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Sample records for advanced networking voice

  1. Space-Based Voice over IP Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Okino, Clayton; Walsh, William; Clare, Loren

    2007-01-01

    In human space exploration missions (e.g. a return to the Moon and for future missions to Mars), there will be a need to provide voice communications services. In this work we focus on the performance of Voice over IP (VoIP) techniques applied to space networks, where long range latencies, simplex links, and significant bit error rates occur. Link layer and network layer overhead issues are examined. Finally, we provide some discussion on issues related to voice conferencing in the space network environment.

  2. Fiber optic voice/data network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An asynchronous, high-speed, fiber optic local area network originally developed for tactical environments with additional benefits for other environments such as spacecraft, and the like. The network supports ordinary data packet traffic simultaneously with synchronous T1 voice traffic over a common token ring channel; however, the techniques and apparatus of this invention can be applied to any deterministic class of packet data networks, including multitier backbones, that must transport stream data (e.g., video, SAR, sensors) as well as data. A voice interface module parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network employing elastic buffers on both the sending and receiving ends. Voice call setup and switching functions are performed external to the network with ordinary PABX equipment. Clock information is passed across network boundaries in a token passing ring by preceeding the token with an idle period of non-transmission which allows the token to be used to re-establish a clock synchronized to the data. Provision is made to monitor and compensate the elastic receiving buffers so as to prevent them from overflowing or going empty.

  3. Implementation of a tactical voice/data network over FDDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Halloran, F.; Martinez, J.

    An asynchronous high-speed fiber-optic local-area network is described that simultaneously supports packet data traffic with synchronous TI voice traffic over a standard asynchronous FDDI (fiber distributed data interface) token-ring channel. A voice interface module was developed that parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network. The technique is general, however, and can be applied to any deterministic class of networks, including multitier backbones. In addition, the higher layer packet data protocols may operate independently of those for the voice, thereby permitting great flexibility in reconfiguring the network. Voice call setup and switching functions are performed external to the network with PABX equipment.

  4. Carrying Synchronous Voice Data On Asynchronous Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Buffers restore synchronism for internal use and permit asynchronism in external transmission. Proposed asynchronous local-area digital communication network (LAN) carries synchronous voice, data, or video signals, or non-real-time asynchronous data signals. Network uses double buffering scheme that reestablishes phase and frequency references at each node in network. Concept demonstrated in token-ring network operating at 80 Mb/s, pending development of equipment operating at planned data rate of 200 Mb/s. Technique generic and used with any LAN as long as protocol offers deterministic (or bonded) access delays and sufficient capacity.

  5. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray; Odonnell, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Voice samples were obtained from 14 male subjects under high and low workload conditions. Acoustical analysis of the voice suggested that high workload conditions can be revealed by their effects on the voice over time. Aircrews in the advanced flight deck will be voicing short, imperative sentences repeatedly. A drop in the energy of the voice, as reflected by reductions in amplitude and frequency over time, and the failure to achieve old amplitude and frequency levels after rest periods, can signal that the workload demands of the situation are straining the speaker. This kind of measurement would be relatively unaffected by individual differences in acoustical measures.

  6. Multi-institutional Study of Voice Disorders and Voice Therapy Referral: Report from the CHEER Network

    PubMed Central

    Misono, Stephanie; Marmor, Schelomo; Roy, Nelson; Mau, Ted; Cohen, Seth M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess perspectives of patients with voice problems and identify factors associated with the likelihood of referral to voice therapy via the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) practice-based research network infrastructure. Study Design Prospectively enrolled cross-sectional study of CHEER patients seen for a voice problem (dysphonia). Setting The CHEER network of community and academic sites. Methods Patient-reported demographic information, nature and severity of voice problems, clinical diagnoses, and proposed treatment plans were collected. The relationship between patient factors and voice therapy referral was investigated. Results Patients (N = 249) were identified over 12 months from 10 sites comprising 30 otolaryngology physicians. The majority were women (68%) and white (82%). Most patients reported a recurrent voice problem (72%) and symptom duration >4 weeks (89%). The most commonly reported voice-related diagnoses were vocal strain, reflux, and benign vocal fold lesions. Sixty-seven percent of enrolled patients reported receiving a recommendation for voice therapy. After adjusting for sociodemographic and other factors, diagnoses including vocal strain/excessive tension and vocal fold paralysis and academic practice type were associated with increased likelihood of reporting a referral for voice therapy. Conclusions The CHEER network successfully enrolled a representative sample of patients with dysphonia. Common diagnoses were vocal strain, reflux, and benign vocal fold lesions; commonly reported treatment recommendations included speech/voice therapy and antireflux medication. Recommendation for speech/voice therapy was associated with academic practice type. PMID:27371624

  7. Converging voice and data over mission-critical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, R. W.; Humphrey, G. G.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Deep Space Network ?? DSN - is an international network of antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. The network also supports selected Earth-orbiting missions. This paper describes the ground communications network of the DSN and ways network infrastructure costs are being reduced by the introduction of new technology. Fundamentally, the DSN ground network architecture is a star network, and the hub is at JPL in Pasadena, California. Communications to customer sites are designed to minimize NASA costs and may be either shared IP backbone networks or dedicated circuits. One of the primary features of the network is its ability to support real-time data, voice, and video communications among antenna stations, an automated multi-mission operations systems facility at JPL (AMMOS), and mission operations centers (MOCs) at NASA and non-NASA facilities. Funding for advanced engineering to reduce ground network infrastructure costs was provided by the NASA Office of Space Science.

  8. The neural changes in connectivity of the voice network during voice pitch perturbation.

    PubMed

    Flagmeier, Sabina G; Ray, Kimberly L; Parkinson, Amy L; Li, Karl; Vargas, Robert; Price, Larry R; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Charles R; Robin, Donald A

    2014-05-01

    Voice control is critical to communication. To date, studies have used behavioral, electrophysiological and functional data to investigate the neural correlates of voice control using perturbation tasks, but have yet to examine the interactions of these neural regions. The goal of this study was to use structural equation modeling of functional neuroimaging data to examine network properties of voice with and without perturbation. Results showed that the presence of a pitch shift, which was processed as an error in vocalization, altered connections between right STG and left STG. Other regions that revealed differences in connectivity during error detection and correction included bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and the primary and pre motor cortices. Results indicated that STG plays a critical role in voice control, specifically, during error detection and correction. Additionally, pitch perturbation elicits changes in the voice network that suggest the right hemisphere is critical to pitch modulation.

  9. Voice and Data Network of Convergence and the Application of Voice over IP

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, J.M.

    2000-11-01

    This paper looks at emerging technologies for converging voice and data networks and telephony transport over a data network using Internet Protocols. Considered are the benefits and drivers for this convergence. The paper describes these new technologies, how they are being used, and their application to Sandia.

  10. Advanced Network Security Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    network. The network observed was the Abilene network of the University Consortium for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID), often known as “ Internet2 ...for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID), often known as “ Internet2 .” This contract was heavily operational in nature, as opposed to a contract

  11. Description of AMSC's North American Private Voice Network (PVN) service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigler, C. E.; Magliato, N. H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides both a technical description of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) Point-to-Multipoint Voice service and initial service offering descriptions. AMSC has selected the term Private Voice Network (PVN) for this service. The PVN service has been designed to take advantage of AMSC's continent-wide coverage. Thus PVN provides a service not currently found in the mobile communications marketplace, seamless 2-way point-multipoint voice communications across North America. This paper describes the PVN system within terms of physical components and configurations overall PVN system capabilities and initial PVN product offerings.

  12. Implementation of a tactical voice/data network over FDDI. [Fiber Distributed Data Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Halloran, F.; Martinez, J.

    1988-01-01

    An asynchronous high-speed fiber-optic local-area network is described that simultaneously supports packet data traffic with synchronous TI voice traffic over a standard asynchronous FDDI (fiber distributed data interface) token-ring channel. A voice interface module was developed that parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network. The technique is general, however, and can be applied to any deterministic class of networks, including multitier backbones. In addition, the higher layer packet data protocols may operate independently of those for the voice, thereby permitting great flexibility in reconfiguring the network. Voice call setup and switching functions are performed external to the network with PABX equipment.

  13. Voice-on-Target: A New Approach to Tactical Networking and Unmanned Systems Control via the Voice Interface to the SA Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Voice Interface to the SA Environment Track 2: Network and Networking Eugene Bourakov Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation...2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Voice-on-Target: A New Approach to Tactical Networking and Unmanned Systems Control via the Voice Interface to the SA...Another example of successful voice interface implementation in robotic system control is a precise parafoil landing. The experiment was addressing

  14. Advanced Polymer Network Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Polymer networks and gels are important classes of materials for defense applications . In an effort to......it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7612 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Advanced Polymer

  15. A fiber optic tactical voice/data network based on FDDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Hartmayer, R.; Marelid, S.; Wu, W. H.; Edgar, G.; Cassell, P.; Mancini, R.; Kiernicki, J.; Paul, L. J.; Jeng, J.

    1988-04-01

    An asynchronous high-speed fiber optic local area network is described that supports ordinary data packet traffic simultaneously with synchronous Tl voice traffic over a common FDDI token ring channel. A voice interface module was developed that parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network. The technique is general, however, and can be applied to any deterministic class of networks, including multi-tier backbones. A conventional single token access protocol was employed at the lowest layer, with fixed packet sizes for voice and variable for data. In addition, the higher layer packet data protocols are allowed to operate independently of those for the voice thereby permitting great flexibility in reconfiguring the network. Voice call setup and switching functions were performed external to the network with PABX equipment.

  16. A fiber optic tactical voice/data network based on FDDI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Hartmayer, R.; Marelid, S.; Wu, W. H.; Edgar, G.; Cassell, P.; Mancini, R.; Kiernicki, J.; Paul, L. J.; Jeng, J.

    1988-01-01

    An asynchronous high-speed fiber optic local area network is described that supports ordinary data packet traffic simultaneously with synchronous Tl voice traffic over a common FDDI token ring channel. A voice interface module was developed that parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network. The technique is general, however, and can be applied to any deterministic class of networks, including multi-tier backbones. A conventional single token access protocol was employed at the lowest layer, with fixed packet sizes for voice and variable for data. In addition, the higher layer packet data protocols are allowed to operate independently of those for the voice thereby permitting great flexibility in reconfiguring the network. Voice call setup and switching functions were performed external to the network with PABX equipment.

  17. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  18. Secure digital voice communications in the Defense Data Network (DDN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, M.; Gan, D.; Oesterreicher, C.

    1985-03-01

    This final report has investigated and validated one of the fourteen key features of the future, all-digital World-wide Digital Systems Architecture (WWDSA), namely the enhanced 2.4 Kbps secure voice survivability through the use of packetized voice and the use of packetized voice and the interconnection between the voice survivability through the use of packetized voice and the interconnection between the voice (DSN) phase implementation plan in the report, Secure Voice, as provided by the STU-IIs, can be implemented in the DDN in the late 1980s time-frame with no technical and minimum schedule risk. VIUs are proposed to interconnect, the family of secure voice terminals, called STU-IIs, to the DDN. VIUs contain modan, signalling and supervision (S/S), and processor modules and are supported by the implementation model of the protocol architecture that (with the TAC as processor module) was proposed in the report. An optimum system-level architecture employing the VIUs and the proposed in the implementation plan based on an extensive evaluation.

  19. 78 FR 14359 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analysts-Order Management, Voice Over Internet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analysts-Order... Networks Services, Inc., Senior Coordinator-Order Management, Voice Over Internet Protocol, Small And... Assistance on January 18, 2013, applicable to workers of Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc.,...

  20. Performance of wavelet analysis and neural networks for pathological voices identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, Lotfi; Talbi, Mourad; Abid, Sabeur; Cherif, Adnane

    2011-09-01

    Within the medical environment, diverse techniques exist to assess the state of the voice of the patient. The inspection technique is inconvenient for a number of reasons, such as its high cost, the duration of the inspection, and above all, the fact that it is an invasive technique. This study focuses on a robust, rapid and accurate system for automatic identification of pathological voices. This system employs non-invasive, non-expensive and fully automated method based on hybrid approach: wavelet transform analysis and neural network classifier. First, we present the results obtained in our previous study while using classic feature parameters. These results allow visual identification of pathological voices. Second, quantified parameters drifting from the wavelet analysis are proposed to characterise the speech sample. On the other hand, a system of multilayer neural networks (MNNs) has been developed which carries out the automatic detection of pathological voices. The developed method was evaluated using voice database composed of recorded voice samples (continuous speech) from normophonic or dysphonic speakers. The dysphonic speakers were patients of a National Hospital 'RABTA' of Tunis Tunisia and a University Hospital in Brussels, Belgium. Experimental results indicate a success rate ranging between 75% and 98.61% for discrimination of normal and pathological voices using the proposed parameters and neural network classifier. We also compared the average classification rate based on the MNN, Gaussian mixture model and support vector machines.

  1. Collaborative Scaffolding in Online Task-Based Voice Interactions between Advanced Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenning, Marie-Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports some of the findings of a distinctive innovative use of audio-conferencing involving a population (campus-based advanced learners) and a type of application (task-based language learning) that have received little attention to date: the use of Wimba Voice Tools to provide additional opportunities for spoken interactions between…

  2. Voice Communications over 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Modeling, Optimization and Call Admission Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changchun; Xu, Yanyi; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kezhong

    Supporting quality-of-service (QoS) of multimedia communications over IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper develops a simple 3-D Markov chain model for queuing analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer. The model is applied for performance analysis of voice communications over IEEE 802.11 single-hop ad hoc networks. By using the model, we finish the performance optimization of IEEE MAC layer and obtain the maximum number of voice calls in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks as well as the statistical performance bounds. Furthermore, we design a fully distributed call admission control (CAC) algorithm which can provide strict statistical QoS guarantee for voice communications over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Extensive simulations indicate the accuracy of the analytical model and the CAC scheme.

  3. Concept of distributed corporative wireless vehicle voice networks based on radio-over-fiber technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdine, Anton V.; Bukashkin, Sergey A.; Buzov, Alexander V.; Kubanov, Victor P.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.; Tyazhev, Anatoly I.

    2016-03-01

    This work is concerned on description of the concept of corporative wireless vehicle voice networks based on Radioover- Fiber (RoF) technology, which is integration of wireless and fiber optic networks. The concept of RoF means to transport data over optical fibers by modulating lightwave with radio frequency signal or at the intermediate frequency/baseband that provides to take advantage of the low loss and large bandwidth of an optical fiber together with immunity to electromagnetic influence, flexibility and transparence. A brief overview of key RoF techniques as well as comparative analysis and ability of its application for wireless vehicle voice network realization is presented.

  4. A Software Defined Integrated T1 Digital Network for Voice, Data and Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, James R.

    The Dallas County Community College District developed and implemented a strategic plan for communications that utilizes a county-wide integrated network to carry voice, data, and video information to nine locations within the district. The network, which was installed and operational by March 1987, utilizes microwave, fiber optics, digital cross…

  5. Voice and swallowing outcomes of an organ-preservation trial for advanced laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Kevin . E-mail: kevin.fung@lhsc.on.ca; Lyden, Teresa H.; Lee, Julia; Urba, Susan G.; Worden, Frank; Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; Prince, Mark E.P.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Wolf, Gregory T.

    2005-12-01

    Introduction: Organ-preservation treatment approaches for advanced laryngeal cancer patients that use combination chemoradiotherapy result in cure rates similar to primary laryngectomy with postoperative radiotherapy. In the national VA Larynx Cancer Trial, successful organ preservation was associated with an overall improvement in quality of life but not in subjective speech compared with long-term laryngectomy survivors. As part of a Phase II clinical trial, a prospective study of speech and swallowing results was conducted to determine if larynx preservation is associated with improved voice and swallowing compared with results in patients who require salvage laryngectomy. Subjects: A total of 97 patients with advanced laryngeal cancer (46 Stage III, 51 Stage IV) were given a single course of induction chemotherapy (cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 and 5-FU 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/day x 5 days), followed by assessment of response. Patients with less than 50% response underwent early salvage laryngectomy, and patients with 50% or better response underwent concurrent chemoradiation (72 Gy and cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1, 22, and 43), followed by two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (DDP/5-FU). Direct laryngoscopy and biopsy were performed 8 weeks after radiation therapy to determine final tumor response. Late salvage surgery was performed on patients with persistent or recurrent disease. Methods: Completed survey data on voice and swallowing utilizing the Voice-Related Quality of Life Measure (V-RQOL) and the List Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer Patients (PSS-HN) were obtained from 56 patients who were alive and free of disease at the time of survey, with a minimum follow-up of 8 months. Comparisons were made between patients with an intact larynx (n = 37) vs. laryngectomy (n = 19), as well as early (n = 12) vs. late salvage laryngectomy (n = 7). Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of voice and swallowing

  6. Student Voices: Writings from the Workforce Instructional Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Pamela G., Ed.; Johnson, Margaret L., Ed.

    These four collections of essays are the work of adult participants in the Workforce Instructional Network (WIN), a National Workplace Literacy Project. The authors are workers who participated in classes for reading/writing improvement and business writing and clerical skills. The finished pieces resulted from the following: group discussion of…

  7. Advanced radio over fiber network technologies.

    PubMed

    Novak, Dalma; Waterhouse, Rod

    2013-09-23

    The evolution of wireless communication networks supporting emerging broadband services and applications offers new opportunities for realizing integrated optical and wireless network infrastructures. We report on some of our recent activities investigating advanced technologies for next generation converged optical wireless networks. Developments in Active Antenna Systems, mobile fronthaul architectures, and 60 GHz fiber distributed wireless networks are described. We also discuss the potential for analog radio over fiber distribution links as a viable solution for meeting the capacity requirements of new network architectures.

  8. The hearing voices network: initial lessons and future directions for mental health professionals and Systems of Care.

    PubMed

    Styron, Thomas; Utter, Lauren; Davidson, Larry

    2017-02-01

    For more than two decades, the Hearing Voices Network (HVN) has provided alternative approaches to supporting voice hearers, and an emerging body of research is now confirming their value. HVN approaches present unique opportunities and challenges for mental health professionals and systems of care that work with individuals who hear voices. An overview of the HVN is presented, including its history, principles and approaches. HVN approaches are compared and contrasted with traditional mental health treatments. HVN's potential contribution to the transformation of mental health care is discussed. Directions for future research are presented.

  9. High-Bandwidth Tactical-Network Data Analysis in a High-Performance-Computing (HPC) Environment: Voice Call Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Information Sciences Directorate collaborated to utilize high-performance-computing (HPC) resources to extract VoIP call information and metrics from...very large volumes of network traffic recorded in a tactical environment. The extracted voice call metadata and associated metrics were stored as part...processing also extracts actual voice conversations (as audio files) from the traffic flows for analysts to review. 15. SUBJECT TERMS tactical

  10. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  11. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  12. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile-Satellite Service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  13. Automatic voice recognition using traditional and artificial neural network approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop an algorithm for isolated-word recognition. This research is focused on digital signal analysis rather than linguistic analysis of speech. Features extraction is carried out by applying a Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) algorithm with order of 10. Continuous-word and speaker independent recognition will be considered in future study after accomplishing this isolated word research. To examine the similarity between the reference and the training sets, two approaches are explored. The first is implementing traditional pattern recognition techniques where a dynamic time warping algorithm is applied to align the two sets and calculate the probability of matching by measuring the Euclidean distance between the two sets. The second is implementing a backpropagation artificial neural net model with three layers as the pattern classifier. The adaptation rule implemented in this network is the generalized least mean square (LMS) rule. The first approach has been accomplished. A vocabulary of 50 words was selected and tested. The accuracy of the algorithm was found to be around 85 percent. The second approach is in progress at the present time.

  14. Advanced Wireless Integrated Navy Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Basing visualization of wireless technologies, Ad Hoc networks , network protocols, real-time resource allocation, Ultra Wideband (UWB) communications...4.1 TIP #1: Distributed MIMO UWB sensor networks incorporating software radio 67 4.2 TIP #2: Close-in UWB wireless with applications to Sea- Basing 68...4.3 TIP #3: Secure Ad Hoc Networks 73 4.4 TIP #4: Integration of Close-in UWB wireless with ESM crane for Sea Basing applications 75 5. FINANCIAL REPORT

  15. Advanced Wireless Integrated Navy Network - AWINN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    progress report No. 3 on AWINN hardware and software configurations of smart, wideband, multi-function antennas , secure configurable platform, close-in...and Robust Networks Visualization of Wireless Technology and Ad Hoc Networks Technology Integration Projects The Advanced Antennas Group has completed a...comprehensive investigation of Wideband and Ultra Wideband (UWB) antennas for the AWINN projects. The investigation concluded that Tapered Slot

  16. Electroglottographic Comparison of Voice Outcomes in Patients With Advanced Laryngopharyngeal Cancer Treated by Chemoradiotherapy or Total Laryngectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kazi, Rehan; Venkitaraman, Ramachandran; Johnson, Catherine; Prasad, Vyas; Clarke, Peter; Rhys-Evans, Peter; Nutting, Christopher M.; Harrington, Kevin J.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To conduct prospective electroglottographic analyses of voice outcomes after radical chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced laryngopharyngeal cancers and to compare them with patients who have undergone total laryngectomy (TL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-one patients (19 male, 2 female, median age [range] 65 [50-85] years) with Stage III/IV laryngopharyngeal cancer received induction chemotherapy followed by radical chemoradiotherapy. Electroglottography, using the sustained vowel /i/ and connected speech, was performed before treatment and 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. In addition, single voice recordings were taken from 21 patients (16 male, 5 female, aged 65 [50-84] years) who had undergone TL and surgical voice restoration and from 21 normal controls (18 male, 3 female, aged 65 [33-80] years). Results: Before treatment the vocal measures for the chemoradiotherapy patients were significantly different from normal controls in jitter (p = 0.02), maximum phonation time (MPT) (p = 0.001), and words per minute (WPM) (p = 0.01). At 12 months after treatment MPT and WPM had normalized, but jitter and normalized noise energy were significantly worse than in normal controls. Comparison of voice outcomes at 12 months for chemoradiotherapy patients revealed superiority over the TL group in all parameters except MPT (18.2 s vs. 10.4 s, p = 0.06). Analysis of the recovery of voice up to 12 months after treatment revealed progressive improvement in most electroglottographic measures. Conclusions: This prospective study demonstrates significantly better outcome for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy as compared with TL. Progressive normalization of many voice parameters occurs over the 12 months following chemoradiotherapy.

  17. Advanced local area network concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Terry

    1985-01-01

    Development of a good model of the data traffic requirements for Local Area Networks (LANs) onboard the Space Station is the driving problem in this work. A parameterized workload model is under development. An analysis contract has been started specifically to capture the distributed processing requirements for the Space Station and then to develop a top level model to simulate how various processing scenarios can handle the workload and what data communication patterns result. A summary of the Local Area Network Extendsible Simulator 2 Requirements Specification and excerpts from a grant report on the topological design of fiber optic local area networks with application to Expressnet are given.

  18. Innovative Networking Concepts Tested on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Daniel; Gupta, Sonjai; Zhang, Chuanguo; Ephremides, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a program of experiments conducted over the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) and the associated TI-VSAT (very small aperture terminal). The experiments were motivated by the commercial potential of low-cost receive only satellite terminals that can operate in a hybrid network environment, and by the desire to demonstrate frame relay technology over satellite networks. The first experiment tested highly adaptive methods of satellite bandwidth allocation in an integrated voice-data service environment. The second involved comparison of forward error correction (FEC) and automatic repeat request (ARQ) methods of error control for satellite communication with emphasis on the advantage that a hybrid architecture provides, especially in the case of multicasts. Finally, the third experiment demonstrated hybrid access to databases and compared the performance of internetworking protocols for interconnecting local area networks (LANs) via satellite. A custom unit termed frame relay access switch (FRACS) was developed by COMSAT Laboratories for these experiments; the preparation and conduct of these experiments involved a total of 20 people from the University of Maryland, the University of Colorado and COMSAT Laboratories, from late 1992 until 1995.

  19. Advanced Networks in Motion Mobile Sensorweb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced mobile networking technology applicable to mobile sensor platforms was developed, deployed and demonstrated. A two-tier sensorweb design was developed. The first tier utilized mobile network technology to provide mobility. The second tier, which sits above the first tier, utilizes 6LowPAN (Internet Protocol version 6 Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks) sensors. The entire network was IPv6 enabled. Successful mobile sensorweb system field tests took place in late August and early September of 2009. The entire network utilized IPv6 and was monitored and controlled using a remote Web browser via IPv6 technology. This paper describes the mobile networking and 6LowPAN sensorweb design, implementation, deployment and testing as well as wireless systems and network monitoring software developed to support testing and validation.

  20. Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications.

  1. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE...

  2. Advanced fault diagnosis methods in molecular networks.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Iman; Emamian, Effat S; Abdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the failure of cell signaling networks is an important topic in systems biology and has applications in target discovery and drug development. In this paper, some advanced methods for fault diagnosis in signaling networks are developed and then applied to a caspase network and an SHP2 network. The goal is to understand how, and to what extent, the dysfunction of molecules in a network contributes to the failure of the entire network. Network dysfunction (failure) is defined as failure to produce the expected outputs in response to the input signals. Vulnerability level of a molecule is defined as the probability of the network failure, when the molecule is dysfunctional. In this study, a method to calculate the vulnerability level of single molecules for different combinations of input signals is developed. Furthermore, a more complex yet biologically meaningful method for calculating the multi-fault vulnerability levels is suggested, in which two or more molecules are simultaneously dysfunctional. Finally, a method is developed for fault diagnosis of networks based on a ternary logic model, which considers three activity levels for a molecule instead of the previously published binary logic model, and provides equations for the vulnerabilities of molecules in a ternary framework. Multi-fault analysis shows that the pairs of molecules with high vulnerability typically include a highly vulnerable molecule identified by the single fault analysis. The ternary fault analysis for the caspase network shows that predictions obtained using the more complex ternary model are about the same as the predictions of the simpler binary approach. This study suggests that by increasing the number of activity levels the complexity of the model grows; however, the predictive power of the ternary model does not appear to be increased proportionally.

  3. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the network control function for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) full mesh network. This includes control of all operational activities such as acquisition, synchronization, timing and rain fade compensation as well as control of all communications activities such as on-demand integrated services (voice, video, and date) connects and disconnects Operations control is provided by an in-band orderwire carried in the baseboard processor (BBP) control burst, the orderwire burst, the reference burst, and the uplink traffic burst. Communication services are provided by demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) protocols. The ACTS implementation of DAMA protocols ensures both on-demand and integrated voice, video and data services. Communications services control is also provided by the in-band orderwire but uses only the reference burst and the uplink traffic burst. The performance of the ACTS network control functions have been successfully tested during on-orbit checkout and in various VSAT networks in day to day operations. This paper discusses the network operations and services control performance.

  4. Communication services for advanced network applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnahan, J.; Foster, I.; Insley, J.; Toonen, B.; Tuecke, S.

    1999-06-10

    Advanced network applications such as remote instrument control, collaborative environments, and remote I/O are distinguished by traditional applications such as videoconferencing by their need to create multiple, heterogeneous flows with different characteristics. For example, a single application may require remote I/O for raw datasets, shared controls for a collaborative analysis system, streaming video for image rendering data, and audio for collaboration. Furthermore, each flow can have different requirements in terms of reliability, network quality of service, security, etc. They argue that new approaches to communication services, protocols, and network architecture are required both to provide high-level abstractions for common flow types and to support user-level management of flow creation and quality. They describe experiences with the development of such applications and communication services.

  5. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  6. The Voice-Hearer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For 25 years the international Hearing Voices Movement and the UK Hearing Voices Network have campaigned to improve the lives of people who hear voices. In so doing they have introduced a new term into the mental health lexicon: ‘the voice-hearer.’ Aims This article offers a ‘thick description’ of the figure of ‘the voice-hearer.’ Method A selection of prominent texts (life narratives, research papers, videos and blogs), the majority produced by people active in the Hearing Voices or consumer/survivor/ex-patient movements, were analysed from an interdisciplinary medical humanities perspective. Results ‘The voice-hearer’ (i) asserts voice-hearing as a meaningful experience, (ii) challenges psychiatric authority, and (iii) builds identity through sharing life narrative. While technically accurate, the definition of ‘the voice-hearer’ as simply ‘a person who has experienced voice-hearing or auditory verbal hallucinations’ fails to acknowledge that this is a complex, politically resonant and value-laden identity. Conclusions The figure of ‘the voice-hearer’ comes into being through a specific set of narrative practices as an ‘expert by experience’ who challenges the authority and diagnostic categories of mainstream psychiatry, especially the category of ‘schizophrenia.’ PMID:23691942

  7. The Climate Voices Speakers Network: Collaborating with Nontraditional, National Networks to Develop Climate Literacy on a Local Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, K.; Schmidt, C.; Herrin, S.

    2015-12-01

    How can we leverage the successes of the numerous organizations in the climate change communication arena to build momentum rather than reinvent the wheel? Over the past two years, Climate Voices (climatevoices.org) has established a network of nearly 400 speakers and established partnerships to scale programs that address climate change communication and community engagement. In this presentation, we will present how we have identified and fostered win-win partnerships with organizations, such as GreenFaith Interfaith Partners for the Environment and Rotary International, to reach the broader general public. We will also share how, by drawing on the resources from the National Climate Assessment and the expertise of our own community, we developed and provided our speakers the tools to provide their audiences access to basic climate science - contributing to each audience's ability to understand local impacts, make informed decisions, and gain the confidence to engage in solutions-based actions in response to climate change. We will also discuss how we have created webinar coaching presentations by speakers who aren't climate scientists- and why we have chosen to do so.

  8. The impact of mandibular advancement on articulation, resonance and voice characteristics in Flemish speaking adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Lierde, K M; Schepers, S; Timmermans, L; Verhoye, I; Van Cauwenberge, P

    2006-02-01

    Bilateral saggital split osteotomy (BSSO) of the mandible is a frequently performed mandibular orthognathic procedure, used to resolve mandibular disharmonies. Literature review showed contradictory findings regarding the effect of the orthognathic surgery on speech characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to determine a detailed analysis of the articulation, resonance and voice characteristics after BSSO with mandibular advancement for the treatment of Class II malocclusions using objective and subjective assessment techniques (perceptual evaluations, Dysphonia Severity Index, nasalance scores) in eight subjects. The findings of the present study indicate that before and after BSSO with mandibular advancement three types of articulation disorders may predominate in the Flemish language: the incorrect production of the trill sound /r/ and the /s/ sound and devoicing of the /z/. After orthognathic surgery most patients showed an identical articulation pattern (normal or disturbed pattern) as in the presurgical condition. In this study the BSSO with mandibular advancement had no significant impact on the nasality characteristics and the nasalance values probably due to the competent velopharyngeal valving in the presurgical condition. And, as expected the vocal quality revealed no significant difference. The maxillofacial surgeon and the speech language pathologist must be aware of the persistency of these preoperative articulation errors in the postsurgical condition.

  9. Advanced systems engineering and network planning support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.

  10. Flow Control and Routing in an Integrated Voice and Data Communication Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    is partitioned into two subchannels ; a circuit- switched subchannel and a packet-switched subchannel . Voice traffic uses the circuit-switched... subchannel while data traffic uses the packet-switched subchannel . To increase the channel utilization a "movable boundary" feature can be incorporated, which

  11. Integrating Voice into the School Network: Benefits of Wireless VoIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatland, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    Voice Communications are critical for the proper functioning of primary, secondary and higher education environments. At the K-12 level, teachers and staff must be able to communicate with each other between classrooms and the school office. Also, teachers often need to communicate between schools within a district as well as with the district…

  12. Learning [Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauberer, Joshua Ian

    2010-01-01

    The [voice] distinction between homorganic stops and fricatives is made by a number of acoustic correlates including voicing, segment duration, and preceding vowel duration. The present work looks at [voice] from a number of multidimensional perspectives. This dissertation's focus is a corpus study of the phonetic realization of [voice] in two…

  13. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    DOEpatents

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  14. Voice and endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Hari Kumar, K. V. S.; Garg, Anurag; Ajai Chandra, N. S.; Singh, S. P.; Datta, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consisting of the larynx, vocal cords, and trachea. The human voice is susceptible to the hormonal changes throughout life right from the puberty until senescence. Thyroid, gonadal and growth hormones have tremendous impact on the structure and function of the vocal apparatus. The alteration of voice is observed even in physiological states such as puberty and menstruation. Astute clinical observers make out the changes in the voice and refer the patients for endocrine evaluation. In this review, we shall discuss the hormonal influence on the voice apparatus in normal and endocrine disorders. PMID:27730065

  15. Advances in the Theory of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruani, Fernando

    An exhaustive and comprehensive review on the theory of complex networks would imply nowadays a titanic task, and it would result in a lengthy work containing plenty of technical details of arguable relevance. Instead, this chapter addresses very briefly the ABC of complex network theory, visiting only the hallmarks of the theoretical founding, to finally focus on two of the most interesting and promising current research problems: the study of dynamical processes on transportation networks and the identification of communities in complex networks.

  16. MSAT broadcast voice services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Later this year the MSAT satellite network will be delivering mobile and remote communications throughout North America. Its services include a family of Broadcast Voice Services, the first of which will be MSAT Dispatch Radio, which will extend the features and functionality of terrestrial Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) to the entire continent. This paper describes the MSAT Broadcast Voice Services in general, and MSAT Dispatch Radio in particular, and provides examples of commercial and government applications.

  17. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  18. Recent advancements towards green optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Alan; Glesk, Ivan; Buis, Adrianus; Wang, Junjia; Chen, Lawrence

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth in demand for ultra high speed data transmission with end users expecting fast, high bandwidth network access. With this rapid growth in demand, data centres are under pressure to provide ever increasing data rates through their networks and at the same time improve the quality of data handling in terms of reduced latency, increased scalability and improved channel speed for users. However as data rates increase, present technology based on well-established CMOS technology is becoming increasingly difficult to scale and consequently data networks are struggling to satisfy current network demand. In this paper the interrelated issues of electronic scalability, power consumption, limited copper interconnect bandwidth and the limited speed of CMOS electronics will be explored alongside the tremendous bandwidth potential of optical fibre based photonic networks. Some applications of photonics to help alleviate the speed and latency in data networks will be discussed.

  19. Every Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where…

  20. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Voice is the sound made by air passing from your lungs through your larynx, or voice box. In your larynx are your vocal cords, ... to make sound. For most of us, our voices play a big part in who we are, ...

  1. Advanced medical video services through context-aware medical networks.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Pliakas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a framework for advanced medical video delivery services, through network and patient-state awareness. Under this scope a context-aware medical networking platform is described. The developed platform enables proper medical video data coding and transmission according to both a) network availability and/or quality and b) patient status, optimizing thus network performance and telediagnosis. An evaluation platform has been developed based on scalable H.264 coding of medical videos. Corresponding results of video transmission over a WiMax network have proved the effectiveness and efficiency of the platform providing proper video content delivery.

  2. Advanced mobile networking, sensing, and controls.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Young, Joseph G.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Harrington, John J.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes an integrated approach for designing communication, sensing, and control systems for mobile distributed systems. Graph theoretic methods are used to analyze the input/output reachability and structural controllability and observability of a decentralized system. Embedded in each network node, this analysis will automatically reconfigure an ad hoc communication network for the sensing and control task at hand. The graph analysis can also be used to create the optimal communication flow control based upon the spatial distribution of the network nodes. Edge coloring algorithms tell us that the minimum number of time slots in a planar network is equal to either the maximum number of adjacent nodes (or degree) of the undirected graph plus some small number. Therefore, the more spread out that the nodes are, the fewer number of time slots are needed for communication, and the smaller the latency between nodes. In a coupled system, this results in a more responsive sensor network and control system. Network protocols are developed to propagate this information, and distributed algorithms are developed to automatically adjust the number of time slots available for communication. These protocols and algorithms must be extremely efficient and only updated as network nodes move. In addition, queuing theory is used to analyze the delay characteristics of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. This report documents the analysis, simulation, and implementation of these algorithms performed under this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  3. Voices of Women in the Field--Creating Conversations: A Networking Approach for Women Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskin, Candace F.; Haar, Jean M.; Robicheau, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Professional networking is critical for school leaders. Networking has emerged in the literature as one of the major needs in attracting and retaining quality school leaders. There is evidence that professional networking offers a system for women to enhance their career opportunities. However, the evidence shows there are limited professional…

  4. Advances in applications of spiking neuron networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Sala, Dorel M.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, we present new findings in constructing and applications of artificial neural networks that use a biologically inspired spiking neuron model. The used model is a point neuron with the interaction between neurons described by postsynaptic potentials. The synaptic plasticity is achieved by using a temporal correlation learning rule, specified as a function of time difference between the firings of pre- and post-synaptic neurons. Using this rule we show how certain associations between neurons in a network of spiking neurons can be implemented. As an example we analyze the dynamic properties of networks of laterally connected spiking neurons and we show their capability to self-organize into topological maps in response to external stimulation. In another application we explore the capability networks of spiking neurons to solve graph algorithms by using temporal coding of distances in a given spatial configuration. The paper underlines the importance of temporal dimension in artificial neural network information processing.

  5. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  6. Advanced routing in interplanetary backbone network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ge; Sheng, Min; Wu, Chengke

    2007-11-01

    Interplanetary (IPN) Internet is a communication infrastructure providing communication services for scientific data delivery and navigation services for the explorer spacecrafts and orbiters of the future deep space missions. The interplanetary backbone network has the unique characteristics hence routing through the backbone network present many challenges that are not presented in traditional networks. Some routing algorithms have been proposed, in which, LPDB integrates the shortest path algorithm and the directional broadcast method to guarantee fast and reliable message delivery. Through this mutipath routing strategy, unpredictable link failures is addressed, but additional network overhead is introduced. In this paper, we propose an improvement of the LPDB named ALPDB in which the source could adaptively decide the next-hop nodes according to the link condition, hence reduce the network overhead. We model this algorithm on the network simulation platform of OPNET and compare it with other applicable algorithms in data passing ratio, data delay and network overhead. The result indicates that the ALPDB algorithm could not only guarantee reliable message delivery, but also decrease the cost significantly.

  7. SINET3: advanced optical and IP hybrid network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urushidani, Shigeo

    2007-11-01

    This paper introduces the new Japanese academic backbone network called SINET3, which has been in full-scale operation since June 2007. SINET3 provides a wide variety of network services, such as multi-layer transfer, enriched VPN, enhanced QoS, and layer-1 bandwidth on demand (BoD) services to create an innovative and prolific science infrastructure for more than 700 universities and research institutions. The network applies an advanced hybrid network architecture composed of 75 layer-1 switches and 12 high-performance IP routers to accommodate such diversified services in a single network platform, and provides sufficient bandwidth using Japan's first STM256 (40 Gbps) lines. The network adopts lots of the latest networking technologies, such as next-generation SDH (VCAT/GFP/LCAS), GMPLS, advanced MPLS, and logical-router technologies, for high network convergence, flexible resource assignment, and high service availability. This paper covers the network services, network design, and networking technologies of SINET3.

