design issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    To provide the transportation of lunar base elements to the moon, large high-energy propulsion systems will be required. Advanced propulsion systems for lunar missions can provide significant launch mass reductions and payload increases. These mass reductions and added payload masses can be translated into significant launch cost savings for the lunar base missions. The masses in low Earth orbit (LEO) were compared for several propulsion systems: nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH), oxygen/methane (O2/CH4), oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2), and metallized O2/H2/Al propellants. Also, the payload mass increases enabled with O2/H2 and O2/H2/Al systems were addressed. In addition, many system design issues involving the engine thrust levels, engine commonality between the transfer vehicle and the excursion vehicle, and the number of launches to place the lunar mission vehicles into LEO will be discussed. Analyses of small lunar missions launched from a single STS-C flight are also presented.

  20. Design and performance of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lencioni, Donald E.; Digenis, Constantine J.; Bicknell, William E.; Hearn, David R.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.

    1999-12-01

    An Advanced Land Imager (ALI) will be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The ALI contains a number of key NMP technologies. These include a 15 degree wide field-of-view, push-broom instrument architecture with a 12.5 cm aperture diameter, compact multispectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The focal plane contains multispectral and panchromatic (MS/Pan) detector arrays with a total of 10 spectral bands spanning the 0.4 to 2.5 micrometer wavelength region. Seven of these correspond to the heritage Landsat bands. The instantaneous fields of view of the detectors are 14.2 (mu) rad for the Pan band and 42.6 (mu) rad for the MS bands. The partially populated focal plane provides a 3 degree cross-track coverage corresponding to 37 km on the ground. The focal plane temperature is maintained at 220 K by means of a passive radiator. The instrument environmental and performance testing has been completed. Preliminary data analysis indicates excellent performance. This paper presents an overview of the instrument design, the calibration strategy, and results of the pre-flight performance measurements. It also discusses the potential impact of ALI technologies to future Landsat-like instruments.

  1. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  2. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  3. Current advances in precious metal core-shell catalyst design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; He, Beibei; Hu, Zhiyu; Zeng, Zhigang; Han, Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Precious metal nanoparticles are commonly used as the main active components of various catalysts. Given their high cost, limited quantity, and easy loss of catalytic activity under severe conditions, precious metals should be used in catalysts at low volumes and be protected from damaging environments. Accordingly, reducing the amount of precious metals without compromising their catalytic performance is difficult, particularly under challenging conditions. As multifunctional materials, core-shell nanoparticles are highly important owing to their wide range of applications in chemistry, physics, biology, and environmental areas. Compared with their single-component counterparts and other composites, core-shell nanoparticles offer a new active interface and a potential synergistic effect between the core and shell, making these materials highly attractive in catalytic application. On one hand, when a precious metal is used as the shell material, the catalytic activity can be greatly improved because of the increased surface area and the closed interfacial interaction between the core and the shell. On the other hand, when a precious metal is applied as the core material, the catalytic stability can be remarkably improved because of the protection conferred by the shell material. Therefore, a reasonable design of the core-shell catalyst for target applications must be developed. We summarize the latest advances in the fabrications, properties, and applications of core-shell nanoparticles in this paper. The current research trends of these core-shell catalysts are also highlighted.

  4. The SOUDAN 2 detector The design and construction of the tracking calorimeter modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ambats, I.; Ayres, D. S.; Balka, L. J.; Barr, G. D.; Barrett, W. L.; Benjamin, D.; Bode, C.; Border, P. M.; Brooks, C. B.; Cobb, J. H.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coover, K.; Cotton, R. J.; Courant, H.; Dahlin, B. B.; DasGupta, U.; Dawson, J. W.; Demuth, D. M.; Edwards, V. W.; Ewen, B.; Fields, T. H.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Gallagher, H. M.; Giles, R. H.; Giller, G. L.; Goodman, M. C.; Gray, R. N.; Heppelmann, S.; Hill, N.; Hoftiezer, J. H.; Jankowski, D. J.; Johns, K.; Joyce, T.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kirby-Gallagher, L. M.; Kochocki, J.; Leeson, W.; Litchfield, P. J.; Longley, N. P.; Lopez, F. V.; Lowe, M. J.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; May, E. N.; Maxam, D.; McMaster, L.; Milburn, R.; Miller, W. H.; Minor, C. P.; Mondal, N.; Mualem, L.; Napier, A.; Nelson, E. M.; Nickson, R.; Oliver, W.; Pearce, G. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Peterson, E. A.; Price, L. E.; Roback, D. M.; Rosen, D. B.; Ruddick, K.; Saitta, B.; Schmid, D. J.; Schlereth, J.; Schneps, J.; Schub, M. H.; Seidlein, R. V.; Shield, P. D.; Shupe, M. A.; Spear, S.; Stassinakis, A.; Sundaralingam, N.; Thomson, M. A.; Thron, J. L.; Vassiliev, V.; Villaume, G.; Wakely, S. P.; Wall, D.; Wallis, E. W. G.; Weems, L.; Werkema, S. J.; West, N.; Wielgosz, U.; Woods, C. A.; Yarker, S.

    1996-02-01

    SOUDAN 2 is a 960-ton tracking calorimeter which has been constructed to search for nucleon decay and other phenomena. The full detector consists of 224 calorimeter modules each weighing 4.3 tons. The design and construction of the modules are described. The modules consist of finely segmented iron instrumented with 1 m long drift tubes of 15 mm internal diameter. The tubes enable three spatial coordinates and d E/d x to be recorded for charged particles traversing the tubes.

  5. New Conceptual Design of a Test Module Assembly for Tritium Permeation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O'hira, S.; Luo, G.-N.; Nakamura, H.; Shu, W.M.; Kitamura, K.; Nishi, M.

    2005-07-15

    A new conceptual design of a tritium permeation test module assembly was developed, for simulation of tritium permeation in the real plasma facing components and validation of the models and codes for evaluation of the tritium permeation. The assembly was designed for tests using powerful ion sources, which has a capability to simulate condition relevant to that of the ITER divertor. The heat load test of the prototype module has been performed using an electron beam to verify thermal and mechanical behavior of the bonded structure and to assess its structural integrity under the cyclic heat loads. Then, the first tests using tritium ion beam generated by the TPE apparatus at TSTA/LANL with the prototype module was performed and procedure to measure tritium permeated was established. Considerations for tests using the target module with defects generated by neutron irradiation or accelerated ion beam irradiation will be also taken in the new module design.

  6. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  7. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to define requirements for an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is for engineering studies in the area of mission associated vehicle handling qualities. Principally a technology survey and assessment of existing and proposed simulator visual display systems, image generation systems, modular cab designs, and simulator control station designs were performed and are discussed. State of the art survey data were used to synthesize a set of preliminary visual display system concepts of which five candidate display configurations were selected for further evaluation. Basic display concepts incorporated in these configurations included: real image projection, using either periscopes, fiber optic bundles, or scanned laser optics; and virtual imaging with helmet mounted displays. These display concepts were integrated in the study with a simulator cab concept employing a modular base for aircraft controls, crew seating, and instrumentation (or other) displays. A simple concept to induce vibration in the various modules was developed and is described. Results of evaluations and trade offs related to the candidate system concepts are given, along with a suggested weighting scheme for numerically comparing visual system performance characteristics.

  8. Getting Down to Business: Software Design Company, Module 20. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Norma

    This module on owning and operating a software design company is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning activities are…

  9. Students' Design of Experiments: An Inquiry Module on the Conduction of Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Kallery, M.; Molohidis, A.; Psillos, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines secondary students' design of experiments after engagement in an innovative and inquiry-oriented module on heat transfer. The module consists of an integration of hands-on experiments, simulated experiments and microscopic model simulations, includes a structured series of guided investigative tasks and was implemented for a…

  10. Application of advanced electronics to a future spacecraft computer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Advancements in hardware and software technology are summarized with specific emphasis on spacecraft computer capabilities. Available state of the art technology is reviewed and candidate architectures are defined.

