Science.gov

Sample records for advanced neutral particle

  1. Recent advances in neutral particle transport methods and codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmy, Yousry Y.

    1997-02-01

    An overview of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) 3D neural particle transport code, TORT, is presented. Special features of the code that make it invaluable for large applications are summarized for the prospective user. Advanced capabilities currently under development and installation in the production release of TORT are discussed in some detail. These include: multitasking on Cray platforms running the UNICOS operating system; adjacent-cell preconditioning acceleration scheme; and graphics codes for displaying computed quantities such as the flux. Further developments for TORT and its companion codes to enhance its present capabilities, as well as expand its range of applications will be discussed. Speculation on the next generation of neutral particle transport codes at ORNL, especially regarding unstructured grids and high order spatial approximations, will also be mentioned.

  2. Recent advances in neutral particle transport methods and codes

    SciTech Connect

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1996-06-01

    An overview of ORNL`s three-dimensional neutral particle transport code, TORT, is presented. Special features of the code that make it invaluable for large applications are summarized for the prospective user. Advanced capabilities currently under development and installation in the production release of TORT are discussed; they include: multitasking on Cray platforms running the UNICOS operating system; Adjacent cell Preconditioning acceleration scheme; and graphics codes for displaying computed quantities such as the flux. Further developments for TORT and its companion codes to enhance its present capabilities, as well as expand its range of applications are disucssed. Speculation on the next generation of neutron particle transport codes at ORNL, especially regarding unstructured grids and high order spatial approximations, are also mentioned.

  3. First results from solid state neutral particle analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. Z.; Zhu, Y. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2016-11-01

    Full function integrated, compact solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) based on absolute extreme ultraviolet silicon photodiode have been successfully implemented on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak to measure energetic particle. The ssNPA system has been operated in advanced current mode with fast temporal and spatial resolution capabilities, with both active and passive charge exchange measurements. It is found that the ssNPA flux signals are increased substantially with neutral beam injection (NBI). The horizontal active array responds to modulated NBI beam promptly, while weaker change is presented on passive array. Compared to near-perpendicular beam, near-tangential beam brings more passive ssNPA flux and a broader profile, while no clear difference is observed on active ssNPA flux and its profile. Significantly enhanced intensities on some ssNPA channels have been observed during ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  4. Development of an integrated energetic neutral particle measurement system on experimental advanced full superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y. B. Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhang, J. Z.; Qi, M. Z.; Xia, S. B.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.

    2014-11-15

    Full function integrated, compact silicon photodiode based solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) have been developed for energetic particle (EP) relevant studies on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ssNPAs will be mostly operated in advanced current mode with a few channels to be operated in conventional pulse-counting mode, aiming to simultaneously achieve individually proved ultra-fast temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution capabilities. The design details together with considerations on EAST specific engineering realities and physics requirements are presented. The system, including a group of single detectors on two vertical ports and two 16-channel arrays on a horizontal port, can provide both active and passive charge exchange measurements. ssNPA detectors, with variable thickness of ultra thin tungsten dominated foils directly deposited on the front surface, are specially fabricated and utilized to achieve about 22 keV energy resolution for deuterium particle detection.

  5. Development of an integrated energetic neutral particle measurement system on experimental advanced full superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. B.; Zhang, J. Z.; Qi, M. Z.; Xia, S. B.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.

    2014-11-01

    Full function integrated, compact silicon photodiode based solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) have been developed for energetic particle (EP) relevant studies on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ssNPAs will be mostly operated in advanced current mode with a few channels to be operated in conventional pulse-counting mode, aiming to simultaneously achieve individually proved ultra-fast temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution capabilities. The design details together with considerations on EAST specific engineering realities and physics requirements are presented. The system, including a group of single detectors on two vertical ports and two 16-channel arrays on a horizontal port, can provide both active and passive charge exchange measurements. ssNPA detectors, with variable thickness of ultra thin tungsten dominated foils directly deposited on the front surface, are specially fabricated and utilized to achieve about 22 keV energy resolution for deuterium particle detection.

  6. Development of an integrated energetic neutral particle measurement system on experimental advanced full superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y B; Zhang, J Z; Qi, M Z; Xia, S B; Liu, D; Heidbrink, W W; Wan, B N; Li, J G

    2014-11-01

    Full function integrated, compact silicon photodiode based solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) have been developed for energetic particle (EP) relevant studies on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ssNPAs will be mostly operated in advanced current mode with a few channels to be operated in conventional pulse-counting mode, aiming to simultaneously achieve individually proved ultra-fast temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution capabilities. The design details together with considerations on EAST specific engineering realities and physics requirements are presented. The system, including a group of single detectors on two vertical ports and two 16-channel arrays on a horizontal port, can provide both active and passive charge exchange measurements. ssNPA detectors, with variable thickness of ultra thin tungsten dominated foils directly deposited on the front surface, are specially fabricated and utilized to achieve about 22 keV energy resolution for deuterium particle detection.

  7. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  8. Time-resolved ion energy distribution measurements using an advanced neutral particle analyzer on the MST reversed-field pinch.

    PubMed

    Eilerman, S; Anderson, J K; Reusch, J A; Liu, D; Fiksel, G; Polosatkin, S; Belykh, V

    2012-10-01

    An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) capable of simultaneously measuring hydrogen and deuterium ions of energies up to 45 keV has recently been developed for use on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The charge-to-mass separation allows for separate analysis of bulk deuterium ions and hydrogen ions injected with a 1 MW, 25 keV neutral beam. Orientation of the ANPA allows sampling of different regions of ion velocity space; a radial viewport favors collection of ions with high v(perpendicular)∕|v| while a recently installed tangential viewport favors ions with high v(||)∕|v|, such as those from the core-localized fast ion population created by the neutral beam. Signals are observed in the ANPA's highest energy channels during periodic magnetic reconnection events, which are drivers of anisotropic, non-Maxwellian ion energization in the reversed-field pinch. ANPA signal strength is dependent on the background neutral density, which also increases during magnetic reconnection events, so careful analysis must be performed to identify the true change in the ion distribution. A Monte Carlo neutral particle tracing code (NENE) is used to reconstruct neutral density profiles based on D(α) line emission, which is measured using a 16-chord filtered photodiode array.

  9. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  10. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  11. EFFECTS OF LEAKAGE NEUTRAL PARTICLES ON SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2012-10-20

    In this paper, we investigate effects of neutral particles on shocks propagating into the partially ionized medium. We find that for 120 km s{sup -1} < u {sub sh} < 3000 km s{sup -1} (u {sub sh} is the shock velocity), about 10% of upstream neutral particles leak into the upstream region from the downstream region. Moreover, we investigate how the leakage neutral particles affect the upstream structure of the shock and particle accelerations. Using four-fluid approximations (upstream ions, upstream neutral particles, leakage neutral particles, and pickup ions), we provide analytical solutions of the precursor structure due to leakage neutral particles. It is shown that the upstream flow is decelerated in the precursor region and the shock compression ratio becomes smaller than without leakage neutral particles, but the total compression ratio does not change. Even if leakage of neutral particles is small (a few percent of total upstream particles), this smaller compression ratio of the shock can explain steep gamma-ray spectra from young supernova remnants. Furthermore, leakage neutral particles could amplify the magnetic field and heat the upstream region.

  12. Neutral particle beams for space defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botwin, Robert; Favale, Anthony

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) weapons direct highly focused high energy streams of electrically neutral atomic particles traveling at nearly the speed of light, escaping deflection from the earth's magnetic field and acting on the subatomic structure of a target, destroying it from within. The beam's brief contact with a reentry vehicle produces a nuclear reaction in the latter that yields particle emissions; by detecting and identifying those particles, it becomes possible to effectively distinguish warheads from decoys. Attention is given to the NPB program roles to be played by the Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket and Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment projects.

  13. Fluid-particle hybrid simulation on the transports of plasma, recycling neutrals, and carbon impurities in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research divertor region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Deok-Kyu; Hong, Sang Hee

    2005-06-01

    A two-dimensional simulation modeling that has been performed in a self-consistent way for analysis on the fully coupled transports of plasma, recycling neutrals, and intrinsic carbon impurities in the divertor domain of tokamaks is presented. The numerical model coupling the three major species transports in the tokamak edge is based on a fluid-particle hybrid approach where the plasma is described as a single magnetohydrodynamic fluid while the neutrals and impurities are treated as kinetic particles using the Monte Carlo technique. This simulation code is applied to the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak [G. S. Lee, J. Kim, S. M. Hwang et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 575 (2000)] to calculate the peak heat flux on the divertor plate and to explore the divertor plasma behavior depending on the upstream conditions in its base line operation mode for various values of input heating power and separatrix plasma density. The numerical modeling for the KSTAR tokamak shows that its full-powered operation is subject to the peak heat loads on the divertor plate exceeding an engineering limit, and reveals that the recycling zone is formed in front of the divertor by increasing plasma density and by reducing power flow into the scrape-off layer. Compared with other researchers' work, the present hybrid simulation more rigorously reproduces severe electron pressure losses along field lines by the presence of recycling zone accounting for the transitions between the sheath limited and the detached divertor regimes. The substantial profile changes in carbon impurity population and ionic composition also represent the key features of this divertor regime transition.

  14. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra.

  15. Neutral-particle-beam production and injection

    SciTech Connect

    Post, D.; Pyle, R.

    1982-07-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first is a discussion of the interactions of neutral beams with confined plasmas, the second is concerned with the production and diagnosis of the neutral beams. In general we are dealing with atoms, molecules, and ions of the isotopes of hydrogen, but some heavier elements (for example, oxygen) will be mentioned. The emphasis will be on single-particle collisions; selected atomic processes on surfaces will be included.

  16. Advanced neutral-beam technology

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.H.

    1980-09-01

    Extensive development will be required to achieve the 50- to 75-MW, 175- to 200-keV, 5- to 10-sec pulses of deuterium atoms envisioned for ETF and INTOR. Multi-megawatt injector systems are large (and expansive); they consist of large vacuum tanks with many square meters of cryogenic pumping panels, beam dumps capable of dissipating several megawatts of un-neutralized beam, bending magnets, electrical power systems capable of fast turnoff with low (capacity) stored energy, and, of course, the injector modules (ion sources and accelerators). The technology requirements associated with these components are described.

  17. Landau-like states in neutral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Ågren, Hans; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    We show the emergence of a new type of dispersion relation for neutral atoms with an interesting similarity to the spectrum of two-dimensional electrons in an applied perpendicular constant magnetic field. These neutral atoms can be confined in toroidal optical traps and give quasi-Landau spectra. In strong contrast to the equidistant infinitely degenerate Landau levels for charged particles, the spectral gap for such two-dimensional neutral particles increases in particular electric-field configurations. The idea in the paper is motivated by the development in cold atom experiments and builds on the seminal paper of Aharonov and Casher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 319 (1984), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.319].

  18. On geometric factors for neutral particle analyzers.

    PubMed

    Stagner, L; Heidbrink, W W

    2014-11-01

    Neutral particle analyzers (NPA) detect neutralized energetic particles that escape from plasmas. Geometric factors relate the counting rate of the detectors to the intensity of the particle source. Accurate geometric factors enable quick simulation of geometric effects without the need to resort to slower Monte Carlo methods. Previously derived expressions [G. R. Thomas and D. M. Willis, "Analytical derivation of the geometric factor of a particle detector having circular or rectangular geometry," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5(3), 260 (1972); J. D. Sullivan, "Geometric factor and directional response of single and multi-element particle telescopes," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 95(1), 5-11 (1971)] for the geometric factor implicitly assume that the particle source is very far away from the detector (far-field); this excludes applications close to the detector (near-field). The far-field assumption does not hold in most fusion applications of NPA detectors. We derive, from probability theory, a generalized framework for deriving geometric factors that are valid for both near and far-field applications as well as for non-isotropic sources and nonlinear particle trajectories.

  19. On geometric factors for neutral particle analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2014-11-15

    Neutral particle analyzers (NPA) detect neutralized energetic particles that escape from plasmas. Geometric factors relate the counting rate of the detectors to the intensity of the particle source. Accurate geometric factors enable quick simulation of geometric effects without the need to resort to slower Monte Carlo methods. Previously derived expressions [G. R. Thomas and D. M. Willis, “Analytical derivation of the geometric factor of a particle detector having circular or rectangular geometry,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5(3), 260 (1972); J. D. Sullivan, “Geometric factor and directional response of single and multi-element particle telescopes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 95(1), 5–11 (1971)] for the geometric factor implicitly assume that the particle source is very far away from the detector (far-field); this excludes applications close to the detector (near-field). The far-field assumption does not hold in most fusion applications of NPA detectors. We derive, from probability theory, a generalized framework for deriving geometric factors that are valid for both near and far-field applications as well as for non-isotropic sources and nonlinear particle trajectories.