  8. The Voice Handicap Index with Post-Laryngectomy Male Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Eryl; Carding, Paul; Drinnan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer involves complete removal of the larynx ("laryngectomy") and initial total loss of voice. Post-laryngectomy rehabilitation involves implementation of different means of "voicing" for these patients wherever possible. There is little information about laryngectomees'…

  9. MSAT voice modulation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, Dan

    1990-01-01

    The challenge for Mobile satellite (MSAT) voice services is to provide near toll quality voice to the user, while minimizing the power and bandwidth resources of the satellite. The options for MSAT voice can be put into one of two groups: Analog and Digital. Analog, nominally narrowband single sideband techniques, have a shown robustness to the fading and shadowing environment. Digital techniques, a combination of low rate vocoders and bandwidth efficient modems, show the promise of enhanced fidelity, as well as easier networking to the emerging digital world. The problems and tradeoffs to designers are many, especially in the digital case. Processor speed vs. cost and MET power requirements, channel coding, bandwidth efficiency vs. power efficiency etc. While the list looks daunting, in fact an acceptable solution is well within the technology. The objectives are reviewed that the MSAT voice service must meet, along with the options that are seen for the future.

  10. Advanced Optical Burst Switched Network Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejabati, Reza; Aracil, Javier; Castoldi, Piero; de Leenheer, Marc; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Valcarenghi, Luca; Zervas, Georgios; Wu, Jian

    In recent years, as the bandwidth and the speed of networks have increased significantly, a new generation of network-based applications using the concept of distributed computing and collaborative services is emerging (e.g., Grid computing applications). The use of the available fiber and DWDM infrastructure for these applications is a logical choice offering huge amounts of cheap bandwidth and ensuring global reach of computing resources [230]. Currently, there is a great deal of interest in deploying optical circuit (wavelength) switched network infrastructure for distributed computing applications that require long-lived wavelength paths and address the specific needs of a small number of well-known users. Typical users are particle physicists who, due to their international collaborations and experiments, generate enormous amounts of data (Petabytes per year). These users require a network infrastructures that can support processing and analysis of large datasets through globally distributed computing resources [230]. However, providing wavelength granularity bandwidth services is not an efficient and scalable solution for applications and services that address a wider base of user communities with different traffic profiles and connectivity requirements. Examples of such applications may be: scientific collaboration in smaller scale (e.g., bioinformatics, environmental research), distributed virtual laboratories (e.g., remote instrumentation), e-health, national security and defense, personalized learning environments and digital libraries, evolving broadband user services (i.e., high resolution home video editing, real-time rendering, high definition interactive TV). As a specific example, in e-health services and in particular mammography applications due to the size and quantity of images produced by remote mammography, stringent network requirements are necessary. Initial calculations have shown that for 100 patients to be screened remotely, the network

  11. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  12. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  13. Online Matchmaking: It's Not Just for Dating Sites Anymore! Connecting the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network to Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Kristin; Herrin, Sara; Schmidt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Scientists play an integral role in the development of climate literacy skills - for both teachers and students alike. By partnering with local scientists, teachers can gain valuable insights into the science practices highlighted by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), as well as a deeper understanding of cutting-edge scientific discoveries and local impacts of climate change. For students, connecting to local scientists can provide a relevant connection to climate science and STEM skills. Over the past two years, the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network (climatevoices.org) has grown to a robust network of nearly 400 climate science speakers across the United States. Formal and informal educators, K-12 students, and community groups connect with our speakers through our interactive map-based website and invite them to meet through face-to-face and virtual presentations, such as webinars and podcasts. But creating a common language between scientists and educators requires coaching on both sides. In this presentation, we will present the "nitty-gritty" of setting up scientist-educator collaborations, as well as the challenges and opportunities that arise from these partnerships. We will share the impact of these collaborations through case studies, including anecdotal feedback and metrics.

  14. Online matchmaking: It's not just for dating sites anymore! Connecting the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network to Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, K.; Herrin, S.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    Scientists play an integral role in the development of climate literacy skills - for both teachers and students alike. By partnering with local scientists, teachers can gain valuable insights into the science practices highlighted by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), as well as a deeper understanding of cutting-edge scientific discoveries and local impacts of climate change. For students, connecting to local scientists can provide a relevant connection to climate science and STEM skills. Over the past two years, the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network (climatevoices.org) has grown to a robust network of nearly 400 climate science speakers across the United States. Formal and informal educators, K-12 students, and community groups connect with our speakers through our interactive map-based website and invite them to meet through face-to-face and virtual presentations, such as webinars and podcasts. But creating a common language between scientists and educators requires coaching on both sides. In this presentation, we will present the "nitty-gritty" of setting up scientist-educator collaborations, as well as the challenges and opportunities that arise from these partnerships. We will share the impact of these collaborations through case studies, including anecdotal feedback and metrics.

  15. The Deep Space Network Advanced Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    2010-01-01

    The deep space network (DSN)--with its three complexes in Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia--provides the resources to track and communicate with planetary and deep space missions. Each complex consists of an array of capabilities for tracking probes almost anywhere in the solar system. A number of innovative hardware, software and procedural tools are used for day-to-day operations at DSN complexes as well as at the network control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Systems and technologies employed by the network include large-aperture antennas (34-m and 70-m), cryogenically cooled receivers, high-power transmitters, stable frequency and timing distribution assemblies, modulation and coding schemes, spacecraft transponders, radiometric tracking techniques, etc. The DSN operates at multiple frequencies, including the 2-GHz band, the 7/8-GHz band, and the 32/34-GHz band.

  16. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  17. Recent advances in symmetric and network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2015-09-01

    We summarize some of the main results discovered over the past three decades concerning symmetric dynamical systems and networks of dynamical systems, with a focus on pattern formation. In both of these contexts, extra constraints on the dynamical system are imposed, and the generic phenomena can change. The main areas discussed are time-periodic states, mode interactions, and non-compact symmetry groups such as the Euclidean group. We consider both dynamics and bifurcations. We summarize applications of these ideas to pattern formation in a variety of physical and biological systems, and explain how the methods were motivated by transferring to new contexts René Thom's general viewpoint, one version of which became known as "catastrophe theory." We emphasize the role of symmetry-breaking in the creation of patterns. Topics include equivariant Hopf bifurcation, which gives conditions for a periodic state to bifurcate from an equilibrium, and the H/K theorem, which classifies the pairs of setwise and pointwise symmetries of periodic states in equivariant dynamics. We discuss mode interactions, which organize multiple bifurcations into a single degenerate bifurcation, and systems with non-compact symmetry groups, where new technical issues arise. We transfer many of the ideas to the context of networks of coupled dynamical systems, and interpret synchrony and phase relations in network dynamics as a type of pattern, in which space is discretized into finitely many nodes, while time remains continuous. We also describe a variety of applications including animal locomotion, Couette-Taylor flow, flames, the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, binocular rivalry, and a nonlinear filter based on anomalous growth rates for the amplitude of periodic oscillations in a feed-forward network.

  18. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems

    PubMed Central

    SCHLEYER, TITUS; BUTLER, BRIAN S.; SONG, MEI; SPALLEK, HEIKO

    2013-01-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  19. Native voice, self-concept and the moral case for personalized voice technology.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose (1) To explore the role of native voice and effects of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and survey the state of assistive voice technology; (2) to establish the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Methods This narrative review examines published literature on the human significance of voice, the impact of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and the strengths and limitations of current voice technology. Based on the impact of voice loss on self and identity, and voice technology limitations, the moral case for personalized voice technology is developed. Results Given the richness of information conveyed by voice, loss of voice constrains expression of the self, but the full impact is poorly understood. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices facilitate communication but, despite advances in this field, voice output cannot yet express the unique nuances of individual voice. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and equality of opportunity establish the moral responsibility to invest in accessible, cost-effective, personalized voice technology. Conclusions Although further research is needed to elucidate the full effects of voice loss on self-concept, identity and social functioning, current understanding of the profoundly negative impact of voice loss establishes the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation of voice-disordered patients should facilitate self-expression, interpersonal connectedness and social/occupational participation. Proactive questioning about the psychological and social experiences of patients with voice loss is a valuable entry point for rehabilitation planning. Personalized voice technology would enhance sense of self, communicative participation and autonomy and promote shared healthcare decision-making. Further research is needed to identify the best strategies to preserve and strengthen identity and sense of

  20. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  1. Advanced Plasma Diagnostic Analysis using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritz, Kevin; Reinke, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Machine learning techniques, specifically neural networks (NN), are used with sufficient internal complexity to develop an empirically weighted relationship between a set of filtered X-ray emission measurements and the electron temperature (Te) profile for a specific class of discharges on NSTX. The NN response matrix is used to calculate the Te profile directly from the filtered X-ray diode measurements which extends the electron temperature time response from the 60Hz Thomson Scattering profile measurements to fast timescales (>10kHz) and greatly expands the applicability of Te profile information to fast plasma phenomena, such as ELM dynamics. This process can be improved by providing additional information which helps the neural network refine the relationship between Te and the corresponding X-ray emission. NN supplement limited measurements of a particular quantity using related measurements with higher time or spatial resolution. For example, the radiated power (Prad) determined using resistive foil bolometers is related to similar measurements using AXUV diode arrays through a complex and slowly time-evolving quantum efficiency curve in the VUV spectral region. Results from a NN trained using Alcator C-Mod resistive foil bolometry and AXUV diodes are presented, working towards hybrid Prad measurements with the quantitative accuracy of resistive foil bolometers and with the enhanced temporal and spatial resolution of the unfiltered AXUV diode arrays. Work supported by Department of Energy Grant #: DE-FG02-09ER55012.

  2. The ADVANCE network: accelerating data value across a national community health center network

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Cottrell, Erika; Bauer, Vance; Brickman, Andrew; Puro, Jon; Nelson, Christine; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sears, Abigail; Burdick, Tim; Merrell, Jonathan; Matthews, Paul; Fields, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) clinical data research network (CDRN) is led by the OCHIN Community Health Information Network in partnership with Health Choice Network and Fenway Health. The ADVANCE CDRN will ‘horizontally’ integrate outpatient electronic health record data for over one million federally qualified health center patients, and ‘vertically’ integrate hospital, health plan, and community data for these patients, often under-represented in research studies. Patient investigators, community investigators, and academic investigators with diverse expertise will work together to meet project goals related to data integration, patient engagement and recruitment, and the development of streamlined regulatory policies. By enhancing the data and research infrastructure of participating organizations, the ADVANCE CDRN will serve as a ‘community laboratory’ for including disadvantaged and vulnerable patients in patient-centered outcomes research that is aligned with the priorities of patients, clinics, and communities in our network. PMID:24821740

  3. Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.

    1995-08-01

    By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.

  4. A uniform instrumentation, event, and adaptation framework for network-aware middleware and advanced network applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel A.

    2003-03-14

    Developers of advanced network applications such as remote instrument control, distributed data management, tele-immersion and collaboration, and distributed computing face a daunting challenge: sustaining robust application performance despite time-varying resource demands and dynamically changing resource availability. It is widely recognized that network-aware middleware is key to achieving performance robustness.

  5. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ollis, T Ben; King, Daniel J; Irminger, Philip; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  6. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  7. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  8. Analysis of Integrated and Nonintegrated Voice and Data Networks for DoD Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    34Consideration for ISDN Planning and Implementation." IEEE Communications Magazine , Vol 22, No.l: 18-32 (January 1984). 10. Bially, Theodore, Alan J...Control," IEEE Communications Magazine , Vol. 21, No. 4: 34-41 (July 12. Bullington, K. and J.M. Frazer. "Engineering Aspects of TASI," Bell System...Networks," IEEE Communications Magazine , Vol. 22, No. 11: 11-23, (November 1984). 129 28. Gerla, Mario. and Rodolfo A. Paqo-Rangel. "Bandwidth Allocation

  9. Tactical Fiber Optic LAN For Voice And Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Halloran, F.; Martinez, J.

    1988-12-01

    An asynchronous high-speed fiber optic local area network is described that simultaneously supports packet data traffic with synchronous T1 voice traffic over a standard asynchronous FDDI token ring channel. A voice interface module (VIM) was developed that parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network. The technique is general, however, and can be applied to any deterministic class of networks, including multi-tier backbones. In addition, the higher layer packet data protocols may operate independently of those for the voice thereby permitting great flexibility in reconfiguring the network. Voice call setup and switching functions are performed external to the network with PABX equipment.

  10. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen MG; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos’ responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  11. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-02-25

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos' responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species.

  12. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-08-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET, was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive, and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET has continued to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue, which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last 13 years. Since 2000, EARLINET has developed greatly in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution: from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000 to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has developed greatly also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multiwavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing, and the dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase in the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions, and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are aimed at continuous measurements and near-real-time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, such as in the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) www.actris.net, and with the

  13. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  14. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Luque, Joaquín; Larios, Diego F; Personal, Enrique; Barbancho, Julio; León, Carlos

    2016-05-18

    Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance.

  15. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Joaquín; Larios, Diego F.; Personal, Enrique; Barbancho, Julio; León, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance. PMID:27213375

  16. Advances, experiences, and prospects of the International Soil Moisture Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, W.; van Oevelen, P. J.; Drusch, M.; Wagner, W.; Scipal, K.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2012-12-01

    In 2009, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http:www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at) was initiated as a platform to support calibration and validation of soil moisture products from remote sensing and land surface models, and to advance studies on the behavior of soil moisture over space and time. This international initiative is fruit of continuing coordinative efforts of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) in cooperation with the Group of Earth Observation (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The decisive financial incentive was given by the European Space Agency (ESA) who considered the establishment of the network critical for optimizing the soil moisture products from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The ISMN collects and harmonizes ground-based soil moisture data sets from a large variety of individually operating networks and makes them available through a centralized data portal. Meanwhile, almost 6000 soil moisture data sets from over 1300 sites, distributed among 34 networks worldwide, are contained in the database. The steadily increasing number of organizations voluntarily contributing to the ISMN, and the rapidly increasing number of studies based on the network show that the portal has been successful in reaching its primary goal to promote easy data accessibility to a wide variety of users. Recently, several updates of the system were performed to keep up with the increasing data amount and traffic, and to meet the requirements of many advanced users. Many datasets from operational networks (e.g., SCAN, the US Climate Reference Network, COSMOS, and ARM) are now assimilated and processed in the ISMN on a fully automated basis in near-real time. In addition, a new enhanced quality control system is currently being implemented. This presentation gives an overview of these recent developments, presents some examples of important scientific results based on the ISMN, and sketches an outlook for

  17. A Model for Incorporating Patient and Stakeholder Voices in a Learning Healthcare Network: Washington State’s Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN)

    PubMed Central

    Devine, EB; Alfonso-Cristancho, R; Devlin, A; Edwards, TC; Farrokhi, ET; Kessler, L; Lavallee, DC; Patrick, DL; Sullivan, SD; Tarczy-Hornoch, P; Yanez, ND; Flum, DR

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the inaugural comparative effectiveness research (CER) cohort study of Washington State’s Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN), which compares invasive to non-invasive treatments for peripheral artery disease; to focus on the patient-centeredness of this cohort study by describing it within the context of a newly published conceptual frameworks for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). Study Design and Setting The peripheral artery disease study was selected due to clinician-identified uncertainty in treatment selection and differences in desired outcomes between patients and clinicians. Patient-centeredness is achieved through the ‘Patient Voices Project’, a CERTAIN initiative through which patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are administered for research and clinical purposes, and a study-specific patient advisory group where patients are meaningfully engaged throughout the life cycle of the trial. A clinician-led research advisory panel follows in parallel. Results Primary outcomes are PRO instruments that measure function, health-related quality of life, and symptoms; the latter developed with input from patients. Input from the patient advisory group led to revised retention procedures, which now focus on short-term (3–6 months) follow-up. The research advisory panel is piloting a point-of-care, patient assessment checklist, there by returning study results to practice. The cohort study is aligned with the tenets of one of the new conceptual frameworks for conducting PCOR. Conclusion CERTAIN’s inaugural cohort study may serve as a useful model for conducting PCOR and creating a Learning Healthcare Network. PMID:23849146

  18. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-03-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET is continuing to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last thirteen years. Since 2000, EARLINET has strongly developed in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution, from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000, to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has strongly developed also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multi-wavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing and dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase of the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are in the direction of continuous measurements and near real time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, as in the ACTRIS research infrastructure, and with the modelling and satellite community, bridging the research community with the

  19. Advanced Communication and Networking Technologies for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeff; Agre, Jonathan R.; Clare, Loren P.; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation Mars communications networks will provide communications and navigation services to a wide variety of Mars science vehicles including: spacecraft that are arriving at Mars, spacecraft that are entering and descending in the Mars atmosphere, scientific orbiter spacecraft, spacecraft that return Mars samples to Earth, landers, rovers, aerobots, airplanes, and sensing pods. In the current architecture plans, the communication services will be provided using capabilities deployed on the science vehicles as well as dedicated communication satellites that will together make up the Mars network. This network will evolve as additional vehicles arrive, depart or end their useful missions. Cost savings and increased reliability will result from the ability to share communication services between missions. This paper discusses the basic architecture that is needed to support the Mars Communications Network part of NASA's Space Science Enterprise (SSE) communications architecture. The network may use various networking technologies such as those employed in the terrestrial Internet, as well as special purpose deep-space protocols to move data and commands autonomously between vehicles, at disparate Mars vicinity sites (on the surface or in near-Mars space) and between Mars vehicles and earthbound users. The architecture of the spacecraft on-board local communications is being reconsidered in light of these new networking requirements. The trend towards increasingly autonomous operation of the spacecraft is aimed at reducing the dependence on resource scheduling provided by Earth-based operators and increasing system fault tolerance. However, these benefits will result in increased communication and software development requirements. As a result, the envisioned Mars communications infrastructure requires both hardware and protocol technology advancements. This paper will describe a number of the critical technology needs and some of the ongoing research

  20. Processors, Pipelines, and Protocols for Advanced Modeling Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coughlan, Joseph; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Predictive capabilities arise from our understanding of natural processes and our ability to construct models that accurately reproduce these processes. Although our modeling state-of-the-art is primarily limited by existing computational capabilities, other technical areas will soon present obstacles to the development and deployment of future predictive capabilities. Advancement of our modeling capabilities will require not only faster processors, but new processing algorithms, high-speed data pipelines, and a common software engineering framework that allows networking of diverse models that represent the many components of Earth's climate and weather system. Development and integration of these new capabilities will pose serious challenges to the Information Systems (IS) technology community. Designers of future IS infrastructures must deal with issues that include performance, reliability, interoperability, portability of data and software, and ultimately, the full integration of various ES model systems into a unified ES modeling network.

  1. Voice Messaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara D.; Tisdale, Judy Jones; Krapels, Roberta H.

    2001-01-01

    Surveys corporate use of voice message systems by interviewing employees in four different companies. Finds that all four companies viewed their voicemail systems as a supplement to personal contact (not a replacement) and provided training, but had no formal method to assess customer satisfaction with their system. Suggests business communication…

  2. Lost Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiseri-Strater, Elizabeth

    Different writing voices are linked to early adult developmental issues that are gender-related. Research by Donald Graves has shown that gender affects topic choice in girls' and boys' writing as early as age seven. Adult developmental theories provide frames for looking at the growth potential of writers and locating gender-related issues. The…

  3. Advanced Mobility Handover for Mobile IPv6 Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches. PMID:25614890

  4. Advanced mobility handover for mobile IPv6 based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.

  5. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements: ASCR Network Requirements Review Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  6. An Analysis of Collaborative Technology Advancements Achieved through the Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS ACHIEVED THROUGH THE CENTER FOR NETWORK INNOVATION AND EXPERIMENTATION by Eric L. Quarles December 2008...Advancements Achieved through the Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric L. Quarles 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...cycles which the members of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation (CENETIX) participate. These experiments

  7. The Managing Epilepsy Well Network:: Advancing Epilepsy Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Sajatovic, Martha; Jobst, Barbara C; Shegog, Ross; Bamps, Yvan A; Begley, Charles E; Fraser, Robert T; Johnson, Erica K; Pandey, Dilip K; Quarells, Rakale C; Scal, Peter; Spruill, Tanya M; Thompson, Nancy J; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-03-01

    Epilepsy, a complex spectrum of disorders, affects about 2.9 million people in the U.S. Similar to other chronic disorders, people with epilepsy face challenges related to management of the disorder, its treatment, co-occurring depression, disability, social disadvantages, and stigma. Two national conferences on public health and epilepsy (1997, 2003) and a 2012 IOM report on the public health dimensions of epilepsy highlighted important knowledge gaps and emphasized the need for evidence-based, scalable epilepsy self-management programs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention translated recommendations on self-management research and dissemination into an applied research program through the Prevention Research Centers Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network. MEW Network objectives are to advance epilepsy self-management research by developing effective interventions that can be broadly disseminated for use in people's homes, healthcare providers' offices, or in community settings. The aim of this report is to provide an update on the MEW Network research pipeline, which spans efficacy, effectiveness, and dissemination. Many of the interventions use e-health strategies to eliminate barriers to care (e.g., lack of transportation, functional limitations, and stigma). Strengths of this mature research network are the culture of collaboration, community-based partnerships, e-health methods, and its portfolio of prevention activities, which range from efficacy studies engaging hard-to-reach groups, to initiatives focused on provider training and knowledge translation. The MEW Network works with organizations across the country to expand its capacity, help leverage funding and other resources, and enhance the development, dissemination, and sustainability of MEW Network programs and tools. Guided by national initiatives targeting chronic disease or epilepsy burden since 2007, the MEW Network has been responsible for more than 43 scientific journal articles, two

  8. Voice therapy for the professional voice.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sarah L; Sataloff, Robert T

    2007-10-01

    Behavioral evaluation and treatment of dysphonia in the professional voice user are the responsibility of the speech-language pathologist. As a clinician, treating the professional voice user requires expert listening and management skills. Interdisciplinary team relationships are crucial for thorough care of this population. When treating the professional voice user additional information should be included while gathering the history because of differences in vocal demand and expectations when compared with the non-professional voice user. Voice therapy is patient-specific and when treating professional voice users it is necessary to consider previous training and use or rework current skills to enhance the therapy outcomes.

  9. Environmental Monitoring Networks Optimization Using Advanced Active Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Volpi, Michele; Copa, Loris

    2010-05-01

    The problem of environmental monitoring networks optimization (MNO) belongs to one of the basic and fundamental tasks in spatio-temporal data collection, analysis, and modeling. There are several approaches to this problem, which can be considered as a design or redesign of monitoring network by applying some optimization criteria. The most developed and widespread methods are based on geostatistics (family of kriging models, conditional stochastic simulations). In geostatistics the variance is mainly used as an optimization criterion which has some advantages and drawbacks. In the present research we study an application of advanced techniques following from the statistical learning theory (SLT) - support vector machines (SVM) and the optimization of monitoring networks when dealing with a classification problem (data are discrete values/classes: hydrogeological units, soil types, pollution decision levels, etc.) is considered. SVM is a universal nonlinear modeling tool for classification problems in high dimensional spaces. The SVM solution is maximizing the decision boundary between classes and has a good generalization property for noisy data. The sparse solution of SVM is based on support vectors - data which contribute to the solution with nonzero weights. Fundamentally the MNO for classification problems can be considered as a task of selecting new measurement points which increase the quality of spatial classification and reduce the testing error (error on new independent measurements). In SLT this is a typical problem of active learning - a selection of the new unlabelled points which efficiently reduce the testing error. A classical approach (margin sampling) to active learning is to sample the points closest to the classification boundary. This solution is suboptimal when points (or generally the dataset) are redundant for the same class. In the present research we propose and study two new advanced methods of active learning adapted to the solution of

  10. Advances in Ground Transmitters for the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vodonos, Yakov I.; Conroy, Bruce L.; Losh, David L.; Silva, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, is equipped with multiple microwave transmitters ranging in average radiated power from 200 W to 400 kW. The transmitters are used for routine or emergency communication with spacecraft, for navigation, and for radio science tasks. The latest advances in transmitter engineering were implemented in a new generation of 20-kW dual-band transmitters developed for the DSN 34-m beam waveguide antennas. Innovations include additional X-band communication capability for near Earth missions, new control algorithms, automated calibration, improved and expanded computerized monitoring and diagnostics, reduced cabling, and improved maintainability. The innovations were very beneficial for the DSN 'overload' during the Mars 2003/2004 missions and will benefit other missions throughout the next decade. This paper describes the current design of the new transmitters and possible future developments.

  11. Advanced stoichiometric analysis of metabolic networks of mammalian systems.

    PubMed

    Orman, Mehmet A; Berthiaume, Francois; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic engineering tools have been widely applied to living organisms to gain a comprehensive understanding about cellular networks and to improve cellular properties. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA), flux balance analysis (FBA), and metabolic pathway analysis (MPA) are among the most popular tools in stoichiometric network analysis. Although application of these tools into well-known microbial systems is extensive in the literature, various barriers prevent them from being utilized in mammalian cells. Limited experimental data, complex regulatory mechanisms, and the requirement of more complex nutrient media are some major obstacles in mammalian cell systems. However, mammalian cells have been used to produce therapeutic proteins, to characterize disease states or related abnormal metabolic conditions, and to analyze the toxicological effects of some medicinally important drugs. Therefore, there is a growing need for extending metabolic engineering principles to mammalian cells in order to understand their underlying metabolic functions. In this review article, advanced metabolic engineering tools developed for stoichiometric analysis including MFA, FBA, and MPA are described. Applications of these tools in mammalian cells are discussed in detail, and the challenges and opportunities are highlighted.

  12. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  13. ASTP Onboard Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription is presented of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project voice communications as recorded on the command module data storage equipment. Data from this recorder are telemetered (dumped) to Space Tracking and Data Network sites for retransmission to the Johnson Space Center. The transcript is divided into three columns -- time, speaker, and text. The Greenwich mean time column consists of three two-digit numbers representing hours, minutes, and seconds (e.g., 22 34 14) for the Julian dates shown at the top of the page on which a new day begins. The speaker column indicates the source of a transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications.

  14. Voices on Voice: Perspectives, Definitions, Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, Kathleen Blake, Ed.

    This collection of essays approaches "voice" as a means of expression that lives in the interactions of writers, readers, and language, and examines the conceptualizations of voice within the oral rhetorical and expressionist traditions, and the notion of voice as both a singular and plural phenomenon. An explanatory introduction by the…

  15. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  16. Rewriting Student Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    Two approaches to bringing out student voices in writing are the the "workshop advocates approach" and the "critical pedagogy advocates approach." The first group views voice as "individual expression," while the second group views voice as "participation." Though both strive to respect the student's voice,…

  17. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  18. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were

  19. Lambdastation: a forwarding and admission control service to interface production network facilities with advanced research network paths

    SciTech Connect

    DeMar, Philip; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a great deal of research effort and funding put into the deployment of optical-based, advanced technology wide-area networks. Fermilab and CalTech have initiated a project to enable our production network facilities to exploit these advanced research network facilities. Our objective is to forward designated data transfers across these advanced wide area networks on a per-flow basis, making use our capacious production-use storage systems connected to the local campus network. To accomplish this, we intend to develop a dynamically provisioned forwarding service that would provide alternate path forwarding onto available wide area advanced research networks. The service would dynamically reconfigure forwarding of specific flows within our local production-use network facilities, as well as provide an interface to enable applications to utilize the service. We call this service LambdaStation. If one envisions wide area optical network paths as high bandwidth data railways, then LambdaStation would functionally be the railroad terminal that regulates which flows at the local site get directed onto the high bandwidth data railways. LambdaStation is a DOE-funded SciDac research project in its very early stage of development.

  20. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex

    PubMed Central

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Petkov, Christopher I.

    2015-01-01

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face–voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions. PMID:25535356

  1. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-06

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions.

  2. Six Networking Tips to Advance Your Career Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Teachers may wonder why networking is relevant. The point of networking is to cultivate relationships for the exchange of information, services, or resources for employment or business. This may sound cold to those in the educational world, where children and youth are the No. 1 customers, but a network can be a huge support as it pertains to…

  3. Advances in Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Development and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial neural networks as a major soft-computing technology have been extensively studied and applied during the last three decades. Research on backpropagation training algorithms for multilayer perceptron networks has spurred development of other neural network training algorithms for other ne...

  4. An Investigation of the Application of Voice Input/Output Technology in the COINS Network Control Center,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Bell’s later wcrx cn the telephone. As described by Flanagan [Ref. 17: pp. 2Z6-207], The lips, tongue, palate, teeth, pharynx, and velum were...the overall effectiveness of the Network Controller function. Our conclusions in this area were rather tentative . We shcwed, for example, that use of

  5. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  6. Advanced Multiple In-Multiple Out (MIMO) Antenna Communications for Airborne Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    ADVANCED MULTIPLE IN-MULTIPLE OUT (MIMO) ANTENNA COMMUNICATIONS FOR AIRBORNE NETWORKS SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY MARCH 2015 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2011 – SEP 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADVANCED MULTIPLE IN-MULTIPLE OUT (MIMO) ANTENNA ...MIMO system with over the air transmission. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Multiple In-Multiple Out (MIMO Antenna Communications, Airborne Networks, D-BLAST

  7. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  8. Voice and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes are those during childhood and adolescence. The larynx (or voice box) and vocal cord tissues do ... changes in the size and character of the larynx causes characteristic pitch breaks and voice “cracking” during ...

  9. Voice box (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  10. Advancing reversible shape memory by tuning the polymer network architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiaoxi; Zhou, Jing; Vatankhah-Varnoosfaderani, Mohammad; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Gang, Oleg; Sheiko, Sergei S.

    2016-02-02

    Because of counteraction of a chemical network and a crystalline scaffold, semicrystalline polymer networks exhibit a peculiar behavior—reversible shape memory (RSM), which occurs naturally without applying any external force and particular structural design. There are three RSM properties: (i) range of reversible strain, (ii) rate of strain recovery, and (iii) decay of reversibility with time, which can be improved by tuning the architecture of the polymer network. Different types of poly(octylene adipate) networks were synthesized, allowing for control of cross-link density and network topology, including randomly cross-linked network by free-radical polymerization, thiol–ene clicked network with enhanced mesh uniformity, and loose network with deliberately incorporated dangling chains. It is shown that the RSM properties are controlled by average cross-link density and crystal size, whereas topology of a network greatly affects its extensibility. In conclusion, we have achieved 80% maximum reversible range, 15% minimal decrease in reversibility, and fast strain recovery rate up to 0.05 K–1, i.e., ca. 5% per 10 s at a cooling rate of 5 K/min.

  11. Advancing reversible shape memory by tuning the polymer network architecture

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qiaoxi; Zhou, Jing; Vatankhah-Varnoosfaderani, Mohammad; ...

    2016-02-02

    Because of counteraction of a chemical network and a crystalline scaffold, semicrystalline polymer networks exhibit a peculiar behavior—reversible shape memory (RSM), which occurs naturally without applying any external force and particular structural design. There are three RSM properties: (i) range of reversible strain, (ii) rate of strain recovery, and (iii) decay of reversibility with time, which can be improved by tuning the architecture of the polymer network. Different types of poly(octylene adipate) networks were synthesized, allowing for control of cross-link density and network topology, including randomly cross-linked network by free-radical polymerization, thiol–ene clicked network with enhanced mesh uniformity, and loosemore » network with deliberately incorporated dangling chains. It is shown that the RSM properties are controlled by average cross-link density and crystal size, whereas topology of a network greatly affects its extensibility. In conclusion, we have achieved 80% maximum reversible range, 15% minimal decrease in reversibility, and fast strain recovery rate up to 0.05 K–1, i.e., ca. 5% per 10 s at a cooling rate of 5 K/min.« less

  12. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  13. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  14. Writing with Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  15. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  16. Advanced metrics for network-centric naval operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Walter L.; Bowden, Fred D. J.

    2003-07-01

    Defense organizations around the world are formulating new visions, strategies, and concepts that utilize emerging information-age technologies. Central among these is network-based operations. Measures and metrics are needed that allow analysts to link the effects of alternative network structures, operating procedures and command and control arrangements to combat outcomes. This paper reports on measures and mathematical metrics that begin to address this problem. Networks are assessed in terms of their complexity, their ability to adapt, and the collaboration opportunity they afford. The metrics measure the contributions of complexity to information flow, and the deleterious effects of information overload and disconfirming reports to overall network performance. In addition, they measure the contributions of collaboration to shared situational awareness in terms of the accuracy and precision of the information produced and the costs associated with an imbalance of the two. We posit a fixed network connecting a Naval Task Force"s various platforms, and assess the ability of this network to support the range of missions required of the task force. The emphasis is not on connectivity, but rather on information flow and how well the network is able to adapt to alternative flow requirements. We assess the impact alternative network structures, operating procedures and command arrangements have on combat outcomes by applying the metrics to a cruise missile defense scenario.

  17. Advanced Neural Network Modeling of Synthetic Jet Flow Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to continue development of a neural network -based, lumped deterministic source term (LDST) approximation module for...main exploration involved the grid sensitivity of the neural network model. A second task was originally planned on the portability of the approach to

  18. Social Networks and Career Advancement of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Mukta

    2012-01-01

    Although organizational social networks are known to influence career mobility, the specific direction of this influence is different for diverse employee groups. Diversity in organizational network research has been operationalized on various dimensions such as race and ethnicity, age, religion, education, occupation, and gender. Missing in this…

  19. Advanced Algorithms for Local Routing Strategy on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Benchuan; Chen, Bokui; Gao, Yachun; Tse, Chi K.; Dong, Chuanfei; Miao, Lixin; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant improvement on network performance provided by global routing strategies, their applications are still limited to small-scale networks, due to the need for acquiring global information of the network which grows and changes rapidly with time. Local routing strategies, however, need much less local information, though their transmission efficiency and network capacity are much lower than that of global routing strategies. In view of this, three algorithms are proposed and a thorough investigation is conducted in this paper. These algorithms include a node duplication avoidance algorithm, a next-nearest-neighbor algorithm and a restrictive queue length algorithm. After applying them to typical local routing strategies, the critical generation rate of information packets Rc increases by over ten-fold and the average transmission time 〈T〉 decreases by 70–90 percent, both of which are key physical quantities to assess the efficiency of routing strategies on complex networks. More importantly, in comparison with global routing strategies, the improved local routing strategies can yield better network performance under certain circumstances. This is a revolutionary leap for communication networks, because local routing strategy enjoys great superiority over global routing strategy not only in terms of the reduction of computational expense, but also in terms of the flexibility of implementation, especially for large-scale networks. PMID:27434502

  20. Statistical inference to advance network models in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Welch, David; Bansal, Shweta; Hunter, David R

    2011-03-01

    Contact networks are playing an increasingly important role in the study of epidemiology. Most of the existing work in this area has focused on considering the effect of underlying network structure on epidemic dynamics by using tools from probability theory and computer simulation. This work has provided much insight on the role that heterogeneity in host contact patterns plays on infectious disease dynamics. Despite the important understanding afforded by the probability and simulation paradigm, this approach does not directly address important questions about the structure of contact networks such as what is the best network model for a particular mode of disease transmission, how parameter values of a given model should be estimated, or how precisely the data allow us to estimate these parameter values. We argue that these questions are best answered within a statistical framework and discuss the role of statistical inference in estimating contact networks from epidemiological data.

  1. Voice handicap in singers.

    PubMed

    Murry, Thomas; Zschommler, Anne; Prokop, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The study aimed to determine the differences in responses to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) between singers and nonsingers and to evaluate the ranked order differences of the VHI-10 statements for both groups. The VHI-10 was modified to include statements related to the singing voice for comparison to the original VHI-10. Thirty-five nonsingers with documented voice disorders responded to the VHI-10. A second group, consisting of 35 singers with voice complaints, responded to the VHI-10 with three statements added specifically addressing the singing voice. Data from both groups were analyzed in terms of overall subject self-rating of voice handicap and the rank order of statements from least to most important. The difference between the mean VHI-10 for the singers and nonsingers was not statistically significant, thus, supporting the validity of the VHI-10. However, the 10 statements were ranked differently in terms of their importance by both groups. In addition, when three statements related specifically to the singing voice were substituted in the original VHI-10, the singers judged their voice problem to be more severe than when using the original VHI-10. The type of statements used to assess self-perception of voice handicap may be related to the subject population. Singers with voice problems do not rate their voices to be more handicapped than nonsingers unless statements related specifically to singing are included.

  2. Advances Made in the Next Generation of Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the unique networking characteristics of communications satellites, global satellite networks are moving to the forefront in enhancing national and global information infrastructures. Simultaneously, broadband data services, which are emerging as the major market driver for future satellite and terrestrial networks, are being widely acknowledged as the foundation for an efficient global information infrastructure. In the past 2 years, various task forces and working groups around the globe have identified pivotal topics and key issues to address if we are to realize such networks in a timely fashion. In response, industry, government, and academia undertook efforts to address these topics and issues. A workshop was organized to provide a forum to assess the current state-of-the-art, identify key issues, and highlight the emerging trends in the next-generation architectures, data protocol development, communication interoperability, and applications. The Satellite Networks: Architectures, Applications, and Technologies Workshop was hosted by the Space Communication Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Nearly 300 executives and technical experts from academia, industry, and government, representing the United States and eight other countries, attended the event (June 2 to 4, 1998). The program included seven panels and invited sessions and nine breakout sessions in which 42 speakers presented on technical topics. The proceedings covers a wide range of topics: access technology and protocols, architectures and network simulations, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite networks, Internet over satellite networks, interoperability experiments and applications, multicasting, NASA interoperability experiment programs, NASA mission applications, and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over satellite: issues, relevance, and experience.

  3. Generic voice interface for cockpit application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, David T.; Feitshans, Gregory L.

    A voice technology interface is proposed that would allow both novice and expert users of voice input and output devices to quickly interface them to their applications while maintaining optimum performance. The objective of this generic voice interface (GVI) is to provide a device-independent interface to existing voice systems. The system will be designed so that any application, not just cockpit applications, can be used with the GVI. Once it has been successfully integrated into a few key applications, the same techniques can be transitioned to other areas. The system will initially be targeted for the rapidly reconfigurable crew-station (RRC) program, which will provide a rapid prototyping environment for advanced crew-station design.