  11. Modulator design for x-ray scatter correction using primary modulation: Material selection

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Hewei; Zhu Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: An optimal material selection for primary modulator is proposed in order to minimize beam hardening of the modulator in x-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Recently, a measurement-based scatter correction method using primary modulation has been developed and experimentally verified. In the practical implementation, beam hardening of the modulator blocker is a limiting factor because it causes inconsistency in the primary signal and therefore degrades the accuracy of scatter correction. Methods: This inconsistency can be purposely assigned to the effective transmission factor of the modulator whose variation as a function of object filtration represents the magnitude of beam hardening of the modulator. In this work, the authors show that the variation reaches a minimum when the K-edge of the modulator material is near the mean energy of the system spectrum. Accordingly, an optimal material selection can be carried out in three steps. First, estimate and evaluate the polychromatic spectrum for a given x-ray system including both source and detector; second, calculate the mean energy of the spectrum and decide the candidate materials whose K-edge energies are near the mean energy; third, select the optimal material from the candidates after considering both the magnitude of beam hardening and the physical and chemical properties. Results: A tabletop x-ray CBCT system operated at 120 kVp is used to validate the material selection method in both simulations and experiments, from which the optimal material for this x-ray system is then chosen. With the transmission factor initially being 0.905 and 0.818, simulations show that erbium provides the least amount of variation as a function of object filtrations (maximum variations are 2.2% and 4.3%, respectively, only one-third of that for copper). With different combinations of aluminum and copper filtrations (simulating a range of object thicknesses), measured overall variations are 2.5%, 1.0%, and 8

  12. GPM Avionics Module Heat Pipes Design and Performance Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura; DeChristopher, Mike

    2012-01-01

    GPM is a satellite constellation to study precipitation formed from a partnership between NASA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The GPM Core Observatory, being developed and tested at GSFC, serves as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from the GPM satellite constellation. The Core Observatory carries an advanced radar/radiometer system to measure precipitation from space. The scientific data gained from GPM will benefit both NASA and JAXA by advancing our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle, improving forecasts of extreme weather events, and extending our current capabilities in using accurate and timely precipitation information to benefit society.

  13. Design and Analysis of the International X-Ray Observatory Mirror Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Carnahan, Timothy M.; Robinson, David W.; Saha, Timo T.

    2009-01-01

    The Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) modules are the fundamental focusing assemblies on NASA's next major X-ray telescope mission, the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO). The preliminary design and analysis of these assemblies has been completed, addressing the major engineering challenges and leading to an understanding of the factors effecting module performance. Each of the 60 modules in the Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) supports 200-300 densely packed 0.4 mm thick glass mirror segments in order to meet the unprecedented effective area required to achieve the scientific objectives of the mission. Detailed Finite Element Analysis (FEA), materials testing, and environmental testing have been completed to ensure the modules can be successfully launched. Resulting stress margins are positive based on detailed FEA, a large factor of safety, and a design strength determined by robust characterization of the glass properties. FEA correlates well with the results of the successful modal, vibration, and acoustic environmental tests. Deformation of the module due to on-orbit thermal conditions is also a major design driver. A preliminary thermal control system has been designed and the sensitivity of module optical performance to various thermal loads has been determined using optomechanical analysis methods developed for this unique assembly. This design and analysis furthers the goal of building a module that demonstrates the ability to meet IXO requirements, which is the current focus of the IXO FMA technology development team.

  14. Third generation design solar cell module LSA task 5, large scale production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A total of twelve (12) preproduction modules were constructed, tested, and delivered. A concept to the frame assembly was designed and proven to be quite reliable. This frame design, as well as the rest of the assembly, was designed with future high volume production and the use of automated equipment in mind.

  15. Processing Systems Optimization Through Automatic Design and Reorganization of Program Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunamaker, J. F., Jr.; And Others

    A methodology is described for an automatic design system initially defined in terms of logical processes or program modules. Processes and files are grouped and reorganized in such a way as to produce an optimal design with respect to a specific target machine. Performance criteria for the optimal design are defined in terms of transport volume…

  16. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary reduced variable master was constructed for pressure loading. A study of cell thickness versus cell stress was completed. Work is continuing on encapsulation of qualification modules. A 4 ft x 4 ft 'credit card' construction laminate was made.

  17. Preliminary Downlink Design and Performance Assessment for Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Wang, C. C.; Gray, A.; Hemmati, H.; Mittskus, A.; Golshan, N.; Noca, M.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE) is a space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission with a nominal launch date of 2008. It consists of an inflatable 25-m radio telescope circulating in a highly elliptical Earth orbit with a perigee of 5,000 km and an apogee of 40,000 km. The objective is to observe in conjunction with Earth-based telescopes to obtain high-resolution maps of quasars and active galactic nuclei for science investigations. ARISE requires an 8-Gb/s downlink of science data, which is a challenge using today's technology. In this article, 8-Gb/s systems using both traditional radio frequency (RF) and laser communication are proposed with the goal of minimizing both the cost and the risk of the design. Either option requires appropriate technology investments. The RF system requires the use of dual polarization, high-order modulations such as 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), and spectrally efficient square-root raised-cosine (SRRC) filters to meet the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectral allocation. If additional bandwidth is allocated by the FCC, constant-envelope modulations such as cross-correlated trellis-coded quadrature modulation (XTCQM) can be used in place of SRRC filters and QAM to reduce the power required on the spacecraft. The proposed laser communication system uses on-off keying (OOK) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The wavelength of 1550 nm has the advantage of lower background light subtended at the ground receiver for downlink communications. The critical components of the system are based on mature fiber-optic technologies. The downlink transceiver terminal will be a modified Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) that has been in development at JPL over the past 3 years. This article includes a road map on how the 8-Gb/s RF and laser communication systems can be developed with a series of demonstrations between now and the launch date. The demonstrations are

  18. Thermal Design, Analysis, and Testing of the Quench Module Insert Bread Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeding, Shawn; Khodabandeh, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Quench Module Insert (QMI) science requirements. QMI interfaces. QMI design layout. QMI thermal analysis and design methodology. QMI bread board testing and instrumentation approach. QMI thermal probe design parameters. Design features for gradient measurement. Design features for heated zone measurements. Thermal gradient analysis results. Heated zone analysis results. Bread board thermal probe layout. QMI bread board correlation and performance. Summary and conclusions.

  19. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T. A.; Garcia, F. G.; Kufer, M. R.; Pfeffer, H.; Wolff, D.

    2015-04-28

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  20. Modular thrust subsystem approaches to solar electric propulsion module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cake, J. E.; Sharp, G. R.; Oglebay, J. C.; Shaker, F. J.; Zevesky, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Three approaches are presented for packaging the elements of a 30 cm ion thrustor subsystem into a modular thrust subsystem. The individual modules, when integrated into a conceptual solar electric propulsion module are applicable to a multimission set of interplanetary flights with the Space Shuttle/Interim Upper Stage as the launch vehicle. The emphasis is on the structural and thermal integration of the components into the modular thrust subsystems. Thermal control for the power processing units is either by direct radiation through louvers in combination with heat pipes of an all heat pipe system. The propellant storage and feed system and thrustor gimbal system concepts are presented. The three approaches are compared on the basis of mass, cost, testing, interfaces, simplicity, reliability, and maintainability.

  1. Modular thrust subsystem approaches to solar electric propulsion module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cake, J. E.; Sharp, G. R.; Oglebay, J. C.; Shaker, F. J.; Zavesky, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Three approaches are presented for packaging the elements of a 30 cm ion thruster subsystem into a modular thrust subsystem. The individual modules, when integrated into a conceptual solar electric propulsion module are applicable to a multimission set of interplanetary flights with the space shuttle interim upper stage as the launch vehicle. The emphasis is on the structural and thermal integration of the components into the modular thrust subsystems. Thermal control for the power processing units is either by direct radiation through louvers in combination with heat pipes or an all heat pipe system. The propellant storage and feed system and thruster gimbal system concepts are presented. The three approaches are compared on the basis of mass, cost, testing, interfaces, simplicity, reliability, and maintainability.

  2. The Solarex Block IV module. [solar array design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelscher, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Several innovative concepts were introduced for the Block IV contract. Semicrystalline silicon manufactured by SEMIX Inc. is the basic cell material. A front metallization pattern combined with a wraparound-style interconnect and in-plane stress relief combine to provide a new method to reliably accomplish series-paralleling. Laminated modules using Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) as the encapsulant were manufactured for the first time.

  3. Advances in design and modeling of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.

  4. Multi Infrastructure Control and Optimization Toolkit, Resilient Design Module (MICOT-RDT), version 2.X

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell; Nagarajan, Harsha; Yamangil, Emre; Coffrin, Carleton

    2016-06-24

    MICOT is a tool for optimizing and controlling infrastructure systems. In includes modules for optimizing the operations of an infrastructure structure (for example optimal dispatch), designing infrastructure systems, restoring infrastructures systems, resiliency, preparing for natural disasters, interdicting networks, state estimation, sensor placement, and simulation of infrastructure systems. It implements algorithms developed at LANL that have been published in the academic community. This is a release of the of resilient design module of the MICOT.

