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Sample records for advanced networking voice

  1. Fiber optic voice/data network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An asynchronous, high-speed, fiber optic local area network originally developed for tactical environments with additional benefits for other environments such as spacecraft, and the like. The network supports ordinary data packet traffic simultaneously with synchronous T1 voice traffic over a common token ring channel; however, the techniques and apparatus of this invention can be applied to any deterministic class of packet data networks, including multitier backbones, that must transport stream data (e.g., video, SAR, sensors) as well as data. A voice interface module parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network employing elastic buffers on both the sending and receiving ends. Voice call setup and switching functions are performed external to the network with ordinary PABX equipment. Clock information is passed across network boundaries in a token passing ring by preceeding the token with an idle period of non-transmission which allows the token to be used to re-establish a clock synchronized to the data. Provision is made to monitor and compensate the elastic receiving buffers so as to prevent them from overflowing or going empty.

  2. Carrying Synchronous Voice Data On Asynchronous Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Buffers restore synchronism for internal use and permit asynchronism in external transmission. Proposed asynchronous local-area digital communication network (LAN) carries synchronous voice, data, or video signals, or non-real-time asynchronous data signals. Network uses double buffering scheme that reestablishes phase and frequency references at each node in network. Concept demonstrated in token-ring network operating at 80 Mb/s, pending development of equipment operating at planned data rate of 200 Mb/s. Technique generic and used with any LAN as long as protocol offers deterministic (or bonded) access delays and sufficient capacity.

  3. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray; Odonnell, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Voice samples were obtained from 14 male subjects under high and low workload conditions. Acoustical analysis of the voice suggested that high workload conditions can be revealed by their effects on the voice over time. Aircrews in the advanced flight deck will be voicing short, imperative sentences repeatedly. A drop in the energy of the voice, as reflected by reductions in amplitude and frequency over time, and the failure to achieve old amplitude and frequency levels after rest periods, can signal that the workload demands of the situation are straining the speaker. This kind of measurement would be relatively unaffected by individual differences in acoustical measures.

  4. Delay related issues in integrated voice and data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J. G.

    1981-06-01

    The described investigation is concerned with the problem of transmitting voice with data in a computer communications network. The motivations for considering mixed voice and data traffic in such a shared network environment include the advent of new voice related applications with the technology now existing to economically support them, and the desire to plan for and design future integrated networks for reasons of economy and flexibility. Attention is given to the problem of variable delays in a shared network environment handling voice traffic. Previous work in packetized voice, as well as various approaches to integrated voice and data transmission, are reviewed. These approaches may be regarded as enhanced versions of circuit, packet, and hybrid switching. The impact of network interfacing and delay considerations for voice traffic is discussed.

  5. The role of voice technology in advanced helicopter cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The status of voice output and voice recognition technology in relation to helicopter cockpit applications is described. The maturing of this technology provides many opportunities for new approaches to crew workload reduction. The helicopter operating environment, potential application areas, and the impact on advanced cockpit design are discussed.

  6. Converging voice and data over mission-critical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, R. W.; Humphrey, G. G.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Deep Space Network ?? DSN - is an international network of antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. The network also supports selected Earth-orbiting missions. This paper describes the ground communications network of the DSN and ways network infrastructure costs are being reduced by the introduction of new technology. Fundamentally, the DSN ground network architecture is a star network, and the hub is at JPL in Pasadena, California. Communications to customer sites are designed to minimize NASA costs and may be either shared IP backbone networks or dedicated circuits. One of the primary features of the network is its ability to support real-time data, voice, and video communications among antenna stations, an automated multi-mission operations systems facility at JPL (AMMOS), and mission operations centers (MOCs) at NASA and non-NASA facilities. Funding for advanced engineering to reduce ground network infrastructure costs was provided by the NASA Office of Space Science.

  7. Post-laryngectomy voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young girl with advanced thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Masayuki; Fujii, Taihei; Miyake, Naritomo; Taira, Kenkichiro; Koyama, Satoshi; Taguchi, Daizo; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report is to evaluate the effects of voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young patient with thyroid cancer. A 17-year-old girl underwent voice restoration with a voice prosthesis after laryngectomy to treat thyroid cancer. She completed voice-related questionnaires (the Voice Handicap Index-10 and Voice-Related Quality Of Life Survey) at ages 17 and 21 and underwent phonetic functional evaluation. The sound spectrograms of her phonation using the voice prosthesis showed low frequency sounds without an obvious basic frequency. She was ashamed of her hoarse voice and did not use her voice prosthesis during high school. However, after beginning to work at age 20, she used her voice to communicate in the workplace. At age 21, her questionnaire scores, especially those related to the physical and functional domains, improved compared with those at age 17. Voice restoration with a voice prosthesis is recommended for young patients who undergo laryngectomy for advanced thyroid cancer. The advantages of voice restoration with a voice prosthesis may increase when the patient reaches working age, and it may improve post-laryngectomy quality of life considerably.

  8. Post-laryngectomy voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young girl with advanced thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Masayuki; Fujii, Taihei; Miyake, Naritomo; Taira, Kenkichiro; Koyama, Satoshi; Taguchi, Daizo; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report is to evaluate the effects of voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young patient with thyroid cancer. A 17-year-old girl underwent voice restoration with a voice prosthesis after laryngectomy to treat thyroid cancer. She completed voice-related questionnaires (the Voice Handicap Index-10 and Voice-Related Quality Of Life Survey) at ages 17 and 21 and underwent phonetic functional evaluation. The sound spectrograms of her phonation using the voice prosthesis showed low frequency sounds without an obvious basic frequency. She was ashamed of her hoarse voice and did not use her voice prosthesis during high school. However, after beginning to work at age 20, she used her voice to communicate in the workplace. At age 21, her questionnaire scores, especially those related to the physical and functional domains, improved compared with those at age 17. Voice restoration with a voice prosthesis is recommended for young patients who undergo laryngectomy for advanced thyroid cancer. The advantages of voice restoration with a voice prosthesis may increase when the patient reaches working age, and it may improve post-laryngectomy quality of life considerably. PMID:26960746

  9. Voice and Data Network of Convergence and the Application of Voice over IP

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, J.M.

    2000-11-01

    This paper looks at emerging technologies for converging voice and data networks and telephony transport over a data network using Internet Protocols. Considered are the benefits and drivers for this convergence. The paper describes these new technologies, how they are being used, and their application to Sandia.

  10. Advanced distributed simulation technology: Digital Voice Gateway Reference Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhook, Dan; Stadler, Ed

    1994-01-01

    The Digital Voice Gateway (referred to as the 'DVG' in this document) transmits and receives four full duplex encoded speech channels over the Ethernet. The information in this document applies only to DVG's running firmware of the version listed on the title page. This document, previously named Digital Voice Gateway Reference Guide, BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation, Cambridge, MA 02138, was revised for revision 2.00. This new revision changes the network protocol used by the DVG, to comply with the SINCGARS radio simulation (For SIMNET 6.6.1). Because of the extensive changes to revision 2.00 a separate document was created rather than supplying change pages.

  11. Advanced voice function assessment: editorial introduction to this special issue.

    PubMed

    Barney, Anna; Kob, Malte

    2015-04-01

    ICT COST Action 2103 was an EU-funded collaborative network of speech processing engineers, laryngologists, and phoniatricians that started on 19 December 2006 and ended on 18 June 2011. The main objectives were to improve the clinical assessment of voice using new technologies; to encourage clinicians and technologists to work closely together to understand the needs and limitations of each other's fields and, in parallel, to acquire new data with a view to elaborating better voice production models. The papers in this special issue represent some of the outcomes of that partnership. This editorial introduces the background and context for COST Action 2103 and each of the papers. In conclusion we discuss the impact of the Action and what aspects of it may have a lasting effect on practice.

  12. Advanced Optical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Steve; Michael, Xuejun

    The following article describes an advanced dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) Optical Network developed by L-3 Photonics. The network, configured as an amplified optical bus, carries traffic simultaneously in both directions, using multiple wavelengths. As a result, data distribution is of the form peer-to-multi-peer, it is protocol independent, and it is scalable. The network leverages the rapid growth in commercial optical technologies, including wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and when applied to military and commercial platforms such as aircraft, ships, unmanned and other vehicles, provides a cost-effective, low-weight, high-speed, and high noise-immune data distribution system.

  13. Do What I Say! Voice Recognition Makes Major Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruley, C. Dorsey

    1994-01-01

    Explains voice recognition technology applications in the workplace, schools, and libraries. Highlights include a voice-controlled work station using the DragonDictate system that can be used with dyslexic students, converting text to speech, and converting speech to text. (LRW)

  14. Overview of requirements and networks for voice communications and speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1990-05-01

    The use of voice for military and civil communications are discussed. The military operational requirements are outlined in relation to air operations, including the effects of propagational factors and electronic warfare. Structures of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) are reviewed to show how they meet the requirements. It is concluded that speech coding at low-bit rates is a growing need for transmitting speech messages with a high level of security and reliability over low data-rate channels and for memory-efficient systems for voice storage, voice response, and voice mail. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the low-bit rate voice coding can ease the transition to shared channels for voice and data and can readily adopt voice messages for packet switching. The speech processing techniques and systems are then outlined as an introduction to the lectures of this series in terms of: the character of the speech signal, its generation and perception; speech coding which is mainly concerned with man-to-man voice communication; speech synthesis which deals with machine-to-man communication; speech recognition which is related to man-to-machine communication; and quality assessment of speech system and standards.

  15. Performance of wavelet analysis and neural networks for pathological voices identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, Lotfi; Talbi, Mourad; Abid, Sabeur; Cherif, Adnane

    2011-09-01

    Within the medical environment, diverse techniques exist to assess the state of the voice of the patient. The inspection technique is inconvenient for a number of reasons, such as its high cost, the duration of the inspection, and above all, the fact that it is an invasive technique. This study focuses on a robust, rapid and accurate system for automatic identification of pathological voices. This system employs non-invasive, non-expensive and fully automated method based on hybrid approach: wavelet transform analysis and neural network classifier. First, we present the results obtained in our previous study while using classic feature parameters. These results allow visual identification of pathological voices. Second, quantified parameters drifting from the wavelet analysis are proposed to characterise the speech sample. On the other hand, a system of multilayer neural networks (MNNs) has been developed which carries out the automatic detection of pathological voices. The developed method was evaluated using voice database composed of recorded voice samples (continuous speech) from normophonic or dysphonic speakers. The dysphonic speakers were patients of a National Hospital 'RABTA' of Tunis Tunisia and a University Hospital in Brussels, Belgium. Experimental results indicate a success rate ranging between 75% and 98.61% for discrimination of normal and pathological voices using the proposed parameters and neural network classifier. We also compared the average classification rate based on the MNN, Gaussian mixture model and support vector machines.

  16. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  17. Collaborative Scaffolding in Online Task-Based Voice Interactions between Advanced Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenning, Marie-Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports some of the findings of a distinctive innovative use of audio-conferencing involving a population (campus-based advanced learners) and a type of application (task-based language learning) that have received little attention to date: the use of Wimba Voice Tools to provide additional opportunities for spoken interactions between…

  18. Flow control and routing in an integrated voice and data communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, O. C.

    1981-08-01

    A model of an integrated voice and data network, lending itself to analytic and algorithmic solution, and formulated as a convex optimization problem is considered. The model can be generalized to solve problems of networks which handle n types of traffic that have different levels of delay, sensitivity, where n 2. A joint flow control and routing algorithm is constructed which uses short term average information on the network utilization to set the voice packet lengths and data input rates, and to determine the routes for each conversation. The voice packet lengths and data input rates are set in such a way as to achieve an optimal tradeoff between each user's satisfaction and the cost of network congestion. Additional protocols are specified for dealing with such issues as congestion avoidance and control, and for implementing flow control on a dynamic basis.

  19. Concept of distributed corporative wireless vehicle voice networks based on radio-over-fiber technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdine, Anton V.; Bukashkin, Sergey A.; Buzov, Alexander V.; Kubanov, Victor P.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.; Tyazhev, Anatoly I.

    2016-03-01

    This work is concerned on description of the concept of corporative wireless vehicle voice networks based on Radioover- Fiber (RoF) technology, which is integration of wireless and fiber optic networks. The concept of RoF means to transport data over optical fibers by modulating lightwave with radio frequency signal or at the intermediate frequency/baseband that provides to take advantage of the low loss and large bandwidth of an optical fiber together with immunity to electromagnetic influence, flexibility and transparence. A brief overview of key RoF techniques as well as comparative analysis and ability of its application for wireless vehicle voice network realization is presented.

  20. A Software Defined Integrated T1 Digital Network for Voice, Data and Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, James R.

    The Dallas County Community College District developed and implemented a strategic plan for communications that utilizes a county-wide integrated network to carry voice, data, and video information to nine locations within the district. The network, which was installed and operational by March 1987, utilizes microwave, fiber optics, digital cross…

  1. [Use of self-organizing neural networks (Kohonen maps) for classification of voice acoustic signals exemplified by the infant voice with and without time-delayed auditory feedback].

    PubMed

    Schönweiler, R; Kaese, S; Möller, S; Rinscheid, A; Ptok, M

    1996-04-01

    Subjective and auditory assessment of the voice is now more commonly being replaced by objective voice analysis. Because of the amount of data available from computer-aided voice analysis, subjective selection and interpretation of single data sets remain a matter of experience of the individual investigator. Since neuronal networks are widely used in telecommunication and speech recognition, we applied self-organizing Kohonen networks to classify voice patterns. In the phase of "learning," the Kohonen map is adapted to patterns of the primary signals obtained. If, in the phase of using the map, the input signal hits the field of the primary signals, it will resemble them closely. In this study, we recorded newborn and young infant cries using a DAT recorder and a high-quality microphone. The cries were elicited by wearing uncomfortable headphones ("cries of discomfort"). Spectrographic characteristics of the cries were classified by 20-step bark spectra and then applied to the neuronal networks. It was possible to recognize similarities of different cries of the same children and interindividual differences, as well as cries of children with profound hearing loss. In addition, delayed auditory feedback at 80 dB SL was presented to 27 children via headphone using a three-headed tape-recorder as a model for induced individual cry changes. However, it was not possible to classify short-term changes as in a delayed feedback procedure. Nevertheless, neuronal networks may be helpful as an additional tool in spectrographic voice analysis.

  2. A Multiservice Voice, Data, and Video Network Enabled by Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcoe, Mitchell

    With data now approaching 60% of all aggregate traffic and expected to grow to 90% of all traffic by 2004, networks designed around all-packet architectures are being envisioned. Within this timeframe, a network vision is to deliver voice, video, and data services over a single packet-oriented network. Some entrepreneurial network providers are pursuing this vision in an even earlier timeframe. This article introduces a multiservices voice, data, and multicast video network over an Optical Ethernet architecture for residents of multidwelling units (MDU). This article reviews the network architecture for delivering these services over Optical Ethernet and addresses the challenges of handling service types with different bandwidths and latencies over a common packet-oriented infrastructure. As an example, it addresses the challenge of managing latency-intolerant traffic such as voice over IP over a common architecture as Internet data. Furthermore, it discusses the challenges of delivering over 100 channels of broadcast video as well as video on demand over the same infrastructure.

  3. Automatic detection of voice impairments by means of short-term cepstral parameters and neural network based detectors.

    PubMed

    Godino-Llorente, J I; Gómez-Vilda, P

    2004-02-01

    It is well known that vocal and voice diseases do not necessarily cause perceptible changes in the acoustic voice signal. Acoustic analysis is a useful tool to diagnose voice diseases being a complementary technique to other methods based on direct observation of the vocal folds by laryngoscopy. Through the present paper two neural-network based classification approaches applied to the automatic detection of voice disorders will be studied. Structures studied are multilayer perceptron and learning vector quantization fed using short-term vectors calculated accordingly to the well-known Mel Frequency Coefficient cepstral parameterization. The paper shows that these architectures allow the detection of voice disorders--including glottic cancer--under highly reliable conditions. Within this context, the Learning Vector quantization methodology demonstrated to be more reliable than the multilayer perceptron architecture yielding 96% frame accuracy under similar working conditions.

  4. Voice and swallowing outcomes of an organ-preservation trial for advanced laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Kevin . E-mail: kevin.fung@lhsc.on.ca; Lyden, Teresa H.; Lee, Julia; Urba, Susan G.; Worden, Frank; Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; Prince, Mark E.P.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Wolf, Gregory T.

    2005-12-01

    Introduction: Organ-preservation treatment approaches for advanced laryngeal cancer patients that use combination chemoradiotherapy result in cure rates similar to primary laryngectomy with postoperative radiotherapy. In the national VA Larynx Cancer Trial, successful organ preservation was associated with an overall improvement in quality of life but not in subjective speech compared with long-term laryngectomy survivors. As part of a Phase II clinical trial, a prospective study of speech and swallowing results was conducted to determine if larynx preservation is associated with improved voice and swallowing compared with results in patients who require salvage laryngectomy. Subjects: A total of 97 patients with advanced laryngeal cancer (46 Stage III, 51 Stage IV) were given a single course of induction chemotherapy (cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 and 5-FU 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/day x 5 days), followed by assessment of response. Patients with less than 50% response underwent early salvage laryngectomy, and patients with 50% or better response underwent concurrent chemoradiation (72 Gy and cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1, 22, and 43), followed by two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (DDP/5-FU). Direct laryngoscopy and biopsy were performed 8 weeks after radiation therapy to determine final tumor response. Late salvage surgery was performed on patients with persistent or recurrent disease. Methods: Completed survey data on voice and swallowing utilizing the Voice-Related Quality of Life Measure (V-RQOL) and the List Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer Patients (PSS-HN) were obtained from 56 patients who were alive and free of disease at the time of survey, with a minimum follow-up of 8 months. Comparisons were made between patients with an intact larynx (n = 37) vs. laryngectomy (n = 19), as well as early (n = 12) vs. late salvage laryngectomy (n = 7). Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of voice and swallowing

  5. Impact of dynamic rate coding aspects of mobile phone networks on forensic voice comparison.

    PubMed

    Alzqhoul, Esam A S; Nair, Balamurali B T; Guillemin, Bernard J

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that landline and mobile phone networks are different in their ways of handling the speech signal, and therefore in their impact on it. But the same is also true of the different networks within the mobile phone arena. There are two major mobile phone technologies currently in use today, namely the global system for mobile communications (GSM) and code division multiple access (CDMA) and these are fundamentally different in their design. For example, the quality of the coded speech in the GSM network is a function of channel quality, whereas in the CDMA network it is determined by channel capacity (i.e., the number of users sharing a cell site). This paper examines the impact on the speech signal of a key feature of these networks, namely dynamic rate coding, and its subsequent impact on the task of likelihood-ratio-based forensic voice comparison (FVC). Surprisingly, both FVC accuracy and precision are found to be better for both GSM- and CDMA-coded speech than for uncoded. Intuitively one expects FVC accuracy to increase with increasing coded speech quality. This trend is shown to occur for the CDMA network, but, surprisingly, not for the GSM network. Further, in respect to comparisons between these two networks, FVC accuracy for CDMA-coded speech is shown to be slightly better than for GSM-coded speech, particularly when the coded-speech quality is high, but in terms of FVC precision the two networks are shown to be very similar.

  6. Automatic voice recognition using traditional and artificial neural network approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop an algorithm for isolated-word recognition. This research is focused on digital signal analysis rather than linguistic analysis of speech. Features extraction is carried out by applying a Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) algorithm with order of 10. Continuous-word and speaker independent recognition will be considered in future study after accomplishing this isolated word research. To examine the similarity between the reference and the training sets, two approaches are explored. The first is implementing traditional pattern recognition techniques where a dynamic time warping algorithm is applied to align the two sets and calculate the probability of matching by measuring the Euclidean distance between the two sets. The second is implementing a backpropagation artificial neural net model with three layers as the pattern classifier. The adaptation rule implemented in this network is the generalized least mean square (LMS) rule. The first approach has been accomplished. A vocabulary of 50 words was selected and tested. The accuracy of the algorithm was found to be around 85 percent. The second approach is in progress at the present time.

  7. Session: LAN application Extension of a local area network from voice and data applications to video communications facilities: the CARTHAGE and ARTIS NETWORKS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renoulin, R.; Fruchard, C.; Marti

    1986-07-01

    The goal of this communication is to examine the different possibilities to design Integrated Services Networks, to justify the technical choices made for a Fiber's Optic Local Area Network, the CARTHAGE/LCT 6500 Network carriiing voice and data in an office automation and telematics environment and to present its extension to videocommunications facilities by tiing a star configured video switched network to the first Network.

  8. Advancements in metro optical network architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschis, Loukas

    2005-02-01

    This paper discusses the innovation in network architectures, and optical transport, that enables metropolitan networks to cost-effectively scale to hundreds Gb/s of capacity, and to hundreds km of reach, and to also meet the diverse service needs of enterprise and residential applications. A converged metro network, where Ethernet/IP services, and traditional TDM traffic operate over an intelligent WDM transport layer is increasingly becoming the most attractive architecture addressing the primary need of network operators for significantly improved capital and operational network cost. At the same time, this converged network has to leverage advanced technology, and introduce intelligence in order to significantly improve the deployment and manageability of WDM transport. The most important system advancements and the associated technology innovations that enhance the cost-effectiveness of metropolitan optical networks are being reviewed.

  9. Electroglottographic Comparison of Voice Outcomes in Patients With Advanced Laryngopharyngeal Cancer Treated by Chemoradiotherapy or Total Laryngectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kazi, Rehan; Venkitaraman, Ramachandran; Johnson, Catherine; Prasad, Vyas; Clarke, Peter; Rhys-Evans, Peter; Nutting, Christopher M.; Harrington, Kevin J.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To conduct prospective electroglottographic analyses of voice outcomes after radical chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced laryngopharyngeal cancers and to compare them with patients who have undergone total laryngectomy (TL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-one patients (19 male, 2 female, median age [range] 65 [50-85] years) with Stage III/IV laryngopharyngeal cancer received induction chemotherapy followed by radical chemoradiotherapy. Electroglottography, using the sustained vowel /i/ and connected speech, was performed before treatment and 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. In addition, single voice recordings were taken from 21 patients (16 male, 5 female, aged 65 [50-84] years) who had undergone TL and surgical voice restoration and from 21 normal controls (18 male, 3 female, aged 65 [33-80] years). Results: Before treatment the vocal measures for the chemoradiotherapy patients were significantly different from normal controls in jitter (p = 0.02), maximum phonation time (MPT) (p = 0.001), and words per minute (WPM) (p = 0.01). At 12 months after treatment MPT and WPM had normalized, but jitter and normalized noise energy were significantly worse than in normal controls. Comparison of voice outcomes at 12 months for chemoradiotherapy patients revealed superiority over the TL group in all parameters except MPT (18.2 s vs. 10.4 s, p = 0.06). Analysis of the recovery of voice up to 12 months after treatment revealed progressive improvement in most electroglottographic measures. Conclusions: This prospective study demonstrates significantly better outcome for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy as compared with TL. Progressive normalization of many voice parameters occurs over the 12 months following chemoradiotherapy.

  10. Innovative Networking Concepts Tested on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Daniel; Gupta, Sonjai; Zhang, Chuanguo; Ephremides, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a program of experiments conducted over the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) and the associated TI-VSAT (very small aperture terminal). The experiments were motivated by the commercial potential of low-cost receive only satellite terminals that can operate in a hybrid network environment, and by the desire to demonstrate frame relay technology over satellite networks. The first experiment tested highly adaptive methods of satellite bandwidth allocation in an integrated voice-data service environment. The second involved comparison of forward error correction (FEC) and automatic repeat request (ARQ) methods of error control for satellite communication with emphasis on the advantage that a hybrid architecture provides, especially in the case of multicasts. Finally, the third experiment demonstrated hybrid access to databases and compared the performance of internetworking protocols for interconnecting local area networks (LANs) via satellite. A custom unit termed frame relay access switch (FRACS) was developed by COMSAT Laboratories for these experiments; the preparation and conduct of these experiments involved a total of 20 people from the University of Maryland, the University of Colorado and COMSAT Laboratories, from late 1992 until 1995.

  11. Is It Really Just Like a Fancy Answering Machine? Comparing Semantic Networks of Different Types of Voice Mail Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ronald E.; Danowski, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates whether differing conceptualizations of voice mail (VM) exist among different types of VM users. Analyzes semantic networks of comments by people who use VM as a traditional telephone genre or as a new, messaging genre. Finds considerable similarities among four types of users, but also differentiates somewhat between high senders and…

  12. Advanced Networks in Motion Mobile Sensorweb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced mobile networking technology applicable to mobile sensor platforms was developed, deployed and demonstrated. A two-tier sensorweb design was developed. The first tier utilized mobile network technology to provide mobility. The second tier, which sits above the first tier, utilizes 6LowPAN (Internet Protocol version 6 Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks) sensors. The entire network was IPv6 enabled. Successful mobile sensorweb system field tests took place in late August and early September of 2009. The entire network utilized IPv6 and was monitored and controlled using a remote Web browser via IPv6 technology. This paper describes the mobile networking and 6LowPAN sensorweb design, implementation, deployment and testing as well as wireless systems and network monitoring software developed to support testing and validation.

  13. Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications. PMID:19632811

  14. Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications.

  15. Advanced networks and computing in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As computing and network capabilities continue to rise, it becomes increasingly important to understand the varied applications for using them to provide healthcare. The objective of this review is to identify key characteristics and attributes of healthcare applications involving the use of advanced computing and communication technologies, drawing upon 45 research and development projects in telemedicine and other aspects of healthcare funded by the National Library of Medicine over the past 12 years. Only projects publishing in the professional literature were included in the review. Four projects did not publish beyond their final reports. In addition, the authors drew on their first-hand experience as project officers, reviewers and monitors of the work. Major themes in the corpus of work were identified, characterizing key attributes of advanced computing and network applications in healthcare. Advanced computing and network applications are relevant to a range of healthcare settings and specialties, but they are most appropriate for solving a narrower range of problems in each. Healthcare projects undertaken primarily to explore potential have also demonstrated effectiveness and depend on the quality of network service as much as bandwidth. Many applications are enabling, making it possible to provide service or conduct research that previously was not possible or to achieve outcomes in addition to those for which projects were undertaken. Most notable are advances in imaging and visualization, collaboration and sense of presence, and mobility in communication and information-resource use. PMID:21486877

  16. Delay analysis of an integrated voice and data access protocol with collision detection for multimedia satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Charles C. K.; Suda, Tatsuya

    1992-03-01

    The novel multiple-access scheme for multimedia satellite networks presented is based on a combination of FDMA and TDMA, integrating both circuit and packet-switching techniques. While the circuit-switching method is used to transmit such stream-type traffic as real-time voice communications, packet-switching is used to transmit such 'bursty' traffic as interactive data. A ground radio network is assumed for control signaling; the tone sense multiple access/partial collision detection scheme is implemented on this network to enhance the integrated access scheme's performance.

  17. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  18. Advanced fault diagnosis methods in molecular networks.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Iman; Emamian, Effat S; Abdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the failure of cell signaling networks is an important topic in systems biology and has applications in target discovery and drug development. In this paper, some advanced methods for fault diagnosis in signaling networks are developed and then applied to a caspase network and an SHP2 network. The goal is to understand how, and to what extent, the dysfunction of molecules in a network contributes to the failure of the entire network. Network dysfunction (failure) is defined as failure to produce the expected outputs in response to the input signals. Vulnerability level of a molecule is defined as the probability of the network failure, when the molecule is dysfunctional. In this study, a method to calculate the vulnerability level of single molecules for different combinations of input signals is developed. Furthermore, a more complex yet biologically meaningful method for calculating the multi-fault vulnerability levels is suggested, in which two or more molecules are simultaneously dysfunctional. Finally, a method is developed for fault diagnosis of networks based on a ternary logic model, which considers three activity levels for a molecule instead of the previously published binary logic model, and provides equations for the vulnerabilities of molecules in a ternary framework. Multi-fault analysis shows that the pairs of molecules with high vulnerability typically include a highly vulnerable molecule identified by the single fault analysis. The ternary fault analysis for the caspase network shows that predictions obtained using the more complex ternary model are about the same as the predictions of the simpler binary approach. This study suggests that by increasing the number of activity levels the complexity of the model grows; however, the predictive power of the ternary model does not appear to be increased proportionally.

  19. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the network control function for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) full mesh network. This includes control of all operational activities such as acquisition, synchronization, timing and rain fade compensation as well as control of all communications activities such as on-demand integrated services (voice, video, and date) connects and disconnects Operations control is provided by an in-band orderwire carried in the baseboard processor (BBP) control burst, the orderwire burst, the reference burst, and the uplink traffic burst. Communication services are provided by demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) protocols. The ACTS implementation of DAMA protocols ensures both on-demand and integrated voice, video and data services. Communications services control is also provided by the in-band orderwire but uses only the reference burst and the uplink traffic burst. The performance of the ACTS network control functions have been successfully tested during on-orbit checkout and in various VSAT networks in day to day operations. This paper discusses the network operations and services control performance.

  20. 78 FR 14359 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analysts-Order Management, Voice Over Internet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Management, Voice Over Internet Protocol, Small And Medium Business, Tampa, Florida; Verizon Business... Analysts-Order Management, Voice Over Internet Protocol, Small and Medium Business, Tampa, Florida. The workers supplied order management services to small and medium business customers relating to the...

  1. Advance lightpath provisioning in interdomain optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafid, A.; Maach, A.; Khair, M. G.; Drissi, J.

    2005-11-01

    In interconnected optical networks, users submit lightpath requests at the time they wish to establish the lightpath. The service provider consults the information gathered by the interdomain routing protocols for available resources. For each request, the network must decide immediately whether to accept or reject the request. In this model, there is always the uncertainty of whether the user will be able to establish the desired lightpath at the desired time or not. Furthermore, in the context of a number of applications, e.g., grid applications, users need to set up lightpaths in advance to perform their activities that are planned in advance. We propose a new interdomain routing protocol called Advance Optical Routing Border Gateway Protocol (AORBGP) and a scheme that allows the setup of interdomain lightpaths in advance. AORBGP allows gathering information about interdomain paths and availability of wavelengths in the future. The proposed advance lightpath setup scheme makes use of AORBGP to get information about available resources (i.e., wavelengths) required to process lightpath setup requests. One of the key innovations of the scheme is that it provides the user with alternatives, carefully selected, when his or her request cannot be accommodated because of resource shortages. Indeed, the scheme provides the user with options to set up a lightpath later than the requested start time or with shorter duration than the requested duration. We performed a set of simulations to evaluate the benefits of the proposed scheme and the effect of a number of parameters on the performance of AORBGP.

  2. Communication services for advanced network applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnahan, J.; Foster, I.; Insley, J.; Toonen, B.; Tuecke, S.

    1999-06-10

    Advanced network applications such as remote instrument control, collaborative environments, and remote I/O are distinguished by traditional applications such as videoconferencing by their need to create multiple, heterogeneous flows with different characteristics. For example, a single application may require remote I/O for raw datasets, shared controls for a collaborative analysis system, streaming video for image rendering data, and audio for collaboration. Furthermore, each flow can have different requirements in terms of reliability, network quality of service, security, etc. They argue that new approaches to communication services, protocols, and network architecture are required both to provide high-level abstractions for common flow types and to support user-level management of flow creation and quality. They describe experiences with the development of such applications and communication services.

  3. The Voice-Hearer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For 25 years the international Hearing Voices Movement and the UK Hearing Voices Network have campaigned to improve the lives of people who hear voices. In so doing they have introduced a new term into the mental health lexicon: ‘the voice-hearer.’ Aims This article offers a ‘thick description’ of the figure of ‘the voice-hearer.’ Method A selection of prominent texts (life narratives, research papers, videos and blogs), the majority produced by people active in the Hearing Voices or consumer/survivor/ex-patient movements, were analysed from an interdisciplinary medical humanities perspective. Results ‘The voice-hearer’ (i) asserts voice-hearing as a meaningful experience, (ii) challenges psychiatric authority, and (iii) builds identity through sharing life narrative. While technically accurate, the definition of ‘the voice-hearer’ as simply ‘a person who has experienced voice-hearing or auditory verbal hallucinations’ fails to acknowledge that this is a complex, politically resonant and value-laden identity. Conclusions The figure of ‘the voice-hearer’ comes into being through a specific set of narrative practices as an ‘expert by experience’ who challenges the authority and diagnostic categories of mainstream psychiatry, especially the category of ‘schizophrenia.’ PMID:23691942

  4. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  5. The Climate Voices Speakers Network: Collaborating with Nontraditional, National Networks to Develop Climate Literacy on a Local Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, K.; Schmidt, C.; Herrin, S.

    2015-12-01

    How can we leverage the successes of the numerous organizations in the climate change communication arena to build momentum rather than reinvent the wheel? Over the past two years, Climate Voices (climatevoices.org) has established a network of nearly 400 speakers and established partnerships to scale programs that address climate change communication and community engagement. In this presentation, we will present how we have identified and fostered win-win partnerships with organizations, such as GreenFaith Interfaith Partners for the Environment and Rotary International, to reach the broader general public. We will also share how, by drawing on the resources from the National Climate Assessment and the expertise of our own community, we developed and provided our speakers the tools to provide their audiences access to basic climate science - contributing to each audience's ability to understand local impacts, make informed decisions, and gain the confidence to engage in solutions-based actions in response to climate change. We will also discuss how we have created webinar coaching presentations by speakers who aren't climate scientists- and why we have chosen to do so.

  6. Integrating Voice into the School Network: Benefits of Wireless VoIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatland, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    Voice Communications are critical for the proper functioning of primary, secondary and higher education environments. At the K-12 level, teachers and staff must be able to communicate with each other between classrooms and the school office. Also, teachers often need to communicate between schools within a district as well as with the district…

  7. Advanced systems engineering and network planning support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.

  8. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    DOEpatents

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  9. Learning [Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauberer, Joshua Ian

    2010-01-01

    The [voice] distinction between homorganic stops and fricatives is made by a number of acoustic correlates including voicing, segment duration, and preceding vowel duration. The present work looks at [voice] from a number of multidimensional perspectives. This dissertation's focus is a corpus study of the phonetic realization of [voice] in two…

  10. Teaching Advanced Life Sciences in an Animal Context: Agricultural Science Teacher Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balschweid, Mark; Huerta, Alexandria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine agricultural science teacher comfort with a new high school Advanced Life Science: Animal course and determine their perceptions of student impact. The advanced science course is eligible for college credit. The teachers revealed they felt confident of their science background in preparation…

  11. Morphodynamics of tidal networks: advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coco, G.; Olabarrieta, M.; van Maanen, B.; Zhou, Z.; Tinoco, R.

    2012-12-01

    Tidal embayments are complex environments at the boundary between land and sea. Their evolution, natural or human-induced, feeds back onto ecological, economic and societal functions. Overall, the ability to manage tidal embayments successfully and maintain their value hinges on our knowledge of the system. The morphological behaviour of tidal embayments, however, is very complex because of the variety of feedback mechanisms which lead to morphological change. In recent years, numerical studies have highlighted that the feedback between the hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphological evolution can lead to the development of tidally-forced morphological networks characterized by slowly-evolving bifurcating channels. Both tidal range and the initial bathymetry appear to have a strong control on the morphological characteristics of the tidal network by affecting final basin hypsometry and channel patterns. Although promising, none of the numerical models presented in the literature and capable of simulating the growth of a tidal network have been scrutinized against field or laboratory data. Here, we show and discuss the performance of one of those numerical models against detailed laboratory data. Preliminary results indicate that numerical simulations can reproduce the general features of pattern development but that a better description of many fast- and small-scale processes is needed to achieve better model-data agreement. Unsurprisingly, the model shows a strong sensitivity to frictional effects and resuspension parameterizations. Numerical models of morphodynamics tend to neglect some physical or biological processes that affect the short- and long-term evolution of tidal networks. In terms of physical processes, wind waves, interacting with the ebb shoal and tidal currents at the mouth of the embayment can significantly affect hydro- and morphodynamics. Under high wave conditions waves can break in the inlet area producing wave induced circulation

  12. Voice and endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Hari Kumar, K. V. S.; Garg, Anurag; Ajai Chandra, N. S.; Singh, S. P.; Datta, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consisting of the larynx, vocal cords, and trachea. The human voice is susceptible to the hormonal changes throughout life right from the puberty until senescence. Thyroid, gonadal and growth hormones have tremendous impact on the structure and function of the vocal apparatus. The alteration of voice is observed even in physiological states such as puberty and menstruation. Astute clinical observers make out the changes in the voice and refer the patients for endocrine evaluation. In this review, we shall discuss the hormonal influence on the voice apparatus in normal and endocrine disorders. PMID:27730065

  13. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises.

    PubMed

    Kraaijenga, Sophie A C; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in HNC survivors, long-term (i.e., beyond 5 years) prospectively collected data on objective and subjective treatment-induced functional outcomes (and their impact on QoL) still are scarce. The objective of this study was the assessment of long-term CCRT-induced results on swallowing function and voice quality in advanced HNC patients. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial on preventive swallowing rehabilitation (2006-2008) in a tertiary comprehensive HNC center with twenty-two disease-free and evaluable HNC patients as participants. Multidimensional assessment of functional sequels was performed with videofluoroscopy, mouth opening measurements, Functional Oral Intake Scale, acoustic voice parameters, and (study specific, SWAL-QoL, and VHI) questionnaires. Outcome measures at 6 years post-treatment were compared with results at baseline and at 2 years post-treatment. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years most initial tumor-, and treatment-related problems remained similarly low to those observed after 2 years follow-up, except increased xerostomia (68%) and increased (mild) pain (32%). Acoustic voice analysis showed less voicedness, increased fundamental frequency, and more vocal effort for the tumors located below the hyoid bone (n = 12), without recovery to baseline values. Patients' subjective vocal function (VHI score) was good. Functional swallowing and voice problems at 6 years post-treatment are minimal in this patient cohort, originating from preventive and continued post-treatment rehabilitation programs.

  14. The Irony and the Ecstasy: How Holden Caulfield Helped My Advanced Composition Students Find Their Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Linda

    An instructor of an advanced composition course (adapted from one taught by James Seitz at the University of Pittsburgh) at the University of California Riverside took her students through a series of reading and writing assignments that asked them to "engage in a wide variety of prose styles and...consider what style suggests about language,…

  15. The integration of routing and flow-control for voice and data in a computer communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafni, E. M.

    1982-09-01

    A store and forward computer communication network may concurrently support more than one type of user. Because of different user characteristics, the control of each type of user may be done by different mechanisms. Moreover, for each type of user there may be more than one control mechanism operating concurrently. Algorithms previously proposed for user-mechanism pairs were analysed independently ignoring the significant interactions among them. In this thesis, we consider the voice user and the data user, and the routing mechanism and the flow control mechanism. We propose four algorithms, one for each user-mechanism pair. We show that these algorithms are compatible in the sense that they can be coordinated to achieve some reasonable objective when operating concurrently. Moreover, some of the algorithms are superior in some aspects to existing ones.