  20. On geometric factors for neutral particle analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2014-11-01

    Neutral particle analyzers (NPA) detect neutralized energetic particles that escape from plasmas. Geometric factors relate the counting rate of the detectors to the intensity of the particle source. Accurate geometric factors enable quick simulation of geometric effects without the need to resort to slower Monte Carlo methods. Previously derived expressions [G. R. Thomas and D. M. Willis, "Analytical derivation of the geometric factor of a particle detector having circular or rectangular geometry," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5(3), 260 (1972); J. D. Sullivan, "Geometric factor and directional response of single and multi-element particle telescopes," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 95(1), 5-11 (1971)] for the geometric factor implicitly assume that the particle source is very far away from the detector (far-field); this excludes applications close to the detector (near-field). The far-field assumption does not hold in most fusion applications of NPA detectors. We derive, from probability theory, a generalized framework for deriving geometric factors that are valid for both near and far-field applications as well as for non-isotropic sources and nonlinear particle trajectories.

  1. Neutral particle beam sensing and steering

    DOEpatents

    Maier, II, William B.; Cobb, Donald D.; Robiscoe, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    The direction of a neutral particle beam (NPB) is determined by detecting Ly.alpha. radiation emitted during motional quenching of excited H(2S) atoms in the beam during movement of the atoms through a magnetic field. At least one detector is placed adjacent the beam exit to define an optical axis that intercepts the beam at a viewing angle to include a volume generating a selected number of photons for detection. The detection system includes a lens having an area that is small relative to the NPB area and a pixel array located in the focal plane of the lens. The lens viewing angle and area pixel array are selected to optimize the beam tilt sensitivity. In one embodiment, two detectors are placed coplanar with the beam axis to generate a difference signal that is insensitive to beam variations other than beam tilt.

  2. Neutral Particle Analyzer Measurements of Ion Behavior in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; R.E. Bell; D.S. Darrow; A.L. Roquemore

    2002-02-06

    Initial results obtained with the Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented. Magnetohydrodynamic activity and reconnection events cause depletion of the deuterium energetic ion distribution created by neutral-beam injection. Adding High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating to neutral-beam-heated discharges results in the generation of an energetic ion tail above the beam injection energy. NPA measurements of the residual hydrogen ion temperature are in good agreement with those from recombination spectroscopy.

  3. Neutral strange particle production in high energy neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wolin, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    In a high energy neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering experiment in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber filled with a Neon-Hydrogen mixture, production of the neutral strange particles K, Lambda, and anti-Lambda is observed. Global rates of neutral strange particle production, rates versus event kinematical variables, and strange particle kinematical distributions are presented. Absorption, rescattering, etc. of Lambda particles by the Ne nucleus is shown to be negligible within the statistical significance of the data. Production of both charged states the strange resonance Sigma(1385) is observed. These results are extensively compared to the predictions of the Lund model. The Lund model is found to reproduce the data well in most instances. The transverse momentum distribution for neutral K particles has a tail at high transverse momentum, in disagreement with the exponential decrease predicted by the model. Lambda particles are produced with higher average momentum and anti-Lambda's with lower average momentum than is predicted.

  4. Fast neutral particle measurements in LHD and CHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, T.; Okamura, S.; Zanza, V.

    1996-12-31

    The development of high energy neutral particle measurement system for ion temperature measurements and high energy particle confinement analysis in Large Helical Device is described here. For NBIs, 180 keV hydrogen beams will be used in Phase 1 of LHD experiment schedule and 360 keV deuterium beams will be used in Phase 2. In ICRF heating experiment, the hydrogen and helium-3 will be used as minorities. It is important to observe the pitch angle distribution to investigate the confinement of high energy particles. For this purpose the neutral particle analyzer should have a wide observation energy range above the maximum energy of NBI and an ability to separate the particle species of hydrogen, deuterium and He-3. In Compact Helical System (CHS), the electrostatic neutral particle analyzer is used. They have compared the spectrum obtained from the measurement by a passive method in CHS with that from the calculation by PROCTR code.

  5. Diamond neutral particle spectrometer for fusion reactor ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Krasilnikov, V.; Amosov, V.; Kaschuck, Yu.; Skopintsev, D.

    2014-08-21

    A compact diamond neutral particle spectrometer with digital signal processing has been developed for fast charge-exchange atoms and neutrons measurements at ITER fusion reactor conditions. This spectrometer will play supplementary role for Neutral Particle Analyzer providing 10 ms time and 30 keV energy resolutions for fast particle spectra in non-tritium ITER phase. These data will also be implemented for independent studies of fast ions distribution function evolution in various plasma scenarios with the formation of a single fraction of high-energy ions. In tritium ITER phase the DNPS will measure 14 MeV neutrons spectra. The spectrometer with digital signal processing can operate at peak counting rates reaching a value of 10{sup 6} cps. Diamond neutral particle spectrometer is applicable to future fusion reactors due to its high radiation hardness, fast response and high energy resolution.

  6. Diamond neutral particle spectrometer for fusion reactor ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, V.; Amosov, V.; Kaschuck, Yu.; Skopintsev, D.

    2014-08-01

    A compact diamond neutral particle spectrometer with digital signal processing has been developed for fast charge-exchange atoms and neutrons measurements at ITER fusion reactor conditions. This spectrometer will play supplementary role for Neutral Particle Analyzer providing 10 ms time and 30 keV energy resolutions for fast particle spectra in non-tritium ITER phase. These data will also be implemented for independent studies of fast ions distribution function evolution in various plasma scenarios with the formation of a single fraction of high-energy ions. In tritium ITER phase the DNPS will measure 14 MeV neutrons spectra. The spectrometer with digital signal processing can operate at peak counting rates reaching a value of 106 cps. Diamond neutral particle spectrometer is applicable to future fusion reactors due to its high radiation hardness, fast response and high energy resolution.

  7. Neutral particle analyzer diagnostics on the TCV tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Karpushov, Alexander N.; Duval, Basil P.; Schlatter, Christian; Afanasyev, Valery I.; Chernyshev, Fedor V.

    2006-03-15

    Experimental apparatus and data analysis techniques used in neutral particle analyzer (NPA) diagnostics on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) are described. Two NPAs are used on TCV to measure the energy spectrum of neutral particle fluxes from the plasma. The 'five-channel energy analyzer of atomic particles' used in double electrical analysis mode with fast voltage sweeping detect particles without atomic mass discrimination in the energy range of 0.6-8.0 keV with a time resolution of 0.5-2.0 ms and an energy resolution of 7%-20%. The 28-channel ''compact neutral particle analyzer'' (CNPA) is an EIIB spectrometer with mass and energy separations designed for medium sized fusion machines featuring a carbon neutral stripping foil, a permanent magnet for dispersion, and channel-electron multiplier detectors. The CNPA simultaneously detects two mass species [hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) or D and helium (He)] in the 0.5-50 keV energy range with a resolution of 60%-10% and a time resolution of 0.5-4.0 ms. The CNPA views the plasma across the path of the diagnostic neutral beam and can perform active charge-exchange NPA measurement. Data analysis procedures and numerical algorithms developed for NPA measurement are routinely used on TCV to obtain information on the plasma ion temperature, ion energy distribution function, plasma isotope ratios, and other plasma characteristics.

  8. Neutral source and particle balance in the HSX edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephey, Laurie; Kumar, Santhosh; Bader, Aaron; Akerson, Adrian; Schmitz, Oliver; Anderson, David; A, Simon; Talmadge, Joseph; Hegna, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The ability to control the neutral particle and impurity source in fusion devices is critical to obtaining high purity, high confinement plasmas. The neutral particle source defines the edge density gradients and plasma flows. To understand the relationship between the neutral particle source, plasma density gradients and plasma edge and core transport in HSX, a single reservoir particle balance is being used to provide a complete particle inventory. Detailed spectroscopic measurements of hydrogen and helium emission have yielded neutral and plasma profiles and ionization length estimations. The plasma puff source rate has been directly measured. To determine the recycling source rate, two specially designed limiters will be inserted to intercept 99% of the field lines, resulting in a well-defined LCFS and plasma interaction zone. Single limiter insertion resulted in a 50% reduction in global line emission, implying a reduction in wall recycling. Future camera and probe measurements will provide a recycling source rate. HSX neutral physics is also being investigated using EMC3-EIRENE. All results are discussed along with complementary plans for the Wendelstein 7-X startup phase. This work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222 and DE-SC0006103.

  9. Particle acceleration near X-type magnetic neutral lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deeg, Hans-Jorg; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Duric, Nebojsa

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of charged particles near X-type magnetic neutral lines is investigated. The magnetic field is taken to be hyperbolic and time stationary, with a uniform electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field. The general properties of the orbits of noninteracting particles in that field geometry are examined. Approximate analytic solutions to the orbit equations are derived by considering a magnetic-insulation picture where there is a hole in the magnetic insulation around the neutral line. Scaling laws for the dependence of the energy gain on strengths of the magnetic and electric fields are derived. The kinetic-energy distribution function for accelerated particles is derived for particles flowing past the neutral line. These analytic derivations are supported by computer simulations, in which the relativistic equations of motion for single test particles are numerically solved and the orbits and kinetic-energy gains of the particles are obtained. A number of simulations were performed and one parameter at a time was varied. Applications of the results to magnetic-neutral-line regions in space physics and astrophysics are possible.

  10. Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers

    PubMed Central

    Ashkin, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    The techniques of optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles by lasers provide unique means to control the dynamics of small particles. These new experimental methods have played a revolutionary role in areas of the physical and biological sciences. This paper reviews the early developments in the field leading to the demonstration of cooling and trapping of neutral atoms in atomic physics and to the first use of optical tweezers traps in biology. Some further major achievements of these rapidly developing methods also are considered. PMID:9144154

  11. Physics Opportunities with the Neutral Particle Spectrometer in Hall C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Tanja; NPS Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The two-arm combination of neutral-particle detection and a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer offers unique scientific capabilities to push the energy scale for studies of the transverse spatial and momentum structure of the nucleon through reactions with neutral particles requiring precision and high luminosity. It enables precision measurements of the deeply-virtual Compton scattering cross section at different beam energies to extract the real part of the Compton form factor without any assumptions. It allows measurements to push the energy scale of real Compton scattering, the process of choice to explore factorization in a whole class of wide-angle processes, and its extension to neutral pion photo-production. It further makes possible measurements of the basic semi-inclusive neutral-pion cross section in a kinematic region where the QCD factorization scheme is expected to hold, which is crucial to validate the foundation of this cornerstone of 3D transverse momentum imaging. Adding the option of polarized targets to such a setup, allows for exploration of further scientific directions, e.g., timelike Compton scattering. We describe the unique science program as enabled by the Neutral-Particle Spectrometer and the magnetic spectrometer pair in Hall C at JLab. Supported in part by NSF Grants PHY-1530874 and PHY-1306227.

  12. Neutral particle measurements of fusion tritons in JET

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasyev, V. I.; Khudoleev, A. V.

    2010-08-15

    A neutral particle analyzer [A.D. Izvozchikov et al., JET Report No. JET-R(91)-12, 1991] operating in the MeV energy range was used to measure the flux of neutralized d-d fusion tritons emitted from the hot-ion H-mode deuterium plasma heated by deuterium neutral beams. It was found that tritons in the energy range of 0.3-1.1 MeV were largely neutralized by the beam atoms and the beam halo atoms. This enabled us to find the localized energy distribution function of the fusion tritons in the central plasma region. Simulation of the triton energy distribution function shows that MeV ions in the JET hot-ion H-mode plasma behave classically.