  5. Clinical response of advanced cancer patients to cellular immunotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hasumi, Kenichiro; Aoki, Yukimasa; Wantanabe, Ryuko; Mann, Dean L

    2013-01-01

    Patients afflicted with advanced cancers were treated with the intratumoral injection of autologous immature dendritic cells (iDCs) followed by activated T-cell infusion and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A second round of iDCs and activated T cells was then administered to patients after the last radiation cycle. This complete regimen was repeated for new and recurring lesions after 6 weeks of follow-up. One year post therapy, outcome analyses were performed to evaluate treatment efficacy. Patients were grouped according to both the number and size of tumors and clinical parameters at treatment initiation, including recurrent disease after standard cancer therapy, Stage IV disease, and no prior therapy. Irrespective of prior treatment status, 23/37 patients with ≤ 5 neoplastic lesions that were ≤ 3 cm in diameter achieved complete responses (CRs), and 5/37 exhibited partial responses (PRs). Among 130 individuals harboring larger and more numerous lesions, CRs were observed in 7/74 patients that had received prior SCT and in 2/56 previously untreated patients. Some patients manifested immune responses including an increase in CD8+CD56+ lymphocytes among circulating mononuclear cells in the course of treatment. To prospectively explore the therapeutic use of these cells, CD8+ cells were isolated from patients that had been treated with cellular immunotherapy and IMRT, expanded in vitro, and injected into recurrent metastatic sites in 13 individuals who underwent the same immunoradiotherapeutic regimens but failed to respond. CRs were achieved in 34 of 58 of such recurrent lesions while PRs in 17 of 58. These data support the expanded use of immunoradiotherapy in advanced cancer patients exhibiting progressive disease. PMID:24349874

  6. Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Michel Lange, Violaine; Laganaro, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs) presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favor a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-NPs may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal). Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers' production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initializing participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-NPs: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results. PMID:24550866

  7. Through the Past Decade: How Advanced Energy Design Guides have influenced the Design Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Athalye, Rahul A.

    2015-07-31

    Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) were originally developed intended to provide a simple approach to building professionals seeking energy efficient building designs better than ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Since its first book was released in 2004, the AEDG series provided inspiration for the design industry and were seen by designers as a starting point for buildings that wished to go beyond minimum codes and standards. In addition, U.S. Department of Energy’s successful Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program leveraged many of the recommendations from the AEDGs to achieve 50% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 for prototypical designs of large commercial entities in the retail, banking and lodging sectors. Low-energy technologies and strategies developed during the CBP process have been applied by commercial partners throughout their national portfolio of buildings. Later, the AEDGs served as the perfect platform for both Standard 90.1 and ASHRAE’s high performance buildings standard, Standard 189.1. What was high performance a few years ago, however, has become minimum code today. Indeed, most of the prescriptive envelope component requirements in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 are values recommended in the 50% AEDGs several years ago. Similarly, AEDG strategies and recommendations have penetrated the lighting and HVAC sections of both Standard 189.1 and Standard 90.1. Finally, as we look to the future of codes and standards, the AEDGs are serving as a blueprint for how minimum code requirements could be expressed. By customizing codes to specific building types, design strategies tailored for individual buildings could be prescribed as minimum code, just like in the AEDGs. This paper describes the impact that AEDGs have had over the last decade on the design industry and how they continue to influence the future of codes and Standards. From design professionals to code officials, everyone in the building industry has been affected by the AEDGs.

  8. Evaluating the implementation and impacts of middle grades inquiry-based engineering design modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlan, Jessica M.

    This dissertation uses a format where I present and discuss three articles that were written in conjunction with my work on a research and evaluation team. The articles are based on a multi-year project researching and evaluating the design, development, and implementation of a middle grades integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. Each of the articles demonstrates the complexity in researching and evaluating curricular development in multifaceted, rapidly changing environments. While the focus of each article differs, they all examine research and evaluation in the context of the design and development of middle grades engineering-design modules. The selected articles address challenges associated with assessing program objectives and evaluating program quality in complex education programs.The first article, presented in Chapter 2, provides an overview of the nature of the EYE program and examines the extent to which participation in the EYE program resulted in the achievement of program objectives. There is evidence that EYE Module participation has a positive impact on participating students as well as teachers. This study also revealed challenges associated with determining the impact of program participation simultaneously with program revisions and assessment development. The second article, presented in Chapter 3, examined the evaluation of fidelity of implementation of inquiry-oriented educational programs. This article was intended to examine one way of triangulating information to determine fidelity while considering variation in implementation consistent with program theories of learning. When applying this model to implementation of the EYE program, we found many teachers were implementing the modules with low to moderate fidelity, especially math teachers. The third article, presented in Chapter 4, examined the factor structure of an occupational values scale intended to measure student interest in STEM careers

  9. Development of an advanced static feed water electrolysis module. [for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.; Jensen, F. C.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    A Static Feed Water Electrolysis Module (SFWEM) was developed to produce 0.92 kg/day (2.0 lb/day) of oxygen (O2). Specific objectives of the program's scope were to (1) eliminate the need for feed water cavity degassing, (2) eliminate the need for subsystem condenser/separators, (3) increase current density capability while decreasing electrolysis cell power (i.e., cell voltage) requirements, and (4) eliminate subsystem rotating parts and incorporate control and monitor instrumentation. A six-cell, one-man capacity module having an active area of 0.00929 sq m (0.10 sq ft) per cell was designed, fabricated, assembled, and subjected to 111 days (2664 hr) of parametric and endurance testing. The SFWEM was successfully operated over a current density range of 0 to 1076 mA/sq cm (0 to 1000 ASF), pressures of ambient to 2067 kN/sq m (300 psia), and temperatures of ambient to 366 K (200 F). During a 94-day endurance test, the SFWEM successfully demonstrated operation without the need for feed water compartment degassing.

  10. Designing and Testing Contols to Mitigate Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.; Stol, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads of wind turbines. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we show the design and simulation testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control design methods.

  11. Designing an Advanced Instructional Design Advisor: Principles of Instructional Design. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Computers in Human Behavior , 5, 167-174. Palincsar, A.S. and Brown...strategies to improve creativity. Computers in Human Behavior , 4, 23-28. Reigeluth, C.M. (1983) (Ed.) Instructional Design Theories and Models...Tennyson, R.D., Thurlow, R., and Breuer, K. (1988). Problem oriented simulations to develop and improve higher thinking strategies. Computers in Human Behavior ,

  12. Using experimental design modules for process characterization in manufacturing/materials processes laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ankenman, Bruce; Ermer, Donald; Clum, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Modules dealing with statistical experimental design (SED), process modeling and improvement, and response surface methods have been developed and tested in two laboratory courses. One course was a manufacturing processes course in Mechanical Engineering and the other course was a materials processing course in Materials Science and Engineering. Each module is used as an 'experiment' in the course with the intent that subsequent course experiments will use SED methods for analysis and interpretation of data. Evaluation of the modules' effectiveness has been done by both survey questionnaires and inclusion of the module methodology in course examination questions. Results of the evaluation have been very positive. Those evaluation results and details of the modules' content and implementation are presented. The modules represent an important component for updating laboratory instruction and to provide training in quality for improved engineering practice.

  13. Block 4 solar cell module design and test specification for residential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Near-term design, qualification and acceptance requirements are provided for terrestrial solar cell modules suitable for incorporation in photovoltaic power sources (2 kW to 10 kW) applied to single family residential installations. Requirement levels and recommended design limits for selected performance criteria are specified for modules intended principally for rooftop installations. Modules satisfying the requirements of this specification fall into one of two categories, residential panel or residential shingle, both meeting general performance requirements plus additional category peculiar constraints.