  16. MSAT broadcast voice services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Later this year the MSAT satellite network will be delivering mobile and remote communications throughout North America. Its services include a family of Broadcast Voice Services, the first of which will be MSAT Dispatch Radio, which will extend the features and functionality of terrestrial Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) to the entire continent. This paper describes the MSAT Broadcast Voice Services in general, and MSAT Dispatch Radio in particular, and provides examples of commercial and government applications.

  17. Advances in the Theory of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruani, Fernando

    An exhaustive and comprehensive review on the theory of complex networks would imply nowadays a titanic task, and it would result in a lengthy work containing plenty of technical details of arguable relevance. Instead, this chapter addresses very briefly the ABC of complex network theory, visiting only the hallmarks of the theoretical founding, to finally focus on two of the most interesting and promising current research problems: the study of dynamical processes on transportation networks and the identification of communities in complex networks.

  18. Every Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where students…

  19. Voices of Women in the Field--Creating Conversations: A Networking Approach for Women Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskin, Candace F.; Haar, Jean M.; Robicheau, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Professional networking is critical for school leaders. Networking has emerged in the literature as one of the major needs in attracting and retaining quality school leaders. There is evidence that professional networking offers a system for women to enhance their career opportunities. However, the evidence shows there are limited professional…

  20. Advanced functional network analysis in the geosciences: The pyunicorn package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Runge, Jakob; Schultz, Hanna C. H.; Wiedermann, Marc; Zech, Alraune; Feldhoff, Jan; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Kutza, Hannes; Radebach, Alexander; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Functional networks are a powerful tool for analyzing large geoscientific datasets such as global fields of climate time series originating from observations or model simulations. pyunicorn (pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) is an open-source, fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for constructing functional networks (aka climate networks) representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large datasets and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures for networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn allows to study the complex dynamics of geoscientific systems as recorded by time series by means of recurrence networks and visibility graphs. The range of possible applications of the package is outlined drawing on several examples from climatology.

  1. [Voice and identity in transsexuality].

    PubMed

    Pérez Alvarez, J C

    2011-08-01

    For the self-acceptance and social approval of transsexuals in their new identity, the voice plays a very important role. The responsibility of the phoniatrician and voice therapist is to identify in advance what type of voice change options are possible. These can either be achieved by more conservative means or through operative procedures. Whether to undergo speech therapy or perform a laryngeal surgical intervention should be discussed with the patient and determined on an individual basis.

  2. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  3. MSAT voice modulation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, Dan

    1990-01-01

    The challenge for Mobile satellite (MSAT) voice services is to provide near toll quality voice to the user, while minimizing the power and bandwidth resources of the satellite. The options for MSAT voice can be put into one of two groups: Analog and Digital. Analog, nominally narrowband single sideband techniques, have a shown robustness to the fading and shadowing environment. Digital techniques, a combination of low rate vocoders and bandwidth efficient modems, show the promise of enhanced fidelity, as well as easier networking to the emerging digital world. The problems and tradeoffs to designers are many, especially in the digital case. Processor speed vs. cost and MET power requirements, channel coding, bandwidth efficiency vs. power efficiency etc. While the list looks daunting, in fact an acceptable solution is well within the technology. The objectives are reviewed that the MSAT voice service must meet, along with the options that are seen for the future.

  4. Advanced medical video services through context-aware medical networks.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Pliakas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a framework for advanced medical video delivery services, through network and patient-state awareness. Under this scope a context-aware medical networking platform is described. The developed platform enables proper medical video data coding and transmission according to both a) network availability and/or quality and b) patient status, optimizing thus network performance and telediagnosis. An evaluation platform has been developed based on scalable H.264 coding of medical videos. Corresponding results of video transmission over a WiMax network have proved the effectiveness and efficiency of the platform providing proper video content delivery. PMID:18002643

  5. Advanced medical video services through context-aware medical networks.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Pliakas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a framework for advanced medical video delivery services, through network and patient-state awareness. Under this scope a context-aware medical networking platform is described. The developed platform enables proper medical video data coding and transmission according to both a) network availability and/or quality and b) patient status, optimizing thus network performance and telediagnosis. An evaluation platform has been developed based on scalable H.264 coding of medical videos. Corresponding results of video transmission over a WiMax network have proved the effectiveness and efficiency of the platform providing proper video content delivery.

  6. Advanced mobile networking, sensing, and controls.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Young, Joseph G.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Harrington, John J.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes an integrated approach for designing communication, sensing, and control systems for mobile distributed systems. Graph theoretic methods are used to analyze the input/output reachability and structural controllability and observability of a decentralized system. Embedded in each network node, this analysis will automatically reconfigure an ad hoc communication network for the sensing and control task at hand. The graph analysis can also be used to create the optimal communication flow control based upon the spatial distribution of the network nodes. Edge coloring algorithms tell us that the minimum number of time slots in a planar network is equal to either the maximum number of adjacent nodes (or degree) of the undirected graph plus some small number. Therefore, the more spread out that the nodes are, the fewer number of time slots are needed for communication, and the smaller the latency between nodes. In a coupled system, this results in a more responsive sensor network and control system. Network protocols are developed to propagate this information, and distributed algorithms are developed to automatically adjust the number of time slots available for communication. These protocols and algorithms must be extremely efficient and only updated as network nodes move. In addition, queuing theory is used to analyze the delay characteristics of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. This report documents the analysis, simulation, and implementation of these algorithms performed under this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  7. The Voice Handicap Index with Post-Laryngectomy Male Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Eryl; Carding, Paul; Drinnan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer involves complete removal of the larynx ("laryngectomy") and initial total loss of voice. Post-laryngectomy rehabilitation involves implementation of different means of "voicing" for these patients wherever possible. There is little information about laryngectomees' perception of their…

  8. Online Matchmaking: It's Not Just for Dating Sites Anymore! Connecting the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network to Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Kristin; Herrin, Sara; Schmidt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Scientists play an integral role in the development of climate literacy skills - for both teachers and students alike. By partnering with local scientists, teachers can gain valuable insights into the science practices highlighted by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), as well as a deeper understanding of cutting-edge scientific discoveries and local impacts of climate change. For students, connecting to local scientists can provide a relevant connection to climate science and STEM skills. Over the past two years, the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network (climatevoices.org) has grown to a robust network of nearly 400 climate science speakers across the United States. Formal and informal educators, K-12 students, and community groups connect with our speakers through our interactive map-based website and invite them to meet through face-to-face and virtual presentations, such as webinars and podcasts. But creating a common language between scientists and educators requires coaching on both sides. In this presentation, we will present the "nitty-gritty" of setting up scientist-educator collaborations, as well as the challenges and opportunities that arise from these partnerships. We will share the impact of these collaborations through case studies, including anecdotal feedback and metrics.

  9. Online matchmaking: It's not just for dating sites anymore! Connecting the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network to Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, K.; Herrin, S.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    Scientists play an integral role in the development of climate literacy skills - for both teachers and students alike. By partnering with local scientists, teachers can gain valuable insights into the science practices highlighted by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), as well as a deeper understanding of cutting-edge scientific discoveries and local impacts of climate change. For students, connecting to local scientists can provide a relevant connection to climate science and STEM skills. Over the past two years, the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network (climatevoices.org) has grown to a robust network of nearly 400 climate science speakers across the United States. Formal and informal educators, K-12 students, and community groups connect with our speakers through our interactive map-based website and invite them to meet through face-to-face and virtual presentations, such as webinars and podcasts. But creating a common language between scientists and educators requires coaching on both sides. In this presentation, we will present the "nitty-gritty" of setting up scientist-educator collaborations, as well as the challenges and opportunities that arise from these partnerships. We will share the impact of these collaborations through case studies, including anecdotal feedback and metrics.

  10. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  11. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  12. Advanced Optical Burst Switched Network Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejabati, Reza; Aracil, Javier; Castoldi, Piero; de Leenheer, Marc; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Valcarenghi, Luca; Zervas, Georgios; Wu, Jian

    In recent years, as the bandwidth and the speed of networks have increased significantly, a new generation of network-based applications using the concept of distributed computing and collaborative services is emerging (e.g., Grid computing applications). The use of the available fiber and DWDM infrastructure for these applications is a logical choice offering huge amounts of cheap bandwidth and ensuring global reach of computing resources [230]. Currently, there is a great deal of interest in deploying optical circuit (wavelength) switched network infrastructure for distributed computing applications that require long-lived wavelength paths and address the specific needs of a small number of well-known users. Typical users are particle physicists who, due to their international collaborations and experiments, generate enormous amounts of data (Petabytes per year). These users require a network infrastructures that can support processing and analysis of large datasets through globally distributed computing resources [230]. However, providing wavelength granularity bandwidth services is not an efficient and scalable solution for applications and services that address a wider base of user communities with different traffic profiles and connectivity requirements. Examples of such applications may be: scientific collaboration in smaller scale (e.g., bioinformatics, environmental research), distributed virtual laboratories (e.g., remote instrumentation), e-health, national security and defense, personalized learning environments and digital libraries, evolving broadband user services (i.e., high resolution home video editing, real-time rendering, high definition interactive TV). As a specific example, in e-health services and in particular mammography applications due to the size and quantity of images produced by remote mammography, stringent network requirements are necessary. Initial calculations have shown that for 100 patients to be screened remotely, the network

  13. SINET3: advanced optical and IP hybrid network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urushidani, Shigeo

    2007-11-01

    This paper introduces the new Japanese academic backbone network called SINET3, which has been in full-scale operation since June 2007. SINET3 provides a wide variety of network services, such as multi-layer transfer, enriched VPN, enhanced QoS, and layer-1 bandwidth on demand (BoD) services to create an innovative and prolific science infrastructure for more than 700 universities and research institutions. The network applies an advanced hybrid network architecture composed of 75 layer-1 switches and 12 high-performance IP routers to accommodate such diversified services in a single network platform, and provides sufficient bandwidth using Japan's first STM256 (40 Gbps) lines. The network adopts lots of the latest networking technologies, such as next-generation SDH (VCAT/GFP/LCAS), GMPLS, advanced MPLS, and logical-router technologies, for high network convergence, flexible resource assignment, and high service availability. This paper covers the network services, network design, and networking technologies of SINET3.

  14. Social Network Sites and Student-Lecturer Communication: An Academic Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna; Gaffney-Rhys, Ruth; Jones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of existing ideas relating to the use of social network sites by faculty within higher education institutions (HEIs) to communicate with the student body. As previous research has been from a student-centric perspective, importantly this study explores the use of social networks for student-faculty communication…

  15. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  16. Underwater sensor networks: applications, advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, John; Stojanovic, Milica; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-13

    This paper examines the main approaches and challenges in the design and implementation of underwater wireless sensor networks. We summarize key applications and the main phenomena related to acoustic propagation, and discuss how they affect the design and operation of communication systems and networking protocols at various layers. We also provide an overview of communications hardware, testbeds and simulation tools available to the research community.

  17. Development of voice telecommunication services in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, R G

    1998-10-01

    There is now an opportunity to accelerate the process of modernisation in the delivery of healthcare by the use of new technology. Advanced voice services such as the virtual private network, Centrex and mobile extension facilities are increasingly used in the NHS to the benefit of staff and patient. The provision of reliable and feature-rich integrated voice solutions across all groups in the healthcare arena is an essential factor in the development of new and better services to the public into the next millennium.

  18. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  19. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  20. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  1. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  2. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in the non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile-Satellite Service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-geostationary Mobile-Satellite Service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  3. Recent advances in symmetric and network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2015-09-01

    We summarize some of the main results discovered over the past three decades concerning symmetric dynamical systems and networks of dynamical systems, with a focus on pattern formation. In both of these contexts, extra constraints on the dynamical system are imposed, and the generic phenomena can change. The main areas discussed are time-periodic states, mode interactions, and non-compact symmetry groups such as the Euclidean group. We consider both dynamics and bifurcations. We summarize applications of these ideas to pattern formation in a variety of physical and biological systems, and explain how the methods were motivated by transferring to new contexts René Thom's general viewpoint, one version of which became known as "catastrophe theory." We emphasize the role of symmetry-breaking in the creation of patterns. Topics include equivariant Hopf bifurcation, which gives conditions for a periodic state to bifurcate from an equilibrium, and the H/K theorem, which classifies the pairs of setwise and pointwise symmetries of periodic states in equivariant dynamics. We discuss mode interactions, which organize multiple bifurcations into a single degenerate bifurcation, and systems with non-compact symmetry groups, where new technical issues arise. We transfer many of the ideas to the context of networks of coupled dynamical systems, and interpret synchrony and phase relations in network dynamics as a type of pattern, in which space is discretized into finitely many nodes, while time remains continuous. We also describe a variety of applications including animal locomotion, Couette-Taylor flow, flames, the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, binocular rivalry, and a nonlinear filter based on anomalous growth rates for the amplitude of periodic oscillations in a feed-forward network. PMID:26428565

  4. Recent advances in symmetric and network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2015-09-01

    We summarize some of the main results discovered over the past three decades concerning symmetric dynamical systems and networks of dynamical systems, with a focus on pattern formation. In both of these contexts, extra constraints on the dynamical system are imposed, and the generic phenomena can change. The main areas discussed are time-periodic states, mode interactions, and non-compact symmetry groups such as the Euclidean group. We consider both dynamics and bifurcations. We summarize applications of these ideas to pattern formation in a variety of physical and biological systems, and explain how the methods were motivated by transferring to new contexts René Thom's general viewpoint, one version of which became known as "catastrophe theory." We emphasize the role of symmetry-breaking in the creation of patterns. Topics include equivariant Hopf bifurcation, which gives conditions for a periodic state to bifurcate from an equilibrium, and the H/K theorem, which classifies the pairs of setwise and pointwise symmetries of periodic states in equivariant dynamics. We discuss mode interactions, which organize multiple bifurcations into a single degenerate bifurcation, and systems with non-compact symmetry groups, where new technical issues arise. We transfer many of the ideas to the context of networks of coupled dynamical systems, and interpret synchrony and phase relations in network dynamics as a type of pattern, in which space is discretized into finitely many nodes, while time remains continuous. We also describe a variety of applications including animal locomotion, Couette-Taylor flow, flames, the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, binocular rivalry, and a nonlinear filter based on anomalous growth rates for the amplitude of periodic oscillations in a feed-forward network.

  5. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Titus; Butler, Brian S; Song, Mei; Spallek, Heiko

    2012-03-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers' need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators' desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user's primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems.

  6. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems

    PubMed Central

    SCHLEYER, TITUS; BUTLER, BRIAN S.; SONG, MEI; SPALLEK, HEIKO

    2013-01-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  7. Automated sensor networks to advance ocean science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, O.; Orcutt, J. A.; Arrott, M.; Vernon, F. L.; Peach, C. L.; Meisinger, M.; Krueger, I.; Kleinert, J.; Chao, Y.; Chien, S.; Thompson, D. R.; Chave, A. D.; Balasuriya, A.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation has funded the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), which over the next five years will deploy infrastructure to expand scientist’s ability to remotely study the ocean. The deployed infrastructure will be linked by a robust cyberinfrastructure (CI) that will integrate marine observatories into a coherent system-of-systems. OOI is committed to engaging the ocean sciences community during the construction pahse. For the CI, this is being enabled by using a “spiral design strategy” allowing for input throughout the construction phase. In Fall 2009, the OOI CI development team used an existing ocean observing network in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) to test OOI CI software. The objective of this CI test was to aggregate data from ships, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), shore-based radars, and satellites and make it available to five different data-assimilating ocean forecast models. Scientists used these multi-model forecasts to automate future glider missions in order to demonstrate the feasibility of two-way interactivity between the sensor web and predictive models. The CI software coordinated and prioritized the shared resources that allowed for the semi-automated reconfiguration of assett-tasking, and thus enabled an autonomous execution of observation plans for the fixed and mobile observation platforms. Efforts were coordinated through a web portal that provided an access point for the observational data and model forecasts. Researchers could use the CI software in tandem with the web data portal to assess the performance of individual numerical model results, or multi-model ensembles, through real-time comparisons with satellite, shore-based radar, and in situ robotic measurements. The resulting sensor net will enable a new means to explore and study the world’s oceans by providing scientists a responsive network in the world’s oceans that can be accessed via any wireless network.

  8. Advanced HF anti-jam network architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, E. M.; Horner, Robert W.; Cai, Khiem V.

    The Hughes HF2000 system was developed using a flexible architecture which utilizes a wideband RF front-end and extensive digital signal processing. The HF2000 antijamming (AJ) mode was field tested via an HF skywave path between Fullerton, CA and Carlsbad, CA (about 100 miles), and it was shown that reliable fast frequency-hopping data transmission is feasible at 2400 b/s without adaptive equalization. The necessary requirements of an HF communication network are discussed, and how the HF2000 AJ mode can be used to support those requirements is shown. The Hughes HF2000 AJ mode system architecture is presented.

  9. The ADVANCE network: accelerating data value across a national community health center network

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Cottrell, Erika; Bauer, Vance; Brickman, Andrew; Puro, Jon; Nelson, Christine; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sears, Abigail; Burdick, Tim; Merrell, Jonathan; Matthews, Paul; Fields, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) clinical data research network (CDRN) is led by the OCHIN Community Health Information Network in partnership with Health Choice Network and Fenway Health. The ADVANCE CDRN will ‘horizontally’ integrate outpatient electronic health record data for over one million federally qualified health center patients, and ‘vertically’ integrate hospital, health plan, and community data for these patients, often under-represented in research studies. Patient investigators, community investigators, and academic investigators with diverse expertise will work together to meet project goals related to data integration, patient engagement and recruitment, and the development of streamlined regulatory policies. By enhancing the data and research infrastructure of participating organizations, the ADVANCE CDRN will serve as a ‘community laboratory’ for including disadvantaged and vulnerable patients in patient-centered outcomes research that is aligned with the priorities of patients, clinics, and communities in our network. PMID:24821740

  10. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  11. Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.

    1995-08-01

    By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.

  12. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  13. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  14. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ollis, T Ben; King, Daniel J; Irminger, Philip; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  15. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos' responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  16. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen MG; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos’ responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  17. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the vocal cords. Other causes of voice disorders include infections, upward movement of stomach acids into ... throat, growths due to a virus, cancer, and diseases that paralyze the vocal cords. Signs that your ...

  18. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Joaquín; Larios, Diego F.; Personal, Enrique; Barbancho, Julio; León, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance. PMID:27213375

  19. A Model for Incorporating Patient and Stakeholder Voices in a Learning Healthcare Network: Washington State’s Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN)

    PubMed Central

    Devine, EB; Alfonso-Cristancho, R; Devlin, A; Edwards, TC; Farrokhi, ET; Kessler, L; Lavallee, DC; Patrick, DL; Sullivan, SD; Tarczy-Hornoch, P; Yanez, ND; Flum, DR

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the inaugural comparative effectiveness research (CER) cohort study of Washington State’s Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN), which compares invasive to non-invasive treatments for peripheral artery disease; to focus on the patient-centeredness of this cohort study by describing it within the context of a newly published conceptual frameworks for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). Study Design and Setting The peripheral artery disease study was selected due to clinician-identified uncertainty in treatment selection and differences in desired outcomes between patients and clinicians. Patient-centeredness is achieved through the ‘Patient Voices Project’, a CERTAIN initiative through which patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are administered for research and clinical purposes, and a study-specific patient advisory group where patients are meaningfully engaged throughout the life cycle of the trial. A clinician-led research advisory panel follows in parallel. Results Primary outcomes are PRO instruments that measure function, health-related quality of life, and symptoms; the latter developed with input from patients. Input from the patient advisory group led to revised retention procedures, which now focus on short-term (3–6 months) follow-up. The research advisory panel is piloting a point-of-care, patient assessment checklist, there by returning study results to practice. The cohort study is aligned with the tenets of one of the new conceptual frameworks for conducting PCOR. Conclusion CERTAIN’s inaugural cohort study may serve as a useful model for conducting PCOR and creating a Learning Healthcare Network. PMID:23849146

  20. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-08-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET, was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive, and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET has continued to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue, which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last 13 years. Since 2000, EARLINET has developed greatly in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution: from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000 to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has developed greatly also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multiwavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing, and the dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase in the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions, and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are aimed at continuous measurements and near-real-time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, such as in the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) www.actris.net, and with the

  1. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  2. About Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Voice? “Voice” is the sound made by vibration of the vocal cords caused by air passing ... swelling of the vocal cords and changes their vibration resulting in an abnormal voice. Reduced voice use ( ...

  3. Voice Teachers on Voice, Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Laurie Brooks; White, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Concludes a three-part symposium with eight prominent voice teachers on voice teaching methods. In this part, the teachers discuss placement, voice breaks, tone deafness, covered tone, and developing volume and offer some final general comments. (Editor)

  4. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-03-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET is continuing to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last thirteen years. Since 2000, EARLINET has strongly developed in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution, from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000, to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has strongly developed also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multi-wavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing and dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase of the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are in the direction of continuous measurements and near real time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, as in the ACTRIS research infrastructure, and with the modelling and satellite community, bridging the research community with the

  5. Identifying Gaps in Grid Middleware on Fast Networks with the Advanced Networking Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, Dave; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Kim, Hyunwoo; Mhashilkar, Parag

    2012-12-01

    As of 2012, a number of US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories have access to a 100 Gb/s wide-area network backbone. The ESnet Advanced Networking Initiative (ANI) project is intended to develop a prototype network, based on emerging 100 Gb/s Ethernet technology. The ANI network will support DOE's science research programs. A 100 Gb/s network test bed is a key component of the ANI project. The test bed offers the opportunity for early evaluation of 100Gb/s network infrastructure for supporting the high impact data movement typical of science collaborations and experiments. In order to make effective use of this advanced infrastructure, the applications and middleware currently used by the distributed computing systems of large-scale science need to be adapted and tested within the new environment, with gaps in functionality identified and corrected. As a user of the ANI test bed, Fermilab aims to study the issues related to end-to-end integration and use of 100 Gb/s networks for the event simulation and analysis applications of physics experiments. In this paper we discuss our findings from evaluating existing HEP Physics middleware and application components, including GridFTP, Globus Online, etc. in the high-speed environment. These will include possible recommendations to the system administrators, application and middleware developers on changes that would make production use of the 100 Gb/s networks, including data storage, caching and wide area access.

  6. Voice communication research evaluation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Aircraft voice communications may be degraded by a variety of sources such as electrical and/or acoustical noise, radio interference, jamming and various other forms of distraction. The Voice Communication Research and Evaluation System, located in the Biodynamics and Bioengineering Division of the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, has been developed for the comprehensive analysis and enhancement of operational voice communication. The basic system is comprised of a multi-station voice communication network consisting of the USAF standard aircraft intercommunication system, a standard A-19 diluter-demand oxygen regulation system and an on line computer data collection and data analysis system that displays results in real time. The system is housed in a large reverberation chamber containing a programmable sound source capable of reproducing the spectrum and level of any AF operational noise environment. Standardized voice communication effectiveness test materials are used to assess the performance of any aspect of the total voice communication link, however, emphasis is usually placed upon the performance of the aircrew members. This paper will descibe the salient features of this unique system and provide examples of its application to voice communication problems.

  7. Advanced Communication and Networking Technologies for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeff; Agre, Jonathan R.; Clare, Loren P.; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation Mars communications networks will provide communications and navigation services to a wide variety of Mars science vehicles including: spacecraft that are arriving at Mars, spacecraft that are entering and descending in the Mars atmosphere, scientific orbiter spacecraft, spacecraft that return Mars samples to Earth, landers, rovers, aerobots, airplanes, and sensing pods. In the current architecture plans, the communication services will be provided using capabilities deployed on the science vehicles as well as dedicated communication satellites that will together make up the Mars network. This network will evolve as additional vehicles arrive, depart or end their useful missions. Cost savings and increased reliability will result from the ability to share communication services between missions. This paper discusses the basic architecture that is needed to support the Mars Communications Network part of NASA's Space Science Enterprise (SSE) communications architecture. The network may use various networking technologies such as those employed in the terrestrial Internet, as well as special purpose deep-space protocols to move data and commands autonomously between vehicles, at disparate Mars vicinity sites (on the surface or in near-Mars space) and between Mars vehicles and earthbound users. The architecture of the spacecraft on-board local communications is being reconsidered in light of these new networking requirements. The trend towards increasingly autonomous operation of the spacecraft is aimed at reducing the dependence on resource scheduling provided by Earth-based operators and increasing system fault tolerance. However, these benefits will result in increased communication and software development requirements. As a result, the envisioned Mars communications infrastructure requires both hardware and protocol technology advancements. This paper will describe a number of the critical technology needs and some of the ongoing research

  8. Lost Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiseri-Strater, Elizabeth

    Different writing voices are linked to early adult developmental issues that are gender-related. Research by Donald Graves has shown that gender affects topic choice in girls' and boys' writing as early as age seven. Adult developmental theories provide frames for looking at the growth potential of writers and locating gender-related issues. The…

  9. Voice Messaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara D.; Tisdale, Judy Jones; Krapels, Roberta H.

    2001-01-01

    Surveys corporate use of voice message systems by interviewing employees in four different companies. Finds that all four companies viewed their voicemail systems as a supplement to personal contact (not a replacement) and provided training, but had no formal method to assess customer satisfaction with their system. Suggests business communication…

  10. Advanced mobility handover for mobile IPv6 based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.

  11. Advanced mobility handover for mobile IPv6 based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches. PMID:25614890

  12. Advanced Mobility Handover for Mobile IPv6 Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches. PMID:25614890

  13. Hidden voices.

    PubMed

    Weick, A

    2000-10-01

    Despite the rich history of care that has characterized the profession, social work has not been able to convey adequately its knowledge of the modest yet complex tasks involved in its role of social caretaking. The dominant voice of the formal culture, particularly in its emphasis on rationality and logic, does not create sufficient space or legitimacy for the experience of domestic and social caretaking to be conveyed. From personal and professional perspectives, this essay presents the vocabulary of care as the first voice of women and of social work and explores it as an avenue to better justify, dignify, and celebrate the humble but vital tasks carried out in all venues of social work practice.

  14. Recent Advances in Magnetoseismology Using Network Observations by Ground Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    The rise of modern, synchronized networks of ground magnetometers in recent years has inspired and advanced research and development in magnetoseismology. Like the practice in other geophysical disciplines, magnetoseismology can infer the structure of the magnetosphere from the observations of normal-mode frequencies of the magnetic field. It can also time and locate impulsive events by measuring the signal arrival time at multiple ground stations. We highlight recent advances in using network observations by ground magnetometers for both types of magnetoseismic research. In the area of normal-mode magnetoseismology the increase in ground magnetometers has enabled ever more station pairs suitable for the gradient analysis. We demonstrate progress in automatic detection of field line resonance frequencies and the results that reveal longitudinal structure of the plasmasphere. As a relatively young research topic, travel-time magnetoseismology has shown its capability to time and locate sudden impulses and substorm onsets by using ground-based magnetometer observations. These initial successes in turn motivated detailed examination of MHD wave propagation in the magnetosphere. In the end we discuss how these magnetoseismic studies shed light on the regions in the world where future establishment of ground magnetometers is desirable.

  15. Advanced optical network architecture for integrated digital avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. Reed

    1996-12-01

    For the first time in the history of avionics, the network designer now has a choice in selecting the media that interconnects the sources and sinks of digital data on aircraft. Electrical designs are already giving way to photonics in application areas where the data rate times distance product is large or where special design requirements such as low weight or EMI considerations are critical. Future digital avionic architectures will increasingly favor the use of photonic interconnects as network data rates of one gigabit/second and higher are needed to support real-time operation of high-speed integrated digital processing. As the cost of optical network building blocks is reduced and as temperature-rugged laser sources are matured, metal interconnects will be forced to retreat to applications spanning shorter and shorter distances. Although the trend is already underway, the widespread use of digital optics will first occur at the system level, where gigabit/second, real-time interconnects between sensors, processors, mass memories and displays separated by a least of few meters will be required. The application of photonic interconnects for inter-printed wiring board signalling across the backplane will eventually find application for gigabit/second applications since signal degradation over copper traces occurs before one gigabit/second and 0.5 meters are reached. For the foreseeable future however, metal interconnects will continue to be used to interconnect devices on printed wiring boards since 5 gigabit/second signals can be sent over metal up to around 15 centimeters. Current-day applications of optical interconnects at the system level are described and a projection of how advanced optical interconnect technology will be driven by the use of high speed integrated digital processing on future aircraft is presented. The recommended advanced network for application in the 2010 time frame is a fiber-based system with a signalling speed of around 2

  16. Environmental Monitoring Networks Optimization Using Advanced Active Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Volpi, Michele; Copa, Loris

    2010-05-01

    The problem of environmental monitoring networks optimization (MNO) belongs to one of the basic and fundamental tasks in spatio-temporal data collection, analysis, and modeling. There are several approaches to this problem, which can be considered as a design or redesign of monitoring network by applying some optimization criteria. The most developed and widespread methods are based on geostatistics (family of kriging models, conditional stochastic simulations). In geostatistics the variance is mainly used as an optimization criterion which has some advantages and drawbacks. In the present research we study an application of advanced techniques following from the statistical learning theory (SLT) - support vector machines (SVM) and the optimization of monitoring networks when dealing with a classification problem (data are discrete values/classes: hydrogeological units, soil types, pollution decision levels, etc.) is considered. SVM is a universal nonlinear modeling tool for classification problems in high dimensional spaces. The SVM solution is maximizing the decision boundary between classes and has a good generalization property for noisy data. The sparse solution of SVM is based on support vectors - data which contribute to the solution with nonzero weights. Fundamentally the MNO for classification problems can be considered as a task of selecting new measurement points which increase the quality of spatial classification and reduce the testing error (error on new independent measurements). In SLT this is a typical problem of active learning - a selection of the new unlabelled points which efficiently reduce the testing error. A classical approach (margin sampling) to active learning is to sample the points closest to the classification boundary. This solution is suboptimal when points (or generally the dataset) are redundant for the same class. In the present research we propose and study two new advanced methods of active learning adapted to the solution of

  17. ASTP Onboard Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription is presented of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project voice communications as recorded on the command module data storage equipment. Data from this recorder are telemetered (dumped) to Space Tracking and Data Network sites for retransmission to the Johnson Space Center. The transcript is divided into three columns -- time, speaker, and text. The Greenwich mean time column consists of three two-digit numbers representing hours, minutes, and seconds (e.g., 22 34 14) for the Julian dates shown at the top of the page on which a new day begins. The speaker column indicates the source of a transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications.

  18. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  19. The Next 10 Years in Voice Evaluation and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M; Patel, Rita R

    2016-08-01

    Voice disorders are thought to affect approximately one third of all individuals within the United States during their lifetime. Individuals who require the use of their voice as part of their occupations are at highest risk for developing voice problems. Unfortunately, efficient diagnosis and effective management of voice disorders can be challenged by difficulty accessing professionals with the necessary expertise to diagnose and treat voice problems efficiently. Within the next decade, technological advancements show promise for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of intervention for voice disorders. Exciting developments in laryngeal imaging, modeling of patient-specific vocal patterns, and implementation of smart mobile technology and telehealth will greatly improve the accuracy of diagnosing voice problems and enhance implementation and carryover of effective voice treatment methods to daily communication demands. PMID:27232091

  20. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  1. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  2. Invisible but Essential: The Role of Professional Networks in Promoting Faculty Agency in Career Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Elizabeth; O'Meara, KerryAnn

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of professional networks are largely invisible to the people embedded in them (O'Reilly 1991), yet professional networks may provide key benefits for faculty careers. The purpose of the study reported here was to explore the role of professional networks in faculty agency in career advancement, specifically focusing on the overall…

  3. Data communication requirements for the advanced NAS network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Eugene; Eaton, C. K.; Young, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program is to provide a powerful computational environment for advanced research and development in aeronautics and related disciplines. The present NAS system consists of a Cray 2 supercomputer connected by a data network to a large mass storage system, to sophisticated local graphics workstations, and by remote communications to researchers throughout the United States. The program plan is to continue acquiring the most powerful supercomputers as they become available. In the 1987/1988 time period it is anticipated that a computer with 4 times the processing speed of a Cray 2 will be obtained and by 1990 an additional supercomputer with 16 times the speed of the Cray 2. The implications of this 20-fold increase in processing power on the data communications requirements are described. The analysis was based on models of the projected workload and system architecture. The results are presented together with the estimates of their sensitivity to assumptions inherent in the models.

  4. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were

  5. Lambdastation: a forwarding and admission control service to interface production network facilities with advanced research network paths

    SciTech Connect

    DeMar, Philip; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a great deal of research effort and funding put into the deployment of optical-based, advanced technology wide-area networks. Fermilab and CalTech have initiated a project to enable our production network facilities to exploit these advanced research network facilities. Our objective is to forward designated data transfers across these advanced wide area networks on a per-flow basis, making use our capacious production-use storage systems connected to the local campus network. To accomplish this, we intend to develop a dynamically provisioned forwarding service that would provide alternate path forwarding onto available wide area advanced research networks. The service would dynamically reconfigure forwarding of specific flows within our local production-use network facilities, as well as provide an interface to enable applications to utilize the service. We call this service LambdaStation. If one envisions wide area optical network paths as high bandwidth data railways, then LambdaStation would functionally be the railroad terminal that regulates which flows at the local site get directed onto the high bandwidth data railways. LambdaStation is a DOE-funded SciDac research project in its very early stage of development.

  6. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-01

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions.

  7. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-01

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions. PMID:25535356

  8. Advances in Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Development and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial neural networks as a major soft-computing technology have been extensively studied and applied during the last three decades. Research on backpropagation training algorithms for multilayer perceptron networks has spurred development of other neural network training algorithms for other ne...

  9. Six Networking Tips to Advance Your Career Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Teachers may wonder why networking is relevant. The point of networking is to cultivate relationships for the exchange of information, services, or resources for employment or business. This may sound cold to those in the educational world, where children and youth are the No. 1 customers, but a network can be a huge support as it pertains to…

  10. DLMS voice data entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, P. B.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the design, principles of operation, and performance characteristics of an Advanced Development Model of a voice recognition system (VRS) which can serve to input cartographic data to a computer. The completed system has been installed at the Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center (DMAAC) at St. Louis, MO, for evaluation and testing. The VRS is intended for use in entering by voice cartographic data to the Digital Landmass System (DLMS) Data Base. It was designed to satisfy the DMAAC product specifications. The software developed for the VRS includes two complete stand-alone programs. Performance tests conducted at TTI disclosed an average system word recognition accuracy of just under 99 percent for five talkers. The recognition tests were conducted by the use of tape recordings. These tape recordings were made during a previous contract involving cartographic data entry. Each person spoke approximately 536 words after uttering five training repetitions. The test results were virtually identical to those obtained during the previous contract.

  11. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  12. Guided by Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    While the educational project privileges signifying speech, the psychical significance of the "voice" has become an institutional "vanishing mediator." Against the commonplace assumption that the voice functions as a benign vehicle for conscious meaning-making, this article examines the sublimated privilege and function of the voice in the context…

  13. Writing with Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  14. Voices (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 41 recently published children's books (for students in elementary and middle grades). Focuses on a myriad of voices: those echoing the past and illuminating the wonders of nature; introspective voices seeking to help readers know themselves and their place in the world; voices of great joy and laughter uplifting…

  15. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  16. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  17. Advancing reversible shape memory by tuning the polymer network architecture

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qiaoxi; Zhou, Jing; Vatankhah-Varnoosfaderani, Mohammad; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Gang, Oleg; Sheiko, Sergei S.

    2016-02-02

    Because of counteraction of a chemical network and a crystalline scaffold, semicrystalline polymer networks exhibit a peculiar behavior—reversible shape memory (RSM), which occurs naturally without applying any external force and particular structural design. There are three RSM properties: (i) range of reversible strain, (ii) rate of strain recovery, and (iii) decay of reversibility with time, which can be improved by tuning the architecture of the polymer network. Different types of poly(octylene adipate) networks were synthesized, allowing for control of cross-link density and network topology, including randomly cross-linked network by free-radical polymerization, thiol–ene clicked network with enhanced mesh uniformity, and loosemore » network with deliberately incorporated dangling chains. It is shown that the RSM properties are controlled by average cross-link density and crystal size, whereas topology of a network greatly affects its extensibility. In conclusion, we have achieved 80% maximum reversible range, 15% minimal decrease in reversibility, and fast strain recovery rate up to 0.05 K–1, i.e., ca. 5% per 10 s at a cooling rate of 5 K/min.« less

  18. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  19. Advanced Algorithms for Local Routing Strategy on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Benchuan; Chen, Bokui; Gao, Yachun; Tse, Chi K.; Dong, Chuanfei; Miao, Lixin; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant improvement on network performance provided by global routing strategies, their applications are still limited to small-scale networks, due to the need for acquiring global information of the network which grows and changes rapidly with time. Local routing strategies, however, need much less local information, though their transmission efficiency and network capacity are much lower than that of global routing strategies. In view of this, three algorithms are proposed and a thorough investigation is conducted in this paper. These algorithms include a node duplication avoidance algorithm, a next-nearest-neighbor algorithm and a restrictive queue length algorithm. After applying them to typical local routing strategies, the critical generation rate of information packets Rc increases by over ten-fold and the average transmission time 〈T〉 decreases by 70–90 percent, both of which are key physical quantities to assess the efficiency of routing strategies on complex networks. More importantly, in comparison with global routing strategies, the improved local routing strategies can yield better network performance under certain circumstances. This is a revolutionary leap for communication networks, because local routing strategy enjoys great superiority over global routing strategy not only in terms of the reduction of computational expense, but also in terms of the flexibility of implementation, especially for large-scale networks. PMID:27434502

  20. Social Networks and Career Advancement of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Mukta

    2012-01-01

    Although organizational social networks are known to influence career mobility, the specific direction of this influence is different for diverse employee groups. Diversity in organizational network research has been operationalized on various dimensions such as race and ethnicity, age, religion, education, occupation, and gender. Missing in this…

  1. Advanced Algorithms for Local Routing Strategy on Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Benchuan; Chen, Bokui; Gao, Yachun; Tse, Chi K; Dong, Chuanfei; Miao, Lixin; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant improvement on network performance provided by global routing strategies, their applications are still limited to small-scale networks, due to the need for acquiring global information of the network which grows and changes rapidly with time. Local routing strategies, however, need much less local information, though their transmission efficiency and network capacity are much lower than that of global routing strategies. In view of this, three algorithms are proposed and a thorough investigation is conducted in this paper. These algorithms include a node duplication avoidance algorithm, a next-nearest-neighbor algorithm and a restrictive queue length algorithm. After applying them to typical local routing strategies, the critical generation rate of information packets Rc increases by over ten-fold and the average transmission time 〈T〉 decreases by 70-90 percent, both of which are key physical quantities to assess the efficiency of routing strategies on complex networks. More importantly, in comparison with global routing strategies, the improved local routing strategies can yield better network performance under certain circumstances. This is a revolutionary leap for communication networks, because local routing strategy enjoys great superiority over global routing strategy not only in terms of the reduction of computational expense, but also in terms of the flexibility of implementation, especially for large-scale networks. PMID:27434502

  2. Voice handicap in singers.

    PubMed

    Murry, Thomas; Zschommler, Anne; Prokop, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The study aimed to determine the differences in responses to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) between singers and nonsingers and to evaluate the ranked order differences of the VHI-10 statements for both groups. The VHI-10 was modified to include statements related to the singing voice for comparison to the original VHI-10. Thirty-five nonsingers with documented voice disorders responded to the VHI-10. A second group, consisting of 35 singers with voice complaints, responded to the VHI-10 with three statements added specifically addressing the singing voice. Data from both groups were analyzed in terms of overall subject self-rating of voice handicap and the rank order of statements from least to most important. The difference between the mean VHI-10 for the singers and nonsingers was not statistically significant, thus, supporting the validity of the VHI-10. However, the 10 statements were ranked differently in terms of their importance by both groups. In addition, when three statements related specifically to the singing voice were substituted in the original VHI-10, the singers judged their voice problem to be more severe than when using the original VHI-10. The type of statements used to assess self-perception of voice handicap may be related to the subject population. Singers with voice problems do not rate their voices to be more handicapped than nonsingers unless statements related specifically to singing are included.