  13. Neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Niemczewski, A.P.

    1995-08-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The primary diagnostic used is a set of six neutral pressure gauges, including special-purpose gauges built for in situ tokamak operation. While a low main chamber neutral pressure coincides with high plasma confinement regimes, high divertor pressure is required for heat and particle flux dispersion in future devices such as ITER. Thus we examine conditions that optimize divertor compression, defined here as a divertor-to-midplane pressure ratio. We find both pressures depend primarily on the edge plasma regimes defined by the scrape-off-layer heat transport. While the maximum divertor pressure is achieved at high core plasma densities corresponding to the detached divertor state, the maximum compression is achieved in the high-recycling regime. Variations in the divertor geometry have a weaker effect on the neutral pressures. For otherwise similar plasmas the divertor pressure and compression are maximum when the strike point is at the bottom of the vertical target plate. We introduce a simple flux balance model, which allows us to explain the divertor neutral pressure across a wide range of plasma densities. In particular, high pressure sustained in the detached divertor (despite a considerable drop in the recycling source) can be explained by scattering of neutrals off the cold plasma plugging the divertor throat. Because neutrals are confined in the divertor through scattering and ionization processes (provided the mean-free-paths are much shorter than a typical escape distance) tight mechanical baffling is unnecessary. The analysis suggests that two simple structural modifications may increase the divertor compression in Alcator C-Mod by a factor of about 5. Widening the divertor throat would increase the divertor recycling source, while closing leaks in the divertor structure would eliminate a significant neutral loss mechanism. 146 refs., 82 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. A mass resolved, high resolution neutral particle analyzer for C-2U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, R.; Roquemore, A.; Douglass, J.; Jaramillo, D.; Korepanov, S.; Magee, R.; Medley, S.; Smirnov, A.

    2016-11-01

    C-2U is a high-confinement, advanced beam driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment which sustains the configuration for >5 ms, in excess of typical MHD and fast particle instability times, as well as fast particle slowing down times. Fast particle dynamics are critical to C-2U performance and several diagnostics have been deployed to characterize the fast particle population, including neutron and proton detectors. To increase our understanding of fast particle behavior and supplement existing diagnostics, an E ∥ B neutral particle analyzer was installed, which simultaneously measures H0 and D0 flux with large dynamic range and high energy resolution. Here we report the commissioning of the E ∥ B analyzer, confirm the instrument has energy resolution Δ E / E ≲ 0 . 1 and a dynamic range E max / E min ˜ 30 , and present measurements of initial testing on C-2U.

  15. The three-dimensional, discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code TORT: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The centerpiece of the Discrete Ordinates Oak Ridge System (DOORS), the three-dimensional neutral particle transport code TORT is reviewed. Its most prominent features pertaining to large applications, such as adjustable problem parameters, memory management, and coarse mesh methods, are described. Advanced, state-of-the-art capabilities including acceleration and multiprocessing are summarized here. Future enhancement of existing graphics and visualization tools is briefly presented.

  16. Temporal behavior of neutral particle fluxes in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1989-09-01

    Data from an E {parallel} B charge exchange neutral analyzer (CENA), which views down the axis of a neutral beamline through an aperture in the target chamber calorimeter of the TFTR neutral beam test facility, exhibit two curious effects. First, there is a turn-on transient lasting tens of milliseconds having a magnitude up to three times that of the steady-state level. Second, there is a 720 Hz, up to 20% peak-to-peak fluctuation persisting the entire pulse duration. The turn-on transient occurs as the neutralizer/ion source system reaches a new pressure equilibrium following the effective ion source gas throughput reduction by particle removal as ion beam. Widths of the transient are a function of the gas throughput into the ion source, decreasing as the gas supply rate is reduced. Heating of the neutalizer gas by the beam is assumed responsible, with gas temperature increasing as gas supply rate is decreased. At low gas supply rates, the transient is primarliy due to dynamic changes in the neutralizer line density and/or beam species composition. Light emission from the drift duct corroborate the CENA data. At high gas supply rates, dynamic changes in component divergence and/or spatial profiles of the source plasma are necessary to explain the observations. The 720 Hz fluctuation is attributed to a 3% peak-to-peak ripple of 720 Hz on the arc power supply amplified by the quadratic relationship between beam divergence and beam current. Tight collimation by CENA apertures cause it to accept a very small part of the ion source's velocity space, producing a signal linearly proportional to beam divergence. Estimated fluctuations in the peak power density delivered to the plasma under these conditions are a modest 3--8% peak to peak. The efffects of both phenomena on the injected neutral beam can be ameliorated by careful operion of the ion sources. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Perpendicular and tangential angularly resolved multi-sight neutral particle analyzer system in LHD.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, T; Veshchev, E; Ido, T; Shimizu, A; Goncharov, P; Sudo, S

    2012-10-01

    The particle loss in a helical plasma can be found by measuring the angular distribution of the energetic neutral particles using the angularly resolved multi-sightline neutral particle analyzer (ARMS). In ARMS, the AXUV detector with 20 segments usually used as UV monitor is utilized as the particle detector. Two ARMSs, which are installed with perpendicular and tangential views are operated for measuring the real time neutral particle distribution and investigating the particle loss.

  18. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, J H; Molvik, A W; Turner, W C

    1982-07-07

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane.

  19. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    K. Shinohara; D.S. Darrow; A.L. Roquemore; S.S. Medley; F.E. Cecil

    2004-05-13

    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The array consists of four chords viewing through a common vacuum flange. The tangency radii of the viewing chords are 60, 90, 100, and 120 cm. They view across the three co-injection neutral beam lines (deuterium, 80 keV (typ.) with tangency radii 48.7, 59.2, and 69.4 cm) on NSTX and detect co-going energetic ions. A silicon photodiode used was calibrated by using a mono-energetic deuteron beam source. Deuterons with energy above 40 keV can be detected with the present setup. The degradation of the performance was also investigated. Lead shots and epoxy are used for neutron shielding to reduce handling any hazardous heavy metal. This method also enables us to make an arbitrary shape to be fit into the complex flight tube.

  20. Amine bearing polymeric particles as acid neutralizers for engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, A.N.; Chattha, M.S.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a lubricating oil composition consisting of a major proportion of a lubricating base oil and about 0.1 to 15 weight percent of an acid neutralizing additive which consists of polymer particles (a) bearing pendant amine groups, and (b) having a diameter of about 500 A and 10,000 A. The amine functional particles are formed by reacting polymer particles bearing pendant epoxide groups with a secondary amine in an amount so as to react essentially all of the epoxide groups on the epoxide bearing polymer particles with the secondary amine. The polymer particles bearing pendant epoxide groups are formed by the free radical addition polymerization of: (a) between about 50 and about 100 weight percent of an ethylenically unsaturated monomers bearing an epoxide group, and (b) 0 up to about 50 weight percent of other monoethylenically unsaturated monomers; in the presence of: (I) a non-polar organic liquid which is a solvent for the polymerizable monomers, but a non-solvent for the resultant polymer, and (II) polymeric dispersion stabilizer containing at least two segments, with one segment being solvated by the non-polar organic liquid and the second segment being of different polarity than the first segment and relatively insoluble in the non-polar organic liquid. The second segment of the stabilizer is chemically attached to the polymerized particle.

  1. Compact solid-state neutral particle analyzer in current mode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y. B.; Bortolon, A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Celle, S. L.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2012-10-15

    Solid state neutral particle analyzer (ssNPA) arrays are operated in current mode on the DIII-D tokamak and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Compared with conventional pulse-counting NPAs, current-mode operation sacrifices energy resolution to obtain economical, high-bandwidth, pitch-angle resolved measurements. With the success from a new three-channel near-vertical-view current mode ssNPA on DIII-D, the apertures on an existing array on NSTX were expanded to increase the particle influx. The sightlines of both arrays intersect heating beams, enabling both active and passive charge exchange measurements. The spatial resolution at beam intersection is typically 5 cm on both devices. Directly deposited ultra-thin foils on the detector surface block stray photons below the energy of 1 keV and also set low energy threshold about 25 keV for deuterium particle detection. Oscillations in neutral flux produced by high frequency magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities are readily detected.

  2. Compact solid-state neutral particle analyzer in current mode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y B; Bortolon, A; Heidbrink, W W; Celle, S L; Roquemore, A L

    2012-10-01

    Solid state neutral particle analyzer (ssNPA) arrays are operated in current mode on the DIII-D tokamak and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Compared with conventional pulse-counting NPAs, current-mode operation sacrifices energy resolution to obtain economical, high-bandwidth, pitch-angle resolved measurements. With the success from a new three-channel near-vertical-view current mode ssNPA on DIII-D, the apertures on an existing array on NSTX were expanded to increase the particle influx. The sightlines of both arrays intersect heating beams, enabling both active and passive charge exchange measurements. The spatial resolution at beam intersection is typically 5 cm on both devices. Directly deposited ultra-thin foils on the detector surface block stray photons below the energy of 1 keV and also set low energy threshold about 25 keV for deuterium particle detection. Oscillations in neutral flux produced by high frequency magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities are readily detected.

  3. Compact solid-state neutral particle analyzer in current modea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. B.; Bortolon, A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Celle, S. L.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2012-10-01

    Solid state neutral particle analyzer (ssNPA) arrays are operated in current mode on the DIII-D tokamak and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Compared with conventional pulse-counting NPAs, current-mode operation sacrifices energy resolution to obtain economical, high-bandwidth, pitch-angle resolved measurements. With the success from a new three-channel near-vertical-view current mode ssNPA on DIII-D, the apertures on an existing array on NSTX were expanded to increase the particle influx. The sightlines of both arrays intersect heating beams, enabling both active and passive charge exchange measurements. The spatial resolution at beam intersection is typically 5 cm on both devices. Directly deposited ultra-thin foils on the detector surface block stray photons below the energy of 1 keV and also set low energy threshold about 25 keV for deuterium particle detection. Oscillations in neutral flux produced by high frequency magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities are readily detected.

  4. Design of a retarding potential grid system for a neutral particle analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Anderson, J. K.; Reusch, J. A.

    2014-11-15

    The ion energy distribution in a magnetically confined plasma can be inferred from charge exchange neutral particles. On the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST), deuterium neutrals are measured by the Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA) and the advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA). The CNPA energy range covers the bulk deuterium ions to the beginning of the fast ion tail (0.34–5.2 keV) with high-energy resolution (25 channels) while the ANPA covers the vast majority of the fast ion tail distribution (∼10–45 keV) with low energy resolution (10 channels). Though the ANPA has provided insight into fast ion energization in MST plasma, more can be gained by increasing the energy resolution in that energy range. To utilize the energy resolution of the CNPA, fast ions can be retarded by an electric potential well, enabling their detection by the diagnostic. The ion energy distribution can be measured with arbitrary resolution by combining data from many similar MST discharges with different energy ranges on the CNPA, providing further insight into ion energization and fast ion dynamics on MST.

  5. Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

  6. Neutral particles in light of the Majorana-Ahluwalia ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeri V.

    1995-12-01

    The first part of this article presents an overview of the theory and phenomenology of truly neutral particles based on the papers of Majorana, Racah, Furry, McLennan, and Case. The recent development of the construct undertaken by Ahluwalia could be relevant for the explanation of the present experimental situation in neutrino physics and astrophysics. Then the new fundamental wave equations for self-/anti-self-conjugate type II spinors proposed by Ahluwalia are recast into covariant form. The connection with Foldy-Nigam-Bargmann-Wightman-Wigner (FNBWW)-type quantum field theory is found. Possible applications to the problem of neutrino oscillations are discussed.

  7. Identification of Neutral Particle Sources in MST Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norval, Ryan; Munaretto, Stefano; Goetz, John; Schmitz, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The plasma wall interaction (PWI) in the MST RFP has yet to be studied systematically to determine the effects of the edge plasma on overall plasma performance. Two imaging views of the MST plasma currently exist. The first views the outboard toroidal and poloidal belt limiters at the main poloidal gap limiter. The second views the inboard poloidal limiter, as well as a section of the outboard toroidal limiter away from the man gap limiter. Data from viewing outboard limiters reveals PWI structures correlate with the plasma conditions. In standard RFP plasmas at lower plasma currents the PWI is dominated by non-axisymmetric radiation belts. As the RFP plasma current rises, increasing axisymmetry is seen from the edge. When in the 3D equilibria of the quasi-single helicity (QSH) state the PWI correlates with the main magnetic mode of the plasma. The dominant source of light observed from the MST edge is from hydrogen recycling. This will be used to inform neutral particle sourcing in the EIRENE neutral transport code. EIRENE will be used to compare how variations in fueling could affect the neutral profile in MST. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filter System

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper reports on the development and status of testing of the Westinghouse Advanced Hot Gas Particle Filter (W-APF) including: W-APF integrated operation with the American Electric Power, 70 MW PFBC clean coal facility--approximately 6000 test hours completed; approximately 2500 hours of testing at the Hans Ahlstrom 10 MW PCFB facility located in Karhula, Finland; over 700 hours of operation at the Foster Wheeler 2 MW 2nd generation PFBC facility located in Livingston, New Jersey; status of Westinghouse HGF supply for the DOE Southern Company Services Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama; the status of the Westinghouse development and testing of HGF`s for Biomass Power Generation; and the status of the design and supply of the HGF unit for the 95 MW Pinon Pine IGCC Clean Coal Demonstration.