  14. Design, Construction, and Testing of Lightweight X-ray Mirror Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Espina, Rebecca A.; Hohl, Bruce R.; Matson, Elizabeth A.; Saha, Timo C.; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The Next Generation X-ray Optics (NGXO) team at NASA GSFC is nearing mission readiness for a 10 arc-second Half Power Diameter (HPD) slumped glass mirror technology while laying the groundwork for a future 1-2 arc-second technology based on polished silicon mirrors. Technology Development Modules (TDMs) have been designed, fabricated, integrated with mirrors segments, and extensively tested to demonstrate technology readiness. Tests include X-ray performance, thermal vacuum, acoustic load, and random vibration. The thermal vacuum and acoustic load environments have proven relatively benign, while the random vibration environment has proven challenging due to large input amplification at frequencies above 500 Hz. Epoxy selection, surface preparation, and larger bond area have increased bond strength while vibration isolation has decreased vibration amplification allowing for space launch requirements to be met in the near term. The next generation of TDMs, which demonstrates a lightweight structure supporting more mirror segments, is currently being fabricated. Analysis predicts superior performance characteristics due to the use of E-60 Beryllium-Oxide Metal Matrix Composite material, with only a modest cost increase. These TDMs will be larger, lighter, stiffer, and stronger than the current generation. Preliminary steps are being taken to enable mounting and testing of 1-2 arc-second mirror segments expected to be available in the future. A Vertical X-ray Test Facility (VXTF) will minimize module gravity distortion and allow for less constrained mirror mounts, such as fully kinematic mounts. Permanent kinematic mounting into a modified TDM has been demonstrated to achieve 2 arc-second level distortion free alignment.

  15. Studio in Advertising Design, Fashion Design and Illustration, Product Design, Stage Design. Volume 3: Advanced Elective Courses in Art for Grades 10, 11, or 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The document provides teaching guidelines and information on advance elective courses in a studio art program for grades 10, 11, and 12. The courses are presented in four sections: (1) studio in advertising design--advertising and production, lettering, illustrating, and color reproduction; (2) studio in fashion design and illustration--elements…

  16. The design and fabrication of a Stirling engine heat exchanger module with an integral heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a free-piston Stirling Space Engine (SSE) intended for space power applications has been generated. The engine was designed to produce 25 kW of electric power with heat supplied by a nuclear reactor. A novel heat exchanger module was designed to reduce the number of critical joints in the heat exchanger assembly while also incorporating a heat pipe as the link between the engine and the heat source. Two inexpensive verification tests are proposed. The SSE heat exchanger module is described and the operating conditions for the module are outlined. The design process of the heat exchanger modules, including the sodium heat pipe, is briefly described. Similarities between the proposed SSE heat exchanger modules and the LeRC test modules for two test engines are presented. The benefits and weaknesses of using a sodium heat pipe to transport heat to a Stirling engine are discussed. Similarly, the problems encountered when using a true heat pipe, as opposed to a more simple reflux boiler, are described. The instruments incorporated into the modules and the test program are also outlined.

  17. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes…

  18. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  19. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, design, construction and testing requirements are defined for developing an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is composed of the advanced cab and visual system and the rotorcraft system motion generator, and is part of an existing simulation facility. User's applications for the simulator include rotorcraft design development, product improvement, threat assessment, and accident investigation.

  20. Development of frequency modulation reflectometer for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seong-Heon; Park, Jinhyung; Wi, H. M.; Lee, W. R.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, T. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Kang, Jin-Seob; Bog, M. G.; Yokota, Y.; Mase, A.

    2013-08-01

    Frequency modulation reflectometer has been developed to measure the plasma density profile of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. Three reflectometers are operating in extraordinary polarization mode in the frequency range of Q band (33.6-54 GHz), V band (48-72 GHz), and W band (72-108 GHz) to measure the density up to 7 × 1019 m-3 when the toroidal magnetic field is 2 T on axis. The antenna is installed inside of the vacuum vessel. A new vacuum window is developed by using 50 μm thick mica film and 0.1 mm thick gold gasket. The filter bank of low pass filter, notch filter, and Faraday isolator is used to reject the electron cyclotron heating high power at attenuation of 60 dB. The full frequency band is swept in 20 μs. The mixer output is directly digitized with sampling rate of 100 MSamples/s. The phase is obtained by using wavelet transform. The whole hardware and software system is described in detail and the measured density profile is presented as a result.

  1. Development of frequency modulation reflectometer for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seong-Heon; Park, Jinhyung; Wi, H M; Lee, W R; Kim, H S; Lee, T G; Kim, Y S; Kang, Jin-Seob; Bog, M G; Yokota, Y; Mase, A

    2013-08-01

    Frequency modulation reflectometer has been developed to measure the plasma density profile of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. Three reflectometers are operating in extraordinary polarization mode in the frequency range of Q band (33.6-54 GHz), V band (48-72 GHz), and W band (72-108 GHz) to measure the density up to 7 × 10(19) m(-3) when the toroidal magnetic field is 2 T on axis. The antenna is installed inside of the vacuum vessel. A new vacuum window is developed by using 50 μm thick mica film and 0.1 mm thick gold gasket. The filter bank of low pass filter, notch filter, and Faraday isolator is used to reject the electron cyclotron heating high power at attenuation of 60 dB. The full frequency band is swept in 20 μs. The mixer output is directly digitized with sampling rate of 100 MSamples/s. The phase is obtained by using wavelet transform. The whole hardware and software system is described in detail and the measured density profile is presented as a result.

  2. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  3. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  4. Very compact FTTH Diplexer design using advanced wafer level fabrication methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Grosse, Philippe; Gilet, Philippe; Olivier, Nicolas; Chelnokov, Alexei; Fulbert, Laurent; Bernabé, Stéphane; Rossat, Cyrille; Hamelin, Régis; Hamberg, Ivar; Lundqvist, Lennart; Chitica, Nicolae; Hammar, Matthias; Berggren, Jesper; Junique, Stéphane; Wang, Qin; Almqvist, Susanne; Sillans, Christian

    2008-04-01

    FTTH networks require implementing a diplexer at each user termination. According to most of the standards, this diplexer detects a download signal beam at 1.49μm and emits an upload signal beam at 1.31μm on the same single mode fibre. Both signals exhibit datarate speed below 2.5Gbps. Today, most of the diplexers are obtained by actively aligning a set of individual optoelectronic components and micro-optics. However, new manufacturing solutions satisfying very low cost and mass production capability requirements of this market would help to speed the massive spreading of this technology. In this paper, we present an original packaging design to manufacture Diplexer Optical Sub-Assembly for FTTH application. A dual photodiode is stacked over a VCSEL and detects both the download signal beam at 1.49μm passing through the laser and one part of the upload signal beam at 1.31μm for monitoring. To satisfy this approach, an innovative VCSEL has been designed to have a very high transmission at 1.49μm. All these components are mounted on a very small circuit board on glass including also integrated circuits such as transimpedance amplifier. So, the device combines advanced optoelectronic components and highly integrated Multi-Chip-Module on glass approach using collective wafer-level assembling technologies. For the single mode fibre optical coupling, active and passive alignment solutions are considered.

  5. Design and screening of nanoprecipitates-strengthened advanced ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Yang, Ying; Chen, Tianyi; Sridharan, K.; He, Li

    2016-12-30

    Advanced nuclear reactors as well as the life extension of light water reactors require advanced alloys capable of satisfactory operation up to neutron damage levels approaching 200 displacements per atom (dpa). Extensive studies, including fundamental theories, have demonstrated the superior resistance to radiation-induced swelling in ferritic steels, primarily inherited from their body-centered cubic (bcc) structure. This study aims at developing nanoprecipitates strengthened advanced ferritic alloys for advanced nuclear reactor applications. To be more specific, this study aims at enhancing the amorphization ability of some precipitates, such as Laves phase and other types of intermetallic phases, through smart alloying strategy, and thereby promote the crystalline®amorphous transformation of these precipitates under irradiation.

  6. ADVANCED DEHYDRATOR DESIGN SAVES GAS AND REDUCES HAP EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glycol dehydrators remove water from gas pipe lines. An advanced dehydrator by Engineered Concepts, Farmington, NM, saves a significant amount of gas, while reducing hazardous air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and CO2 air pollutants

  7. Signals, Transducers, and Modulation: A Wireless Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    In this age of cell phones, digital television, and satellite radio, individuals easily forget that information and energy must undergo complex transformations to enable real-time wireless communication. This article describes a practical and proven design activity that enables secondary and post-secondary students to design and test a modulator…

  8. A novel design for monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M.W.

    1997-06-01

    The design for the fabrication of Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion described in this paper utilizes a novel, interdigitated contacting scheme that increases the flexibility in the size of the component cells and hence the output current and voltage of the module. This flexibility is gained at the expense of only minimally increased grid obscuration. Because the design uses the grid fingers of the component cells as the interconnect structure, the area of the device used for this purpose becomes negligible. In this paper the authors report on the specifics of the design as well as issues related to the fabrication of the modules. Preliminary performance data for representative modules also are offered.