  3. Advances Made in the Next Generation of Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the unique networking characteristics of communications satellites, global satellite networks are moving to the forefront in enhancing national and global information infrastructures. Simultaneously, broadband data services, which are emerging as the major market driver for future satellite and terrestrial networks, are being widely acknowledged as the foundation for an efficient global information infrastructure. In the past 2 years, various task forces and working groups around the globe have identified pivotal topics and key issues to address if we are to realize such networks in a timely fashion. In response, industry, government, and academia undertook efforts to address these topics and issues. A workshop was organized to provide a forum to assess the current state-of-the-art, identify key issues, and highlight the emerging trends in the next-generation architectures, data protocol development, communication interoperability, and applications. The Satellite Networks: Architectures, Applications, and Technologies Workshop was hosted by the Space Communication Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Nearly 300 executives and technical experts from academia, industry, and government, representing the United States and eight other countries, attended the event (June 2 to 4, 1998). The program included seven panels and invited sessions and nine breakout sessions in which 42 speakers presented on technical topics. The proceedings covers a wide range of topics: access technology and protocols, architectures and network simulations, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite networks, Internet over satellite networks, interoperability experiments and applications, multicasting, NASA interoperability experiment programs, NASA mission applications, and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over satellite: issues, relevance, and experience.

  4. Advancing Reversible Shape Memory by Tuning Network Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaoxi; Zhou, Jing; Vatankhah Varnosfaderani, Mohammad; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Gang, Oleg; Sheiko, Sergei; University of north carolina at chapel hill Collaboration; Brookhaven National Lab-CFN Collaboration

    Recently, reversible shape memory (RSM) has been realized in conventional semi-crystalline elastomers without applying any external force and synthetic programming. The mechanism is ascribed to counteraction between thermodynamically driven relaxation of a strained polymer network and kinetically preferred self-seeding recrystallization of constrained network strands. In order to maximize RSM's performance in terms of (i) range of reversible strain, (ii) rate of strain recovery, and (iii) relaxation time of reversibility, we have designed a systematic series of networks with different topologies and crosslinking densities, including purposely introduced dangling chains and irregular meshes. Within a broad range of crosslink density ca. 50-1000 mol/m3, we have demonstrated that the RSM's properties improve significantly with increasing crosslink density, regardless of network topology. Actually, one of the most irregular networks with densest crosslinking allowed achieving up to 80% of the programmed strain being fully reversible, fast recovery rate up to 0.05 K-1, and less than 15% decrease of reversibility after hours of annealing at partial melt state. With this understanding and optimization of RSM, we pursue an idea of shape control through self-assembly of shape-memory particles. For this purpose, 3D printing has been employed to prepare large assemblies of particles possessing specific shapes and morphologies.

  5. High-speed parallel-processing networks for advanced architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.R.

    1988-06-01

    This paper describes various parallel-processing architecture networks that are candidates for eventual airborne use. An attempt at projecting which type of network is suitable or optimum for specific metafunction or stand-alone applications is made. However, specific algorithms will need to be developed and bench marks executed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Also, a conceptual projection of how these processors can be built in small, flyable units through the use of wafer-scale integration is offered. The use of the PAVE PILLAR system architecture to provide system level support for these tightly coupled networks is described. The author concludes that: (1) extremely high processing speeds implemented in flyable hardware is possible through parallel-processing networks if development programs are pursued; (2) dramatic speed enhancements through parallel processing requires an excellent match between the algorithm and computer-network architecture; (3) matching several high speed parallel oriented algorithms across the aircraft system to a limited set of hardware modules may be the most cost-effective approach to achieving speed enhancements; and (4) software-development tools and improved operating systems will need to be developed to support efficient parallel-processor use.

  6. Advances in Exponential Random Graph (p*) Models Applied to a Large Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Goodreau, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in statistical network analysis based on the family of exponential random graph (ERG) models have greatly improved our ability to conduct inference on dependence in large social networks (Snijders 2002, Pattison and Robins 2002, Handcock 2002, Handcock 2003, Snijders et al. 2006, Hunter et al. 2005, Goodreau et al. 2005, previous papers this issue). This paper applies advances in both model parameterizations and computational algorithms to an examination of the structure observed in an adolescent friendship network of 1,681 actors from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth). ERG models of social network structure are fit using the R package statnet, and their adequacy assessed through comparison of model predictions with the observed data for higher-order network statistics. For this friendship network, the commonly used model of Markov dependence leads to the problems of degeneracy discussed by Handcock (2002, 2003). On the other hand, model parameterizations introduced by Snijders et al (2006) and Hunter and Handcock (2006) avoid degeneracy and provide reasonable fit to the data. Degree-only models did a poor job of capturing observed network structure; those that did best included terms both for heterogeneous mixing on exogenous attributes (grade and self-reported race) as well as endogenous clustering. Networks simulated from this model were largely consistent with the observed network on multiple higher-order network statistics, including the number of triangles, the size of the largest component, the overall reachability, the distribution of geodesic distances, the degree distribution, and the shared partner distribution. The ability to fit such models to large datasets and to make inference about the underling processes generating the network represents a major advance in the field of statistical network analysis. PMID:18449326

  7. A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Network Provisioning

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-04-12

    Many scientific applications need support from a communication infrastructure that provides predictable performance, which requires effective algorithms for bandwidth reservations. Network reservation systems such as ESnet's OSCARS, establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits for a certain bandwidth and length of time. However, users currently cannot inquire about bandwidth availability, nor have alternative suggestions when reservation requests fail. In general, the number of reservation options is exponential with the number of nodes n, and current reservation commitments. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks taking advantage of user-provided parameters of total volume and time constraints, which produces options for earliest completion and shortest duration. The theoretical complexity is only O(n2r2) in the worst-case, where r is the number of reservations in the desired time interval. We have implemented our algorithm and developed efficient methodologies for incorporation into network reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm the theoretical predictions.

  8. A survey of geosensor networks: advances in dynamic environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nittel, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    In the recent decade, several technology trends have influenced the field of geosciences in significant ways. The first trend is the more readily available technology of ubiquitous wireless communication networks and progress in the development of low-power, short-range radio-based communication networks, the miniaturization of computing and storage platforms as well as the development of novel microsensors and sensor materials. All three trends have changed the type of dynamic environmental phenomena that can be detected, monitored and reacted to. Another important aspect is the real-time data delivery of novel platforms today. In this paper, I will survey the field of geosensor networks, and mainly focus on the technology of small-scale geosensor networks, example applications and their feasibility and lessons learnt as well as the current research questions posed by using this technology today. Furthermore, my objective is to investigate how this technology can be embedded in the current landscape of intelligent sensor platforms in the geosciences and identify its place and purpose. PMID:22346721

  9. Distributed networks enable advances in US space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, S. Dave

    2011-06-01

    Space weather, the shorter-term variable impact of the Sun’s photons, solar wind particles, and interplanetary magnetic field upon the Earth’s environment, adversely affects our technological systems. These technological systems, including their space component, are increasingly being seen as a way to help solve 21st Century problems such as climate change, energy access, fresh water availability, and transportation coordination. Thus, the effects of space weather on space systems and assets must be mitigated and operational space weather using automated distributed networks has emerged as a common operations methodology. The evolution of space weather operations is described and the description of distributed network architectures is provided, including their use of tiers, data objects, redundancy, and time domain definitions. There are several existing distributed networks now providing space weather information and the lessons learned in developing those networks are discussed along with the details of examples for the Solar Irradiance Platform (SIP), Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS), GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS), LEO Alert and Prediction System (LAPS), Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), and Magnetosphere Alert and Prediction System (MAPS).

  10. Wireless Sensors and Networks for Advanced Energy Management

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-05-06

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified low-cost, very low-power wireless sensors and networks as a critical enabling technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. Research areas for developing such sensor and network platforms include microsensor arrays, ultra-low power electronics and signal conditioning, data/control transceivers, and robust wireless networks. A review of some of the research in the following areas will be discussed: (1) Low-cost, flexible multi-sensor array platforms (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, humidity, NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2}, occupancy, etc.) that enable energy and emission reductions in applications such as buildings and manufacturing; (2) Modeling investments (energy usage and savings to drive capital investment decisions) and estimated uptime improvements through pervasive gathering of equipment and process health data and its effects on energy; (3) Robust, self-configuring wireless sensor networks for energy management; and (4) Quality-of-service for secure and reliable data transmission from widely distributed sensors. Wireless communications is poised to support technical innovations in the industrial community, with widespread use of wireless sensors forecasted to improve manufacturing production and energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Progress being made in wireless system components, as described in this paper, is helping bring these projected improvements to reality.

  11. EFL Writers' Social Networks: Impact on Advanced Academic Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferenz, Orna

    2005-01-01

    For non-native English writers, second language (L2) advanced academic literacy encompasses knowledge of the rhetorical, linguistic, social and cultural features of academic discourse as well as knowledge of English as used by their academic disciplines. Literacy is acquired through a socialization process embedded in social practice, patterned by…

  12. Advanced information processing system: Authentication protocols for network communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Adams, Stuart J.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clark, Anne L.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1994-01-01

    In safety critical I/O and intercomputer communication networks, reliable message transmission is an important concern. Difficulties of communication and fault identification in networks arise primarily because the sender of a transmission cannot be identified with certainty, an intermediate node can corrupt a message without certainty of detection, and a babbling node cannot be identified and silenced without lengthy diagnosis and reconfiguration . Authentication protocols use digital signature techniques to verify the authenticity of messages with high probability. Such protocols appear to provide an efficient solution to many of these problems. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate intercomputer communication architectures which employ authentication. As a context for the evaluation, the authentication protocol-based communication concept was demonstrated under this program by hosting a real-time flight critical guidance, navigation and control algorithm on a distributed, heterogeneous, mixed redundancy system of workstations and embedded fault-tolerant computers.

  13. Network Modeling and Energy-Efficiency Optimization for Advanced Machine-to-Machine Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Seoksoo

    2012-01-01

    Wireless machine-to-machine sensor networks with multiple radio interfaces are expected to have several advantages, including high spatial scalability, low event detection latency, and low energy consumption. Here, we propose a network model design method involving network approximation and an optimized multi-tiered clustering algorithm that maximizes node lifespan by minimizing energy consumption in a non-uniformly distributed network. Simulation results show that the cluster scales and network parameters determined with the proposed method facilitate a more efficient performance compared to existing methods. PMID:23202190

  14. Vehicle routing, traveler adis, network modeling, and advanced control systems. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Partial Contents: Efficient Search Algorithms for Route Information Services of Direct and Connecting Transit Trips; Influence of Urban Network Features on Quality of Traffic Service; Advanced Traffic Management System: Real-Time Network Traffic Simulation Methodology with a Massively Parallel Computing Architecture; Standards for Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System Technologies; Concept of Super Smart Vehicle Systems and Their Relation to Advanced Vehicle Control Systems; Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System Safety: A Demonstration Specification and Hazard Analysis; California INRAD Project: Demonstration of Low-Power Inductive Loop Radio Technology for Use in Traffic Operations; Development of Prototype Knowledge-Based Expert System for Managing Congestion on Massachusetts Turnpike; Artificial Intelligence-Based System Representation and Search Procedures for Transit Route Network Design; Evaluation of Artificial Neural Network Applications in Transportation Engineering; Validation of an Expert System: A Case Study; Model for Optimum Deployment of Emergency Repair Trucks: Application in Electric Utility Industry.

  15. Voice integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, P. Mike

    1977-01-01

    The program at Naval Air Development Center was initiated to determine the desirability of interactive voice systems for use in airborne weapon systems crew stations. A voice recognition and synthesis system (VRAS) was developed and incorporated into a human centrifuge. The speech recognition aspect of VRAS was developed using a voice command system (VCS) developed by Scope Electronics. The speech synthesis capability was supplied by a Votrax, VS-5, speech synthesis unit built by Vocal Interface. The effects of simulated flight on automatic speech recognition were determined by repeated trials in the VRAS-equipped centrifuge. The relationship of vibration, G, O2 mask, mission duration, and cockpit temperature and voice quality was determined. The results showed that: (1) voice quality degrades after 0.5 hours with an O2 mask; (2) voice quality degrades under high vibration; and (3) voice quality degrades under high levels of G. The voice quality studies are summarized. These results were obtained with a baseline of 80 percent recognition accuracy with VCS.

  16. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was conceived to help maintain U.S. leadership in the world's communications-satellite market. This experimental satellite is expected to be launched by NASA in 1992 and to furnish the technology necessary for establishing very small aperture terminal digital networks which provide on-demand full-mesh connectivity, and 1.544-MBPS services with only a single hop. Utilizing on-board switching and processing, each individual voice or data circuit can be separately routed to any location in the network. This paper provides an overview of the ACTS and discusses the value of the technology for future communications systems.

  17. Values and options in cancer care (VOICE): study design and rationale for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for physicians, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Communication about prognosis and treatment choices is essential for informed decision making in advanced cancer. This article describes an investigation designed to facilitate communication and decision making among oncologists, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers. Methods/design The Values and Options in Cancer Care (VOICE) Study is a National Cancer Institute sponsored randomized controlled trial conducted in the Rochester/Buffalo, NY and Sacramento, CA regions. A total of 40 oncologists, approximately 400 patients with advanced cancer, and their family/friend caregivers (one per patient, when available) are expected to enroll in the study. Drawing upon ecological theory, the intervention uses a two-pronged approach: oncologists complete a multifaceted tailored educational intervention involving standardized patient instructors (SPIs), and patients and caregivers complete a coaching intervention to facilitate prioritizing and discussing questions and concerns. Follow-up data will be collected approximately quarterly for up to three years. Discussion The intervention is hypothesized to enhance patient-centered communication, quality of care, and patient outcomes. Analyses will examine the effects of the intervention on key elements of physician-patient-caregiver communication (primary outcomes), the physician-patient relationship, shared understanding of prognosis, patient well-being, and health service utilization (secondary outcomes). Trial registration Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT01485627 PMID:23570278

  18. Network management and signalling standards for CCSDS advanced orbiting system communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietras, John

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization chartered to develop and adopt communications protocols and data processing standards suitable for use in space-related communication and data processing systems. This paper briefly describes the CCSDS network management environment and reviews the current status of CCSDS recommendations for network management functional capability, use of internal standard for network management, and composition of signaling systems in support of the advanced orbiting systems services typified by the international Space Station Freedom Program. A timetable for future work in this area is presented.

  19. Neural network setpoint control of an advanced test reactor experiment loop simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, G.A.; Bryan, S.R.; Powell, R.H.; Chick, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the design, implementation, and application of artificial neural networks to achieve temperature and flow rate control for a simulation of a typical experiment loop in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The goal of the project was to research multivariate, nonlinear control using neural networks. A loop simulation code was adapted for the project and used to create a training set and test the neural network controller for comparison with the existing loop controllers. The results for three neural network designs are documented and compared with existing loop controller action. The neural network was shown to be as accurate at loop control as the classical controllers in the operating region represented by the training set. 9 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Case Study IV: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's Networked Improvement Communities (NICs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.; Geil, Kimberly E.

    2015-01-01

    The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is a nonprofit, operating foundation with a long tradition of developing and studying ways to improve teaching practice. For the past three years, the Carnegie Foundation has initiated three different Networked Improvement Communities (NICs). The first, Quantway, is addressing the high…

  1. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  2. 'Doctor, my voice seems husky'.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B M

    1994-11-01

    Disorders of voice are a common problem in general practice. An understanding of the complex mechanism of voice production enables us to appreciate how many systemic disorders can affect voice. This article details the pathophysiology of voice production and how to assess the patient with hoarseness. Contemporary management of vocal disorders is described with reference to some newer surgical and investigative techniques.

  3. Impact of the codec and various QoS methods on the final quality of the transferred voice in an IP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavata, Oldřich; Holub, Jan

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of the relation between the codec that is used, the QoS method, and the final voice transmission quality. The Cisco 2811 router is used for adjusting QoS. VoIP client Linphone is used for adjusting the codec. The criterion for transmission quality is the MOS parameter investigated with the ITU-T P.862 PESQ and P.863 POLQA algorithms.

  4. Learning-induced changes in the cerebral processing of voice identity.

    PubMed

    Latinus, Marianne; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2011-12-01

    Temporal voice areas showing a larger activity for vocal than non-vocal sounds have been identified along the superior temporal sulcus (STS); more voice-sensitive areas have been described in frontal and parietal lobes. Yet, the role of voice-sensitive regions in representing voice identity remains unclear. Using a functional magnetic resonance adaptation design, we aimed at disentangling acoustic- from identity-based representations of voices. Sixteen participants were scanned while listening to pairs of voices drawn from morphed continua between 2 initially unfamiliar voices, before and after a voice learning phase. In a given pair, the first and second stimuli could be identical or acoustically different and, at the second session, perceptually similar or different. At both sessions, right mid-STS/superior temporal gyrus (STG) and superior temporal pole (sTP) showed sensitivity to acoustical changes. Critically, voice learning induced changes in the acoustical processing of voices in inferior frontal cortices (IFCs). At the second session only, right IFC and left cingulate gyrus showed sensitivity to changes in perceived identity. The processing of voice identity appears to be subserved by a large network of brain areas ranging from the sTP, involved in an acoustic-based representation of unfamiliar voices, to areas along the convexity of the IFC for identity-related processing of familiar voices.

  5. Building a multicenter telehealth network to advance chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Khairat, Saif; Wijesinghe, Namal; Wolfson, Julian; Scott, Rob; Simkus, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The use of telehealth solutions has proved to improve clinical management of chronic diseases, expand access to healthcare services and clinicians, and reduce healthcare-related costs. The project aims at improving Heart Failure (HF) management through the utilization of a Telemedicine and Personal Health Records systems that will assist HF specialist in Colombo, Sri Lanka to monitor and consult with remote HF patients. A telehealth network will be built at an international site that connects five remote telehealth clinics to a central clinic at a major University Hospital in Sri Lanka where HF specialists are located. In this study, 200 HF patients will be recruited for nine months, 100 patients will be randomly selected for the treatment group and the other 100 will be selected for the control group. Pre, mid, and post study surveys will be conducted to assess the efficacy and satisfaction levels of patients with both care models. Moreover, clinical outcomes will be collected to evaluate the impact of the intervention on the treatment patients compared to control patients. The research aims at enhancing Heart Failure management through eliminating current health challenges and healthcare-related financial burdens.

  6. Voice following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stoicheff, M L

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease. Data on mean speaking fundamental frequency seem to indicate a trend toward lower frequencies in irradiated patients as compared with normals. A trend was also noted in both irradidated and control groups for lower speaking fundamental frequencies in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers or previous smokers. These trends would indicate some vocal cord thickening or edema in irradiated patients and in heavy smokers. It is suggested that the study of irradiated patients' voices before, during and following treatments by means of audio, aerodynamic and acoustic instrumentation would yield additional information of diagnostic value on recovery of laryngeal function. It is also suggested that the voice pathologist could

  7. Biphonation in voice signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herzel, H.; Reuter, R.

    1996-06-01

    Irregularities in voiced speech are often observed as a consequence of vocal fold lesions, paralyses, and other pathological conditions. Many of these instabilities are related to the intrinsic nonlinearities in the vibrations of the vocal folds. In this paper, a specific nonlinear phenomenon is discussed: The appearance of two independent fundamental frequencies termed biphonation. Several narrow-band spectrograms are presented showing biphonation in signals from voice patients, a newborn cry, a singer, and excised larynx experiments. Finally, possible physiological mechanisms of instabilities of the voice source are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Simulation Neurotechnologies for Advancing Brain Research: Parallelizing Large Networks in NEURON.

    PubMed

    Lytton, William W; Seidenstein, Alexandra H; Dura-Bernal, Salvador; McDougal, Robert A; Schürmann, Felix; Hines, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Large multiscale neuronal network simulations are of increasing value as more big data are gathered about brain wiring and organization under the auspices of a current major research initiative, such as Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies. The development of these models requires new simulation technologies. We describe here the current use of the NEURON simulator with message passing interface (MPI) for simulation in the domain of moderately large networks on commonly available high-performance computers (HPCs). We discuss the basic layout of such simulations, including the methods of simulation setup, the run-time spike-passing paradigm, and postsimulation data storage and data management approaches. Using the Neuroscience Gateway, a portal for computational neuroscience that provides access to large HPCs, we benchmark simulations of neuronal networks of different sizes (500-100,000 cells), and using different numbers of nodes (1-256). We compare three types of networks, composed of either Izhikevich integrate-and-fire neurons (I&F), single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) cells, or a hybrid network with half of each. Results show simulation run time increased approximately linearly with network size and decreased almost linearly with the number of nodes. Networks with I&F neurons were faster than HH networks, although differences were small since all tested cells were point neurons with a single compartment. PMID:27557104

  9. Simulation Neurotechnologies for Advancing Brain Research: Parallelizing Large Networks in NEURON.

    PubMed

    Lytton, William W; Seidenstein, Alexandra H; Dura-Bernal, Salvador; McDougal, Robert A; Schürmann, Felix; Hines, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Large multiscale neuronal network simulations are of increasing value as more big data are gathered about brain wiring and organization under the auspices of a current major research initiative, such as Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies. The development of these models requires new simulation technologies. We describe here the current use of the NEURON simulator with message passing interface (MPI) for simulation in the domain of moderately large networks on commonly available high-performance computers (HPCs). We discuss the basic layout of such simulations, including the methods of simulation setup, the run-time spike-passing paradigm, and postsimulation data storage and data management approaches. Using the Neuroscience Gateway, a portal for computational neuroscience that provides access to large HPCs, we benchmark simulations of neuronal networks of different sizes (500-100,000 cells), and using different numbers of nodes (1-256). We compare three types of networks, composed of either Izhikevich integrate-and-fire neurons (I&F), single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) cells, or a hybrid network with half of each. Results show simulation run time increased approximately linearly with network size and decreased almost linearly with the number of nodes. Networks with I&F neurons were faster than HH networks, although differences were small since all tested cells were point neurons with a single compartment.

  10. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  11. A voice password system for access security

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, M.; Cohen, L.A.; Welsh, F.X.

    1986-09-01

    A voice password system for access security using speaker verification technology has been designed for use over dial-up telephone lines. The voice password system (VPS) can provide secure access to telephone networks, computers, rooms, and buildings. It also has application in office automation systems, electric funds transfer, and ''smart cards'' (interactive computers embedded in credit-card-sized packages). As increasing attention is focused on access security in the public, private, and government sectors, the voice password system can provide a timely solution to the security dilemma. The VPS uses modes of communication available to almost everyone (the human voice and the telephone). A user calls the VPS, enters his or her identification number (ID) by touch-tone telephone, and then speaks a password. This is usually a phrase or a sentence of about seven syllables. On initial calls, the VPS creates a model of the user's voice, called a reference template, and labels it with the caller's unique user ID. To gain access later, the user calls the system, enters the proper user ID, and speaks the password phrase. The VPS compares the user's stored reference template with the spoken password and produces a distance score.

  12. Artificial vision by multi-layered neural networks: neocognitron and its advances.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    The neocognitron is a neural network model proposed by Fukushima (1980). Its architecture was suggested by neurophysiological findings on the visual systems of mammals. It is a hierarchical multi-layered network. It acquires the ability to robustly recognize visual patterns through learning. Although the neocognitron has a long history, modifications of the network to improve its performance are still going on. For example, a recent neocognitron uses a new learning rule, named add-if-silent, which makes the learning process much simpler and more stable. Nevertheless, a high recognition rate can be kept with a smaller scale of the network. Referring to the history of the neocognitron, this paper discusses recent advances in the neocognitron. We also show that various new functions can be realized by, for example, introducing top-down connections to the neocognitron: mechanism of selective attention, recognition and completion of partly occluded patterns, restoring occluded contours, and so on.

  13. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. Irwin; Luiz A. DaSilva

    2011-05-01

    As early as 2014, mobile network operators’ spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by the demand brought on by new devices and applications. To augment capacity and meet this demand, operators may choose to deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. The signaling and functionality required by such an overlay have not yet been fully considered in the architecture of the planned Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE+) networks. This paper presents a Spectrum Accountability framework to be integrated into LTE+ architectures, defining specific element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams required to enforce the rights and responsibilities of primary and secondary users. We also quantify, through integer programs, the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity under a scenario in which LTE+ network can opportunistically use TV and GSM spectrum. The framework proposed here may serve as a guide in the development of future LTE+ network standards that account for DSA.

  14. Hands-free human-machine interaction with voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, B. H.

    2001-05-01

    Voice is natural communication interface between a human and a machine. The machine, when placed in today's communication networks, may be configured to provide automation to save substantial operating cost, as demonstrated in AT&T's VRCP (Voice Recognition Call Processing), or to facilitate intelligent services, such as virtual personal assistants, to enhance individual productivity. These intelligent services often need to be accessible anytime, anywhere (e.g., in cars when the user is in a hands-busy-eyes-busy situation or during meetings where constantly talking to a microphone is either undersirable or impossible), and thus call for advanced signal processing and automatic speech recognition techniques which support what we call ``hands-free'' human-machine communication. These techniques entail a broad spectrum of technical ideas, ranging from use of directional microphones and acoustic echo cancellatiion to robust speech recognition. In this talk, we highlight a number of key techniques that were developed for hands-free human-machine communication in the mid-1990s after Bell Labs became a unit of Lucent Technologies. A video clip will be played to demonstrate the accomplishement.

  15. Voice - How humans communicate?

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Manjul; Tiwari, Maneesha

    2012-01-01

    Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us-members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners.

  16. Voice - How humans communicate?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manjul; Tiwari, Maneesha

    2012-01-01

    Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us—members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners. PMID:22690044

  17. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers. PMID:26371022

  18. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2015-09-01

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers. PMID:26371022

  19. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2015-09-01

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers.

  20. Sound-producing voice prostheses: 150 years of research.

    PubMed

    Verkerke, G J; Thomson, S L

    2014-07-11

    Advanced laryngeal cancer sometimes necessitates the removal of the complete larynx. This procedure involves suturing the trachea to an opening in the neck, the most disturbing consequence of which is the loss of voice. Since 1859, several devices have been developed for voice restoration, based mainly on a vibrating reed element. However, the resulting sound is very monotonous and thus unpleasant. Presently the most successful way of voice restoration is the placement of a one-way shunt valve in the tracheo-esophageal wall, thus preventing aspiration and allowing air to flow from the lungs to the esophagus, where soft tissues start to vibrate for substitute voicing. However, the quality of this voice is often poor. New artificial vocal folds to be placed within the shunt valve have been developed, and a membrane-principle concept appears very promising, owing to the self-cleaning construction and the high voice quality. Future developments will include electronic voice sources. Hopefully these developments will result in a high-quality voice, after 150 years of research.

  1. Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks: advances and future trends in physical, MAC and routing layers.

    PubMed

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols. PMID:24399155

  2. Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks: advances and future trends in physical, MAC and routing layers.

    PubMed

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols.

  3. [Advances in sensor node and wireless communication technology of body sensor network].

    PubMed

    Lin, Weibing; Lei, Sheng; Wei, Caihong; Li, Chunxiang; Wang, Cang

    2012-06-01

    With the development of the wireless communication technology, implantable biosensor technology, and embedded system technology, Body Sensor Network (BSN) as one branch of wireless sensor networks and important part of the Internet of things has caught more attention of researchers and enterprises. This paper offers the basic concept of the BSN and analyses the related research. We focus on sensor node and wireless communication technology from perspectives of technology challenges, research advance and development trend in the paper. Besides, we also present a relative overview of domestic and overseas projects for the BSN. PMID:22826960

  4. Advanced Models and Algorithms for Self-Similar IP Network Traffic Simulation and Performance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radev, Dimitar; Lokshina, Izabella

    2010-11-01

    The paper examines self-similar (or fractal) properties of real communication network traffic data over a wide range of time scales. These self-similar properties are very different from the properties of traditional models based on Poisson and Markov-modulated Poisson processes. Advanced fractal models of sequentional generators and fixed-length sequence generators, and efficient algorithms that are used to simulate self-similar behavior of IP network traffic data are developed and applied. Numerical examples are provided; and simulation results are obtained and analyzed.

  5. Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks: Advances and Future Trends in Physical, MAC and Routing Layers

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols. PMID:24399155

  6. Advancing complementary and alternative medicine through social network analysis and agent-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Terrill L

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the contemporary perspectives and techniques of social network analysis (SNA) and agent-based modeling (ABM) and advocates applying them to advance various aspects of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). SNA and ABM are invaluable methods for representing, analyzing and projecting complex, relational, social phenomena; they provide both an insightful vantage point and a set of analytic tools that can be useful in a wide range of contexts. Applying these methods in the CAM context can aid the ongoing advances in the CAM field, in both its scientific aspects and in developing broader acceptance in associated stakeholder communities.

  7. Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and Their Impact on Future Aerospace Workforce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and their impact on Future Aerospace Workforce. The workshop was held at the Peninsula Workforce Development Center, Hampton, Virginia, April 2 3, 2003. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to: 1) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to advanced learning technologies and learning environments, and 2) identify future directions for research that have high potential for aerospace workforce development. Eighteen half-hour overviewtype presentations were made at the workshop.

  8. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  9. Intelligibility and Space-based Voice with Relaxed Delay Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Sam; Okino, Clayton; Cheng, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The inherent aspects and flaws surrounding space based communication is technically described and the math surrounding encoding and decoding LT Codes is examined. Utilizing LT codes as a means of reducing packet erasures due to corrupted packets on an RF link can result in higher voice quality. PESQ-MOS measure was used to analyze voice degradation over space links tested for LT codec size and number of 10ms per packet.Extensions utilizing LT codes to improve the packet erasure performance and combining the use of ASR could provide for a solid means of identifying the benefit in terms of intelligibility of voice communications in space-based networks

  10. Highlights of pancreatobiliary endoscopy in international digestive endoscopy network 2012: how much has it advanced?

    PubMed

    Dong, Seok Ho

    2012-09-01

    The pancreatobiliary organ is composed of one of the most complicated structures and complex physiological functions among other digestive organs in our body. This is why endoscopic procedure in pancreaticobiliary system requires rather complicated techniques. In International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2012, many interesting pancreatobiliay endoscopy related topics were presented. Basic procedures like endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD), advanced techniques like endoscopic necrosectomy, prevention and management of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and spyglass system are reviewed in this highlight summary.

  11. Quitting before leaving: the mediating effects of psychological attachment and detachment on voice.

    PubMed

    Burris, Ethan R; Detert, James R; Chiaburu, Dan S

    2008-07-01

    This research advances understanding of the psychological mechanisms that encourage or dissuade upward, improvement-oriented voice. The authors describe how the loyalty and exit concepts from A. O. Hirschman's (1970) seminal framework reflect an employee's psychological attachment to or detachment from the organization, respectively, and they argue that psychological attachment and detachment should not be considered as separate, alternative options to voice but rather as influences on voice behavior. Findings from 499 managers in the restaurant industry show that psychological detachment (measured as intention to leave) is significantly related to voice and mediates relationships between perceptions of leadership (leader-member exchange and abusive supervision) and voice, whereas psychological attachment (measured as affective commitment) is neither a direct predictor of voice nor a mediator of leadership-voice relationships.

  12. Neural mechanisms for voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Gál, Viktor; Rudas, Gábor; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-10-01

    We investigated neural mechanisms that support voice recognition in a training paradigm with fMRI. The same listeners were trained on different weeks to categorize the mid-regions of voice-morph continua as an individual's voice. Stimuli implicitly defined a voice-acoustics space, and training explicitly defined a voice-identity space. The pre-defined centre of the voice category was shifted from the acoustic centre each week in opposite directions, so the same stimuli had different training histories on different tests. Cortical sensitivity to voice similarity appeared over different time-scales and at different representational stages. First, there were short-term adaptation effects: increasing acoustic similarity to the directly preceding stimulus led to haemodynamic response reduction in the middle/posterior STS and in right ventrolateral prefrontal regions. Second, there were longer-term effects: response reduction was found in the orbital/insular cortex for stimuli that were most versus least similar to the acoustic mean of all preceding stimuli, and, in the anterior temporal pole, the deep posterior STS and the amygdala, for stimuli that were most versus least similar to the trained voice-identity category mean. These findings are interpreted as effects of neural sharpening of long-term stored typical acoustic and category-internal values. The analyses also reveal anatomically separable voice representations: one in a voice-acoustics space and one in a voice-identity space. Voice-identity representations flexibly followed the trained identity shift, and listeners with a greater identity effect were more accurate at recognizing familiar voices. Voice recognition is thus supported by neural voice spaces that are organized around flexible 'mean voice' representations. PMID:20553895

  13. A Conjoint Analysis of Voice Over IP Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubey, Michael L.; Wagner, William; Otto, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Managers need to understand the tradeoffs associated with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) networks as compared to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). This article measures the preference structures between IP telephony and PSTN services using conjoint analysis. The purpose is to suggest VoIP technology attributes that best meet…

  14. Basic parameter estimation of binary neutron star systems by the advanced LIGO/Vigro network

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Farr, Benjamin; Raymond, Vivien; Farr, Will M.; Littenberg, Tyson B.; Fazi, Diego; Kalogera, Vicky

    2014-04-01

    Within the next five years, it is expected that the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network will have reached a sensitivity sufficient to enable the routine detection of gravitational waves. Beyond the initial detection, the scientific promise of these instruments relies on the effectiveness of our physical parameter estimation capabilities. A major part of this effort has been toward the detection and characterization of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence, e.g., the coalescence of binary neutron stars. While several previous studies have investigated the accuracy of parameter estimation with advanced detectors, the majority have relied on approximation techniques such as the Fisher Matrix which are insensitive to the non-Gaussian nature of the gravitational wave posterior distribution function. Here we report average statistical uncertainties that will be achievable for strong detection candidates (S/N = 20) over a comprehensive sample of source parameters. We use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo based parameter estimation software developed by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration with the goal of updating the previously quoted Fisher Matrix bounds. We find the recovery of the individual masses to be fractionally within 9% (15%) at the 68% (95%) credible intervals for equal-mass systems, and within 1.9% (3.7%) for unequal-mass systems. We also find that the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network will constrain the locations of binary neutron star mergers to a median uncertainty of 5.1 deg{sup 2} (13.5 deg{sup 2}) on the sky. This region is improved to 2.3 deg{sup 2} (6 deg{sup 2}) with the addition of the proposed LIGO India detector to the network. We also report the average uncertainties on the luminosity distances and orbital inclinations of strong detections that can be achieved by different network configurations.

  15. An Introduction to Voice Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, James G.

    1986-01-01

    Uses and sources of voice indexing (a look-up feature for recorded materials) are discussed. Voice indexing enables a blind user of audiocassettes to find specific sections of recorded text independently. A procedure for sequential voice indexing on a two-track or four-track cassette recorder is described. (JW)

  16. Discovering Voice through Media Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Susan R.

    Classrooms are filled with students with confident and vibrant voices, and most educators encourage them to use these voices in their writing. Many of the strategies of the process-centered classroom (peer editing, conferences, workshops, in-house publishing) also encourage students to write in real voices to real readers; however, there is still…

  17. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  18. Recent advances on distributed filtering for stochastic systems over sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Derui; Wang, Zidong; Shen, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Sensor networks comprising of tiny, power-constrained nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communication capabilities are gaining popularity due to their potential application in a wide variety of environments like monitoring of environmental attributes and various military and civilian applications. Considering the limited power and communication resources of the sensor nodes, the strategy of the distributed information processing is widely exploited. Therefore, it would be interesting to examine how the topology, network-induced phenomena, and power constraints influence the distributed filtering performance and to obtain some suitable schemes in order to solve the addressed distributed filter design problem. In this paper, we aim to survey some recent advances on the distributed filtering and distributed state estimation problems over the sensor networks with various performance requirements and/or randomly occurring network-induced phenomena. First, some practical filter structures are addressed in detail. Then, the developments of the distributed Kalman filtering, distributed state estimation based on the stability or mean-square error analysis, and distributed ? filtering are systematically reviewed. In addition, latest results on the distributed filtering or state estimation over sensor networks are discussed in great detail and some challenges are highlighted. Finally, some concluding remarks are given and some possible future research directions are pointed out.

  19. The voice handicap index: correlation between subjective patient response and quantitative assessment of voice.

    PubMed

    Woisard, Virginie; Bodin, Séverine; Yardeni, Eli; Puech, Michele

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to elucidate the relationship between the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and several voice laboratory measurements in the network of the multidimensional voice assessment. Fifty-eight patients were included. Each patient replies to the questionnaire and performs a voice assessment during the same time. The following parameters were measured: minimum frequency, maximum frequency, range, minimum intensity, subglottic pressure, mean flow, maximum phonation time, jitter, and dysphonia severity index. Regarding the relationship with the scores of the VHI, poor correlations with the minimal frequency for all the scores except the emotional one (total and subscales) and with the range for only the physical one are found. Seventeen questions correlate with the voice laboratory measurements we performed, with a decreased distribution between physical, functional, and emotional subscales. We observe that acoustic parameter is correlated with the emotional subscale, the parameters of the profile range are more often involved in the emotional subscale, as is the minimal frequency, but never with the physical subscale, and all the subscales are interesting despite the smaller number of differences with the emotional one. The VHI and the laboratory measurements give independent informations in practice.