  4. Factors Influencing Likelihood of Voice Therapy Attendance.

    PubMed

    Misono, Stephanie; Marmor, Schelomo; Roy, Nelson; Mau, Ted; Cohen, Seth M

    2017-03-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with the likelihood of attending voice therapy among patients referred for it in the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) practice-based research network infrastructure. Study Design Prospectively enrolled cross-sectional study. Setting CHEER network of community and academic sites. Methods Data were collected on patient-reported demographics, voice-related diagnoses, voice-related handicap (Voice Handicap Index-10), likelihood of attending voice therapy (VT), and opinions on factors influencing likelihood of attending VT. The relationships between patient characteristics/opinions and likelihood of attending VT were investigated. Results A total of 170 patients with various voice-related diagnoses reported receiving a recommendation for VT. Of those, 85% indicated that they were likely to attend it, regardless of voice-related handicap severity. The most common factors influencing likelihood of VT attendance were insurance/copay, relief that it was not cancer, and travel. Those who were not likely to attend VT identified, as important factors, unclear potential improvement, not understanding the purpose of therapy, and concern that it would be too hard. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with greater likelihood of attending VT included shorter travel distance, age (40-59 years), and being seen in an academic practice. Conclusions Most patients reported plans to attend VT as recommended. Patients who intended to attend VT reported different considerations in their decision making from those who did not plan to attend. These findings may inform patient counseling and efforts to increase access to voice care.

  5. Advancing Reversible Shape Memory by Tuning Network Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaoxi; Zhou, Jing; Vatankhah Varnosfaderani, Mohammad; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Gang, Oleg; Sheiko, Sergei; University of north carolina at chapel hill Collaboration; Brookhaven National Lab-CFN Collaboration

    Recently, reversible shape memory (RSM) has been realized in conventional semi-crystalline elastomers without applying any external force and synthetic programming. The mechanism is ascribed to counteraction between thermodynamically driven relaxation of a strained polymer network and kinetically preferred self-seeding recrystallization of constrained network strands. In order to maximize RSM's performance in terms of (i) range of reversible strain, (ii) rate of strain recovery, and (iii) relaxation time of reversibility, we have designed a systematic series of networks with different topologies and crosslinking densities, including purposely introduced dangling chains and irregular meshes. Within a broad range of crosslink density ca. 50-1000 mol/m3, we have demonstrated that the RSM's properties improve significantly with increasing crosslink density, regardless of network topology. Actually, one of the most irregular networks with densest crosslinking allowed achieving up to 80% of the programmed strain being fully reversible, fast recovery rate up to 0.05 K-1, and less than 15% decrease of reversibility after hours of annealing at partial melt state. With this understanding and optimization of RSM, we pursue an idea of shape control through self-assembly of shape-memory particles. For this purpose, 3D printing has been employed to prepare large assemblies of particles possessing specific shapes and morphologies.

  6. A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Network Provisioning

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-04-12

    Many scientific applications need support from a communication infrastructure that provides predictable performance, which requires effective algorithms for bandwidth reservations. Network reservation systems such as ESnet's OSCARS, establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits for a certain bandwidth and length of time. However, users currently cannot inquire about bandwidth availability, nor have alternative suggestions when reservation requests fail. In general, the number of reservation options is exponential with the number of nodes n, and current reservation commitments. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks taking advantage of user-provided parameters of total volume and time constraints, which produces options for earliest completion and shortest duration. The theoretical complexity is only O(n2r2) in the worst-case, where r is the number of reservations in the desired time interval. We have implemented our algorithm and developed efficient methodologies for incorporation into network reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm the theoretical predictions.

  7. Multimedia wireless networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajeev; Alwan, Abeer; Gerla, Mario; Kleinrock, Leonard; Villasenor, John D.; Belzer, Ben; Boring, Walter; Molloy, Stephen; Nazareth, Sean; Siqueira, Marcio; Short, Joel; Tsai, Jack

    1996-03-01

    Current wireless network systems (e.g. metropolitan cellular) are constrained by fixed bandwidth allocations and support only a narrow range of services (voice and low bit-rate data). To overcome these constraints and advance the state of the art in wireless multimedia communications, we are developing variable-rate video and speech compression algorithms, and wireless node architectures that will enable peer-to-peer multimedia networking even with very low bandwidth. To support this objective, each wireless node must support new applications (for multimedia), advances in networking and source coding to support multimedia under limited bandwidth conditions (wireless), advances in physical layer design to support robust, low power, high packet throughput links, low power DSP for multimedia compression, and an architectural strategy to integrate these components into an efficient node. The algorithms and architectures to support this functionality are presented here, together with some preliminary results on network performance.

  8. Psychiatric neural networks and neuropharmacology: Selected advances and novel implications

    PubMed Central

    Ghanemi, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often considered as simple imbalances between a limited number of cerebral neurotransmitters. In fact, it is more complicated than this “simple approach” and each psychiatric disorder constitutes network dysfunction within which several agents and factors are implicated. Thus, the therapeutical perspectives and implications are as vast and as numerous as the diversity of those network dysfunctions. Furthermore, the description of factors influencing diseases prognoses and treatment efficacy indicates new elements to consider both in therapies and drug researches. PMID:24648819

  9. EFL Writers' Social Networks: Impact on Advanced Academic Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferenz, Orna

    2005-01-01

    For non-native English writers, second language (L2) advanced academic literacy encompasses knowledge of the rhetorical, linguistic, social and cultural features of academic discourse as well as knowledge of English as used by their academic disciplines. Literacy is acquired through a socialization process embedded in social practice, patterned by…

  10. A Survey of Geosensor Networks: Advances in Dynamic Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Nittel, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    In the recent decade, several technology trends have influenced the field of geosciences in significant ways. The first trend is the more readily available technology of ubiquitous wireless communication networks and progress in the development of low-power, short-range radio-based communication networks, the miniaturization of computing and storage platforms as well as the development of novel microsensors and sensor materials. All three trends have changed the type of dynamic environmental phenomena that can be detected, monitored and reacted to. Another important aspect is the real-time data delivery of novel platforms today. In this paper, I will survey the field of geosensor networks, and mainly focus on the technology of small-scale geosensor networks, example applications and their feasibility and lessons learnt as well as the current research questions posed by using this technology today. Furthermore, my objective is to investigate how this technology can be embedded in the current landscape of intelligent sensor platforms in the geosciences and identify its place and purpose. PMID:22346721

  11. Wireless Sensors and Networks for Advanced Energy Management

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-05-06

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified low-cost, very low-power wireless sensors and networks as a critical enabling technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. Research areas for developing such sensor and network platforms include microsensor arrays, ultra-low power electronics and signal conditioning, data/control transceivers, and robust wireless networks. A review of some of the research in the following areas will be discussed: (1) Low-cost, flexible multi-sensor array platforms (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, humidity, NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2}, occupancy, etc.) that enable energy and emission reductions in applications such as buildings and manufacturing; (2) Modeling investments (energy usage and savings to drive capital investment decisions) and estimated uptime improvements through pervasive gathering of equipment and process health data and its effects on energy; (3) Robust, self-configuring wireless sensor networks for energy management; and (4) Quality-of-service for secure and reliable data transmission from widely distributed sensors. Wireless communications is poised to support technical innovations in the industrial community, with widespread use of wireless sensors forecasted to improve manufacturing production and energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Progress being made in wireless system components, as described in this paper, is helping bring these projected improvements to reality.

  12. Distributed networks enable advances in US space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, S. Dave

    2011-06-01

    Space weather, the shorter-term variable impact of the Sun’s photons, solar wind particles, and interplanetary magnetic field upon the Earth’s environment, adversely affects our technological systems. These technological systems, including their space component, are increasingly being seen as a way to help solve 21st Century problems such as climate change, energy access, fresh water availability, and transportation coordination. Thus, the effects of space weather on space systems and assets must be mitigated and operational space weather using automated distributed networks has emerged as a common operations methodology. The evolution of space weather operations is described and the description of distributed network architectures is provided, including their use of tiers, data objects, redundancy, and time domain definitions. There are several existing distributed networks now providing space weather information and the lessons learned in developing those networks are discussed along with the details of examples for the Solar Irradiance Platform (SIP), Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS), GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS), LEO Alert and Prediction System (LAPS), Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), and Magnetosphere Alert and Prediction System (MAPS).

  13. Internet2: Building and Deploying Advanced, Networked Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanss, Ted

    1997-01-01

    Internet2, a consortium effort of over 100 universities, is investing in upgrading campus and national computer network platforms for such applications as digital libraries, collaboration environments, tele-medicine, and distance-independent instruction. The project is described, issues the project intends to address are detailed, and ways in…

  14. Application of Voice Recognition Input to Decision Support Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Support System (GDSS) Talkwriter Human Computer Interface Voice Input Individual Decision Support System (IDSS) Voice Input/Output Man Machine Voice ... Interface Voice Processing Natural Language Voice Input Voice Recognition Natural Language Accessed Voice Recognizer Speech Entry Voice Vocabulary

  15. Advanced information processing system: Authentication protocols for network communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Adams, Stuart J.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clark, Anne L.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1994-01-01

    In safety critical I/O and intercomputer communication networks, reliable message transmission is an important concern. Difficulties of communication and fault identification in networks arise primarily because the sender of a transmission cannot be identified with certainty, an intermediate node can corrupt a message without certainty of detection, and a babbling node cannot be identified and silenced without lengthy diagnosis and reconfiguration . Authentication protocols use digital signature techniques to verify the authenticity of messages with high probability. Such protocols appear to provide an efficient solution to many of these problems. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate intercomputer communication architectures which employ authentication. As a context for the evaluation, the authentication protocol-based communication concept was demonstrated under this program by hosting a real-time flight critical guidance, navigation and control algorithm on a distributed, heterogeneous, mixed redundancy system of workstations and embedded fault-tolerant computers.

  16. A Voice for Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novitzky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In March 2007, Dave Thompson, who was undertaking an advanced apprenticeship in customer service, set up the Humber Apprentice Panel (HAP), which, until recently, was the only forum exclusively for apprentices in the UK (the Young Apprentice Ambassador Network was launched last year). By creating this unique panel, Thompson and his fellow…

  17. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was conceived to help maintain U.S. leadership in the world's communications-satellite market. This experimental satellite is expected to be launched by NASA in 1992 and to furnish the technology necessary for establishing very small aperture terminal digital networks which provide on-demand full-mesh connectivity, and 1.544-MBPS services with only a single hop. Utilizing on-board switching and processing, each individual voice or data circuit can be separately routed to any location in the network. This paper provides an overview of the ACTS and discusses the value of the technology for future communications systems.

  18. Neural networks for advanced control of robot manipulators.

    PubMed

    Patino, H D; Carelli, R; Kuchen, B R

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach and a systematic design methodology to adaptive motion control based on neural networks (NNs) for high-performance robot manipulators, for which stability conditions and performance evaluation are given. The neurocontroller includes a linear combination of a set of off-line trained NNs, and an update law of the linear combination coefficients to adjust robot dynamics and payload uncertain parameters. A procedure is presented to select the learning conditions for each NN in the bank. The proposed scheme, based on fixed NNs, is computationally more efficient than the case of using the learning capabilities of the neural network to be adapted, as that used in feedback architectures that need to propagate back control errors through the model to adjust the neurocontroller. A practical stability result for the neurocontrol system is given. That is, we prove that the control error converges asymptotically to a neighborhood of zero, whose size is evaluated and depends on the approximation error of the NN bank and the design parameters of the controller. In addition, a robust adaptive controller to NN learning errors is proposed, using a sign or saturation switching function in the control law, which leads to global asymptotic stability and zero convergence of control errors. Simulation results showing the practical feasibility and performance of the proposed approach to robotics are given.

  19. Voices for Illinois Children, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Illinois Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These newsletters are produced by Voices for Illinois Children, a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. The spring 1996 issue provides membership information and network news, as well as articles addressing the following…

  20. Advances in materials and current collecting networks for AMTEC electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Williams, R. M.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Electrode materials for the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) play a significant role in the efficiency of the device. RhW and PtW alloys have been studied to determine the best performing material. While RhW electrodes typically have power densities somewhat lower than PtW electrodes, PtW performance is strongly influenced by the Pt/W ratio. The best performing Pt/W ratio is about 3.4. RhW electrodes sinter more slowly than PtW and are predicted to have operating lifetimes up to 40 years; PtW electrodes are predicted to have lifetimes up to 7 years. Interaction with the current collection network can significantly decrease lifetime by inducing metal migration and segregation and by accelerating the sintering rate.

  1. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  2. Voice integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, P. Mike

    1977-01-01

    The program at Naval Air Development Center was initiated to determine the desirability of interactive voice systems for use in airborne weapon systems crew stations. A voice recognition and synthesis system (VRAS) was developed and incorporated into a human centrifuge. The speech recognition aspect of VRAS was developed using a voice command system (VCS) developed by Scope Electronics. The speech synthesis capability was supplied by a Votrax, VS-5, speech synthesis unit built by Vocal Interface. The effects of simulated flight on automatic speech recognition were determined by repeated trials in the VRAS-equipped centrifuge. The relationship of vibration, G, O2 mask, mission duration, and cockpit temperature and voice quality was determined. The results showed that: (1) voice quality degrades after 0.5 hours with an O2 mask; (2) voice quality degrades under high vibration; and (3) voice quality degrades under high levels of G. The voice quality studies are summarized. These results were obtained with a baseline of 80 percent recognition accuracy with VCS.

  3. Borderline Space for Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  4. Case Study IV: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's Networked Improvement Communities (NICs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.; Geil, Kimberly E.

    2015-01-01

    The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is a nonprofit, operating foundation with a long tradition of developing and studying ways to improve teaching practice. For the past three years, the Carnegie Foundation has initiated three different Networked Improvement Communities (NICs). The first, Quantway, is addressing the high…

  5. Plasma Cholesterol–Induced Lesion Networks Activated before Regression of Early, Mature, and Advanced Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Hägg, Sara; Jain, Rajeev K.; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr−/−Apob 100/100 Mttp flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24586211

  6. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Björkegren, Johan L M; Hägg, Sara; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi Asl, Hassan; Jain, Rajeev K; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-02-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-)Apob (100/100) Mttp (flox/flox)Mx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  7. Building a multicenter telehealth network to advance chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Khairat, Saif; Wijesinghe, Namal; Wolfson, Julian; Scott, Rob; Simkus, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The use of telehealth solutions has proved to improve clinical management of chronic diseases, expand access to healthcare services and clinicians, and reduce healthcare-related costs. The project aims at improving Heart Failure (HF) management through the utilization of a Telemedicine and Personal Health Records systems that will assist HF specialist in Colombo, Sri Lanka to monitor and consult with remote HF patients. A telehealth network will be built at an international site that connects five remote telehealth clinics to a central clinic at a major University Hospital in Sri Lanka where HF specialists are located. In this study, 200 HF patients will be recruited for nine months, 100 patients will be randomly selected for the treatment group and the other 100 will be selected for the control group. Pre, mid, and post study surveys will be conducted to assess the efficacy and satisfaction levels of patients with both care models. Moreover, clinical outcomes will be collected to evaluate the impact of the intervention on the treatment patients compared to control patients. The research aims at enhancing Heart Failure management through eliminating current health challenges and healthcare-related financial burdens.

  8. Simulation Neurotechnologies for Advancing Brain Research: Parallelizing Large Networks in NEURON.

    PubMed

    Lytton, William W; Seidenstein, Alexandra H; Dura-Bernal, Salvador; McDougal, Robert A; Schürmann, Felix; Hines, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Large multiscale neuronal network simulations are of increasing value as more big data are gathered about brain wiring and organization under the auspices of a current major research initiative, such as Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies. The development of these models requires new simulation technologies. We describe here the current use of the NEURON simulator with message passing interface (MPI) for simulation in the domain of moderately large networks on commonly available high-performance computers (HPCs). We discuss the basic layout of such simulations, including the methods of simulation setup, the run-time spike-passing paradigm, and postsimulation data storage and data management approaches. Using the Neuroscience Gateway, a portal for computational neuroscience that provides access to large HPCs, we benchmark simulations of neuronal networks of different sizes (500-100,000 cells), and using different numbers of nodes (1-256). We compare three types of networks, composed of either Izhikevich integrate-and-fire neurons (I&F), single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) cells, or a hybrid network with half of each. Results show simulation run time increased approximately linearly with network size and decreased almost linearly with the number of nodes. Networks with I&F neurons were faster than HH networks, although differences were small since all tested cells were point neurons with a single compartment.

  9. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  10. Impact of the codec and various QoS methods on the final quality of the transferred voice in an IP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavata, Oldřich; Holub, Jan

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of the relation between the codec that is used, the QoS method, and the final voice transmission quality. The Cisco 2811 router is used for adjusting QoS. VoIP client Linphone is used for adjusting the codec. The criterion for transmission quality is the MOS parameter investigated with the ITU-T P.862 PESQ and P.863 POLQA algorithms.

  11. Networked Humanoid Animation Driven by Human Voice Using Extensible 3D (X3D), H-Anim and Java Speech Open Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    sound of a person’s voice for each individual, molding the buzzing sound from the larynx into a sound with character. Lastly, the muscles in the tongue ...speech- recognition system stores a list of what phonemes sound like. That is, a table of relative formant positions is kept by the software, and the...speech, or formant synthesis using signal processing techniques based on knowledge of how phonemes sound and how prosody affects those phonemes. a

  12. Analysis and synthesis of networked control systems: A survey of recent advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Shi, Peng; Wang, Qing-Guo; Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    A networked control system (NCS) is a control system which involves a communication network. In NCSs, the continuous-time measurement is usually sampled and quantized before transmission. Then, the measurement is transmitted to the remote controller via the communication channel, during which the signal may be delayed, lost or even sometimes not allowed for transmission due to the communication or energy constraints. In recent years, the modeling, analysis and synthesis of networked control systems (NCSs) have received great attention, which leads to a large number of publications. This paper attempts to present an overview of recent advances and unify them in a framework of network-induced issues such as signal sampling, data quantization, communication delay, packet dropouts, medium access constraints, channel fading and power constraint, and present respective solution approaches to each of these issues. We draw some conclusions and highlight future research directions in end.

  13. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. Irwin; Luiz A. DaSilva

    2011-05-01

    As early as 2014, mobile network operators’ spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by the demand brought on by new devices and applications. To augment capacity and meet this demand, operators may choose to deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. The signaling and functionality required by such an overlay have not yet been fully considered in the architecture of the planned Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE+) networks. This paper presents a Spectrum Accountability framework to be integrated into LTE+ architectures, defining specific element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams required to enforce the rights and responsibilities of primary and secondary users. We also quantify, through integer programs, the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity under a scenario in which LTE+ network can opportunistically use TV and GSM spectrum. The framework proposed here may serve as a guide in the development of future LTE+ network standards that account for DSA.

  14. Artificial vision by multi-layered neural networks: neocognitron and its advances.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    The neocognitron is a neural network model proposed by Fukushima (1980). Its architecture was suggested by neurophysiological findings on the visual systems of mammals. It is a hierarchical multi-layered network. It acquires the ability to robustly recognize visual patterns through learning. Although the neocognitron has a long history, modifications of the network to improve its performance are still going on. For example, a recent neocognitron uses a new learning rule, named add-if-silent, which makes the learning process much simpler and more stable. Nevertheless, a high recognition rate can be kept with a smaller scale of the network. Referring to the history of the neocognitron, this paper discusses recent advances in the neocognitron. We also show that various new functions can be realized by, for example, introducing top-down connections to the neocognitron: mechanism of selective attention, recognition and completion of partly occluded patterns, restoring occluded contours, and so on.

  15. Biphonation in voice signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herzel, H.; Reuter, R.

    1996-06-01

    Irregularities in voiced speech are often observed as a consequence of vocal fold lesions, paralyses, and other pathological conditions. Many of these instabilities are related to the intrinsic nonlinearities in the vibrations of the vocal folds. In this paper, a specific nonlinear phenomenon is discussed: The appearance of two independent fundamental frequencies termed biphonation. Several narrow-band spectrograms are presented showing biphonation in signals from voice patients, a newborn cry, a singer, and excised larynx experiments. Finally, possible physiological mechanisms of instabilities of the voice source are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  17. A voice password system for access security

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, M.; Cohen, L.A.; Welsh, F.X.

    1986-09-01

    A voice password system for access security using speaker verification technology has been designed for use over dial-up telephone lines. The voice password system (VPS) can provide secure access to telephone networks, computers, rooms, and buildings. It also has application in office automation systems, electric funds transfer, and ''smart cards'' (interactive computers embedded in credit-card-sized packages). As increasing attention is focused on access security in the public, private, and government sectors, the voice password system can provide a timely solution to the security dilemma. The VPS uses modes of communication available to almost everyone (the human voice and the telephone). A user calls the VPS, enters his or her identification number (ID) by touch-tone telephone, and then speaks a password. This is usually a phrase or a sentence of about seven syllables. On initial calls, the VPS creates a model of the user's voice, called a reference template, and labels it with the caller's unique user ID. To gain access later, the user calls the system, enters the proper user ID, and speaks the password phrase. The VPS compares the user's stored reference template with the spoken password and produces a distance score.

  18. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2015-09-08

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers.

  19. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers. PMID:26371022

  20. An advanced distributed automated extraction of drainage network model on high-resolution DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Y.; Ye, A.; Xu, J.; Ma, F.; Deng, X.; Miao, C.; Gong, W.; Di, Z.

    2014-07-01

    A high-resolution and high-accuracy drainage network map is a prerequisite for simulating the water cycle in land surface hydrological models. The objective of this study was to develop a new automated extraction of drainage network model, which can get high-precision continuous drainage network on high-resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model). The high-resolution DEM need too much computer resources to extract drainage network. The conventional GIS method often can not complete to calculate on high-resolution DEM of big basins, because the number of grids is too large. In order to decrease the computation time, an advanced distributed automated extraction of drainage network model (Adam) was proposed in the study. The Adam model has two features: (1) searching upward from outlet of basin instead of sink filling, (2) dividing sub-basins on low-resolution DEM, and then extracting drainage network on sub-basins of high-resolution DEM. The case study used elevation data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) at 3 arc-second resolution in Zhujiang River basin, China. The results show Adam model can dramatically reduce the computation time. The extracting drainage network was continuous and more accurate than HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on Shuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales).

  1. Advancing complementary and alternative medicine through social network analysis and agent-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Terrill L

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the contemporary perspectives and techniques of social network analysis (SNA) and agent-based modeling (ABM) and advocates applying them to advance various aspects of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). SNA and ABM are invaluable methods for representing, analyzing and projecting complex, relational, social phenomena; they provide both an insightful vantage point and a set of analytic tools that can be useful in a wide range of contexts. Applying these methods in the CAM context can aid the ongoing advances in the CAM field, in both its scientific aspects and in developing broader acceptance in associated stakeholder communities.

  2. Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and Their Impact on Future Aerospace Workforce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and their impact on Future Aerospace Workforce. The workshop was held at the Peninsula Workforce Development Center, Hampton, Virginia, April 2 3, 2003. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to: 1) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to advanced learning technologies and learning environments, and 2) identify future directions for research that have high potential for aerospace workforce development. Eighteen half-hour overviewtype presentations were made at the workshop.

  3. Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks: Advances and Future Trends in Physical, MAC and Routing Layers

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols. PMID:24399155

  4. [Advances in sensor node and wireless communication technology of body sensor network].

    PubMed

    Lin, Weibing; Lei, Sheng; Wei, Caihong; Li, Chunxiang; Wang, Cang

    2012-06-01

    With the development of the wireless communication technology, implantable biosensor technology, and embedded system technology, Body Sensor Network (BSN) as one branch of wireless sensor networks and important part of the Internet of things has caught more attention of researchers and enterprises. This paper offers the basic concept of the BSN and analyses the related research. We focus on sensor node and wireless communication technology from perspectives of technology challenges, research advance and development trend in the paper. Besides, we also present a relative overview of domestic and overseas projects for the BSN.

  5. About Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... cords caused by air passing out through the larynx bringing the cords closer together. Your voice is ... or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. Larynx Throat Get Involved Professional Development Practice Management ENT ...

  6. Voice - How humans communicate?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manjul; Tiwari, Maneesha

    2012-01-01

    Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us—members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners. PMID:22690044

  7. Sound-producing voice prostheses: 150 years of research.

    PubMed

    Verkerke, G J; Thomson, S L

    2014-07-11

    Advanced laryngeal cancer sometimes necessitates the removal of the complete larynx. This procedure involves suturing the trachea to an opening in the neck, the most disturbing consequence of which is the loss of voice. Since 1859, several devices have been developed for voice restoration, based mainly on a vibrating reed element. However, the resulting sound is very monotonous and thus unpleasant. Presently the most successful way of voice restoration is the placement of a one-way shunt valve in the tracheo-esophageal wall, thus preventing aspiration and allowing air to flow from the lungs to the esophagus, where soft tissues start to vibrate for substitute voicing. However, the quality of this voice is often poor. New artificial vocal folds to be placed within the shunt valve have been developed, and a membrane-principle concept appears very promising, owing to the self-cleaning construction and the high voice quality. Future developments will include electronic voice sources. Hopefully these developments will result in a high-quality voice, after 150 years of research.

  8. Human brain mechanisms for the early analysis of voices.

    PubMed

    Warren, J D; Scott, S K; Price, C J; Griffiths, T D

    2006-07-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated human brain mechanisms that are involved in the analysis of voices as sound sources and in the pre-semantic analysis of voice information. The source of the voice was altered by changing the speaker, and the salience of the voice was altered by changing the amount of spectrotemporal detail. We identified a mechanism for detecting a change in the source of the voice in the posterior superior temporal lobe and anatomically distinct mechanisms for the detailed analysis of voice information in a bilateral network extending from the posterior to the anterior superior temporal lobe surrounding the superior temporal sulcus. The findings are consistent with a processing hierarchy in which general source attributes are analyzed in the posterior superior temporal lobe, abstraction of voice identity features occurs in posterior superior temporal sulcus, and further analysis of voice information occurs in anterior superior temporal sulcus and higher order cortices in the middle and anterior temporal lobe.

  9. Intelligibility and Space-based Voice with Relaxed Delay Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Sam; Okino, Clayton; Cheng, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The inherent aspects and flaws surrounding space based communication is technically described and the math surrounding encoding and decoding LT Codes is examined. Utilizing LT codes as a means of reducing packet erasures due to corrupted packets on an RF link can result in higher voice quality. PESQ-MOS measure was used to analyze voice degradation over space links tested for LT codec size and number of 10ms per packet.Extensions utilizing LT codes to improve the packet erasure performance and combining the use of ASR could provide for a solid means of identifying the benefit in terms of intelligibility of voice communications in space-based networks

  10. Basic parameter estimation of binary neutron star systems by the advanced LIGO/Vigro network

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Farr, Benjamin; Raymond, Vivien; Farr, Will M.; Littenberg, Tyson B.; Fazi, Diego; Kalogera, Vicky

    2014-04-01

    Within the next five years, it is expected that the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network will have reached a sensitivity sufficient to enable the routine detection of gravitational waves. Beyond the initial detection, the scientific promise of these instruments relies on the effectiveness of our physical parameter estimation capabilities. A major part of this effort has been toward the detection and characterization of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence, e.g., the coalescence of binary neutron stars. While several previous studies have investigated the accuracy of parameter estimation with advanced detectors, the majority have relied on approximation techniques such as the Fisher Matrix which are insensitive to the non-Gaussian nature of the gravitational wave posterior distribution function. Here we report average statistical uncertainties that will be achievable for strong detection candidates (S/N = 20) over a comprehensive sample of source parameters. We use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo based parameter estimation software developed by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration with the goal of updating the previously quoted Fisher Matrix bounds. We find the recovery of the individual masses to be fractionally within 9% (15%) at the 68% (95%) credible intervals for equal-mass systems, and within 1.9% (3.7%) for unequal-mass systems. We also find that the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network will constrain the locations of binary neutron star mergers to a median uncertainty of 5.1 deg{sup 2} (13.5 deg{sup 2}) on the sky. This region is improved to 2.3 deg{sup 2} (6 deg{sup 2}) with the addition of the proposed LIGO India detector to the network. We also report the average uncertainties on the luminosity distances and orbital inclinations of strong detections that can be achieved by different network configurations.

  11. [The senile voice].

    PubMed

    Biondi, S; Zappalà, M; Amato, G; Consoli, F

    1992-01-01

    Involutive processes which characterize aging induce substantial morphological and functional alteration in the pneumo-phono-articulatory system and thus bring about numerous effects on vocal quality. Fundamental frequency (Fo) variation, whose values increase in males and decrease in females, are found in voice patterns. Moreover, in literature many authors have described vocal substain intensity and timbre deficit in the elderly. Vocal emission of elderly people can become so peculiar that it may be possible to identify approximately the age and the sex of the speaker by merely hearing the voice. The aim of this work was to identify specific parameters of the senile voice using spectroacoustic digital analysis. The following points were considered in this study: the psychoacoustic perceptive evaluation of vocal samples in subjects of different ages in order to identify the sex and age of the speaker; the spectroacoustic digital analysis of the same vocal samples; the morphofunctional observation of the phono-articulatory apparatus. Our results confirmed the presence of peculiar electroacoustic characteristics in the senile voice (mean pitch value variation in males and in females, vocal substain deficit, decrease in vocal intensity, senile tremolo, cycle-to-cycle alteration of Fo and mean amplitude) due to morphofunctional changes of the pneumo-phono-articulatory system. In all the subjects we observed anatomo-functional changes at the glottic level. The presence of specific vocal patterns and the quality of speech play an important role in the processes of senile voice identification.

  12. Complementary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    developing non-Gaussian tracking algorithms that involved a Monte-Carlo approach. Several other areas were studied by DHW. These included a voice ... interface for the AWACS operator using ViaVoice, Decision Aids for the AWACS operator, bearings only tracking, Bayesian Networks for Combat

  13. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  14. Target-based optimization of advanced gravitational-wave detector network operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szölgyén, Á.; Dálya, G.; Gondán, L.; Raffai, P.

    2017-04-01

    We introduce two novel time-dependent figures of merit for both online and offline optimizations of advanced gravitational-wave (GW) detector network operations with respect to (i) detecting continuous signals from known source locations and (ii) detecting GWs of neutron star binary coalescences from known local galaxies, which thereby have the highest potential for electromagnetic counterpart detection. For each of these scientific goals, we characterize an N-detector network, and all its (N  ‑  1)-detector subnetworks, to identify subnetworks and individual detectors (key contributors) that contribute the most to achieving the scientific goal. Our results show that aLIGO-Hanford is expected to be the key contributor in 2017 to the goal of detecting GWs from the Crab pulsar within the network of LIGO and Virgo detectors. For the same time period and for the same network, both LIGO detectors are key contributors to the goal of detecting GWs from the Vela pulsar, as well as to detecting signals from 10 high interest pulsars. Key contributors to detecting continuous GWs from the Galactic Center can only be identified for finite time intervals within each sidereal day with either the 3-detector network of the LIGO and Virgo detectors in 2017, or the 4-detector network of the LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA detectors in 2019–2020. Characterization of the LIGO-Virgo detectors with respect to goal (ii) identified the two LIGO detectors as key contributors. Additionally, for all analyses, we identify time periods within a day when lock losses or scheduled service operations could result with the least amount of signal-to-noise or transient detection probability loss for a detector network.

  15. A New Approach in Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for High-Performance Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-01-28

    Scientific applications already generate many terabytes and even petabytes of data from supercomputer runs and large-scale experiments. The need for transferring data chunks of ever-increasing sizes through the network shows no sign of abating. Hence, we need high-bandwidth high speed networks such as ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Network reservation systems, i.e. ESnet's OSCARS (On-demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System) establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits at a certain time, for a certain bandwidth and length of time. OSCARS checks network availability and capacity for the specified period of time, and allocates requested bandwidth for that user if it is available. If the requested reservation cannot be granted, no further suggestion is returned back to the user. Further, there is no possibility from the users view-point to make an optimal choice. We report a new algorithm, where the user specifies the total volume that needs to be transferred, a maximum bandwidth that he/she can use, and a desired time period within which the transfer should be done. The algorithm can find alternate allocation possibilities, including earliest time for completion, or shortest transfer duration - leaving the choice to the user. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks, and a new polynomial algorithm to find possible reservation options according to given constraints. We have implemented our algorithm for testing and incorporation into a future version of ESnet?s OSCARS. Our approach provides a basis for provisioning end-to-end high performance data transfers over storage and network resources.

  16. Protocol Software for a Packet Voice Terminal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-16

    III satellite. The PVTs with their attached telephone instrument serve as the interface with the voice user. The PVTs prepare speech for transmission...through a packet network by digitizing the speech, preparing speech data packets, and sending speech data messages. The PVT handles the speech coming...TOTALKin. Thes Foori alControle wilno trani speech message s unlTreessin ithas note rcenie s speehdfr ao sufficentpo toefl erAcofitt cdng atei t pfres

  17. A Conjoint Analysis of Voice Over IP Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubey, Michael L.; Wagner, William; Otto, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Managers need to understand the tradeoffs associated with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) networks as compared to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). This article measures the preference structures between IP telephony and PSTN services using conjoint analysis. The purpose is to suggest VoIP technology attributes that best meet…

  18. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces. PMID:7479721

  19. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed

    Kamm, C

    1995-10-24

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  20. User Interfaces for Voice Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Candace

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  1. Translating biobehavioral research advances into improvements in health care-a "network of networks" approach to multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Biobehavioral research has made great advances in past decades, allowing researchers to paint an ever-improving picture of interactions between the central nervous system and the systems in the periphery of the body. This knowledge allows us, from a researcher's perspective, to better understand diseases and disease symptoms that are not explainable with a narrow view on organ-specific biomedical processes. However, what is lacking is the translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. In their commentary, Sturmberg et al pointed out these shortcomings and proposed a model connecting the different networks in the human body, and the importance of their connectedness, and drew conclusions for necessary changes in patient care. While doing so, Sturmberg et al also created the basis of what could be considered a new and all-encompassing stress model. This work therefore not only calls for changes in clinical practice but also provides a basis for further steps in biobehavioral research.

  2. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could encourage nurses and other health

  3. VoiceRelay: voice key operation using visual basic.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Lise; Jennings, David T

    2004-11-01

    Using a voice key is a popular method for recording vocal response times in a variety of language production tasks. This article describes a class module called VoiceRelay that can be easily utilized in Visual Basic programs for voice key operation. This software-based voice key offers the precision of traditional voice keys (although accuracy is system dependent), as well as the flexibility of volume and sensitivity control. However, VoiceRelay is a considerably less expensive alternative for recording vocal response times because it operates with existing PC hardware and does not require the purchase of external response boxes or additional experiment-generation software. A sample project demonstrating implementation of the VoiceRelay class module may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Web archive, www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  4. Advanced modularity-specialized label propagation algorithm for detecting communities in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Murata, T.

    2010-04-01

    A modularity-specialized label propagation algorithm (LPAm) for detecting network communities was recently proposed. This promising algorithm offers some desirable qualities. However, LPAm favors community divisions where all communities are similar in total degree and thus it is prone to get stuck in poor local maxima in the modularity space. To escape local maxima, we employ a multistep greedy agglomerative algorithm (MSG) that can merge multiple pairs of communities at a time. Combining LPAm and MSG, we propose an advanced modularity-specialized label propagation algorithm (LPAm+). Experiments show that LPAm+ successfully detects communities with higher modularity values than ever reported in two commonly used real-world networks. Moreover, LPAm+ offers a fair compromise between accuracy and speed.

  5. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  6. Advanced digital signal processing for short-haul and access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan

    2016-02-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) has been proved to be a successful technology recently in high speed and high spectrum-efficiency optical short-haul and access network, which enables high performances based on digital equalizations and compensations. In this paper, we investigate advanced DSP at the transmitter and receiver side for signal pre-equalization and post-equalization in an optical access network. A novel DSP-based digital and optical pre-equalization scheme has been proposed for bandwidth-limited high speed short-distance communication system, which is based on the feedback of receiver-side adaptive equalizers, such as least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm and constant or multi-modulus algorithms (CMA, MMA). Based on this scheme, we experimentally demonstrate 400GE on a single optical carrier based on the highest ETDM 120-GBaud PDM-PAM-4 signal, using one external modulator and coherent detection. A line rate of 480-Gb/s is achieved, which enables 20% forward-error correction (FEC) overhead to keep the 400-Gb/s net information rate. The performance after fiber transmission shows large margin for both short range and metro/regional networks. We also extend the advanced DSP for short haul optical access networks by using high order QAMs. We propose and demonstrate a high speed multi-band CAP-WDM-PON system on intensity modulation, direct detection and digital equalizations. A hybrid modified cascaded MMA post-equalization schemes are used to equalize the multi-band CAP-mQAM signals. Using this scheme, we successfully demonstrates 550Gb/s high capacity WDMPON system with 11 WDM channels, 55 sub-bands, and 10-Gb/s per user in the downstream over 40-km SMF.

  7. Multidimensional assessment of strongly irregular voices such as in substitution voicing and spasmodic dysphonia: a compilation of own research.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Mieke; Martens, Jean-Pierre; Dejonckere, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    This article is a compilation of own research performed during the European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) action 2103: 'Advance Voice Function Assessment', an initiative of voice and speech processing teams consisting of physicists, engineers, and clinicians. This manuscript concerns analyzing largely irregular voicing types, namely substitution voicing (SV) and adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD). A specific perceptual rating scale (IINFVo) was developed, and the Auditory Model Based Pitch Extractor (AMPEX), a piece of software that automatically analyses running speech and generates pitch values in background noise, was applied. The IINFVo perceptual rating scale has been shown to be useful in evaluating SV. The analysis of strongly irregular voices stimulated a modification of the European Laryngological Society's assessment protocol which was originally designed for the common types of (less severe) dysphonia. Acoustic analysis with AMPEX demonstrates that the most informative features are, for SV, the voicing-related acoustic features and, for AdSD, the perturbation measures. Poor correlations between self-assessment and acoustic and perceptual dimensions in the assessment of highly irregular voices argue for a multidimensional approach.

  8. Voice Controlled Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Michael Condon, a quadraplegic from Pasadena, California, demonstrates the NASA-developed voice-controlled wheelchair and its manipulator, which can pick up packages, open doors, turn a TV knob, and perform a variety of other functions. A possible boon to paralyzed and other severely handicapped persons, the chair-manipulator system responds to 35 one-word voice commands, such as "go," "stop," "up," "down," "right," "left," "forward," "backward." The heart of the system is a voice-command analyzer which utilizes a minicomputer. Commands are taught I to the computer by the patient's repeating them a number of times; thereafter the analyzer recognizes commands only in the patient's particular speech pattern. The computer translates commands into electrical signals which activate appropriate motors and cause the desired motion of chair or manipulator. Based on teleoperator and robot technology for space-related programs, the voice-controlled system was developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the joint sponsorship of NASA and the Veterans Administration. The wheelchair-manipulator has been tested at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California, and is being evaluated at the VA Prosthetics Center in New York City.