  9. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials section, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1984-06-01

    Tests for chemical structure, material properties, water absorption, aging and curing agent of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) and UV absorption studies are carried out. A computer model was developed for thermal optical modeling, to investigate dependence between module operating temperature and solar insolation, and heat dissapation behavior. Structural analyses were performed in order to determine the stress distribution under wind and heat conditions. Curves are shown for thermal loading conditions. An electrical isolation was carried out to investigate electrical stress aging of non-metallic encapsulation materials and limiting material flaws, and to develop a computer model of electrical fields and stresses in encapsulation materials. In addition, a mathematical model was developed and tests were conducted to predict hygroscopic and thermal expansion and contraction on a plastic coated wooden substrate. Thermal cycle and humidity freezing cycle tests, partial discharge tests, and hail impact tests were also carried out. Finally, the effects of soiling on the surface of photovoltaic modules were investigated. Two antisoiling coatings, a fluorinated silane and perflourodecanoic acid were considered.

  10. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials section, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    Tests for chemical structure, material properties, water absorption, aging and curing agent of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) and UV absorption studies are carried out. A computer model was developed for thermal optical modeling, to investigate dependence between module operating temperature and solar insolation, and heat dissapation behavior. Structural analyses were performed in order to determine the stress distribution under wind and heat conditions. Curves are shown for thermal loading conditions. An electrical isolation was carried out to investigate electrical stress aging of non-metallic encapsulation materials and limiting material flaws, and to develop a computer model of electrical fields and stresses in encapsulation materials. In addition, a mathematical model was developed and tests were conducted to predict hygroscopic and thermal expansion and contraction on a plastic coated wooden substrate. Thermal cycle and humidity freezing cycle tests, partial discharge tests, and hail impact tests were also carried out. Finally, the effects of soiling on the surface of photovoltaic modules were investigated. Two antisoiling coatings, a fluorinated silane and perflourodecanoic acid were considered.

  11. Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Carl L.; Jenkins, Billy

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update for the Solid Rocket Internal Ballistics Module (SRIBM) Program for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design/performance assessments. The goal was to develop an improved version of the solid rocket internal ballistics module program that contains a diversified complex region model for motor grain design, performance prediction, and evaluation.

  12. Operational Evaluation of the Root Modules of the Advanced Plant Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic and growth data were collected on APH Root Module. Described Stand pipe system for active moisture control. Tested germination in wicks. Evaluated EC-5 moisture sensors. Demonstrated that Wheat plants can grow in the APH Root Module.

  13. Ultrahigh head pump/turbine development program: Volume 2, Advanced design, hydraulic and mechanical: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, T.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents details of the process and the results of Task 2, Advanced Design. This task includes all the theoretical studies, detailed designs of components, and evaluations of method and materials that result in a complete ready-to-build design. The design drawings and assessments of manufacturability and reliability are included.

  14. The influence of active cell design on a monolithic organic photovoltaic module: fabrication and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Hong-Kun; Sim, Jun Hyoung; Jeong, Seonju; Woo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Han, Yoon Soo

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the influence of an active cell design on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a monolithic organic photovoltaic (OPV) module was investigated using experimental methods and circuit simulation. For circuit simulation using computer simulation-based study, the organic PV cell was described by a circuit-based two-diode model and the modules were simulated under several conditions including shading effect, diode model parameters, series resistance and shunt resistance, etc. A unit organic PV cell as a reference device and four types of monolithic organic PV modules with different active cell length were fabricated together on the same glass substrate. The characteristics of the fabricated unit OPV cell were measured and the electrical parameters were extracted to use them for the simulation of four types of monolithic organic PV modules. To analyze the influence of OPV cell design on the PCE of monolithic organic PV modules, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curves and the PCEs of the four type monolithic OPV modules with different active cell length were obtained and compared with the simulated results. The simulated I-V curves were matched well with the measured I-V curves for the four types of monolithic organic PV modules with different active cell length. The highest PCE of the monolithic OPV module was 2.86 % with the active cell length of 11.6 mm. We expect that this work is meaningful to enhance the performance of a monolithic OPV module to a certain extent and it offers a method to design a high-efficiency large-area monolithic OPV module.

  15. Recent advances in joint optical-digital design for optronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcklen, Marie-Anne; Diaz, Frédéric; Leprêtre, François; Lee, Mane-Si Laure; Delboulbé, Anne; Loiseaux, Brigitte; Millet, Philippe; Duhem, François; Lemonnier, Fabrice; Sauer, Hervé; Goudail, François

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the capture volume of visible cameras while maintaining high image resolutions, low power consumption and standard video-frame rate operation is of utmost importance for hand-free night vision goggles or embedded surveillance systems. Since such imaging systems require to operate at high aperture, their optical design has become more complex and critical. Therefore new design alternatives have to be considered. Among them, wavefront coding changes and desensitizes the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the lens by inserting a phase mask in the vicinity of the aperture stop. This smart filter is combined with an efficient image processing that ensures optimal image quality over a larger depth of field. In this paper recent advances are discussed concerning design and integration of a compact imaging system based on wavefront coding. We address the design, the integration and the characterization of a High Definition (HD) camera of large aperture (F/1.2) operating in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, endowed with wavefront coding. Two types of phase masks (pyramidal and polynomial) have been jointly optimized with their deconvolution algorithm in order to meet the best performance along an increased range of focus distances and manufactured. Real time deconvolution processing is implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array. It is shown that despite the high data throughput of an HD imaging chain, the level of power consumption is far below the initial specifications. We have characterized the performances with and without wavefront coding through MTF measurements and image quality assessments. A depth-of- field increase up to x2.5 has been demonstrated in accordance with the theoretical predictions.

  16. Advanced Ion Exchange Softening. Training Module 2.212.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the operation of an ion exchange softening system. It includes objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series. This module considers the theory of ion…

  17. Packaging Materials and Design for Improved PV Module Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Glick, S.; del Cueto, J.; Kennedy, C.; McMahon, T.

    2005-01-01

    A number of candidate alternative encapsulant and soft backsheet materials have been evaluated in terms of their suitability for photovoltaic (PV) module packaging applications. Relevant properties, including peel strength as a function of damp heat exposure and permeability, have been measured. Based on these tests, promising new encapsulants with adhesion-promoting primers have been identified that result in improved properties. Test results for backsheets provided by industry and prepared at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have suggested strategies to achieve significantly improved products. The ability of glass/glass and glass/breathable backsheet constructions laminated with various encapsulant and/or edge seal materials to protect thin-film aluminum coatings deposited onto glass substrates was assessed. Glass/glass laminate constructions can trap harmful compounds that catalyze moisture-driven corrosion of the aluminum. Constructions with breathable backsheets allow higher rates of moisture ingress, but also allow egress of deleterious substances that can result in decreased corrosion.

  18. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  19. a Design of the Driver Airbag Module with Floating Horn Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Lee, Young-Hoon; Suh, Duck-Young

    The driver airbag system is designed as a supplemental restraint system in addition to the seatbelt, and is designed to protect the driver's head and chest against severe injury by a device that is actuated in case of vehicle's fronted impact. Deployment of an airbag module with floating horn assembly is a highly dynamic process. The concept of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly and aluminum emblem is presented as a useful parameter when the airbag deploys and the energy is evaluated as performance factor in airbag module. Floating horn assembly is also one of the major factors for driver airbag module design to perform its horn function and check the package between driver airbag module and steering wheel. This study on the design of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly proved the feasibility as a new safety device. However, the system level study is needed for decrease of passenger injury. This study can be used for the implementation of a prototype of DABM with floating horn device.