  20. A New Approach in Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for High-Performance Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-01-28

    Scientific applications already generate many terabytes and even petabytes of data from supercomputer runs and large-scale experiments. The need for transferring data chunks of ever-increasing sizes through the network shows no sign of abating. Hence, we need high-bandwidth high speed networks such as ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Network reservation systems, i.e. ESnet's OSCARS (On-demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System) establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits at a certain time, for a certain bandwidth and length of time. OSCARS checks network availability and capacity for the specified period of time, and allocates requested bandwidth for that user if it is available. If the requested reservation cannot be granted, no further suggestion is returned back to the user. Further, there is no possibility from the users view-point to make an optimal choice. We report a new algorithm, where the user specifies the total volume that needs to be transferred, a maximum bandwidth that he/she can use, and a desired time period within which the transfer should be done. The algorithm can find alternate allocation possibilities, including earliest time for completion, or shortest transfer duration - leaving the choice to the user. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks, and a new polynomial algorithm to find possible reservation options according to given constraints. We have implemented our algorithm for testing and incorporation into a future version of ESnet?s OSCARS. Our approach provides a basis for provisioning end-to-end high performance data transfers over storage and network resources.

  1. Voices of Columbine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Emily

    2004-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of the Columbine school shootings, Principal Frank DeAngelis felt, in his own words, "the weight of the world on my shoulders." Five years later, he still struggles for answers--and still loves his job. In this article, the author presents excerpts of her interview with DeAngelis, a man whose face and voice have become…

  2. Finding a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouge, James R.; Kajiyama, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors relate a story about the transformative power of technologies for voice. They relate Brian Kajiyama's personal odyssey--what might be described as a journey from unvoiced to vocal--in learning to use a DynaWrite, a type-and-talk device that Brian uses as a communication tool.

  3. Giving Voice to Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This author is struck by two communication models she observes repeatedly that involve women's voices in meetings. In one model, the super-educated, pellucid, articulate woman, in meeting after meeting, makes suggestions, "points," or recommendations for initiatives, problem-solving, future direction, program improvement, decision making, or…

  4. I Have a Voice!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei-Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the opportunities she had for putting her cultural and language skills to use. She shares her experiences at the Asian Voices of Organized Youth for Community Empowerment (A-VOYCE) program and at the Participatory Chinatown project. The author never thought that learning about her identity and using what she…

  5. Voices for Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Edwin G.; Kapadia, Madhu

    Listed in this annotated bibliography are 502 cassette tapes of value to career exploration for Grade 7 through the adult level, whether as individualized instruction, small group study, or total class activity. Available to New Jersey educators at no charge, this Voices for Careers System is also available for duplication on request from the New…

  6. The Inner Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgway, Anthony James

    2009-01-01

    The inner voice- we all know what it is because we all have it and use it when we are thinking or reading, for example. Little work has been done on it in our field, with the notable exception of Brian Tomlinson, but presumably it must be a cognitive phenomenon which is of great importance in thinking, language learning, and reading in a foreign…

  7. Finding a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Schools have struggled for decades to provide expensive augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) resources for autistic students with communication challenges. Clunky voice output devices, often included in students' individualized education plans, cost about $8,000, a difficult expense to cover in hard times. However, mobile technology is…

  8. Universal voice processor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a universal voice processor is discussed. The device is based on several circuit configurations using hybrid techniques to satisfy the electrical specifications. The steps taken during the design process are described. Circuit diagrams of the final design are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical aspects.

  9. Delayed voice communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

    2013-10-01

    We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

  10. Voice Controlled Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Michael Condon, a quadraplegic from Pasadena, California, demonstrates the NASA-developed voice-controlled wheelchair and its manipulator, which can pick up packages, open doors, turn a TV knob, and perform a variety of other functions. A possible boon to paralyzed and other severely handicapped persons, the chair-manipulator system responds to 35 one-word voice commands, such as "go," "stop," "up," "down," "right," "left," "forward," "backward." The heart of the system is a voice-command analyzer which utilizes a minicomputer. Commands are taught I to the computer by the patient's repeating them a number of times; thereafter the analyzer recognizes commands only in the patient's particular speech pattern. The computer translates commands into electrical signals which activate appropriate motors and cause the desired motion of chair or manipulator. Based on teleoperator and robot technology for space-related programs, the voice-controlled system was developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the joint sponsorship of NASA and the Veterans Administration. The wheelchair-manipulator has been tested at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California, and is being evaluated at the VA Prosthetics Center in New York City.

  11. Voices from the Unconscious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The author, a Manhattan-based psychotherapist, contrasts the fascinating but profound differences between the autobiographical narratives of young college students and the free-associative unconscious voices of patients engaged in the process of psychotherapy. The author begins by recounting the immense impact of his own divorce upon his…

  12. Volunteer Voice. Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the three volume IX issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma Community House Training Project. The first issue consists of one teacher's personal account of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching and includes the following: an annotated list of ESL text books, a list of activities resources,…

  13. Voices for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Teacher, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

  14. The voice use reduction program.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Anita

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a structured behavior modification approach to the reduction of voice use by clients with voice disorders. The Voice Use Reduction (VUR) Program is conceptualized as part of a comprehensive approach to the treatment of voice. The VUR Program provides guidelines for the classification of voice use situations, the assignment of voice use units to different situations, and the calculation of the maximum number of units per day and per week in a severe, moderate, and low voice use reduction program. Two case examples are described to illustrate the application of the VUR Program. The results of an evaluation of the VUR Program by 10 female students who presented with vocal nodules and applied the program also are included.

  15. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  16. Recent advances on optical reflectometry for access network diagnostics and distributed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zuyuan; Fan, Xinyu; Liu, Qingwen; Du, Jiangbing

    2015-07-01

    In this invited talk, we will present the advances in research and development activities of optical reflectometry in our laboratory. The performance of phase-sensitive coherent OTDR, which is developed for distributed vibration measurement, is reported with the results of field tests. The performance of time-gated digital OFDR, which is developed for optical access network diagnostics, is also reported. We will also discuss how to increase the frequency sweep span of the linearly-swept optical source, a very important part for improving the performance of optical reflectometry.

  17. Advanced microprocessor based power protection system using artificial neural network techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Kalam, A.; Zayegh, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an intelligent embedded microprocessor based system for fault classification in power system protection system using advanced 32-bit microprocessor technology. The paper demonstrates the development of protective relay to provide overcurrent protection schemes for fault detection. It also describes a method for power fault classification in three-phase system based on the use of neural network technology. The proposed design is implemented and tested on a single line three phase power system in power laboratory. Both the hardware and software development are described in detail.

  18. Resource Allocation and Power Management Schemes in an LTE-Advanced Femtocell Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung-Bog; Yu, Jae-Hak; Lee, In-Hwan; Pyo, Cheol-Sig; Kim, Se-Jin

    In this letter, we introduce two different resource allocation and Tx power management schemes, called resource control and fixed power (RCFP) and fixed resource and power control (FRPC), in an LTE-Advanced femtocell network. We analyze and compare the two schemes in terms of the system throughput for downlink and energy consumption of home evolved NodeB (HeNB) Tx power according to the number of HeNBs and home user equipment (HUE)'s user traffic density (C). The simulation results show that the FRPC scheme has better performance in terms of system throughput for macro user equipments (MUEs) and energy consumption in low C.

  19. Advanced digital signal processing for short-haul and access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan

    2016-02-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) has been proved to be a successful technology recently in high speed and high spectrum-efficiency optical short-haul and access network, which enables high performances based on digital equalizations and compensations. In this paper, we investigate advanced DSP at the transmitter and receiver side for signal pre-equalization and post-equalization in an optical access network. A novel DSP-based digital and optical pre-equalization scheme has been proposed for bandwidth-limited high speed short-distance communication system, which is based on the feedback of receiver-side adaptive equalizers, such as least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm and constant or multi-modulus algorithms (CMA, MMA). Based on this scheme, we experimentally demonstrate 400GE on a single optical carrier based on the highest ETDM 120-GBaud PDM-PAM-4 signal, using one external modulator and coherent detection. A line rate of 480-Gb/s is achieved, which enables 20% forward-error correction (FEC) overhead to keep the 400-Gb/s net information rate. The performance after fiber transmission shows large margin for both short range and metro/regional networks. We also extend the advanced DSP for short haul optical access networks by using high order QAMs. We propose and demonstrate a high speed multi-band CAP-WDM-PON system on intensity modulation, direct detection and digital equalizations. A hybrid modified cascaded MMA post-equalization schemes are used to equalize the multi-band CAP-mQAM signals. Using this scheme, we successfully demonstrates 550Gb/s high capacity WDMPON system with 11 WDM channels, 55 sub-bands, and 10-Gb/s per user in the downstream over 40-km SMF.

  20. Neural circuits underlying mother’s voice perception predict social communication abilities in children

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Daniel A.; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M.; Baker, Amanda E.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child’s life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother’s voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother’s voice or whether this brain activity is related to children’s social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (<1 s) nonsense words produced by their biological mother and two female control voices and explored relationships between speech-evoked neural activity and social function. Compared to female control voices, mother’s voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother’s voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired. PMID:27185915

  1. Neural circuits underlying mother's voice perception predict social communication abilities in children.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-31

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (<1 s) nonsense words produced by their biological mother and two female control voices and explored relationships between speech-evoked neural activity and social function. Compared to female control voices, mother's voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired. PMID:27185915

  2. Facilitating career advancement for women in the Geosciences through the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is a network of women geoscientists, many of who are in the early stages of their careers. The mission of ESWN is to promote career development, build community, provide informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations, all towards making women successful in their scientific careers. ESWN currently connects over 1000 women across the globe, and includes graduate students, postdoctoral associates, faculty from a diversity of colleges and universities, program managers, and government, non-government and industry researchers. ESWN facilitates communication between its members via an email listserv and in-person networking events, and also provides resources to the broader community through the public Earth Science Jobs Listserv that hosts over 1800 subscribers. With funding from a NSF ADVANCE PAID grant, our primary goals include growing our membership to serve a wider section of the geosciences community, designing and administering career development workshops, promoting professional networking at major scientific conferences, and developing web resources to build connections, collaborations, and peer mentoring for and among women in the Earth Sciences. Recognizing that women in particular face a number of direct and indirect biases while navigating their careers, we aim to provide a range of opportunities for professional development that emphasize different skills at different stages of career. For example, ESWN-hosted mini-workshops at national scientific conferences have targeted skill building for early career researchers (e.g., postdocs, tenure-track faculty), with a recent focus on raising extramural research funding and best practices for publishing in the geosciences literature. More concentrated, multi-day professional development workshops are offered annually with varying themes such as Defining Your Research Identity and Building Leadership Skills for Success in Scientific Organizations

  3. Building a Governance Strategy for CER: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Andrea R.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Lieu, Tracy; Nelson, Andrew F.; Prausnitz, Stephanie; Horberg, Michael A.; Arterburn, David E.; Gould, Michael K.; Laws, Reesa L.; Steiner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network was established with funding from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in 2014. The PORTAL team adapted governance structures and processes from past research network collaborations. We will review and outline the structures and processes of the PORTAL governance approach and describe how proactively focusing on priority areas helped us to facilitate an ambitious research agenda. Background: For years a variety of funders have supported large-scale infrastructure grants to promote the use of clinical datasets to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. These awards have provided the impetus for health care systems to join forces in creating clinical data research networks. Often, these scientific networks do not develop governance processes proactively or systematically, and address issues only as problems arise. Even if network leaders and collaborators foresee the need to develop governance approaches, they may underestimate the time and effort required to develop sound processes. The resulting delays can impede research progress. Innovation: Because the PORTAL sites had built trust and a foundation of collaboration by participating with one another in past research networks, essential elements of effective governance such as guiding principles, decision making processes, project governance, data governance, and stakeholders in governance were familiar to PORTAL investigators. This trust and familiarity enabled the network to rapidly prioritize areas that required sound governance approaches: responding to new research opportunities, creating a culture of trust and collaboration, conducting individual studies, within the broader network, assigning responsibility and credit to scientific investigators, sharing data while protecting privacy/security, and allocating resources. The PORTAL Governance Document, complete with a Toolkit of

  4. Voices Rising: A Bulletin about Women and Popular Education. Volumes 1-4. 1987-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices Rising: A Bulletin about Women and Popular Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the six issues of the serial "Voices Rising" issued during the four-year period 1987-1990. "Voices Rising" is the primary networking tool of the Women's Program of the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE). Articles in these issues include: "Tribute to a Courageous Woman--Nabila Breir"; "Centre for Women's…

  5. Latest developments in advanced network management and cross-sharing of next-generation flux stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Johnson, Dave; Velgersdyk, Michael; Begashaw, Israel; Allyn, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of the data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. However, operating budgets for flux research items, such as labor, travel, and hardware, are becoming more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process, including sharing data among collaborative groups. On one hand, such tools can maximize time dedicated to publications answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, quality control and overall station management. On the other hand, cross-sharing the stations with external collaborators may help leverage available funding, and promote data analyses and publications. A new low-cost, advanced system, FluxSuite, utilizes a combination of hardware, software and web-services to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: (i) The system can be easily incorporated into a new flux station, or as un upgrade to many presently operating flux stations, via weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs (ii) Each next-generation station will measure all parameters needed for flux computations in a digital and PTP time-synchronized mode, accepting digital signals from a number of anemometers and data loggers (iii) The field microcomputer will calculate final fully-processed flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. (iv) Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data will

  6. Voices to reckon with: perceptions of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Johanna C.; Chhabra, Saruchi

    2013-01-01

    The current review focuses on the perception of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers. Identity perception in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is grounded in the mechanisms of human (i.e., real, external) voice perception, and shapes the emotional (distress) and behavioral (help-seeking) response to the experience. Yet, the phenomenological assessment of voice identity is often limited, for example to the gender of the voice, and has failed to take advantage of recent models and evidence on human voice perception. In this paper we aim to synthesize the literature on identity in real and hallucinated voices and begin by providing a comprehensive overview of the features used to judge voice identity in healthy individuals and in people with schizophrenia. The findings suggest some subtle, but possibly systematic biases across different levels of voice identity in clinical hallucinators that are associated with higher levels of distress. Next we provide a critical evaluation of voice processing abilities in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers, including recent data collected in our laboratory. Our studies used diverse methods, assessing recognition and binding of words and voices in memory as well as multidimensional scaling of voice dissimilarity judgments. The findings overall point to significant difficulties recognizing familiar speakers and discriminating between unfamiliar speakers in people with schizophrenia, both with and without AVH. In contrast, these voice processing abilities appear to be generally intact in non-clinical hallucinators. The review highlights some important avenues for future research and treatment of AVH associated with a need for care, and suggests some novel insights into other symptoms of psychosis. PMID:23565088

  7. Experimental demonstration of large capacity WSDM optical access network with multicore fibers and advanced modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Li, Borui; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Qiong; Deng, Lei; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Shuang; Shum, Perry Ping

    2015-05-01

    Towards the next generation optical access network supporting large capacity data transmission to enormous number of users covering a wider area, we proposed a hybrid wavelength-space division multiplexing (WSDM) optical access network architecture utilizing multicore fibers with advanced modulation formats. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrated a WSDM optical access network with duplex transmission using our developed and fabricated multicore (7-core) fibers with 58.7km distance. As a cost-effective modulation scheme for access network, the optical OFDM-QPSK signal has been intensity modulated on the downstream transmission in the optical line terminal (OLT) and it was directly detected in the optical network unit (ONU) after MCF transmission. 10 wavelengths with 25GHz channel spacing from an optical comb generator are employed and each wavelength is loaded with 5Gb/s OFDM-QPSK signal. After amplification, power splitting, and fan-in multiplexer, 10-wavelength downstream signal was injected into six outer layer cores simultaneously and the aggregation downstream capacity reaches 300 Gb/s. -16 dBm sensitivity has been achieved for 3.8 × 10-3 bit error ratio (BER) with 7% Forward Error Correction (FEC) limit for all wavelengths in every core. Upstream signal from ONU side has also been generated and the bidirectional transmission in the same core causes negligible performance degradation to the downstream signal. As a universal platform for wired/wireless data access, our proposed architecture provides additional dimension for high speed mobile signal transmission and we hence demonstrated an upstream delivery of 20Gb/s per wavelength with QPSK modulation formats using the inner core of MCF emulating a mobile backhaul service. The IQ modulated data was coherently detected in the OLT side. -19 dBm sensitivity has been achieved under the FEC limit and more than 18 dB power budget is guaranteed.

  8. A STUDY OF INNER VOICES IN SCHIZOPHERNICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Twelve schizophrenics with inner voices were examined and were compared to 12 - schizophrenics with external voices. The inner voices group was largely heterogenous. The inner voice group had shorter interval between onset of illness and onset of hallucinations, higher intensity of emotions outside the hallucinatory episodes but concerning the voices and longer duration of individual episodes of hallucinations. PMID:21847312

  9. A clearer view of singing voice production: 25 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, T F

    1994-03-01

    Voice research has enjoyed its most productive period of history during the past 25 years. Many of the enigmas related to the biomechanics and acoustics of the singing voice have been resolved. This paper presents state-of-the-art understanding regarding the following topics: vibrato, the singer's formant, formant tracking, voice registers, subglottal pressure, voice classification, modes of vocal fold vibration, laryngeal position during singing, flow glottography, and singing synthesis. In addition to these topics, the people who have made the most significant contributions to the advancement of singing research are recognized. PMID:8167783

  10. Using Hierarchical Time Series Clustering Algorithm and Wavelet Classifier for Biometric Voice Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Voice biometrics has a long history in biosecurity applications such as verification and identification based on characteristics of the human voice. The other application called voice classification which has its important role in grouping unlabelled voice samples, however, has not been widely studied in research. Lately voice classification is found useful in phone monitoring, classifying speakers' gender, ethnicity and emotion states, and so forth. In this paper, a collection of computational algorithms are proposed to support voice classification; the algorithms are a combination of hierarchical clustering, dynamic time wrap transform, discrete wavelet transform, and decision tree. The proposed algorithms are relatively more transparent and interpretable than the existing ones, though many techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, and Hidden Markov Model (which inherently function like a black box) have been applied for voice verification and voice identification. Two datasets, one that is generated synthetically and the other one empirically collected from past voice recognition experiment, are used to verify and demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed voice classification algorithm. PMID:22619492

  11. Cerebral Processing of Voice Gender Studied Using a Continuous Carryover fMRI Design

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Cyril; Latinus, Marianne; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Normal listeners effortlessly determine a person's gender by voice, but the cerebral mechanisms underlying this ability remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate 2 stages of cerebral processing during voice gender categorization. Using voice morphing along with an adaptation-optimized functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we found that secondary auditory cortex including the anterior part of the temporal voice areas in the right hemisphere responded primarily to acoustical distance with the previously heard stimulus. In contrast, a network of bilateral regions involving inferior prefrontal and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex reflected perceived stimulus ambiguity. These findings suggest that voice gender recognition involves neuronal populations along the auditory ventral stream responsible for auditory feature extraction, functioning in pair with the prefrontal cortex in voice gender perception. PMID:22490550

  12. Keyboard With Voice Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Voice synthesizer tells what key is about to be depressed. Verbal feedback useful for blind operators or where dim light prevents sighted operator from seeing keyboard. Also used where operator is busy observing other things while keying data into control system. Used as training aid for touch typing, and to train blind operators to use both standard and braille keyboards. Concept adapted to such equipment as typewriters, computers, calculators, telephones, cash registers, and on/off controls.

  13. The prediction of the building precision in the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process using advanced networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. L.; Li, D. C.; Lu, B. H.; Zhang, A. F.; Zhu, G. X.; Pi, G.

    2010-05-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is an advanced manufacturing technology, but it is difficult to control the depositing height (DH) of the prototype because there are many technology parameters influencing the forming process. The effect of main parameters (laser power, scanning speed and powder feeding rate) on the DH of single track is firstly analyzed, and then it shows that there is the complex nonlinear intrinsic relationship between them. In order to predict the DH, the back propagation (BP) based network improved with Adaptive learning rate and Momentum coefficient (AM) algorithm, and the least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) network are both adopted. The mapping relationship between above parameters and the DH is constructed according to training samples collected by LENS experiments, and then their generalization ability, function-approximating ability and real-time are contrastively investigated. The results show that although the predicted result by the BP-AM approximates the experimental result, above performance index of the LS-SVM are better than those of the BP-AM. Finally, high-definition thin-walled parts of AISI316L are successfully fabricated. Hence, the LS-SVM network is more suitable for the prediction of the DH.

  14. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  15. Voice preprocessor for digital voice applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, G. S.; Fransen, L. J.; Moran, T. M.

    1989-09-01

    A voice processor operating satisfactorily in laboratory environments with carefully prerecorded speech samples often fails to operate satisfactorily with live speech. Potential reasons are: (1) the speech level may be too high or too low; (2) the speech signal may have too much interference (ambient noise, breath noise, 60 Hz hum, digital noise in analog circuits, a DC bias (caused by component aging, etc.) generated at the analog-to-digital converter output); (3) the microphone frequency may be severely distorted; (4) the speech signal from the existing audio system, in certain operating environments, may be improperly coupled to the front-end circuit; (5) the speaker may be talking too fast or may have an improper mouth-to-microphone distance, or the speech may lack high-frequency energies. In this report, we have generated a comprehensive design for a speech preprocessor that removes interferences, adaptively equalizes frequency anomalies, and conditions speech for speech encoding, speech recognition, speaker recognition, or extraction of verbal or nonverbal information from speech.

  16. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  17. A case study of successful voice imitation.

    PubMed

    Zetterholm, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Our voices and speech behaviour give cues to the listener as to our identity. These cues make it possible for the listener to recognise a voice without seeing the speaker. A professional impersonator has to identify the salient and characteristic features of the target voice in order to succeed. The present phonetic study of a Swedish professional impersonator and one of his voice imitations compares the target voice, the voice imitation and the impersonator's own voice. The findings indicate that a successful impersonation is the result of the impersonator's ability to alter his voice in numerous ways. PMID:12487406

  18. Method for detection and reconstruction of gravitational wave transients with networks of advanced detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, S.; Vedovato, G.; Drago, M.; Salemi, F.; Tiwari, V.; Prodi, G. A.; Lazzaro, C.; Ackley, K.; Tiwari, S.; Da Silva, C. F.; Mitselmakher, G.

    2016-02-01

    We present a method for detection and reconstruction of the gravitational wave (GW) transients with the networks of advanced detectors. Originally designed to search for transients with the initial GW detectors, it uses significantly improved algorithms, which enhance both the low-latency searches with rapid localization of GW events for the electromagnetic follow-up and high confidence detection of a broad range of the transient GW sources. In this paper, we present the analytic framework of the method. Following a short description of the core analysis algorithms, we introduce a novel approach to the reconstruction of the GW polarization from a pattern of detector responses to a GW signal. This polarization pattern is a unique signature of an arbitrary GW signal that can be measured independently from the other source parameters. The polarization measurements enable rapid reconstruction of the GW waveforms, sky localization, and helps identification of the source origin.

  19. Perspectives on Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and Future Aerospace Workforce Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the advanced learning technologies is given in this presentation along with a brief description of their impact on future aerospace workforce development. The presentation is divided into five parts (see Figure 1). In the first part, a brief historical account of the evolution of learning technologies is given. The second part describes the current learning activities. The third part describes some of the future aerospace systems, as examples of high-tech engineering systems, and lists their enabling technologies. The fourth part focuses on future aerospace research, learning and design environments. The fifth part lists the objectives of the workshop and some of the sources of information on learning technologies and learning networks.

  20. Finding Voice through Computer Communication: A New Venue for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Marion H.

    1994-01-01

    Indicates how a dialog between peers concerning their writing can be fostered through computer networking. Argues that computer domains offer one of the best sites for carrying out such dialogs. Describes a curriculum for collaboration emphasizing voice and based on a computer environment. (HB)

  1. Amplifying Student Voice: The Missing Link in School Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This article recounts the story of how one state in the United States is systematically amplifying student voice through school transformation efforts across a network of secondary schools (Grades 9 through 12; ages 14 to 18). The author is the creator and director of a statewide initiative entitled "Youth and Adults Transforming Schools Together"…

  2. HNET - A National Computerized Health Network

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Mark; Hamilton, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The HNET system demonstrated conceptually and technically a national text (and limited bit mapped graphics) computer network for use between innovative members of the health care industry. The HNET configuration of a leased high speed national packet switching network connecting any number of mainframe, mini, and micro computers was unique in it's relatively low capital costs and freedom from obsolescence. With multiple simultaneous conferences, databases, bulletin boards, calendars, and advanced electronic mail and surveys, it is marketable to innovative hospitals, clinics, physicians, health care associations and societies, nurses, multisite research projects libraries, etc.. Electronic publishing and education capabilities along with integrated voice and video transmission are identified as future enhancements.

  3. Recent advances on techniques and theories of feedforward networks with supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Klasa, Stan

    1992-07-01

    The rediscovery and popularization of the back propagation training technique for multilayer perceptrons as well as the invention of the Boltzmann Machine learning algorithm has given a new boost to the study of supervised learning networks. In recent years, besides the widely spread applications and the various further improvements of the classical back propagation technique, many new supervised learning models, techniques as well as theories, have also been proposed in a vast number of publications. This paper tries to give a rather systematical review on the recent advances on supervised learning techniques and theories for static feedforward networks. We summarize a great number of developments into four aspects: (1) Various improvements and variants made on the classical back propagation techniques for multilayer (static) perceptron nets, for speeding up training, avoiding local minima, increasing the generalization ability, as well as for many other interesting purposes. (2) A number of other learning methods for training multilayer (static) perceptron, such as derivative estimation by perturbation, direct weight update by perturbation, genetic algorithms, recursive least square estimate and extended Kalman filter, linear programming, the policy of fixing one layer while updating another, constructing networks by converting decision tree classifiers, and others. (3) Various other feedforward models which are also able to implement function approximation, probability density estimation and classification, including various models of basis function expansion (e.g., radial basis functions, restricted coulomb energy, multivariate adaptive regression splines, trigonometric and polynomial bases, projection pursuit, basis function tree, and may others), and several other supervised learning models. (4) Models with complex structures, e.g., modular architecture, hierarchy architecture, and others. (5) A number of theoretical issues involving the universal

  4. Advanced prostate cancer: Every Voice Matters.

    PubMed

    Payne, Heather; Westcott, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Heather Payne speaks to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor: Heather Payne was appointed as a consultant in Clinical Oncology at University College Hospital (London, UK) in 1997. Following her training at St Mary's Hospital London Medical School and after qualifying, she spent time working in general medicine in both London and Haiti. Currently, she specializes in the management of urological malignancies, and is actively involved in clinical research as well as being the principal investigator in a number of international multicenter and local studies. She enjoys helping patients with quality of life and decision-making issues with regard to their treatment options. In addition, she is the chairman of the British Uro-oncology Group, and is a member of the Department of Health Prostate Cancer Advisory Group. Further to this, she is a trustee of the Prostate Cancer Research Centre and clinical lead for the National Prostate Cancer Audit. PMID:26075438

  5. Comparison of Advection–Diffusion Models and Neural Networks for Prediction of Advanced Water Treatment Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mortula, Mohammed Maruf; Abdalla, Jamal; Ghadban, Ahmad A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An artificial neural network (ANN) can help in the prediction of advanced water treatment effluent and thus facilitate design practices. In this study, sets of 225 experimental data were obtained from a wastewater treatment process for the removal of phosphorus using oven-dried alum residuals in fixed-bed adsorbers. Five input variables (pH, initial phosphorus concentration, wastewater flow rate, porosity, and time) were used to test the efficiency of phosphorus removal at different times, and ANNs were then used to predict the effluent phosphorus concentration. Results of experiments that were conducted for different values of the input parameters made up the data used to train and test a multilayer perceptron using the back-propagation algorithm of the ANN. Values predicted by the ANN and the experimentally measured values were compared, and the accuracy of the ANN was evaluated. When ANN results were compared to the experimental results, it was concluded that the ANN results were accurate, especially during conditions of high phosphorus concentration. While the ANN model was able to predict the breakthrough point with good accuracy, the conventional advection–diffusion equation was not as accurate. A parametric study conducted to examine the effect of the initial pH and initial phosphorus concentration on the effluent phosphorus concentration at different times showed that lower influent pH values are the most suitable for this advanced treatment system. PMID:22783063

  6. Voice Quality of Psychological Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lidia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F[subscript 0], jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a…

  7. Voice handicap index in Swedish.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Dotevall, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a Swedish version of the voice handicap index questionnaire (Sw-VHI). A total of 57 adult, dysphonic patients and 15 healthy controls completed the Sw-VHI and rated the degree of vocal fatigue and hoarseness on visual analogue scales. A perceptual voice evaluation was also performed. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in 38 subjects without voice complaints. Sw-VHI distinguished between dysphonic subjects and controls (P<0.001). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.84) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) were good. Only moderate or weak correlations were found between Sw-VHI and the subjective and perceptual voice ratings. The data indicate that a difference above 13 points for the total Sw-VHI score and above 6 points for the Sw-VHI subscales is significant for an individual when comparing two different occasions. In conclusion, the Sw-VHI appears to be a robust instrument for assessment of the psycho-social impact of a voice disorder. However, Sw-VHI seems to, at least partly, capture different aspects of voice function to the subjective voice ratings and the perceptual voice evaluation.

  8. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  9. Voices for Illinois Children, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Illinois Children, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three "Voices for Illinois Children" newsletter issues published during 1999. Voices for Illinois Children is a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. These newsletter issues explore topics pertaining…

  10. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  11. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  12. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  13. Voices for Illinois Children, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Illinois Children, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the "Voices for Illinois Children" newsletter published during 1998. Voices for Illinois Children is a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. These three newsletter issues explore topics…

  14. Why Is My Voice Changing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  15. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L

    2009-05-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex networked systems

  16. Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Soil Sensing and Ecosystem Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Schima, Robert; Remmler, Paul; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    For an adequate characterization of ecosystems it is necessary to detect individual processes with suitable monitoring strategies and methods. Due to the natural complexity of all environmental compartments, single point or temporally and spatially fixed measurements are mostly insufficient for an adequate representation. The application of mobile wireless sensor networks for soil and atmosphere sensing offers significant benefits, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate (e.g. by using optimization approaches or event triggering modes) to the local test conditions. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous and dynamic environmental systems and processes. One significant advantage in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior. Thus, the network autonomously initializes and optimizes itself. Due to the localization via satellite a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time is generated. In addition, single point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several optimized points continuously. Since performing analog and digital signal processing and computation in the sensor nodes close to the sensors a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of nodes. Furthermore, the miniaturization of the nodes and energy harvesting are current topics under investigation. First results of field measurements are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science. In particular, collected in-situ data with numerous specific soil and atmosphere parameters per sensor node (more than 25) recorded over several days illustrates the high performance of this system for advanced soil sensing and soil-atmosphere interaction monitoring. Moreover, investigations of biotic and abiotic process interactions and optimization

  17. Lunar module voice recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility unit suitable for use as a voice recorder on the space shuttle was developed. A modification, development, and test program is described. A LM-DSEA recorder was modified to achieve the following goals: (1) redesign case to allow in-flight cartridge change; (2) time code change from LM code to IRIG-B 100 pps code; (3) delete cold plate requirements (also requires deletion of long-term thermal vacuum operation at 0.00001 MMHg); (4) implement track sequence reset during cartridge change; (5) reduce record time per cartridge because of unavailability of LM thin-base tape; and (6) add an internal Vox key circuit to turn on/off transport and electronics with voice data input signal. The recorder was tested at both the LM and shuttle vibration levels. The modified recorder achieved the same level of flutter during vibration as the DSEA recorder prior to modification. Several improvements were made over the specification requirements. The high manufacturing cost is discussed.

  18. Voice to Voice: Developing In-Service Teachers' Personal, Collaborative, and Public Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Frances; Zimmerman, Enid

    1997-01-01

    Describes a model for inservice education that begins with an interchange of teachers' voices with those of the students in an interactive dialog. The exchange allows them to develop their private voices through self-reflection and validation of their own experiences. (JOW)

  19. Can We Hear the Student Voice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlick, Su

    2008-01-01

    The Student Voice project was launched in January 2007. The aim was to provide a method of encouraging students to become actively involved in decisions about their own learning and empowering them with appropriate ways to do so. Ninety-two pupils were divided up into specific focus groups (a voice). These "voices" include: (1) the "Blue Voice",…

  20. Sandia`s research network for Supercomputing `93: A demonstration of advanced technologies for building high-performance networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, S.A.; Vahle, M.O.

    1993-12-01

    Supercomputing `93, a high-performance computing and communications conference, was held November 15th through 19th, 1993 in Portland, Oregon. For the past two years, Sandia National Laboratories has used this conference to showcase and focus its communications and networking endeavors. At the 1993 conference, the results of Sandia`s efforts in exploring and utilizing Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) technologies were vividly demonstrated by building and operating three distinct networks. The networks encompassed a Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) network running at 44.736 megabits per second, an ATM network running on a SONET circuit at the Optical Carrier (OC) rate of 155.52 megabits per second, and a High Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) network running over a 622.08 megabits per second SONET circuit. The SMDS and ATM networks extended from Albuquerque, New Mexico to the showroom floor, while the HIPPI/SONET network extended from Beaverton, Oregon to the showroom floor. This paper documents and describes these networks.

  1. A Collaborative Education Network for Advancing Climate Literacy using Data Visualization Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, C.; Russell, E. L.; Murray, M.; Bendel, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    among members, we have, collectively, been able to advance all of our efforts. The member institutions, through regular face-to-face workshops and an online community, share practices in creation and cataloging of datasets, new methods for delivering content via SOS, and updates on the SOS system and software. One hallmark of the SOS Users Collaborative Network is that it exemplifies an ideal partnership between federal science agencies and informal science education institutions. The science agencies (including NOAA, NASA, and the Department of Energy) provide continuously updated global datasets, scientific expertise, funding, and support. In turn, museums act as trusted public providers of scientific information, provide audience-appropriate presentations, localized relevance to global phenomena and a forum for discussing the complex science and repercussions of global change. We will discuss the characteristics of this Network that maximize collaboration and what we're learning as a community to improve climate literacy.

  2. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  3. Voice stress analysis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Darren M.; Ratley, Roy J.

    2001-02-01

    Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) systems are marketed as computer-based systems capable of measuring stress in a person's voice as an indicator of deception. They are advertised as being less expensive, easier to use, less invasive in use, and less constrained in their operation then polygraph technology. The National Institute of Justice have asked the Air Force Research Laboratory for assistance in evaluating voice stress analysis technology. Law enforcement officials have also been asking questions about this technology. If VSA technology proves to be effective, its value for military and law enforcement application is tremendous.

  4. Voice stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Malcolm; Shipp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the validity of eight candidate voice measures (fundamental frequency, amplitude, speech rate, frequency jitter, amplitude shimmer, Psychological Stress Evaluator scores, energy distribution, and the derived measure of the above measures) for determining psychological stress, 17 males age 21 to 35 were subjected to a tracking task on a microcomputer CRT while parameters of vocal production as well as heart rate were measured. Findings confirm those of earlier studies that increases in fundamental frequency, amplitude, and speech rate are found in speakers involved in extreme levels of stress. In addition, it was found that the same changes appear to occur in a regular fashion within a more subtle level of stress that may be characteristic, for example, of routine flying situations. None of the individual speech measures performed as robustly as did heart rate.

  5. Beliefs about hearing voices.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H; Robidoux, Serje; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2016-07-01

    People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause. In response, 20 (57.1%) reported that their AVHs were self-generated, 9 (25.7%) were uncertain, and 6 (17.1%) reported that their AVHs were caused by external agents. Several analytical approaches revealed little or no evidence for associations between either AVH intensity or phenomenology and beliefs about the AVH's cause; the evidence instead favoured the absence of these associations. Beliefs about the cause of AVHs are thus unlikely to be explained solely by the phenomenological qualities of the AVHs. PMID:27258929

  6. Vocal registers of the countertenor voice: Based on signals recorded and analyzed in VoceVista

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenez, Raymond

    Today's countertenors possess vocal ranges similar to the mezzo-soprano, and are trained to sing with a vibrant, focused tone. Little research has been conducted on the registers of the countertenor voice. Advancement in vocal techniques in the countertenor voice from the late 20th century to the present has been rapid. This treatise attempts to define the registers of the countertenor voice, and is intended as a resource for singers and teachers. The voices of eleven North American countertenors were recorded and analyzed using VoceVista Pro software, which was developed and designed by Donald Miller. Through spectrographic and electroglottographic analysis, the registers of the countertenor voice were identified and outlined.

  7. Advancements of Data Anomaly Detection Research in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    PubMed Central

    Rassam, Murad A.; Zainal, Anazida; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept “Internet of Things” has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed. PMID:23966182

  8. Evaluation drought response of tropical dry forests using advanced wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of the effects of persistent drought in tropical dry forests has not been fully studied until today. In this presentation we will discuss one of the first results on the response of tropical dry forests to drought using advanced wireless sensor networks and canopy phenology towers, that provide hyper-temporal information on micro-meteorological variables such Temperature, relative humidity, and Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD). In addition, we will evaluate drought response to as function of the Fraction of the Photosynthetic Active Radiation (FPAR), and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our work is conducted at the Santa Rosa Environmental Monitoring Super Site (NR-EMSS) located at the Guancaste Province, Costa Rica, Central America. Our results indicate significant changes in terms of FPAR, VPD manifested via strong changes on NDVI. Our results pose questions about the resilience of these understudied tropical ecosystems and their long-term survival under severe and persistent drought conditions. This results provide a reference framework for the need of more integrated research on the Central American Dry Forest corridor where just between Costa Rica and Nicaragua over 100,000 families are facing strong drought conditions.

  9. Surgical procedures for voice restoration

    PubMed Central

    Nawka, Tadeus; Hosemann, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Surgical procedures for voice restoration serve to improve oral communication by better vocal function. They comprise of phonomicrosurgery, with direct and indirect access to the larynx; laryngoplasty; laryngeal injections; and surgical laryngeal reinnervation. The basis for modern surgical techniques for voice disorders is the knowledge about the ultrastructure of the vocal folds and the increasing experience of surgeons in voice surgery, while facing high social and professional demands on the voice. Vocal activity limitation and participation restriction has become more important in the artistic and social areas. A number of surgical methods that have been developed worldwide for this reason, are presented in this article. Functional oriented surgery has to meet high standards. The diagnostics of vocal function has to be multi-dimensional in order to determine the indication and the appropriate surgical intervention. PMID:22073062

  10. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kramp, Burkhard; Dommerich, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost. PMID:22073098

  11. Voice Simulation in Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Britney B; Lee, Heeyoung; Kane, Irene; Mitchell, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve prelicensure nursing students' attitudes toward and self-efficacy related to delivering nursing care to patients with auditory hallucinations. Based on the Hearing Voices That Are Distressing curriculum, 87 participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks while wearing headphones delivering distressing voices. Comparing presimulation and postsimulation results, this study suggests that the simulation significantly improved attitudes toward patients with auditory hallucinations; however, self-efficacy related to caring for these patients remained largely unchanged.