  9. Science for Two Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzkopf-Trujillo, Julie; Straits, William

    2015-01-01

    During inquiry investigations with third graders, the authors urge their students not to just make observations but also to record them. Inspired by Joel Fleishman's "A Joyful Noise: Poems for Two Voices" (1988), the authors developed an activity that increases students' motivation to record accurate and detailed observations. This…

  10. Voices from the Unconscious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The author, a Manhattan-based psychotherapist, contrasts the fascinating but profound differences between the autobiographical narratives of young college students and the free-associative unconscious voices of patients engaged in the process of psychotherapy. The author begins by recounting the immense impact of his own divorce upon his…

  11. Voices for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Teacher, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

  12. Finding a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Schools have struggled for decades to provide expensive augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) resources for autistic students with communication challenges. Clunky voice output devices, often included in students' individualized education plans, cost about $8,000, a difficult expense to cover in hard times. However, mobile technology is…

  13. The Quake-Catcher Network: A Community-Led, Strong-Motion Network with Implications for Earthquake Advanced Alert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Jakka, R. S.; Chung, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is to dramatically increase the number of strong-motion observations by exploiting recent advances in sensing technologies and cyberinfrastructure. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers are very low cost (50-100), interface to any desktop computer via USB cable, and provide high-quality acceleration data. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-fidelity seismic data and provide linear phase and amplitude response over a wide frequency range. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Volunteer computing also allows for rapid transfer of metadata, such as that used to rapidly determine the magnitude and location of an earthquake, from participating stations. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1000 stations. Initial analysis shows metadata are received within 1-14 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. Currently, we are testing a series of triggering algorithms to maximize the number of earthquakes captured while minimizing false triggers. We are also testing algorithms to automatically detect P- and S-wave arrivals in real time. Trigger times, wave amplitude, and station information are currently uploaded to the server for each trigger. Future work will identify additional metadata useful for quickly determining earthquake location and magnitude. The increased strong-motion observations made possible by QCN will greatly augment the capability of seismic networks to quickly estimate the location and magnitude of an earthquake for advanced alert to the public. In addition, the dense waveform observations will provide improved source imaging of a rupture in near-real-time. These

  14. Facilitating career advancement for women in the Geosciences through the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is a network of women geoscientists, many of who are in the early stages of their careers. The mission of ESWN is to promote career development, build community, provide informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations, all towards making women successful in their scientific careers. ESWN currently connects over 1000 women across the globe, and includes graduate students, postdoctoral associates, faculty from a diversity of colleges and universities, program managers, and government, non-government and industry researchers. ESWN facilitates communication between its members via an email listserv and in-person networking events, and also provides resources to the broader community through the public Earth Science Jobs Listserv that hosts over 1800 subscribers. With funding from a NSF ADVANCE PAID grant, our primary goals include growing our membership to serve a wider section of the geosciences community, designing and administering career development workshops, promoting professional networking at major scientific conferences, and developing web resources to build connections, collaborations, and peer mentoring for and among women in the Earth Sciences. Recognizing that women in particular face a number of direct and indirect biases while navigating their careers, we aim to provide a range of opportunities for professional development that emphasize different skills at different stages of career. For example, ESWN-hosted mini-workshops at national scientific conferences have targeted skill building for early career researchers (e.g., postdocs, tenure-track faculty), with a recent focus on raising extramural research funding and best practices for publishing in the geosciences literature. More concentrated, multi-day professional development workshops are offered annually with varying themes such as Defining Your Research Identity and Building Leadership Skills for Success in Scientific Organizations

  15. A voice that wraps around the body--communication problems in the advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R. J.; Chamberlain, R. M.; Khuri, F. R.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Significant problems in clinician-patient communication have been described in the oncology literatures. Advanced stage non-small lung cancer a devastating disease, can cause the communication between survivors, significant others, and clinicians to falter. To date, however, no studies have used qualitative methods to examine experiential aspects of living with non-small cell lung cancer. Nor have any studies evaluated the tools survivors might use to repair some of the damage caused by living with this disease. METHODS: Exploratory, two-part qualitative design. RESULTS: Survivors of non-small cell lung cancer live with multiple fears and losses. These include a diminished sense of self, the loss of health, fears of pain in a future tainted by the threat of death, and increased feelings of alienation due to the loss of previous sources of meaning in life. These experiences significantly affect cancer survivors abilities to communicate with clinicians and significant others. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of non-small cell lung cancer often have difficulty sharing their experiences with others not suffering a similar affliction. Through their narratives with other survivors, however, patients are better able to initiate a biopsychosocial mechanism which enables them to create a cognitive map. This cognitive map helps survivors share their experiences with others, thereby repairing some of the damage caused by this disease, including the harm done to their communication with other people. PMID:11922184

  16. Latest developments in advanced network management and cross-sharing of next-generation flux stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Johnson, Dave; Velgersdyk, Michael; Begashaw, Israel; Allyn, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of the data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. However, operating budgets for flux research items, such as labor, travel, and hardware, are becoming more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process, including sharing data among collaborative groups. On one hand, such tools can maximize time dedicated to publications answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, quality control and overall station management. On the other hand, cross-sharing the stations with external collaborators may help leverage available funding, and promote data analyses and publications. A new low-cost, advanced system, FluxSuite, utilizes a combination of hardware, software and web-services to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: (i) The system can be easily incorporated into a new flux station, or as un upgrade to many presently operating flux stations, via weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs (ii) Each next-generation station will measure all parameters needed for flux computations in a digital and PTP time-synchronized mode, accepting digital signals from a number of anemometers and data loggers (iii) The field microcomputer will calculate final fully-processed flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. (iv) Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data will

  17. Integrated Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinovitz, Stewart

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for integrated data and voice networks implemented at the University of Michigan is described. These networks often use multi-technologies, multi-vendors, and multi-transmission media that will be fused into a single integrated network. Transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optics, and microwave. (Author/MLW)

  18. Neural circuits underlying mother’s voice perception predict social communication abilities in children

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Daniel A.; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M.; Baker, Amanda E.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child’s life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother’s voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother’s voice or whether this brain activity is related to children’s social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (<1 s) nonsense words produced by their biological mother and two female control voices and explored relationships between speech-evoked neural activity and social function. Compared to female control voices, mother’s voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother’s voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired. PMID:27185915

  19. Neural circuits underlying mother's voice perception predict social communication abilities in children.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-31

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (<1 s) nonsense words produced by their biological mother and two female control voices and explored relationships between speech-evoked neural activity and social function. Compared to female control voices, mother's voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired.

  20. Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Network Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xing; Chan, S.-H. Gary

    With the rapid growth of the Internet, peer-to-peer P2P networks have been widely studied and deployed. According to CacheLogic Research, P2P traffic has dominated the Internet traffic in 2006, by accounting for over 72% Internet traffic. In this chapter, we focus on unstructured P2P networks, one key type of P2P networks. We first present several unstructured P2P networks for the file sharing application, and then investigate some advanced issues in the network design. We also study two other important applications, i.e., media streaming and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Finally, we discuss unstructured P2P networks over wireless networks.

  1. Voices Rising: A Bulletin about Women and Popular Education. Volumes 1-4. 1987-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices Rising: A Bulletin about Women and Popular Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the six issues of the serial "Voices Rising" issued during the four-year period 1987-1990. "Voices Rising" is the primary networking tool of the Women's Program of the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE). Articles in these issues include: "Tribute to a Courageous Woman--Nabila Breir"; "Centre for Women's…

  2. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  3. The prediction of the building precision in the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process using advanced networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. L.; Li, D. C.; Lu, B. H.; Zhang, A. F.; Zhu, G. X.; Pi, G.

    2010-05-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is an advanced manufacturing technology, but it is difficult to control the depositing height (DH) of the prototype because there are many technology parameters influencing the forming process. The effect of main parameters (laser power, scanning speed and powder feeding rate) on the DH of single track is firstly analyzed, and then it shows that there is the complex nonlinear intrinsic relationship between them. In order to predict the DH, the back propagation (BP) based network improved with Adaptive learning rate and Momentum coefficient (AM) algorithm, and the least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) network are both adopted. The mapping relationship between above parameters and the DH is constructed according to training samples collected by LENS experiments, and then their generalization ability, function-approximating ability and real-time are contrastively investigated. The results show that although the predicted result by the BP-AM approximates the experimental result, above performance index of the LS-SVM are better than those of the BP-AM. Finally, high-definition thin-walled parts of AISI316L are successfully fabricated. Hence, the LS-SVM network is more suitable for the prediction of the DH.

  4. Auditory adaptation in voice perception.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Casper, Christoph; Hauthal, Nadine; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Kawahara, Hideki; Kloth, Nadine; Robertson, David M C; Simpson, Adrian P; Zäske, Romi

    2008-05-06

    Perceptual aftereffects following adaptation to simple stimulus attributes (e.g., motion, color) have been studied for hundreds of years. A striking recent discovery was that adaptation also elicits contrastive aftereffects in visual perception of complex stimuli and faces [1-6]. Here, we show for the first time that adaptation to nonlinguistic information in voices elicits systematic auditory aftereffects. Prior adaptation to male voices causes a voice to be perceived as more female (and vice versa), and these auditory aftereffects were measurable even minutes after adaptation. By contrast, crossmodal adaptation effects were absent, both when male or female first names and when silently articulating male or female faces were used as adaptors. When sinusoidal tones (with frequencies matched to male and female voice fundamental frequencies) were used as adaptors, no aftereffects on voice perception were observed. This excludes explanations for the voice aftereffect in terms of both pitch adaptation and postperceptual adaptation to gender concepts and suggests that contrastive voice-coding mechanisms may routinely influence voice perception. The role of adaptation in calibrating properties of high-level voice representations indicates that adaptation is not confined to vision but is a ubiquitous mechanism in the perception of nonlinguistic social information from both faces and voices.

  5. You're a What? Voice Actor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  6. A STUDY OF INNER VOICES IN SCHIZOPHERNICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Twelve schizophrenics with inner voices were examined and were compared to 12 - schizophrenics with external voices. The inner voices group was largely heterogenous. The inner voice group had shorter interval between onset of illness and onset of hallucinations, higher intensity of emotions outside the hallucinatory episodes but concerning the voices and longer duration of individual episodes of hallucinations. PMID:21847312

  7. Using Hierarchical Time Series Clustering Algorithm and Wavelet Classifier for Biometric Voice Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Voice biometrics has a long history in biosecurity applications such as verification and identification based on characteristics of the human voice. The other application called voice classification which has its important role in grouping unlabelled voice samples, however, has not been widely studied in research. Lately voice classification is found useful in phone monitoring, classifying speakers' gender, ethnicity and emotion states, and so forth. In this paper, a collection of computational algorithms are proposed to support voice classification; the algorithms are a combination of hierarchical clustering, dynamic time wrap transform, discrete wavelet transform, and decision tree. The proposed algorithms are relatively more transparent and interpretable than the existing ones, though many techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, and Hidden Markov Model (which inherently function like a black box) have been applied for voice verification and voice identification. Two datasets, one that is generated synthetically and the other one empirically collected from past voice recognition experiment, are used to verify and demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed voice classification algorithm. PMID:22619492

  8. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network.

    PubMed

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne

    2016-09-17

    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research.

  9. Issues in forensic voice.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

    2014-03-01

    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area.

  10. Keyboard With Voice Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Voice synthesizer tells what key is about to be depressed. Verbal feedback useful for blind operators or where dim light prevents sighted operator from seeing keyboard. Also used where operator is busy observing other things while keying data into control system. Used as training aid for touch typing, and to train blind operators to use both standard and braille keyboards. Concept adapted to such equipment as typewriters, computers, calculators, telephones, cash registers, and on/off controls.

  11. Finding voices through writing.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, P

    1994-01-01

    Assisting students to find their writing "voices" is another way to emphasize writing as a professional tool for nursing. The author discusses a teaching strategy that required students to write using a variety of styles. Students wrote fables, poetry, and letters, and used other creative writing styles to illustrate their views and feelings on professional nursing issues. Creation of a class book empowered students to see versatility with writing styles can be a powerful communication tool to use with peers, clients, and society.

  12. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Why Is My Voice Changing? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Is My Voice ... deeper than a girl's, though. What Causes My Voice to Change? At puberty, guys' bodies begin producing ...

  13. An Advanced Orbiting Systems Approach to Quality of Service in Space-Based Intelligent Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riha, Andrew P.

    2005-01-01

    As humans and robotic technologies are deployed in future constellation systems, differing traffic services will arise, e.g., realtime and non-realtime. In order to provide a quality of service framework that would allow humans and robotic technologies to interoperate over a wide and dynamic range of interactions, a method of classifying data as realtime or non-realtime is needed. In our paper, we present an approach that leverages the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) data link protocol. Specifically, we redefine the AOS Transfer Frame Replay Flag in order to provide an automated store-and-forward approach on a per-service basis for use in the next-generation Interplanetary Network. In addition to addressing the problem of intermittent connectivity and associated services, we propose a follow-on methodology for prioritizing data through further modification of the AOS Transfer Frame.

  14. Perspectives on Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and Future Aerospace Workforce Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the advanced learning technologies is given in this presentation along with a brief description of their impact on future aerospace workforce development. The presentation is divided into five parts (see Figure 1). In the first part, a brief historical account of the evolution of learning technologies is given. The second part describes the current learning activities. The third part describes some of the future aerospace systems, as examples of high-tech engineering systems, and lists their enabling technologies. The fourth part focuses on future aerospace research, learning and design environments. The fifth part lists the objectives of the workshop and some of the sources of information on learning technologies and learning networks.

  15. Decreased resting-state connections within the visuospatial attention-related network in advanced aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Li, Chunlin; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Zhihan; Kurata, Tomoko; Ohno, Seiichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Abe, Koji; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-06-15

    Advanced aging is accompanied by a decline in visuospatial attention. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated dysfunction in specific brain areas related to visuospatial attention. However, it is still unclear how the functional connectivity between brain regions causes the decline of visuospatial attention. Here, we combined task and rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the age-dependent alterations of resting-state functional connectivity within the task-related network. Twenty-three young subjects and nineteen elderly subjects participated in this study, and a modified Posner paradigm was used to define the region of interest (ROI). Our results showed that a marked reduction in the number of connections occurred with age, but this effect was not uniform throughout the brain: while there was a significant loss of communication in the anterior portion of the brain and between the anterior and posterior cerebral cortices, communication in the posterior portion of the brain was preserved. Moreover, the older adults exhibited weakened resting-state functional connectivity between the supplementary motor area and left anterior insular cortex. These findings suggest that, the disrupted functional connectivity of the brain network for visuospatial attention that occurs during normal aging may underlie the decline in cognitive performance.

  16. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  17. Voices Carry: A Content Analysis of "Voices from the Middle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melissa B.; Blady, Shannon; Kumar, Tracey; Moorman, Honor; Prior, Lori; Willson, Angeli

    2011-01-01

    As educators who have been strongly influenced by this journal, the authors decided to do a content analysis of the "voices" from "Voices from the Middle," from its inception to today. They listened closely to who is talking, what the authors are (and are not) discussing, the educational contexts of these conversations, and how the dialogue has…

  18. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L

    2009-05-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex networked systems

  19. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease.

  20. HNET - A National Computerized Health Network

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Mark; Hamilton, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The HNET system demonstrated conceptually and technically a national text (and limited bit mapped graphics) computer network for use between innovative members of the health care industry. The HNET configuration of a leased high speed national packet switching network connecting any number of mainframe, mini, and micro computers was unique in it's relatively low capital costs and freedom from obsolescence. With multiple simultaneous conferences, databases, bulletin boards, calendars, and advanced electronic mail and surveys, it is marketable to innovative hospitals, clinics, physicians, health care associations and societies, nurses, multisite research projects libraries, etc.. Electronic publishing and education capabilities along with integrated voice and video transmission are identified as future enhancements.

  1. Advances in optical power budgets and bandwidth capacity of broadband networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysore, Sudhesh M.

    determined to be 40 channels. A twenty-channel DWDM system using more than 650 km of optical fiber is tested that provides twice the number of DWDM channels and ten times more bandwidth per subscriber as commercial systems. Detailed tests are performed on both the analog video signals and 256-QAM digital signals transported over the network Measurements of fiber nonlinear effects such as SRS, four-wave-mixing, and cross-phase-modulation reveal that our modeling of linear and nonlinear fiber effects in broadband networks is accurate. The technologies and architectures investigated here will prove to be the building blocks for advanced broadband networks that will provide high-speed, interactive broadband services to subscribers in the near future. Our research has furthered the goal of developing reliable broadband networks that are similar to passive optical networks and provide very large bandwidth to subscribers.

  2. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  3. Paralinguistic Qualifiers: Our Many Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1991-01-01

    A case is made for the increased study of paralinguistic voice qualifiers, which include variations in breathing, laryngeal, esophageal, pharyngeal, velopharyngeal, lingual, labial, mandibular, articulatory, articulatory tension, and objectual control. It is proposed that attention to these voice qualities has a variety of practical, literary,…

  4. Voice Quality of Psychological Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lidia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F[subscript 0], jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a…

  5. Voice handicap index in Swedish.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Dotevall, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a Swedish version of the voice handicap index questionnaire (Sw-VHI). A total of 57 adult, dysphonic patients and 15 healthy controls completed the Sw-VHI and rated the degree of vocal fatigue and hoarseness on visual analogue scales. A perceptual voice evaluation was also performed. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in 38 subjects without voice complaints. Sw-VHI distinguished between dysphonic subjects and controls (P<0.001). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.84) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) were good. Only moderate or weak correlations were found between Sw-VHI and the subjective and perceptual voice ratings. The data indicate that a difference above 13 points for the total Sw-VHI score and above 6 points for the Sw-VHI subscales is significant for an individual when comparing two different occasions. In conclusion, the Sw-VHI appears to be a robust instrument for assessment of the psycho-social impact of a voice disorder. However, Sw-VHI seems to, at least partly, capture different aspects of voice function to the subjective voice ratings and the perceptual voice evaluation.

  6. Taking Care of Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD 20892-3456 Toll-free voice: (800) 241-1044 Toll-free TTY: (800) 241-1055 Email: nidcdinfo@ ... questions in English or Spanish. Voice: (800) 241-1044 TTY: (800) 241-1055 nidcdinfo@nidcd.nih.gov ...

  7. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  8. Finding a Voice, Finding Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeath, John

    2006-01-01

    The term "pupil voice" has, in recent years, become part of a wider discourse but tends to refer to a limited conception of young people "having a say" within the bounds of school convention. This article is about what Henry Giroux terms "border crossings," in which voice develops through a physical and intellectual…

  9. Voice Verification Upgrade.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    to develop speaker verification techniques for use over degraded commun- ication channels -- specifically telephone lines. A test of BISS type speaker...verification technology was performed on a degraded channel and compensation techniques were then developed . The fifth program [103 (Total Voice SV...UPGAW. *mbit aL DuI~sel Jme T. SImmoon e~d David L. Cox AAWVLP FIR MIEW RMAS Utgl~rIMIW At" DT11C AU9 231f CD, _ ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER Air

  10. Groningen prosthesis for voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Annyas, A A; Nijdam, H F; Escajadillo, J R; Mahieu, H F; Leever, H

    1984-02-01

    Singer and Blom's endoscopic technique, using a single valved silicone prosthesis, constituted a dramatic advance in speech rehabilitation following total laryngectomy. Since 1980, we have developed a silicone biflanged prosthesis that overcomes some of the inconveniences of previous prostheses. Insertion via the mouth and the oesophagus, or as a primary procedure during total laryngectomy is easily done with the use of specially developed instruments. The success rate in 36 patients in which the voice button was inserted at the time of total laryngectomy was 86.2%.

  11. Voice quality of psychological origin.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lídia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F0, jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a ventricular band voice whereas in a controlled production he was able to use a more normal phonation process. A small corpus was recorded which included sustained vowels and short sentences in both registers. A normal speaker was also recorded in similar tasks. Annotation and extraction of parameters were made using Praat's voice report function. Application of the Hoarseness Diagram to sustained productions situates this case in the pseudo-glottic phonation region. Analysis of several different parameters related to F0, jitter, shimmer, and harmonicity revealed that the speaker with psychogenic voice was capable of controlling certain parameters (e.g. F0 maximum) but was unable to correct others such as shimmer.

  12. Dissociating the cortical basis of memory for voices, words and tones.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Alexander A

    2004-01-01

    Human speech carries both linguistic content and information about the speaker's identity and affect. While neuroimaging has been used extensively to study verbal memory, there has been little attention to the neural basis of memory for voices. Evidence from studies of aphasia and auditory agnosia suggests that voice memory may rely on anatomically distinct areas in the right temporal and parietal lobes regions, but there is little data on the broader neural systems involved in voice memory. The present study tested the hypothesis that the neural systems involved in voice memory are functionally distinct from the systems involved in word recognition and are primarily located in the right cerebral hemisphere. Subjects performed two-back tasks in which they were required to alternately remember the voices speaking (Voice condition), and the words they produced (Word condition). A tone memory condition was also included, as a non-speech comparison. The contrast between the Voice and Word conditions revealed greater Voice-related effects in left temporal, right frontal and right medial parietal areas, while the Word-related effects appeared in left frontal and bilateral parietal areas. These findings map out a partially right-lateralized fronto-parietal network associated with voice memory, which can be distinguished from predominantly left-hemisphere regions associated with verbal working memory. These results provide further evidence that distinct neural systems are associated with the carrier waves of speech and word identity.

  13. A Collaborative Education Network for Advancing Climate Literacy using Data Visualization Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, C.; Russell, E. L.; Murray, M.; Bendel, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    among members, we have, collectively, been able to advance all of our efforts. The member institutions, through regular face-to-face workshops and an online community, share practices in creation and cataloging of datasets, new methods for delivering content via SOS, and updates on the SOS system and software. One hallmark of the SOS Users Collaborative Network is that it exemplifies an ideal partnership between federal science agencies and informal science education institutions. The science agencies (including NOAA, NASA, and the Department of Energy) provide continuously updated global datasets, scientific expertise, funding, and support. In turn, museums act as trusted public providers of scientific information, provide audience-appropriate presentations, localized relevance to global phenomena and a forum for discussing the complex science and repercussions of global change. We will discuss the characteristics of this Network that maximize collaboration and what we're learning as a community to improve climate literacy.

  14. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  15. 2009 Biospecimen research network symposium: advancing cancer research through biospecimen science.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen M; Compton, Carolyn C; Lim, Mark D; Vaught, Jimmie; Christiansen, Katerina N; Alper, Joe

    2009-09-01

    This report details the proceedings of the 2009 Biospecimen Research Network (BRN) Symposium that took place on March 16 to 18, 2009, the second in a series of annual symposia sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research. The BRN Symposium is a public forum addressing the relevance of biospecimen quality to progress in cancer research and the systematic investigation needed to understand how different methods of collection, processing, and storage of human biospecimens affect subsequent molecular research results. More than 300 participants from industry, academia, and government attended the symposium, which featured both formal presentations and a day of workshops aimed at addressing several key issues in biospecimen science. An additional 100 individuals participated via a live webcast (archived at http://brnsymposium.com). The BRN Symposium is part of a larger program designed as a networked, multidisciplinary research approach to increase the knowledge base for biospecimen science. Biospecimens are generally understood to represent an accurate representation of a patient's disease biology, but can instead reflect a combination of disease biology and the biospecimen's response to a wide range of biological stresses. The molecular signatures of disease can thus be confounded by the signatures of biospecimen biological stress, with the potential to affect clinical and research outcomes through incorrect diagnosis of disease, improper use of a given therapy, and irreproducible research results that can lead to misinterpretation of artifacts as biomarkers. Biospecimen research represents the kind of bricks-and-mortar research that provides a solid scientific foundation for future advances that will directly help patients.

  16. Crossing Cultures with Multi-Voiced Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Whisenant, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the benefits of using multi-voiced journals as a teaching strategy in reading instruction. Multi-voiced journals, an adaptation of dual-voiced journals, encourage responses to reading in varied, cultured voices of characters. It is similar to reading journals in that they prod students to connect to the lives…

  17. Evaluation drought response of tropical dry forests using advanced wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of the effects of persistent drought in tropical dry forests has not been fully studied until today. In this presentation we will discuss one of the first results on the response of tropical dry forests to drought using advanced wireless sensor networks and canopy phenology towers, that provide hyper-temporal information on micro-meteorological variables such Temperature, relative humidity, and Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD). In addition, we will evaluate drought response to as function of the Fraction of the Photosynthetic Active Radiation (FPAR), and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our work is conducted at the Santa Rosa Environmental Monitoring Super Site (NR-EMSS) located at the Guancaste Province, Costa Rica, Central America. Our results indicate significant changes in terms of FPAR, VPD manifested via strong changes on NDVI. Our results pose questions about the resilience of these understudied tropical ecosystems and their long-term survival under severe and persistent drought conditions. This results provide a reference framework for the need of more integrated research on the Central American Dry Forest corridor where just between Costa Rica and Nicaragua over 100,000 families are facing strong drought conditions.

  18. Advancements of data anomaly detection research in wireless sensor networks: a survey and open issues.

    PubMed

    Rassam, Murad A; Zainal, Anazida; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini

    2013-08-07

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept "Internet of Things" has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed.

  19. Advancements of Data Anomaly Detection Research in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    PubMed Central

    Rassam, Murad A.; Zainal, Anazida; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept “Internet of Things” has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed. PMID:23966182

  20. Voice stress analysis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Darren M.; Ratley, Roy J.

    2001-02-01

    Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) systems are marketed as computer-based systems capable of measuring stress in a person's voice as an indicator of deception. They are advertised as being less expensive, easier to use, less invasive in use, and less constrained in their operation then polygraph technology. The National Institute of Justice have asked the Air Force Research Laboratory for assistance in evaluating voice stress analysis technology. Law enforcement officials have also been asking questions about this technology. If VSA technology proves to be effective, its value for military and law enforcement application is tremendous.

  1. Voice verification upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. L.; Sinnamon, J. T.; Cox, D. L.

    1982-06-01

    This contractor has two major objectives. The first was to build, test, and deliver to the government an entry control system using speaker verification (voice authentication) as the mechanism for verifying the user's claimed identity. This system included a physical mantrap, with an integral weight scale to prevent more than one user from gaining access with one verification (tailgating). The speaker verification part of the entry control system contained all the updates and embellishments to the algorithm that was developed earlier for the BISS (Base and Installation Security System) system under contract with the Electronic Systems Division of the USAF. These updates were tested prior to and during the contract on an operational system used at Texas Instruments in Dallas, Texas, for controlling entry to the Corporate Information Center (CIC).

  2. Voice stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Malcolm; Shipp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the validity of eight candidate voice measures (fundamental frequency, amplitude, speech rate, frequency jitter, amplitude shimmer, Psychological Stress Evaluator scores, energy distribution, and the derived measure of the above measures) for determining psychological stress, 17 males age 21 to 35 were subjected to a tracking task on a microcomputer CRT while parameters of vocal production as well as heart rate were measured. Findings confirm those of earlier studies that increases in fundamental frequency, amplitude, and speech rate are found in speakers involved in extreme levels of stress. In addition, it was found that the same changes appear to occur in a regular fashion within a more subtle level of stress that may be characteristic, for example, of routine flying situations. None of the individual speech measures performed as robustly as did heart rate.

  3. Shaping the sound of voice

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The proper development of the vocal cords requires embryos to contain a certain number of progenitor cells, and mutations that lead to an overflow of cells can cause malformations of the voice box. PMID:28318485

  4. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Burkhard; Dommerich, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost.

  5. Voice Simulation in Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Britney B; Lee, Heeyoung; Kane, Irene; Mitchell, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve prelicensure nursing students' attitudes toward and self-efficacy related to delivering nursing care to patients with auditory hallucinations. Based on the Hearing Voices That Are Distressing curriculum, 87 participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks while wearing headphones delivering distressing voices. Comparing presimulation and postsimulation results, this study suggests that the simulation significantly improved attitudes toward patients with auditory hallucinations; however, self-efficacy related to caring for these patients remained largely unchanged.

  6. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kramp, Burkhard; Dommerich, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost. PMID:22073098

  7. Cognitive intervention for voice hearers.

    PubMed

    England, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy is an emerging treatment being used to attenuate negative thoughts and emotions tied to the formation, expression, and maintenance of verbal auditory hallucinations. This paper describes the theoretical underpinnings for the intervention and a clinical application of a prototype cognitive nursing intervention for treating faulty thinking and beliefs linked with problematic voice hearing experiences. The paper ends with a review of current evidence and implications concerning the efficacy of cognitive intervention approaches with voice hearers.

  8. Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

    The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

  9. Who gets credit for input? Demographic and structural status cues in voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Howell, Taeya M; Harrison, David A; Burris, Ethan R; Detert, James R

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigate the employee features that, alongside overall voice expression, affect supervisors' voice recognition. Drawing primarily from status characteristics and network position theories, the authors propose and find in a study of 693 employees from 89 different credit union units that supervisors are more likely to credit those reporting the same amount of voice if the employees have higher ascribed or assigned (by the organization) status--cued by demographic variables such as majority ethnicity and full-time work hours. Further, supervisors are more likely to recognize voice from employees who have higher achieved status--cued by their centrality in informal social structures. The authors also find that even when certain groups of lower status employees speak up more, they cannot compensate for the negative effect of their demographic membership on voice recognition by their boss. The authors underscore how recognition of employee voice by supervisors matters for employees. It carries (mediates) the effects of voice expression and status onto performance evaluations 1 year later, which means that demographic differences in the assignment of credit for voice can serve as an implicit pathway for discrimination.

  10. Combining advanced networked technology and pedagogical methods to improve collaborative distance learning.

    PubMed

    Staccini, Pascal; Dufour, Jean-Charles; Raps, Hervé; Fieschi, Marius

    2005-01-01

    Making educational material be available on a network cannot be reduced to merely implementing hypermedia and interactive resources on a server. A pedagogical schema has to be defined to guide students for learning and to provide teachers with guidelines to prepare valuable and upgradeable resources. Components of a learning environment, as well as interactions between students and other roles such as author, tutor and manager, can be deduced from cognitive foundations of learning, such as the constructivist approach. Scripting the way a student will to navigate among information nodes and interact with tools to build his/her own knowledge can be a good way of deducing the features of the graphic interface related to the management of the objects. We defined a typology of pedagogical resources, their data model and their logic of use. We implemented a generic and web-based authoring and publishing platform (called J@LON for Join And Learn On the Net) within an object-oriented and open-source programming environment (called Zope) embedding a content management system (called Plone). Workflow features have been used to mark the progress of students and to trace the life cycle of resources shared by the teaching staff. The platform integrated advanced on line authoring features to create interactive exercises and support live courses diffusion. The platform engine has been generalized to the whole curriculum of medical studies in our faculty; it also supports an international master of risk management in health care and will be extent to all other continuous training diploma.

  11. An investigation of interference coordination in heterogeneous network for LTE-Advanced systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. K.; Ismail, A. F.; H, Aisha-Hassan A.; Abdullah, Khaizuran; Ramli, H. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The novel "femtocell" in Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) for LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) set-up will allow Malaysian wireless telecommunication operators (Maxis, Celcom, Digi, U-Mobile, P1, YTL and etc2.) to extend connectivity coverage where access would otherwise be limited or unavailable, particularly indoors of large building complexes. A femtocell is a small-sized cellular base station that encompasses all the functionality of a typical station. It therefore allows a simpler and self-contained deployment including private residences. For the Malaysian service providers, the main attractions of femtocell usage are the improvements to both coverage and capacity. The operators can provide a better service to end-users in turn reduce much of the agitations and complaints. There will be opportunity for new services at reduced cost. In addition, the operator not only benefits from the improved capacity and coverage but also can reduce both capital expenditure and operating expense i.e. alternative to brand new base station or macrocell installation. Interference is a key issue associated with femtocell development. There are a large number of issues associated with interference all of which need to be investigated, identified, quantified and solved. This is to ensure that the deployment of any femtocells will take place successfully. Among the most critical challenges in femtocell deployment is the interference between femtocell-to-macrocell and femtocell-to-femtocell in HetNets. In this paper, all proposed methods and algorithms will be investigated in the OFDMA femtocell system considering HetNet scenarios for LTE-A.

  12. Advancing the State of the Art in Applying Network Science to C2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    research into effective mixed-sector ER network governance. In the third contribution, Networked Operations: Taking into Account the Principles of...relationship between the number of nodes and network effectiveness , arguing that near-decomposability is an important organizational design parameter. He makes...as elaborating on the effect of structural holes in organizational networks . The second group consists of the three contributions on modelling

  13. General expressions for downlink signal to interference and noise ratio in homogeneous and heterogeneous LTE-Advanced networks.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nora A; Mourad, Hebat-Allah M; ElSayed, Hany M; El-Soudani, Magdy; Amer, Hassanein H; Daoud, Ramez M

    2016-11-01

    The interference is the most important problem in LTE or LTE-Advanced networks. In this paper, the interference was investigated in terms of the downlink signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR). In order to compare the different frequency reuse methods that were developed to enhance the SINR, it would be helpful to have a generalized expression to study the performance of the different methods. Therefore, this paper introduces general expressions for the SINR in homogeneous and in heterogeneous networks. In homogeneous networks, the expression was applied for the most common types of frequency reuse techniques: soft frequency reuse (SFR) and fractional frequency reuse (FFR). The expression was examined by comparing it with previously developed ones in the literature and the comparison showed that the expression is valid for any type of frequency reuse scheme and any network topology. Furthermore, the expression was extended to include the heterogeneous network; the expression includes the problem of co-tier and cross-tier interference in heterogeneous networks (HetNet) and it was examined by the same method of the homogeneous one.

  14. Experiences of hearing voices: analysis of a novel phenomenological survey

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Alderson-Day, Ben; Callard, Felicity; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Auditory hallucinations—or voices—are a common feature of many psychiatric disorders and are also experienced by individuals with no psychiatric history. Understanding of the variation in subjective experiences of hallucination is central to psychiatry, yet systematic empirical research on the phenomenology of auditory hallucinations remains scarce. We aimed to record a detailed and diverse collection of experiences, in the words of the people who hear voices themselves. Methods We made a 13 item questionnaire available online for 3 months. To elicit phenomenologically rich data, we designed a combination of open-ended and closed-ended questions, which drew on service-user perspectives and approaches from phenomenological psychiatry, psychology, and medical humanities. We invited people aged 16–84 years with experience of voice-hearing to take part via an advertisement circulated through clinical networks, hearing voices groups, and other mental health forums. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods, and used inductive thematic analysis to code the data and χ2 tests to test additional associations of selected codes. Findings Between Sept 9 and Nov 29, 2013, 153 participants completed the study. Most participants described hearing multiple voices (124 [81%] of 153 individuals) with characterful qualities (106 [69%] individuals). Less than half of the participants reported hearing literally auditory voices—70 (46%) individuals reported either thought-like or mixed experiences. 101 (66%) participants reported bodily sensations while they heard voices, and these sensations were significantly associated with experiences of abusive or violent voices (p=0·024). Although fear, anxiety, depression, and stress were often associated with voices, 48 (31%) participants reported positive emotions and 49 (32%) reported neutral emotions. Our statistical analysis showed that mixed voices were more likely to have changed over time (p=0·030), be

  15. Advancing Underwater Acoustic Communication for Autonomous Distributed Networks via Sparse Channel Sensing, Coding, and Navigation Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    channel interference mitigation for underwater acoustic MIMO-OFDM. 3) Turbo equalization for OFDM modulated physical layer network coding. 4) Blind CFO...Localization and tracking of underwater physical systems. 7) NAMS: A networked acoustic modem system for underwater applications . 8) OFDM receiver design in...3) Turbo Equalization for OFDM Modulated Physical Layer Network Coding. We have investigated a practical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

  16. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by

  17. Voice recognition and altered connectivity in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiaodong; Bai, Feng; Xie, Chunming; Shi, Jiabo; Yao, Zhijian; Hao, Guifeng; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Zhijun

    2013-07-01

    Auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) is a pathological hallmark of schizophrenia; however, their neural basis is unclear. Voice identity is an important phenomenological feature of AVHs. Certain voice identity recognition deficits are specific to schizophrenic patients with AVHs. We tested our hypothesis that among schizophrenia patients with hallucination, dysfunctional voice identity recognition is associated with poor functional integration in the neural networks involved in the evaluation of voice identity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a voice recognition task, we examined the modulation of neural network connectivity in 26 schizophrenic patients with or without AVHs, and 13 healthy controls. Our results showed that the schizophrenic patients with AVHs had altered frontotemporal connectivity compared to the schizophrenic patients without AVHs and healthy controls. The latter two groups did not show any differences in functional connectivity. In addition, the strength of frontotemporal connectivity was correlated with the accuracy of voice recognition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that impaired functional integration may contribute to the faulty appraisal of voice identity in schizophrenic patients with AVHs.

  18. Unattended network operations technology assessment study. Technical support for defining advanced satellite systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Holdridge, Mark; Odubiyi, Jide; Jaworski, Allan; Morgan, Herbert K.

    1991-01-01

    The results are summarized of an unattended network operations technology assessment study for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The scope of the work included: (1) identified possible enhancements due to the proposed Mars communications network; (2) identified network operations on Mars; (3) performed a technology assessment of possible supporting technologies based on current and future approaches to network operations; and (4) developed a plan for the testing and development of these technologies. The most important results obtained are as follows: (1) addition of a third Mars Relay Satellite (MRS) and MRS cross link capabilities will enhance the network's fault tolerance capabilities through improved connectivity; (2) network functions can be divided into the six basic ISO network functional groups; (3) distributed artificial intelligence technologies will augment more traditional network management technologies to form the technological infrastructure of a virtually unattended network; and (4) a great effort is required to bring the current network technology levels for manned space communications up to the level needed for an automated fault tolerance Mars communications network.