  20. The Design and Transfer of Advanced Command and Control (C2) Computer-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    TECHNICAL REPORT 80-02 QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT: THE DESIGN AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED COMMAND AND CONTROL (C 2 ) COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS ARPA...The Tasks/Objectives and/or Purposes of the overall project are connected with the design , development, demonstration and transfer of advanced...command and control (C2 ) computer-based systems; this report covers work in the computer-based design and transfer areas only. The Technical Problems thus

  1. Ten Guiding Principles for Designing Online Modules That Involve International Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porcaro, David; Carrier, Carol

    2014-01-01

    As ideas and personnel flow across borders, there are many opportunities for instructional designers to collaboratively design online modules with international teams. These collaborations can take many shapes, as varying levels of localization and within-team communication are employed. This paper looks at ten guiding principles that are shaping…

  2. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  3. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  4. Computational Enzyme Design: Advances, hurdles and possible ways forward

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This mini review addresses recent developments in computational enzyme design. Successful protocols as well as known issues and limitations are discussed from an energetic perspective. It will be argued that improved results can be obtained by including a dynamic treatment in the design protocol. Finally, a molecular dynamics-based approach for evaluating and refining computational designs is presented. PMID:24688650

  5. Concurrent Chemotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nancy Y. O'Meara, William; Chan, Kelvin; Della-Bianca, Cesar; Mechalakos, James G.; Zhung, Joanne; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Narayana, Ashwatha; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin P.; Pfister, David G.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective review of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal carcinomas treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and June 2005, 20 laryngeal and 11 hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients underwent IMRT with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy; most patients had Stage IV disease. The prescription of the planning target volume for gross, high-risk, and low-risk subclinical disease was 70, 59.4, and 54 Gy, respectively. Acute/late toxicities were retrospectively scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria scale. The 2-year local progression-free, regional progression-free, laryngectomy-free, distant metastasis-free, and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up of the living patients was 26 months (range, 17-58 months). The 2-year local progression-free, regional progression-free, laryngectomy-free, distant metastasis-free, and overall survival rate was 86%, 94%, 89%, 92%, and 63%, respectively. Grade 2 mucositis or higher occurred in 48% of patients, and all experienced Grade 2 or higher pharyngitis during treatment. Xerostomia continued to decrease over time from the end of RT, with none complaining of Grade 2 toxicity at this analysis. The 2-year post-treatment percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy-dependency rate for those with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal tumors was 31% and 15%, respectively. The most severe late complications were laryngeal necrosis, necrotizing fascitis, and a carotid rupture resulting in death 3 weeks after salvage laryngectomy. Conclusion: These preliminary results have shown that IMRT achieved encouraging locoregional control of locoregionally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas. Xerostomia improved over time. Pharyngoesophageal stricture with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy dependency remains a problem, particularly for patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma and, to a lesser

  6. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduces gastrointestinal toxicity in locally advanced pancreas cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Shreya; Cambridge, Lajhem; Huguet, Florence; Chou, Joanne F.; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Abraham J.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Allen, Peter; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared gastrointestinal (GI) and hematologic toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer (LAPC) undergoing definitive chemoradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) planning. Methods and Materials We retrospectively studied 205 patients with LAPC undergoing IMRT (n=134) and 3D-CRT (n=71) between 05/03 and 03/12. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics and acute GI/hematology toxicity according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test association between acute grade 2+ GI and hematologic toxicity outcomes and predictors. Propensity score analysis for grade 2+ GI toxicity was performed to reduce bias for confounding variables: age, gender, radiation dose, field size, and chemotherapy type. Results Median follow-up time for survivors was 22 months, similar between groups. Median RT dose was significantly higher for IMRT vs. 3D-CRT (5600 cGy vs 5040 cGy, P<.001); concurrent chemotherapy was mainly gemcitabine (56%) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 38%). Grade 2+ GI toxicity occurred in 34% (n=24) of 3D-CRT compared with 16% (n=21) of IMRT patients. Using propensity-score analysis, 3D-CRT had significantly higher grade 2+ GI toxicity (odds ratio, 1.26 [95%CI, 1.08-1.45], P=.001). Grade 2+ hematologic toxicity was similar between IMRT and 3D-CRT groups but was significantly greater in recipients of concurrent gemcitabine over 5-FU (62% vs 29%, P<.0001). Conclusions IMRT is associated with significant lower grade 2+ GI toxicity versus 3D-CRT for patients undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy for LAPC. Since IMRT is better tolerated at higher doses and may allow further dose escalation, potentially improving local control for this aggressive disease. Further prospective studies of dose-escalated chemoradiation using IMRT are warranted. PMID:26577010

  7. An analytical study for the design of advanced rotor airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical study has been conducted to design and evaluate two airfoils for helicopter rotors. The best basic shape, designed with a transonic hodograph design method, was modified to meet subsonic criteria. One airfoil had an additional constraint for low pitching-moment at the transonic design point. Airfoil characteristics were predicted. Results of a comparative analysis of helicopter performance indicate that the new airfoils will produce reduced rotor power requirements compared to the NACA 0012. The hodograph design method, written in CDC Algol, is listed and described.

  8. Design of an MR image processing module on an FPGA chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M.

    2015-06-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an image processing module on a single-chip Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for real-time image processing. We also demonstrate that through graphical coding the design work can be greatly simplified. The processing module is based on a 2D FFT core. Our design is distinguished from previously reported designs in two respects. No off-chip hardware resources are required, which increases portability of the core. Direct matrix transposition usually required for execution of 2D FFT is completely avoided using our newly-designed address generation unit, which saves considerable on-chip block RAMs and clock cycles. The image processing module was tested by reconstructing multi-slice MR images from both phantom and animal data. The tests on static data show that the processing module is capable of reconstructing 128 × 128 images at speed of 400 frames/second. The tests on simulated real-time streaming data demonstrate that the module works properly under the timing conditions necessary for MRI experiments.

  9. Design of an MR image processing module on an FPGA chip

    PubMed Central

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an image processing module on a single-chip Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for real-time image processing. We also demonstrate that through graphical coding the design work can be greatly simplified. The processing module is based on a 2D FFT core. Our design is distinguished from previously reported designs in two respects. No off-chip hardware resources are required, which increases portability of the core. Direct matrix transposition usually required for execution of 2D FFT is completely avoided using our newly-designed address generation unit, which saves considerable on-chip block RAMs and clock cycles. The image processing module was tested by reconstructing multi-slice MR images from both phantom and animal data. The tests on static data show that the processing module is capable of reconstructing 128 × 128 images at speed of 400 frames/second. The tests on simulated real-time streaming data demonstrate that the module works properly under the timing conditions necessary for MRI experiments. PMID:25909646

  10. Design of an MR image processing module on an FPGA chip.

    PubMed

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M

    2015-06-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an image processing module on a single-chip Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for real-time image processing. We also demonstrate that through graphical coding the design work can be greatly simplified. The processing module is based on a 2D FFT core. Our design is distinguished from previously reported designs in two respects. No off-chip hardware resources are required, which increases portability of the core. Direct matrix transposition usually required for execution of 2D FFT is completely avoided using our newly-designed address generation unit, which saves considerable on-chip block RAMs and clock cycles. The image processing module was tested by reconstructing multi-slice MR images from both phantom and animal data. The tests on static data show that the processing module is capable of reconstructing 128×128 images at speed of 400 frames/second. The tests on simulated real-time streaming data demonstrate that the module works properly under the timing conditions necessary for MRI experiments.

  11. Design and evaluation of sparse quantization index modulation watermarking schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Barbarien, Joeri; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2008-08-01

    In the past decade the use of digital data has increased significantly. The advantages of digital data are, amongst others, easy editing, fast, cheap and cross-platform distribution and compact storage. The most crucial disadvantages are the unauthorized copying and copyright issues, by which authors and license holders can suffer considerable financial losses. Many inexpensive methods are readily available for editing digital data and, unlike analog information, the reproduction in the digital case is simple and robust. Hence, there is great interest in developing technology that helps to protect the integrity of a digital work and the copyrights of its owners. Watermarking, which is the embedding of a signal (known as the watermark) into the original digital data, is one method that has been proposed for the protection of digital media elements such as audio, video and images. In this article, we examine watermarking schemes for still images, based on selective quantization of the coefficients of a wavelet transformed image, i.e. sparse quantization-index modulation (QIM) watermarking. Different grouping schemes for the wavelet coefficients are evaluated and experimentally verified for robustness against several attacks. Wavelet tree-based grouping schemes yield a slightly improved performance over block-based grouping schemes. Additionally, the impact of the deployment of error correction codes on the most promising configurations is examined. The utilization of BCH-codes (Bose, Ray-Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem) results in an improved robustness as long as the capacity of the error codes is not exceeded (cliff-effect).

  12. LANDSAT/MMS propulsion module design. Volume 1: Task 4.3, trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, J. M.; Etheridge, F. G.; Indrikis, J.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of alternative LANDSAT follow-on launch configurations to derive the propulsion requirements for the multimission modular spacecraft (MMS). Two basic types were analyzed including use of conventional launch vehicles and shuttle-supported missions. It was concluded that two sizes of modular hydrazine propulsion modules would provide the most cost-effective combination for future missions of this spacecraft. Conceptual designs of the selected propulsion modules were performed to the depth permitting determination of mass properties and estimated costs.