  12. Who gets credit for input? Demographic and structural status cues in voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Howell, Taeya M; Harrison, David A; Burris, Ethan R; Detert, James R

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigate the employee features that, alongside overall voice expression, affect supervisors' voice recognition. Drawing primarily from status characteristics and network position theories, the authors propose and find in a study of 693 employees from 89 different credit union units that supervisors are more likely to credit those reporting the same amount of voice if the employees have higher ascribed or assigned (by the organization) status--cued by demographic variables such as majority ethnicity and full-time work hours. Further, supervisors are more likely to recognize voice from employees who have higher achieved status--cued by their centrality in informal social structures. The authors also find that even when certain groups of lower status employees speak up more, they cannot compensate for the negative effect of their demographic membership on voice recognition by their boss. The authors underscore how recognition of employee voice by supervisors matters for employees. It carries (mediates) the effects of voice expression and status onto performance evaluations 1 year later, which means that demographic differences in the assignment of credit for voice can serve as an implicit pathway for discrimination. PMID:25915784

  13. Voice recognition and altered connectivity in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiaodong; Bai, Feng; Xie, Chunming; Shi, Jiabo; Yao, Zhijian; Hao, Guifeng; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Zhijun

    2013-07-01

    Auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) is a pathological hallmark of schizophrenia; however, their neural basis is unclear. Voice identity is an important phenomenological feature of AVHs. Certain voice identity recognition deficits are specific to schizophrenic patients with AVHs. We tested our hypothesis that among schizophrenia patients with hallucination, dysfunctional voice identity recognition is associated with poor functional integration in the neural networks involved in the evaluation of voice identity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a voice recognition task, we examined the modulation of neural network connectivity in 26 schizophrenic patients with or without AVHs, and 13 healthy controls. Our results showed that the schizophrenic patients with AVHs had altered frontotemporal connectivity compared to the schizophrenic patients without AVHs and healthy controls. The latter two groups did not show any differences in functional connectivity. In addition, the strength of frontotemporal connectivity was correlated with the accuracy of voice recognition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that impaired functional integration may contribute to the faulty appraisal of voice identity in schizophrenic patients with AVHs. PMID:23545112

  14. Anti-Voice Adaptation Suggests Prototype-Based Coding of Voice Identity

    PubMed Central

    Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    We used perceptual aftereffects induced by adaptation with anti-voice stimuli to investigate voice identity representations. Participants learned a set of voices then were tested on a voice identification task with vowel stimuli morphed between identities, after different conditions of adaptation. In Experiment 1, participants chose the identity opposite to the adapting anti-voice significantly more often than the other two identities (e.g., after being adapted to anti-A, they identified the average voice as A). In Experiment 2, participants showed a bias for identities opposite to the adaptor specifically for anti-voice, but not for non-anti-voice adaptors. These results are strikingly similar to adaptation aftereffects observed for facial identity. They are compatible with a representation of individual voice identities in a multidimensional perceptual voice space referenced on a voice prototype. PMID:21847384

  15. Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

    The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

  16. Advanced controlling of anaerobic digestion by means of hierarchical neural networks.

    PubMed

    Holubar, Peter; Zani, Loredana; Hager, Michael; Fröschl, Walter; Radak, Zorana; Braun, Rudolf

    2002-05-01

    In this work several feed-forward back propagation neural networks (FFBP) were trained in order to model, and subsequently control, methane production in anaerobic digesters. To produce data for the training of the neural nets, four anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors were operated in steady-state conditions at organic loading rates (Br) of about 2 kg m(-3) d(-1) chemical oxygen demand, and disturbed by pulse-like increase of the organic loading rate. For the pulses additional carbon sources like flour, sucrose, 1,2-diethylen glycol or vegetable oil were added to the basic feed, which consisted of surplus and primary sludge of a local waste-water treatment plant, to increase the chemical oxygen demand. Measured parameters were: gas composition, methane production rate, volatile fatty acid concentration, pH, redox potential, volatile suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand of feed and effluent. A hierarchical system of nets was developed and embedded in a decision support system to find out which is the best feeding profile for the next time steps in advance. A 3-3-1 FFBP simulated the pH with a regression coefficient of 0.82. A 9-3-3 FFBP simulated the volatile fatty acid concentration in the sludge with a regression coefficient of 0.86. And a 9-3-2 FFBP simulated the gas production and gas composition with a regression coefficient of 0.90 and 0.80, respectively. A lab-scale anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor controlled by this tool was able to maintain a methane concentration of about 60% at a rather high gas production rate of between 5 and 5.6 m3 m(-3) d(-1).

  17. Earthquake Detection and Location Capabilities of the Advanced National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Buland, R. P.; Benz, H. M.; Leith, W.

    2004-12-01

    We have computed minimum earthquake moment magnitude, Mw, detection thresholds for a 1x1 degree grid across the US using the existing backbone stations of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). For every grid point we compute the minimum Mw for which the P phase should be detectable by at least five ANSS stations. Detection is declared at a station when body wave power levels produced for a given Mw are above the frequency dependent 80th percentile noise level for the station. Noise levels were determined in a previous study from probability density functions of noise spectra computed for each ANSS backbone station (McNamara and Buland, 2004). To model event power levels, earthquake moment, Mo, is computed as a function of apparent corner frequency using the source scaling formulas of Brune (1970, 1971). The apparent corner frequency is the frequency at which body wave spectral amplitudes are maximum as a result of attenuation and short period filters applied during NEIC phase picking. The corresponding moment magnitude, Mw, is computed after Kanamori (1977). Body wave amplitudes are then computed for each station depending on the distance and attenuation along each raypath. Amplitude is then converted to power (dB) and compared to station noise levels. The fifth lowest power, above station noise levels then corresponds to the minimum earthquake magnitude for that particular grid point. Our theoretical minimum Mw threshold compares favorably to magnitude thresholds determined from USGS PDE catalogs. We also model the regional variation in event location improvement with the installation of planned ANSS backbone stations. Results from this study are useful for characterizing the performance of existing ANSS broadband stations, for detecting operational problems, and should be relevant to the future siting of ANSS backbone stations. Results from this analysis are also used to optimize the distribution of ANSS regional network stations.

  18. Advanced controlling of anaerobic digestion by means of hierarchical neural networks.

    PubMed

    Holubar, Peter; Zani, Loredana; Hager, Michael; Fröschl, Walter; Radak, Zorana; Braun, Rudolf

    2002-05-01

    In this work several feed-forward back propagation neural networks (FFBP) were trained in order to model, and subsequently control, methane production in anaerobic digesters. To produce data for the training of the neural nets, four anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors were operated in steady-state conditions at organic loading rates (Br) of about 2 kg m(-3) d(-1) chemical oxygen demand, and disturbed by pulse-like increase of the organic loading rate. For the pulses additional carbon sources like flour, sucrose, 1,2-diethylen glycol or vegetable oil were added to the basic feed, which consisted of surplus and primary sludge of a local waste-water treatment plant, to increase the chemical oxygen demand. Measured parameters were: gas composition, methane production rate, volatile fatty acid concentration, pH, redox potential, volatile suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand of feed and effluent. A hierarchical system of nets was developed and embedded in a decision support system to find out which is the best feeding profile for the next time steps in advance. A 3-3-1 FFBP simulated the pH with a regression coefficient of 0.82. A 9-3-3 FFBP simulated the volatile fatty acid concentration in the sludge with a regression coefficient of 0.86. And a 9-3-2 FFBP simulated the gas production and gas composition with a regression coefficient of 0.90 and 0.80, respectively. A lab-scale anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor controlled by this tool was able to maintain a methane concentration of about 60% at a rather high gas production rate of between 5 and 5.6 m3 m(-3) d(-1). PMID:12153025

  19. An investigation of interference coordination in heterogeneous network for LTE-Advanced systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. K.; Ismail, A. F.; H, Aisha-Hassan A.; Abdullah, Khaizuran; Ramli, H. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The novel "femtocell" in Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) for LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) set-up will allow Malaysian wireless telecommunication operators (Maxis, Celcom, Digi, U-Mobile, P1, YTL and etc2.) to extend connectivity coverage where access would otherwise be limited or unavailable, particularly indoors of large building complexes. A femtocell is a small-sized cellular base station that encompasses all the functionality of a typical station. It therefore allows a simpler and self-contained deployment including private residences. For the Malaysian service providers, the main attractions of femtocell usage are the improvements to both coverage and capacity. The operators can provide a better service to end-users in turn reduce much of the agitations and complaints. There will be opportunity for new services at reduced cost. In addition, the operator not only benefits from the improved capacity and coverage but also can reduce both capital expenditure and operating expense i.e. alternative to brand new base station or macrocell installation. Interference is a key issue associated with femtocell development. There are a large number of issues associated with interference all of which need to be investigated, identified, quantified and solved. This is to ensure that the deployment of any femtocells will take place successfully. Among the most critical challenges in femtocell deployment is the interference between femtocell-to-macrocell and femtocell-to-femtocell in HetNets. In this paper, all proposed methods and algorithms will be investigated in the OFDMA femtocell system considering HetNet scenarios for LTE-A.

  20. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by

  1. Processing of Voiced and Unvoiced Acoustic Stimuli in Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Cyrill Guy Martin; Langer, Nicolas; Oechslin, Mathias S.; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that musical training induces changes in the processing of supra-segmental aspects of speech, such as pitch and prosody. The aim of the present study was to determine whether musical expertise also leads to an altered neurophysiological processing of sub-segmental information available in the speech signal, in particular the voice-onset-time. Using high-density EEG-recordings we analyzed the neurophysiological responses to voiced and unvoiced consonant-vowel-syllables and noise-analogs in 26 German speaking adult musicians and non-musicians. From the EEG the N1 amplitude of the event-related potential and two microstates from the topographical EEG analysis (one around the N1 amplitude and one immediately preceding the N1 microstate) were calculated to the different stimuli. Similar to earlier studies the N1 amplitude was different to voiced and unvoiced stimuli in non-musicians with larger amplitudes to voiced stimuli. The more refined microstate analysis revealed that the microstate within the N1 time window was shorter to unvoiced stimuli in non-musicians. For musicians there was no difference for the N1 amplitudes and the corresponding microstates between voiced and unvoiced stimuli. In addition, there was a longer very early microstate preceding the microstate at the N1 time window to non-speech stimuli only in musicians. Taken together, our findings suggest that musicians process unvoiced stimuli (irrespective whether these stimuli are speech or non-speech stimuli) differently than controls. We propose that musicians utilize the same network to analyze unvoiced stimuli as for the analysis of voiced stimuli. As a further explanation it is also possible that musicians devote more neurophysiological resources into the analysis of unvoiced segments. PMID:21922011

  2. VOIP over Space Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, C.; Kwong, W.; Pang, Jackson; Gao, Jerry; Clare, L.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) over a space networking environment. The topics include: 1) Drivers for VOIP in Space; 2) Challenges in the Space Networking Environment: Long Latencies, Path errors, Simplex paths, Asymmetric paths, QoS requirements, Team-based operations, and Overhead concerns; 3) Possible VOIPOSN approaches; 4) Study of BER, code type and voice frame length on PESQ-MOS; 5) Codec Latency Trade Space; and 6) Testbed.

  3. Mean-based neural coding of voices.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2013-10-01

    The social significance of recognizing the person who talks to us is obvious, but the neural mechanisms that mediate talker identification are unclear. Regions along the bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) of the human brain are selective for voices, and they are sensitive to rapid voice changes. Although it has been proposed that voice recognition is supported by prototype-centered voice representations, the involvement of these category-selective cortical regions in the neural coding of such "mean voices" has not previously been demonstrated. Using fMRI in combination with a voice identity learning paradigm, we show that voice-selective regions are involved in the mean-based coding of voice identities. Voice typicality is encoded on a supra-individual level in the right STS along a stimulus-dependent, identity-independent (i.e., voice-acoustic) dimension, and on an intra-individual level in the right IFC along a stimulus-independent, identity-dependent (i.e., voice identity) dimension. Voice recognition therefore entails at least two anatomically separable stages, each characterized by neural mechanisms that reference the central tendencies of voice categories. PMID:23664949

  4. Unattended network operations technology assessment study. Technical support for defining advanced satellite systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Holdridge, Mark; Odubiyi, Jide; Jaworski, Allan; Morgan, Herbert K.

    1991-01-01

    The results are summarized of an unattended network operations technology assessment study for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The scope of the work included: (1) identified possible enhancements due to the proposed Mars communications network; (2) identified network operations on Mars; (3) performed a technology assessment of possible supporting technologies based on current and future approaches to network operations; and (4) developed a plan for the testing and development of these technologies. The most important results obtained are as follows: (1) addition of a third Mars Relay Satellite (MRS) and MRS cross link capabilities will enhance the network's fault tolerance capabilities through improved connectivity; (2) network functions can be divided into the six basic ISO network functional groups; (3) distributed artificial intelligence technologies will augment more traditional network management technologies to form the technological infrastructure of a virtually unattended network; and (4) a great effort is required to bring the current network technology levels for manned space communications up to the level needed for an automated fault tolerance Mars communications network.

  5. Advanced course for doctors as Departmental IT Network Administrators in anesthesia and intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Vincenzo; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2006-10-01

    The design and administration of a departmental computer network (Local Area Network) in anesthesiology and intensive care offer the opportunity to manage clinical information and control the work-flow. To improve the local network, after basic design, intelligence is necessary to maintain its efficiency. For this reason the role of a medical administrator of the network is fundamental because he is a qualified figure who recognizes the most important characteristics that a network must have, knows the users of the system, represents a valid consultant for the technician that has to build the network, and is able to face possible breakdowns. This paper illustrates the structure of a course to train a medical network administrator in anesthesiology and critical care.

  6. The Voice as Computer Interface: A Look at Tomorrow's Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Holley R.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of voice as the communications device for computer-human interaction focuses on voice recognition systems for use within a library environment. Voice technologies are described, including voice response and voice recognition; examples of voice systems in use in libraries are examined; and further possibilities, including use with…

  7. Networks as a type of social entrepreneurship to advance population health.

    PubMed

    Wei-Skillern, Jane

    2010-11-01

    A detailed case study from the field of social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the network approach, which does not require more resources but rather makes better use of existing resources. Leaders in public health can use networks to overcome some of the barriers that inhibit the widespread adoption of a population health approach to community health. Public health leaders who embrace social entrepreneurship may be better able to accomplish their missions by building their networks rather than just their organizations. PMID:20950527

  8. Networks as a type of social entrepreneurship to advance population health.

    PubMed

    Wei-Skillern, Jane

    2010-11-01

    A detailed case study from the field of social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the network approach, which does not require more resources but rather makes better use of existing resources. Leaders in public health can use networks to overcome some of the barriers that inhibit the widespread adoption of a population health approach to community health. Public health leaders who embrace social entrepreneurship may be better able to accomplish their missions by building their networks rather than just their organizations.

  9. Advanced biomaterial strategies to transplant preformed micro-tissue engineered neural networks into the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. P.; Struzyna, L. A.; Murphy, P. L.; Adewole, D. O.; Kuo, E.; Cullen, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Connectome disruption is a hallmark of many neurological diseases and trauma with no current strategies to restore lost long-distance axonal pathways in the brain. We are creating transplantable micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), which are preformed constructs consisting of embedded neurons and long axonal tracts to integrate with the nervous system to physically reconstitute lost axonal pathways. Approach. We advanced micro-tissue engineering techniques to generate micro-TENNs consisting of discrete populations of mature primary cerebral cortical neurons spanned by long axonal fascicles encased in miniature hydrogel micro-columns. Further, we improved the biomaterial encasement scheme by adding a thin layer of low viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to enable needle-less insertion and rapid softening for mechanical similarity with brain tissue. Main results. The engineered architecture of cortical micro-TENNs facilitated robust neuronal viability and axonal cytoarchitecture to at least 22 days in vitro. Micro-TENNs displayed discrete neuronal populations spanned by long axonal fasciculation throughout the core, thus mimicking the general systems-level anatomy of gray matter—white matter in the brain. Additionally, micro-columns with thin CMC-coating upon mild dehydration were able to withstand a force of 893 ± 457 mN before buckling, whereas a solid agarose cylinder of similar dimensions was predicted to withstand less than 150 μN of force. This thin CMC coating increased the stiffness by three orders of magnitude, enabling needle-less insertion into brain while significantly reducing the footprint of previous needle-based delivery methods to minimize insertion trauma. Significance. Our novel micro-TENNs are the first strategy designed for minimally invasive implantation to facilitate nervous system repair by simultaneously providing neuronal replacement and physical reconstruction of long-distance axon pathways in the brain

  10. Finding Voice: Learning about Language and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Christensen discusses why teachers need to teach students "voice" in its social and political context, to show the intersection of voice and power, to encourage students to ask, "Whose voices get heard? Whose are marginalized?" As Christensen writes, "Once students begin to understand that Standard English is one language among many, we can help…

  11. Voicing Consciousness: The Mind in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce-Kapler, Rebecca; Catlin, Susan; Sumara, Dennis; Kocher, Philomene

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the enduring power of voice as a concept in writing pedagogy. They argue that one can benefit from considering Elbow's assertion that both text and voice be considered as important aspects of written discourse. In particular, voice is a powerful metaphor for the material, social and historical nature of…

  12. Voices Not Heard: Voice-Use Profiles of Elementary Music Teachers, the Effects of Voice Amplification on Vocal Load, and Perceptions of Issues Surrounding Voice Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers represent the largest group of occupational voice users and have voice-related problems at a rate of over twice that found in the general population. Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their…

  13. Advanced Test Reactor -- Testing Capabilities and Plans AND Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility -- Partnerships and Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2008-07-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plans for the NSUF.

  14. Advanced Bibliometric Methods To Model the Relationship between Entry Behavior and Networking in Emerging Technological Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debackere, Koenraad; Clarysse, Bart

    1998-01-01

    Technological communities used bibliometric data on 411 plant biotechnology organizations to study the effect of field density and structure of the research and development network. Findings indicate the usefulness of bibliometric data in mapping change in technological communities and in the effects of networking on entry behavior. (PEN)

  15. LambdaStation: Exploiting Advance Networks In Data Intensive High Energy Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-09-11

    Lambda Station software implements selective, dynamic, secure path control between local storage & analysis facilities, and high bandwidth, wide-area networks (WANs). It is intended to facilitate use of desirable, alternate wide area network paths which may only be intermittently available, or subject to policies that restrict usage to specified traffic. Lambda Station clients gain awareness of potential alternate network paths via Clarens-based web services, including path characteristics such as bandwidth and availability. If alternate path setup is requested and granted, Lambda Station will configure the local network infrastructure to properly forward designated data flows via the alternate path. A fully functional implementation of Lambda Station, capable of dynamic alternate WAN path setup and teardown, has been successfully developed. A limited Lambda Station-awareness capability within the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) product has been developed. Lambda Station has been successfully tested in a number of venues, including Super Computing 2008. LambdaStation software, developed by the Fermilab team, enables dynamic allocation of alternate network paths for high impact traffic and to forward designated flows across LAN. It negotiates with reservation and provisioning systems of WAN control planes, be it based on SONET channels, demand tunnels, or dynamic circuit networks. It creates End-To-End circuit between single hosts, computer farms or networks with predictable performance characteristics, preserving QoS if supported in LAN and WAN and tied security policy allowing only specific traffic to be forwarded or received through created path. Lambda Station project also explores Network Awareness capabilities.

  16. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-01-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  17. Application of neural networks to prediction of advanced composite structures mechanical response and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, K. J.; Vary, A.; Berke, L.; Kautz, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of neural networks were used to evaluate acousto-ultrasonic (AU) data for material characterization and mechanical reponse prediction. The neural networks included a simple feedforward network (backpropagation) and a radial basis functions network. Comparisons of results in terms of accuracy and training time are given. Acousto-ultrasonic (AU) measurements were performed on a series of tensile specimens composed of eight laminated layers of continuous, SiC fiber reinforced Ti-15-3 matrix. The frequency spectrum was dominated by frequencies of longitudinal wave resonance through the thickness of the specimen at the sending transducer. The magnitude of the frequency spectrum of the AU signal was used for calculating a stress-wave factor based on integrating the spectral distribution function and used for comparison with neural networks results.

  18. Faculty Peer Networks: Role and Relevance in Advancing Agency and Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Organisational efforts to alter gender asymmetries are relatively rare, yet they are taking place in a number of universities. In the USA, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, ADVANCE programmes implement a number of interventions to improve the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women faculty. This study focused on one common…

  19. A Voice for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Philip

    2000-01-01

    A former National Teacher of the Year describes his year as ambassador for the profession. He believes most people cannot do what teachers do daily--walk into a classroom and motivate, engage, and teach young people. Society must learn to respect the teaching profession; educators must advance its cause. (MLH)

  20. Effectiveness of voice therapy in reflux-related voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vashani, K; Murugesh, M; Hattiangadi, G; Gore, G; Keer, V; Ramesh, V S; Sandur, V; Bhatia, S J

    2010-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with laryngopharyngeal reflux plays a significant role in voice disorders. A significant proportion of patients attending ear, nose, and throat clinics with voice disorders may have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There is no controlled study of the effect of voice therapy on GERD. We assessed the effect of voice therapy in patients with dysphonia and GERD. Thirty-two patients with dysphonia and GERD underwent indirect laryngoscopy and voice analysis. Esophageal and laryngeal symptoms were assessed using the reflux symptom index (RSI). At endoscopy, esophagitis was graded according to Los Angeles classification. Patients were randomized to receive either voice therapy and omeprazole (20 mg bid) (n=16, mean [SD] age 36.1 [9.6] y; 5 men; Gp A) or omeprazole alone (n=16, age 31.8 [11.7] y; 9 men; Gp B). During voice analysis, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and normalized noise energy (NNE) were assessed using the Dr. Speech software (version 4 1998; Tigers DRS, Inc). Hoarseness and breathiness of voice were assessed using a perceptual rating scale of 0-3. Parameters were reassessed after 6 weeks, and analyzed using parametric or nonparametric tests as applicable. In Group A, 9 patients had Grade A, 3 had Grade B, and 1 had Grade C esophagitis; 3 had normal study. In Group B, 8 patients had Grade A, 2 had Grade B esophagitis, and 6 had normal study. Baseline findings: median RSI scores were comparable (Group A 20.0 [range 14-27], Group B 19.0 [15-24]). Median rating was 2.0 for hoarseness and breathiness for both groups. Values in Groups A and B for jitter 0.5 (0.6) versus 0.5 (0.8), shimmer 3.1 (2.5) versus 2.8 (2.0), HNR 23.0 (5.6) versus 23.1 (4.2), and NNE -7.3 (3.2) versus -7.2 (3.4) were similar. Post-therapy values for Groups A and B: RSI scores were 9.0 (5-13; P<0.01 as compared with baseline) and 13.0 (10-17; P<0.01), respectively. Ratings for hoarseness and breathiness were 0.5 (P<0.01) and 1.0 (P<0

  1. More than Just Two Sexes: The Neural Correlates of Voice Gender Perception in Gender Dysphoria

    PubMed Central

    Junger, Jessica; Habel, Ute; Bröhr, Sabine; Neulen, Josef; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane; Birkholz, Peter; Kohler, Christian; Schneider, Frank; Derntl, Birgit; Pauly, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (also known as “transsexualism”) is characterized as a discrepancy between anatomical sex and gender identity. Research points towards neurobiological influences. Due to the sexually dimorphic characteristics of the human voice, voice gender perception provides a biologically relevant function, e.g. in the context of mating selection. There is evidence for a better recognition of voices of the opposite sex and a differentiation of the sexes in its underlying functional cerebral correlates, namely the prefrontal and middle temporal areas. This fMRI study investigated the neural correlates of voice gender perception in 32 male-to-female gender dysphoric individuals (MtFs) compared to 20 non-gender dysphoric men and 19 non-gender dysphoric women. Participants indicated the sex of 240 voice stimuli modified in semitone steps in the direction to the other gender. Compared to men and women, MtFs showed differences in a neural network including the medial prefrontal gyrus, the insula, and the precuneus when responding to male vs. female voices. With increased voice morphing men recruited more prefrontal areas compared to women and MtFs, while MtFs revealed a pattern more similar to women. On a behavioral and neuronal level, our results support the feeling of MtFs reporting they cannot identify with their assigned sex. PMID:25375171

  2. Children's voices: can we hear them?

    PubMed

    McPherson, G; Thorne, S

    2000-02-01

    This article addresses an important but often neglected notion in the care of children--the notion of voice. Recognizing that a crucial role for pediatric nurses is that of advocate for the child, this article poses the questions of how children's voices can be heard and how nurses know whose voice they represent when they act in an advocacy capacity. Drawing on contributions from psychology, sociology, and feminist studies, the analysis narrows our focus to the special challenge created for pediatric nurses when they recognize the importance of voice in caring for children, and examines the complexities inherent in attending to voice in pediatric nursing practice.

  3. Voices for Illinois Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Illinois Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These two newsletter issues recount activities of Voices for Illinois Children to ensure that basic needs of children, families, and communities are met. The summer issue notes various bills in progress in the Illinois House, and looks at the lack of health insurance affecting more than 300,000 Illinois children. Child advocacy efforts are also…

  4. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25 chapters are:…

  5. Taking Care of Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... printed list of organizations, contact us at: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 Communication Avenue Bethesda, MD 20892-3456 Toll-free Voice: ( ... us on Contact ... Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC 2320, Bethesda, MD ...

  6. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  7. Beyond Insularity: Releasing the Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Maxine

    1993-01-01

    Aspects of English-as-a-Second-Language are discussed from the standpoint of a teacher-educator with a particular interest in philosophy, the arts, and humanities and what they signify for the schools. The idea of giving voice to all viewpoints and sociocultural circumstances is considered for content learning and heterogeneous grouping. (Contains…

  8. Clinical Management of Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donna Russell; Blechman, Mark

    Presented for the practicing speech clinician is a guide for appropriate management of voice disorders. The value of a clinician's awareness of vocal dysfunction is stressed, and various techniques (such as indirect laryngoscopy) used in laryngeal examinations are described briefly. A chapter on procedures for evaluation and quantification of…

  9. Voice command weapons launching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. E.

    1984-09-01

    This abstract discloses a voice-controlled weapons launching system for use by a pilot of an aircraft against a plurality of simultaneously appearing (i.e., existing) targets, such as two or more aggressor aircraft (or tanks, or the like) attacking more aggressor aircraft. The system includes, in combination, a voice controlled input device linked to and controlling a computer; apparatus (such as a television camera, receiver, and display), linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot, for acquiring and displaying an image of the multi-target area; a laser, linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot to point to (and to lock on to) any one of the plurality of targets, with the laser emitting a beam toward the designated (i.e., selected) target; and a plurality of laser beam-rider missiles, with a different missile being launched toward and attacking each different designated target by riding the laser beam to that target. Unlike the prior art, the system allows the pilot to use his hands full-time to fly and to control the aircraft, while also permitting him to launch each different missile in rapid sequence by giving a two-word spoken command after he has visually selected each target of the plurality of targets, thereby making it possible for the pilot of a single defender aircraft to prevail against the plurality of simultaneously attacking aircraft, or tanks, or the like.

  10. Stage I: Development of VOICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echternacht, Gary J.; And Others

    The initial stages of test development of the Vocational and Occupational Interest Choice Examination (VOICE), developed for Air Force recruiters, are described. Reviewed are a number of relevant occupational interest inventories from which a pool of 400 items was drawn corresponding to eight career fields: general accounting, administration,…

  11. The advancement of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry for structural proteomics: from single proteins to protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Sinz, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    During the last 15 years, chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry (MS) and computational modeling has advanced from investigating 3D-structures of isolated proteins to deciphering protein interaction networks. In this article, the author discusses the advent, the development and the current status of the chemical cross-linking/MS strategy in the context of recent technological developments. A direct way to probe in vivo protein-protein interactions is by site-specific incorporation of genetically encoded photo-reactive amino acids or by non-directed incorporation of photo-reactive amino acids. As the chemical cross-linking/MS approach allows the capture of transient and weak interactions, it has the potential to become a routine technique for unraveling protein interaction networks in their natural cellular environment.

  12. Voice cells in the primate temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2011-08-23

    Communication signals are important for social interactions and survival and are thought to receive specialized processing in the visual and auditory systems. Whereas the neural processing of faces by face clusters and face cells has been repeatedly studied [1-5], less is known about the neural representation of voice content. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have localized voice-preferring regions in the primate temporal lobe [6, 7], but the hemodynamic response cannot directly assess neurophysiological properties. We investigated the responses of neurons in an fMRI-identified voice cluster in awake monkeys, and here we provide the first systematic evidence for voice cells. "Voice cells" were identified, in analogy to "face cells," as neurons responding at least 2-fold stronger to conspecific voices than to "nonvoice" sounds or heterospecific voices. Importantly, whereas face clusters are thought to contain high proportions of face cells [4] responding broadly to many faces [1, 2, 4, 5, 8-10], we found that voice clusters contain moderate proportions of voice cells. Furthermore, individual voice cells exhibit high stimulus selectivity. The results reveal the neurophysiological bases for fMRI-defined voice clusters in the primate brain and highlight potential differences in how the auditory and visual systems generate selective representations of communication signals. PMID:21835625

  13. A flexible state-space approach for the modeling of metabolic networks II: advanced interrogation of hybridoma metabolism.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Adam C; Sharfstein, Susan T; Martin, Lealon L

    2011-03-01

    Having previously introduced the mathematical framework of topological metabolic analysis (TMA) - a novel optimization-based technique for modeling metabolic networks of arbitrary size and complexity - we demonstrate how TMA facilitates unique methods of metabolic interrogation. With the aid of several hybridoma metabolic investigations as case-studies (Bonarius et al., 1995, 1996, 2001), we first establish that the TMA framework identifies biologically important aspects of the metabolic network under investigation. We also show that the use of a structured weighting approach within our objective provides a substantial modeling benefit over an unstructured, uniform, weighting approach. We then illustrate the strength of TAM as an advanced interrogation technique, first by using TMA to prove the existence of (and to quantitatively describe) multiple topologically distinct configurations of a metabolic network that each optimally model a given set of experimental observations. We further show that such alternate topologies are indistinguishable using existing stoichiometric modeling techniques, and we explain the biological significance of the topological variables appearing within our model. By leveraging the manner in which TMA implements metabolite inputs and outputs, we also show that metabolites whose possible metabolic fates are inadequately described by a given network reconstruction can be quickly identified. Lastly, we show how the use of the TMA aggregate objective function (AOF) permits the identification of modeling solutions that can simultaneously consider experimental observations, underlying biological motivations, or even purely engineering- or design-based goals.

  14. Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) in a Control Center Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirani, Joseph; Calvelage, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The technology of transmitting voice over data networks has been available for over 10 years. Mass market VoIP services for consumers to make and receive standard telephone calls over broadband Internet networks have grown in the last 5 years. While operational costs are less with VoIP implementations as opposed to time division multiplexing (TDM) based voice switches, is it still advantageous to convert a mission control center s voice system to this newer technology? Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) has converted its mission voice services to a commercial product that utilizes VoIP technology. Results from this testing, design, and installation have shown unique considerations that must be addressed before user operations. There are many factors to consider for a control center voice design. Technology advantages and disadvantages were investigated as they refer to cost. There were integration concerns which could lead to complex failure scenarios but simpler integration for the mission infrastructure. MSFC HOSC will benefit from this voice conversion with less product replacement cost, less operations cost and a more integrated mission services environment.

  15. National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Point-of-Care Technology Research Network: Advancing Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ford Carleton, Penny; Parrish, John A.; Collins, John M.; Crocker, J. Benjamin; Dixon, Ronald F.; Edgman-Levitan, Susan; Lewandrowski, Kent B.; Stahl, James E.; Klapperich, Catherine; Cabodi, Mario; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Rompalo, Anne M.; Manabe, Yukari; Wang, Tza-Huei; Rothman, Richard; Geddes, Chris D.; Widdice, Lea; Jackman, Joany; Mathura, Rishi A.; Lash, Tiffani Bailey

    2016-01-01

    To advance the development of point-of-care technology (POCT), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering established the POCT Research Network (POCTRN), comprised of Centers that emphasize multidisciplinary partnerships and close facilitation to move technologies from an early stage of development into clinical testing and patient use. This paper describes the POCTRN and the three currently funded Centers as examples of academic-based organizations that support collaborations across disciplines, institutions, and geographic regions to successfully drive innovative solutions from concept to patient care. PMID:27730014

  16. Heterogeneous voice flows-oriented call admission control in IEEE 802.11e WLANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi-lin; Huang, Zhen-jin; Wang, Shi-yi

    2014-04-01

    Considering the circumstance of heterogeneous voice flows, first, by applying Markov chain, this paper proposes an unsaturated analytical model for the IEEE 802.11e EDCA protocol, which considers the condition of non-ideal transmission channel and the character of the occurrence of backoff countdown at the beginning of time slot in EDCA protocol. Furthermore, according to the proposed model, the media access delay and throughput of a flow are analysed, and the flow-oriented call admission control (CAC) scheme is proposed. Finally, the simulation results are shown to confirm that the proposed CAC scheme can guarantee the requirements of throughput and delay of voice flows, and can admit more voice flows to improve the utilisation efficiency of network resources by choosing the appropriate values of the minimum contention window or the appropriate varieties of voice flows.

  17. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon

    2015-06-01

    People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice; the speculative concept Speech Hedge illustrates challenges and opportunities in designing more expressive user interfaces; the pilot project Tonetable could enable participatory research and seed a research network around tone of voice. We speculate that more radical interactions might expand frontiers of AAC and disrupt speech technology as a whole.

  18. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology

    PubMed Central

    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice; the speculative concept Speech Hedge illustrates challenges and opportunities in designing more expressive user interfaces; the pilot project Tonetable could enable participatory research and seed a research network around tone of voice. We speculate that more radical interactions might expand frontiers of AAC and disrupt speech technology as a whole. PMID:25965913

  19. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon

    2015-06-01

    People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice; the speculative concept Speech Hedge illustrates challenges and opportunities in designing more expressive user interfaces; the pilot project Tonetable could enable participatory research and seed a research network around tone of voice. We speculate that more radical interactions might expand frontiers of AAC and disrupt speech technology as a whole. PMID:25965913

  20. Temporal voice areas exist in autism spectrum disorder but are dysfunctional for voice identity recognition

    PubMed Central

    Borowiak, Kamila; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recognise the identity of others is a key requirement for successful communication. Brain regions that respond selectively to voices exist in humans from early infancy on. Currently, it is unclear whether dysfunction of these voice-sensitive regions can explain voice identity recognition impairments. Here, we used two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate voice processing in a population that has been reported to have no voice-sensitive regions: autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our results refute the earlier report that individuals with ASD have no responses in voice-sensitive regions: Passive listening to vocal, compared to non-vocal, sounds elicited typical responses in voice-sensitive regions in the high-functioning ASD group and controls. In contrast, the ASD group had a dysfunction in voice-sensitive regions during voice identity but not speech recognition in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG)—a region implicated in processing complex spectrotemporal voice features and unfamiliar voices. The right anterior STS/STG correlated with voice identity recognition performance in controls but not in the ASD group. The findings suggest that right STS/STG dysfunction is critical for explaining voice recognition impairments in high-functioning ASD and show that ASD is not characterised by a general lack of voice-sensitive responses. PMID:27369067

  1. SCIGN; new Southern California GPS network advances the study of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudnut, Ken; King, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Southern California is a giant jigsaw puzzle, and scientists are now using GPS satellites to track the pieces. These puzzle pieces are continuously moving, slowly straining the faults in between. That strain is then eventually released in earthquakes. The innovative Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) tracks the motions of these pieces over most of southern California with unprecedented precision. This new network greatly improves the ability to assess seismic hazards and quickly measure the larger displacements that occur during and immediatelyafter earthquakes.

  2. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fiber optics has emerged as a highly practical and cost-efficient communications technology. Its competitiveness vis-a-vis other transmission media, especially satellite, has become a critical question. This report studies the likely evolution and application of fiber optic networks in the United States to the end of the century. The outlook for the technology of fiber systems is assessed and forecast, scenarios of the evolution of fiber optic network development are constructed, and costs to provide service are determined and examined parametrically as a function of network size and traffic carried. Volume 1 consists of the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic technology and long distance fiber optic networks. Volume 3 develops a traffic and financial model of a nationwide long distance transmission network. Among the study's most important conclusions are: revenue requirements per circuit for LATA-to-LATA fiber optic links are less than one cent per call minute; multiplex equipment, which is likely to be required in any competing system, is the largest contributor to circuit costs; the potential capacity of fiber optic cable is very large and as yet undefined; and fiber optic transmission combined with other network optimization schemes can lead to even lower costs than those identified in this study.

  3. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. lrwin; Luiz A. DaSilva

    2011-05-01

    As early as 2014, wireless network operators spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by a data tsunami brought on by new devices and applications. To augment spectral capacity, operators could deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. In the light of the many planned Long Term Evolution (LTE) network deployments, the affects of a DSA overlay have not been fully considered into the existing LTE standards. Coalescing many different aspects of DSA, this paper develops the Spectrum Accountability (SA) framework. The SA framework defines specific network element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams for LTE to support service requests and enforce rights of responsibilities of primary and secondary users, respectively. We also include a network simulation to quantify the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity. Based on our simulation we show that, network operators can benefit up to %40 increase in operating capacity when sharing DSA bands to augment spectral capacity. With our framework, this paper could serve as an guide in developing future LTE network standards that include DSA.

  4. Advanced data compression promises the next big leap in network performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtz, Klaus E.; Holtz, Eric S.; Kalienky, Diana

    1998-09-01

    Three recently introduced technologies: a new Autosophy information theory; fast Content Addressable Memories; and Packet Switching protocols, are combined in data compression chipsets to improve network throughput with real-time lossless text and image compression. Compared with the cost of putting new cables into the ground or launching new satellites, data compression chipsets offer a much less expensive alternative for improving the bandwidth of broadband communication networks. Data compression is based on a new Autosophy information theory in which, in contrast to Shannon's theory, communication is determined only by the data content. In addition to high lossless data compression, this also provides virtually unbreakable 'codebook' encryption and easier communication via packet switching networks. The Autosophy theories provide eight known classes of self-learning Omni Dimensional Networks. Only the serial network is explained here for use in compressed text and video communications. A new Content Addressable Read Only Memory (CAROM) may increase data compression speed to more than 20 Million symbols per second, fast enough for virtually any network speed.

  5. A Neural Network Aero Design System for Advanced Turbo-Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse design method calculates the blade shape that produces a prescribed input pressure distribution. By controlling this input pressure distribution the aerodynamic design objectives can easily be met. Because of the intrinsic relationship between pressure distribution and airfoil physical properties, a Neural Network can be trained to choose the optimal pressure distribution that would meet a set of physical requirements. Neural network systems have been attempted in the context of direct design methods. From properties ascribed to a set of blades the neural network is trained to infer the properties of an 'interpolated' blade shape. The problem is that, especially in transonic regimes where we deal with intrinsically non linear and ill posed problems, small perturbations of the blade shape can produce very large variations of the flow parameters. It is very unlikely that, under these circumstances, a neural network will be able to find the proper solution. The unique situation in the present method is that the neural network can be trained to extract the required input pressure distribution from a database of pressure distributions while the inverse method will still compute the exact blade shape that corresponds to this 'interpolated' input pressure distribution. In other words, the interpolation process is transferred to a smoother problem, namely, finding what pressure distribution would produce the required flow conditions and, once this is done, the inverse method will compute the exact solution for this problem. The use of neural network is, in this context, highly related to the use of proper optimization techniques. The optimization is used essentially as an automation procedure to force the input pressure distributions to achieve the required aero and structural design parameters. A multilayered feed forward network with back-propagation is used to train the system for pattern association and classification.