  9. Novel electrodynamic trapping mechanism for neutral, polar particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümel, R.

    2011-09-01

    A conceptually new trapping mechanism for neutral, polar particles is introduced and discussed. Unlike existing mechanisms that are based on oscillating saddle-point potentials or rotating electric dipole fields, the new mechanism is based on a superposition of ac and dc electric monopolefields that dynamically generate a minimum of the effective ponderomotive potential in which the particles are trapped. Extensive numerical simulations of the dynamics and the stability properties of trapped HC17N molecules and ferroelectric rods (made of barium titanate or croconic acid crystals) prove the validity of the new mechanism. The examples show that the same mechanism is applicable to the trapping of macroscopic as well as microscopic particles. The numerical results are backed by a physical pseudo-potential picture and an analytical stability analysis that provide physical insight into why and how the new mechanism works. A semi-quantum, Born-Oppenheimer-type calculation that treats the intrinsic rotational degree of freedom of HC17N quantum mechanically is also presented. A detailed discussion of engineering aspects shows that laboratory implementation of the new mechanism is within current technological reach.

  10. Highly Charged Particles Cause a Larger Current Blockage in Micropores Compared to Neutral Particles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yinghua; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hinkle, Preston; Plett, Timothy S; Yang, Crystal; Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Digman, Michelle A; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Siwy, Zuzanna S

    2016-09-27

    Single pores in the resistive-pulse technique are used as an analytics tool to detect, size, and characterize physical as well as chemical properties of individual objects such as molecules and particles. Each object passing through a pore causes a transient change of the transmembrane current called a resistive pulse. In high salt concentrations when the pore diameter is significantly larger than the screening Debye length, it is assumed that the particle size and surface charge can be determined independently from the same experiment. In this article we challenge this assumption and show that highly charged hard spheres can cause a significant increase of the resistive-pulse amplitude compared to neutral particles of a similar diameter. As a result, resistive pulses overestimate the size of charged particles by even 20%. The observation is explained by the effect of concentration polarization created across particles in a pore, revealed by numerical modeling of ionic concentrations, ion current, and local electric fields. It is notable that in resistive-pulse experiments with cylindrical pores, concentration polarization was previously shown to influence ionic concentrations only at pore entrances; consequently, additional and transient modulation of resistive pulses was observed when a particle entered or left the pore. Here we postulate that concentration polarization can occur across transported particles at any particle position along the pore axis and affect the magnitude of the entire resistive pulse. Consequently, the recorded resistive pulses of highly charged particles reflect not only the particles' volume but also the size of the depletion zone created in front of the moving particle. Moreover, the modeling identified that the effective surface charge density of particles depended not only on the density of functional groups on the particle but also on the capacitance of the Stern layer. The findings are of crucial importance for sizing particles and

  11. Neutral Particle Transport in Cylindrical Plasma Simulated by a Monte Carlo Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deliang; Yan, Longwen; Zhong, Guangwu; Lu, Jie; Yi, Ping

    2007-04-01

    A Monte Carlo code (MCHGAS) has been developed to investigate the neutral particle transport. The code can calculate the radial profile and energy spectrum of neutral particles in cylindrical plasmas. The calculation time of the code is dramatically reduced when the Splitting and Roulette schemes are applied. The plasma model of an infinite cylinder is assumed in the code, which is very convenient in simulating neutral particle transports in small and middle-sized tokamaks. The design of the multi-channel neutral particle analyser (NPA) on HL-2A can be optimized by using this code.

  12. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Advanced PFBC (APFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC, PFBC and APFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of these advanced, solid fuel power generation cycles.

  13. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-10-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.

  14. Neutral particle beam scoring system proof-of-principle experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Pontau, A.E.; Antolak, A.J.

    1986-10-01

    A method of scoring a ground-based neutral particle beam pointing experiment is described. Beam scoring in this context means performing beam direction measurements in the near field (tens of meters) sufficient to determine whether energy would be concentrated on a far-field target as desired in a pointing experiment. The principle of operation is to impress a high-resolution spatial modulation on the beam by inserting an array of shadow wires into the beam upstream of the steering magnet. At the downstream end of the beam line the shadows are detected using one or more scintillation screens and video cameras. Beam direction is determined by measuring the location of the shadows at a known distance downstream of the point of steering. A proof-of-principle experiment demonstrates that: (1) wire shadows can be created in a 50 MeV beam and propagate over the distances required; (2) images of sufficient brightness and resolution can be formed on scintillating screens excited by 50 MeV protons; and (3) CCD array cameras can operate in the radiation environment created near the beam line.

  15. Neutral particle dynamics in a high-power RF source

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, D. Paunska, Ts.; Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-04-08

    Previous studies on the spatial discharge structure in the SPIDER source of negative hydrogen/deuterium ions carried out at low applied power are extended towards description of the discharge maintenance under the conditions of the actual rf power deposition of 100 kW planned for a single driver of the source. In addition to the expected higher electron density, the results show strong increase of the electron temperature and of the temperatures of the neutral species (hydrogen atoms and molecules). In the discussions, not only the spatial distribution of the plasma parameters but also that of the fluxes in the discharge (particle and energy fluxes) is involved. The obtained results come in confirmation of basic concepts for low-pressure discharge maintenance: (i) mutually related electron density and temperature as a display of the generalized Schottky condition, (ii) discharge behavior governed by the fluxes, i.e. strong nonlocality in the discharge, and (iii) a non-ambipolarity in the discharge regime, which originates from shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature and shows evidence in a vortex electron flux and in a dc current in a rf discharge, the latter resulting from a shift in the positions of the maxima of the electron density and plasma potential.

  16. Advances in holographic particle velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Scott; Meng, Hui; Hussain, Fazle; Liu, David

    1993-12-01

    Holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) is a promising technique for 3D flow velocity and hence vorticity measurements to study turbulence, coherent structures and vortex interactions. We discuss various aspects in the development of this technique ranging from hologram recording configurations such as in-line, off-axis and multibeam to data processing. Difficulties in implementation are analyzed and solutions are discussed. We also present preliminary measurement results in a 3D vortex flow using one of our prototype HPV systems.

  17. Towards a Revised Monte Carlo Neutral Particle Surface Interaction Model

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Stotler

    2005-06-09

    The components of the neutral- and plasma-surface interaction model used in the Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS 2 are reviewed. The idealized surfaces and processes handled by that model are inadequate for accurately simulating neutral transport behavior in present day and future fusion devices. We identify some of the physical processes missing from the model, such as mixed materials and implanted hydrogen, and make some suggestions for improving the model.

  18. A field-ionization neutral detector - FIND. [neutral particle mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, C. C.; Hsieh, K. C.; Fan, C. Y.; Swanson, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    The field ionization neutral detector FIND operates according to the following principle: Neutral atoms are attracted toward the field ionization tips since they are polarized by the electric field of the tips. The atoms are singly ionized and repelled by the positive potential of the tips toward the detector situated behind a grid at ground potential. The ions deposit in the detector their kinetic energies, typically 26 keV, corresponding to the potential difference between the ionization region and the detector. Laboratory results show that FIND can have the resolution, sensitivities and durability required to perform in situ measurements of neutral H and He fluxes in interplanetary space, cometary halos and exospheres.

  19. Recent advances in neutralizing the IL-6 pathway in arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Malemud, Charles J

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the mechanism(s) of how IL-6 trans-signaling regulates immune cell function and promotes inflammation in autoimmune arthritis are critically reviewed. Serum and/or synovial fluid (SF) IL-6 is markedly elevated in adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and osteoarthritis (OA). IL-6, in concert with IL-17, determines the fate of CD4+ lymphocytes and therefore TH17 cell differentiation. IL-6 also plays a critical role in modulating B-lymphocyte activity. The recognition that IL-6 trans-signaling regulates inflammation resulted in the development of tocilizumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the biological activity of the IL-6-receptor (IL-6R). Significant clinical benefit was demonstrated as well as reduced serum IL-6 levels with suppression of X-ray progression of disease in several clinical trials in which juvenile or adult RA patients were treated with tocilizumab monotherapy or tocilizumab plus methotrexate. However, levels of serum and/or SF IL-6 cytokine protein superfamily members, adiponectin, oncostatin M, pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor/visfatin and leukemia inhibitory factor are also elevated in RA. Additional studies will be required to determine if anti-IL-6 trans-signaling inhibition strategies with tocilizumab or recombinant soluble IL-6R reduce the level of these cytokines.

  20. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  1. Neutral and inertial particle acceleration in strained turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Min; Gylfason, Armann; Perlekar, Prasad; Toschi, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Turbulence influences the transport and mixing of particles. We study the dynamics of particles in turbulent flows undergoing asymmetrically expanding straining by means of direct numerical simulations. We investigate the accelerations of tracer and inertial particles. We find a good agreement between tracer acceleration variance and the prediction of rapid distortion theory. Furthermore we study how particle acceleration probability density functions depend on the strain rate, the Stokes number, and the Reynolds number. Accelerations variances of inertial particles are discussed in the context of the formal solution of the equation of particle motion, and we show that in strong straining the acceleration variance of particles with small Stokes numbers can exceed that of tracer particles.

  2. Time-of-flight neutral particle analyzer and calibration.

    PubMed

    Harris, W S; Garate, E P; Heidbrink, W W; McWilliams, R; Roche, T; Trask, E; Zhang, Yang

    2008-10-01

    A time-of-flight diagnostic has been implemented on the Irvine field reversed configuration (IFRC) to obtain an energy distribution function from charge-exchanged neutral hydrogen. The diagnostic includes a 13 cm radius slotted disk rotating at 165 Hz in vacuum which chops the emitted neutrals at a rate of 26 kHz. In situ timing verification was performed with a dc xenon discharge lamp with an uncertainty less than 100 ns for a 38 micros chopping period. Energy calibration was accomplished with a singly ionized lithium source in the range of 300-1500 eV, achieving an average energy uncertainty, DeltaE/E, of 0.11. The diagnostic has measured neutrals in the range of 20-80 eV from the IFRC and the corresponding energy distribution function has been obtained.

  3. Time-of-flight neutral particle analyzer and calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W. S.; Garate, E. P.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R.; Roche, T.; Trask, E.; Zhang Yang

    2008-10-15

    A time-of-flight diagnostic has been implemented on the Irvine field reversed configuration (IFRC) to obtain an energy distribution function from charge-exchanged neutral hydrogen. The diagnostic includes a 13 cm radius slotted disk rotating at 165 Hz in vacuum which chops the emitted neutrals at a rate of 26 kHz. In situ timing verification was performed with a dc xenon discharge lamp with an uncertainty less than 100 ns for a 38 {mu}s chopping period. Energy calibration was accomplished with a singly ionized lithium source in the range of 300-1500 eV, achieving an average energy uncertainty, {delta}E/E, of 0.11. The diagnostic has measured neutrals in the range of 20-80 eV from the IFRC and the corresponding energy distribution function has been obtained.

  4. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Hu, Liqun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-15

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey–predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  5. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun; Hu, Liqun; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-01

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey-predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  6. Slip velocity of large neutrally buoyant particles in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellani, G.; Variano, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    We discuss possible definitions for a stochastic slip velocity that describes the relative motion between large particles and a turbulent flow. This definition is necessary because the slip velocity used in the standard drag model fails when particle size falls within the inertial subrange of ambient turbulence. We propose two definitions, selected in part due to their simplicity: they do not require filtration of the fluid phase velocity field, nor do they require the construction of conditional averages on particle locations. A key benefit of this simplicity is that the stochastic slip velocity proposed here can be calculated equally well for laboratory, field and numerical experiments. The stochastic slip velocity allows the definition of a Reynolds number that should indicate whether large particles in turbulent flow behave (a) as passive tracers; (b) as a linear filter of the velocity field; or (c) as a nonlinear filter to the velocity field. We calculate the value of stochastic slip for ellipsoidal and spherical particles (the size of the Taylor microscale) measured in laboratory homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The resulting Reynolds number is significantly higher than 1 for both particle shapes, and velocity statistics show that particle motion is a complex nonlinear function of the fluid velocity. We further investigate the nonlinear relationship by comparing the probability distribution of fluctuating velocities for particle and fluid phases.