  13. Design of the individual Marx modules for the Atlas machine 36 megajoule, 25 megampere capacitor bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reass, W. A.; Bowman, D. W.; Gribble, R. F.; Griego, J. R.; Thompson, C.; Parsons, W. M.

    This paper presents the preliminary electrical and mechanical design of the Atlas machine's 1.8 megajoule, 600 kV Marx modules. The modules are implemented with plastic cased capacitors similar to those developed for the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) ACE II and ACE IV machines. The double ended electrode capacitor style has been dubbed 'FASTCAP.' Electrodes are provided for mounting rail-gaps on one side and flat plate transmission line damping resistors on the other. This provides for an extremely low circuit inductance. A series array of ten capacitors, each rated at 60 kV, 33.5 uF, and 60 kJ, with their five triggered rail-gaps, form a Marx submodule. Three Marx submodules are nested into a large G-10 fiberglass rack to form a complete Marx module. The module support rack has individual capacitor shelves that ease assembly and replacement. The Marx's design also facilitates construction, testing and verification of a modules performance prior to installation. Modules will be repaired or maintained in a separate test bay without affecting machine operation schedules. Railgap maintenance will become part of a regularly-scheduled preventative maintenance program as spare modules are installed and removed from the machine.

  14. All-optical OFDM transmitter design using AWGRs and low-bandwidth modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowery, Arthur James; Du, Liang

    2011-08-01

    An Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Router (AWGR) can be used as a demultiplexer for an optical OFDM system, as it provides both the serial-to-parallel converter and the optical Fourier transform (FT) in one component. Because an inverse FT is topologically identical to a Fourier transform, the AWGR can also be used as a FT in an OFDM transmitter. In most all-optical OFDM systems the optical modulators are fed with CW tones; however, the subcarriers (SC) will only be perfectly orthogonal if the bandwidth of the data modulators is similar to the total bandwidth of all subcarriers. Using simulations, this paper investigates the reduction in modulator bandwidth that could be achieved if the modulators are placed before an AWGR designed as a FT. This arrangement also allows the complex (IQ) modulators to be replaced with simpler and more-compact phase modulators. We show that these design improvements enable 7.5-GHz bandwidth modulators to be used in a 4 - 10 Gsymbol/s (80 Gbit/s) per polarization per wavelength system.

  15. A Design of a Modular GPHS-Stirling Power System for a Lunar Habitation Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar habitation modules need electricity and potentially heat to operate. Because of the low amounts of radiation emitted by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, power plants incorporating these as heat sources could be placed in close proximity to habitation modules. A design concept is discussed for a high efficiency power plant based on a GPHS assembly integrated with a Stirling convertor. This system could provide both electrical power and heat, if required, for a lunar habitation module. The conceptual GPHS/Stirling system is modular in nature and made up of a basic 5.5 KWe Stirling convertor/GPHS module assembly, convertor controller/PMAD electronics, waste heat radiators, and associated thermal insulation. For the specific lunar application under investigation eight modules are employed to deliver 40 KWe to the habitation module. This design looks at three levels of Stirling convertor technology and addresses the issues of integrating the Stirling convertors with the GPHS heat sources assembly using proven technology whenever possible. In addition, issues related to the high-temperature heat transport system, power management, convertor control, vibration isolation, and potential system packaging configurations to ensure safe operation during all phases of deployment will be discussed.

  16. All repeats are not equal: a module-based approach to guide repeat protein design.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Nicholas; Chen, Jieming; Regan, Lynne

    2013-05-27

    Repeat proteins composed of tandem arrays of a short structural motif often mediate protein-protein interactions. Past efforts to design repeat protein-based molecular recognition tools have focused on the creation of templates from the consensus of individual repeats, regardless of their natural context. Such an approach assumes that all repeats are essentially equivalent. In this study, we present the results of a "module-based" approach in which modules composed of tandem repeats are aligned to identify repeat-specific features. Using this approach to analyze tetratricopeptide repeat modules that contain three tandem repeats (3TPRs), we identify two classes of 3TPR modules with distinct structural signatures that are correlated with different sets of functional residues. Our analyses also reveal a high degree of correlation between positions across the entire ligand-binding surface, indicative of a coordinated, coevolving binding surface. Extension of our analyses to different repeat protein modules reveals more examples of repeat-specific features, especially in armadillo repeat modules. In summary, the module-based analyses that we present effectively capture key repeat-specific features that will be important to include in future repeat protein design templates.

  17. The design of the optical modules of the KM3NeT-Italia project towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    The KM3NeT-Italia project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope, to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The R&D and mass production phases of the detection elements of the telescope, the optical modules, were entirely performed in the INFN-LNS site in the harbour of Catania. In November 2014 a first tower of 14 storeys equipped with 84 optical modules was successfully deployed in the Mediterranean Sea site. The design of the optical modules and their main components are described in this paper.

  18. Design and production of the digital optical module of the KM3NeT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Giordano, Valentina

    2017-03-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is building the ARCA and ORCA neutrino telescopes in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. They will consist of 3-dimensional arrays of photodetectors, called digital optical modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called detection units. The optical modules are composed of a pressure-resistant 17-inch spherical glass vessel, which contains 31 small photomultiplier tubes and all the associated electronics. The multi- photomultiplier solution represents an innovative design with respect to optical modules of all currently operated neutrino telescopes comprising a single large photomultipliers.

  19. Design of a photoelastic modulator in the spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ye; Hu, Zhaohui; Duan, Lihong

    2016-10-01

    The spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer as an ultra-precision magnetometer has been researched during recent times. The sensitivity of the signal measurement limits the accuracy of the magnetometer. The optical modulation method is used to detect the tiny optical rotation angle of the linear polarized (LP) light, and the modulator is improving from Faraday magneto-optic modulator to photoelastic modulator (PEM). However, the current commercial PEMs have several defects in the adoption of the magnetometer. First, considerable heat will reduce the PEM's modulation precision; In addition, the big appearance will hamper the assembly of the magnetometer; Moreover, the products are unreliable in the small amplitude modulation. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a sort of PEM is designed by theoretical calculation and finite element simulation in the paper. The target PEM with 50kHz intrinsic frequency and 795nm transmission is composed of one hexahedron piezoelectric transducer (PZT) glued with one optical glass each other. About the PZT, the alpha quartz is determined by considering the vibration and temperature properties of the material, then a proper cut angel and size is calculated to satisfy the design target. Subsequently, the fused silica is used for its well optical property. In the final, a simulation is conducted to verify the feasibility and validity of the design.

  20. Thermal design of the Galileo bus and Retro Propulsion Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, A.; Cagle, C.; Ledeboer, W.; Stultz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft (S/C) consists of an Orbiter and Probe which have instruments to investigate the chemical composition and physical state of Jupiter's atmosphere, the Jovian satellites and the structure and physical dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. Galileo was at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) preparing for a May 1986 launch at the time of the Challenger accident. The delay and an incraease in mission time has decreased the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator power output significantly. A change to the Inertial Upper Stage from the more powerful Centaur G-Prime has resulted in a trajectory that requires gravity assists once by Venus and twice by earth. The resulting peak solar intensity of this roundabout trajectory is more than twice the previous design value for the direct trajectory. Galileo was returned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from KSC in February 1987 to begin the rework of the S/C thermal design. Verification of the thermal redesign was completed in the JPL 25' space simulator in August and November of 1988. This paper summarizes the thermal design and redesign of the Bus and Retro Propulsion Model.

  1. Advanced Expander Test Bed Program. Preliminary Design Review Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    stability include double pilots for impellers, inducers and turbine rotors , and two-plane balance for impellers and turbine rotors . Other design...the wings can be changed if required during the design phase to make small adjustments to rotor thrust balance . The turbine is a single-stage. full...admission, reaction turbine. The reaction of the blades is being adjusted during the design phase to balance the major axial loads on the rotor . The

  2. NASA/USRA advanced design program activity, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrity, J. Lewis; Patel, Suneer

    1992-01-01

    The School of Textile and Fiber Engineering continued to pursue design projects with the Mechanical Engineering School giving the students an outstanding opportunity to interact with students from another discipline. Four problems were defined which had aspects which would be reasonably assigned to an interdisciplinary team. The design problems are described. The projects included lunar preform manufacturing, dust control for Enabler, an industrial sewing machine variable speed controllor, Enabler operation station, and design for producing fiberglass fabric in a lunar environment.