  19. Army Communicator. Voice of the Signal Regiment. Volume 31 Number 4, Fall 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    smaller communications pipe).” JNN-N is a converged tactical communications network providing voice, data, and video capability to connect the...Protocol voice, video and data communications capabilities via satellite. With JNN-N, Soldiers who could only communicate one-on-one in the past, can now...satellite image of the ground. Force XXI Battle Com- mand, Brigade and Below – Blue Force Tracking uses satellite technol- ogy, while the balance of

  20. Processing of Voiced and Unvoiced Acoustic Stimuli in Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Cyrill Guy Martin; Langer, Nicolas; Oechslin, Mathias S.; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that musical training induces changes in the processing of supra-segmental aspects of speech, such as pitch and prosody. The aim of the present study was to determine whether musical expertise also leads to an altered neurophysiological processing of sub-segmental information available in the speech signal, in particular the voice-onset-time. Using high-density EEG-recordings we analyzed the neurophysiological responses to voiced and unvoiced consonant-vowel-syllables and noise-analogs in 26 German speaking adult musicians and non-musicians. From the EEG the N1 amplitude of the event-related potential and two microstates from the topographical EEG analysis (one around the N1 amplitude and one immediately preceding the N1 microstate) were calculated to the different stimuli. Similar to earlier studies the N1 amplitude was different to voiced and unvoiced stimuli in non-musicians with larger amplitudes to voiced stimuli. The more refined microstate analysis revealed that the microstate within the N1 time window was shorter to unvoiced stimuli in non-musicians. For musicians there was no difference for the N1 amplitudes and the corresponding microstates between voiced and unvoiced stimuli. In addition, there was a longer very early microstate preceding the microstate at the N1 time window to non-speech stimuli only in musicians. Taken together, our findings suggest that musicians process unvoiced stimuli (irrespective whether these stimuli are speech or non-speech stimuli) differently than controls. We propose that musicians utilize the same network to analyze unvoiced stimuli as for the analysis of voiced stimuli. As a further explanation it is also possible that musicians devote more neurophysiological resources into the analysis of unvoiced segments. PMID:21922011

  1. Mean-based neural coding of voices.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2013-10-01

    The social significance of recognizing the person who talks to us is obvious, but the neural mechanisms that mediate talker identification are unclear. Regions along the bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) of the human brain are selective for voices, and they are sensitive to rapid voice changes. Although it has been proposed that voice recognition is supported by prototype-centered voice representations, the involvement of these category-selective cortical regions in the neural coding of such "mean voices" has not previously been demonstrated. Using fMRI in combination with a voice identity learning paradigm, we show that voice-selective regions are involved in the mean-based coding of voice identities. Voice typicality is encoded on a supra-individual level in the right STS along a stimulus-dependent, identity-independent (i.e., voice-acoustic) dimension, and on an intra-individual level in the right IFC along a stimulus-independent, identity-dependent (i.e., voice identity) dimension. Voice recognition therefore entails at least two anatomically separable stages, each characterized by neural mechanisms that reference the central tendencies of voice categories.

  2. Voice change in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Millqvist, Eva; Bende, Mats; Brynnel, Moa; Johansson, Inger; Kappel, Sofi; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine

    2008-07-01

    Voice problems are seldom reported in pollen allergy, although the allergic reaction involves the entire airways. The objective of this study was to investigate voice dysfunction during the pollen season in patients with allergic rhinitis. Thirty patients with verified birch pollen allergy and 30 controls were investigated twice, during the pollen season and outside the pollen season. Both times they scored respiratory and voice symptoms, the latter with the validated questionnaire Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and performed standardized voice recordings. These recordings were analyzed in a controlled manner by a professional voice therapist. During the allergy season, patients reported more respiratory and voice symptoms compared with controls. Those with blinded scored voice dysfunction scored their voice quality during springtime as 31 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 20-42 mm), compared with 13 mm (95% CI 6-21 mm for participants without voice dysfunction (P<0.01). Furthermore, the group with experienced voice dysfunction scored significantly higher on the VHI in the functional and physical domains and in the total VHI score. Although voice problems during the pollen season are rarely discussed, in allergic rhinitis the larynx may also be involved. These findings support that some patients experience voice change, an experience which can be objectively confirmed.

  3. Automatic source speaker selection for voice conversion.

    PubMed

    Turk, Oytun; Arslan, Levent M

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of source speaker selection for a weighted codebook mapping based voice conversion algorithm. First, the dependency on source speakers is evaluated in a subjective listening test using 180 different source-target pairs from a database of 20 speakers. Subjective scores for similarity to target speaker's voice and quality are obtained. Statistical analysis of scores confirms the dependence of performance on source speakers for both male-to-male and female-to-female transformations. A source speaker selection algorithm is devised given a target speaker and a set of source speaker candidates. For this purpose, an artificial neural network (ANN) is trained that learns the regression between a set of acoustical distance measures and the subjective scores. The estimated scores are used in source speaker ranking. The average cross-correlation coefficient between rankings obtained from median subjective scores and rankings estimated by the algorithm is 0.84 for similarity and 0.78 for quality in male-to-male transformations. The results for female-to-female transformations were less reliable with a cross-correlation value of 0.58 for both similarity and quality.

  4. Advanced WDM CATV technologies and development issues for improved network performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Eric

    2003-08-01

    CATV (Community Antenna Television) networks were developed several decades ago to deliver a few channels of analog television to a fraction of the homes in a small area. Over the intervening years, these networks have evolved into true communications networks supporting digital video and the delivery of different targeted services to homes and business covering a much larger area. Supporting targeted services and spanning the longer distances has required the application of several technologies and the development of new network architectures. These new services require the use of technologies such as WDM. First, the unique characteristics of CATV networks are discussed. Examples of WDM-based network architectures that can support targeted data services via CATV cable modems and Video-on-Demand (VOD) are also presented.

  5. The Voice as Computer Interface: A Look at Tomorrow's Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Holley R.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of voice as the communications device for computer-human interaction focuses on voice recognition systems for use within a library environment. Voice technologies are described, including voice response and voice recognition; examples of voice systems in use in libraries are examined; and further possibilities, including use with…

  6. Networks as a type of social entrepreneurship to advance population health.

    PubMed

    Wei-Skillern, Jane

    2010-11-01

    A detailed case study from the field of social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the network approach, which does not require more resources but rather makes better use of existing resources. Leaders in public health can use networks to overcome some of the barriers that inhibit the widespread adoption of a population health approach to community health. Public health leaders who embrace social entrepreneurship may be better able to accomplish their missions by building their networks rather than just their organizations.

  7. Advanced biomaterial strategies to transplant preformed micro-tissue engineered neural networks into the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. P.; Struzyna, L. A.; Murphy, P. L.; Adewole, D. O.; Kuo, E.; Cullen, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Connectome disruption is a hallmark of many neurological diseases and trauma with no current strategies to restore lost long-distance axonal pathways in the brain. We are creating transplantable micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), which are preformed constructs consisting of embedded neurons and long axonal tracts to integrate with the nervous system to physically reconstitute lost axonal pathways. Approach. We advanced micro-tissue engineering techniques to generate micro-TENNs consisting of discrete populations of mature primary cerebral cortical neurons spanned by long axonal fascicles encased in miniature hydrogel micro-columns. Further, we improved the biomaterial encasement scheme by adding a thin layer of low viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to enable needle-less insertion and rapid softening for mechanical similarity with brain tissue. Main results. The engineered architecture of cortical micro-TENNs facilitated robust neuronal viability and axonal cytoarchitecture to at least 22 days in vitro. Micro-TENNs displayed discrete neuronal populations spanned by long axonal fasciculation throughout the core, thus mimicking the general systems-level anatomy of gray matter—white matter in the brain. Additionally, micro-columns with thin CMC-coating upon mild dehydration were able to withstand a force of 893 ± 457 mN before buckling, whereas a solid agarose cylinder of similar dimensions was predicted to withstand less than 150 μN of force. This thin CMC coating increased the stiffness by three orders of magnitude, enabling needle-less insertion into brain while significantly reducing the footprint of previous needle-based delivery methods to minimize insertion trauma. Significance. Our novel micro-TENNs are the first strategy designed for minimally invasive implantation to facilitate nervous system repair by simultaneously providing neuronal replacement and physical reconstruction of long-distance axon pathways in the brain

  8. Advanced Test Reactor -- Testing Capabilities and Plans AND Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility -- Partnerships and Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2008-07-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plans for the NSUF.

  9. Children's Voice or Children's Voices? How Educational Research Can Be at the Heart of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Julian

    2015-01-01

    There are problems with considering children and young people in schools as quite separate individuals, and with considering them as members of a single collectivity. The tension is represented in the use of "voice" and "voices" in educational debates. Voices in dialogue, in contrast to "children's voice", are…

  10. Listening to the Voices of Students with Disabilities: Can Such Voices Inform Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Linda J.; Rickards, Field W.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates issues to do with student voice. Much attention is given within the literature to including the voice of students without disabilities in educational debate. Indeed, clear connections have been made between the use of student voice and raising student achievement (Mitra, 2004). Given the validation of such voices, it is…

  11. Verbal Instruction Model (VIM) in voice therapy.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine

    2016-01-01

    The stumbling-block in voice therapy is the patient's generalization of the new voice behavior in everyday life. Traditionally voice therapy is based on demonstration, i.e. during the therapy session the speech therapist uses her own voice and body to demonstrate for the patient how to produce voice in different training tasks. During the last decade a new voice therapy strategy, the Verbal Instruction Model (VIM), has been developed by the author. In VIM the speech therapist uses verbal instructions instead of demonstration when conveying the training tasks to the patient. Our clinical experience has shown that VIM seems to help getting over the stumbling-block of generalization. However, evidence for VIM voice therapy outcome remains to be scientifically studied and confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to describe VIM voice therapy and to discuss therapy strategies in the light of motor learning principles.

  12. Faculty Peer Networks: Role and Relevance in Advancing Agency and Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Organisational efforts to alter gender asymmetries are relatively rare, yet they are taking place in a number of universities. In the USA, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, ADVANCE programmes implement a number of interventions to improve the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women faculty. This study focused on one common…

  13. [Care of voice among transgender people].

    PubMed

    Sellman, Jaana; Rihkanen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    In some cases transgender people spontaneously find vocal expression that is acceptable. The testosterone medication usually lowers the female voice (F to M) enough. Feminization of the male voice (M to F) needs more often care. Speech and voice therapy is usually the primary treatment. In some cases pitch-elevating surgery is needed. This will raise the pitch or at least eliminate spontaneous male voicing (cough, laughter). If cosmetically unacceptable, a prominent Adam's apple will be removed.

  14. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    PubMed

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  15. I like my voice better: self-enhancement bias in perceptions of voice attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that the human voice can communicate a wealth of nonsemantic information; preferences for voices can predict health, fertility, and genetic quality of the speaker, and people often use voice attractiveness, in particular, to make these assessments of others. But it is not known what we think of the attractiveness of our own voices as others hear them. In this study eighty men and women rated the attractiveness of an array of voice recordings of different individuals and were not told that their own recorded voices were included in the presentation. Results showed that participants rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than others had rated their voices, and participants also rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than they had rated the voices of others. These findings suggest that people may engage in vocal implicit egotism, a form of self-enhancement.

  16. LambdaStation: Exploiting Advance Networks In Data Intensive High Energy Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-09-11

    Lambda Station software implements selective, dynamic, secure path control between local storage & analysis facilities, and high bandwidth, wide-area networks (WANs). It is intended to facilitate use of desirable, alternate wide area network paths which may only be intermittently available, or subject to policies that restrict usage to specified traffic. Lambda Station clients gain awareness of potential alternate network paths via Clarens-based web services, including path characteristics such as bandwidth and availability. If alternate path setup is requested and granted, Lambda Station will configure the local network infrastructure to properly forward designated data flows via the alternate path. A fully functional implementation of Lambda Station, capable of dynamic alternate WAN path setup and teardown, has been successfully developed. A limited Lambda Station-awareness capability within the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) product has been developed. Lambda Station has been successfully tested in a number of venues, including Super Computing 2008. LambdaStation software, developed by the Fermilab team, enables dynamic allocation of alternate network paths for high impact traffic and to forward designated flows across LAN. It negotiates with reservation and provisioning systems of WAN control planes, be it based on SONET channels, demand tunnels, or dynamic circuit networks. It creates End-To-End circuit between single hosts, computer farms or networks with predictable performance characteristics, preserving QoS if supported in LAN and WAN and tied security policy allowing only specific traffic to be forwarded or received through created path. Lambda Station project also explores Network Awareness capabilities.

  17. Making sense of the voices.

    PubMed

    Lakeman, R

    2001-10-01

    Hearing voices is a common occurrence, and an experience of many people in psychiatric/mental health care. Nurses are challenged to provide care, which is empowering and helps people who hear voices. Nursing practice undertaken in partnership with the voice hearer and informed by a working explanatory model of hallucinations offers greater helping potential. This paper uses Slade's (1976. The British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 15, 415-423.) explanatory model as a framework for exploring interventions which may assist people in exerting some control over the experience and which might be used alongside pharmacological interventions. Principles and practical ideas for how nurses might assist people to cope with and make sense of the experience are explored.

  18. Understanding the 'Anorexic Voice' in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Matthew; Waller, Glenn

    2016-07-20

    In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences. The participants were 49 women with full diagnoses of anorexia nervosa. Each completed validated measures of the power and nature of their voice experience and of their responses to the voice. Different voice characteristics were associated with current body mass index, duration of disorder and eating cognitions. Two subgroups emerged, with 'weaker' and 'stronger' voice experiences. Those with stronger voices were characterized by having more negative eating attitudes, more severe compensatory behaviours, a longer duration of illness and a greater likelihood of having the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. The findings indicate that the anorexic voice is an important element of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Addressing the anorexic voice might be helpful in enhancing outcomes of treatments for anorexia nervosa, but that conclusion might apply only to patients with more severe eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Voicing Consciousness: The Mind in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce-Kapler, Rebecca; Catlin, Susan; Sumara, Dennis; Kocher, Philomene

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the enduring power of voice as a concept in writing pedagogy. They argue that one can benefit from considering Elbow's assertion that both text and voice be considered as important aspects of written discourse. In particular, voice is a powerful metaphor for the material, social and historical nature of…

  20. Voice Data Entry in NISTARS Warehouses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-28

    2.1 Advantages of Voice Interface Technology .......................................... 2 2.2 NISTARS W ork Station Overview...20 4. Voice Interface Implementation Plan .................................................................... 21 4.1 Integration Options...offers little opportunity for voice interface integration. Normal processing requires no more than a <Task Complete> key entry to the computer. Even

  1. Finding Voice: Learning about Language and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Christensen discusses why teachers need to teach students "voice" in its social and political context, to show the intersection of voice and power, to encourage students to ask, "Whose voices get heard? Whose are marginalized?" As Christensen writes, "Once students begin to understand that Standard English is one language among many, we can help…

  2. Can We Hear the Student Voice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlick, Su

    2008-01-01

    The Student Voice project was launched in January 2007. The aim was to provide a method of encouraging students to become actively involved in decisions about their own learning and empowering them with appropriate ways to do so. Ninety-two pupils were divided up into specific focus groups (a voice). These "voices" include: (1) the…

  3. Voices Not Heard: Voice-Use Profiles of Elementary Music Teachers, the Effects of Voice Amplification on Vocal Load, and Perceptions of Issues Surrounding Voice Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers represent the largest group of occupational voice users and have voice-related problems at a rate of over twice that found in the general population. Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their…

  4. Using Your Inner Voice to Guide Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Doris J.; Walcott, Crystal Y.; Kastberg, Signe E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a tool teachers can use to analyze student work and provides activity suggestions to guide instruction based on their findings. By integrating the voice of the child and the voice of the discipline, teachers can use their inner voice to build a model of the child's understanding. (Contains 8 figures.)

  5. Accuracy and Speed of Response to Different Voice Types in a Cockpit Voice Warning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    synthesis technology have alleviated early concerns about the practicality and reliability of voice warning systems. Speech generation requires that...acknowledged the supposed "differentness" of the female voice as the reason that that voice was used in early voice warning systems. However, they suggested...VOICE WARNING SYSTEM Jay Freedman, Major. USAF William A. Rumbaugh, Captain, USAF LSSR 89-83 S" L U The contents of the document are technically accurate

  6. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-01-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  7. Developmental refinement of cortical systems for speech and voice processing.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Milene; Ley, Anke; Scharke, Wolfgang; Formisano, Elia

    2016-03-01

    Development typically leads to optimized and adaptive neural mechanisms for the processing of voice and speech. In this fMRI study we investigated how this adaptive processing reaches its mature efficiency by examining the effects of task, age and phonological skills on cortical responses to voice and speech in children (8-9years), adolescents (14-15years) and adults. Participants listened to vowels (/a/, /i/, /u/) spoken by different speakers (boy, girl, man) and performed delayed-match-to-sample tasks on vowel and speaker identity. Across age groups, similar behavioral accuracy and comparable sound evoked auditory cortical fMRI responses were observed. Analysis of task-related modulations indicated a developmental enhancement of responses in the (right) superior temporal cortex during the processing of speaker information. This effect was most evident through an analysis based on individually determined voice sensitive regions. Analysis of age effects indicated that the recruitment of regions in the temporal-parietal cortex and posterior cingulate/cingulate gyrus decreased with development. Beyond age-related changes, the strength of speech-evoked activity in left posterior and right middle superior temporal regions significantly scaled with individual differences in phonological skills. Together, these findings suggest a prolonged development of the cortical functional network for speech and voice processing. This development includes a progressive refinement of the neural mechanisms for the selection and analysis of auditory information relevant to the ongoing behavioral task.

  8. The advancement of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry for structural proteomics: from single proteins to protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Sinz, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    During the last 15 years, chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry (MS) and computational modeling has advanced from investigating 3D-structures of isolated proteins to deciphering protein interaction networks. In this article, the author discusses the advent, the development and the current status of the chemical cross-linking/MS strategy in the context of recent technological developments. A direct way to probe in vivo protein-protein interactions is by site-specific incorporation of genetically encoded photo-reactive amino acids or by non-directed incorporation of photo-reactive amino acids. As the chemical cross-linking/MS approach allows the capture of transient and weak interactions, it has the potential to become a routine technique for unraveling protein interaction networks in their natural cellular environment.

  9. National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Point-of-Care Technology Research Network: Advancing Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ford Carleton, Penny; Parrish, John A.; Collins, John M.; Crocker, J. Benjamin; Dixon, Ronald F.; Edgman-Levitan, Susan; Lewandrowski, Kent B.; Stahl, James E.; Klapperich, Catherine; Cabodi, Mario; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Rompalo, Anne M.; Manabe, Yukari; Wang, Tza-Huei; Rothman, Richard; Geddes, Chris D.; Widdice, Lea; Jackman, Joany; Mathura, Rishi A.; Lash, Tiffani Bailey

    2016-01-01

    To advance the development of point-of-care technology (POCT), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering established the POCT Research Network (POCTRN), comprised of Centers that emphasize multidisciplinary partnerships and close facilitation to move technologies from an early stage of development into clinical testing and patient use. This paper describes the POCTRN and the three currently funded Centers as examples of academic-based organizations that support collaborations across disciplines, institutions, and geographic regions to successfully drive innovative solutions from concept to patient care. PMID:27730014

  10. A flexible state-space approach for the modeling of metabolic networks II: advanced interrogation of hybridoma metabolism.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Adam C; Sharfstein, Susan T; Martin, Lealon L

    2011-03-01

    Having previously introduced the mathematical framework of topological metabolic analysis (TMA) - a novel optimization-based technique for modeling metabolic networks of arbitrary size and complexity - we demonstrate how TMA facilitates unique methods of metabolic interrogation. With the aid of several hybridoma metabolic investigations as case-studies (Bonarius et al., 1995, 1996, 2001), we first establish that the TMA framework identifies biologically important aspects of the metabolic network under investigation. We also show that the use of a structured weighting approach within our objective provides a substantial modeling benefit over an unstructured, uniform, weighting approach. We then illustrate the strength of TAM as an advanced interrogation technique, first by using TMA to prove the existence of (and to quantitatively describe) multiple topologically distinct configurations of a metabolic network that each optimally model a given set of experimental observations. We further show that such alternate topologies are indistinguishable using existing stoichiometric modeling techniques, and we explain the biological significance of the topological variables appearing within our model. By leveraging the manner in which TMA implements metabolite inputs and outputs, we also show that metabolites whose possible metabolic fates are inadequately described by a given network reconstruction can be quickly identified. Lastly, we show how the use of the TMA aggregate objective function (AOF) permits the identification of modeling solutions that can simultaneously consider experimental observations, underlying biological motivations, or even purely engineering- or design-based goals.

  11. A neural basis for the perception of voices in external auditory space.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Michael D; Griffiths, Timothy D; Farrow, Tom F D; Zheng, Ying; Wilkinson, Iain D; Hegde, Nakul; Woods, William; Spence, Sean A; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2003-01-01

    We used functional imaging of normal subjects to identify the neural substrate for the perception of voices in external auditory space. This fundamental process can be abnormal in psychosis, when voices that are not true external auditory objects (auditory verbal hallucinations) may appear to originate in external space. The perception of voices as objects in external space depends on filtering by the outer ear. Psychoses that distort this process involve the cerebral cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was carried out on 12 normal subjects using an inside-the-scanner simulation of 'inside head' and 'outside head' voices in the form of typical auditory verbal hallucinations. Comparison between the brain activity associated with the two conditions allowed us to test the hypothesis that the perception of voices in external space ('outside head') is subserved by a temperoparietal network comprising association auditory cortex posterior to Heschl's gyrus [planum temporale (PT)] and inferior parietal lobule. Group analyses of response to 'outside head' versus 'inside head' voices showed significant activation solely in the left PT. This was demonstrated in three experiments in which the predominant lateralization of the stimulus was to the right, to the left or balanced. These findings suggest a critical involvement of the left PT in the perception of voices in external space that is not dependent on precise spatial location. Based on this, we suggest a model for the false perception of externally located auditory verbal hallucinations.

  12. Effectiveness of voice therapy in reflux-related voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vashani, K; Murugesh, M; Hattiangadi, G; Gore, G; Keer, V; Ramesh, V S; Sandur, V; Bhatia, S J

    2010-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with laryngopharyngeal reflux plays a significant role in voice disorders. A significant proportion of patients attending ear, nose, and throat clinics with voice disorders may have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There is no controlled study of the effect of voice therapy on GERD. We assessed the effect of voice therapy in patients with dysphonia and GERD. Thirty-two patients with dysphonia and GERD underwent indirect laryngoscopy and voice analysis. Esophageal and laryngeal symptoms were assessed using the reflux symptom index (RSI). At endoscopy, esophagitis was graded according to Los Angeles classification. Patients were randomized to receive either voice therapy and omeprazole (20 mg bid) (n=16, mean [SD] age 36.1 [9.6] y; 5 men; Gp A) or omeprazole alone (n=16, age 31.8 [11.7] y; 9 men; Gp B). During voice analysis, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and normalized noise energy (NNE) were assessed using the Dr. Speech software (version 4 1998; Tigers DRS, Inc). Hoarseness and breathiness of voice were assessed using a perceptual rating scale of 0-3. Parameters were reassessed after 6 weeks, and analyzed using parametric or nonparametric tests as applicable. In Group A, 9 patients had Grade A, 3 had Grade B, and 1 had Grade C esophagitis; 3 had normal study. In Group B, 8 patients had Grade A, 2 had Grade B esophagitis, and 6 had normal study. Baseline findings: median RSI scores were comparable (Group A 20.0 [range 14-27], Group B 19.0 [15-24]). Median rating was 2.0 for hoarseness and breathiness for both groups. Values in Groups A and B for jitter 0.5 (0.6) versus 0.5 (0.8), shimmer 3.1 (2.5) versus 2.8 (2.0), HNR 23.0 (5.6) versus 23.1 (4.2), and NNE -7.3 (3.2) versus -7.2 (3.4) were similar. Post-therapy values for Groups A and B: RSI scores were 9.0 (5-13; P<0.01 as compared with baseline) and 13.0 (10-17; P<0.01), respectively. Ratings for hoarseness and breathiness were 0.5 (P<0.01) and 1.0 (P<0

  13. Electrophysiological correlates of voice learning and recognition.

    PubMed

    Zäske, Romi; Volberg, Gregor; Kovács, Gyula; Schweinberger, Stefan Robert

    2014-08-13

    Listeners can recognize familiar human voices from variable utterances, suggesting the acquisition of speech-invariant voice representations during familiarization. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating learning and recognition of voices from natural speech are currently unknown. Using electrophysiology, we investigated how representations are formed during intentional learning of initially unfamiliar voices that were later recognized among novel voices. To probe the acquisition of speech-invariant voice representations, we compared a "same sentence" condition, in which speakers repeated the study utterances at test, and a "different sentence" condition. Although recognition performance was higher for same compared with different sentences, substantial voice learning also occurred for different sentences, with recognition performance increasing across consecutive study-test-cycles. During study, event-related potentials elicited by voices subsequently remembered elicited a larger sustained parietal positivity (∼250-1400 ms) compared with subsequently forgotten voices. This difference due to memory was unaffected by test sentence condition and may thus reflect the acquisition of speech-invariant voice representations. At test, voices correctly classified as "old" elicited a larger late positive component (300-700 ms) at Pz than voices correctly classified as "new." This event-related potential OLD/NEW effect was limited to the same sentence condition and may thus reflect speech-dependent retrieval of voices from episodic memory. Importantly, a speech-independent effect for learned compared with novel voices was found in beta band oscillations (16-17 Hz) between 290 and 370 ms at central and right temporal sites. Our results are a first step toward elucidating the electrophysiological correlates of voice learning and recognition.

  14. Adaptive Probabilistic Protocols for Advanced Networks/Assuring the Integrity of Highly Decentralized Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    on work done in our effort, and the IPTO Situation-Aware Protocols In Edge Network Technologies ( SAPIENT ) program, under Jonathan Smith, seeks to...of our work: The IPTO SRS program, under Lee Badger, builds 3 on work done in our effort, and the IPTO SAPIENT program, under Jonathan Smith, seeks...Jonathan Smith’s SAPIENT program reflects some of the ideas and successes of our compositional networking approach. SAPIENT will apply similar 11

  15. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. lrwin; Luiz A. DaSilva

    2011-05-01

    As early as 2014, wireless network operators spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by a data tsunami brought on by new devices and applications. To augment spectral capacity, operators could deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. In the light of the many planned Long Term Evolution (LTE) network deployments, the affects of a DSA overlay have not been fully considered into the existing LTE standards. Coalescing many different aspects of DSA, this paper develops the Spectrum Accountability (SA) framework. The SA framework defines specific network element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams for LTE to support service requests and enforce rights of responsibilities of primary and secondary users, respectively. We also include a network simulation to quantify the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity. Based on our simulation we show that, network operators can benefit up to %40 increase in operating capacity when sharing DSA bands to augment spectral capacity. With our framework, this paper could serve as an guide in developing future LTE network standards that include DSA.

  16. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fiber optics has emerged as a highly practical and cost-efficient communications technology. Its competitiveness vis-a-vis other transmission media, especially satellite, has become a critical question. This report studies the likely evolution and application of fiber optic networks in the United States to the end of the century. The outlook for the technology of fiber systems is assessed and forecast, scenarios of the evolution of fiber optic network development are constructed, and costs to provide service are determined and examined parametrically as a function of network size and traffic carried. Volume 1 consists of the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic technology and long distance fiber optic networks. Volume 3 develops a traffic and financial model of a nationwide long distance transmission network. Among the study's most important conclusions are: revenue requirements per circuit for LATA-to-LATA fiber optic links are less than one cent per call minute; multiplex equipment, which is likely to be required in any competing system, is the largest contributor to circuit costs; the potential capacity of fiber optic cable is very large and as yet undefined; and fiber optic transmission combined with other network optimization schemes can lead to even lower costs than those identified in this study.

  17. Volunteer Voice. 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Four issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma, Washington Community House Training Project, are presented. The project provides English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and support to refugees. Contents of Number 1 (Summer 1992) include an account of one volunteer's initial encounter; a game for teaching adverbs; instructions…

  18. Voicing Concern about Noisy Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Background noise from loud ventilation systems, outdoor activities, and poor acoustics can lead to voice problems for teachers, worsen hearing-impaired students' listening ability, and create unhealthy learning environments. Solutions include providing teachers with a sound-field amplification system and improving classroom acoustics. (MLH)

  19. Voice discrimination in four primates.

    PubMed

    Candiotti, Agnès; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-10-01

    One accepted function of vocalisations is to convey information about the signaller, such as its age-sex class, motivation, or relationship with the recipient. Yet, in natural habitats individuals not only interact with conspecifics but also with members of other species. This is well documented for African forest monkeys, which form semi-permanent mixed-species groups that can persist for decades. Although members of such groups interact with each other on a daily basis, both physically and vocally, it is currently unknown whether they can discriminate familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecific group members. We addressed this question with playbacks on monkey species known to form polyspecific associations in the wild: red-capped mangabeys, Campbell's monkeys and Guereza colobus monkeys. We tested subjects' discrimination abilities of contact calls of familiar and unfamiliar female De Brazza monkeys. When pooling all species, subjects looked more often towards the speaker when hearing contact calls of unfamiliar than familiar callers. When testing De Brazza monkeys with their own calls, we found the same effect with the longest gaze durations after hearing unfamiliar voices. This suggests that primates can discriminate, not only between familiar and unfamiliar voices of conspecifics, but also between familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecifics living within a close proximity.

  20. Voice command weapons launching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. E.

    1984-09-01

    This abstract discloses a voice-controlled weapons launching system for use by a pilot of an aircraft against a plurality of simultaneously appearing (i.e., existing) targets, such as two or more aggressor aircraft (or tanks, or the like) attacking more aggressor aircraft. The system includes, in combination, a voice controlled input device linked to and controlling a computer; apparatus (such as a television camera, receiver, and display), linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot, for acquiring and displaying an image of the multi-target area; a laser, linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot to point to (and to lock on to) any one of the plurality of targets, with the laser emitting a beam toward the designated (i.e., selected) target; and a plurality of laser beam-rider missiles, with a different missile being launched toward and attacking each different designated target by riding the laser beam to that target. Unlike the prior art, the system allows the pilot to use his hands full-time to fly and to control the aircraft, while also permitting him to launch each different missile in rapid sequence by giving a two-word spoken command after he has visually selected each target of the plurality of targets, thereby making it possible for the pilot of a single defender aircraft to prevail against the plurality of simultaneously attacking aircraft, or tanks, or the like.

  1. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  2. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25…

  3. Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) in a Control Center Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirani, Joseph; Calvelage, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The technology of transmitting voice over data networks has been available for over 10 years. Mass market VoIP services for consumers to make and receive standard telephone calls over broadband Internet networks have grown in the last 5 years. While operational costs are less with VoIP implementations as opposed to time division multiplexing (TDM) based voice switches, is it still advantageous to convert a mission control center s voice system to this newer technology? Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) has converted its mission voice services to a commercial product that utilizes VoIP technology. Results from this testing, design, and installation have shown unique considerations that must be addressed before user operations. There are many factors to consider for a control center voice design. Technology advantages and disadvantages were investigated as they refer to cost. There were integration concerns which could lead to complex failure scenarios but simpler integration for the mission infrastructure. MSFC HOSC will benefit from this voice conversion with less product replacement cost, less operations cost and a more integrated mission services environment.

  4. Sex hormones and the elderly male voice.

    PubMed

    Gugatschka, Markus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schoekler, Bernadette; Schmid, Christoph; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to describe influences of sex hormones on the male voice in an elderly cohort. Sixty-three elderly males were recruited to undergo assessment of voice parameters, stroboscopy, voice-related questionnaires, a blood draw, and an ultrasound examination of the laryngeal skeleton. The group was divided into men with normal hormonal status and men with lowered levels of sex hormones, called hypogonades. Depending on the level of androgens, voice parameters did not differ. In subjects with decreased levels of estrogens, a significant increase in mean fundamental frequency, as well as changes of highest and lowest frequency plus a shift of the frequency range could be detected. We could detect significant changes of voice parameters depending on status of estrogens in elderly males. Androgens appear to have no impact on the elderly male voice. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that correlates sex hormones with voice parameters in elderly men.

  5. Advancing interconnect density for spiking neural network hardware implementations using traffic-aware adaptive network-on-chip routers.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Snaider; Harkin, Jim; McDaid, Liam; Pande, Sandeep; Cawley, Seamus; McGinley, Brian; Morgan, Fearghal

    2012-09-01

    The brain is highly efficient in how it processes information and tolerates faults. Arguably, the basic processing units are neurons and synapses that are interconnected in a complex pattern. Computer scientists and engineers aim to harness this efficiency and build artificial neural systems that can emulate the key information processing principles of the brain. However, existing approaches cannot provide the dense interconnect for the billions of neurons and synapses that are required. Recently a reconfigurable and biologically inspired paradigm based on network-on-chip (NoC) and spiking neural networks (SNNs) has been proposed as a new method of realising an efficient, robust computing platform. However, the use of the NoC as an interconnection fabric for large-scale SNNs demands a good trade-off between scalability, throughput, neuron/synapse ratio and power consumption. This paper presents a novel traffic-aware, adaptive NoC router, which forms part of a proposed embedded mixed-signal SNN architecture called EMBRACE (EMulating Biologically-inspiRed ArChitectures in hardwarE). The proposed adaptive NoC router provides the inter-neuron connectivity for EMBRACE, maintaining router communication and avoiding dropped router packets by adapting to router traffic congestion. Results are presented on throughput, power and area performance analysis of the adaptive router using a 90 nm CMOS technology which outperforms existing NoCs in this domain. The adaptive behaviour of the router is also verified on a Stratix II FPGA implementation of a 4 × 2 router array with real-time traffic congestion. The presented results demonstrate the feasibility of using the proposed adaptive NoC router within the EMBRACE architecture to realise large-scale SNNs on embedded hardware.

  6. A Neural Network Aero Design System for Advanced Turbo-Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse design method calculates the blade shape that produces a prescribed input pressure distribution. By controlling this input pressure distribution the aerodynamic design objectives can easily be met. Because of the intrinsic relationship between pressure distribution and airfoil physical properties, a Neural Network can be trained to choose the optimal pressure distribution that would meet a set of physical requirements. Neural network systems have been attempted in the context of direct design methods. From properties ascribed to a set of blades the neural network is trained to infer the properties of an 'interpolated' blade shape. The problem is that, especially in transonic regimes where we deal with intrinsically non linear and ill posed problems, small perturbations of the blade shape can produce very large variations of the flow parameters. It is very unlikely that, under these circumstances, a neural network will be able to find the proper solution. The unique situation in the present method is that the neural network can be trained to extract the required input pressure distribution from a database of pressure distributions while the inverse method will still compute the exact blade shape that corresponds to this 'interpolated' input pressure distribution. In other words, the interpolation process is transferred to a smoother problem, namely, finding what pressure distribution would produce the required flow conditions and, once this is done, the inverse method will compute the exact solution for this problem. The use of neural network is, in this context, highly related to the use of proper optimization techniques. The optimization is used essentially as an automation procedure to force the input pressure distributions to achieve the required aero and structural design parameters. A multilayered feed forward network with back-propagation is used to train the system for pattern association and classification.

  7. Heterogeneous voice flows-oriented call admission control in IEEE 802.11e WLANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi-lin; Huang, Zhen-jin; Wang, Shi-yi

    2014-04-01

    Considering the circumstance of heterogeneous voice flows, first, by applying Markov chain, this paper proposes an unsaturated analytical model for the IEEE 802.11e EDCA protocol, which considers the condition of non-ideal transmission channel and the character of the occurrence of backoff countdown at the beginning of time slot in EDCA protocol. Furthermore, according to the proposed model, the media access delay and throughput of a flow are analysed, and the flow-oriented call admission control (CAC) scheme is proposed. Finally, the simulation results are shown to confirm that the proposed CAC scheme can guarantee the requirements of throughput and delay of voice flows, and can admit more voice flows to improve the utilisation efficiency of network resources by choosing the appropriate values of the minimum contention window or the appropriate varieties of voice flows.

  8. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology

    PubMed Central

    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice; the speculative concept Speech Hedge illustrates challenges and opportunities in designing more expressive user interfaces; the pilot project Tonetable could enable participatory research and seed a research network around tone of voice. We speculate that more radical interactions might expand frontiers of AAC and disrupt speech technology as a whole. PMID:25965913

  9. Temporal voice areas exist in autism spectrum disorder but are dysfunctional for voice identity recognition

    PubMed Central

    Borowiak, Kamila; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recognise the identity of others is a key requirement for successful communication. Brain regions that respond selectively to voices exist in humans from early infancy on. Currently, it is unclear whether dysfunction of these voice-sensitive regions can explain voice identity recognition impairments. Here, we used two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate voice processing in a population that has been reported to have no voice-sensitive regions: autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our results refute the earlier report that individuals with ASD have no responses in voice-sensitive regions: Passive listening to vocal, compared to non-vocal, sounds elicited typical responses in voice-sensitive regions in the high-functioning ASD group and controls. In contrast, the ASD group had a dysfunction in voice-sensitive regions during voice identity but not speech recognition in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG)—a region implicated in processing complex spectrotemporal voice features and unfamiliar voices. The right anterior STS/STG correlated with voice identity recognition performance in controls but not in the ASD group. The findings suggest that right STS/STG dysfunction is critical for explaining voice recognition impairments in high-functioning ASD and show that ASD is not characterised by a general lack of voice-sensitive responses. PMID:27369067

  10. Novel modification of voice prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Papaspyrou, George; Schneider, Mathias; Schick, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    The undesired dilatation of the tracheooesophageal shunt after surgical implantation of voice prosthesis is a typical complication of this procedure. Temporary removal of the prosthesis and reinsertion after a short period of time is a first-line therapeutical option aiming shrinkage of the shunt. Failure of this measure generally is an indication of revision surgery. We present first experiences treating leakage problems with novel modified voice prosthesis without surgical intervention in specified cases. 11 patients (1 female, 10 male) aging between 51 and 71 years were presented with shunt leakage between 11/2008 and 11/2012 in the ENT-Department of the University Hospital of Homburg/Saar after a custom built voice prosthesis had been used initially successfully. A "Provox 2"(®) voice prosthesis was modified with two discs made of silicone each on the tracheal and oesophageal side and additionally reinforcing the diameter of the prosthesis by a silicone tube. The modified prosthesis was inserted in a retrograde way under general anesthesia, analogical to the approach used with the "Provox 1"(®)-prosthesis. The period of observation ranged between 12 and 48 months. As a measure of control swallowing of methylene blue was used. In all cases leakage suspended. Durability of the modified prosthesis ranged between 2 and 6 months. Neither the patients' complained about, nor did the physicians notice subjectively an impairment of the voice quality. Modifications of "Provox 2"(®)-prosthesis should be regarded in individual cases and constitute a reasonable alternative to revision surgery. A surgical approach is more intricate and costly, more taxing for the patient and susceptible to failure. We regard the necessity of general anesthesia for the insertion of the modified prosthesis as a disadvantage.

  11. Advances in cables and outside plant for cable television and optical fibre local networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridle, Peter

    1986-11-01

    During 1985 Bristish Telecom commenced the installation of a number of cable television systems in the United Kingdom. One of these systems, in Westminster, London, is of the Switched Star type, developed by the British Telecom Research Laboratories. The network comprises optical fiber cable between the head-end and the cabinet-mounted switch, and coaxial cable between the switch and the customer. A number of new outside plant products have been developed to meet the special requirements of the Westminister installation. This earlier work, together with the experience gained from the installation of optical fibers in the British Telecom trunk and junction networks, formed an ideal basis for evolving the line plant necessary to enable BT to introduce singlemode optical fiber into the local network. A range of cables is being developed by UK companies, suitable for installing in the harsh environment of the local network. Joint organizers and flexibility nodes are being introduced, both for underground application and for within the exchange and customer's premises. In addition blown-fiber techniques are being used to introduce fiber into these networks.