  6. Advancement in the application of neural networks for short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, T.M.; Hubele, N.F.; Karady, G.G. )

    1992-02-01

    In this paper an improved neural network approach is proposed to produce short-term electric load forecasts. A new strategy, suitable for selecting the training cases for the neural network, is presented. This strategy uses a minimum distance measurement to identify the appropriate historical patterns of load and temperature readings to be used to estimate the network weights. This strategy has the advantage of circumventing the problem of holidays and drastic changes in weather patterns, which make the most recent observations unlikely candidates for training the network. In addition, an improved neural network algorithm is proposed. This algorithm includes a combination of linear and nonlinear terms which map past load and temperature inputs to the load forecast output. The new search strategy and algorithm demonstrate improved accuracy over other methods when tested using two years of utility data. In addition to reporting the summary statistics of average and standard deviation of absolute percentage error, an alternate method using a cumulative distribution plot for presenting load forecasting results is demonstrated.

  7. Advances in cables and outside plant for cable television and optical fibre local networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridle, Peter

    1986-11-01

    During 1985 Bristish Telecom commenced the installation of a number of cable television systems in the United Kingdom. One of these systems, in Westminster, London, is of the Switched Star type, developed by the British Telecom Research Laboratories. The network comprises optical fiber cable between the head-end and the cabinet-mounted switch, and coaxial cable between the switch and the customer. A number of new outside plant products have been developed to meet the special requirements of the Westminister installation. This earlier work, together with the experience gained from the installation of optical fibers in the British Telecom trunk and junction networks, formed an ideal basis for evolving the line plant necessary to enable BT to introduce singlemode optical fiber into the local network. A range of cables is being developed by UK companies, suitable for installing in the harsh environment of the local network. Joint organizers and flexibility nodes are being introduced, both for underground application and for within the exchange and customer's premises. In addition blown-fiber techniques are being used to introduce fiber into these networks.

  8. The Present and Future Opportunities of the Rare Cancer Network: An International Consortium for Advancement of Oncologic Care.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    To date, the Rare Cancer Network (RCN) has initiated more than 90 studies and 54 peer-reviewed publications were produced as a result. The Second International Symposium of the Rare Cancer Network recently took place in Istanbul, Turkey on April 17-18, 2015, and update was given on multiple currently ongoing projects, while also giving room for new proposals which will shape the direction of future studies for the group. This companion issue of the RCN Proceedings summarized the findings of this meeting, while also serving as a call for fresh projects and papers which will continue to energize the group and advance the oncologic science. A brief introduction to the principles, history, and vision of the RCN was also included. To review, the academic year of 2014-15 marked an enormous success for the international members of the RCN, with the generation of 8 fully published papers and more than 12 newly proposed topics. By the collective efforts of all RCN members, in the future, we look forward to the upcoming opportunities in continuing to advance the standard of chemo- and radiotherapeutic oncologic care for selected rare tumor topics. The studies of these rare cancers often do not allow the design and execution of prospectively enrolled trials; however, these uncommon malignancies do impact the humankind and add to its suffering globally in significant ways. PMID:26500735

  9. The Present and Future Opportunities of the Rare Cancer Network: An International Consortium for Advancement of Oncologic Care

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To date, the Rare Cancer Network (RCN) has initiated more than 90 studies and 54 peer-reviewed publications were produced as a result. The Second International Symposium of the Rare Cancer Network recently took place in Istanbul, Turkey on April 17-18, 2015, and update was given on multiple currently ongoing projects, while also giving room for new proposals which will shape the direction of future studies for the group. This companion issue of the RCN Proceedings summarized the findings of this meeting, while also serving as a call for fresh projects and papers which will continue to energize the group and advance the oncologic science. A brief introduction to the principles, history, and vision of the RCN was also included. To review, the academic year of 2014-15 marked an enormous success for the international members of the RCN, with the generation of 8 fully published papers and more than 12 newly proposed topics. By the collective efforts of all RCN members, in the future, we look forward to the upcoming opportunities in continuing to advance the standard of chemo- and radiotherapeutic oncologic care for selected rare tumor topics. The studies of these rare cancers often do not allow the design and execution of prospectively enrolled trials; however, these uncommon malignancies do impact the humankind and add to its suffering globally in significant ways. PMID:26500735

  10. Resonant voice: spectral and nasendoscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cara G; Finnegan, Eileen M; Karnell, Michael P

    2005-12-01

    Although resonant voice therapy is a widely used therapeutic approach, little is known about what characterizes resonant voice and how it is physiologically produced. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that resonant voice is produced by narrowing the laryngeal vestibule and is characterized by first formant tuning and more ample harmonics. Videonasendoscopic recordings of the laryngeal vestibule were made during nonresonant and resonant productions of /i/ in six subjects. Spectrums of the two voice types were also obtained. Spectral analysis showed that first formant tuning was exhibited during resonant voice productions and that the degree of harmonic enhancement in the range of 2.0 to 3.5 kHz was related to voice quality: nonresonant voice had the least amount of energy in this range, whereas a resonant-relaxed voice had more energy, and a resonant-bright voice had the greatest amount of energy. Visual-perceptual judgments of the videoendoscopic data indicated that laryngeal vestibule constriction was not consistently associated with resonant voice production. PMID:16301106

  11. Pitch strength of normal and dysphonic voices

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Rahul; Eddins, David A.; Anand, Supraja

    2012-01-01

    Two sounds with the same pitch may vary from each other based on saliency of their pitch sensation. This perceptual attribute is called “pitch strength.” The study of voice pitch strength may be important in quantifying of normal and pathological qualities. The present study investigated how pitch strength varies across normal and dysphonic voices. A set of voices (vowel /a/) selected from the Kay Elemetrics Disordered Voice Database served as the stimuli. These stimuli demonstrated a wide range of voice quality. Ten listeners judged the pitch strength of these stimuli in an anchored magnitude estimation task. On a given trial, listeners heard three different stimuli. The first stimulus represented very low pitch strength (wide-band noise), the second stimulus consisted of the target voice and the third stimulus represented very high pitch strength (pure tone). Listeners estimated pitch strength of the target voice by positioning a continuous slider labeled with values between 0 and 1, reflecting the two anchor stimuli. Results revealed that listeners can judge pitch strength reliably in dysphonic voices. Moderate to high correlations with perceptual judgments of voice quality suggest that pitch strength may contribute to voice quality judgments. PMID:22423721

  12. A Neural Network Aero Design System for Advanced Turbo-Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse design method calculates the blade shape that produces a prescribed input pressure distribution. By controlling this input pressure distribution the aerodynamic design objectives can easily be met. Because of the intrinsic relationship between pressure distribution and airfoil physical properties, a neural network can be trained to choose the optimal pressure distribution that would meet a set of physical requirements. The neural network technique works well not only as an interpolating device but also as an extrapolating device to achieve blade designs from a given database. Two validating test cases are discussed.

  13. Space lab system analysis: Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) communications networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, Frank M.; Moorhead, Robert J., II; Moorhead, Jane N.; Shearin, C. Mark; Thompson, Dale R.

    1990-01-01

    A synopsis of research on computer viruses and computer security is presented. A review of seven technical meetings attended is compiled. A technical discussion on the communication plans for the ASRM facility is presented, with a brief tutorial on the potential local area network media and protocols.

  14. Mining protein interactomes to improve their reliability and support the advancement of network medicine.

    PubMed

    Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput detection of protein interactions has had a major impact in our understanding of the intricate molecular machinery underlying the living cell, and has permitted the construction of very large protein interactomes. The protein networks that are currently available are incomplete and a significant percentage of their interactions are false positives. Fortunately, the structural properties observed in good quality social or technological networks are also present in biological systems. This has encouraged the development of tools, to improve the reliability of protein networks and predict new interactions based merely on the topological characteristics of their components. Since diseases are rarely caused by the malfunction of a single protein, having a more complete and reliable interactome is crucial in order to identify groups of inter-related proteins involved in disease etiology. These system components can then be targeted with minimal collateral damage. In this article, an important number of network mining tools is reviewed, together with resources from which reliable protein interactomes can be constructed. In addition to the review, a few representative examples of how molecular and clinical data can be integrated to deepen our understanding of pathogenesis are discussed.

  15. The human voice areas: Spatial organization and inter-individual variability in temporal and extra-temporal cortices

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Cyril R.; McAleer, Phil; Latinus, Marianne; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Charest, Ian; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E.G.; Watson, Rebecca H.; Fleming, David; Crabbe, Frances; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell; Belin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    fMRI studies increasingly examine functions and properties of non-primary areas of human auditory cortex. However there is currently no standardized localization procedure to reliably identify specific areas across individuals such as the standard ‘localizers’ available in the visual domain. Here we present an fMRI ‘voice localizer’ scan allowing rapid and reliable localization of the voice-sensitive ‘temporal voice areas’ (TVA) of human auditory cortex. We describe results obtained using this standardized localizer scan in a large cohort of normal adult subjects. Most participants (94%) showed bilateral patches of significantly greater response to vocal than non-vocal sounds along the superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG). Individual activation patterns, although reproducible, showed high inter-individual variability in precise anatomical location. Cluster analysis of individual peaks from the large cohort highlighted three bilateral clusters of voice-sensitivity, or “voice patches” along posterior (TVAp), mid (TVAm) and anterior (TVAa) STS/STG, respectively. A series of extra-temporal areas including bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex and amygdalae showed small, but reliable voice-sensitivity as part of a large-scale cerebral voice network. Stimuli for the voice localizer scan and probabilistic maps in MNI space are available for download. PMID:26116964

  16. Adapting Advanced Information Technology Network Training for Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Helen L.; Murray, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an accessible e-learning environment that was designed to deliver advanced IT skills to legally blind students in preparation for employment. The aim was to convert industry-standard training materials in print into accessible formats and to deliver the learning materials in ways that are more suited to adult students with…

  17. Development of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Control and Advanced Emissions Modeling for Parallel Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopalan, A.; Washington, G.; Rizzoni, G.; Guezennec, Y.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the development of new control strategies and models for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) by the Ohio State University. The report indicates results from models created in NREL's ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR 3.2), and results of a scalable IC Engine model, called in Willan's Line technique, implemented in ADVISOR 3.2.

  18. A Comparison of Adolescents' Friendship Networks by Advanced Coursework Participation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    2015-01-01

    Friendships serve as a source of support and as a context for developing social competence. Although advanced coursework may provide a unique context for the development of friendships, more research is needed to explore exactly what differences exist. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and…

  19. Intelligent Control via Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Coal Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aman Behal; Sunil Kumar; Goodarz Ahmadi

    2007-08-05

    Numerical Modeling of Solid Gas Flow, System Identification for purposes of modeling and control, and Wireless Sensor and Actor Network design were pursued as part of this project. Time series input-output data was obtained from NETL's Morgantown CFB facility courtesy of Dr. Lawrence Shadle. It was run through a nonlinear kernel estimator and nonparametric models were obtained for the system. Linear and first-order nonlinear kernels were then utilized to obtain a state-space description of the system. Neural networks were trained that performed better at capturing the plant dynamics. It is possible to use these networks to find a plant model and the inversion of this model can be used to control the system. These models allow one to compare with physics based models whose parameters can then be determined by comparing them against the available data based model. On a parallel track, Dr. Kumar designed an energy-efficient and reliable transport protocol for wireless sensor and actor networks, where the sensors could be different types of wireless sensors used in CFB based coal combustion systems and actors are more powerful wireless nodes to set up a communication network while avoiding the data congestion. Dr. Ahmadi's group studied gas solid flow in a duct. It was seen that particle concentration clearly shows a preferential distribution. The particles strongly interact with the turbulence eddies and are concentrated in narrow bands that are evolving with time. It is believed that observed preferential concentration is due to the fact that these particles are flung out of eddies by centrifugal force.

  20. Fetuses respond to father's voice but prefer mother's voice after birth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace Y; Kisilevsky, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Fetal and newborn responding to audio-recordings of their father's versus mother's reading a story were examined. At home, fathers read a different story to the fetus each day for 7 days. Subsequently, in the laboratory, continuous fetal heart rate was recorded during a 9 min protocol, including three, 3 min periods: baseline no-sound, voice (mother or father), postvoice no-sound. Following a 20 min delay, the opposite voice was delivered. Newborn head-turning was observed on 20 s trials: three no-sound, three voice (mother or father), three opposite voice, three no-sound trials with the same segment of each parent's recording. Fetuses showed a heart rate increase to both voices which was sustained over the voice period. Consistent with prior reports, newborns showed a preference for their mother's but not their father's voice. The characteristics of voice stimuli that capture fetal attention and elicit a response are yet to be identified. PMID:23817883

  1. [The smokers voice self assessment based on Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    Complex voice assessment due to European Laryngeal Society proposals (2000) contains voice self estimation based on the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study focuses on the relation between voice handicap and smoking in dysphonic patients, who are using voice professionally. Thirty outpatient (25 female and 5 male, aged 40 to 55 years) voice department attendees suffering from professional dysphonia took part in this study. All patients after phoniatric examination completed the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The questions concern functional, emotional and physical complains due to dysphonia. Most of smokers did not complain of dysphonia related problems comparing to non smokers. Even the scores of functional and emotional scales of VHI in smokers shown better results (less handicap) than in nonsmokers. Smoking does not affect patients handicap due to dysphonia measured in the Voice Handicap Index.

  2. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance

  3. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  4. Human recognition of familiar voices.

    PubMed

    Wenndt, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    Recognizing familiar voices is something we do every day. In quiet environments, it is usually easy to recognize a familiar voice. In noisier environments, this can become a difficult task. This paper examines how robust listeners are at identifying familiar voices in noisy, changing environments and what factors may affect their recognition rates. While there is previous research addressing familiar speaker recognition, the research is limited due to the difficulty in obtaining appropriate data that eliminates speaker dependent traits, such as word choice, along with having corresponding listeners who are familiar with the speakers. The data used in this study were collected in such a fashion to mimic conversational, free-flow dialogue, but in a way to eliminate many variables such as word choice, intonation, or non-verbal cues. These data provide some of the most realistic test scenarios to-date for familiar speaker identification. A pure-tone hearing test was used to separate listeners into normal hearing and hearing impaired groups. It is hypothesized that the results of the Normal Hearing Group will be statistically better. Additionally, the aspect of familiar speaker recognition is addressed by having each listener rate his or her familiarity with each speaker. Two statistical approaches showed that the more familiar a listener is with a speaker, the more likely the listener will recognize the speaker. PMID:27586746

  5. Voice interactive systems in severe noise conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeneken, J. H. M.; Langhout, G.

    1987-02-01

    In a comparison of word recognition performance between human listeners and automatic speech recognition systems (ASR), the human listeners performs much better, especially in severe noise conditions. An application engineer can try to optimize the performance of an ASR system by selecting the optimal noise cancelling microphone and vocabulary for voice input. Some results from a study on the effect of signal handling and vocabulary configuration on the performance of voice input and voice output systems are discussed.

  6. Voice-stress measure of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Murray; Schneider, Sid J.

    1988-01-01

    In a planned experiment, male subjects between the age of 18 and 50 will be required to produce speech while performing various tasks. Analysis of the speech produced should reveal which aspects of voice prosody are associated with increased workloads. Preliminary results with two female subjects suggest a possible trend for voice frequency and amplitude to be higher and the variance of the voice frequency to be lower in the high workload condition.

  7. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice. PMID:20718517

  8. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice.

  9. Advances in dynamic modeling of colorectal cancer signaling-network regions, a path toward targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Ambrosi, Cristina De; Barla, Annalisa; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Nencioni, Alessio; Patrone, Franco; Ballestrero, Alberto; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Verri, Alessandro; Parodi, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The interconnected network of pathways downstream of the TGFβ, WNT and EGF-families of receptor ligands play an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. We studied and implemented dynamic simulations of multiple downstream pathways and described the section of the signaling network considered as a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our simulations used Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), which involved 447 reactants and their interactions. Starting from an initial “physiologic condition”, the model can be adapted to simulate individual pathologic cancer conditions implementing alterations/mutations in relevant onco-proteins. We verified some salient model predictions using the mutated colorectal cancer lines HCT116 and HT29. We measured the amount of MYC and CCND1 mRNAs and AKT and ERK phosphorylated proteins, in response to individual or combination onco-protein inhibitor treatments. Experimental and simulation results were well correlated. Recent independently published results were also predicted by our model. Even in the presence of an approximate and incomplete signaling network information, a predictive dynamic modeling seems already possible. An important long term road seems to be open and can be pursued further, by incremental steps, toward even larger and better parameterized MIMs. Personalized treatment strategies with rational associations of signaling-proteins inhibitors, could become a realistic goal. PMID:25671297

  10. Synthesis of bacteria promoted reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide networks for advanced supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiming; Yu, Xinzhi; Guo, Di; Qu, Baihua; Zhang, Ming; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-08-14

    Supercapacitors with potential high power are useful and have attracted much attention recently. Graphene-based composites have been demonstrated to be promising electrode materials for supercapacitors with enhanced properties. To improve the performance of graphene-based composites further and realize their synthesis with large scale, we report a green approach to synthesize bacteria-reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide (BGNS) networks. By using Bacillus subtilis as spacers, we deposited reduced graphene oxide/Ni3S2 nanoparticle composites with submillimeter pores directly onto substrate by a binder-free electrostatic spray approach to form BGNS networks. Their electrochemical capacitor performance was evaluated. Compared with stacked reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide (GNS) prepared without the aid of bacteria, BGNS with unique nm-μm structure exhibited a higher specific capacitance of about 1424 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.75 A g(-1). About 67.5% of the capacitance was retained as the current density increased from 0.75 to 15 A g(-1). At a current density of 75 A g(-1), a specific capacitance of 406 F g(-1) could still remain. The results indicate that the reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide network promoted by bacteria is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. PMID:23751359

  11. Voice and Communication Therapy for Transgender/Transsexual Clients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Voice and Communication Therapy for Clients Who Are Transgender and/or ... transgender/transsexual may elect to have voice and communication therapy to help them use their voice in ...

  12. Effects of chemoradiotherapy on voice and swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Cathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Chemotherapy has been found to result in comparable survival rates to surgery for head and neck cancer. However, toxicity can often be worse after chemoradiotherapy, with impairment in voice, swallowing, nutrition, and quality of life. Investigators are attempting to modify radiotherapy treatment regimens to spare organs that have an impact on swallowing. This review will highlight voice and swallowing impairment seen after chemoradiotherapy, as well as treatment for voice and swallowing disorders in this population. Results of newer radiotherapy regimens will also be highlighted. Recent findings Specific oropharyngeal swallowing motility disorders after chemoradiotherapy have been identified. Damage to specific structures has been correlated with specific pharyngeal phase swallow impairment. Swallowing function and quality of life have been examined over time, with improvement seen in both. Preventive/prophylactic swallow exercise programs have been encouraging. Chemoradiotherapy effects on voice have been identified in terms of acoustic, aerodynamic, and patient and clinician-rated perception of function. Improvement in voice has also been observed over time after chemoradiotherapy. Voice therapy has been found to have a positive impact on voice and perceptual measures in this population. Summary Current studies show some improvement in swallow function after swallow and voice therapy in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Further, there is a suggestion of improved swallow function with sparing of organs with specific radiotherapy protocols. Future research needs to focus on specific voice and swallow treatment regimens in the head and neck cancer patient treated with chemoradiotherapy, specifically, timing, frequency, duration, and specific treatment types. PMID:19337126

  13. Vocal Dynamic Visual Pattern for voice characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajer, M. E.; Andrade, F. A. S.; Montagnoli, A. N.; Pereira, J. C.; Tsuji, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Voice assessment requires simple and painless exams. Modern technologies provide the necessary resources for voice signal processing. Techniques based on nonlinear dynamics seem to asses the complexity of voice more accurately than other methods. Vocal dynamic visual pattern (VDVP) is based on nonlinear methods and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Here we characterize healthy and Reinke's edema voices by means of perturbation measures and VDVP analysis. VDPD and jitter show different results for both groups, while amplitude perturbation has no difference. We suggest that VDPD analysis improve and complement the evaluation methods available for clinicians.

  14. Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  15. Emotional voices in context: a neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing.

    PubMed

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  16. Word-initial voicing in the productions of stops in normal and preterm Italian infants.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, U; Zmarich, C; Fior, R; Bonifacio, S

    1995-03-01

    It has been traditionally held that developmental anomalies in language acquisition are more frequent in neonatologically at-risk subjects. There is some suggestion that proficiency in phonology is correlated with motor control development. The purpose of this paper was to compare the patterns of acquisition of the control of the acoustic-phonetic cues for voicing in the speech of premature infants and controls. The measure studied was initial stop consonant voice onset time (VOT), which is known to be the most reliable acoustic cue for the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops. The total population of the study consisted of 7 infants born at less than 37 weeks gestation and a control group of 7 infants born full-term at normal weight; 7 adults, aged 24-26 years, also participated. Each child was recorded under standard recording conditions saying words contrasting labial, dental and velar voiced and voiceless initial stops. Elicited word productions were collected monthly from infants, at different age levels, ranging from 18 to 21 months. The results show that the subjects are more advanced in the acquisition of the appropriate VOT values for the voiceless than for the voiced consonants. This difficulty may be related to the increased neuromuscular control and more complex muscle activity necessary for maintaining voicing during the closure, especially for velar stops. It is important to recognize the possibility that increased variability in preterm children may be related to some neuromuscular immaturity.

  17. Antimony nanoparticles anchored on interconnected carbon nanofibers networks as advanced anode material for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hongshuai; Jing, Mingjun; Yang, Yingchang; Zhang, Yan; Song, Weixin; Yang, Xuming; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qiyuan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2015-06-01

    Interconnected carbon nanofibers networks (ICNNs) prepared through the carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) precursor are utilized as conductive pathways and buffer to improve the Na storage performance of antimony (Sb) as anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The as-obtained Sb/ICNNs composite exhibits excellent cycle stability. The reversible capacity can remain 542.5 mAh g-1 with a high capacity retention of 96.7% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. And the superior rate performance is also observed, the reversible capacity can still reach 325 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 3200 mA g-1. These great electrochemical performances observed above suggest that this type of composite can be a nice option for advanced SIBs anode materials and may be extended to other active materials/ICNNs composite electrode.

  18. Australia's TERN: Building, Sustaining and Advancing Collaborative Long Term Ecosystem Research Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HEld, A. A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    TERN is Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (www.tern.org.au) is one of several environmental data collection, storage and sharing projects developed through the government's research infrastructure programs 2008-2014. This includes terrestrial and coastal ecosystem data collection infrastructure across multiple disciplines, hardware, software and processes used to store, analyse and integrate data sets. TERN's overall objective is to build the collaborations, infrastructure and programs to meet the needs of ecosystem science communities in Australia in the long term, through institutional frameworks necessary to establish a national terrestrial ecosystem site and observational network, coordinated networks enabling cooperation and operational experience; public access to quality assured and appropriately licensed data; and allowing the terrestrial ecosystem research community to define and sustain the terrestrial observing paradigm into the longer term. This paper explains how TERN was originally established, and now operates, along with plans to sustain itself in the future. TERN is implemented through discipline/technical groups referred to as "TERN Facilities". Combined, the facilities provide observations of surface mass and energy fluxes over key ecosystems, biophysical remote sensing data, ecological survey plots, soils information, and coastal ecosystems and associated water quality variables across Australia. Additional integrative facilities cover elements of ecoinformatics, data-scaling and modelling, and linking science to management. A central coordination and portal facility provides meta-data storage, data identification, legal and licensing support. Data access, uploading, meta-data generation, DOI attachment and licensing is completed at each facility's own portal level. TERN also acts as the open-data repository of choice for Australian scientists required to publish their data. Several key lessons we have learnt, will be presented

  19. Two-phase flow characterization based on advanced instrumentation, neural networks, and mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Ye

    1998-12-01

    The major objective of this thesis is focused on theoretical and experimental investigations of identifying and characterizing vertical and horizontal flow regimes in two-phase flows. A methodology of flow regime identification with impedance-based neural network systems and a comprehensive model of vertical slug flow have been developed. Vertical slug flow has been extensively investigated and characterized with geometric, kinematic and hydrodynamic parameters. A multi-sensor impedance void-meter and a multi-sensor magnetic flowmeter were developed. The impedance void-meter was cross-calibrated with other reliable techniques for void fraction measurements. The performance of the impedance void-meter to measure the void propagation velocity was evaluated by the drift flux model. It was proved that the magnetic flowmeter was applicable to vertical slug flow measurements. Separable signals from these instruments allow us to unearth most characteristics of vertical slug flow. A methodology of vertical flow regime identification was developed. Supervised neural network and self-organizing neural network systems were employed. First, they were trained with results from an idealized simulation of impedance in a two-phase mixture. The simulation was mainly based on Mishima and Ishii's flow regime map, the drift flux model, and the newly developed model of slug flow. Then, these trained systems were tested with impedance signals. The results showed that the neural network systems were appropriate classifiers of vertical flow regimes. The theoretical models and experimental databases used in the simulation were reliable. Furthermore, this approach was applied successfully to horizontal flow identification. A comprehensive model was developed to predict important characteristics of vertical slug flow. It was realized that the void fraction of the liquid slug is determined by the relative liquid motion between the Taylor bubble tail and the Taylor bubble wake. Relying on this

  20. Diversity reception for advanced multi-satellite networks: A CDMA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colzi, E.; Degaudenzi, R.; Elia, C.; Giannetti, F.; Viola, R.

    Diversity reception for Synchronous CDMA (S-CDMA) is introduced and analyzed. A Gaussian co-channel synchronous and asynchronous interference approximation is derived to evaluate the effects on the system bit error rate. Numerical results are provided for a simple mobile communication system where the signals transmitted by two distinct satellites in visibility are coherently combined by a three fingers Rake receiver. A second example showing performance of an integrated ground/satellite single frequency network for digital audio broadcasting is presented. Results show the capacity advantage of utilizing S-CDMA in combination with diversity reception.

  1. Diversity reception for advanced multi-satellite networks: A CDMA approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colzi, E.; Degaudenzi, R.; Elia, C.; Giannetti, F.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Diversity reception for Synchronous CDMA (S-CDMA) is introduced and analyzed. A Gaussian co-channel synchronous and asynchronous interference approximation is derived to evaluate the effects on the system bit error rate. Numerical results are provided for a simple mobile communication system where the signals transmitted by two distinct satellites in visibility are coherently combined by a three fingers Rake receiver. A second example showing performance of an integrated ground/satellite single frequency network for digital audio broadcasting is presented. Results show the capacity advantage of utilizing S-CDMA in combination with diversity reception.

  2. Voice-over: perceptual and acoustic analysis of vocal features.

    PubMed

    Medrado, Reny; Ferreira, Leslie Piccolotto; Behlau, Mara

    2005-09-01

    Voice-overs are professional voice users who use their voices to market products in the electronic media. The purposes of this study were to (1) analyze voice-overed and non-overed productions of an advertising text in two groups consisting of 10 male professional voice-overs and 10 male non-voice-overs; and (2) determine specific acoustic features of voice-over productions in both groups. A naïve group of listeners were engaged for the perceptual analysis of the recorded advertising text. The voice-overed production samples from both groups were submitted for analysis of acoustic and temporal features. The following parameters were analyzed: (1) the total text length, (2) the length of the three emphatic pauses, (3) values of the mean, (4) minimum, (5) maximum fundamental frequency, and (6) the semitone range. The majority of voice-overs and non-voice-overs were correctly identified by the listeners in both productions. However voice-overs were more consistently correctly identified than non-voice-overs. The total text length was greater for voice-overs. The pause time distribution was statistically more homogeneous for the voice-overs. The acoustic analysis indicated that the voice-overs had lower values of mean, minimum, and maximum fundamental frequency and a greater range of semitones. The voice-overs carry the voice-overed production features to their non-voice-overed production. PMID:16102662

  3. The design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Voice bandwidth compression techniques were investigated to anticipate link margin difficulties in the shuttle S-band communication system. It was felt that by reducing the data rate on each voice channel from the baseline 24 (or 32) Kbps to 8 Kbps, additional margin could be obtained. The feasibility of such an alternate voice transmission system was studied. Several factors of prime importance that were addressed are: (1) achieving high quality voice at 8 Kbps; (2) performance in the presence of the anticipated shuttle cabin environmental noise; (3) performance in the presence of the anticipated channel error statistics; and (4) minimal increase in size, weight, and power over the current baseline voice processor.

  4. Sound-Induced Activity in Voice-Sensitive Cortex Predicts Voice Memory Ability

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Rebecca; Latinus, Marianne; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E. G.; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The “temporal voice areas” (TVAs; Belin et al., 2000) of the human brain show greater neuronal activity in response to human voices than to other categories of non-vocal sounds. However, a direct link between TVA activity and voice perception behavior has not yet been established. Here we show that a functional magnetic resonance imaging measure of activity in the TVAs predicts individual performance at a separately administered voice memory test. This relation holds when general sound memory ability is taken into account. These findings provide the first evidence that the TVAs are specifically involved in voice cognition. PMID:22485101

  5. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  6. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  7. Twitter K-H networks in action: Advancing biomedical literature for drug search.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Wu, Xindong; Erickson, Robert; Fandy, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    The importance of searching biomedical literature for drug interaction and side-effects is apparent. Current digital libraries (e.g., PubMed) suffer infrequent tagging and metadata annotation updates. Such limitations cause absence of linking literature to new scientific evidence. This demonstrates a great deal of challenges that stand in the way of scientists when searching biomedical repositories. In this paper, we present a network mining approach that provides a bridge for linking and searching drug-related literature. Our contributions here are two fold: (1) an efficient algorithm called HashPairMiner to address the run-time complexity issues demonstrated in its predecessor algorithm: HashnetMiner, and (2) a database of discoveries hosted on the web to facilitate literature search using the results produced by HashPairMiner. Though the K-H network model and the HashPairMiner algorithm are fairly young, their outcome is evidence of the considerable promise they offer to the biomedical science community in general and the drug research community in particular.

  8. Self-incompatibility in Papaver: advances in integrating the signalling network.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Deborah J; Flores-Ortiz, Carlos; Haque, Tamanna; Lin, Zongcheng; Teng, Nianjun; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2014-04-01

    Self-fertilization, which results in reduced fitness of offspring, is a common problem in hermaphrodite angiosperms. To prevent this, many plants utilize SI (self-incompatibility), which is determined by the multi-allelic S-locus, that allows discrimination between self (incompatible) and non-self (compatible) pollen by the pistil. In poppy (Papaver rhoeas), the pistil S-determinant (PrsS) is a small secreted protein which interacts with the pollen S-determinant PrpS, a ~20 kDa novel transmembrane protein. Interaction of matching pollen and pistil S-determinants results in self-recognition, initiating a Ca²⁺-dependent signalling network in incompatible pollen. This triggers several downstream events, including alterations to the cytoskeleton, phosphorylation of sPPases (soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases) and an MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), increases in ROS (reactive oxygen species) and nitric oxide (NO), and activation of several caspase-like activities. This results in the inhibition of pollen tube growth, prevention of self-fertilization and ultimately PCD (programmed cell death) in incompatible pollen. The present review focuses on our current understanding of the integration of these signals with their targets in the SI/PCD network. We also discuss our recent functional expression of PrpS in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen.

  9. Hydrogel-polyurethane interpenetrating network material as an advanced draw agent for forward osmosis process.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Low, Ze-Xian; Ou, Ranwen; Simon, George P; Wang, Huanting

    2016-06-01

    Water desalination and purification are critical to address the global issue of the shortage of clean water. Forward osmosis (FO) desalination is an emerging low-cost technology for clean water production from saline water. The lack of a suitable draw agent is one of hurdle for the commercialization of FO desalination technology. Recently, the thermoresponsive hydrogel has been demonstrated to be a potential draw agent for the FO process. However, the commonly used hydrogel powder shows a much lower flux than other kind of draw agent such as inorganic salts. In this work, a hydrogel-polyurethane interpenetrating network (HPIPN) with monolith form was prepared by controlling the radical polymerization of the monomers (N-isopropylacrylamide and sodium acrylate) in the macropores (∼400 μm) of commercial polyurethane foam (PUF). These HPIPN composites show a flux as high as 17.9 LMH, which is nearly 8 times than that of hydrogel powders (2.2 LMH). The high flux is attributed to the 3-D continuous hydrogel-polyurethane interpenetrating network, which can effectively enhance the water transport inside the monolith. PMID:27061152

  10. Twitter K-H networks in action: Advancing biomedical literature for drug search.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Wu, Xindong; Erickson, Robert; Fandy, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    The importance of searching biomedical literature for drug interaction and side-effects is apparent. Current digital libraries (e.g., PubMed) suffer infrequent tagging and metadata annotation updates. Such limitations cause absence of linking literature to new scientific evidence. This demonstrates a great deal of challenges that stand in the way of scientists when searching biomedical repositories. In this paper, we present a network mining approach that provides a bridge for linking and searching drug-related literature. Our contributions here are two fold: (1) an efficient algorithm called HashPairMiner to address the run-time complexity issues demonstrated in its predecessor algorithm: HashnetMiner, and (2) a database of discoveries hosted on the web to facilitate literature search using the results produced by HashPairMiner. Though the K-H network model and the HashPairMiner algorithm are fairly young, their outcome is evidence of the considerable promise they offer to the biomedical science community in general and the drug research community in particular. PMID:26065982

  11. Hydrogel-polyurethane interpenetrating network material as an advanced draw agent for forward osmosis process.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Low, Ze-Xian; Ou, Ranwen; Simon, George P; Wang, Huanting

    2016-06-01

    Water desalination and purification are critical to address the global issue of the shortage of clean water. Forward osmosis (FO) desalination is an emerging low-cost technology for clean water production from saline water. The lack of a suitable draw agent is one of hurdle for the commercialization of FO desalination technology. Recently, the thermoresponsive hydrogel has been demonstrated to be a potential draw agent for the FO process. However, the commonly used hydrogel powder shows a much lower flux than other kind of draw agent such as inorganic salts. In this work, a hydrogel-polyurethane interpenetrating network (HPIPN) with monolith form was prepared by controlling the radical polymerization of the monomers (N-isopropylacrylamide and sodium acrylate) in the macropores (∼400 μm) of commercial polyurethane foam (PUF). These HPIPN composites show a flux as high as 17.9 LMH, which is nearly 8 times than that of hydrogel powders (2.2 LMH). The high flux is attributed to the 3-D continuous hydrogel-polyurethane interpenetrating network, which can effectively enhance the water transport inside the monolith.

  12. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC "VOICE" project.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-06-22

    In this invited review I provide a selective overview of recent research on brain mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in auditory hallucinations. The review is focused on research carried out in the "VOICE" ERC Advanced Grant Project, funded by the European Research Council, but I also review and discuss the literature in general. Auditory hallucinations are suggested to be perceptual phenomena, with a neuronal origin in the speech perception areas in the temporal lobe. The phenomenology of auditory hallucinations is conceptualized along three domains, or dimensions; a perceptual dimension, experienced as someone speaking to the patient; a cognitive dimension, experienced as an inability to inhibit, or ignore the voices, and an emotional dimension, experienced as the "voices" having primarily a negative, or sinister, emotional tone. I will review cognitive, imaging, and neurochemistry data related to these dimensions, primarily the first two. The reviewed data are summarized in a model that sees auditory hallucinations as initiated from temporal lobe neuronal hyper-activation that draws attentional focus inward, and which is not inhibited due to frontal lobe hypo-activation. It is further suggested that this is maintained through abnormal glutamate and possibly gamma-amino-butyric-acid transmitter mediation, which could point towards new pathways for pharmacological treatment. A final section discusses new methods of acquiring quantitative data on the phenomenology and subjective experience of auditory hallucination that goes beyond standard interview questionnaires, by suggesting an iPhone/iPod app.

  13. Voice Recognition Software and a Hand-Held Translation Machine for Second-Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Marie J.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the results of a research project subsidized by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council in Canada. The research constitutes one project of a number in a strategic research network "EvNet" on the evaluation of computer technologies. The focus here is on the impact of voice recognition software on the language development of…

  14. Giving permission to embodied knowing to inform nursing research methodology: the poetics of voice(s).

    PubMed

    King, A

    1995-12-01

    This paper originated from my experience of trying to find an authentic way to research women's experience of the premenstrum. I describe how personal change informed an evolving methodological approach. This change occurred when I felt tension between two strong voices. Conflict and insecurities originated from the pressure of my academic voice to conform to the dominant culture in what often seemed a disempowering way; a way that denied my body voice by emphasizing theory over experience. The construction of a poetic of voice(s) to illustrate how I eventually found an embodied voice is used to provide space for the reader's own interpretive process. The evolving embodied voice integrates my experience as a woman/nurse/researcher, validating my knowing bodily, practically, experientially and academically that I was able to help the participants to disclose their embodied knowing. This approach has wider implications when considering the value nurse researchers and academics give to embodied wisdom.

  15. Targeted drugs for unselected patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yueguang; Wang, Fang; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaojie; Shou, Tao; Luo, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, targeted therapy has shown encouraging treatment benefits in selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the comparative benefits of targeted drugs and chemotherapy (CT) treatments in unselected patients are not clear. We therefore conduct a network meta-analysis to assess the relative efficacy and safety of these regimens. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and abstracts from major scientific meetings were searched for eligible literatures. The odds ratio (OR) for objective response rate (ORR) and safety was used for pooling effect sizes. Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the efficacy and safety of all included treatments. All tests of statistical significance were two sided. Results A total of 13,060 patients from 24 randomized controlled trials (RCT) were assessed. The targeted agents included bevacizumab (Bev), gefitinib (Gef), erlotinib (Erl) and cetuximab (Cet). Network meta-analysis showed that Bev + CT had a statistically significantly higher incidence of ORR relative to the other six different treatments, including placebo (OR =6.47; 95% CI, 3.85–10.29), Erl (OR =2.81; 95% CI, 2.08–3.70), CT (OR =1.92; 95% CI, 1.61–2.28), Gef (OR =1.40; 95% CI, 1.10–1.75), Erl + CT (OR =1.46; 95% CI, 1.17–1.80) and Gef + CT (OR =1.75; 95% CI, 1.36–2.22), whereas placebo and Erl were associated with statistically significantly lower incidence of ORR. Trend analyses of rank probability revealed that Bev + CT had the highest probability of being the best treatment arm in term of ORR, followed by Cet + CT. Meanwhile, Cet + CT showed significant severer rash and thrombocytopenia compared with Bev + CT. Gef was probable to be the rank 3 for ORR but was associated with relatively low risk for grade ≥3 toxicities. Conclusions Our study suggested that Bev + CT may offer better ORR in the treatment of unselected patients with advanced NSCLC. Future studies will be needed to investigate

  16. Voice Recognition: A New Assessment Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darla

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study conducted in Anchorage, Alaska, that evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of using voice recognition (VR) technology to collect oral reading fluency data for classroom-based assessments. The primary research question was as follows: Is voice recognition technology a valid and reliable alternative to…

  17. Cockpit voice recognition program at Princeton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Voice recognition technology (VRT) is applied to aeronautics, particularly on the pilot workload alleviation. The VRT does not have to prove its maturity any longer. The feasibility of voice tuning of radio and DME are demonstrated since there are immediate advantages to the pilot and can be completed in a reasonable time.