  7. Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B; Friedman, A.F.; Lee, E.P.

    2009-09-03

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by a background plasma forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating

  8. Maximizing ion current by space-charge neutralization using negative ions and dust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, A.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-05-15

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space-charge neutralization are introduced. Space-charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space-charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster.

  9. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  10. Advanced satellite sensors: Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Imaging of low energy neutral atoms (LENDs) created by electron capture by magnetospheric plasma ions from interactions with cold geocoronal neutrals promises to be a revolutionary technique for providing unprecedented information about the global structure and dynamics of the terrestrial magnetosphere. This has significant implications in space weather forecasting, weather-induced satellite upset diagnostics, and revolutionary insights into global magnetospheric physics. The Los Alamos Space and Atmospheric Sciences Group has completed extensive neutral atom simulations and detailed instrument definition, and we designed a proof-of-concept demonstration prototype and have obtained externally- funded programs for full instrument development

  11. Array of neutral particle analyzers at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Carolipio, E.M.; Heidbrink, W.W.

    1996-12-01

    Local measurements of the fast-ion distribution in auxiliary-heated plasmas are key to understanding the behavior of energetic particles under a variety of conditions, such as beam-ion transport during Alfven instabilities and the acceleration of beam ions by fast waves. For the first time at DIII-D, line-averaged and local measurements of the energetic-particle density (for E = 5--75 keV) are possible using an array of four compact charge-exchange analyzers. The installation consists of three vertically-viewing analyzers with fixed sightlines, measuring particles with {chi} = 90{degree} (where {chi} is the angle between the particle`s velocity and the toroidal direction) and one horizontally-viewing analyzer with a variable sightline, measuring particles with 2{degree}{grave U} {chi} {acute U} 60{degree}. All the analyzers can make passive measurements while three detectors, with sightlines that intersect deuterium heating beams, can make active charge-exchange measurements.

  12. Use of amine neutralized sulfonated polystyrenes for particle flocculation

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, D.J.; Peiffer, D.G.; Thaler, W.A.; Duvdevani, I.

    1987-10-20

    A process is described for flocculating solid fines selected from the group consisting of coke films, catalyst fines, synthetic fuel fines, coal fines, and shale fines from a solution comprising the solid fines and an organic liquid which comprises the steps of: (a) adding with mixing about 5 to about 10,000 ppm of the water insoluble unneutralized or neutralized sulfonated polystyrene to the solution wherein the sulfonated polystyrene is dissolved in a dissolving organic liquid at a concentration level of about 0.01 to about 20 weight percent, and has about 0.5 to about 100 mole percent of sulfonate groups; and (b) heating at about 25/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C for about 1 to about 45 minutes the mixture of the solution and the unneutralized or neutralized polystyrene wherein the sulfonated polystrene is absorbed on the surface of the solid fines, and the solid fines collide to form agglomerates which precipitate out of the solution.

  13. Array of neutral particle analyzers at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Carolipio, E.M.; Heidbrink, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Local measurements of the fast-ion distribution in auxiliary-heated plasmas are key to understanding the behavior of energetic particles under a variety of conditions, such as beam{endash}ion transport during Alfv{acute e}n instabilities and the acceleration of beam ions by fast waves. For the first time at DIII-D, line-averaged and local measurements of the energetic-particle density (for E=5{endash}75 keV) are possible using an array of four compact charge{endash}exchange analyzers [P. Beiersdorfer {ital et al.}, Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 58}, 2092 (1987)]. The installation consists of three vertically viewing analyzers with fixed sightlines, measuring particles with {chi}=90{degree} (where {chi} is the angle between the particle{close_quote}s velocity and the toroidal direction), and one horizontally viewing analyzer with a variable sightline, measuring particles with 2{degree}{approx_lt}{chi}{approx_lt}60{degree}. All the analyzers can make passive measurements while three detectors, with sightlines that intersect deuterium heating beams, can make active charge{endash}exchange measurements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus neutralization assay using Gaussia luciferase as readout

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been responsible for large epidemic outbreaks causing fever, headache, rash and severe arthralgia. So far, no specific treatment or vaccine is available. As nucleic acid amplification can only be used during the viremic phase of the disease, serological tests like neutralization assays are necessary for CHIKV diagnosis and for determination of the immune status of a patient. Furthermore, neutralization assays represent a useful tool to validate the efficacy of potential vaccines. As CHIKV is a BSL3 agent, neutralization assays with infectious virus need to be performed under BSL3 conditions. Our aim was to develop a neutralization assay based on non-infectious virus replicon particles (VRPs). Methods VRPs were produced by cotransfecting baby hamster kidney-21 cells with a CHIKV replicon expressing Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) and two helper RNAs expressing the CHIKV capsid protein or the remaining structural proteins, respectively. The resulting single round infectious particles were used in CHIKV neutralization assays using secreted Gluc as readout. Results Upon cotransfection of a CHIKV replicon expressing Gluc and the helper RNAs VRPs could be produced efficiently under optimized conditions at 32°C. Infection with VRPs could be measured via Gluc secreted into the supernatant. The successful use of VRPs in CHIKV neutralization assays was demonstrated using a CHIKV neutralizing monoclonal antibody or sera from CHIKV infected patients. Comparison of VRP based neutralization assays in 24- versus 96-well format using different amounts of VRPs revealed that in the 96-well format a high multiplicity of infection is favored, while in the 24-well format reliable results are also obtained using lower infection rates. Comparison of different readout times revealed that evaluation of the neutralization assay is already possible at the same day of infection. Conclusions A VRP based CHIKV neutralization assay using Gluc as readout

  15. The influence of blobs on neutral particles in the scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrysøe, Alexander S.; Tophøj, Laust E. H.; Naulin, Volker; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Anders H.

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between plasma and neutrals are investigated with particular attention to the influence of large amplitude blob structures that mediate a significant particle and energy transport through the scrape-off layer (SOL). We perform a statistical analysis of the mean-field approximation for plasma parameters in the SOL, and this approximation is shown to be poor in a SOL with a high level of fluctuations, as the plasma fields are strongly correlated. A 1D neutral fluid model which account for both cold and hot neutrals is formulated and the effects of blobs on the ionization in the SOL and edge are investigated. Simulations suggest that neutrals originating from dissociation of hydrogen molecules only fuel in the outermost edge region of the plasma, whereas hot neutrals from charge exchange collisions penetrate deep into the bulk plasma. The results are recovered in a simplified 2D model.

  16. Anomalous Internal Pair Conversion Signaling Elusive Light Neutral Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Fokke

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we report on a systematic search for a new light neutral boson in the mass range between 5 and 15 MeV in nuclear decay from high energy levels. Its signature is found in a deviation in the angular correlation of de-exciting e+e- pairs from conventional internal pair conversion (IPC) which is explained by superposition of its two-body decay. With an e+e- pair-spectrometer, a number of transitions has been investigated in the α-nuclei 8Be, 12C and 16O, following light ion induced reactions at low bombarding energies, first at IKF in Frankfurt and during the last years at ATOMKI in Debrecen. Startlingly, in all isoscalar transitions excess e+e- pairs are found at large angles with branching ratios ranging from 10-1 to 10-6. If these deviations are all related to the two-body decay of an X-boson, this observation implies additional X-bosons. An analysis of all angular spectra with a boson search program, yields a pandemonium of more than ten candidate bosons.

  17. DESTRUCTION OF NEUTRAL PARTICLES IN A DEVICE FOR PRODUCING A HIGH DENSITY PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Simon, A.

    1962-05-01

    A method and apparatus are described for burning out neutral particles in an evacuated region and within a strong magnetic field. The method comprises injecting energetic molecular ions into the region perpendicular to the magnetic field and into the path of a dissociating, energetic arc discharge, the atomic ions formed in the dissociating process being trapped by the magnetic field, and then increasing the value of the trapped atomic ion current to such a value that the neutral particles are destroyed faster than they are formed, thereby causing a dense, energetic plasma to be built up and sustained by the magnetic field. (AEC)

  18. Geometric phase for a neutral particle in the presence of a topological defect

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.; Nascimento, J. R.; Furtado, C.

    2008-09-15

    In this paper we study the quantum dynamics of a neutral particle in the presence of a topological defect. We investigate the appearance of a geometric phase in the relativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle which possesses permanent magnetic and electric dipole moments in the presence of an electromagnetic field in this curved space-time. The nonrelativistic quantum dynamics are investigated using the Foldy-Wouthuysen expansion. The gravitational Aharonov-Casher and He-McKellar-Wilkens effects are investigated for a series of electric and magnetic field configurations.

  19. Landau quantization for a neutral particle in the presence of topological defects

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.; Ribeiro, L. R.; Furtado, C.; Nascimento, J. R.

    2009-01-15

    In this paper we study the Landau levels in the nonrelativistic dynamics of a neutral particle which possesses a permanent magnetic dipole moment interacting with an external electric field in the curved space-time background with the presence or absence of a torsion field. The eigenfunction and eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian are obtained. We show that the presence of the topological defect breaks the infinite degeneracy of the Landau levels arising in this system. We also apply a duality transformation to discuss this same quantization for a dynamics of a neutral particle with a permanent electric dipole moment.

  20. [Advances in the development of neutralizing therapies for sepsis].

    PubMed

    Florencia Henning, María; Garda, Horacio; Bakás, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Lipopolisaccharide (LPS), also called endotoxin, is the major component of the external membrane in Gram negative bacteria. This molecule is released to circulation by the bacteria, producing a large variety of toxic and pro-inflammatory effects which are associated with lipid A as well as with sepsis pathogenesis. Many physiological phenomena produced by LPS arise from this molecule's capacity to activate cells in the host immune system such as monocytes, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This process leads to a local inflammation, and it is beneficial for the host. However, if the amount of LPS released exceeds the critical concentration threshold an augmented release of inflammatory cytokines as TNF-alpha, and interleukines (IL) produce a severe sepsis. This fact led us to find therapeutical alternatives able to neutralize circulating endotoxin. This work is focused on the experimental results obtained in vivo and in vitro using synthetic proteins and peptides in order to neutralize LPS, and on future perpectives in this research area that offer the use of lipoprotein and in particular apolipoprotein A-I and mutants or peptides derived from this protein.

  1. An initial measurement of a fast neutral spectrum for ion cyclotron range of frequency heated plasma using two-channel compact neutral particle analyzers in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Wang, S. J.; Park, M.; Kim, S. K.

    2013-11-01

    The accurate measurement of fast neutral particles from high energy ion tails is very important since it is a measure of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) or neutral beam (NB) ion heating. In KSTAR, fast neutral measurements have been carried out using a compact neutral particle analyzer based on the silicon photo diode since 2010. As a result, the fast neutral spectrum was observed consistent with the ion temperature, diamagnetic energy, and neutron flux in 2011. However, there was fast neutral count beyond the injected neutral beam energy in NB-only heating. Since it is difficult to expect the count unless the temperature is high enough to diffuse the fast ions beyond the beam energy it was required to identify what it is. During the 2012 campaign, the two-channel diode detectors with and without a particle stopper were used to distinguish fast neutral counts and other counts by a hard X-ray or neutrons. As a result, it was confirmed that the high energy component beyond the beam energy originated from a hard X-ray or neutrons. Finally, it was observed that faster neutrals are generated by ICRF heating and enhanced by electron cyclotron heating compared to NB-only heating.

  2. An initial measurement of a fast neutral spectrum for ion cyclotron range of frequency heated plasma using two-channel compact neutral particle analyzers in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H.; Park, M.; Kim, S. K.; Wang, S. J.

    2013-11-15

    The accurate measurement of fast neutral particles from high energy ion tails is very important since it is a measure of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) or neutral beam (NB) ion heating. In KSTAR, fast neutral measurements have been carried out using a compact neutral particle analyzer based on the silicon photo diode since 2010. As a result, the fast neutral spectrum was observed consistent with the ion temperature, diamagnetic energy, and neutron flux in 2011. However, there was fast neutral count beyond the injected neutral beam energy in NB-only heating. Since it is difficult to expect the count unless the temperature is high enough to diffuse the fast ions beyond the beam energy it was required to identify what it is. During the 2012 campaign, the two-channel diode detectors with and without a particle stopper were used to distinguish fast neutral counts and other counts by a hard X-ray or neutrons. As a result, it was confirmed that the high energy component beyond the beam energy originated from a hard X-ray or neutrons. Finally, it was observed that faster neutrals are generated by ICRF heating and enhanced by electron cyclotron heating compared to NB-only heating.