  3. Adaptive Design of Confirmatory Trials: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip W.; Tsang, Ka Wai

    2015-01-01

    The past decade witnessed major developments in innovative designs of confirmatory clinical trials, and adaptive designs represent the most active area of these developments. We give an overview of the developments and associated statistical methods in several classes of adaptive designs of confirmatory trials. We also discuss their statistical difficulties and implementation challenges, and show how these problems are connected to other branches of mainstream Statistics, which we then apply to resolve the difficulties and bypass the bottlenecks in the development of adaptive designs for the next decade. PMID:26079372

  4. The BWR advanced fuel design experience using Studsvik CMS

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovine, A.S.; Gibbon, S.H.; Wiksell, G.

    1996-12-31

    The current trend within the nuclear industry is to maximize generation by extending cycle lengths and taking outages as infrequently as possible. As a result, many utilities have begun to use fuel designed to meet these more demanding requirements. These fuel designs are significantly more heterogeneous in mechanical and neutronic detail than prior designs. The question arises as to how existing in-core fuel management codes, such as Studsvik CMS perform in modeling cores containing these designs. While this issue pertains to both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), this summary focuses on BWR applications.

  5. Advances in immune-modulating therapies to treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Chyu, Kuang-Yuh; Shah, Prediman K

    2014-03-01

    In addition to hypercholesterolemia, innate and adaptive immune mechanisms play a critical role in atherogenesis, thus making immune-modulation therapy a potentially attractive way of managing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. These immune-modulation strategies include both active and passive immunization and confer beneficial reduction in atherosclerosis. Preclinical studies have demonstrated promising results and we review current knowledge on the complex role of the immune system and the potential for immunization as an immune-modulation therapy for atherosclerosis.

  6. NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

  7. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions.

    PubMed

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m(-1) was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain

  8. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m-1 was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain ratio

  9. Optimized design and research of secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guanghui; Chen, Bingzhen; Liu, Youqiang; Guo, Limin; Yao, Shun; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    As the critical component of concentrating photovoltaic module, secondary concentrators can be effective in increasing the acceptance angle and incident light, as well as improving the energy uniformity of focal spots. This paper presents a design of transmission-type secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module. The 3-D model of this design is established by Solidworks and important parameters such as inclination angle and component height are optimized using Zemax. According to the design and simulation results, several secondary microprisms with different parameters are fabricated and tested in combination with Fresnel lens and multi-junction solar cell. The sun-simulator IV test results show that the combination has the highest output power when secondary microprism height is 5mm and top facet side length is 7mm. Compared with the case without secondary microprism, the output power can improve 11% after the employment of secondary microprisms, indicating the indispensability of secondary microprisms in concentrating photovoltaic module.

  10. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  11. Investigating the Limitations of Advanced Design Methods through Real World Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    of Aerospace Engineering Doc ID#: 116361 Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) 275 Ferst Drive Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 9. SPONSORING I...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This final report details the results of the partnership between the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) at the...architectures. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS Naval Engineering, Advanced Systems Design , Modeling & Simulation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  12. Design Review of the D0 Central Calorimeter Module Assembly to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, M.; /Fermilab

    1987-11-01

    The D-Zero Central Calorimeter Module Assembly is a segmented ring structure consisting of an assemblage of trapezoidal modules. It is housed inside a vessel containing liquid argon. The modules contain specialized equipment for use in particle physics experiments. The design review of the D-Zero Central Calorimeter Module Assembly evaluated all major structural elements for adequacy for their design loads. They were evaluated in accordance with applicable specifications from Reference 1. The allowable stresses of the Specifications provide an approximate safety factor of 2.0 or more on failure and 1.67 on serviceability of the structure. This margin is typical of buildings, bridges, and other large structures executed in steel. To the extent that calculated stresses are less than the allowable stresses, the margin is proportionately greater. For additional conservatism to account for inherent uncertainties in estimating design loads, an arbitrary load factor of 1.25 was also applied. Design loads were calculated for deadwe1ghted plus thermal expansion, neglecting the effects of friction, and for deadweight only, considering postulated effects of friction. All of the major structural elements were found to be provisionally acceptable for their intended service and the predicted design loads. The provisions are as follows: (1) That the connect pins be fabricated of Inconel 718 or functional equivalent, instead of the originally specified Type 304 stainless steel; and (2) That conditions on bearing surfaces be modified to effectively reduce the potential coefficient of friction. The affected bearing interfaces include those between the CH, FH, and EM rings, and between the CH ring and its support members. The D-Zero Central Calorimeter Module Assembly is a segmented ring structure consisting of an assemblage of trapezoidal modules. It is housed inside a vessel containing liquid argon. The modules contain specialized equipment for use in particle physics experiments

  13. Advanced Simulation and Computing Co-Design Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, James A.; Hoang, Thuc T.; Kelly, Suzanne M.; McPherson, Allen; Neely, Rob

    2015-11-01

    This ASC Co-design Strategy lays out the full continuum and components of the co-design process, based on what we have experienced thus far and what we wish to do more in the future to meet the program’s mission of providing high performance computing (HPC) and simulation capabilities for NNSA to carry out its stockpile stewardship responsibility.

  14. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  15. Advances in precision machining and moulding technology bring design opportunities.

    PubMed

    Glendening, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Machining of materials for medical applications has moved to a new level of precision. In parallel with this, moulding technology has improved through the increased use of sensors in moulds, enhanced design simulation and processes such as micromoulding. This article examines the opportunities offered by these developments and includes examples of mass produced parts that demonstrate the new capabilities useful to product designers.

  16. Advanced design for lightweight structures: Review and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Daniel F. O.; Tavares, S. M. O.; da Silva, Lucas F. M.; Moreira, P. M. G. P.; de Castro, Paulo M. S. T.

    2014-08-01

    Current demand for fuel efficient aircraft has been pushing the aeronautical sector to develop ever more lightweight designs while keeping safe operation and required structural strength. Along with light-weighting, new structural design concepts have also been established in order to maintain the aircraft in service for longer periods of time, with high reliability levels. All these innovations and requirements have led to deeply optimized aeronautical structures contributing to more sustainable air transport. This article reviews the major design philosophies which have been employed in aircraft structures, including safe-life, fail-safe and damage tolerance taking into account their impact on the structural design. A brief historical review is performed in order to analyse what led to the development of each philosophy. Material properties are related to each of the design philosophies. Damage tolerant design has emerged as the main structural design philosophy in aeronautics, requiring deep knowledge on materials fatigue and corrosion strength, as well as potential failure modes and non-destructive inspection techniques, particularly minimum detectable defect and scan times. A discussion on the implementation of structural health monitoring and self-healing structures within the current panorama of structures designed according to the damage tolerant philosophy is presented. This discussion is aided by a review of research on these two subjects. These two concepts show potential for further improving safety and durability of aircraft structures.

  17. Conceptual design of a thermal control system for an inflatable lunar habitat module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadkari, Ketan; Goyal, Sanjay K.; Vanniasinkam, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    NASA is considering the establishment of a manned lunar base within the next few decades. To house and protect the crew from the harsh lunar environment, a habitat is required. A proposed habitat is an spherical, inflatable module. Heat generated in the module must be rejected to maintain a temperature suitable for human habitation. This report presents a conceptual design of a thermal control system for an inflatable lunar module. The design solution includes heat acquisition, heat transport, and heat rejection subsystems. The report discusses alternative designs and design solutions for each of the three subsystems mentioned above. Alternative subsystems for heat acquisition include a single water-loop, a single air-loop, and a double water-loop. The vapor compression cycle, vapor absorption cycle, and metal hydride absorption cycle are the three alternative transport subsystems. Alternative rejection subsystems include flat plate radiators, the liquid droplet radiator, and reflux boiler radiators. Feasibility studies on alternatives of each subsystem showed that the single water-loop, the vapor compression cycle, and the reflux boiler radiator were the most feasible alternatives. The design team combined the three subsystems to come up with an overall system design. Methods of controlling the system to adapt it for varying conditions within the module and in the environment are presented. Finally, the report gives conclusions and recommendations for further study of thermal control systems for lunar applications.

  18. Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education: Advanced Designs for Technologies of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J., Ed.; Kozma, Robert B., Ed.

    This collection of essays consists of current work that addresses the challenge not just to put the newest technologies in schools, but to identify advanced ways to design and use these new technologies to advance learning. These essays are intended for science and mathematics educators, educational and cognitive researchers, instructional…

  19. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  20. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.