  18. The Status of Voice Recognition Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ruth

    1986-01-01

    After examining the historical view of voice recognition, voice recognition technology today, the future of this technology, and information processing applications, the author states that educators must begin to prepare for tomorrow's technology now by researching current literature, analyzing hardware and software needs, and emphasizing oral…

  19. Gender in Voice Perception in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Wouter B.; van Orsouw, Linda; Zwiers, Marcel; Swinkels, Sophie; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of social stimuli may contribute to the characteristic impairments in social interaction in high functioning autism (HFA). Although the cortical processing of voice is abnormal in HFA, it is unclear whether this gives rise to impairments in the perception of voice gender. About 20 children with HFA and 20 matched…

  20. Voice announcements of time: A new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, J.; Kamas, G.; Weiss, M.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for generating voice time announcements was investigated. Equipment to convert time codes from several different sources into voice announcements was developed. The major emphasis was directed toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of the approach as well as cost effective implementation.

  1. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  2. Typicality ratings of male and female voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spisak, Brian; Mullennix, John; Moro, Kelly; Will, Jessica; Farnsworth, Lynn

    2002-05-01

    Researchers have suggested that human voices are represented in memory in terms of prototypes [e.g., Kreiman and Papcun (1991); Papcun et al. (1989)]. Others have suggested that speech utterances are stored in memory via detailed exemplar-based representations [e.g., Lachs et al. (2000)]. The goal of the present study was to provide the first step toward assessing the viability of a prototype view of voice. Ten hVd utterances were recorded from each of 20 male and 20 female speakers. The utterances were blocked by speaker gender and presented to male and female listeners who rated each stimulus on a 1-7 typicality scale from ``least typical voice'' to ``most typical voice.'' There were significant effects of the type of vowel and speaker voice on the ratings, as well as interactions of vowel type with gender of subject and speaker voice. The results are discussed in terms of the strength of evidence for a graded category structure of voice categories that would be consistent with a prototype perspective of long-term memory representations of voice.

  3. The Voice of Conscience in Rousseau's Emile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    According to Rousseau, conscience and conscience alone can elevate human beings to a level above that of animals. It is conscience, understood as infallible judge of good and bad, which makes man like God. Conscience itself is, in this context, understood as divine, as an "immortal and celestial voice". Therefore, if the voice of…

  4. Voice and Feeling in Academic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Virginia

    Voice can be considered as the writer's attitude toward the reader (the rhetorical function) and the writer's attitude toward the subject or object being written about (the epistemic function). Voice is expressed by such things as word choice, rhythm, sound, and juxtaposition of words and sentences. Moreover, the writer's attitude toward the…

  5. Two Factors Related to Effective Voice Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, T. Alan

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two interpreters for the deaf were measured on accuracy and quality of voice interpreting of the same story in two different sign language types: Pidgin Signed English and American Sign Language. Results indicated that previous experience interpreting was significantly related to the effectiveness of voice interpreting both languages.…

  6. Student Voice and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  7. Voice Deviations and Coexisting Communication Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the coexistence of other communicative disorders with voice disorders in about 3,400 children in grades 1-12 at 100 sites throughout the United States. The majority of voice-disordered children had coexisting articulation deviations and also differed from controls on two language measures and mean pure-tone hearing thresholds.…

  8. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and Swallowing Nearly 1 in 12 (7.7 ... condition known as persistent developmental stuttering. 8 , 9 Language 3.3 percent of U.S. children ages 3- ...

  9. Voice Disorders in School Children: Clinical Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbee, Frederick E., Ed.

    Five papers presented at two inservice institutes for school speech and language pathologists delineated identification, remediation, and management of voice disorders in school children. Keynote remarks emphasized the intimate relationship between children's voices and their affective behavior and psychological needs, and thus, the importance of…

  10. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

  11. Student Voices in School-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…

  12. Design: a voice activated thermostat.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, S

    1992-01-01

    The voice activated thermostat was designed so the temperature in a house could be set without having to touch the thermostat. This is especially useful for a quadriplegic who would like to change the temperature of the room he is in. For simplicity, it was designed using VCP200 speaker-independent word recognizer chip. This chip comes pre-programmed with a limited number of words, so programming of words was not necessary. Every time the activation word is said the digital thermostat changes by one degree.

  13. Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians.

    PubMed

    Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2016-05-01

    The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit. PMID:27071124

  14. Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians

    PubMed Central

    Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2016-01-01

    The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit. PMID:27071124

  15. Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians.

    PubMed

    Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2016-05-01

    The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit.

  16. Improving Quality of Voice Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhid, M.; Tinati, M. A.

    New improvement scheme for voice conversion are proposed in this paper. We take Human factor cepstral coefficients (HFCC), a modification of MFCC that uses the known relationship between center frequency and critical bandwidth from human psychoacoustics to decouple filter bandwidth from filter spacing, as the basic feature. We propose U/V (Unvoiced/Voiced) decision rule such that two sets of codebooks are used to capture the difference between unvoiced and voiced segments of the source speaker. Moreover, we apply three schemes to refine the synthesized voice, including pitch refinement, energy equalization, and frame concatenation. The acceptable performance of the voice conversion system can be verified through ABX listening test and MOS grad.

  17. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  18. Signal processing techniques for synchronization of wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehan; Wu, Yik-Chung; Chaudhari, Qasim; Qaraqe, Khalid; Serpedin, Erchin

    2010-11-01

    Clock synchronization is a critical component in wireless sensor networks, as it provides a common time frame to different nodes. It supports functions such as fusing voice and video data from different sensor nodes, time-based channel sharing, and sleep wake-up scheduling, etc. Early studies on clock synchronization for wireless sensor networks mainly focus on protocol design. However, clock synchronization problem is inherently related to parameter estimation, and recently, studies of clock synchronization from the signal processing viewpoint started to emerge. In this article, a survey of latest advances on clock synchronization is provided by adopting a signal processing viewpoint. We demonstrate that many existing and intuitive clock synchronization protocols can be interpreted by common statistical signal processing methods. Furthermore, the use of advanced signal processing techniques for deriving optimal clock synchronization algorithms under challenging scenarios will be illustrated.

  19. EarthCube: Advancing Partnerships, Collaborative Platforms and Knowledge Networks in the Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Diggs; Lee, Allison

    2014-05-01

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube initiative aims to create a community-driven data and knowledge management system that will allow for unprecedented data sharing across the geosciences. More than 2,500 participants through forums, work groups, EarthCube events, and virtual and in-person meetings have participated. The individuals that have engaged represent the core earth-system sciences of solid Earth, Atmosphere, Oceans, and Polar Sciences. EarthCube is a cornerstone of NSF's Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century (CIF21) initiative, whose chief objective is to develop a U.S. nationwide, sustainable, and community-based cyberinfrastructure for researchers and educators. Increasingly effective community-driven cyberinfrastructure allows global data discovery and knowledge management and achieves interoperability and data integration across scientific disciplines. There is growing convergence across scientific and technical communities on creating a networked, knowledge management system and scientific data cyberinfrastructure that integrates Earth system and human dimensions data in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner. EarthCube does not intend to replicate these efforts, but build upon them. An agile development process is underway for the development and governance of EarthCube. The agile approach was deliberately selected due to its iterative and incremental nature while promoting adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness.

  20. Application of Percolation Theory to Complex Interconnected Networks in Advanced Functional Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hing, P.

    2011-11-01

    Percolation theory deals with the behaviour of connected clusters in a system. Originally developed for studying the flow of liquid in a porous body, the percolation theory has been extended to quantum computation and communication, entanglement percolation in quantum networks, cosmology, chaotic situations, properties of disordered solids, pandemics, petroleum industry, finance, control of traffic and so on. In this paper, the application of various models of the percolation theory to predict and explain the properties of a specially developed family of dense sintered and highly refractory Al2O3-W composites for potential application in high intensity discharge light sources such as high pressure sodium lamps and ceramic metal halide lamps are presented and discussed. The low cost, core-shell concept can be extended to develop functional composite materials with unusual dielectric, electrical, magnetic, superconducting, and piezoelectric properties starting from a classical insulator. The core shell concept can also be applied to develop catalysts with high specific surface areas with minimal amount of expensive platinium, palladium or rare earth nano structured materials for light harvesting, replicating natural photosynthesis, in synthetic zeolite composites for the cracking and separation of crude oil. There is also possibility of developing micron and nanosize Faraday cages for quantum devices, nano electronics and spintronics. The possibilities are limitless.

  1. Guard Cell Signal Transduction Network: Advances in Understanding Abscisic Acid, CO2, and Ca2+ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Houn; Böhmer, Maik; Hu, Honghong; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2011-01-01

    Stomatal pores are formed by pairs of specialized epidermal guard cells and serve as major gateways for both CO2 influx into plants from the atmosphere and transpirational water loss of plants. Because they regulate stomatal pore apertures via integration of both endogenous hormonal stimuli and environmental signals, guard cells have been highly developed as a model system to dissect the dynamics and mechanisms of plant-cell signaling. The stress hormone ABA and elevated levels of CO2 activate complex signaling pathways in guard cells that are mediated by kinases/phosphatases, secondary messengers, and ion channel regulation. Recent research in guard cells has led to a new hypothesis for how plants achieve specificity in intracellular calcium signaling: CO2 and ABA enhance (prime) the calcium sensitivity of downstream calcium-signaling mechanisms. Recent progress in identification of early stomatal signaling components are reviewed here, including ABA receptors and CO2-binding response proteins, as well as systems approaches that advance our understanding of guard cell-signaling mechanisms. PMID:20192751

  2. Voice responses to changes in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Bauer, Jay J.; Babu, Tara; Larson, Charles R.

    2005-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine if a subject's voice F0 responded not only to perturbations in pitch of voice feedback but also to changes in pitch of a side tone presented congruent with voice feedback. Small magnitude brief duration perturbations in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback were randomly introduced during sustained vowel phonations. Results demonstrated a higher rate and larger magnitude of voice F0 responses to changes in pitch of the voice compared with a triangular-shaped tone (experiment 1) or a pure tone (experiment 2). However, response latencies did not differ across voice or tone conditions. Data suggest that subjects responded to the change in F0 rather than harmonic frequencies of auditory feedback because voice F0 response prevalence, magnitude, or latency did not statistically differ across triangular-shaped tone or pure-tone feedback. Results indicate the audio-vocal system is sensitive to the change in pitch of a variety of sounds, which may represent a flexible system capable of adapting to changes in the subject's voice. However, lower prevalence and smaller responses to tone pitch-shifted signals suggest that the audio-vocal system may resist changes to the pitch of other environmental sounds when voice feedback is present. .

  3. Voice responses to changes in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Bauer, Jay J; Babu, Tara; Larson, Charles R

    2005-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine if a subject's voice F0 responded not only to perturbations in pitch of voice feedback but also to changes in pitch of a side tone presented congruent with voice feedback. Small magnitude brief duration perturbations in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback were randomly introduced during sustained vowel phonations. Results demonstrated a higher rate and larger magnitude of voice F0 responses to changes in pitch of the voice compared with a triangular-shaped tone (experiment 1) or a pure tone (experiment 2). However, response latencies did not differ across voice or tone conditions. Data suggest that subjects responded to the change in F0 rather than harmonic frequencies of auditory feedback because voice F0 response prevalence, magnitude, or latency did not statistically differ across triangular-shaped tone or pure-tone feedback. Results indicate the audio-vocal system is sensitive to the change in pitch of a variety of sounds, which may represent a flexible system capable of adapting to changes in the subject's voice. However, lower prevalence and smaller responses to tone pitch-shifted signals suggest that the audio-vocal system may resist changes to the pitch of other environmental sounds when voice feedback is present.

  4. Comparing Two Methods for Reducing Variability in Voice Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Interrater disagreements in ratings of quality plague the study of voice. This study compared 2 methods for handling this variability. Method: Listeners provided multiple breathiness ratings for 2 sets of pathological voices, one including 20 male and 20 female voices unselected for quality and one including 20 breathy female voices.…

  5. Reported Voice Difficulties in Student Teachers: A Questionnaire Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield, Carol; Richards, Brian

    2007-01-01

    As professional voice users, teachers are particularly at risk of abusing their voices and developing voice disorders during their career. In spite of this, attention paid to voice care in the initial training and further professional development of teachers is unevenly spread and insufficient. This article describes a questionnaire survey of 171…

  6. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California,…

  7. Sonorous Voice and Feminist Teaching: Lessons from Cavarero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    I claim that Adriana Cavarero's concept of sonorous voice is significant in feminist teaching because, as she argues, dominant concepts of voice refer to voice in semantic terms thereby discounting voice in sonorous terms. This process of "devocalization", spanning the history of Western philosophy, devalues the uniqueness embodied in…

  8. Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides viewpoints on whether the constitutional amendment process needs to be changed or not: (1) "When in Doubt, Do Nothing" (R. B. Bernstein); (2) "Citizens for the Constitution" (Erwin Chemerinsky); (3) "Constitutional Proposals from the States" (John Kincaid); and (4) "I Have a Better Way" (Gregory D. Watson.) (CMK)

  9. Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortbull, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Provides an excerpt from a speech delivered at the University of South Dakota by the college president Thomas Shortbull titled, "Affirmative Action: An Opportunity to Escape Wage Slavery." Discusses how affirmative action is needed for Native Americans so that they can become the professionals needed to develop the reservations economically and…

  10. Evaluation of cochlear implanted children's voices.

    PubMed

    Perrin, E; Berger-Vachon, C; Topouzkhanian, A; Truy, E; Morgon, A

    1999-02-15

    Cochlear implant (CI) is a good means in developing communication in deaf children. Nevertheless, compared to children with the same age, CI patients' voices are far from being similar. In this work, the voice of CI children has been compared with the voice of corresponding normal children (same age, same sex) included in the main stream. Six girls and two boys participated to the experiment. The phonetic material was a paragraph of the French standard text La bise et le soleil (The North Wind and the Sun). An objective and a subjective analysis of the voice were done and parameters were compared between both groups of people (implantees and control). Studied parameters were voice pitch, intensity, fluency, pauses, articulation and pleasantness in the objective analysis, and voice pitch, formants, and duration for the objective study. It appeared that intensity variations were different between control and implanted subjects. Also voice formants were not situated in the same region regarding the normal ranges, but differences were difficult to assess. Globally, the main change was in the speaking duration. This method is open for further studies and points out some relevant items for an efficient use in rehabilitation sessions. PMID:10206368

  11. VOT and the perception of voicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remez, Robert E.

    2001-05-01

    In explaining the ability to distinguish phonemes, linguists have described the dimension of voicing. Acoustic analyses have identified many correlates of the voicing contrast in initial, medial, and final consonants within syllables, and these in turn have motivated studies of the perceptual resolution of voicing. The framing conceptualization articulated by Lisker and Abramson 40 years ago in physiological, phonetic, and perceptual studies has been widely influential, and research on voicing now adopts their perspective without reservation. Their original survey included languages with two voicing categories (Dutch, Puerto Rican Spanish, Hungarian, Tamil, Cantonese, English), three voicing categories (Eastern Armenian, Thai, Korean), and four voicing categories (Hindi, Marathi). Perceptual studies inspired by this work have also ranged widely, including tests with different languages and with listeners of several species. The profound value of the analyses of Lisker and Abramson is evident in the empirical traction provided by the concept of VOT in research on the every important perceptual question about speech and language in our era. Some of these classic perceptual investigations will be reviewed. [Research supported by NIH (DC00308).

  12. Fast response to human voices in autism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fan; Agus, Trevor R.; Suied, Clara; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Yamada, Takashi; Komine, Yoko; Kato, Nobumasa; Kashino, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are reported to allocate less spontaneous attention to voices. Here, we investigated how vocal sounds are processed in ASD adults, when those sounds are attended. Participants were asked to react as fast as possible to target stimuli (either voices or strings) while ignoring distracting stimuli. Response times (RTs) were measured. Results showed that, similar to neurotypical (NT) adults, ASD adults were faster to recognize voices compared to strings. Surprisingly, ASD adults had even shorter RTs for voices than the NT adults, suggesting a faster voice recognition process. To investigate the acoustic underpinnings of this effect, we created auditory chimeras that retained only the temporal or the spectral features of voices. For the NT group, no RT advantage was found for the chimeras compared to strings: both sets of features had to be present to observe an RT advantage. However, for the ASD group, shorter RTs were observed for both chimeras. These observations indicate that the previously observed attentional deficit to voices in ASD individuals could be due to a failure to combine acoustic features, even though such features may be well represented at a sensory level. PMID:27193919

  13. Fast response to human voices in autism.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Fan; Agus, Trevor R; Suied, Clara; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Yamada, Takashi; Komine, Yoko; Kato, Nobumasa; Kashino, Makio

    2016-05-19

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are reported to allocate less spontaneous attention to voices. Here, we investigated how vocal sounds are processed in ASD adults, when those sounds are attended. Participants were asked to react as fast as possible to target stimuli (either voices or strings) while ignoring distracting stimuli. Response times (RTs) were measured. Results showed that, similar to neurotypical (NT) adults, ASD adults were faster to recognize voices compared to strings. Surprisingly, ASD adults had even shorter RTs for voices than the NT adults, suggesting a faster voice recognition process. To investigate the acoustic underpinnings of this effect, we created auditory chimeras that retained only the temporal or the spectral features of voices. For the NT group, no RT advantage was found for the chimeras compared to strings: both sets of features had to be present to observe an RT advantage. However, for the ASD group, shorter RTs were observed for both chimeras. These observations indicate that the previously observed attentional deficit to voices in ASD individuals could be due to a failure to combine acoustic features, even though such features may be well represented at a sensory level.

  14. Spirituality and hearing voices: considering the relation

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waegeli, Amanda; Watkins, John

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, some people have heard voices that others cannot hear. These have been variously understood as medical, psychological and spiritual phenomena. In this article we consider the specific role of spirituality in voice-hearing in two ways. First, we examine how spirituality may help or hinder people who hear voices. Benefits are suggested to include offering an alternative meaning to the experience which can give more control and comfort, enabling the development of specific coping strategies, increasing social support, and encouraging forgiveness. Potential drawbacks are noted to include increased distress and reduced control resulting from placing frightening or coercive constructions on voices, social isolation, the development of dysfunctional beliefs, and missed/delayed opportunities for successful mental health interventions. After examining problems surrounding classifying voices as either spiritual or psychotic, we move beyond an essentialist position to examine how such a classification is likely to be fluid, and how a given voice may move between these designations. We also highlight tensions between modernist and postmodernist approaches to voice-hearing. PMID:24273597

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Adjunctive Bevacizumab for Advanced Lung Cancer: The Cancer Research Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Carroll, Nikki M.; Delate, Thomas; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Kushi, Lawrence; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Loggers, Elizabeth T.; Menter, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bevacizumab plus carboplatin-paclitaxel (BCP) chemotherapy has FDA approval for advanced non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC) based upon improved survival in a clinical trial. However, sub-group analyses of this and other studies have suggested variable results by age and gender. Methods 1,605 HMO NS-NSCLC patients aged ≥ 21 years, diagnosed 2002–2010, who received carboplatin-paclitaxel (CP), with and without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of stage IIIB/IV disease were identified. Patients were categorized into three groups based on year of diagnosis and regimen during 120 days post-diagnosis: 1) diagnosed 2005–2010 and received BCP; 2) 2005–2010, CP (CP2005), and 3) 2002–2004, CP (CP2002). Survival differences between groups were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with several propensity score adjustments for demographic, comorbidity, and tumor characteristics. Multi-variable sub-analyses were also estimated. Results Median survival was 12.3 months (inter quartile range [IQR] 6.0–29.1) for BCP patients versus 8.8 months (IQR 3.7–21.3) for CP2005 patients, and 7.5 months (IQR 3.8–15.6) for CP2002 patients. In the propensity score adjusted models, BCP demonstrated a significant survival benefit with a hazard ratio of BCP relative to CP2005 and CP2002 patients of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66–0.94) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.52–0.75) respectively. In the multivariable-adjusted sub-analyses, relative to the CP2005 cohort, the BCP hazard ratios for patients age <65 years, age ≥65 years, and females were 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–1.00), 0.74 (95% CI 0.54–1.00) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.58–1.00). Conclusions In this community-based, comparative effectiveness analysis, we found an overall survival benefit for adults receiving BCP compared to CP. PMID:24633407

  16. Remote voice training: A case study on space shuttle applications, appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollakarimi, Cindy; Hamid, Tamin

    1990-01-01

    The Tile Automation System includes applications of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. An integrated set of rapid prototyping testbeds was developed which include speech recognition and synthesis, laser imaging systems, distributed Ada programming environments, distributed relational data base architectures, distributed computer network architectures, multi-media workbenches, and human factors considerations. Remote voice training in the Tile Automation System is discussed. The user is prompted over a headset by synthesized speech for the training sequences. The voice recognition units and the voice output units are remote from the user and are connected by Ethernet to the main computer system. A supervisory channel is used to monitor the training sequences. Discussions include the training approaches as well as the human factors problems and solutions for this system utilizing remote training techniques.

  17. Modelling a Voice Activated Speaker Identification System using MFCC-Pitch-Formant Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Avik; Ghosh, Rabindranath

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents the model of an automatic speaker identification system which will recognize users based on their voice. The system will be relatively independent of spoken words but will rely on the voice quality of a user i.e. use speech independent voice recognition. The basic approach was to create a front end system which will identify speech parameters of particular users and create speech feature vectors which will later be used to train a back-propagation neural network for the recognition phase. Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients and linear predictive coding coefficients have been used, along with Pitch and Formants, for feature extraction. The main area of focus of the paper is to outline the optimum set of speech features which form the most reliable model for an automatic speaker identification system.

  18. Associations between voice ergonomic risk factors and acoustic features of the voice.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-10-01

    The associations between voice ergonomic risk factors in 40 classrooms and the acoustic parameters of 40 schoolteachers' voices were investigated. The risk factors assessed were connected to participants' working practices, working postures, and the indoor air quality in their workplaces. The teachers recorded spontaneous speech and sustained /a/ before and after a working day. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level, the slope of the spectrum, perturbation, and harmonic-to-noise ratio were analysed. The results showed that the more the voice ergonomic risk factors were involved, the louder the teachers' voices became. Working practices correlated most often with the acoustic parameters; associations were found especially before a working day. The results suggest that a risky voice ergonomic environment affects voice production. PMID:24007529

  19. Accuracy and speed of response to different voice types in a cockpit voice warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, J.; Rumbaugh, W. A.

    1983-09-01

    Voice warning systems (VWS) in aircraft cockpits provide a valuable means of warning identification. Improvements in technology have made the VWS a viable addition to aircraft warning systems. This thesis was an experiment to determine the best voice type (male, female, or neutral machine) for use in a VWS for military aircraft. Different levels of engine background noise, signal to noise ratio of the warning message, and precursor delivery formats were used. The experiment had ten subjects performing a primary tracking task; at random intervals a voice warning was interjected, requiring that the subjects respond by pushing the correct button. The results of this experiment contradict some previous beliefs and findings. The male voice was associated with more accurate responses for voice warning systems in the military aircraft environment. For speed of response the results were more complicated; the male voice was generally more closely associated with faster response times for accurate responses.

  20. Telling stories and hearing voices: narrative work with voice hearers in acute care.

    PubMed

    Place, C; Foxcroft, R; Shaw, J

    2011-11-01

    Mental health nurses do not always feel at ease talking in detail with voice hearers about their experiences. Using the approach of Romme and Escher, a project was developed to support staff on an acute inpatient ward to explore voice hearing with patients. Romme and Escher suggest that a person's own understanding of their voices and their meaning is the key to recovery. Working together, the nurse helps voice hearers construct a narrative that tells the story of their voices. Examples from the narratives show how they can help increase understanding of a person's voices, and how the mental health nurse in acute care can realistically offer therapeutic interventions that may help a person towards recovery.

  1. Associations between voice ergonomic risk factors and acoustic features of the voice.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-10-01

    The associations between voice ergonomic risk factors in 40 classrooms and the acoustic parameters of 40 schoolteachers' voices were investigated. The risk factors assessed were connected to participants' working practices, working postures, and the indoor air quality in their workplaces. The teachers recorded spontaneous speech and sustained /a/ before and after a working day. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level, the slope of the spectrum, perturbation, and harmonic-to-noise ratio were analysed. The results showed that the more the voice ergonomic risk factors were involved, the louder the teachers' voices became. Working practices correlated most often with the acoustic parameters; associations were found especially before a working day. The results suggest that a risky voice ergonomic environment affects voice production.

  2. Advances in Web-Based, Near Real-Time Climate Data Ingest For NOAA's Cooperative Volunteer Observation Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Redmond, K.; McCurdy, G.; Kelly, G.; Bonack, B.; Somrek, B.; Doesken, N.; Bollinger, J.

    2006-12-01

    NOAA is charged with collection, preservation and accessibility of a quality digital record of Cooperative Network data and metadata. This record has historically been derived through the imaging and keying of so- called "B-91' forms that are sent by observers and the National Weather Service to the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The processing time, including quality assurance checks and serial publication, typically is 45-60 days beyond the data month. Technological and communication advances, coupled with integrated climate and weather and water reporting needs have reached a threshold where near real-time (i.e., daily) reporting of observations is desirable. While ASOS data have long been directly reported to NCDC in this time horizon, National Weather Service Cooperative Network (COOP) data has continued to be recorded on forms. Timely data reporting is fundamental to the success of the U.S. effort in Global Earth Observations, especially for monitoring drought as part of the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS). Coupled with implementation planning for transition of Legacy COOP under NOAA's Environmental Real-Time Observing Network (NERON), work toward such a system is timely. NOAA is working closely with Regional Climate Centers, State Climatologists and other partners to develop a web-based interface based on existing systems (e.g., WxCoder, CoCoRAHS and COOLTAP) to provide for the electronic submission of daily COOP data to NCDC and the climate community. To this end, the following guiding principles have been identified: 1) Provide efficient, easy-to-use data entry system for participating COOP observers, 2) Ensure timely availability of COOP data for all customers, 3) Improve data quality through automated near-real-time data QA/QC, 4) Achieve a paperless electronic data collection, transmission, and archiving system. 5) Allow system flexibility to meet demands of integrating data from future observing systems This presentation

  3. Increased productivity in flight with voice commanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition technology has matured to the point where it can provide a viable means of increasing productivity by naturalizing the man-machine interface. With ever increasing workloads being placed on astronauts, speech recognition may provide an alternative means of system controlling that would reduce the task burden. Voice commanding, allowing hands-free operation, can be especially effective during operations requiring simultaneous system control. A flight experiment is under development to demonstrate the operational effectiveness of voice control by commanding the Space Shuttle's Closed Circuit Television (CCIV) system. This experiment will help direct future applications of voice entry to space operations.

  4. Real time analysis of voiced sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A power spectrum analysis of the harmonic content of a voiced sound signal is conducted in real time by phase-lock-loop tracking of the fundamental frequency, (f sub 0) of the signal and successive harmonics (h sub 1 through h sub n) of the fundamental frequency. The analysis also includes measuring the quadrature power and phase of each frequency tracked, differentiating the power measurements of the harmonics in adjacent pairs, and analyzing successive differentials to determine peak power points in the power spectrum for display or use in analysis of voiced sound, such as for voice recognition.

  5. From high tech to high touch: integrating community voices in mobile mammography outreach.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Stephenie; Stephens, Sheila; Tephabock, Kevin; Brown, Pamela; Davis, Patty; Keresztury, James; Narsavage, Georgia

    2009-10-01

    Providing mobile screening mammography services across the state of West Virginia (WV) presents unique challenges. The ability of new machines to screen for breast cancer is modern medicine at its best. The use of the mobile unit, "Bonnie's Bus", holds promise for getting this high tech equipment to women in rural areas of West Virginia where it is most needed. Cancer detected in early stages is more treatable and women have a better chance of becoming survivors. The key to the program's success resides with the women who come for the screening, the extension network of community members who help set up and assist women to access the screening system, and community health care providers who care for the women if cancer is found. Linking "community voices" with the programs funded under the WV Komen grant screening programs provides a winning solution for West Virginia and the women served by Bonnie's Bus. Information obtained from five focus groups of 58 community leaders and women residing in rural WV was used to develop the mobile program. Building upon established relationships with the West Virginia Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program (WV BCCSP) coordinators and providers, outreach and information gleaned from WV communities, is being used to develop community partnerships based on mutual trust and respect to advance the common goal of decreasing breast cancer related illness and death in West Virginia women. PMID:19999271

  6. Making women's voices heard: technological change and women's employment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng Choon Sim, C

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the 1994-96 UN University Institute for New Technologies policy research project on technological change and women's employment in Asia. The project was conducted to provide a voice for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) representing women workers. It focuses on the Malaysian experience in terms of the impact of technology on women's work and employment in the telecommunications and electronic industry. The results of the NGO research project revealed that the shift to a more intensive production has no uniform impact on women. Although new jobs were created, women employment status remains vulnerable. Meaning, female workers are afraid of the technological redundancy, casualization of labor, as well as health and safety hazards associated with new technology. A good example of the effect of industrialization to women¿s rights is the situation in Malaysia. Although cutting edge technology, combined with restructuring, has yielded some benefits in terms of a vastly expanded network and services, better performances and economies of scale, employment situation of the majority of women still remained in the low-skilled or semi-skilled categories. In order to upgrade women employment status along with the technological advancement, open communication and cooperation of all types is needed to ensure a successful outcome.

  7. Voice control of complex workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scruggs, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a speaker-dependent connected word recognition system to control an Air Traffic Control (ATC) demonstration workstation is described, also the work that went into developing that speech system. The workstation with speech recognition was demonstrated live at an Air Traffic Controller's Association convention in 1987. The purpose of the demonstration workstation is discussed, with the development of the speech interface highlighted. Included are: a brief description of the speech hardware and software, and overview of the speech driven workstation functions, a description of the speech vocabulary/grammer, and details that the enrollment and training procedures used in preparing the controllers for the demonstrations. Although no quantitative results are available, the potential benefits of using voice as an interface to this type of workstation are discussed and limitations of current speech technology and areas where more work is required are highlighted.

  8. Robust matching for voice recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  9. Different neural frequency bands integrate faces and voices differently in the superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-02-01

    The integration of auditory and visual information is required for the default mode of speech-face-to-face communication. As revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological studies, the regions in and around the superior temporal sulcus (STS) are implicated in this process. To provide greater insights into the network-level dynamics of the STS during audiovisual integration, we used a macaque model system to analyze the different frequency bands of local field potential (LFP) responses to the auditory and visual components of vocalizations. These vocalizations (like human speech) have a natural time delay between the onset of visible mouth movements and the onset of the voice (the "time-to-voice" or TTV). We show that the LFP responses to faces and voices elicit distinct bands of activity in the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-14 Hz), and gamma (>40 Hz) frequency ranges. Along with single neuron responses, the gamma band activity was greater for face stimuli than voice stimuli. Surprisingly, the opposite was true for the low-frequency bands-auditory responses were of a greater magnitude. Furthermore, gamma band responses in STS were sustained for dynamic faces but not so for voices (the opposite is true for auditory cortex). These data suggest that visual and auditory stimuli are processed in fundamentally different ways in the STS. Finally, we show that the three bands integrate faces and voices differently: theta band activity showed weak multisensory behavior regardless of TTV, the alpha band activity was enhanced for calls with short TTVs but showed little integration for longer TTVs, and finally, the gamma band activity was consistently enhanced for all TTVs. These data demonstrate that LFP activity from the STS can be segregated into distinct frequency bands which integrate audiovisual communication signals in an independent manner. These different bands may reflect different spatial scales of network processing during face

  10. Advancing Dose-Response Assessment Methods for Environmental Regulatory Impact Analysis: A Bayesian Belief Network Approach Applied to Inorganic Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Zabinski, Joseph W.; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Fry, Rebecca C.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Dose-response functions used in regulatory risk assessment are based on studies of whole organisms and fail to incorporate genetic and metabolomic data. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) could provide a powerful framework for incorporating such data, but no prior research has examined this possibility. To address this gap, we develop a BBN-based model predicting birthweight at gestational age from arsenic exposure via drinking water and maternal metabolic indicators using a cohort of 200 pregnant women from an arsenic-endemic region of Mexico. We compare BBN predictions to those of prevailing slope-factor and reference-dose approaches. The BBN outperforms prevailing approaches in balancing false-positive and false-negative rates. Whereas the slope-factor approach had 2% sensitivity and 99% specificity and the reference-dose approach had 100% sensitivity and 0% specificity, the BBN's sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 30%, respectively. BBNs offer a promising opportunity to advance health risk assessment by incorporating modern genetic and metabolomic data.

  11. Recent advances in the development of a self-powered wireless sensor network for structural health prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Inman, Daniel J.; Ziehl, Paul H.; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Nanni, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the most recent advances in the development of a self powered wireless sensor network for steel and concrete bridges monitoring and prognosis. This five-year cross-disciplinary project includes development and deployment of a 4-channel acoustic emission wireless node powered by structural vibration and wind energy harvesting modules. In order to accomplish this ambitious goal, the project includes a series of tasks that encompassed a variety of developments such as ultra low power AE systems, energy harvester hardware and especial sensors for passive and active acoustic wave detection. Key studies on acoustic emission produced by corrosion on reinforced concrete and by crack propagation on steel components to develop diagnosis tools and models for bridge prognosis are also a part of the project activities. It is important to mention that the impact of this project extends beyond the area of bridge health monitoring. Several wireless prototype nodes have been already requested for applications on offshore oil platforms, composite ships, combat deployable bridges and wind turbines. This project was awarded to a joint venture formed by Mistras Group Inc, Virginia Tech, University of South Carolina and University of Miami and is sponsored through the NIST-TIP Grant #70NANB9H007.

  12. Speech therapy and voice recognition instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J.; Babcock, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of electronic circuit for examining variations in vocal excitation for diagnostic purposes and in speech recognition for determiniog voice patterns and pitch changes are described. Operation of the circuit is discussed and circuit diagram is provided.

  13. Networking computers.

    PubMed

    McBride, D C

    1997-03-01

    This decade the role of the personal computer has shifted dramatically from a desktop device designed to increase individual productivity and efficiency to an instrument of communication linking people and machines in different places with one another. A computer in one city can communicate with another that may be thousands of miles away. Networking is how this is accomplished. Just like the voice network used by the telephone, computer networks transmit data and other information via modems over these same telephone lines. A network can be created over both short and long distances. Networks can be established within a hospital or medical building or over many hospitals or buildings covering many geographic areas. Those confined to one location are called LANs, local area networks. Those that link computers in one building to those at other locations are known as WANs, or wide area networks. The ultimate wide area network is the one we've all been hearing so much about these days--the Internet, and its World Wide Web. Setting up a network is a process that requires careful planning and commitment. To avoid potential pitfalls and to make certain the network you establish meets your needs today and several years down the road, several steps need to be followed. This article reviews the initial steps involved in getting ready to network.

  14. Voice processing in monkey and human brains.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K

    2008-09-01

    Studies in humans have indicated that the anterior superior temporal sulcus has an important role in the processing of information about human voices, especially the identification of talkers from their voice. A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with macaques provides strong evidence that anterior auditory fields, part of the auditory 'what' pathway, preferentially respond to changes in the identity of conspecifics, rather than specific vocalizations from the same individual. PMID:18684663

  15. Amplifying youth voices in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Fotenos, Saori; Rohatgi, Deepti

    2007-01-01

    Low-literacy youth in the slums of Brazil have been historically unequipped to share their ideas on how to improve their lives, because outside of the spoken word, it is difficult for them to express their thoughts persuasively. The Amplifying Voices afterschool video program piloted at Projeto Uerê in Rio de Janeiro shows that youth can leverage technological tools to voice their perspectives on social issues relevant to themselves and their communities.

  16. Patient Perceptions of Voice Therapy Adherence

    PubMed Central

    van Leer, Eva; Connor, Nadine P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Patient perspectives of behavioral voice therapy, including perspectives of treatment adherence, have not been formally documented. Because treatment adherence is to a large extent determined by patient beliefs, assessment of patient perspectives is integral to the study of adherence. Methods Fifteen patients who had undergone at least 2 sessions of direct voice therapy for a variety of voice disorders/complaints were interviewed about their perspectives on voice therapy, with a particular focus on adherence. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for content according to qualitative methods. Results Three common content themes emerged from the transcripts: Voice Therapy is Hard, Make it Happen, and The Match Matters. Findings are compared to reports of patient experiences in other behavioral interventions such as diet and exercise, and related to existing theoretical models of behavior change and the therapeutic process. Conclusion This study yields information toward the development of scales to measure adherence-related constructs and strategies to improve treatment adherence in voice therapy. PMID:19775866

  17. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. PMID:26245316

  18. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. PMID:26245316

  19. A Voice Web Application Based on Dynamic Navigation of VXML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhingarkar, Sukhada P.

    2010-11-01

    Voice Web, as the name suggests, accesses web resources via voice. VoiceXML is the markup language used to develop speech applications. VoiceXML is interactive and allows voice input to be received and processed by voice browser. Unfortunately, the navigation of VoiceXML document is completely controlled by application developer. Also, the user does not have flexibility to utter random word from currently executing dialog. The aim of the paper is to address the weakness of VoiceXML and develop an application, which dynamically detects recognition candidates in user content, in contrast with recognition candidates of the existing voice web, which depend on the application developer. In this application, a news service is implemented along with dictionary of IT-specific terms and dictionary of words from currently executing news.