  3. Performance of the solid state neutral particle analyzer array on the national spherical torus experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Darrow, D. S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Medley, S. S.; Shinohara, K.

    2006-10-15

    The solid state neutral particle analyzer (SSNPA) array on the national spherical torus experiment (NSTX) consists of four chords with tangency radii of 60, 90, 100, and 120 cm that view across the three coinjection neutral beam lines. Each chord utilizes a silicon photodiode that is coupled to fast digitizers to measure the energy distribution of charge exchange fast neutral particles (30-100 keV). By the end of the NSTX 2005 experimental campaign, the electromagnetic noise in the SSNPA was reduced by half and reasonable signals were obtained with good electromagnetic shielding, fast digitization of raw signals, software-based pulse height analysis, and pulse shape discrimination. Energy resolution of {approx}10 keV and time resolution of 2 ms have been achieved. Temporal evolutions of energetic neutral flux obtained with the SSNPA are in good agreement with those obtained with the E(parallel sign)B-type neutral particle analyzer. With these improvements, the SSNPA can be used to study magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and fast ion redistribution. Example data from plasma discharges are presented along with the noise reduction techniques and postshot pulse height analysis methods.

  4. Maturation-Induced Cloaking of Neutralization Epitopes on HIV-1 Particles

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Amanda S.; Willis, Jordan R.; Crowe, James E.; Aiken, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    To become infectious, HIV-1 particles undergo a maturation process involving proteolytic cleavage of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins. Immature particles contain a highly stable spherical Gag lattice and are impaired for fusion with target cells. The fusion impairment is relieved by truncation of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail (CT), indicating that an interaction between the immature viral core and gp41 within the particle represses HIV-1 fusion by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that the conformation of Env on the viral surface is regulated allosterically by interactions with the HIV-1 core during particle maturation. To test this, we quantified the binding of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to mature and immature HIV-1 particles by immunofluorescence imaging. Surprisingly, immature particles exhibited markedly enhanced binding of several gp41-specific antibodies, including two that recognize the membrane proximal external region (MPER) and neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains. Several of the differences in epitope exposure on mature and immature particles were abolished by truncation of the gp41 CT, thus linking the immature HIV-1 fusion defect with altered Env conformation. Our results suggest that perturbation of fusion-dependent Env conformational changes contributes to the impaired fusion of immature particles. Masking of neutralization-sensitive epitopes during particle maturation may contribute to HIV-1 immune evasion and has practical implications for vaccine strategies targeting the gp41 MPER. PMID:21931551

  5. Time-Dependent Neutral Particle Transport Benchmarks in Two and Three Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Barry D. Ganapol

    2007-10-12

    The main objective of NEER grant was to generate highly accurate 2D and 3D time-dependent neutral particle intensity maps from 3D pulsed wire sources through integration of the analytical representation of a time-dependent point source.

  6. Preparation of thin films for use in generating neutral particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Adair, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large-area, thin aluminum foils were prepared for use in beam neutralization experiments. The foils were made using either electron beams of resistance heating. Foil thickness and uniformity were determined using alpha particles. The foils perform very well when bombarded by energetic H/sup -/ ions. (DLC)

  7. Chord integrated neutral particle diagnostic data analysis for neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron radio frequency heated plasma in a complex Large Helical Device geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Veshchev, E. A.; Goncharov, P. R.; Ozaki, T.; Sudo, S.; Lyon, J. F.

    2006-10-15

    Energy and angle-resolved measurements of charge exchange neutral particle fluxes from the plasma provide information about T{sub i}, as well as non-Maxwellian substantially anisotropic ion distribution tails due to neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) heating. The measured chord integral neutral flux calculation scheme for the Large Helical Device magnetic surface geometry is given. Calculation results are shown for measurable atomic energy spectra corresponding to heating-induced fast ion distributions from simplified Fokker-Planck models. The behavior of calculated and experimental suprathermal particle distributions from NBI and ICRF heated plasma is discussed in the context of the experimental data interpretation.

  8. Is astronomy possible with neutral ultrahigh energy cosmic ray particles existing in the standard model?

    SciTech Connect

    Tinyakov, P. G.; Tkachev, I. I.

    2008-03-15

    The recently observed correlation between HiRes stereo cosmic ray events with energies E {approx} 10{sup 19} eV and BL Lacertae objects occurs at an angle that strongly suggests that the primary particles are neutral. We analyze whether this correlation, if not a statistical fluctuation, can be explained within the Standard Model, i.e., assuming only known particles and interactions. We have not found a plausible process that can account for these correlations. The mechanism that comes closest-the conversion of protons into neutrons in the IR background of our Galaxy-still underproduces the required flux of neutral particles by about two orders of magnitude. The situation is different at E {approx} 10{sup 20} eV, where the flux of cosmic rays at the Earth may contain up to a few percent of neutrons, indicating their extragalactic sources.

  9. Resonant neutral-particle emission in collisions of electrons with peptide ions in a storage ring.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, T; Noda, K; Saito, M; Lee, S; Ito, Y; Takagi, H

    2003-05-16

    Electron-biomolecular ion collisions were studied using an electrostatic storage ring with a merging beam technique for singly protonated peptides (angiotensin I, II, and III). A strong neutral-particle emission at around 6.5 eV was found in addition to neutrals from recombination at low energies. The rates of the high-energy peak greatly decreased with a slight decrease in the number of amino-acid residues from angiotensin I to III. These results suggest that some peptide bonds were selectively cleaved.

  10. A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Clary, R.; Smirnov, A.; Dettrick, S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Ruskov, E.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y.

    2012-10-15

    A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

  11. A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behaviora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, R.; Smirnov, A.; Dettrick, S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Ruskov, E.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y.

    2012-10-01

    A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

  12. A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behavior.

    PubMed

    Clary, R; Smirnov, A; Dettrick, S; Knapp, K; Korepanov, S; Ruskov, E; Heidbrink, W W; Zhu, Y

    2012-10-01

    A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

  13. Neutral particle effects on the spin-dependent electron scattering in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gyeong Won; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-09-15

    The influence of neutral particle collisions on the spin-channel preference for spin-asymmetry scattering is investigated in dense plasmas. The effective electron-electron interaction potential taking into account the electron-neutral collision effects is employed to obtain the scattering cross sections for the spin-triplet and singlet states and spin-asymmetry scattering parameter. It is found that the electron-neutral collision effect enhances the spin-asymmetry scattering parameter as well as the preference for the spin-singlet scattering channel. It is also shown that the preference for the spin-singlet scattering channel increases with an increase of the thermal energy. In addition, it is found that the angular averaged spin-asymmetry parameter decreases with increasing collision frequency and thermal energy. The variations of the spin-singlet and spin-triplet scattering channels are also discussed.

  14. Energetic particles in the vicinity of a possible neutral line in the plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moebius, E.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Paschmann, G.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    Combined plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particle data obtained from ISEE-1 in the geomagnetic tail during two successive energetic particle burst events are presented. The behavior of protons with energies of more than about 100 keV is very different from that of the 30-100 keV protons which represent the suprathermal tail of the plasma sheet distribution. The more energetic ions appear on a time scale of several minutes following a northward turning of the tail magnetic field. At about the same time the plasma measurements show a velocity of about 200 km/s in the tailward direction. From these results, it is argued that two successive magnetic neutral lines are created well within the plasma sheet and move close to the satellite position in the earthward direction. The extent of the neutral line is then limited to the dusk side of the tail.

  15. Neutral particle background in cosmic ray telescopes composed of silicon solid state detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The energy loss-spectrum of secondary charged particles produced by the interaction of gamma-rays and energetic neutrons in silicon solid state detectors has been measured with a satellite-borne cosmic ray telescope. In the satellite measurements presented here two distinct neutral background effects are identified: secondary protons and alpha particles with energies of about 2 to 100 MeV produced by neutron interactions, and secondary electrons with energies of about 0.2 to 10 MeV produced by X-ray interactions. The implications of this neutral background for satellite measurements of low energy cosmic rays are discussed, and suggestions are given for applying these results to other detector systems in order to estimate background contamination and optimize detector system design.

  16. Particle Dynamics Discrimination Between Current Sheet Magnetic Field Reversal and Magnetic Neutral Line Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. F., Jr.; Holland, D. L.; Svetich, J.

    2014-12-01

    We consider dynamical signatures of ion motion that discriminate between a current sheet magnetic field reversal and a magnetic neutral line field. These two related dynamical systems have been studied previously as chaotic scattering systems with application to the Earth's magnetotail. Both systems exhibit chaotic scattering over a wide range of parameter values. The structure and properties of their respective phase spaces have been used to elucidate potential dynamical signatures that affect spacecraft measured ion distributions. In this work we consider the problem of discrimination between these two magnetic structures using charged particle dynamics. For example we show that signatures based on the well known energy resonance in the current sheet field provide good discrimination since the resonance is not present in the neutral line case. While both fields can lead to fractal exit region structuring, their characteristics are different and also may provide some field discrimination. Application to magnetotail field and particle parameters will be presented

  17. Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D. Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. B.; Tritz, K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Medley, S. S.

    2014-11-15

    A new compact, multi-channel Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode array has been designed and is being fabricated for the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The SSNPA system utilizes a set of vertically stacked photodiode arrays in current mode viewing the same plasma region with different filter thickness to obtain fast temporal resolution (∼120 kHz bandwidth) and coarse energy information in three bands of >25 keV, >45 keV, and >65 keV. The SSNPA system consists of 15 radial sightlines that intersect existing on-axis neutral beams at major radii between 90 and 130 cm, 15 tangential sightlines that intersect new off-axis neutral beams at major radii between 120 and 145 cm. These two subsystems aim at separating the response of passing and trapped fast ions. In addition, one photodiode array whose viewing area does not intersect any neutral beams is used to monitor passive signals produced by fast ions that charge exchange with background neutrals.

  18. Dengue Reporter Virus Particles for Measuring Neutralizing Antibodies against Each of the Four Dengue Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Katherine L.; Gonzalez, Ritela; Murray, Meredith; Sluzas, Emily; Pagano, Dan; Ajith, Sandya; Bower, Megan; Berdougo, Eli; Harris, Eva; Doranz, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of reliable, high-throughput tools for characterizing anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in large numbers of serum samples has been an obstacle in understanding the impact of neutralizing antibodies on disease progression and vaccine efficacy. A reporter system using pseudoinfectious DENV reporter virus particles (RVPs) was previously developed by others to facilitate the genetic manipulation and biological characterization of DENV virions. In the current study, we demonstrate the diagnostic utility of DENV RVPs for measuring neutralizing antibodies in human serum samples against all four DENV serotypes, with attention to the suitability of DENV RVPs for large-scale, long-term studies. DENV RVPs used against human sera yielded serotype-specific responses and reproducible neutralization titers that were in statistical agreement with Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) results. DENV RVPs were also used to measure neutralization titers against the four DENV serotypes in a panel of human sera from a clinical study of dengue patients. The high-throughput capability, stability, rapidity, and reproducibility of assays using DENV RVPs offer advantages for detecting immune responses that can be applied to large-scale clinical studies of DENV infection and vaccination. PMID:22096543

  19. Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, Y. B.; Roquemore, A. L.; Medley, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    A new compact, multi-channel Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode array has been designed and is being fabricated for the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The SSNPA system utilizes a set of vertically stacked photodiode arrays in current mode viewing the same plasma region with different filter thickness to obtain fast temporal resolution (˜120 kHz bandwidth) and coarse energy information in three bands of >25 keV, >45 keV, and >65 keV. The SSNPA system consists of 15 radial sightlines that intersect existing on-axis neutral beams at major radii between 90 and 130 cm, 15 tangential sightlines that intersect new off-axis neutral beams at major radii between 120 and 145 cm. These two subsystems aim at separating the response of passing and trapped fast ions. In addition, one photodiode array whose viewing area does not intersect any neutral beams is used to monitor passive signals produced by fast ions that charge exchange with background neutrals.