  12. Advancing the boundaries of high-connectivity network simulation with distributed computing.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Abigail; Mehring, Carsten; Geisel, Theo; Aertsen, A D; Diesmann, Markus

    2005-08-01

    The availability of efficient and reliable simulation tools is one of the mission-critical technologies in the fast-moving field of computational neuroscience. Research indicates that higher brain functions emerge from large and complex cortical networks and their interactions. The large number of elements (neurons) combined with the high connectivity (synapses) of the biological network and the specific type of interactions impose severe constraints on the explorable system size that previously have been hard to overcome. Here we present a collection of new techniques combined to a coherent simulation tool removing the fundamental obstacle in the computational study of biological neural networks: the enormous number of synaptic contacts per neuron. Distributing an individual simulation over multiple computers enables the investigation of networks orders of magnitude larger than previously possible. The software scales excellently on a wide range of tested hardware, so it can be used in an interactive and iterative fashion for the development of ideas, and results can be produced quickly even for very large networks. In contrast to earlier approaches, a wide class of neuron models and synaptic dynamics can be represented.

  13. Increasing the coverage area through relay node deployment in long term evolution advanced cellular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldhaibani, Jaafar A.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yahya, A.; Azeez, Suzan A.

    2015-05-01

    Wireless multi-hop relay networks have become very important technologies in mobile communications. These networks ensure high throughput and coverage extension with a low cost. The poor capacity at cell edges is not enough to meet with growing demand of high capacity and throughput irrespective of user's placement in the cellular network. In this paper we propose optimal placement of relay node that provides maximum achievable rate at users and enhances the throughput and coverage at cell edge region. The proposed scheme is based on the outage probability at users and taken on account the interference between nodes. Numerical analyses along with simulation results indicated there are an improvement in capacity for users at the cell edge is 40% increment from all cell capacity.

  14. A Neural Network Aero Design System for Advanced Turbo-Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse design method calculates the blade shape that produces a prescribed input pressure distribution. By controlling this input pressure distribution the aerodynamic design objectives can easily be met. Because of the intrinsic relationship between pressure distribution and airfoil physical properties, a neural network can be trained to choose the optimal pressure distribution that would meet a set of physical requirements. The neural network technique works well not only as an interpolating device but also as an extrapolating device to achieve blade designs from a given database. Two validating test cases are discussed.

  15. A Comparison of Adolescents' Friendship Networks by Advanced Coursework Participation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    2015-01-01

    Friendships serve as a source of support and as a context for developing social competence. Although advanced coursework may provide a unique context for the development of friendships, more research is needed to explore exactly what differences exist. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and…

  16. Adapting Advanced Information Technology Network Training for Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Helen L.; Murray, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an accessible e-learning environment that was designed to deliver advanced IT skills to legally blind students in preparation for employment. The aim was to convert industry-standard training materials in print into accessible formats and to deliver the learning materials in ways that are more suited to adult students with…

  17. Mining protein interactomes to improve their reliability and support the advancement of network medicine

    PubMed Central

    Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput detection of protein interactions has had a major impact in our understanding of the intricate molecular machinery underlying the living cell, and has permitted the construction of very large protein interactomes. The protein networks that are currently available are incomplete and a significant percentage of their interactions are false positives. Fortunately, the structural properties observed in good quality social or technological networks are also present in biological systems. This has encouraged the development of tools, to improve the reliability of protein networks and predict new interactions based merely on the topological characteristics of their components. Since diseases are rarely caused by the malfunction of a single protein, having a more complete and reliable interactome is crucial in order to identify groups of inter-related proteins involved in disease etiology. These system components can then be targeted with minimal collateral damage. In this article, an important number of network mining tools is reviewed, together with resources from which reliable protein interactomes can be constructed. In addition to the review, a few representative examples of how molecular and clinical data can be integrated to deepen our understanding of pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:26442112

  18. Space lab system analysis: Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) communications networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, Frank M.; Moorhead, Robert J., II; Moorhead, Jane N.; Shearin, C. Mark; Thompson, Dale R.

    1990-01-01

    A synopsis of research on computer viruses and computer security is presented. A review of seven technical meetings attended is compiled. A technical discussion on the communication plans for the ASRM facility is presented, with a brief tutorial on the potential local area network media and protocols.

  19. Intelligent Control via Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Coal Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aman Behal; Sunil Kumar; Goodarz Ahmadi

    2007-08-05

    Numerical Modeling of Solid Gas Flow, System Identification for purposes of modeling and control, and Wireless Sensor and Actor Network design were pursued as part of this project. Time series input-output data was obtained from NETL's Morgantown CFB facility courtesy of Dr. Lawrence Shadle. It was run through a nonlinear kernel estimator and nonparametric models were obtained for the system. Linear and first-order nonlinear kernels were then utilized to obtain a state-space description of the system. Neural networks were trained that performed better at capturing the plant dynamics. It is possible to use these networks to find a plant model and the inversion of this model can be used to control the system. These models allow one to compare with physics based models whose parameters can then be determined by comparing them against the available data based model. On a parallel track, Dr. Kumar designed an energy-efficient and reliable transport protocol for wireless sensor and actor networks, where the sensors could be different types of wireless sensors used in CFB based coal combustion systems and actors are more powerful wireless nodes to set up a communication network while avoiding the data congestion. Dr. Ahmadi's group studied gas solid flow in a duct. It was seen that particle concentration clearly shows a preferential distribution. The particles strongly interact with the turbulence eddies and are concentrated in narrow bands that are evolving with time. It is believed that observed preferential concentration is due to the fact that these particles are flung out of eddies by centrifugal force.

  20. A high performance FDDI NIU for streaming voice, video, and data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Hartmayer, R.; Wu, W.; Cassell, P.; Edgar, G.; Lambert, J.; Mancini, R.; Jeng, J.; Pardo, C.; Halloran, F.

    1991-01-01

    A 100-Mbit/s FDDI network interface unit (NIU) is described that supports real-time data, voice and video. Its high-speed interrupt-driven hardware architecture efficiently manages stream and packet data transfers to the FDDI network. Other enhancements include modular single-mode laser-dioce fiber optic links to maximize node spacing, optic bypass switches for increased fault tolerance, and a hardware performance monitor to gather real-time network diagnostics.

  1. The human voice areas: Spatial organization and inter-individual variability in temporal and extra-temporal cortices.

    PubMed

    Pernet, Cyril R; McAleer, Phil; Latinus, Marianne; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Charest, Ian; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Watson, Rebecca H; Fleming, David; Crabbe, Frances; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell; Belin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    fMRI studies increasingly examine functions and properties of non-primary areas of human auditory cortex. However there is currently no standardized localization procedure to reliably identify specific areas across individuals such as the standard 'localizers' available in the visual domain. Here we present an fMRI 'voice localizer' scan allowing rapid and reliable localization of the voice-sensitive 'temporal voice areas' (TVA) of human auditory cortex. We describe results obtained using this standardized localizer scan in a large cohort of normal adult subjects. Most participants (94%) showed bilateral patches of significantly greater response to vocal than non-vocal sounds along the superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG). Individual activation patterns, although reproducible, showed high inter-individual variability in precise anatomical location. Cluster analysis of individual peaks from the large cohort highlighted three bilateral clusters of voice-sensitivity, or "voice patches" along posterior (TVAp), mid (TVAm) and anterior (TVAa) STS/STG, respectively. A series of extra-temporal areas including bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex and amygdalae showed small, but reliable voice-sensitivity as part of a large-scale cerebral voice network. Stimuli for the voice localizer scan and probabilistic maps in MNI space are available for download.

  2. The human voice areas: Spatial organization and inter-individual variability in temporal and extra-temporal cortices

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Cyril R.; McAleer, Phil; Latinus, Marianne; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Charest, Ian; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E.G.; Watson, Rebecca H.; Fleming, David; Crabbe, Frances; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell; Belin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    fMRI studies increasingly examine functions and properties of non-primary areas of human auditory cortex. However there is currently no standardized localization procedure to reliably identify specific areas across individuals such as the standard ‘localizers’ available in the visual domain. Here we present an fMRI ‘voice localizer’ scan allowing rapid and reliable localization of the voice-sensitive ‘temporal voice areas’ (TVA) of human auditory cortex. We describe results obtained using this standardized localizer scan in a large cohort of normal adult subjects. Most participants (94%) showed bilateral patches of significantly greater response to vocal than non-vocal sounds along the superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG). Individual activation patterns, although reproducible, showed high inter-individual variability in precise anatomical location. Cluster analysis of individual peaks from the large cohort highlighted three bilateral clusters of voice-sensitivity, or “voice patches” along posterior (TVAp), mid (TVAm) and anterior (TVAa) STS/STG, respectively. A series of extra-temporal areas including bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex and amygdalae showed small, but reliable voice-sensitivity as part of a large-scale cerebral voice network. Stimuli for the voice localizer scan and probabilistic maps in MNI space are available for download. PMID:26116964

  3. Management of the transgender voice.

    PubMed

    McNeill, E J M

    2006-07-01

    Transsexualism is a condition involving a paradoxical feeling of belonging to the opposite sex. Acquiring a sex-appropriate voice is a crucial part of the patient gaining acceptance in their new gender. Speech and language therapists and otolaryngologists play an important role in influencing communication behaviour in transgender patients by altering the fundamental frequency of speech to one acceptable for the patient's sex. Review of the literature suggests that speech and language therapy is successful at creating an acceptable fundamental frequency in transgender patients, as well as influencing other communication behaviours. Laryngeal surgery, such as cricothyroid approximation, has an important role in raising the fundamental frequency in those who do not achieve acceptable voice via non-surgical means. There is little information on patient satisfaction and quality of life measures. Research is currently underway to explore this aspect further.

  4. The Practical Impact of Recent Computer Advances on the Analysis and Design of Large Scale Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    problem was developed and tested . - An extensive study of flow, delay and throughput in packet radio networks was completed. Department of Defense...to construct pathological examples in which chains with predominantly internal traffic are declared collapsable by the test ), the criterium has been...deletion) and one link upgrading (or insertion) are performed simultaneously) if REMIN<RE<REMAX. 3. Acceptance test . If the new solution is dominated

  5. Distributed Agent-Based Networks in Support of Advanced Marine Corps Command and Control Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    characterize a MANET. These devices will typically form a mesh network topology that does not rely on an established wired infrastructure to...set the strategy for developing C2 concepts. C2 systems must “provide a shared understanding of the battlespace …that multiplies combat power…via an...chapter first addresses the current operational and technical Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) vision of the Marine Corps. This

  6. Advanced Conveyance Security Device System Scalability Assessment: Combined 802.15.4 and IP Network Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    channel non-beaconed scan. The Test Report on CSD-DCP Latency [ 1 ] shows that using beacons for network discovery takes more time than not using beacons... 1 . SSC Pacific , “CSD Communications Test Report on CSD-DCP Latency and Multi- Lane Portal Wireless Range, Version 1.7,” Space and Naval Warfare...BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 . Bagrodia, R, et al, “An Accurate, Scalable Communication Effects Server for the FCS System of Systems Simulation Environment

  7. [The smokers voice self assessment based on Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    Complex voice assessment due to European Laryngeal Society proposals (2000) contains voice self estimation based on the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study focuses on the relation between voice handicap and smoking in dysphonic patients, who are using voice professionally. Thirty outpatient (25 female and 5 male, aged 40 to 55 years) voice department attendees suffering from professional dysphonia took part in this study. All patients after phoniatric examination completed the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The questions concern functional, emotional and physical complains due to dysphonia. Most of smokers did not complain of dysphonia related problems comparing to non smokers. Even the scores of functional and emotional scales of VHI in smokers shown better results (less handicap) than in nonsmokers. Smoking does not affect patients handicap due to dysphonia measured in the Voice Handicap Index.

  8. Fetuses respond to father's voice but prefer mother's voice after birth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace Y; Kisilevsky, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Fetal and newborn responding to audio-recordings of their father's versus mother's reading a story were examined. At home, fathers read a different story to the fetus each day for 7 days. Subsequently, in the laboratory, continuous fetal heart rate was recorded during a 9 min protocol, including three, 3 min periods: baseline no-sound, voice (mother or father), postvoice no-sound. Following a 20 min delay, the opposite voice was delivered. Newborn head-turning was observed on 20 s trials: three no-sound, three voice (mother or father), three opposite voice, three no-sound trials with the same segment of each parent's recording. Fetuses showed a heart rate increase to both voices which was sustained over the voice period. Consistent with prior reports, newborns showed a preference for their mother's but not their father's voice. The characteristics of voice stimuli that capture fetal attention and elicit a response are yet to be identified.

  9. Synthesis of bacteria promoted reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide networks for advanced supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiming; Yu, Xinzhi; Guo, Di; Qu, Baihua; Zhang, Ming; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-08-14

    Supercapacitors with potential high power are useful and have attracted much attention recently. Graphene-based composites have been demonstrated to be promising electrode materials for supercapacitors with enhanced properties. To improve the performance of graphene-based composites further and realize their synthesis with large scale, we report a green approach to synthesize bacteria-reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide (BGNS) networks. By using Bacillus subtilis as spacers, we deposited reduced graphene oxide/Ni3S2 nanoparticle composites with submillimeter pores directly onto substrate by a binder-free electrostatic spray approach to form BGNS networks. Their electrochemical capacitor performance was evaluated. Compared with stacked reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide (GNS) prepared without the aid of bacteria, BGNS with unique nm-μm structure exhibited a higher specific capacitance of about 1424 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.75 A g(-1). About 67.5% of the capacitance was retained as the current density increased from 0.75 to 15 A g(-1). At a current density of 75 A g(-1), a specific capacitance of 406 F g(-1) could still remain. The results indicate that the reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide network promoted by bacteria is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  10. Advances in dynamic modeling of colorectal cancer signaling-network regions, a path toward targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Ambrosi, Cristina De; Barla, Annalisa; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Nencioni, Alessio; Patrone, Franco; Ballestrero, Alberto; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Verri, Alessandro; Parodi, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The interconnected network of pathways downstream of the TGFβ, WNT and EGF-families of receptor ligands play an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. We studied and implemented dynamic simulations of multiple downstream pathways and described the section of the signaling network considered as a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our simulations used Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), which involved 447 reactants and their interactions. Starting from an initial “physiologic condition”, the model can be adapted to simulate individual pathologic cancer conditions implementing alterations/mutations in relevant onco-proteins. We verified some salient model predictions using the mutated colorectal cancer lines HCT116 and HT29. We measured the amount of MYC and CCND1 mRNAs and AKT and ERK phosphorylated proteins, in response to individual or combination onco-protein inhibitor treatments. Experimental and simulation results were well correlated. Recent independently published results were also predicted by our model. Even in the presence of an approximate and incomplete signaling network information, a predictive dynamic modeling seems already possible. An important long term road seems to be open and can be pursued further, by incremental steps, toward even larger and better parameterized MIMs. Personalized treatment strategies with rational associations of signaling-proteins inhibitors, could become a realistic goal. PMID:25671297

  11. Advances in dynamic modeling of colorectal cancer signaling-network regions, a path toward targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Tortolina, Lorenzo; Duffy, David J; Maffei, Massimo; Castagnino, Nicoletta; Carmody, Aimée M; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N; De Ambrosi, Cristina; Barla, Annalisa; Biganzoli, Elia M; Nencioni, Alessio; Patrone, Franco; Ballestrero, Alberto; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Verri, Alessandro; Parodi, Silvio

    2015-03-10

    The interconnected network of pathways downstream of the TGFβ, WNT and EGF-families of receptor ligands play an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis.We studied and implemented dynamic simulations of multiple downstream pathways and described the section of the signaling network considered as a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our simulations used Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), which involved 447 reactants and their interactions.Starting from an initial "physiologic condition", the model can be adapted to simulate individual pathologic cancer conditions implementing alterations/mutations in relevant onco-proteins. We verified some salient model predictions using the mutated colorectal cancer lines HCT116 and HT29. We measured the amount of MYC and CCND1 mRNAs and AKT and ERK phosphorylated proteins, in response to individual or combination onco-protein inhibitor treatments. Experimental and simulation results were well correlated. Recent independently published results were also predicted by our model.Even in the presence of an approximate and incomplete signaling network information, a predictive dynamic modeling seems already possible. An important long term road seems to be open and can be pursued further, by incremental steps, toward even larger and better parameterized MIMs. Personalized treatment strategies with rational associations of signaling-proteins inhibitors, could become a realistic goal.

  12. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance

  13. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  14. Voice Analysis Using the Bispectrum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    a fourth order model was used to obtain the parametric estimation . The expected and estimated results are shown in Figures 7 and 8. The expected...representations, the parametric and non- parametric estimation techniques gave very similar results. For voiced speech most of the signal energy was in a 44 Clean...sound with a sample size of 80. The non-parametric method was used because the reconstruction method parallels the theory that the non- parametric

  15. Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S; Hains, Sylvia M J; Lee, Kang; Xie, Xing; Huang, Hefeng; Ye, Hai Hui; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Zengping

    2003-05-01

    The ability of human fetuses to recognize their own mother's voice was examined. Sixty term fetuses were assigned to one of two conditions during which they were exposed to a tape recording of their mother or a female stranger reading a passage. Voice stimuli were delivered through a loudspeaker held approximately 10 cm above the maternal abdomen and played at an average of 95 dB SPL. Each condition consisted of three 2-min periods: no stimulus, voice (mother or stranger), and no stimulus. Fetal heart rate increased in response to the mother's voice and decreased in response to the stranger's; both responses were sustained for 4 min. The finding of differential behavior in response to a familiar versus a novel voice provides evidence that experience influences fetal voice processing. It supports an epigenetic model of speech perception, presuming an interaction between genetic expression of neural development and species-specific experience.

  16. Patient perceptions of voice therapy adherence.

    PubMed

    van Leer, Eva; Connor, Nadine P

    2010-07-01

    Patient perspectives of behavioral voice therapy, including perspectives of treatment adherence, have not been formally documented. Because treatment adherence is, to a large extent, determined by patient beliefs, assessment of patient perspectives is integral to the study of adherence. Fifteen patients who had undergone at least two sessions of direct voice therapy for a variety of voice disorders/complaints were interviewed about their perspectives on voice therapy, with a particular focus on adherence. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for content according to qualitative methods. Three common content themes emerged from the transcripts: Voice Therapy is Hard, Make it Happen, and The Match Matters. Findings were compared with reports of patient experiences in other behavioral interventions, such as diet and exercise, and related to existing theoretical models of behavior change and therapeutic process. This study yields information toward the development of scales to measure adherence-related constructs and strategies to improve treatment adherence in voice therapy.

  17. Voice-stress measure of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Murray; Schneider, Sid J.

    1988-01-01

    In a planned experiment, male subjects between the age of 18 and 50 will be required to produce speech while performing various tasks. Analysis of the speech produced should reveal which aspects of voice prosody are associated with increased workloads. Preliminary results with two female subjects suggest a possible trend for voice frequency and amplitude to be higher and the variance of the voice frequency to be lower in the high workload condition.

  18. Team Training Applications of Voice Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    Springfield, Virginia 22151 / 00 © Final Report ©LEVEL ^ TEAM TRAINING APPLICATIONS OF VOICE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Beverly A. Popeika C. Mazie Knerr... processing technology to train voice communication-based tasks. At the same time, automated speech generation and recognition can enhance adaptive...pronunciation and radio terminology training, and analyzing vocabularies that have high-risk levels for voice processing technology . VDC acts as a peer

  19. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice.

  20. Basics of voice dysfunction--etiology and prevention of voice damage.

    PubMed

    Sepić, Tatjana; Pankas, Josipa; Grubesić, Aron; Tićac, Robert; Starcević, Radan

    2011-09-01

    Voice is one of the most important means of communication and as such should be taken care of. The etiology of voice disorders is diverse. Due to the development of the society we live in, way of life, environmental factors, and exposure to pharmacological agents as well as demands we make towards our voice, there is a substantial growth in the number of people with voice disorders. We tasked ourselves to find out if it is possible to enlighten people on the importance of voice, to motivate them to take care of it, to notice the changes in its quality and eventually ask for help. We assessed in which measure do we understand the importance of a healthy voice, and do we know which is the most important factor that adds to its decline. For a long number of years voice therapists and other experts in the voice disorder field have been discussing the optimal voice impostation as well as vocal exercises and methods behind voice recovery. They have all come to the same conclusion that phonation is dependant on the sort of the voice disorder and the patient motivation. We wanted to go one step further and investigate, dependence of voice quality and the damage etiology (organic - functional), which are the predominant causes, what are the factors that account for the damage and how the disorder motivates the patient and therefore influences the rehabilitation success rate.

  1. Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  2. Voice and Communication Therapy for Transgender/Transsexual Clients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Voice and Communication Therapy for Clients Who Are Transgender [ en Español ] ... are transgender may elect to have voice and communication therapy to help them use their voice in ...

  3. Vocal Dynamic Visual Pattern for voice characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajer, M. E.; Andrade, F. A. S.; Montagnoli, A. N.; Pereira, J. C.; Tsuji, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Voice assessment requires simple and painless exams. Modern technologies provide the necessary resources for voice signal processing. Techniques based on nonlinear dynamics seem to asses the complexity of voice more accurately than other methods. Vocal dynamic visual pattern (VDVP) is based on nonlinear methods and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Here we characterize healthy and Reinke's edema voices by means of perturbation measures and VDVP analysis. VDPD and jitter show different results for both groups, while amplitude perturbation has no difference. We suggest that VDPD analysis improve and complement the evaluation methods available for clinicians.

  4. Singing Voice Analysis, Synthesis, and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngmoo E.

    The singing voice is the oldest musical instrument, but its versatility and emotional power are unmatched. Through the combination of music, lyrics, and expression, the voice is able to affect us in ways that no other instrument can. The fact that vocal music is prevalent in almost all cultures is indicative of its innate appeal to the human aesthetic. Singing also permeates most genres of music, attesting to the wide range of sounds the human voice is capable of producing. As listeners we are naturally drawn to the sound of the human voice, and, when present, it immediately becomes the focus of our attention.

  5. Prevalence of voice disorders among future teachers.

    PubMed

    Simberg, S; Laine, A; Sala, E; Rönnemaa, A M

    2000-06-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in order to find out the prevalence of voice disorders among students studying to be teachers. Vocal symptoms were inquired of 226 students. Their voices were assessed perceptually by a speech therapist and those who had abnormal voice quality or reported several vocal symptoms were referred to a clinical examination by a laryngologist. The results showed that 20% of this population reported two or more vocal symptoms during the previous year and that 19% had an organic voice disorder. This reinforces the need for clinical evaluation of students with vocal symptoms and more vocal training in the teacher education programs.

  6. Advanced time and wavelength division multiplexing for metropolitan area optical data communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watford, M.; DeCusatis, C.

    2005-09-01

    With the advent of new regulations governing the protection and recovery of sensitive business data, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, there has been a renewed interest in business continuity and disaster recovery applications for metropolitan area networks. Specifically, there has been a need for more efficient bandwidth utilization and lower cost per channel to facilitate mirroring of multi-terabit data bases. These applications have further blurred the boundary between metropolitan and wide area networks, with synchronous disaster recovery applications running up to 100 km and asynchronous solutions extending to 300 km or more. In this paper, we discuss recent enhancements in the Nortel Optical Metro 5200 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) platform, including features recently qualified for data communication applications such as Metro Mirror, Global Mirror, and Geographically Distributed Parallel Sysplex (GDPS). Using a 10 Gigabit/second (Gbit/s) backbone, this solution transports significantly more Fibre Channel protocol traffic with up to five times greater hardware density in the same physical package. This is also among the first platforms to utilize forward error correction (FEC) on the aggregate signals to improve bit error rate (BER) performance beyond industry standards. When combined with encapsulation into wide area network protocols, the use of FEC can compensate for impairments in BER across a service provider infrastructure without impacting application level performance. Design and implementation of these features will be discussed, including results from experimental test beds which validate these solutions for a number of applications. Future extensions of this environment will also be considered, including ways to provide configurable bandwidth on demand, mitigate Fibre Channel buffer credit management issues, and support for other GDPS protocols.

  7. Diversity reception for advanced multi-satellite networks: A CDMA approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colzi, E.; Degaudenzi, R.; Elia, C.; Giannetti, F.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Diversity reception for Synchronous CDMA (S-CDMA) is introduced and analyzed. A Gaussian co-channel synchronous and asynchronous interference approximation is derived to evaluate the effects on the system bit error rate. Numerical results are provided for a simple mobile communication system where the signals transmitted by two distinct satellites in visibility are coherently combined by a three fingers Rake receiver. A second example showing performance of an integrated ground/satellite single frequency network for digital audio broadcasting is presented. Results show the capacity advantage of utilizing S-CDMA in combination with diversity reception.

  8. The Practical Impact of Recent Computer Advances on the Analysis and Design of Large Scale Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    NETWORKING The late öO’s and the 70’s have seen the proposal and development of an incredible array of digital services . The field is, of course...still dominated by the giants of the common carriers, AT&T and Western Union. 2.1 Common Carriers AT&T offers a wide array of digital services , many...intended for digital services , does have a bandwidth of 6.312 Mbps and could be a vehicle for the transmission and visual display of data. Western

  9. Trabectedin in advanced synovial sarcomas: a multicenter retrospective study from four European institutions and the Italian Rare Cancer Network.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Roberta; Dileo, Palma; Blay, Jean-Yves; Constantinidou, Anastasia; Le Cesne, Axel; Benson, Charlotte; Vizzini, Laura; Contu, Marianna; Baldi, Giacomo G; Dei Tos, Angelo P; Casali, Paolo G

    2015-07-01

    Treatment options for patients with metastatic synovial sarcoma are limited. Over recent years, trabectedin has emerged as an effective agent for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas resistant to anthracyclines and ifosfamide. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to study the efficacy of trabectedin in the subgroup of synovial sarcomas. A retrospective analysis was carried out on patients with advanced synovial sarcoma treated with trabectedin at four European reference sarcoma centers and within the Italian Rare Cancer Network between 2000 and 2013. Radiological response, progression-free, and overall survival, as well as serious and unexpected adverse events were retrospectively assessed. Sixty-one patients with metastatic synovial sarcoma were identified. The median number of previous chemotherapy regimens was 2 (range 1-6). Nine patients had a partial response, in addition to two minor responses, and 19 patients had stable disease, for an overall response rate of 15% and a tumor control rate of 50%. The median progression-free survival was 3 months, with 23% of patients free from progression at 6 months. The median progression-free survival in responding patients was 7 months. Trabectedin is a therapeutic option for palliative treatment of a subset of patients with metastatic synovial sarcoma.

  10. Self-incompatibility in Papaver: advances in integrating the signalling network.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Deborah J; Flores-Ortiz, Carlos; Haque, Tamanna; Lin, Zongcheng; Teng, Nianjun; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2014-04-01

    Self-fertilization, which results in reduced fitness of offspring, is a common problem in hermaphrodite angiosperms. To prevent this, many plants utilize SI (self-incompatibility), which is determined by the multi-allelic S-locus, that allows discrimination between self (incompatible) and non-self (compatible) pollen by the pistil. In poppy (Papaver rhoeas), the pistil S-determinant (PrsS) is a small secreted protein which interacts with the pollen S-determinant PrpS, a ~20 kDa novel transmembrane protein. Interaction of matching pollen and pistil S-determinants results in self-recognition, initiating a Ca²⁺-dependent signalling network in incompatible pollen. This triggers several downstream events, including alterations to the cytoskeleton, phosphorylation of sPPases (soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases) and an MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), increases in ROS (reactive oxygen species) and nitric oxide (NO), and activation of several caspase-like activities. This results in the inhibition of pollen tube growth, prevention of self-fertilization and ultimately PCD (programmed cell death) in incompatible pollen. The present review focuses on our current understanding of the integration of these signals with their targets in the SI/PCD network. We also discuss our recent functional expression of PrpS in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen.

  11. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  12. Recent Advances in the National Seismographic Network of Chile: GPS as Tsunami Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Major plans were devised in 2007 for the establishment of a new National Seismographic Network for Chile comprising the existing academic instruments together with additional instruments to be acquired. In the meantime, a network of 10 observatories has been implemented by IRIS jointly with Chilean efforts. The Government approved funding in several stages allowing the acquisition of 65 broad-band stations, 297 strong motion instruments and about 130 dual-frequency devices. The 65 broad-band sites also house accelerometers and GPS devices transmitting in robust real-time links to a Central Data Processing in Santiago. Of the 297 strong motion instruments, distributed along the country with concentrated nests in large cities, it is envisioned that only a percentage will have robust communication capabilities; the rest will be connected with 3G (or 4G) means utilizing local providers. Another suit of 60-70 GPS devices will be installed along the coast, around 40-50 km from each other covering the Chilean portion of the Nazca-South America plate interaction, considered as the most seismically active segment of the country. International collaboration efforts to include real-time transmission and processing of the GPS data will complement the existing automatic seismic system. It is expected that this complementary design will not only allow rapid preliminary estimation of hypocentral parameters but also rupture location and extension as well as displacement distribution on the causative fault, essential ingredients to assess the tsunamigenic potential of large thrust-type earthquakes in Chile.

  13. Twitter K-H networks in action: Advancing biomedical literature for drug search.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Wu, Xindong; Erickson, Robert; Fandy, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    The importance of searching biomedical literature for drug interaction and side-effects is apparent. Current digital libraries (e.g., PubMed) suffer infrequent tagging and metadata annotation updates. Such limitations cause absence of linking literature to new scientific evidence. This demonstrates a great deal of challenges that stand in the way of scientists when searching biomedical repositories. In this paper, we present a network mining approach that provides a bridge for linking and searching drug-related literature. Our contributions here are two fold: (1) an efficient algorithm called HashPairMiner to address the run-time complexity issues demonstrated in its predecessor algorithm: HashnetMiner, and (2) a database of discoveries hosted on the web to facilitate literature search using the results produced by HashPairMiner. Though the K-H network model and the HashPairMiner algorithm are fairly young, their outcome is evidence of the considerable promise they offer to the biomedical science community in general and the drug research community in particular.

  14. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  15. Multidimensional voice analysis of reflux laryngitis patients.

    PubMed

    Pribuisienë, Rûta; Uloza, Virgilijus; Saferis, Viktoras

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze and quantify the voice characteristics of reflux laryngitis (RL) patients and to determine the most important voice tests and voice-quality parameters in the functional diagnostics of RL. The voices of 83 RL patients and 31 persons in the control group were evaluated. Vocal function was assessed using a multidimensional set of video laryngostroboscopic, perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic and subjective measurements according to the protocol elaborated by the Committee on Phoniatrics of the European Laryngological Society. The mean values of the hoarseness visual analogue scale assessment and voice handicap index were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the group of RL patients as compared to the controls. Objective voice assessment revealed a significant increase in mean values of jitter, shimmer and normalized noise energy (NNE), along with a significant decrease in pitch range, maximum frequency, phonetogram area (S) and maximum phonation time (MPT) in RL patients, both in the male and female subgroups. According to the results of discriminant analysis, the NNE, MPT, S and intensity range were determined as an optimum set for functional diagnostics of RL. The derived function (equation) makes it possible to assign the person to the group of RL patients with an accuracy of 86.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of eight voice parameters were found to be higher than 50%. The results of the present study demonstrate a reduction of phonation capabilities and voice quality in RL patients. Multidimensional voice evaluation makes it possible to detect significant differences in mean values of perceptual, subjective and objective voice quality parameters between RL patients and controls groups. Therefore, multidimensional voice analysis is an important tool in the functional diagnostics of RL.

  16. Perception of voice in the transgender client.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Emma J M; Wilson, Janet A; Clark, Susan; Deakin, Jayne

    2008-11-01

    Fundamental frequency (F(0)) of speech is used to measure the success of voice therapy in male-to-female transgender clients. This study evaluates the relationship between F(0) and patients' happiness with their voice. The study design used was a cross-sectional evaluation of client satisfaction questionnaires and voice recordings from transgender clients. This study was a comparative evaluation of voice recordings by voice professionals and lay observers. Twelve male-to-female transgender participants completed visual analogue scales (VASs), rating happiness with self-perceived femininity of their voice. Fifteen speech and language therapists (SLTs) and 40 naïve observers evaluated the anonymized recordings, using the same rating system. The correlation between mean F(0) and participant happiness was established. Relationships between participant happiness and rater opinions were explored. A significant relationship between F(0) and participant happiness could not be demonstrated (r=0.32, P=0.32). There was a moderately strong positive correlation between self-perception of vocal femininity and perception of femininity by SLTs and naïve observers (r=0.76 and 0.68, P=0.003 and P=0.01, respectively). This study demonstrates that happiness with voice in male-to-female transgender clients is not directly related to F(0). Clients can assess femininity of their voice in the form of perceived pitch. This may not affect happiness scores. Voice satisfaction may not correlate with perceptions of supervising voice professionals. However, professionals can reliably evaluate how the voice will be received by the lay public. Subjective measures of patient satisfaction, including VASs, are reliable and valid tools in evaluating therapeutic success.

  17. The intrasubjectivity of self, voices and delusions: A phenomenological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Cherise; Jones, Nev; Chase, Kayla A.; Gin, Hannah; Grossman, Linda S.; Sharma, Rajiv P.

    2016-01-01

    To advance the area of phenomenology of voices and their interrelatedness to forms of delusions this study investigated the prevalence and interrelatedness of co-occurring auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and delusions. Additionally we explored the characterization of distinct sub-categories/clusters of AVHs and delusions. Ninety-two participants experiencing psychosis were administered standardized clinical measures. We found a significant diagnostic difference with increased prevalence of co-occurring AVHs and delusions within the schizophrenia group compared to the bipolar with psychosis group. Regardless of diagnosis, there was a significant positive correlation between AVHs and delusions of reference, persecution, control, thought insertion, thought withdrawal and thought broadcasting. However, no significant relationship was found between AVHs and grandiose, somatic, religious, guilty or jealousy-themed delusions. Cluster analysis yielded two distinct cluster groups. Cluster One: Voices and Thought Delusions, and Cluster Two: Voices and Thematic Delusions. Cluster One participants showed elevated disorganized, cognitive and depressive symptoms, but not negative symptoms or excitement. This study underscores the need for expanded clinical and phenomenological research into the intersection of AVHs and delusions, including work that seeks to deconstruct conventional divisions between ostensible symptoms of perception’ (hallucinations) and belief’ (delusions). PMID:27829870

  18. Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians

    PubMed Central

    Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2016-01-01

    The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit. PMID:27071124

  19. The design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Voice bandwidth compression techniques were investigated to anticipate link margin difficulties in the shuttle S-band communication system. It was felt that by reducing the data rate on each voice channel from the baseline 24 (or 32) Kbps to 8 Kbps, additional margin could be obtained. The feasibility of such an alternate voice transmission system was studied. Several factors of prime importance that were addressed are: (1) achieving high quality voice at 8 Kbps; (2) performance in the presence of the anticipated shuttle cabin environmental noise; (3) performance in the presence of the anticipated channel error statistics; and (4) minimal increase in size, weight, and power over the current baseline voice processor.

  20. Solution Analysis of Universal Wireless Joint Point Technologies for Heterogeneous Tactical Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Supply UWAP Universal Wireless Access Point UWB Ultra Wide Band VIC Voice Interface Cards VPN Virtual Private Network VWIC Voice/WAN Interface...in Figure 25 above. The four HWIC slots can accommodate any arrangement of WAN or Voice Interface Cards (HWICs, WICs, VWICs, or VICs) as well as

  1. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Oudes, M J; Huinck, W; van Acht, H; Graamans, K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The study group consisted of 25 female teachers. A voice therapist assessed extrinsic laryngeal muscular tension and a physical therapist assessed body posture. The assessed parameters were clustered in categories. The parameters in the different categories represent the same function. Further a tension/posture index was created, which is the summation of the different parameters. The different parameters and the index were related to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). The scores of the VHI and the individual parameters differ significantly except for the posterior weight bearing and tension of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. There was also a significant difference between the individual parameters and the DSI, except for tension of the cricothyroid muscle and posterior weight bearing. The score of the tension/posture index correlates significantly with both the VHI and the DSI. In a linear regression analysis, the combination of hypertonicity of the sternocleidomastoid, the geniohyoid muscles and posterior weight bearing is the most important predictor for a high voice handicap. The combination of hypertonicity of the geniohyoid muscle, posterior weight bearing, high position of the hyoid bone, hypertonicity of the cricothyroid muscle and anteroposition of the head is the most important predictor for a low DSI score. The results of this study show the higher the score of the index, the higher the score of the voice handicap and the worse the voice quality is. Moreover, the results are indicative for the importance of assessment of muscular tension and body posture in the diagnosis of voice disorders.

  2. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and Swallowing Nearly 1 in 12 (7.7 ... condition known as persistent developmental stuttering. 8 , 9 Language 3.3 percent of U.S. children ages 3- ...

  3. Multiple Voices in Young Adult Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capan, Mary Ann

    A stylistic device that has been used by many authors over the years is to alternate the point of view between two or more characters. Authors of young adult novels choose this technique of multiple narrative voices for a variety of reasons. Multiple voices offer a challenge to many young adult readers because the point of view is much more…

  4. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  5. Cockpit voice recognition program at Princeton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Voice recognition technology (VRT) is applied to aeronautics, particularly on the pilot workload alleviation. The VRT does not have to prove its maturity any longer. The feasibility of voice tuning of radio and DME are demonstrated since there are immediate advantages to the pilot and can be completed in a reasonable time.

  6. Predictors of Choral Directors' Voice Handicap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…

  7. Student Voice and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  8. The Voice of Conscience in Rousseau's Emile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    According to Rousseau, conscience and conscience alone can elevate human beings to a level above that of animals. It is conscience, understood as infallible judge of good and bad, which makes man like God. Conscience itself is, in this context, understood as divine, as an "immortal and celestial voice". Therefore, if the voice of…

  9. Academic Voices and the Challenges of Tutoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Grounded-theory based research involved interviews with 41 distance education nursing students and 22 tutors and 24 tutorial and 69 field observations. A key theme was students' development of academic voice in the support relationship with tutors. This voice helped them manage learning and determine what kinds of help tutors should give.…

  10. A Garden of Voices: One Classroom's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemens, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Describes a multiage first- through third-grade classroom where the development of children's voices and their writing can happen slowly, in its own time. Uses children's poems to show how children discover the craft of writing through listening to other writers (fellow classmates and authors) in the ongoing process of hearing their own voices and…

  11. Work-Related Learning: Hearing Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that student voice and the active engagement of students in shaping their own educational experience are integral to the development of effective work-related learning (WRL) programmes. Through accessing the voice of disaffected and marginalised students, insight can be gained into what these students see as being the benefits of…

  12. Voice aftereffects of adaptation to speaker identity.

    PubMed

    Zäske, Romi; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kawahara, Hideki

    2010-09-01

    While adaptation to complex auditory stimuli has traditionally been reported for linguistic properties of speech, the present study demonstrates non-linguistic high-level aftereffects in the perception of voice identity, following adaptation to voices or faces of personally familiar speakers. In Exp. 1, prolonged exposure to speaker A's voice biased the perception of identity-ambiguous voice morphs between speakers A and B towards speaker B (and vice versa). Significantly biased voice identity perception was also observed in Exp. 2 when adaptors were videos of speakers' silently articulating faces, although effects were reduced in magnitude relative to those seen in Exp. 1. By contrast, adaptation to an unrelated speaker C elicited an intermediate proportion of speaker A identifications in both experiments. While crossmodal aftereffects on auditory identification (Exp. 2) dissipated rapidly, unimodal aftereffects (Exp. 1) were still measurable a few minutes after adaptation. These novel findings suggest contrastive coding of voice identity in long-term memory, with at least two perceptual mechanisms of voice identity adaptation: one related to auditory coding of voice characteristics, and another related to multimodal coding of familiar speaker identity.