  20. Voice Education in Teacher Training: An Investigation into the Knowledge about the Voice and Voice Care in Teacher-Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Gordana

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge about the voice and voice care in teacher-training students. A voice care questionnaire was administered to teacher-training students (N = 184) and students of other professions (N = 143). Discriminant analysis demonstrated that the teacher-training students' knowledge was significantly…

  1. The Acoustic Voice Quality Index: Toward Improved Treatment Outcomes Assessment in Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Roy, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Voice practitioners require an objective index of dysphonia severity as a means to reliably track treatment outcomes. To ensure ecological validity however, such a measure should survey both sustained vowels and continuous speech. In an earlier study, a multivariate acoustic model referred to as the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI), consisting…

  2. Student Voice as a Contested Practice: Power and Participation in Two Student Voice Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carol; Taylor, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This article applies theoretical understandings of power relations within student voice work to two empirical examples of school-based student voice projects. The article builds on and refines theoretical understandings of power and participation developed in previous articles written by the authors. The first article argued that at the heart of…

  3. Native Tongue, Captive Voice: The Representation of the Aboriginal "Voice" in Colonial South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robert; Muhlhausler, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way in which the Aboriginal "voice" was represented in colonial South Australia, particularly in the form of pidgin English. The first part of the article focuses on the first decade of settlement; the second part examines the period between 1860 and the turn of the century. Findings indicate that the Aboriginal voice in South…

  4. National Strategic Research Plan for Hearing and Hearing Impairment and Voice and Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This monograph presents an update to the strategic plan of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), focusing on recent accomplishments, program goals, strategies, and priorities in research opportunities in the areas of hearing/hearing impairment and voice/voice disorders. Specifically considered for the…

  5. Student Voice in a Chinese Context: Investigating the Key Elements of Leadership That Enhance Student Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Annie Yan Ni

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the issues surrounding "student voice" in a specific Chinese context, and assesses the key elements of leadership that could enhance student voice in that context. It reports the results of a research conducted in a community-based educational centre in Hong Kong that provides after-school educational and social adjustment…

  6. The Rise of the Child's Voice; the Silencing of the Spiritual Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the notion of the child's voice has gained prominence, particularly influenced by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989 which outlined rights for children on an international scale. Many countries, including the UK, subsequently legislated for the child's voice to be heard in a variety of arenas…

  7. Quick Screen for Voice and Supplementary Documents for Identifying Pediatric Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Linda; Stemple, Joseph C.; Glaze, Leslie; Kelchner, Lisa N.

    2004-01-01

    Three documents are provided to help the speech-language pathologist (SLP) identify children with voice disorders and educate family members. The first is a quickly administered screening test that covers multiple aspects of voice, respiration, and resonance. It was tested on 3,000 children in kindergarten and first and fifth grades, and on 47…

  8. Voice: challenging the stigma of addiction; a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Paivinen, Helena; Bade, Sherrie

    2008-06-01

    Voice is a collection of art, poetry and narratives created by women living with a history of substance use and addiction. The intent of this collection is to explore women's understanding of harm reduction, to challenge the effects of stigmatization and to explore the experiences of those who have historically been silenced or devalued. Voice was conceived by a group of Kamloops nurses who came together and used their knowledge of mainstream systems, aesthetic knowing, feminism and substance use to guide the development and implementation of this project. During weekly gatherings, women with histories of substance use and addiction worked alongside a nurse in the co-creation of artistic expressions. Gender sensitivity, trust, equality and respect were vital to the success of this process. A selection of the women's art was presented at several venues, including an International Conference on Drug Related Harm, a Nursing Conference and a local art gallery. The positive community response to the women's work contributed to feelings of great pride and enhanced the women's confidence in their ability to express themselves. Throughout this process, women had the opportunity to develop social networks and to become aware of the value that their creative knowledge has to the community in which they live. Gender sensitive programming that is inclusive, participative and promotes women's health is required to fully understand women's experience of substance use and addiction in relation to harm reduction. Participation in projects such as Voice supports and encourages women to make sense of the world they live in and encourages health-promoting activities. The promising outcomes of this project might well be developed by nurses in other settings to further promote the health of women who have traditionally been stigmatized.

  9. Implementation of the Intelligent Voice System for Kazakh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yessenbayev, Zh; Saparkhojayev, N.; Tibeyev, T.

    2014-04-01

    Modern speech technologies are highly advanced and widely used in day-to-day applications. However, this is mostly concerned with the languages of well-developed countries such as English, German, Japan, Russian, etc. As for Kazakh, the situation is less prominent and research in this field is only starting to evolve. In this research and application-oriented project, we introduce an intelligent voice system for the fast deployment of call-centers and information desks supporting Kazakh speech. The demand on such a system is obvious if the country's large size and small population is considered. The landline and cell phones become the only means of communication for the distant villages and suburbs. The system features Kazakh speech recognition and synthesis modules as well as a web-GUI for efficient dialog management. For speech recognition we use CMU Sphinx engine and for speech synthesis- MaryTTS. The web-GUI is implemented in Java enabling operators to quickly create and manage the dialogs in user-friendly graphical environment. The call routines are handled by Asterisk PBX and JBoss Application Server. The system supports such technologies and protocols as VoIP, VoiceXML, FastAGI, Java SpeechAPI and J2EE. For the speech recognition experiments we compiled and used the first Kazakh speech corpus with the utterances from 169 native speakers. The performance of the speech recognizer is 4.1% WER on isolated word recognition and 6.9% WER on clean continuous speech recognition tasks. The speech synthesis experiments include the training of male and female voices.

  10. Power and perceived expressed emotion of voices: their impact on depression and suicidal thinking in those who hear voices.

    PubMed

    Connor, Charlotte; Birchwood, Max

    2013-01-01

    Considerable focus has been given to the interpersonal nature of the voice-hearing relationship and how appraisals about voices may be linked with distress and depression (the 'cognitive model'). Research hitherto has focused on appraisals of voice power, but the supportive and affiliative quality of voices, which may act to mitigate distress, is not understood. We explored appraisals of voices' power and emotional support to determine their significance in predicting depression and suicidal thought. We adapted the concept of expressed emotion (EE) and applied it to measure voice hearers' perception of the relationship with their voice(s). In a sample of 74 voice hearers, 55.4% were moderately depressed. Seventy-eight who rated their voices as high in both power and EE had a large and significant elevation in depression, suggesting that co-occurrence of these appraisals impacts on depression. Analysis of the relationship between power and EE revealed that many voices perceived as low in power were, nevertheless, perceived as high in EE. Those rating their voices as emotionally supportive showed the lowest levels of depression and suicidal thinking. These findings highlight the protective role that the supportive dimension of the voice/voice-hearer relationship may have.

  11. Effect of voice training in the voice rehabilitation of patients with vocal cord polyps after surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIN, LI; SUN, NA; YANG, QIUHUA; ZHANG, YA; SHEN, JI; SHI, LIXIN; FANG, QIN; SUN, GUANGBIN

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of voice training on the vocal rehabilitation of patients with vocal cords polyps following phonomicrosurgery. A total of 60 cases of vocal cord polyps treated by laser phonomicrosurgery were randomly divided into training and control groups with 30 cases in each group. The patients were treated with laser phonomicrosurgery, routine postoperative treatment and nursing. The training group were additionally treated with vocal training, including relaxation training, breathing training, basic pronunciation training, chewing voice training and tone sandhi pronunciation training, and attention was paid to the training steps. Subjective and objective voice evaluations of the two groups were compared three months after the surgery and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Voice training may significantly improve the postoperative voice quality of patients with vocal cord polyps and support rehabilitation. PMID:24669244

  12. Effect of voice training in the voice rehabilitation of patients with vocal cord polyps after surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Sun, Na; Yang, Qiuhua; Zhang, Ya; Shen, Ji; Shi, Lixin; Fang, Qin; Sun, Guangbin

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of voice training on the vocal rehabilitation of patients with vocal cords polyps following phonomicrosurgery. A total of 60 cases of vocal cord polyps treated by laser phonomicrosurgery were randomly divided into training and control groups with 30 cases in each group. The patients were treated with laser phonomicrosurgery, routine postoperative treatment and nursing. The training group were additionally treated with vocal training, including relaxation training, breathing training, basic pronunciation training, chewing voice training and tone sandhi pronunciation training, and attention was paid to the training steps. Subjective and objective voice evaluations of the two groups were compared three months after the surgery and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Voice training may significantly improve the postoperative voice quality of patients with vocal cord polyps and support rehabilitation.

  13. Social Networking Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Just a few years ago, social networking meant little more to educators than the headache of determining whether to penalize students for inappropriate activities captured on Facebook or MySpace. Now, teachers and students have an array of social-networking sites and tools--from Ning to VoiceThread and Second Life--to draw on for such serious uses…

  14. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerf, Vinton G.

    1991-01-01

    The demands placed on the networks transporting the information and knowledge generated by the increased diversity and sophistication of computational machinery are described. What is needed to support this increased flow, the structures already in place, and what must be built are topics of discussion. (KR)

  15. Deficits in voice and multisensory processing in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salles, Juliette; Strelnikov, Kuzma; Carine, Mantoulan; Denise, Thuilleaux; Laurier, Virginie; Molinas, Catherine; Tauber, Maïthé; Barone, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare neurodevelopmental and genetic disorder that is characterized by various expression of endocrine, cognitive and behavioral problems, among which a true obsession for food and a deficit of satiety that leads to hyperphagia and severe obesity. Neuropsychological studies have reported that PWS display altered social interactions with a specific weakness in interpreting social information and in responding to them, a symptom closed to that observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Based on the hypothesis that atypical multisensory integration such as face and voice interactions would contribute in PWS to social impairment we investigate the abilities of PWS to process communication signals including the human voice. Patients with PWS recruited from the national reference center for PWS performed a simple detection task of stimuli presented in an uni-o or bimodal condition, as well as a voice discrimination task. Compared to control typically developing (TD) individuals, PWS present a specific deficit in discriminating human voices from environmental sounds. Further, PWS present a much lower multisensory benefits with an absence of violation of the race model indicating that multisensory information do not converge and interact prior to the initiation of the behavioral response. All the deficits observed in PWS were stronger for the subgroup of patients suffering from Uniparental Disomy, a population known to be more sensitive to ASD. Altogether, our study suggests that the deficits in social behavior observed in PWS derive at least partly from an impairment in deciphering the social information carried by voice signals, face signals, and the combination of both. In addition, our work is in agreement with the brain imaging studies revealing an alteration in PWS of the "social brain network" including the STS region involved in processing human voices. PMID:26994593

  16. A perspective on the advancement of natural language processing tasks via topological analysis of complex networks. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael

    2014-12-01

    Concepts and methods of complex networks have been applied to probe the properties of a myriad of real systems [1]. The finding that written texts modeled as graphs share several properties of other completely different real systems has inspired the study of language as a complex system [2]. Actually, language can be represented as a complex network in its several levels of complexity. As a consequence, morphological, syntactical and semantical properties have been employed in the construction of linguistic networks [3]. Even the character level has been useful to unfold particular patterns [4,5]. In the review by Cong and Liu [6], the authors emphasize the need to use the topological information of complex networks modeling the various spheres of the language to better understand its origins, evolution and organization. In addition, the authors cite the use of networks in applications aiming at holistic typology and stylistic variations. In this context, I will discuss some possible directions that could be followed in future research directed towards the understanding of language via topological characterization of complex linguistic networks. In addition, I will comment the use of network models for language processing applications. Additional prospects for future practical research lines will also be discussed in this comment.

  17. Adaptive Training for Voice Conversion Based on Eigenvoices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Yamato; Toda, Tomoki; Saruwatari, Hiroshi; Shikano, Kiyohiro

    In this paper, we describe a novel model training method for one-to-many eigenvoice conversion (EVC). One-to-many EVC is a technique for converting a specific source speaker's voice into an arbitrary target speaker's voice. An eigenvoice Gaussian mixture model (EV-GMM) is trained in advance using multiple parallel data sets consisting of utterance-pairs of the source speaker and many pre-stored target speakers. The EV-GMM can be adapted to new target speakers using only a few of their arbitrary utterances by estimating a small number of adaptive parameters. In the adaptation process, several parameters of the EV-GMM to be fixed for different target speakers strongly affect the conversion performance of the adapted model. In order to improve the conversion performance in one-to-many EVC, we propose an adaptive training method of the EV-GMM. In the proposed training method, both the fixed parameters and the adaptive parameters are optimized by maximizing a total likelihood function of the EV-GMMs adapted to individual pre-stored target speakers. We conducted objective and subjective evaluations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed training method. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptive training yields significant quality improvements in the converted speech.

  18. Two-voice fundamental frequency estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cheveigné, Alain

    2002-05-01

    An algorithm is presented that estimates the fundamental frequencies of two concurrent voices or instruments. The algorithm models each voice as a periodic function of time, and jointly estimates both periods by cancellation according to a previously proposed method [de Cheveigné and Kawahara, Speech Commun. 27, 175-185 (1999)]. The new algorithm improves on the old in several respects; it allows an unrestricted search range, effectively avoids harmonic and subharmonic errors, is more accurate (it uses two-dimensional parabolic interpolation), and is computationally less costly. It remains subject to unavoidable errors when periods are in certain simple ratios and the task is inherently ambiguous. The algorithm is evaluated on a small database including speech, singing voice, and instrumental sounds. It can be extended in several ways; to decide the number of voices, to handle amplitude variations, and to estimate more than two voices (at the expense of increased processing cost and decreased reliability). It makes no use of instrument models, learned or otherwise, although it could usefully be combined with such models. [Work supported by the Cognitique programme of the French Ministry of Research and Technology.

  19. Candida biofilm formation on voice prostheses.

    PubMed

    Talpaert, Moira J; Balfour, Alistair; Stevens, Sarah; Baker, Mark; Muhlschlegel, Fritz A; Gourlay, Campbell W

    2015-03-01

    Laryngopharyngeal malignancy is treated with radiotherapy and/or surgery. When total laryngectomy is required, major laryngeal functions (phonation, airway control, swallowing and coughing) are affected. The insertion of a silicone rubber voice prosthesis in a surgically created tracheoesophageal puncture is the most effective method for voice rehabilitation. Silicone, as is the case with other synthetic materials such as polymethylmethacrylate, polyurethane, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and polystyrene, has the propensity to become rapidly colonized by micro-organisms (mainly Candida albicans) forming a biofilm, which leads to the failure of the devices. Silicone is used within voice prosthetic devices because of its flexible properties, which are essential for valve function. Valve failure, as well as compromising speech, may result in aspiration pneumonia, and repeated valve replacement may lead to either tract stenosis or insufficiency. Prevention and control of biofilm formation are therefore crucial for the lifespan of the prosthesis and promotion of tracheoesophageal tissue and lung health. To date, the mechanisms of biofilm formation on voice prostheses are not fully understood. Further studies are therefore required to identify factors influencing Candida biofilm formation. This review describes the factors known to influence biofilm formation on voice prostheses and current strategies employed to prolong their life by interfering with microbial colonization.

  20. Networking Projects around the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinck, Nancy A., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews networking projects that have been developed by educational institutions and computer companies. Highlights include minicomputers that network personal computer workstations; voice mail messages; data processing systems; linking university databases; the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET); a computer link between a high school…

  1. Multilingual subjective methodology and evaluation of low-rate digital voice processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimolitsas, Spiros; Corcoran, Franklin L.; Baraniecki, Marion R.; Phipps, John G., Jr.

    The methodology and results for a multilingual evaluation of source encoding algorithms operating at 16 kbit/s are presented. The evaluation was conducted in three languages (English, French, and Madarin), using listener opinion subjective assessments to determine whether 'toll-quality' performance is possible at 16 kbit/s. The study demonstrated that toll-quality voice is indeed possible at 16 kbit/s, and that several of the methods evaluated are more robust under high bit error conditions than either 32- or 64-kbit/s encoding. Thus, 16-kbit/s voice coding technology is currently suitable for many applications with the public-switched telephone network, including the next generation of digital circuit multiplication equipment, and integrated services digital network videotelephony.

  2. Practical applications of interactive voice technologies: Some accomplishments and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Michael W.; Hicklin, M. B.; Porter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A technology assessment of the application of computers and electronics to complex systems is presented. Three existing systems which utilize voice technology (speech recognition and speech generation) are described. Future directions in voice technology are also described.

  3. Voice: Reading to Hear and Revising to Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of voice in writing and suggests that the current interest in the writing process encourages students to increase their power of expression without distorting their voice beyond recognition. Includes samples of student writing. (MM)

  4. The Patient Outcomes Research To Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network Adult Overweight and Obesity Cohort: Development and Description

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) created a new national network infrastructure to enable large-scale observational comparative effectiveness research across diverse clinical care settings. As part of testing the feasibility of this effort, each clinical data research network (CDRN) was required to construct cohorts of patients, including one of patients with overweight and obesity. Objective The aim of this paper is to report on the development of the Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) overweight and obese cohort, which includes patients from 10 health plans located across the United States. Methods Information was gathered from each plan’s electronic health records (EHR). Eligibility included 18 years of age or older, a valid height and weight in 2012 or 2013, and body mass index (BMI) greater than 22.9 kg/m2. Pre-diabetes and diabetes status was defined using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, using lab values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or fasting glucose available in the EHR. Hypertension was identified from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis codes. Individuals were classified into BMI categories: healthy weight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese class 1 (30.0-34.9 kg/m2), obese class 2 (35.0-39.9 kg/m2), obese class 3 (40.0-49.0 kg/m2), and obese class 4 (>50.0 kg/m2). Results A cohort of 5,293,458 non-pregnant adults was created. Weight status was 20.39% (1,079,289/5,293,458) healthy weight, 40.40% (2,138,520/5,293,458) overweight, 22.78% (1,205,866/5,293,458) obese class 1, 9.86% (521,872/5,293,458) obese class 2, 5.59% (295,786/5,293,458) obese class 3, and 0.98% (52,125/5,293,458) obese class 4. Race/ethnicity was 49.02% (2,594,776/5,293,458) non-Hispanic white, 22.89% (1,211,677/5,293,458) Hispanic, 10.40% (550,608/5,293,458) Asian, 10.83% (573,506/5,293,458) black, and 6.59% (348,830/5,293,458) other. About 34.33% (1

  5. Secure voice-based authentication for mobile devices: vaulted voice verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. C.; Scheirer, Walter J.; Boult, Terrance E.

    2013-05-01

    As the use of biometrics becomes more wide-spread, the privacy concerns that stem from the use of biometrics are becoming more apparent. As the usage of mobile devices grows, so does the desire to implement biometric identification into such devices. A large majority of mobile devices being used are mobile phones. While work is being done to implement different types of biometrics into mobile phones, such as photo based biometrics, voice is a more natural choice. The idea of voice as a biometric identifier has been around a long time. One of the major concerns with using voice as an identifier is the instability of voice. We have developed a protocol that addresses those instabilities and preserves privacy. This paper describes a novel protocol that allows a user to authenticate using voice on a mobile/remote device without compromising their privacy. We first discuss the Vaulted Verification protocol, which has recently been introduced in research literature, and then describe its limitations. We then introduce a novel adaptation and extension of the Vaulted Verification protocol to voice, dubbed Vaulted Voice Verification (V3). Following that we show a performance evaluation and then conclude with a discussion of security and future work.

  6. Using Ambulatory Voice Monitoring to Investigate Common Voice Disorders: Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Zañartu, Matías; Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Guttag, John V.; Espinoza, Víctor M.; Cortés, Juan P.; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Many common voice disorders are chronic or recurring conditions that are likely to result from inefficient and/or abusive patterns of vocal behavior, referred to as vocal hyperfunction. The clinical management of hyperfunctional voice disorders would be greatly enhanced by the ability to monitor and quantify detrimental vocal behaviors during an individual’s activities of daily life. This paper provides an update on ongoing work that uses a miniature accelerometer on the neck surface below the larynx to collect a large set of ambulatory data on patients with hyperfunctional voice disorders (before and after treatment) and matched-control subjects. Three types of analysis approaches are being employed in an effort to identify the best set of measures for differentiating among hyperfunctional and normal patterns of vocal behavior: (1) ambulatory measures of voice use that include vocal dose and voice quality correlates, (2) aerodynamic measures based on glottal airflow estimates extracted from the accelerometer signal using subject-specific vocal system models, and (3) classification based on machine learning and pattern recognition approaches that have been used successfully in analyzing long-term recordings of other physiological signals. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential for ambulatory voice monitoring to improve the diagnosis and treatment of common hyperfunctional voice disorders. PMID:26528472

  7. Network Quality of Service Monitoring for IP Telephony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghita, B. V.; Furnell, S. M.; Lines, B. M.; Le-Foll, D.; Ifeachor, E. C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the development of real-time applications on the Internet for telecommunications and presents a non-intrusive way of determining network performance parameters for voice packet flows within a voice over IP (Internet Protocol), or Internet telephony call. Considers measurement of quality of service and describes results of a preliminary…

  8. Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) Utilization in Remote Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Susan; Bradford, Bob; Chamberlain, Jim; Nichols, Kelvin; Bailey, Darrell (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Due to limited crew availability to support science and the large number of experiments to be operated simultaneously, telescience is key to a successful International Space Station (ISS) science program. Crew, operations personnel at NASA centers, and researchers at universities and companies around the world must work closely together to perform scientific experiments on-board ISS. NASA has initiated use of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) to supplement the existing HVoDS mission voice communications system used by researchers. The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) connects researchers to mission support "loops" or conferences via Internet Protocol networks such as the high-speed Internet 2. Researchers use IVoDS software on personal computers to talk with operations personnel at NASA centers. IVoDS also has the capability, if authorized, to allow researchers to communicate with the ISS crew during experiment operations. NODS was developed by Marshall Space Flight Center with contractors A2 Technology, Inc. FVC, Lockheed- Martin, and VoIP Group. IVoDS is currently undergoing field-testing with full deployment for up to 50 simultaneous users expected in 2002. Research is currently being performed to take full advantage of the digital world - the Personal Computer and Internet Protocol networks - to qualitatively enhance communications among ISS operations personnel. In addition to the current voice capability, video and data-sharing capabilities are being investigated. Major obstacles being addressed include network bandwidth capacity and strict security requirements. Techniques being investigated to reduce and overcome these obstacles include emerging audio-video protocols and network technology including multicast and quality-of-service.

  9. Jordanian teachers' perceptions of voice handicap.

    PubMed

    Marie, Basem S; Natour, Yaser S; Haj-Tas, Maisa A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate if Jordanian school teachers perceive their voice as handicapped using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)-Arab. The effect of teachers' age, gender, years of teaching, class taught, and education level on VHI was examined. A total of 289 teachers and a control group of 100 participants took part in the study. The teachers' group differed significantly from the control group in the physical, emotional, and functional subscales and the total score of the VHI-Arab. There was no significant difference among teachers in any of the three VHI subscales or total regarding gender, age, years of teaching experience, education level, and classes taught. Jordanian teachers have a strong perception of voice handicap. Thus, preventive and treatment vocal programs are strongly advised.

  10. Adaptive Suppression of Noise in Voice Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David; DeVault, James A.; Birr, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    A subsystem for the adaptive suppression of noise in a voice communication system effects a high level of reduction of noise that enters the system through microphones. The subsystem includes a digital signal processor (DSP) plus circuitry that implements voice-recognition and spectral- manipulation techniques. The development of the adaptive noise-suppression subsystem was prompted by the following considerations: During processing of the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center, voice communications among test team members have been significantly impaired in several instances because some test participants have had to communicate from locations with high ambient noise levels. Ear protection for the personnel involved is commercially available and is used in such situations. However, commercially available noise-canceling microphones do not provide sufficient reduction of noise that enters through microphones and thus becomes transmitted on outbound communication links.

  11. [Psychological classification of functional voice disorders].

    PubMed

    Kiese-Himmel, C; Kruse, E

    1997-01-01

    In an explorative study the classification of a collective of patients with different voice disorders by discriminant and cluster analysis was tried. 21 variables, obtained from 128 patients with various diagnoses of voice disorders, were used. A first discriminant analysis on the basis of diagnoses-groups permitted no differentiation. A subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis indicated a four-cluster-solution. The clusters showed only little association with the phoniatric diagnoses. Cluster 1 is characterized by patients with non-organic voice disorders. Cluster 2 is marked by emotional unstable patients with organic dysphonia. Cluster 3 consists of patients with psychosomatic dysphonia by laryngeal contact granuloma, and cluster 4 contains emotional stable patients suffering from organic dysphonia and from spasmodic dysphonia. Thirteen psychological variables discriminated the clusters significantly: Anxiety about appearing in public, emotionality (neuroticism), life satisfaction, aggressiveness, anxiety, about physical injuries, extraversion.

  12. Effects of voice on emotional arousal.

    PubMed

    Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P; Li, H Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

  13. A study on a simple communication network by microsats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yukio; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Miura, Ryu; Kondo, Kimio; Obuchi, Tomoki; Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi; Nakagawa, Osamu; Matsui, Masayasu; Muranaka, Noboru

    1992-03-01

    A concept for a communication network based on the use of microsatellites is advanced in which intersatellite links and onboard digital processing are featured. Voice and digital information are collected from and transferred to 9.6-kbps ground stations and a number of 1.2-kbps single-orbit LEO satellites. The orbits and constellations depend on the system objectives, but the subsystems for the microsatellite network are described in terms of the intersatellite radio link, the satellite bus system, transponder designs, and typical satellite configuration. The target performances for each system are listed including launcher options, stabilization technique, mission payloads, and antenna type. It is suggested that the microsatellite system can reduce time delay for package-message communication and confirm the validity of store and forward mail communication between ground stations and microsatellites.

  14. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  15. Layered protocols in voice interaction with computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. M.

    1987-02-01

    The Layered Protocol model for human computer interfaces is described, with special reference to the problems of voice input and output. In a layered protocol, each level passes virtual messages back and forth between human and computer. These virtual messages are realized in the form of interchanges at the level below. The protocol at a level is analogous to the syntax of a sentence, in that it is the method by which the content of a message can be given an agreed interpretation. Each protocol can be designed or evaluated independently of all the others in an interface. The stability of a protocol is determined by its response delays and by the channel capacity of the lower level protocols that support its messages. Sometimes an unstable protocol can be stabilized and speeded by reducing the message rate of the supporting protocols. Users have been observed to do this intuitively. Voice input provides special problems because of the relatively high error probability inherent in the recognizer: errors in other modalities are likely to be due to operator fault. This tends to lead to unwarranted distrust of voice input, and to demands for types of feedback that are probably inappropriate to the level of protocol to which the recognizer is suited. Voice output can be used by the computer to initiate protocols, or to provide a response channel for protocols under conditions where the user's eyes are otherwise occupied. Consideration of protocol demands helps to clarify the requirements for precision in recognition, and for the characteristics of computer responses to voice input; it helps also in judging appropriate conditions for the use of voice output.

  16. Factors Predicting the Use of Passive Voice in Newspaper Headlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciulla, Linnea Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Information packaging researchers have found that certain factors influence active/passive voice alternations: Animacy, Definiteness and Weight influence argument order and thus choice of voice. Researchers in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and psycholinguistics claim that voice is influenced by social factors, e.g. gender, social standing, or…

  17. 14 CFR 121.359 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (k) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder... termination of the flight. (b) (c) The cockpit voice recorder required by paragraph (a) of this section must... the cockpit voice recorder, and the flight recorder required by § 121.343, are installed adjacent...

  18. 14 CFR 121.359 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (k) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder... termination of the flight. (b) (c) The cockpit voice recorder required by paragraph (a) of this section must... the cockpit voice recorder, and the flight recorder required by § 121.343, are installed adjacent...

  19. 14 CFR 135.151 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... flight data recorder installed in accordance with § 135.152, must have a cockpit voice recorder that also... rotorcraft required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that install... data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder that......

  20. 14 CFR 121.359 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (k) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder... termination of the flight. (b) (c) The cockpit voice recorder required by paragraph (a) of this section must... the cockpit voice recorder, and the flight recorder required by § 121.343, are installed adjacent...

  1. 14 CFR 121.359 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (k) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder... termination of the flight. (b) (c) The cockpit voice recorder required by paragraph (a) of this section must... the cockpit voice recorder, and the flight recorder required by § 121.343, are installed adjacent...

  2. Treatment of Voice Hyperfunction in the Pre-adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaze, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Preadolescents with hyperfunctional voice disorders may respond readily to behavioral voice therapy based on education, voice conservation strategies, direct vocal function exercises, family and peer support, and relaxation. Treatment should focus on integration of health respiration, phonation, and vocal tract resonance to achieve improved…

  3. Multiple Voices in Clinical Discourse and as Clinical Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.; Prior, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Grounded in sociocultural theories of language development and use, this paper explores the concept of dialogic voice. Building on the term "dialogue", dialogic voice points to the fundamentally social nature of language-in-use. From this perspective, language emerges from specific histories and thus carries the multiple voices of…

  4. Vocabulary Discourse: Developing Meaning through "VoiceThread" Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Grace Marie

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated how third-grade students from low-income families talked about target vocabulary words when asked to create a "VoiceThread" publication. "VoiceThread" is a web-based publication tool that allows students to post pictures and attach voice-recordings to each picture. There were three student…

  5. 14 CFR 129.24 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 129.24 Section 129... § 129.24 Cockpit voice recorders. No person may operate an aircraft under this part that is registered in the United States unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder that meets...

  6. Original Knowledge, Gender and the Word's Mythology: Voicing the Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…

  7. The Adolescent Female Changing Voice: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…

  8. Voice Construction, Assessment, and Extra-Textual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardy, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of voice has long attracted the attention of teachers, but more recently has also been the focus of a growing body of research aiming to understand voice as self-representation in writing. Adopting a socio-cultural orientation to voice, studies have revealed much about how textual choices are used by readers to build images of…

  9. Children's Voice. Volume 15, Number 5, September/October 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Steven S., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice" seeks to encourage public discussion and debate among those who are committed to helping children and families. "Children's Voice" is published bimonthly by the Child Welfare League of America. This issue of "Children's Voice" includes: (1) Defining Family:…

  10. Acoustic Analysis Before and After Voice Therapy for Laryngeal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, S S; Gautam, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Voice problems caused by pathologies in vocal folds are well known. Some types of laryngeal pathologies have certain acoustic characteristics. Objective evaluation helps characterize the voice and voice problems providing supporting evidences, severity of disorders. It helps assess the response to the treatment and measures the outcomes. Objective The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the voice therapy and quantify the results objectively by voice parameters. Method Study includes 61 patients who presented with different types of laryngeal pathologies. Acoustic analyses and voice assessment was done with Dr. Speech ver 4 (Tiger DRS Inc.). Acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitters, shimmers, Harmonic to noise ratio (HNR), Normalized noise energy (NNE) were analyzed before and after voice therapy. Result Bilateral vocal nodules were the most common pathologies comprising 44.26%. All acoustic parameters showed a significant difference after the therapy (p<0.05) except for NNE. Dysphonia due to vocal fold polyp showed no improvement even after voice therapy (p>0.05). Conclusion Acoustic analysis provides an objective, recordable data regarding the voice parameters and its pathologies. Though, few pathology require alternative therapy rather than voice therapy, overall it has a good effect on glottic closure. As the voice therapy can improve the different indices of voice, it can be viewed as imperative part of treatment and to monitor progression. PMID:27423282

  11. The processing of voice identity in developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran R; Corrow, Sherryse L; Pancaroglu, Raika; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental prosopagnosia is a disorder of face recognition that is believed to reflect impairments of visual mechanisms. However, voice recognition has rarely been evaluated in developmental prosopagnosia to clarify if it is modality-specific or part of a multi-modal person recognition syndrome. Objective Our goal was to examine whether voice discrimination and/or recognition are impaired in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia. Design/Methods 73 healthy controls and 12 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia performed a match-to-sample test of voice discrimination and a test of short-term voice familiarity, as well as a questionnaire about face and voice identification in daily life. Results Eleven subjects with developmental prosopagnosia scored within the normal range for voice discrimination and voice recognition. One was impaired on discrimination and borderline for recognition, with equivalent scores for face and voice recognition, despite being unaware of voice processing problems. Conclusions Most subjects with developmental prosopagnosia are not impaired in short-term voice familiarity, providing evidence that developmental prosopagnosia is usually a modality-specific disorder of face recognition. However, there may be heterogeneity, with a minority having additional voice processing deficits. Objective tests of voice recognition should be integrated into the diagnostic evaluation of this disorder to distinguish it from a multi-modal person recognition syndrome. PMID:26321070

  12. Review of Research: Voice in the Context of Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Melanie; Appleman, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The concept of voice permeates perspectives on reading and writing and has helped guide both literacy research and teaching. However, what voice is for scholars, researchers, and teachers takes many guises, some in apparent contradiction to others. We offer a theoretical perspective on the concept of voice, situating it within sociocultural…

  13. Performance assessment of voice and video transmission in a simulated UMTS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraffon, Claudio; Abrardo, Andrea; Barni, Mauro; Garzelli, Andrea; Giambene, Giovanni; Lauri, L.

    2003-01-01

    The specification and the management of Quality of Service (QoS) are important aspects in mobile telecommunication networks. There are increasing interests and open issues in providing users with a wide range of multimedia services, in particular for video-telephony applications in a third generation cellular system environment. This paper presents a performance assessment of combined voice-video transmission in a realistic UMTS scenario in which the radio interface is simulated by using the environment offered by OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tool). In such a context, it is possible to take into account the effects of interference and mobility in a classical cellular scenario. Hence, we can evaluate the effectiveness of different solutions: power control and macro-diversity at the physical layer, coding and retransmission strategies at the link layer and handover, resource allocation and scheduling schemes at the network layer. Power control is designed in order to adapt the power transmitted by mobile terminals on the basis of interference level, traffic and channel conditions, and required packet loss probability. Two main aspects are considered to test the system performance: the ability to support given QoS requirements for both voice and video services - by using accurate models for voice sources and real H.263 video sources - and the effectiveness in the utilization of system resources. Toward this end, simulations are performed for various configurations of parameters and different environmental conditions with a particular attention devoted to the QoS for video transmission.

  14. Interactive voice response system (IVRS) in health care services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeok; Friedman, Mary Ellen; Cukor, Peter; Ahern, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in telecommunications technology have created opportunities to enhance the quality of health care services through telehealth, the use of telecommunications and information technologies to deliver health care. However, the diverse technologies and applications encompassed by telehealth have tended to confuse discussions of the effectiveness of these programs. An interactive voice response system (IVRS) is a simple, yet effective telehealth application that improves access to health care by continuing care beyond the hospital setting, with specially tailored programs that are easily accessible to patients around the clock. Often described as a telephone connected to a "talking computer," an IVRS allows patient interaction for data collection or to deliver recorded telephone messages related to medication compliance or behavior modification. Despite easy access to touchtone telephone services and growing familiarity with IVRS, many health care providers are unaware of these programs. This paper reviews the infrastructure of IVRS technology and its uses in health care. PMID:14688763

  15. The voice of emotion: an FMRI study of neural responses to angry and happy vocal expressions

    PubMed Central

    van Reekum, Carien M.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    The human voice is one of the principal conveyers of social and affective communication. Yet relatively little is known about the neural circuitry that supports the recognition of different vocally expressed emotions. We conducted an FMRI study to examine the brain responses to vocal expressions of anger and happiness, and to test whether specific brain regions showed preferential engagement in the processing of one emotion over the other. We also tested the extent to which simultaneously presented facial expressions of the same or different emotions would enhance brain responses, and to what degree such responses depend on attention towards the vocal expression. Forty healthy individuals were scanned while listening to vocal expressions of anger or happiness, while at the same time watching congruent or discrepant facial expressions. Happy voices elicited significantly more activation than angry voices in right anterior and posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG), left posterior MTG and right inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, for the left MTG region, happy voices were related to higher activation only when paired with happy faces. Activation in the left insula, left amygdala and hippocampus, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex showed an effect of selectively attending to the vocal stimuli. Our results identify a network of regions implicated in the processing of vocal emotion, and suggest a particularly salient role for vocal expressions of happiness. PMID:17607327

  16. Reappraising the voices of wrath.

    PubMed

    Korb, Sebastian; Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive reappraisal recruits prefrontal and parietal cortical areas. Because of the near exclusive usage in past research of visual stimuli to elicit emotions, it is unknown whether the same neural substrates underlie the reappraisal of emotions induced through other sensory modalities. Here, participants reappraised their emotions in order to increase or decrease their emotional response to angry prosody, or maintained their attention to it in a control condition. Neural activity was monitored with fMRI, and connectivity was investigated by using psychophysiological interaction analyses. A right-sided network encompassing the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus and the inferior frontal gyrus was found to underlie the processing of angry prosody. During reappraisal to increase emotional response, the left superior frontal gyrus showed increased activity and became functionally coupled to right auditory cortices. During reappraisal to decrease emotional response, a network that included the medial frontal gyrus and posterior parietal areas showed increased activation and greater functional connectivity with bilateral auditory regions. Activations pertaining to this network were more extended on the right side of the brain. Although directionality cannot be inferred from PPI analyses, the findings suggest a similar frontoparietal network for the reappraisal of visually and auditorily induced negative emotions. PMID:25964502

  17. Voice, Genre, and Intentionality: An Integrated Methods Study of Voice Criteria in the Evaluation of Secondary Students' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Jill V.

    2010-01-01

    "Voice" is widely considered to be a feature of effective writing. It's no surprise, then, that voice criteria frequently appear on rubrics used to score student essays in large-scale writing assessments. However, composition theorists hold vastly different views regarding voice and how it should be applied in the evaluation of student writing, if…

  18. Assessment of voice coders for ATC/pilot voice communications via satellite digital communication channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, N. L.

    1989-03-01

    An Air Traffic Control (ATC) simulation testbench constructed for the purpose of assessing the use of voice coding equipment (vocoders) for relaying voice communications between air traffic controllers and pilots via satellite digital communication channels is described. The development of the testbench and the analysis procedures is described. Several vocoders employing different coding algorithms which have been proposed for use over satellite data channels are assessed. Within the limitations imposed by the simulation, the assessment suggests that voice coded speech at 8 to 9.6 k bit/sec would be acceptable for some ATC tasks. The assessment results were also used to rank the vocoders for acceptability to support ATC voice communications under various bit error rates over the digital communication channel.

  19. Partnerships in translation: advancing research and clinical care. The 14th Annual HMO Research Network Conference, April 13-16, 2008, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Robert T; Coleman, Laura A; Nelson, Andrew F; Selby, Joseph V

    2008-12-01

    The Health Maintenance Organization Research Network held its annual meeting in Minneapolis in April of 2008, with more than 300 investigators, research staff, clinical leaders, and academic partners gathering in conjunction with the conference theme 'Partnerships in Translation: Advancing Research and Clinical Care.' This article provides some background on the network, its research activities, and the annual conference. Also featured is an article by Coleman and colleagues summarizing the conference's first plenary session, where operational leaders of health care organizations discussed the optimization of health care through research. This issue of Clinical Medicine & Research also includes a selection of scientific abstracts presented at the meeting on a wide range of clinical and population health topics.

  20. Feasibility study of advanced technology hov systems. Volume 3. Benefit implications of alternative policies for including hov lanes in route guidance networks. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Chira-Chavala, T.; Lin, W.H.

    1992-12-01

    This study aims to investigate whether it would be beneficial to include HOV lanes in route guidance networks when high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lanes exist on the corridors. This is an important policy issue for a number of reasons. First, HOV lanes are integral parts of many urban corridors in the U.S., and there is no compelling reason at this time to exclude them from route-guidance networks. Second, HOVs share same roadways with single-occupancy-vehicles (SOVs) outside HOV lanes, thus congestion outside HOV lanes also affects HOVs. Therefore, HOVs can conceivably benefit from having route guidance information to guide their journey. Third, evidence suggests that HOV lanes are a good public policy, thus it appears desirable to continue to provide travel-time advantages to HOVs over SOVs even when advanced route guidance technologies become available.