  20. Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Heidbrink, W W; Tritz, K; Zhu, Y B; Roquemore, A L; Medley, S S

    2014-11-01

    A new compact, multi-channel Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode array has been designed and is being fabricated for the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The SSNPA system utilizes a set of vertically stacked photodiode arrays in current mode viewing the same plasma region with different filter thickness to obtain fast temporal resolution (∼120 kHz bandwidth) and coarse energy information in three bands of >25 keV, >45 keV, and >65 keV. The SSNPA system consists of 15 radial sightlines that intersect existing on-axis neutral beams at major radii between 90 and 130 cm, 15 tangential sightlines that intersect new off-axis neutral beams at major radii between 120 and 145 cm. These two subsystems aim at separating the response of passing and trapped fast ions. In addition, one photodiode array whose viewing area does not intersect any neutral beams is used to monitor passive signals produced by fast ions that charge exchange with background neutrals.

  1. Integrability and supersymmetry of Schroedinger-Pauli equations for neutral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, A. G.

    2012-12-15

    Integrable quantum mechanical systems for neutral particles with spin (1/2) and nontrivial dipole momentum are classified. It is demonstrated that such systems give rise to new exactly solvable problems of quantum mechanics with clear physical content. Solutions for three of them are given in explicit form. The related symmetry algebras and superalgebras are discussed. The presented classification is restricted to two-dimensional systems, which admit matrix integrals of motion linear in momenta.

  2. Performing three-dimensional neutral particle transport calculations on tera scale computers

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, C S; Brown, P N; Chang, B; Dorr, M R; Hanebutte, U R

    1999-01-12

    A scalable, parallel code system to perform neutral particle transport calculations in three dimensions is presented. To utilize the hyper-cluster architecture of emerging tera scale computers, the parallel code successfully combines the MPI message passing and paradigms. The code's capabilities are demonstrated by a shielding calculation containing over 14 billion unknowns. This calculation was accomplished on the IBM SP ''ASCI-Blue-Pacific computer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  3. Mode particle resonances during near-tangential neutral beam injection in large tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; White, R.B.; Morris, A.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Coherent magnetohydrodynamic modes have been observed during neutral beam injection in TFTR and JET. Periodic bursts of oscillations were detected with several plasma diagnostics, and Fokker-Planck calculations show that the populations of trapped particles in both tokamaks are sufficient to account for fishbone destabilization. Estimates of mode parameters are in reasonable agreement with the experiments, and they indicate that the fishbone mode may continue to affect the performance of intensely heated tokamaks. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Characterization of Lead Tungstate for Neutral Particle Spectrometer at 12 GeV JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Precision measurements of the deeply-virtual Compton scattering cross section at different beam energies to extract the real part of the Compton form factor, measurements to push the energy scale of real Compton scattering, and measurements of the basic semi-inclusive neutral-pion cross section in a kinematical region where the QCD factorization scheme is expected to hold all have something in common: the need for detecting neutral particles with high precision and high luminosity. The Neutral Particle Spectrometer (NPS) is a crystal electromagnetic calorimeter preceded by a sweeping magnet to sweep away charged particles. In this presentation I will show the results of PbWO4 crystal quality studies for the NPS. PbWO4 is optimal for the NPS due to its small Moliere radius and radiation hardness. The critical aspect for crystal quality, and thus resolution/precision, is the combination of high light output and radiation hardness, which depend strongly on the manufacturing process. We have tested the performance of PbWO4 crystals, and in particular, measured their light yield, optical transmission, and uniformity and radiation hardness. The homogeneity of the crystal was investigated based on the variation of the transverse optical transmission. Supported in part by NSF-PHY-1306227.

  5. Can neutral particles from Comet Halley have reached the ICE spacecraft?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, P. W.

    1987-06-01

    To investigate the question of how neutral particles could travel from Comet Halley to the ICE spacecraft, Kepler orbits that connect the positions of Halley and ICE in space and time are calculated. From these orbits, the initial speed of the particle, relative to Halley, can be found as a function of departure time. It is found that there is a minimum relative speed of 7.5 km/s, for particles leaving the comet on Feb. 6, 1986, three days before perihelion. Particles emitted before this date actually require a higher relative speed. Lower speeds of about 5 km/s are again possible for departure dates in Nov. 1985, when the molecular production rate is considerably reduced.

  6. Long-term tracking of neutrally buoyant tracer particles in two-dimensional fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M. S.; Solomon, T. H.

    1994-07-01

    An experimental technique has been developed to produce and to track neutrally buoyant particles in a two-dimensional fluid flow. The key aspect of the technique is the ability to track particles for extended intervals (over an hour), which is essential for quantitative studies of transport and mixing. The approach is composed of two stages. In the first stage, digital image processing hardware partially processes the images, reducing the data rate to 50 kbyte/s (typically) and allowing several hours of data to be stored on a conventional computer disk. In the second stage, programs extract particle trajectories from the reduced data. The approach is tested in an experiment on planetary-type flows in a rotating annulus. In an appendix, a technique is discussed for fabricating wax or crayon particles with arbitrary density.

  7. Electric current-driven migration of electrically neutral particles in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinfang E-mail: r.qin@imperial.ac.uk; Qin, Rongshan E-mail: r.qin@imperial.ac.uk

    2014-03-17

    We design and experimentally demonstrate a migration of electrically neutral particles in liquids driven by electric current according to the discrepancies of their electrical conductivities. A force from electric current to electrically neutral particles has been identified to drive the particles toward the lateral surface from the centre of suspension via three distinguishable zones, namely, pushing, trapping, and expelling zones. The driving force can overtake gravity in practical cases. The property of the force is found neither similar to that of the force in electromagnetophoresis nor similar to that of the electromigration force in terms of direction and magnitude. An expression for the force at the pushing zone has been developed based on the numerical calculation of the thermodynamics of suspension fluids. The excellent agreement between numerical calculations and experimental data demonstrates that our calculation provides fundamental and predictive insight into particles separation from the liquids. Therefore, it is possible to use the force in many engineering applications such as separation of particles according to the differences of their electrical conductivities.

  8. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ neutral detergent fiber incubation.

    PubMed

    Krämer, M; Nørgaard, P; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-07-01

    Particle size alterations during neutral detergent fiber (NDF) determination and in situ rumen incubation were analyzed by dry sieving and image analysis to evaluate the in situ procedure for estimation of NDF degradation parameters and indigestible NDF concentration in terms of particle size. Early-cut and late-cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal, and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were (1) drying and grinding of forage samples and grinding of concentrates; (2) neutral detergent-soluble (NDS) extraction; (3) machine washing and NDS extraction; (4) 24-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction; and (5) 288-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were determined and image analysis was used to estimate particle size profiles and thereby the risk for particle loss. Particle dimensions changed during NDF determination and in situ rumen incubation and variations depended on feedstuff and treatment. Corn silage and late-cut grass silage varied most in particle area among feedstuffs, with an increase of 139% between 0 and 24h and a decrease of 77% between 24 and 288 h for corn silage and a decrease of 74% for late-cut grass silage between 24- and 288-h in situ rumen incubation. Especially for late-cut grass silage residues after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, a high mass proportion in the critical zone for escape was found. Particle area decreased linearly with increasing incubation time. Particle loss during in situ rumen incubation cannot be excluded and is likely to vary among feedstuffs.

  9. Compact multichannel neutral particle analyzer for measurement of energetic charge-exchanged neutrals in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, V.; Liptac, J.; Parker, R. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Fiore, C. L.; Granetz, R. S.; Irby, J. H.; Lin, Y.; Wukitch, S. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Leiter, R.; Mcduffee, S.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2006-08-15

    A four-channel compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA) based on operating small Si diode detectors in pulse-height analysis (PHA) mode is used to measure energetic hydrogen minority ions with energies between {approx}50 and 350 keV stemming from ion-cyclotron range-of-frequency heated D(H) Alcator C-Mod plasmas with both active and passive charge exchange (CX). First core minority ion distribution results from Alcator C-Mod discharges and a detailed description of the diagnostic are presented. The diagnostic employs integrated electronics and fast digitization of the shaping amplifier voltage. The digitized data are stored for postshot PHA, which removes the constraints of real-time PHA and allows for improved performance via elimination of base line shift effects and potentially relieving pileup through Gaussian fitting routines. The CNPA is insensitive to the large gamma and neutron background in Alcator C-Mod discharges but is susceptible to the plasma's soft x-ray flux. The soft x-ray flux limits the CNPA energy resolution to {approx}15-20 keV. A simple model is used to interpret the active CNPA data which permits rapid estimates of the core hydrogen minority temperatures and anisotropy with a time resolution of {approx}100 ms. Hydrogenlike boron is identified as an important electron donor for the CX signal.

  10. Advance particle and Doppler measurement methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, C.

    1985-01-01

    Particle environments, i.e., rain, ice, and snow particles are discussed. Two types of particles addressed are: (1) the natural environment in which airplanes fly and conduct test flights; and (2) simulation environments that are encountered in ground-test facilities such as wind tunnels, ranges, etc. There are characteristics of the natural environment that one wishes to measure. The liquid water content (LWC) is the one that seems to be of most importance; size distribution may be of importance in some applications. Like snow, the shape of the particle may be an important parameter to measure. As one goes on to environment in simulated tests, additional parameters may be required such as velocity distribution, the velocity lag of the particle relative to the aerodynamic flow, and the trajectory of the particle as it goes through the aerodynamic flow and impacts on the test object.

  11. Neutral particle transport in plasma edge using transmission/escape probability (TEP) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dingkang

    Neutral particles play an important role on the performance of tokamak plasmas. In this dissertation, the original TEP methodology has been extended to take into account linearly (DP1) and quadratically (DP2) anisotropic distributions of angular fluxes for calculations of transmission probabilities. Three approaches, subdivision of optically thick regions, expansion of collision sources and the diffusion approximation, have been developed and implemented to correct effects of the preferential probability of collided neutrals escaping back across the incident surface. Solving the diffusion equation via the finite element method has been shown to be the most computationally efficient and accurate for a broader range of Delta/lambda by comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations. The average neutral energy (ANE) approximation has been developed and implemented into the GTNEUT code. The average neutral energy approximation has been demonstrated to be more accurate than the original local ion temperature (LIT) approximation for optically thin regions. The simulations of the upgraded GTNEUT code excellently agree with the DEGAS predictions in DIII-D L-mode and H-mode discharges, and the results of both the codes are in a good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  12. Interstellar Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere from IBEX Observations. II. The Warsaw Test Particle Model (WTPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Swaczyna, P.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a refined and optimized version of the Warsaw Test Particle Model of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere, specially tailored for analysis of IBEX-Lo observations. The former version of the model was used in the analysis of neutral He observed by IBEX that resulted in an unexpected conclusion that the interstellar neutral He flow vector was different than previously thought and that a new population of neutral He, dubbed the Warm Breeze, exists in the heliosphere. It was also used in the reanalysis of Ulysses observations that confirmed the original findings on the flow vector, but suggested a significantly higher temperature. The present version of the model has two strains targeted for different applications, based on an identical paradigm, but differing in the implementation and in the treatment of ionization losses. We present the model in detail and discuss numerous effects related to the measurement process that potentially modify the resulting flux of ISN He observed by IBEX, and identify those of them that should not be omitted in the simulations to avoid biasing the results. This paper is part of a coordinated series of papers presenting the current state of analysis of IBEX-Lo observations of ISN He. Details of the analysis method are presented by Swaczyna et al. and results of the analysis are presented by Bzowski et al.

  13. INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE FROM IBEX OBSERVATIONS. II. THE WARSAW TEST PARTICLE MODEL (WTPM)

    SciTech Connect

    Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Swaczyna, P.

    2015-10-15

    We have developed a refined and optimized version of the Warsaw Test Particle Model of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere, specially tailored for analysis of IBEX-Lo observations. The former version of the model was used in the analysis of neutral He observed by IBEX that resulted in an unexpected conclusion that the interstellar neutral He flow vector was different than previously thought and that a new population of neutral He, dubbed the Warm Breeze, exists in the heliosphere. It was also used in the reanalysis of Ulysses observations that confirmed the original findings on the flow vector, but suggested a significantly higher temperature. The present version of the model has two strains targeted for different applications, based on an identical paradigm, but differing in the implementation and in the treatment of ionization losses. We present the model in detail and discuss numerous effects related to the measurement process that potentially modify the resulting flux of ISN He observed by IBEX, and identify those of them that should not be omitted in the simulations to avoid biasing the results. This paper is part of a coordinated series of papers presenting the current state of analysis of IBEX-Lo observations of ISN He. Details of the analysis method are presented by Swaczyna et al. and results of the analysis are presented by Bzowski et al.