  13. [Voice function in patients after partial laryngectomy].

    PubMed

    Kosztyła-Hojna, B; Chodynicki, S; Lazarczyk, B; Tupalska, M; Mikiel, W

    1998-01-01

    103 patients with cancer of the larynx treated with partial laryngectomy were presented. Voice quality before and after surgery was compared. Voice was analysed by subjective and objective-spectrographic methods. Partial laryngectomies consisted of: vertical, horizontal and supraglottic subtotal procedures. The least dysphony was found in horizontal laryngectomy, the biggest--in supraglottic subtotal laryngectomy.

  14. Guard Cell Signal Transduction Network: Advances in Understanding Abscisic Acid, CO2, and Ca2+ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Houn; Böhmer, Maik; Hu, Honghong; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2011-01-01

    Stomatal pores are formed by pairs of specialized epidermal guard cells and serve as major gateways for both CO2 influx into plants from the atmosphere and transpirational water loss of plants. Because they regulate stomatal pore apertures via integration of both endogenous hormonal stimuli and environmental signals, guard cells have been highly developed as a model system to dissect the dynamics and mechanisms of plant-cell signaling. The stress hormone ABA and elevated levels of CO2 activate complex signaling pathways in guard cells that are mediated by kinases/phosphatases, secondary messengers, and ion channel regulation. Recent research in guard cells has led to a new hypothesis for how plants achieve specificity in intracellular calcium signaling: CO2 and ABA enhance (prime) the calcium sensitivity of downstream calcium-signaling mechanisms. Recent progress in identification of early stomatal signaling components are reviewed here, including ABA receptors and CO2-binding response proteins, as well as systems approaches that advance our understanding of guard cell-signaling mechanisms. PMID:20192751

  15. Application of Percolation Theory to Complex Interconnected Networks in Advanced Functional Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hing, P.

    2011-11-01

    Percolation theory deals with the behaviour of connected clusters in a system. Originally developed for studying the flow of liquid in a porous body, the percolation theory has been extended to quantum computation and communication, entanglement percolation in quantum networks, cosmology, chaotic situations, properties of disordered solids, pandemics, petroleum industry, finance, control of traffic and so on. In this paper, the application of various models of the percolation theory to predict and explain the properties of a specially developed family of dense sintered and highly refractory Al2O3-W composites for potential application in high intensity discharge light sources such as high pressure sodium lamps and ceramic metal halide lamps are presented and discussed. The low cost, core-shell concept can be extended to develop functional composite materials with unusual dielectric, electrical, magnetic, superconducting, and piezoelectric properties starting from a classical insulator. The core shell concept can also be applied to develop catalysts with high specific surface areas with minimal amount of expensive platinium, palladium or rare earth nano structured materials for light harvesting, replicating natural photosynthesis, in synthetic zeolite composites for the cracking and separation of crude oil. There is also possibility of developing micron and nanosize Faraday cages for quantum devices, nano electronics and spintronics. The possibilities are limitless.

  16. Advancing Integrated Understanding of Treeline Response to Environmental Change: the Alpine and Arctic Treeline Ecotone Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, D. M.; Kueppers, L. M.; Millar, C. I.

    2013-12-01

    Upper elevation and northern treeline ecotones are boundary zones between forest and arctic or alpine tundra. Although presence of upright trees has defined the treeline per se, treeline is more accurately an ecotone structured by complex interactions among vegetation, soils, animals, climate, snow, topography, and disturbance regimes. The position and character of the treeline ecotone are important regulators of the land surface energy balance, biodiversity, and the cycling of carbon and water at high latitudes and elevations. The goal of the Alpine and Arctic Treeline Ecotone Network (AATE-Net) is to create a community of practice for treeline science across traditionally disparate fields of study. The objectives are to synthesize the state of knowledge around four scientific bottlenecks, identify pressing data gaps, broaden the perspectives of individual researchers, and foster a community-driven approach to alpine and Arctic treeline science. In pursuit of this goal and these objectives, the AATE-Net will bring together ecologists, ecosystem scientists, geographers, ecophysiologists, climatologists, hydrologists, and others with interests in treeline and ecotones in general to solidify our understanding of treeline dynamics across domains of time and space. Since treelines are globally distributed, interactions and partnerships with emerging treeline initiatives in Europe and elsewhere will be key components of the AATE-Net.

  17. EarthCube: Advancing Partnerships, Collaborative Platforms and Knowledge Networks in the Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Diggs; Lee, Allison

    2014-05-01

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube initiative aims to create a community-driven data and knowledge management system that will allow for unprecedented data sharing across the geosciences. More than 2,500 participants through forums, work groups, EarthCube events, and virtual and in-person meetings have participated. The individuals that have engaged represent the core earth-system sciences of solid Earth, Atmosphere, Oceans, and Polar Sciences. EarthCube is a cornerstone of NSF's Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century (CIF21) initiative, whose chief objective is to develop a U.S. nationwide, sustainable, and community-based cyberinfrastructure for researchers and educators. Increasingly effective community-driven cyberinfrastructure allows global data discovery and knowledge management and achieves interoperability and data integration across scientific disciplines. There is growing convergence across scientific and technical communities on creating a networked, knowledge management system and scientific data cyberinfrastructure that integrates Earth system and human dimensions data in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner. EarthCube does not intend to replicate these efforts, but build upon them. An agile development process is underway for the development and governance of EarthCube. The agile approach was deliberately selected due to its iterative and incremental nature while promoting adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness.

  18. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)

  19. Voice pedagogy-what do we need?

    PubMed

    Gill, Brian P; Herbst, Christian T

    2016-12-01

    The final keynote panel of the 10th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC) was concerned with the topic 'Voice pedagogy-what do we need?' In this communication the panel discussion is summarized, and the authors provide a deepening discussion on one of the key questions, addressing the roles and tasks of people working with voice students. In particular, a distinction is made between (1) voice building (derived from the German term 'Stimmbildung'), primarily comprising the functional and physiological aspects of singing; (2) coaching, mostly concerned with performance skills; and (3) singing voice rehabilitation. Both public and private educators are encouraged to apply this distinction to their curricula, in order to arrive at more efficient singing teaching and to reduce the risk of vocal injury to the singers concerned.

  20. Signal processing techniques for synchronization of wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehan; Wu, Yik-Chung; Chaudhari, Qasim; Qaraqe, Khalid; Serpedin, Erchin

    2010-11-01

    Clock synchronization is a critical component in wireless sensor networks, as it provides a common time frame to different nodes. It supports functions such as fusing voice and video data from different sensor nodes, time-based channel sharing, and sleep wake-up scheduling, etc. Early studies on clock synchronization for wireless sensor networks mainly focus on protocol design. However, clock synchronization problem is inherently related to parameter estimation, and recently, studies of clock synchronization from the signal processing viewpoint started to emerge. In this article, a survey of latest advances on clock synchronization is provided by adopting a signal processing viewpoint. We demonstrate that many existing and intuitive clock synchronization protocols can be interpreted by common statistical signal processing methods. Furthermore, the use of advanced signal processing techniques for deriving optimal clock synchronization algorithms under challenging scenarios will be illustrated.

  1. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  2. Fluoropyrimidine-Based Chemotherapy as First-Line Treatment for Advanced Gastric Cancer: a Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lucheng; Liu, Jihong; Ma, Shenglin

    2016-10-01

    Fluoropyrimidine-based regimens are the most common treatments in advanced gastric cancer. We used a Bayesian network meta-analysis to identify the optimal fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy by comparing their relative efficacy and safety. We systematically searched databases and extracted data from randomized controlled trials, which compared fluoropyrimidine-based regimens as first-line treatment in AGC. The main outcomes were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs). A total of 12 RCTs of 4026 patients were included in our network meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed S-1 and capecitabine had a significant OS benefit over 5-Fu, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (95%CI = 0.81-0.99) and 0.88 (95%CI = 0.80-0.96), respectively. The result also exhibited a trend that S-1 and capecitabine prolonged PFS in contrast to 5-Fu, with hazard ratios of 0.84 (95%CI = 0.66-1.02) and 0.84 (95%CI = 0.65-1.03), respectively. Additionally, all the three fluoropyrimidine-based regimens were similar in terms of ORR and grade 3 or 4 AEs. Compared with regimens based on 5-Fu, regimens based on S-1 or capecitabine demonstrated a significant OS improvement without compromise of AEs as first-line treatment in AGC in Asian population. S-1 and capecitabine can be interchangeable according their different emphasis on AEs.

  3. Navy Network Dependability: Models, Metrics, and Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    surveillance; TCDL = Tactical Common Data Link; UHF = ultra high frequency; UFO = ultra-high-frequency follow-on; WGS = Wideband Gapfiller Satellite. RAND...VOICE (DMR VALUES) UFO OE-82 UHF LOS VOICE (DMR VALUES) UHF SATCOM VOICE DMR UHF LOS VOICE DMR TVs ADMS KIV-7 COMSEC ADNS SW ADNS II HW ISNS SW ISNS HW...Data Link; UHF = ultra high frequency; UFO = ultra-high-frequency follow-on; WGS = Wideband Gapfiller Satellite. RAND MG1003-1.1 4 Navy Network

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Adjunctive Bevacizumab for Advanced Lung Cancer: The Cancer Research Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Carroll, Nikki M.; Delate, Thomas; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Kushi, Lawrence; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Loggers, Elizabeth T.; Menter, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bevacizumab plus carboplatin-paclitaxel (BCP) chemotherapy has FDA approval for advanced non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC) based upon improved survival in a clinical trial. However, sub-group analyses of this and other studies have suggested variable results by age and gender. Methods 1,605 HMO NS-NSCLC patients aged ≥ 21 years, diagnosed 2002–2010, who received carboplatin-paclitaxel (CP), with and without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of stage IIIB/IV disease were identified. Patients were categorized into three groups based on year of diagnosis and regimen during 120 days post-diagnosis: 1) diagnosed 2005–2010 and received BCP; 2) 2005–2010, CP (CP2005), and 3) 2002–2004, CP (CP2002). Survival differences between groups were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with several propensity score adjustments for demographic, comorbidity, and tumor characteristics. Multi-variable sub-analyses were also estimated. Results Median survival was 12.3 months (inter quartile range [IQR] 6.0–29.1) for BCP patients versus 8.8 months (IQR 3.7–21.3) for CP2005 patients, and 7.5 months (IQR 3.8–15.6) for CP2002 patients. In the propensity score adjusted models, BCP demonstrated a significant survival benefit with a hazard ratio of BCP relative to CP2005 and CP2002 patients of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66–0.94) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.52–0.75) respectively. In the multivariable-adjusted sub-analyses, relative to the CP2005 cohort, the BCP hazard ratios for patients age <65 years, age ≥65 years, and females were 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–1.00), 0.74 (95% CI 0.54–1.00) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.58–1.00). Conclusions In this community-based, comparative effectiveness analysis, we found an overall survival benefit for adults receiving BCP compared to CP. PMID:24633407

  5. Advances in Web-Based, Near Real-Time Climate Data Ingest For NOAA's Cooperative Volunteer Observation Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Redmond, K.; McCurdy, G.; Kelly, G.; Bonack, B.; Somrek, B.; Doesken, N.; Bollinger, J.

    2006-12-01

    NOAA is charged with collection, preservation and accessibility of a quality digital record of Cooperative Network data and metadata. This record has historically been derived through the imaging and keying of so- called "B-91' forms that are sent by observers and the National Weather Service to the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The processing time, including quality assurance checks and serial publication, typically is 45-60 days beyond the data month. Technological and communication advances, coupled with integrated climate and weather and water reporting needs have reached a threshold where near real-time (i.e., daily) reporting of observations is desirable. While ASOS data have long been directly reported to NCDC in this time horizon, National Weather Service Cooperative Network (COOP) data has continued to be recorded on forms. Timely data reporting is fundamental to the success of the U.S. effort in Global Earth Observations, especially for monitoring drought as part of the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS). Coupled with implementation planning for transition of Legacy COOP under NOAA's Environmental Real-Time Observing Network (NERON), work toward such a system is timely. NOAA is working closely with Regional Climate Centers, State Climatologists and other partners to develop a web-based interface based on existing systems (e.g., WxCoder, CoCoRAHS and COOLTAP) to provide for the electronic submission of daily COOP data to NCDC and the climate community. To this end, the following guiding principles have been identified: 1) Provide efficient, easy-to-use data entry system for participating COOP observers, 2) Ensure timely availability of COOP data for all customers, 3) Improve data quality through automated near-real-time data QA/QC, 4) Achieve a paperless electronic data collection, transmission, and archiving system. 5) Allow system flexibility to meet demands of integrating data from future observing systems This presentation

  6. TELECOM 1 multiservices network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, D.; Ramat, P.; Rancy, F.

    The main objectives of the TELECOM 1 French domestic satellite project are to set up a business communication network which is to carry a wide range of digital services including data, voice, and pictures between a number of small earth stations located on the subscribers' premises. The parallel development of terrestrial specialized services networks has enabled the fitting of the TELECOM 1 network with high interworking capabilities with these networks. It has also allowed TELECOM 1 to be designed as the basis of the Future Integrated Services Digital Network. The TELECOM 1 network consists of the terrestrial network, the satellite network, and the maintenance network. Various elements which include the terrestrial network; the satellite network, and its modulation, TDMA frame and terminals; the System Management Center; the signalling system; and the demand assignment operation which are involved in the operation of the multiservices network are presented. The TELECOM 1 network evolution until 1990 through the rapid development of the ISDN is discussed.

  7. Fronting, Voicing, and Stopping: Natural or English-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coberly, Mary Schramm

    Patterns which partly resemble the proposed "fronting,""voicing," and "stopping" tendencies exist to a statistically significant degree in David Olmsted's large sample of child speech. Instead of the "voicing" pattern that has been suggested, however, voiced stops seem to be favored word-initially, but voiced fricatives are favored word-finally.…

  8. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California, home of…

  9. Reported Voice Difficulties in Student Teachers: A Questionnaire Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield, Carol; Richards, Brian

    2007-01-01

    As professional voice users, teachers are particularly at risk of abusing their voices and developing voice disorders during their career. In spite of this, attention paid to voice care in the initial training and further professional development of teachers is unevenly spread and insufficient. This article describes a questionnaire survey of 171…

  10. Comparing Two Methods for Reducing Variability in Voice Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Interrater disagreements in ratings of quality plague the study of voice. This study compared 2 methods for handling this variability. Method: Listeners provided multiple breathiness ratings for 2 sets of pathological voices, one including 20 male and 20 female voices unselected for quality and one including 20 breathy female voices.…

  11. Sonorous Voice and Feminist Teaching: Lessons from Cavarero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    I claim that Adriana Cavarero's concept of sonorous voice is significant in feminist teaching because, as she argues, dominant concepts of voice refer to voice in semantic terms thereby discounting voice in sonorous terms. This process of "devocalization", spanning the history of Western philosophy, devalues the uniqueness embodied in…

  12. The Passive Voice in Computer Manuals: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelis, Louise H.

    1995-01-01

    Finds debate and confusion about the use of passive voice in texts in general, and in computer manuals in particular. Aims to provide clarity by presenting the "alternation principle" for the use of the passive voice in computer manuals, in which active voice is used for user actions and passive voice for automatic computer actions. (PA)

  13. Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides viewpoints on whether the constitutional amendment process needs to be changed or not: (1) "When in Doubt, Do Nothing" (R. B. Bernstein); (2) "Citizens for the Constitution" (Erwin Chemerinsky); (3) "Constitutional Proposals from the States" (John Kincaid); and (4) "I Have a Better Way" (Gregory D.…

  14. Recent advances in the development of a self-powered wireless sensor network for structural health prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Inman, Daniel J.; Ziehl, Paul H.; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Nanni, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the most recent advances in the development of a self powered wireless sensor network for steel and concrete bridges monitoring and prognosis. This five-year cross-disciplinary project includes development and deployment of a 4-channel acoustic emission wireless node powered by structural vibration and wind energy harvesting modules. In order to accomplish this ambitious goal, the project includes a series of tasks that encompassed a variety of developments such as ultra low power AE systems, energy harvester hardware and especial sensors for passive and active acoustic wave detection. Key studies on acoustic emission produced by corrosion on reinforced concrete and by crack propagation on steel components to develop diagnosis tools and models for bridge prognosis are also a part of the project activities. It is important to mention that the impact of this project extends beyond the area of bridge health monitoring. Several wireless prototype nodes have been already requested for applications on offshore oil platforms, composite ships, combat deployable bridges and wind turbines. This project was awarded to a joint venture formed by Mistras Group Inc, Virginia Tech, University of South Carolina and University of Miami and is sponsored through the NIST-TIP Grant #70NANB9H007.

  15. Advancing Dose-Response Assessment Methods for Environmental Regulatory Impact Analysis: A Bayesian Belief Network Approach Applied to Inorganic Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Zabinski, Joseph W.; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Fry, Rebecca C.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Dose-response functions used in regulatory risk assessment are based on studies of whole organisms and fail to incorporate genetic and metabolomic data. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) could provide a powerful framework for incorporating such data, but no prior research has examined this possibility. To address this gap, we develop a BBN-based model predicting birthweight at gestational age from arsenic exposure via drinking water and maternal metabolic indicators using a cohort of 200 pregnant women from an arsenic-endemic region of Mexico. We compare BBN predictions to those of prevailing slope-factor and reference-dose approaches. The BBN outperforms prevailing approaches in balancing false-positive and false-negative rates. Whereas the slope-factor approach had 2% sensitivity and 99% specificity and the reference-dose approach had 100% sensitivity and 0% specificity, the BBN's sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 30%, respectively. BBNs offer a promising opportunity to advance health risk assessment by incorporating modern genetic and metabolomic data. PMID:27747248

  16. VOT and the perception of voicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remez, Robert E.

    2001-05-01

    In explaining the ability to distinguish phonemes, linguists have described the dimension of voicing. Acoustic analyses have identified many correlates of the voicing contrast in initial, medial, and final consonants within syllables, and these in turn have motivated studies of the perceptual resolution of voicing. The framing conceptualization articulated by Lisker and Abramson 40 years ago in physiological, phonetic, and perceptual studies has been widely influential, and research on voicing now adopts their perspective without reservation. Their original survey included languages with two voicing categories (Dutch, Puerto Rican Spanish, Hungarian, Tamil, Cantonese, English), three voicing categories (Eastern Armenian, Thai, Korean), and four voicing categories (Hindi, Marathi). Perceptual studies inspired by this work have also ranged widely, including tests with different languages and with listeners of several species. The profound value of the analyses of Lisker and Abramson is evident in the empirical traction provided by the concept of VOT in research on the every important perceptual question about speech and language in our era. Some of these classic perceptual investigations will be reviewed. [Research supported by NIH (DC00308).

  17. Fast response to human voices in autism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fan; Agus, Trevor R.; Suied, Clara; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Yamada, Takashi; Komine, Yoko; Kato, Nobumasa; Kashino, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are reported to allocate less spontaneous attention to voices. Here, we investigated how vocal sounds are processed in ASD adults, when those sounds are attended. Participants were asked to react as fast as possible to target stimuli (either voices or strings) while ignoring distracting stimuli. Response times (RTs) were measured. Results showed that, similar to neurotypical (NT) adults, ASD adults were faster to recognize voices compared to strings. Surprisingly, ASD adults had even shorter RTs for voices than the NT adults, suggesting a faster voice recognition process. To investigate the acoustic underpinnings of this effect, we created auditory chimeras that retained only the temporal or the spectral features of voices. For the NT group, no RT advantage was found for the chimeras compared to strings: both sets of features had to be present to observe an RT advantage. However, for the ASD group, shorter RTs were observed for both chimeras. These observations indicate that the previously observed attentional deficit to voices in ASD individuals could be due to a failure to combine acoustic features, even though such features may be well represented at a sensory level. PMID:27193919

  18. Spirituality and hearing voices: considering the relation

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waegeli, Amanda; Watkins, John

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, some people have heard voices that others cannot hear. These have been variously understood as medical, psychological and spiritual phenomena. In this article we consider the specific role of spirituality in voice-hearing in two ways. First, we examine how spirituality may help or hinder people who hear voices. Benefits are suggested to include offering an alternative meaning to the experience which can give more control and comfort, enabling the development of specific coping strategies, increasing social support, and encouraging forgiveness. Potential drawbacks are noted to include increased distress and reduced control resulting from placing frightening or coercive constructions on voices, social isolation, the development of dysfunctional beliefs, and missed/delayed opportunities for successful mental health interventions. After examining problems surrounding classifying voices as either spiritual or psychotic, we move beyond an essentialist position to examine how such a classification is likely to be fluid, and how a given voice may move between these designations. We also highlight tensions between modernist and postmodernist approaches to voice-hearing. PMID:24273597

  19. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia.

  20. VOT and the perception of voicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remez, Robert E.

    2004-05-01

    In explaining the ability to distinguish phonemes, linguists have described the dimension of voicing. Acoustic analyses have identified many correlates of the voicing contrast in initial, medial, and final consonants within syllables, and these in turn have motivated studies of the perceptual resolution of voicing. The framing conceptualization articulated by Lisker and Abramson 40 years ago in physiological, phonetic, and perceptual studies has been widely influential, and research on voicing now adopts their perspective without reservation. Their original survey included languages with two voicing categories (Dutch, Puerto Rican Spanish, Hungarian, Tamil, Cantonese, English), three voicing categories (Eastern Armenian, Thai, Korean), and four voicing categories (Hindi, Marathi). Perceptual studies inspired by this work have also ranged widely, including tests with different languages and with listeners of several species. The profound value of the analyses of Lisker and Abramson is evident in the empirical traction provided by the concept of VOT in research on the every important perceptual question about speech and language in our era. Some of these classic perceptual investigations will be reviewed. [Research supported by NIH (DC00308).

  1. From high tech to high touch: integrating community voices in mobile mammography outreach.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Stephenie; Stephens, Sheila; Tephabock, Kevin; Brown, Pamela; Davis, Patty; Keresztury, James; Narsavage, Georgia

    2009-10-01

    Providing mobile screening mammography services across the state of West Virginia (WV) presents unique challenges. The ability of new machines to screen for breast cancer is modern medicine at its best. The use of the mobile unit, "Bonnie's Bus", holds promise for getting this high tech equipment to women in rural areas of West Virginia where it is most needed. Cancer detected in early stages is more treatable and women have a better chance of becoming survivors. The key to the program's success resides with the women who come for the screening, the extension network of community members who help set up and assist women to access the screening system, and community health care providers who care for the women if cancer is found. Linking "community voices" with the programs funded under the WV Komen grant screening programs provides a winning solution for West Virginia and the women served by Bonnie's Bus. Information obtained from five focus groups of 58 community leaders and women residing in rural WV was used to develop the mobile program. Building upon established relationships with the West Virginia Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program (WV BCCSP) coordinators and providers, outreach and information gleaned from WV communities, is being used to develop community partnerships based on mutual trust and respect to advance the common goal of decreasing breast cancer related illness and death in West Virginia women.

  2. Making women's voices heard: technological change and women's employment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng Choon Sim, C

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the 1994-96 UN University Institute for New Technologies policy research project on technological change and women's employment in Asia. The project was conducted to provide a voice for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) representing women workers. It focuses on the Malaysian experience in terms of the impact of technology on women's work and employment in the telecommunications and electronic industry. The results of the NGO research project revealed that the shift to a more intensive production has no uniform impact on women. Although new jobs were created, women employment status remains vulnerable. Meaning, female workers are afraid of the technological redundancy, casualization of labor, as well as health and safety hazards associated with new technology. A good example of the effect of industrialization to women¿s rights is the situation in Malaysia. Although cutting edge technology, combined with restructuring, has yielded some benefits in terms of a vastly expanded network and services, better performances and economies of scale, employment situation of the majority of women still remained in the low-skilled or semi-skilled categories. In order to upgrade women employment status along with the technological advancement, open communication and cooperation of all types is needed to ensure a successful outcome.

  3. Remote voice training: A case study on space shuttle applications, appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollakarimi, Cindy; Hamid, Tamin

    1990-01-01

    The Tile Automation System includes applications of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. An integrated set of rapid prototyping testbeds was developed which include speech recognition and synthesis, laser imaging systems, distributed Ada programming environments, distributed relational data base architectures, distributed computer network architectures, multi-media workbenches, and human factors considerations. Remote voice training in the Tile Automation System is discussed. The user is prompted over a headset by synthesized speech for the training sequences. The voice recognition units and the voice output units are remote from the user and are connected by Ethernet to the main computer system. A supervisory channel is used to monitor the training sequences. Discussions include the training approaches as well as the human factors problems and solutions for this system utilizing remote training techniques.

  4. Modelling a Voice Activated Speaker Identification System using MFCC-Pitch-Formant Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Avik; Ghosh, Rabindranath

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents the model of an automatic speaker identification system which will recognize users based on their voice. The system will be relatively independent of spoken words but will rely on the voice quality of a user i.e. use speech independent voice recognition. The basic approach was to create a front end system which will identify speech parameters of particular users and create speech feature vectors which will later be used to train a back-propagation neural network for the recognition phase. Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients and linear predictive coding coefficients have been used, along with Pitch and Formants, for feature extraction. The main area of focus of the paper is to outline the optimum set of speech features which form the most reliable model for an automatic speaker identification system.

  5. The Role of Listener Experience on Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) Ratings of Postthyroidectomy Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helou, Leah B.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Henry, Leonard R.; Coppit, George L.; Howard, Robin S.; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether experienced and inexperienced listeners rate postthyroidectomy voice samples similarly using the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V). Method: Prospective observational study of voice quality ratings of randomized and blinded voice samples was performed. Twenty-one postthyroidectomy patients'…

  6. Increased productivity in flight with voice commanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition technology has matured to the point where it can provide a viable means of increasing productivity by naturalizing the man-machine interface. With ever increasing workloads being placed on astronauts, speech recognition may provide an alternative means of system controlling that would reduce the task burden. Voice commanding, allowing hands-free operation, can be especially effective during operations requiring simultaneous system control. A flight experiment is under development to demonstrate the operational effectiveness of voice control by commanding the Space Shuttle's Closed Circuit Television (CCIV) system. This experiment will help direct future applications of voice entry to space operations.

  7. Using VoiceThread to Promote Collaborative Learning in On-Line Clinical Nurse Leader Courses.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ola H

    The movement to advance the clinical nurse leader (CNL) as an innovative new role for meeting higher health care quality standards continues with CNL programs offered on-line at colleges and universities nationwide. Collaborative learning activities offer the opportunity for CNL students to gain experience in working together in small groups to negotiate and solve care process problems. The challenge for nurse educators is to provide collaborative learning activities in an asynchronous learning environment that can be considered isolating by default. This article reports on the experiences of 17 CNL students who used VoiceThread, a cloud-based tool that allowed them to communicate asynchronously with one another through voice comments for collaboration and sharing knowledge. Participants identified benefits and drawbacks to using VoiceThread for collaboration as compared to text-based discussion boards. Students reported that the ability to hear the voice of their peers and the instructor helped them feel like they were in a classroom communicating with "real" instructor and peers. Students indicated a preference for on-line classes that used VoiceThread discussions to on-line classes that used only text-based discussion boards.

  8. Effect of voice quality on perceived height of English vowels.

    PubMed

    Lotto, A J; Holt, L L; Kluender, K R

    1997-01-01

    Across a variety of languages, phonation type and vocal-tract shape systematically covary in vowel production. Breathy phonation tends to accompany vowels produced with a raised tongue body and/or advanced tongue root. A potential explanation for this regularity, based on a hypothesized interaction between the acoustic effects of vocal-tract shape and phonation type, is evaluated. It is suggested that increased spectral tilt and first-harmonic amplitude resulting from breathy phonation interact with the lower-frequency first formant resulting from a raised tongue body to produce a perceptually 'higher' vowel. To test this hypothesis, breathy and modal versions of vowel series modelled after male and female productions of English vowel pairs /i/ and /i/, /u/ and /[symbol: see text]/, and /lamda/ and /a/ were synthesized. Results indicate that for most cases, breathy voice quality led to more tokens being identified as the higher vowel (i.e. /i/, /u/, /lamda/). In addition, the effect of voice quality is greater for vowels modelled after female productions. These results are consistent with a hypothesized perceptual explanation for the covariation of phonation type and tongue-root advancement in West African languages. The findings may also be relevant to gender differences in phonation type.

  9. [Complex voice assessment--Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    PubMed

    Pruszewicz, Antoni; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present own modification of Jacobson's The Voice Handicap Index, the self-estimation scale of the voice as a one part of the complex voice evaluation. The VHI contains three groups of questions of physical, emotional and functional subscales, which specify complaints during phonation scored in 4 points (0-4). The presented our own modification of the VHI may be useful in everyday clinical practice.

  10. Voice control of complex workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scruggs, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a speaker-dependent connected word recognition system to control an Air Traffic Control (ATC) demonstration workstation is described, also the work that went into developing that speech system. The workstation with speech recognition was demonstrated live at an Air Traffic Controller's Association convention in 1987. The purpose of the demonstration workstation is discussed, with the development of the speech interface highlighted. Included are: a brief description of the speech hardware and software, and overview of the speech driven workstation functions, a description of the speech vocabulary/grammer, and details that the enrollment and training procedures used in preparing the controllers for the demonstrations. Although no quantitative results are available, the potential benefits of using voice as an interface to this type of workstation are discussed and limitations of current speech technology and areas where more work is required are highlighted.

  11. Robust matching for voice recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  12. Voice Technology Using Personal Computers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    PROGRA -.. NDC -A85 -AiSG 743 VOICE TECNOLOGY USING PERSONAL COMPUTE3SI(U) alit FORCE 212 INST OF TECH MRIGJ4T-PATTERSON RFB ON G L TALBOT 1987...Inline( $2E/$C6/$06/ Int24Err $Ol/$50/$89/$F8/$2E/$A2/ Int24ErrCode /$58/$BO/$OO/$89/$EC/$5D/$CF); - 150 - i..r - l. .. { Turbo: PUSH BP save...caller’s stack frame MOV BP,SP Set up this procedure’s stack frame PUSH BP ? Inline: MOV BYTE CS:[INT24Err],I Set INT24Err to True PUSH AX MOV AX,DI Get INT

  13. [Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prostheses].

    PubMed

    Kramp, B; Dommerich, S

    2009-05-01

    Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis are mechanical aids for patients, who for different reasons underwent either tracheostomies or laryngectomies. In this review, indications, surgical procedures, and consequencies of the preceeding surgical intervention are reported for a better understanding of the specific requirements for the artificial aids. In spite of the increasing number of percutaneous dilatation tracheostomies, e. g. in intensive care units, a classical tracheostomy with epithelialized connections between trachea and skin still represents the method of choice for all cases, in which a longer lasting access to the trachea is requested. Special tubes made of different materials, offering different physical qualities are used to keep the tracheostomy open and guarantee an easy access to the lower respiratory tract. For each individual patient the most adequate device must be found out. Voice prostheses allow a fast and effective vocal rehabilitation after laryngectomy. As many models are on the market with differences in terms of material, principle and design of the underlying valve mechanism, size etc., again, in each individual patient the most suitable prosthesis has to be chosen. In combination with special heat and moisture exchangers (HME), such prostheses not only allow a good vocal but also pulmonary rehabilitation. The duration of such prostheses depend on material properties but also on formation of biofilms (mostly consisting of bacteria and fungi) that can destroy the valve mechanism. Whenever possible, and additional valve mechanism covering the opening of the tracheostomy should be used in order to avoid the necessity to close this opening manually during phonation. Each doctor taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost.

  14. Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Betty

    Networking is an information giving and receiving system, a support system, and a means whereby women can get ahead in careers--either in new jobs or in current positions. Networking information can create many opportunities: women can talk about how other women handle situations and tasks, and previously established contacts can be used in…

  15. Intercomparison of Methods for the Determination of Mixing-Layer Heights Using a New Network of Advanced Ceilometers in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbart, D. A. M.; Reichardt, J.; Teschke, G.

    2009-09-01

    algorithms for MLH detection from lidar or ceilometer exist: The peak technique, being invented for detection of the top of multiple aerosol layers from backscatter profiles; it bases on the analysis of collocated minima of the backscatter gradient and maxima of the backscatter variance, and the wavelet method, which utilizes the wavelet transform of the backscatter profile. This latter method has gained a great amount of popularity during the last years. Typically, the Haar wavelet transform is used because it is easy to implement and a powerful gradient locator and therefore a very promising mathematical tool. However, recently published wavelet-based methods do not take full advantage of the wavelet theory. Here, we present results of our efforts to develop an advanced version of the wavelet algorithm and, thus, a reliable MLH detector. First, the new MLH retrieval technique is described, demonstrated in a case study, and its results are compared to those obtained with the standard peak technique. Then, a comparison to MLHs derived from radiosonde data will be presented. Emphasis is also put on the assessment of the new ceilometer technology in comparison with other remote-sensing systems like a Ka-band cloud radar. Furthermore, a first impression of the spatial MLH variability over Germany is given by showing results from different ceilometer network sites. Finally, the potential for further improvements of the new profiling technique using the new type of ceilometer is discussed.

  16. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics are not effective. Bacterial infections of the larynx are much rarer and often are associated with ... nerves and muscles within the voice box or larynx. The most common neurological condition that affects the ...

  17. Speech therapy and voice recognition instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J.; Babcock, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of electronic circuit for examining variations in vocal excitation for diagnostic purposes and in speech recognition for determiniog voice patterns and pitch changes are described. Operation of the circuit is discussed and circuit diagram is provided.

  18. Academic voices and the challenges of tutoring.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes grounded theory research conducted amongst postregistration learners completing an undergraduate programme in nursing studies by distance learning at a UK higher education institute. The focus of enquiry was upon student support and learning. Research was conducted between 1996 and 2001 and included 41 interviews with students, 22 interviews with tutors, 24 tutorial observations and 69 field observations conducted within the distance learning centre. A key theme developing within the research was the use of 'academic voices' by students to help manage their support relationship with tutors. Academic voices describe the ways in which students asked for helped and admitted the tutor in varying degrees to their learning. Students adopted a 'voice' that they believed enabled them to manage learning and to determine just what sorts of help the tutor would be permitted to supply. The paper discusses the implications of the use of academic voices' by students for the support work of tutors.

  19. Voice Recognition in Face-Blind Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran R; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-04-01

    Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia.

  20. Voice quality variations in English sentences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Melissa

    2002-05-01

    This study examines the predictability of changes in voice quality at the sentence level in English. Sentence-level effects can only be isolated once the effects of linguistic factors (e.g., glottalization before a glottalized consonant), social or dialectal, and individual factors have been eliminated. In this study, these effects were controlled by obtaining a baseline value for each measurement for each word of the corpus. Voice quality variations were tracked using quantitative measurements derived from the LF model of the glottal source, and also qualitative descriptions of the waveforms. Preliminary results indicate that there are consistent voice quality differences at the sentence level and that pitch contours and sentence accent also produce predictable effects on voice quality.

  1. Voice processing in monkey and human brains.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K

    2008-09-01

    Studies in humans have indicated that the anterior superior temporal sulcus has an important role in the processing of information about human voices, especially the identification of talkers from their voice. A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with macaques provides strong evidence that anterior auditory fields, part of the auditory 'what' pathway, preferentially respond to changes in the identity of conspecifics, rather than specific vocalizations from the same individual.

  2. Voice Biometrics for Information Assurance Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    verification capability). Approach #2: The individual speaker selects a test phrase (our approach) — In the NRL voice biomet - rics system, the...templates must be issued to all users. Approach #2: Unprocessed speech waveforms (our approach) — If the fingerprint-matching biomet - rics method stores...is that the amount of data to be stored is larger compared to the previous approach. The minimum amount of information we need to perform voice biomet

  3. Detector For FM Voice Or Digital Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1989-01-01

    Frequency-modulation (FM) detector operates with either analog audio (usually voice) signals or digital signals sent by differential minimum-shift keying (DMSK). Performance expected similar to conventional limiter/discriminator FM detectors. Detector operates at baseband, obviating need for band-pass filtering at intermediate frequency. Baseband version made in very-large-scale integrated circuit. New detector useful in mobile communications, where trend is toward integrated voice and data service.

  4. Networking computers.

    PubMed

    McBride, D C

    1997-03-01

    This decade the role of the personal computer has shifted dramatically from a desktop device designed to increase individual productivity and efficiency to an instrument of communication linking people and machines in different places with one another. A computer in one city can communicate with another that may be thousands of miles away. Networking is how this is accomplished. Just like the voice network used by the telephone, computer networks transmit data and other information via modems over these same telephone lines. A network can be created over both short and long distances. Networks can be established within a hospital or medical building or over many hospitals or buildings covering many geographic areas. Those confined to one location are called LANs, local area networks. Those that link computers in one building to those at other locations are known as WANs, or wide area networks. The ultimate wide area network is the one we've all been hearing so much about these days--the Internet, and its World Wide Web. Setting up a network is a process that requires careful planning and commitment. To avoid potential pitfalls and to make certain the network you establish meets your needs today and several years down the road, several steps need to be followed. This article reviews the initial steps involved in getting ready to network.

  5. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex.

  6. Personality as a predictor of the value of voice.

    PubMed

    Avery, Derek R

    2003-09-01

    The opportunity for workers to provide input, also known as voice, has received extensive study. The contrasting relational and instrumental theories of voice have stimulated research investigating why people value voice. However, researchers have yet to assess individual differences in the actual value that people place on voice. This consideration is particularly important because the effect of voice on perceived procedural fairness varies according to the value of voice. This laboratory study is an examination of the Big Five (extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, neuroticism, and conscientiousness; L. Goldberg, 1992) and core self-evaluations (neuroticism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control; T. Judge, E. Locke, & C. Durham, 1997) as predictors of the value of voice for 96 undergraduates. Although both the Big Five and core self-evaluations accounted for significant variance in the value of voice, only 2 individual components (extraversion and self-efficacy) significantly predicted the value of voice.

  7. Exit, voice, governance and user-responsiveness: the case of English primary care trusts.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Susan; Sheaff, Rod; Dowling, Bernard

    2006-07-01

    Hirschman contrasts exit and voice as 'recuperation' mechanisms for making organisations responsive to users. However, the emergence of health-care quasi-markets and of network governance structures since Hirschman necessitate revising his theory, for they complicate the relationships between governance structures and recuperation mechanisms. Using a case study of nine primary care trusts (PCTs), this paper analyses the recuperation mechanisms, governance structures and relations between them in primary care in England. User voice can be exercised through dedicated networks besides hierarchies. As well as the 'user exit' described by Hirschman, two new 'exit' mechanisms now exist in quasi-markets. Commissioner exit occurs when a third-party payer stops using a given provider. Professional proxy exit occurs when a general practitioner (GP) fund-holder (or analogous budget-holder) behaves similarly. Neither exit mechanism requires the existence of mechanisms for user exit from healthcare purchasers, provided strong voice mechanisms exist instead to make commissioners responsive to users' demands. Establishing such voice mechanisms is not straightforward, however, as the experience of English PCTs illustrates.

  8. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  9. Student Voice as a Contested Practice: Power and Participation in Two Student Voice Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carol; Taylor, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This article applies theoretical understandings of power relations within student voice work to two empirical examples of school-based student voice projects. The article builds on and refines theoretical understandings of power and participation developed in previous articles written by the authors. The first article argued that at the heart of…

  10. Voices We Want to Hear and Voices We Don't.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.; Nicholls, John G.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses theories about knowledge and schooling and describes democratic classrooms. Students need empowerment to have a voice in curriculum design and governance. Schools that foster student voice must establish conditions for democratic talk in class. Students must be taught to respect others; they cannot be allowed to denigrate…

  11. Voice Over Internet Protocol Testbed Design for Non-Intrusive, Objective Voice Quality Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    recognition software is successfully used to measure the impact of the channel on speech intelligibility. The experiments and analysis conducted provide a...Experimental results are extended by incorporating E-model delay considerations. Commercial voice recognition software is successfully used to measure the...voice recognition technologies suggest future work involving the application of commercial software for collection of call intelligibility data

  12. Quick Screen for Voice and Supplementary Documents for Identifying Pediatric Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Linda; Stemple, Joseph C.; Glaze, Leslie; Kelchner, Lisa N.

    2004-01-01

    Three documents are provided to help the speech-language pathologist (SLP) identify children with voice disorders and educate family members. The first is a quickly administered screening test that covers multiple aspects of voice, respiration, and resonance. It was tested on 3,000 children in kindergarten and first and fifth grades, and on 47…

  13. 'Inner voices': the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts.

    PubMed

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different 'modes' of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating 'voice' sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a 'voice'-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex.

  14. National Strategic Research Plan for Hearing and Hearing Impairment and Voice and Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This monograph presents an update to the strategic plan of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), focusing on recent accomplishments, program goals, strategies, and priorities in research opportunities in the areas of hearing/hearing impairment and voice/voice disorders. Specifically considered for the…

  15. Paper and Voice MAYSI-2: Format Comparability and Concordance with the Voice DISC-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Maureen A.; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine the comparability of paper and voice formats of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2) as well as each format's concordance with the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) among adjudicated youth. Comparability is assessed among 248 youths admitted to a South Carolina Assessment…

  16. The Acoustic Voice Quality Index: Toward Improved Treatment Outcomes Assessment in Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Roy, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Voice practitioners require an objective index of dysphonia severity as a means to reliably track treatment outcomes. To ensure ecological validity however, such a measure should survey both sustained vowels and continuous speech. In an earlier study, a multivariate acoustic model referred to as the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI), consisting…

  17. Implementation of the Intelligent Voice System for Kazakh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yessenbayev, Zh; Saparkhojayev, N.; Tibeyev, T.

    2014-04-01

    Modern speech technologies are highly advanced and widely used in day-to-day applications. However, this is mostly concerned with the languages of well-developed countries such as English, German, Japan, Russian, etc. As for Kazakh, the situation is less prominent and research in this field is only starting to evolve. In this research and application-oriented project, we introduce an intelligent voice system for the fast deployment of call-centers and information desks supporting Kazakh speech. The demand on such a system is obvious if the country's large size and small population is considered. The landline and cell phones become the only means of communication for the distant villages and suburbs. The system features Kazakh speech recognition and synthesis modules as well as a web-GUI for efficient dialog management. For speech recognition we use CMU Sphinx engine and for speech synthesis- MaryTTS. The web-GUI is implemented in Java enabling operators to quickly create and manage the dialogs in user-friendly graphical environment. The call routines are handled by Asterisk PBX and JBoss Application Server. The system supports such technologies and protocols as VoIP, VoiceXML, FastAGI, Java SpeechAPI and J2EE. For the speech recognition experiments we compiled and used the first Kazakh speech corpus with the utterances from 169 native speakers. The performance of the speech recognizer is 4.1% WER on isolated word recognition and 6.9% WER on clean continuous speech recognition tasks. The speech synthesis experiments include the training of male and female voices.

  18. Sex hormones and the female voice.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, J; Abitbol, P; Abitbol, B

    1999-09-01

    In the following, the authors examine the relationship between hormonal climate and the female voice through discussion of hormonal biochemistry and physiology and informal reporting on a study of 197 women with either premenstrual or menopausal voice syndrome. These facts are placed in a larger historical and cultural context, which is inextricably bound to the understanding of the female voice. The female voice evolves from childhood to menopause, under the varied influences of estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone. These hormones are the dominant factor in determining voice changes throughout life. For example, a woman's voice always develops masculine characteristics after an injection of testosterone. Such a change is irreversible. Conversely, male castrati had feminine voices because they lacked the physiologic changes associated with testosterone. The vocal instrument is comprised of the vibratory body, the respiratory power source and the oropharyngeal resonating chambers. Voice is characterized by its intensity, frequency, and harmonics. The harmonics are hormonally dependent. This is illustrated by the changes that occur during male and female puberty: In the female, the impact of estrogens at puberty, in concert with progesterone, produces the characteristics of the female voice, with a fundamental frequency one third lower than that of a child. In the male, androgens released at puberty are responsible for the male vocal frequency, an octave lower than that of a child. Premenstrual vocal syndrome is characterized by vocal fatigue, decreased range, a loss of power and loss of certain harmonics. The syndrome usually starts some 4-5 days before menstruation in some 33% of women. Vocal professionals are particularly affected. Dynamic vocal exploration by televideoendoscopy shows congestion, microvarices, edema of the posterior third of the vocal folds and a loss of its vibratory amplitude. The authors studied 97 premenstrual women who were prescribed a

  19. Voice: challenging the stigma of addiction; a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Paivinen, Helena; Bade, Sherrie

    2008-06-01

    Voice is a collection of art, poetry and narratives created by women living with a history of substance use and addiction. The intent of this collection is to explore women's understanding of harm reduction, to challenge the effects of stigmatization and to explore the experiences of those who have historically been silenced or devalued. Voice was conceived by a group of Kamloops nurses who came together and used their knowledge of mainstream systems, aesthetic knowing, feminism and substance use to guide the development and implementation of this project. During weekly gatherings, women with histories of substance use and addiction worked alongside a nurse in the co-creation of artistic expressions. Gender sensitivity, trust, equality and respect were vital to the success of this process. A selection of the women's art was presented at several venues, including an International Conference on Drug Related Harm, a Nursing Conference and a local art gallery. The positive community response to the women's work contributed to feelings of great pride and enhanced the women's confidence in their ability to express themselves. Throughout this process, women had the opportunity to develop social networks and to become aware of the value that their creative knowledge has to the community in which they live. Gender sensitive programming that is inclusive, participative and promotes women's health is required to fully understand women's experience of substance use and addiction in relation to harm reduction. Participation in projects such as Voice supports and encourages women to make sense of the world they live in and encourages health-promoting activities. The promising outcomes of this project might well be developed by nurses in other settings to further promote the health of women who have traditionally been stigmatized.

  20. Effect of voice training in the voice rehabilitation of patients with vocal cord polyps after surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIN, LI; SUN, NA; YANG, QIUHUA; ZHANG, YA; SHEN, JI; SHI, LIXIN; FANG, QIN; SUN, GUANGBIN

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of voice training on the vocal rehabilitation of patients with vocal cords polyps following phonomicrosurgery. A total of 60 cases of vocal cord polyps treated by laser phonomicrosurgery were randomly divided into training and control groups with 30 cases in each group. The patients were treated with laser phonomicrosurgery, routine postoperative treatment and nursing. The training group were additionally treated with vocal training, including relaxation training, breathing training, basic pronunciation training, chewing voice training and tone sandhi pronunciation training, and attention was paid to the training steps. Subjective and objective voice evaluations of the two groups were compared three months after the surgery and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Voice training may significantly improve the postoperative voice quality of patients with vocal cord polyps and support rehabilitation. PMID:24669244

  1. Social Networking Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Just a few years ago, social networking meant little more to educators than the headache of determining whether to penalize students for inappropriate activities captured on Facebook or MySpace. Now, teachers and students have an array of social-networking sites and tools--from Ning to VoiceThread and Second Life--to draw on for such serious uses…

  2. Implicit multisensory associations influence voice recognition.

    PubMed

    von Kriegstein, Katharina; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2006-10-01

    Natural objects provide partially redundant information to the brain through different sensory modalities. For example, voices and faces both give information about the speech content, age, and gender of a person. Thanks to this redundancy, multimodal recognition is fast, robust, and automatic. In unimodal perception, however, only part of the information about an object is available. Here, we addressed whether, even under conditions of unimodal sensory input, crossmodal neural circuits that have been shaped by previous associative learning become activated and underpin a performance benefit. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging before, while, and after participants learned to associate either sensory redundant stimuli, i.e. voices and faces, or arbitrary multimodal combinations, i.e. voices and written names, ring tones, and cell phones or brand names of these cell phones. After learning, participants were better at recognizing unimodal auditory voices that had been paired with faces than those paired with written names, and association of voices with faces resulted in an increased functional coupling between voice and face areas. No such effects were observed for ring tones that had been paired with cell phones or names. These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to ecologically valid and sensory redundant stimulus pairs, such as voices and faces, induces specific multisensory associations. Consistent with predictive coding theories, associative representations become thereafter available for unimodal perception and facilitate object recognition. These data suggest that for natural objects effective predictive signals can be generated across sensory systems and proceed by optimization of functional connectivity between specialized cortical sensory modules.

  3. Classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aid using multiple classifier fusion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Speech production and speech phonetic features gradually improve in children by obtaining audio feedback after cochlear implantation or using hearing aids. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate automated classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aids. Methods We considered 4 disorder categories in children's voice using the following definitions: Level_1: Children who produce spontaneous phonation and use words spontaneously and imitatively. Level_2: Children, who produce spontaneous phonation, use words spontaneously and make short sentences imitatively. Level_3: Children, who produce spontaneous phonations, use words and arbitrary sentences spontaneously. Level_4: Normal children without any hearing loss background. Thirty Persian children participated in the study, including six children in each level from one to three and 12 children in level four. Voice samples of five isolated Persian words "mashin", "mar", "moosh", "gav" and "mouz" were analyzed. Four levels of the voice quality were considered, the higher the level the less significant the speech disorder. "Frame-based" and "word-based" features were extracted from voice signals. The frame-based features include intensity, fundamental frequency, formants, nasality and approximate entropy and word-based features include phase space features and wavelet coefficients. For frame-based features, hidden Markov models were used as classifiers and for word-based features, neural network was used. Results After Classifiers fusion with three methods: Majority Voting Rule, Linear Combination and Stacked fusion, the best classification rates were obtained using frame-based and word-based features with MVR rule (level 1:100%, level 2: 93.75%, level 3: 100%, level 4: 94%). Conclusions Result of this study may help speech pathologists follow up voice disorder recovery in children with cochlear implantation or hearing aid who are in the same age range. PMID

  4. A perspective on the advancement of natural language processing tasks via topological analysis of complex networks. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael

    2014-12-01

    Concepts and methods of complex networks have been applied to probe the properties of a myriad of real systems [1]. The finding that written texts modeled as graphs share several properties of other completely different real systems has inspired the study of language as a complex system [2]. Actually, language can be represented as a complex network in its several levels of complexity. As a consequence, morphological, syntactical and semantical properties have been employed in the construction of linguistic networks [3]. Even the character level has been useful to unfold particular patterns [4,5]. In the review by Cong and Liu [6], the authors emphasize the need to use the topological information of complex networks modeling the various spheres of the language to better understand its origins, evolution and organization. In addition, the authors cite the use of networks in applications aiming at holistic typology and stylistic variations. In this context, I will discuss some possible directions that could be followed in future research directed towards the understanding of language via topological characterization of complex linguistic networks. In addition, I will comment the use of network models for language processing applications. Additional prospects for future practical research lines will also be discussed in this comment.

  5. The Patient Outcomes Research To Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network Adult Overweight and Obesity Cohort: Development and Description

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) created a new national network infrastructure to enable large-scale observational comparative effectiveness research across diverse clinical care settings. As part of testing the feasibility of this effort, each clinical data research network (CDRN) was required to construct cohorts of patients, including one of patients with overweight and obesity. Objective The aim of this paper is to report on the development of the Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) overweight and obese cohort, which includes patients from 10 health plans located across the United States. Methods Information was gathered from each plan’s electronic health records (EHR). Eligibility included 18 years of age or older, a valid height and weight in 2012 or 2013, and body mass index (BMI) greater than 22.9 kg/m2. Pre-diabetes and diabetes status was defined using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, using lab values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or fasting glucose available in the EHR. Hypertension was identified from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis codes. Individuals were classified into BMI categories: healthy weight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese class 1 (30.0-34.9 kg/m2), obese class 2 (35.0-39.9 kg/m2), obese class 3 (40.0-49.0 kg/m2), and obese class 4 (>50.0 kg/m2). Results A cohort of 5,293,458 non-pregnant adults was created. Weight status was 20.39% (1,079,289/5,293,458) healthy weight, 40.40% (2,138,520/5,293,458) overweight, 22.78% (1,205,866/5,293,458) obese class 1, 9.86% (521,872/5,293,458) obese class 2, 5.59% (295,786/5,293,458) obese class 3, and 0.98% (52,125/5,293,458) obese class 4. Race/ethnicity was 49.02% (2,594,776/5,293,458) non-Hispanic white, 22.89% (1,211,677/5,293,458) Hispanic, 10.40% (550,608/5,293,458) Asian, 10.83% (573,506/5,293,458) black, and 6.59% (348,830/5,293,458) other. About 34.33% (1

  6. Adaptive Training for Voice Conversion Based on Eigenvoices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Yamato; Toda, Tomoki; Saruwatari, Hiroshi; Shikano, Kiyohiro

    In this paper, we describe a novel model training method for one-to-many eigenvoice conversion (EVC). One-to-many EVC is a technique for converting a specific source speaker's voice into an arbitrary target speaker's voice. An eigenvoice Gaussian mixture model (EV-GMM) is trained in advance using multiple parallel data sets consisting of utterance-pairs of the source speaker and many pre-stored target speakers. The EV-GMM can be adapted to new target speakers using only a few of their arbitrary utterances by estimating a small number of adaptive parameters. In the adaptation process, several parameters of the EV-GMM to be fixed for different target speakers strongly affect the conversion performance of the adapted model. In order to improve the conversion performance in one-to-many EVC, we propose an adaptive training method of the EV-GMM. In the proposed training method, both the fixed parameters and the adaptive parameters are optimized by maximizing a total likelihood function of the EV-GMMs adapted to individual pre-stored target speakers. We conducted objective and subjective evaluations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed training method. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptive training yields significant quality improvements in the converted speech.

  7. Perception of aperiodicity in pathological voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.

    2005-04-01

    Although jitter, shimmer, and noise acoustically characterize all voice signals, their perceptual importance in naturally produced pathological voices has not been established psychoacoustically. To determine the role of these attributes in the perception of vocal quality, listeners were asked to adjust levels of jitter, shimmer, and the noise-to-signal ratio in a speech synthesizer, so that synthetic voices matched naturally produced tokens. Results showed that, although listeners agreed well in their judgments of the noise-to-signal ratio, they did not agree with one another in their chosen settings for jitter and shimmer. Noise-dependent differences in listeners' ability to detect changes in amounts of jitter and shimmer implicate both listener insensitivity and inability to isolate jitter and shimmer as separate dimensions in the overall pattern of aperiodicity in a voice as causes of this poor agreement. These results suggest that jitter and shimmer are not useful as independent indices of perceived vocal quality, apart from their acoustic contributions to the overall pattern of spectrally shaped noise in a voice. .

  8. [Speech rehabilitation using Provox voice prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Morshed, Kamal; Gołabek, Wiesław; Szymański, Marcin; Olszański, Witold

    2005-01-01

    The first voice prosthesis was described in 1972 by Mozolewski. Eight years later Blom and Singer constructed the first commercial prosthesis. In 1988 another prosthesis was presented as Provox system prosthesis. The aim of the study was to describe the technique of tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) and to present two years results of the technique performed in 21 patients. Primary TEP with immediate implantation of the Provox 2 prosthesis was applied in 16 (76%) patients. In five patients (24%) secondary TEP was performed. All the patient with primary TEP had cricopharyngeal myotomy. In 7 patients the vocal prosthesis was exchanged. In five because of leakage through the valve and in two patients the vocal prosthesis was extruded. Leakage around the prosthesis occurred in two patients with secondary TEP. The mean device-related lifetime was 216 days and ranged from 30 to 540 days. In non-radiated patients the lifetime of the prosthesis was 255 days and in patients after radiotherapy the lifetime was 150 days. In all the patients the prosthetic voice was more similar to normal voice than in patients with esophageal speech. The implantation of the voice prosthesis is a simple method of restoring of a good quality voice enabling communication.

  9. Gender differences in the temporal voice areas

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Merle-Marie; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Giordano, Bruno L.; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    There is not only evidence for behavioral differences in voice perception between female and male listeners, but also recent suggestions for differences in neural correlates between genders. The fMRI functional voice localizer (comprising a univariate analysis contrasting stimulation with vocal vs. non-vocal sounds) is known to give robust estimates of the temporal voice areas (TVAs). However, there is growing interest in employing multivariate analysis approaches to fMRI data (e.g., multivariate pattern analysis; MVPA). The aim of the current study was to localize voice-related areas in both female and male listeners and to investigate whether brain maps may differ depending on the gender of the listener. After a univariate analysis, a random effects analysis was performed on female (n = 149) and male (n = 123) listeners and contrasts between them were computed. In addition, MVPA with a whole-brain searchlight approach was implemented and classification maps were entered into a second-level permutation based random effects models using statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM; Nichols and Holmes, 2002). Gender differences were found only in the MVPA. Identified regions were located in the middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (bilateral) and the middle superior temporal gyrus (right hemisphere). Our results suggest differences in classifier performance between genders in response to the voice localizer with higher classification accuracy from local BOLD signal patterns in several temporal-lobe regions in female listeners. PMID:25126055

  10. Multilingual subjective methodology and evaluation of low-rate digital voice processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimolitsas, Spiros; Corcoran, Franklin L.; Baraniecki, Marion R.; Phipps, John G., Jr.

    The methodology and results for a multilingual evaluation of source encoding algorithms operating at 16 kbit/s are presented. The evaluation was conducted in three languages (English, French, and Madarin), using listener opinion subjective assessments to determine whether 'toll-quality' performance is possible at 16 kbit/s. The study demonstrated that toll-quality voice is indeed possible at 16 kbit/s, and that several of the methods evaluated are more robust under high bit error conditions than either 32- or 64-kbit/s encoding. Thus, 16-kbit/s voice coding technology is currently suitable for many applications with the public-switched telephone network, including the next generation of digital circuit multiplication equipment, and integrated services digital network videotelephony.

  11. Voice: Reading to Hear and Revising to Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of voice in writing and suggests that the current interest in the writing process encourages students to increase their power of expression without distorting their voice beyond recognition. Includes samples of student writing. (MM)

  12. Practical applications of interactive voice technologies: Some accomplishments and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Michael W.; Hicklin, M. B.; Porter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A technology assessment of the application of computers and electronics to complex systems is presented. Three existing systems which utilize voice technology (speech recognition and speech generation) are described. Future directions in voice technology are also described.

  13. Secure voice-based authentication for mobile devices: vaulted voice verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. C.; Scheirer, Walter J.; Boult, Terrance E.

    2013-05-01

    As the use of biometrics becomes more wide-spread, the privacy concerns that stem from the use of biometrics are becoming more apparent. As the usage of mobile devices grows, so does the desire to implement biometric identification into such devices. A large majority of mobile devices being used are mobile phones. While work is being done to implement different types of biometrics into mobile phones, such as photo based biometrics, voice is a more natural choice. The idea of voice as a biometric identifier has been around a long time. One of the major concerns with using voice as an identifier is the instability of voice. We have developed a protocol that addresses those instabilities and preserves privacy. This paper describes a novel protocol that allows a user to authenticate using voice on a mobile/remote device without compromising their privacy. We first discuss the Vaulted Verification protocol, which has recently been introduced in research literature, and then describe its limitations. We then introduce a novel adaptation and extension of the Vaulted Verification protocol to voice, dubbed Vaulted Voice Verification (V3). Following that we show a performance evaluation and then conclude with a discussion of security and future work.

  14. Using Ambulatory Voice Monitoring to Investigate Common Voice Disorders: Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Zañartu, Matías; Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Guttag, John V.; Espinoza, Víctor M.; Cortés, Juan P.; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Many common voice disorders are chronic or recurring conditions that are likely to result from inefficient and/or abusive patterns of vocal behavior, referred to as vocal hyperfunction. The clinical management of hyperfunctional voice disorders would be greatly enhanced by the ability to monitor and quantify detrimental vocal behaviors during an individual’s activities of daily life. This paper provides an update on ongoing work that uses a miniature accelerometer on the neck surface below the larynx to collect a large set of ambulatory data on patients with hyperfunctional voice disorders (before and after treatment) and matched-control subjects. Three types of analysis approaches are being employed in an effort to identify the best set of measures for differentiating among hyperfunctional and normal patterns of vocal behavior: (1) ambulatory measures of voice use that include vocal dose and voice quality correlates, (2) aerodynamic measures based on glottal airflow estimates extracted from the accelerometer signal using subject-specific vocal system models, and (3) classification based on machine learning and pattern recognition approaches that have been used successfully in analyzing long-term recordings of other physiological signals. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential for ambulatory voice monitoring to improve the diagnosis and treatment of common hyperfunctional voice disorders. PMID:26528472

  15. Research on realization scheme of interactive voice response (IVR) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Zhu, Guangxi

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, a novel interactive voice response (IVR) system is proposed, which is apparently different from the traditional. Using software operation and network control, the IVR system is presented which only depends on software in the server in which the system lies and the hardware in network terminals on user side, such as gateway (GW), personal gateway (PG), PC and so on. The system transmits the audio using real time protocol (RTP) protocol via internet to the network terminals and controls flow using finite state machine (FSM) stimulated by H.245 massages sent from user side and the system control factors. Being compared with other existing schemes, this IVR system results in several advantages, such as greatly saving the system cost, fully utilizing the existing network resources and enhancing the flexibility. The system is capable to be put in any service server anywhere in the Internet and even fits for the wireless applications based on packet switched communication. The IVR system has been put into reality and passed the system test.

  16. Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) Utilization in Remote Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Susan; Bradford, Bob; Chamberlain, Jim; Nichols, Kelvin; Bailey, Darrell (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Due to limited crew availability to support science and the large number of experiments to be operated simultaneously, telescience is key to a successful International Space Station (ISS) science program. Crew, operations personnel at NASA centers, and researchers at universities and companies around the world must work closely together to perform scientific experiments on-board ISS. NASA has initiated use of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) to supplement the existing HVoDS mission voice communications system used by researchers. The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) connects researchers to mission support "loops" or conferences via Internet Protocol networks such as the high-speed Internet 2. Researchers use IVoDS software on personal computers to talk with operations personnel at NASA centers. IVoDS also has the capability, if authorized, to allow researchers to communicate with the ISS crew during experiment operations. NODS was developed by Marshall Space Flight Center with contractors A2 Technology, Inc. FVC, Lockheed- Martin, and VoIP Group. IVoDS is currently undergoing field-testing with full deployment for up to 50 simultaneous users expected in 2002. Research is currently being performed to take full advantage of the digital world - the Personal Computer and Internet Protocol networks - to qualitatively enhance communications among ISS operations personnel. In addition to the current voice capability, video and data-sharing capabilities are being investigated. Major obstacles being addressed include network bandwidth capacity and strict security requirements. Techniques being investigated to reduce and overcome these obstacles include emerging audio-video protocols and network technology including multicast and quality-of-service.

  17. Prospective Functional Voice Assessment in Patients Undergoing Thyroid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shaha, Ashok R.; Orlikoff, Robert F.; Nissan, Aviram; Kornak, Mary-Frances; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Boyle, Jay O.; Shah, Jatin P.; Brennan, Murray F.; Kraus, Dennis H.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To analyze voice function before and after thyroidectomy for patients with normal preoperative voice using a standardized multidimensional voice assessment protocol. Summary Background Data The natural history of post-thyroidectomy voice disturbances for patients with preserved laryngeal nerve function has not been systematically studied and characterized with the intent of using the data for postoperative voice rehabilitation. Methods During a prospective single-arm study, patients with normal voice underwent functional voice testing using a standardized voice grading scale and a battery of acoustic, aerodynamic, glottographic, and videostroboscopic tests before, 1 week after, and 3 months after thyroidectomy. Differences in observed sample means were evaluated using analysis of covariance or t test; categorical data was analyzed using the Fisher exact or chi-square test. Results Fifty-four patients were enrolled; 50 and 46 were evaluable at 1 week and 3 months, respectively. No patient developed recurrent laryngeal nerve injury; one had superior laryngeal nerve injury. Fifteen (30%) patients reported early subjective voice change and seven (14%) reported late (3-month) subjective voice change. Forty-two (84%) patients had significant objective change in at least one voice parameter. Six (12%) had significant alterations in more than three voice measures, of which four (67%) were symptomatic, whereas 25% with three or fewer objective changes had symptoms. Patients with persistent voice change at 3 months had an increased likelihood of multiple (more than three) early objective changes (43% vs. 7%). Early maximum phonational frequency range and vocal jitter changes from baseline were significantly associated with voice symptoms at 3 months. Conclusions Early vocal symptoms are common following thyroidectomy and persist in 14% of patients. Multiple (more than three) objective voice changes correlate with early and late postoperative symptoms. Alterations

  18. Network Quality of Service Monitoring for IP Telephony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghita, B. V.; Furnell, S. M.; Lines, B. M.; Le-Foll, D.; Ifeachor, E. C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the development of real-time applications on the Internet for telecommunications and presents a non-intrusive way of determining network performance parameters for voice packet flows within a voice over IP (Internet Protocol), or Internet telephony call. Considers measurement of quality of service and describes results of a preliminary…

  19. Effects of voice on emotional arousal

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

  20. Voice and pronunciation of cochlear implant speakers.

    PubMed

    Horga, Damir; Liker, Marko

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cochlear implants have the ability to exercise auditory control over their own speech production and over the speech of others, which is important for the development of speech control. In the present investigation three groups of 10 subjects were compared. The groups comprised: (1) cochlear implant users, (2) profoundly deaf using traditional hearing aids, and (3) hearing controls. The subjects in three groups were matched in age. While repeating after a model the subjects were recorded and the following linguistic voice variables were analysed: (1) vowel formant space, (2) voice vs. voiceless difference, (3) closure duration and VOT, (4) word accent production, (5) sentence stress production, (6) voice quality, (7) pronunciation quality. Acoustic analysis and perceptual assessment by phoneticians showed that in great majority of variables, subjects with cochlear implants performed better than the profoundly deaf subjects with traditional hearing-aids.

  1. Forensic voice comparison and the paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2009-12-01

    We are in the midst of a paradigm shift in the forensic comparison sciences. The new paradigm can be characterised as quantitative data-based implementation of the likelihood-ratio framework with quantitative evaluation of the reliability of results. The new paradigm was widely adopted for DNA profile comparison in the 1990s, and is gradually spreading to other branches of forensic science, including forensic voice comparison. The present paper first describes the new paradigm, then describes the history of its adoption for forensic voice comparison over approximately the last decade. The paradigm shift is incomplete and those working in the new paradigm still represent a minority within the forensic-voice-comparison community.

  2. Jordanian teachers' perceptions of voice handicap.

    PubMed

    Marie, Basem S; Natour, Yaser S; Haj-Tas, Maisa A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate if Jordanian school teachers perceive their voice as handicapped using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)-Arab. The effect of teachers' age, gender, years of teaching, class taught, and education level on VHI was examined. A total of 289 teachers and a control group of 100 participants took part in the study. The teachers' group differed significantly from the control group in the physical, emotional, and functional subscales and the total score of the VHI-Arab. There was no significant difference among teachers in any of the three VHI subscales or total regarding gender, age, years of teaching experience, education level, and classes taught. Jordanian teachers have a strong perception of voice handicap. Thus, preventive and treatment vocal programs are strongly advised.

  3. Adaptive Suppression of Noise in Voice Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David; DeVault, James A.; Birr, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    A subsystem for the adaptive suppression of noise in a voice communication system effects a high level of reduction of noise that enters the system through microphones. The subsystem includes a digital signal processor (DSP) plus circuitry that implements voice-recognition and spectral- manipulation techniques. The development of the adaptive noise-suppression subsystem was prompted by the following considerations: During processing of the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center, voice communications among test team members have been significantly impaired in several instances because some test participants have had to communicate from locations with high ambient noise levels. Ear protection for the personnel involved is commercially available and is used in such situations. However, commercially available noise-canceling microphones do not provide sufficient reduction of noise that enters through microphones and thus becomes transmitted on outbound communication links.

  4. The processing of voice identity in developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran R; Corrow, Sherryse L; Pancaroglu, Raika; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental prosopagnosia is a disorder of face recognition that is believed to reflect impairments of visual mechanisms. However, voice recognition has rarely been evaluated in developmental prosopagnosia to clarify if it is modality-specific or part of a multi-modal person recognition syndrome. Objective Our goal was to examine whether voice discrimination and/or recognition are impaired in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia. Design/Methods 73 healthy controls and 12 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia performed a match-to-sample test of voice discrimination and a test of short-term voice familiarity, as well as a questionnaire about face and voice identification in daily life. Results Eleven subjects with developmental prosopagnosia scored within the normal range for voice discrimination and voice recognition. One was impaired on discrimination and borderline for recognition, with equivalent scores for face and voice recognition, despite being unaware of voice processing problems. Conclusions Most subjects with developmental prosopagnosia are not impaired in short-term voice familiarity, providing evidence that developmental prosopagnosia is usually a modality-specific disorder of face recognition. However, there may be heterogeneity, with a minority having additional voice processing deficits. Objective tests of voice recognition should be integrated into the diagnostic evaluation of this disorder to distinguish it from a multi-modal person recognition syndrome. PMID:26321070

  5. The Adolescent Female Changing Voice: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…

  6. A Sociology of Pedagogic Voice: Power, Inequality and Pupil Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine; Reay, Diane

    2007-01-01

    The concept of student voice is problematic. This paper considers two different traditions which theorise the notion of voice. The first is located within critical sociological studies of youth identity, drawing upon the notion of the often silenced voices of the marginalised, "Othered" or subordinated as a means of exposing oppressive…

  7. Original Knowledge, Gender and the Word's Mythology: Voicing the Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…

  8. Factors Predicting the Use of Passive Voice in Newspaper Headlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciulla, Linnea Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Information packaging researchers have found that certain factors influence active/passive voice alternations: Animacy, Definiteness and Weight influence argument order and thus choice of voice. Researchers in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and psycholinguistics claim that voice is influenced by social factors, e.g. gender, social standing, or…

  9. Acoustic Analysis Before and After Voice Therapy for Laryngeal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, S S; Gautam, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Voice problems caused by pathologies in vocal folds are well known. Some types of laryngeal pathologies have certain acoustic characteristics. Objective evaluation helps characterize the voice and voice problems providing supporting evidences, severity of disorders. It helps assess the response to the treatment and measures the outcomes. Objective The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the voice therapy and quantify the results objectively by voice parameters. Method Study includes 61 patients who presented with different types of laryngeal pathologies. Acoustic analyses and voice assessment was done with Dr. Speech ver 4 (Tiger DRS Inc.). Acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitters, shimmers, Harmonic to noise ratio (HNR), Normalized noise energy (NNE) were analyzed before and after voice therapy. Result Bilateral vocal nodules were the most common pathologies comprising 44.26%. All acoustic parameters showed a significant difference after the therapy (p<0.05) except for NNE. Dysphonia due to vocal fold polyp showed no improvement even after voice therapy (p>0.05). Conclusion Acoustic analysis provides an objective, recordable data regarding the voice parameters and its pathologies. Though, few pathology require alternative therapy rather than voice therapy, overall it has a good effect on glottic closure. As the voice therapy can improve the different indices of voice, it can be viewed as imperative part of treatment and to monitor progression.

  10. Children's Voice. Volume 15, Number 5, September/October 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Steven S., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice" seeks to encourage public discussion and debate among those who are committed to helping children and families. "Children's Voice" is published bimonthly by the Child Welfare League of America. This issue of "Children's Voice" includes: (1) Defining Family:…

  11. 14 CFR 129.24 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 129.24 Section 129... § 129.24 Cockpit voice recorders. No person may operate an aircraft under this part that is registered in the United States unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder that meets...

  12. Review of Research: Voice in the Context of Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Melanie; Appleman, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The concept of voice permeates perspectives on reading and writing and has helped guide both literacy research and teaching. However, what voice is for scholars, researchers, and teachers takes many guises, some in apparent contradiction to others. We offer a theoretical perspective on the concept of voice, situating it within sociocultural…

  13. Multiple Voices in Clinical Discourse and as Clinical Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.; Prior, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Grounded in sociocultural theories of language development and use, this paper explores the concept of dialogic voice. Building on the term "dialogue", dialogic voice points to the fundamentally social nature of language-in-use. From this perspective, language emerges from specific histories and thus carries the multiple voices of…

  14. Learned face-voice pairings facilitate visual search

    PubMed Central

    Zweig, L. Jacob; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Voices provide a rich source of information that is important for identifying individuals and for social interaction. During search for a face in a crowd, voices often accompany visual information and they facilitate localization of the sought individual. However, it is unclear whether this facilitation occurs primarily because the voice cues the location of the face or because it also increases the salience of the associated face. Here we demonstrate that a voice that provides no location information nonetheless facilitates visual search for an associated face. We trained novel face/voice associations and verified learning using a two-alternative forced-choice task in which participants had to correctly match a presented voice to the associated face. Following training, participants searched for a previously learned target face among other faces while hearing one of the following sounds (localized at the center of the display): a congruent-learned voice, an incongruent but familiar voice, an unlearned and unfamiliar voice, or a time-reversed voice. Only the congruent-learned voice speeded visual search for the associated face. This result suggests that voices facilitate visual detection of associated faces, potentially by increasing their visual salience, and that the underlying crossmodal associations can be established through brief training. PMID:25023955

  15. Learned face-voice pairings facilitate visual search.

    PubMed

    Zweig, L Jacob; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Voices provide a rich source of information that is important for identifying individuals and for social interaction. During search for a face in a crowd, voices often accompany visual information, and they facilitate localization of the sought-after individual. However, it is unclear whether this facilitation occurs primarily because the voice cues the location of the face or because it also increases the salience of the associated face. Here we demonstrate that a voice that provides no location information nonetheless facilitates visual search for an associated face. We trained novel face-voice associations and verified learning using a two-alternative forced choice task in which participants had to correctly match a presented voice to the associated face. Following training, participants searched for a previously learned target face among other faces while hearing one of the following sounds (localized at the center of the display): a congruent learned voice, an incongruent but familiar voice, an unlearned and unfamiliar voice, or a time-reversed voice. Only the congruent learned voice speeded visual search for the associated face. This result suggests that voices facilitate the visual detection of associated faces, potentially by increasing their visual salience, and that the underlying crossmodal associations can be established through brief training.

  16. Voices from the Voiceless: Iranian EFL Students' Attitudes toward English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghavamnia, Maedeh; Ketabi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Some recent research has focused on the students' silence and inviting more student voice. This paper investigated the reasons behind Iranian undergraduate students' silence in English classes and stepped further to give voice to those students' attitudes toward English with the belief that inviting and including student voice could improve the…

  17. Vocabulary Discourse: Developing Meaning through "VoiceThread" Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Grace Marie

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated how third-grade students from low-income families talked about target vocabulary words when asked to create a "VoiceThread" publication. "VoiceThread" is a web-based publication tool that allows students to post pictures and attach voice-recordings to each picture. There were three student…

  18. Perceptions of human attractiveness comprising face and voice cues.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Baguley, Thom; Sergeant, Mark; Dunn, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    In human mate choice, sexually dimorphic faces and voices comprise hormone-mediated cues that purportedly develop as an indicator of mate quality or the ability to compete with same-sex rivals. If preferences for faces communicate the same biologically relevant information as do voices, then ratings of these cues should correlate. Sixty participants (30 male and 30 female) rated a series of opposite-sex faces, voices, and faces together with voices for attractiveness in a repeated measures computer-based experiment. The effects of face and voice attractiveness on face-voice compound stimuli were analyzed using a multilevel model. Faces contributed proportionally more than voices to ratings of face-voice compound attractiveness. Faces and voices positively and independently contributed to the attractiveness of male compound stimuli although there was no significant correlation between their rated attractiveness. A positive interaction and correlation between attractiveness was shown for faces and voices in relation to the attractiveness of female compound stimuli. Rather than providing a better estimate of a single characteristic, male faces and voices may instead communicate independent information that, in turn, provides a female with a better assessment of overall mate quality. Conversely, female faces and voices together provide males with a more accurate assessment of a single dimension of mate quality.

  19. Prevalence of Voice Disorders in Teachers and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Thibeault, Susan; Parsa, Rahul A.; Gray, Steven D.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    information is also provided regarding additional factors that might contribute to the development of voice disorders.Over 3 million teachers in the United States use their voice as a primary tool of trade and are thought to be at higher risk for occupation-related voice disorders than the general population. However, estimates regarding the…

  20. Words to Voice: Three Approaches for Student Self-Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diltz, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The concept of student voice has become a powerful metaphor in college-level writing class. In this article, the author enthusiastically invites her students to activate their "voices." But like healthy self-concept or freedom or individuality, voice only comes from within. It cannot be given, imposed, and "taught." Too many students seem hesitant…