  14. Neutralized solar energetic particles in the inner heliosphere: a parameter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Klecker, Berndt; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Cipriani, Fabrice; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The large fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in Gradual Events, dominated by protons, are believed to be produced by the acceleration of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As SEPs propagate in the lower corona, there is a chance for them to be neutralized via the charge exchange and/or recombination processes and become energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). These ENAs retain the velocity of their parent SEPs and propagate in straight lines without the influence of the interplanetary magnetic field, and therefore might potentially serve as a new window to observe the particle acceleration processes in the solar corona. STEREO/Low Energy Telescope reported the first probable observation of hydrogen ENAs between 1.6 MeV - 5 MeV from the Sun prior to an X-class flare/CME [Mewaldt et al., 2009]. While such observations were somehow controversial, Wang et al. [2014] simulated the neutralization of solar energetic protons in the corona lower than 40 RS, and the result agreed with the STEREO observation. In this work, we further developed a production model of the ENA near the sun together with a transport model toward the inner planets, and explore the dependences of the ENA characteristics against the model parameters. These parameters include the angular width of the CME, its propagation direction with respect to the Sun-observer line, the propagation speed, the particle density in the corona, the abundances of O6+ and C4+, and the reaction rate of electron impact ionization in the loss of ENAs, and the heliospheric distance of the observer. The calculated ENA flux shows that at lower energy the expected ENA flux depends most sensitively on the CME apex angle and the CME propagation direction. At higher energy the dependence on the coronal density is more prominent. References Mewaldt, R. A., R. A. Leske, E. C. Stone, A. F. Barghouty, A. W. Labrador, C. M. S. Cohen, A. C. Cummings, A. J. Davis, T. T. von Rosenvinge, and M. E. Wiedenbeck (2009), STEREO

  15. Analysis of secondary particle behavior in multiaperture, multigrid accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, T; Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    Heat load on acceleration grids by secondary particles such as electrons, neutrals, and positive ions, is a key issue for long pulse acceleration of negative ion beams. Complicated behaviors of the secondary particles in multiaperture, multigrid (MAMuG) accelerator have been analyzed using electrostatic accelerator Monte Carlo code. The analytical result is compared to experimental one obtained in a long pulse operation of a MeV accelerator, of which second acceleration grid (A2G) was removed for simplification of structure. The analytical results show that relatively high heat load on the third acceleration grid (A3G) since stripped electrons were deposited mainly on A3G. This heat load on the A3G can be suppressed by installing the A2G. Thus, capability of MAMuG accelerator is demonstrated for suppression of heat load due to secondary particles by the intermediate grids.

  16. An alpha particle measurement system using an energetic neutral helium beam in ITER (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Tanaka, N.; Terai, K.; Kaneko, O.; Kisaki, M.; Kobuchi, T.; Tsumori, K.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Shinto, K.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-15

    An energetic helium neutral beam is involved in the beam neutralization measurement system of alpha particles confined in a DT fusion plasma. A full size strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source (2 A, the beam radius of 11.3 mm, the beam energy less than 20 keV). Present strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source shows an emittance diagram separated for each beamlet of multiple apertures without phase space mixing, despite the space charge of a beamlet is asymmetric and the beam flow is non-laminar. The emittance of beamlets in the peripheral region was larger than that of center. The heat load to the plasma electrode was studied to estimate the duty factor for the ITER application.

  17. An alpha particle measurement system using an energetic neutral helium beam in ITER (invited).

    PubMed

    Sasao, M; Kisaki, M; Kobuchi, T; Tsumori, K; Tanaka, N; Terai, K; Okamoto, A; Kitajima, S; Kaneko, O; Shinto, K; Wada, M

    2012-02-01

    An energetic helium neutral beam is involved in the beam neutralization measurement system of alpha particles confined in a DT fusion plasma. A full size strong-focusing He(+) ion source (2 A, the beam radius of 11.3 mm, the beam energy less than 20 keV). Present strong-focusing He(+) ion source shows an emittance diagram separated for each beamlet of multiple apertures without phase space mixing, despite the space charge of a beamlet is asymmetric and the beam flow is non-laminar. The emittance of beamlets in the peripheral region was larger than that of center. The heat load to the plasma electrode was studied to estimate the duty factor for the ITER application.

  18. An automated variance reduction method for global Monte Carlo neutral particle transport problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Marc Andrew

    A method to automatically reduce the variance in global neutral particle Monte Carlo problems by using a weight window derived from a deterministic forward solution is presented. This method reduces a global measure of the variance of desired tallies and increases its associated figure of merit. Global deep penetration neutron transport problems present difficulties for analog Monte Carlo. When the scalar flux decreases by many orders of magnitude, so does the number of Monte Carlo particles. This can result in large statistical errors. In conjunction with survival biasing, a weight window is employed which uses splitting and Russian roulette to restrict the symbolic weights of Monte Carlo particles. By establishing a connection between the scalar flux and the weight window, two important concepts are demonstrated. First, such a weight window can be constructed from a deterministic solution of a forward transport problem. Also, the weight window will distribute Monte Carlo particles in such a way to minimize a measure of the global variance. For Implicit Monte Carlo solutions of radiative transfer problems, an inefficient distribution of Monte Carlo particles can result in large statistical errors in front of the Marshak wave and at its leading edge. Again, the global Monte Carlo method is used, which employs a time-dependent weight window derived from a forward deterministic solution. Here, the algorithm is modified to enhance the number of Monte Carlo particles in the wavefront. Simulations show that use of this time-dependent weight window significantly improves the Monte Carlo calculation.

  19. Description of the Majorana properties of neutral particles within pauli symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gaponov, Yu. V.

    2006-04-15

    A mathematical model that makes it possible to describe the Majorana properties of a system of free left-and right-handed neutral fermions belonging to the same type is constructed on the basis of transformations that include the chiral U (1) group and the Pauli SU (2) group, which mixes particle and antiparticle states. For massless particles, Pauli symmetry is exact and leads to conserved charges, a chiral and a generalized lepton one; the latter is a vector in Pauli isospace, where various directions are associated with Dirac or generalized Majorana properties. In the case of a nonzero mass, the scheme in question describes the combined Dirac-Majorana properties of particles belonging to A and B ({eta}{sub P}{sup 2} = -1) and C and D ({eta}{sub P}{sup 2} = 1) inversion classes, the condition M{sub L} = -M{sub R} being satisfied for their Majorana masses. For particles of C and D classes, the mass term in the Lagrangian and the Pauli charge can be related through the generalized-lepton-charge operator. For particles of A and B classes, these features are complementary, an alternative description of particles in terms of the lepton charge or two independent Majorana fields being possible in the Dirac case. In general, however, only representations of the latter type are realized, in which case the eigenvalues of the operator that determines the structure of the mass term in the Lagrangian serve as basic features.

  20. Specific features of measuring the isotopic composition of hydrogen ions in ITER plasma by using neutral particle diagnostics under neutral beam injection conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasyev, V. I.; Goncharov, P. R.; Mironov, M. I.; Nesenevich, V. G. Petrov, M. P.; Petrov, S. Ya.; Sergeev, V. Yu.

    2015-12-15

    Results of numerical simulation of signals from neutral particle analyzers under injection of the heating and diagnostic neutral beams in different operating modes of the ITER tokamak are presented. The distribution functions of fast ions in plasma are simulated, and the corresponding neutral particle fluxes escaping from the plasma along the line of sight of the analyzers are calculated. It is shown that the injection of heating deuterium (D{sup 0}) beams results in the appearance of an intense background signal hampering measurements of the ratio between the densities of deuterium and tritium fuel ions in plasma in the thermal energy range. The injection of a diagnostic hydrogen (H{sup 0}) beam does not affect measurements owing to the high mass resolution of the analyzers.

  1. Mass analysis of neutral particles and ions released during electrical breakdowns on spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Charged-particle fluxes from breakdown events were studied. Methods to measure mass spectra and total emitted flux of neutral particles were developed. The design and construction of the specialized mass spectrometer was completed. Electrical breakdowns were initiated by a movable blunt contact touching the insulating surface. The contact discharge apparatus was used for final development of two different high-speed recording systems and for measurements of the composition of the materials given off by the discharge. It was shown that intense instantaneous fluxes of neutral particles were released from the sites of electrical breakdown events. A laser micropulse mass analyzer showed that visible discoloration at breakdown sites were correllated with the presence of iron on the polymer side of the film, presumably caused by punch-through to the Inconel backing. Kapton samples irradiated by an oxygen ion beam were tested. The irradiated samples were free of surface hydrocarbon contamination but otherwise behaved in the same way as the Kapton samples tested earlier. Only the two samples exposed to oxygen ion bombardment were relatively clean. This indicates an additional variable that should be considered when testing spacecraft materials in the laboratory.

  2. Single discharge of the matrix source of negative hydrogen ions: Influence of the neutral particle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Paunska, Ts.; Todorov, D. Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-04-08

    The study presents two-dimensional (2D) fluid-plasma-model description of a planar-coil inductively-driven discharge, considered as a single element of a matrix source of volume-produced negative hydrogen ions. Whereas the models developed up to now have been directed towards description of the charged particle behavior in the discharge, including that of the negative ions, this model stresses on the role of the neutral particle dynamics and of the surface processes in the formation of the discharge structure. The latter is discussed based on comparison of results obtained for discharges in a flowing gas and at a constant gas pressure as well as for different values of the coefficient of atom recombination on the walls. The conclusions are that the main plasma parameters – electron density and temperature and plasma potential – determining the gas discharge regime stay stable, regardless of changes in the redistribution of the densities of the neutral particles and of the positive ions. With regards to the volume production of the ions, which requires high density of (vibrationally excited) molecules, the impact on the degree of dissociation of the coefficient of atom recombination on the wall is discussed.

  3. Search for a Neutral Long-Lived Particle Decaying to B-Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chad

    2009-04-01

    The existence of the Higgs boson is required by the Standard Model of particle physics, yet it has not been observed. The precise nature of the Higgs boson is unknown and the mechanism by which it interacts with known Standard Model particles is also not known. Long-lived, electrically neutral hadrons have recently been proposed in hidden-valley models and could constitute a pathway through which the Higgs boson communicates with the Standard Model. Such a scenario may provide a novel path to Higgs discovery at the Tevatron. This thesis describes a search for a neutral, long-lived particle produced in decays of Higgs bosons in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV, which decays to b-jets and lives long enough to travel at least 1.6 cm before decaying. This analysis uses 3.65 fb -1 of data recorded with the Run II D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider from April 2002 to August of 2008. We perform a search for eight possible hidden-valley scenarios resulting from a Higgs decay. No significant excess over background is observed and cross-section limits are placed at 95% CL.

  4. Quantum hydrodynamics approach to the formation of waves in polarized two-dimensional systems of charged and neutral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.; Trukhanova, M. I.

    2011-12-15

    In this paper, we explicate a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of polarized particles. Although we focused primarily on the two-dimensional (2D) physical systems, the method is valid for three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems too. The presented method is based upon the Schroedinger equation. Fundamental QHD equations for charged and neutral particles were derived from the many-particle microscopic Schroedinger equation. The fact that particles possess the electric dipole moment (EDM) was taken into account. The explicated QHD approach was used to study dispersion characteristics of various physical systems. We analyzed dispersion of waves in a two-dimensional ion and hole gas placed into an external electric field, which is orthogonal to the gas plane. Elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized particles were studied for 1D, 2D, and 3D cases. The polarization dynamics in systems of both neutral and charged particles is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves as well as changes in the dispersion characteristics of already known waves. We also analyzed wave dispersion in 2D exciton systems, in 2D electron-ion plasma, and in 2D electron-hole plasma. Generation of waves in 3D-system neutral particles with EDM by means of the beam of electrons and neutral polarized particles is investigated.

  5. Spherical Particles of Zirconia-Titania of Hexagonal Structure from a Neutral Amine Route.

    PubMed

    de Farias RF; Airoldi

    1999-12-15

    Through the sol-gel process, using the so-called neutral amine route, spherical particles of 1:1 zirconia-titania were synthesized from zirconium(IV) and titanium(IV) butoxides as well as 1,12-diaminododecane as precursor species. The obtained product exhibited a hexagonal structure, as determinated by X-ray diffraction data. The obtained material was also characterized by thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. Despite the release of template molecules on heating, the spherical morphology was retained up to about 1200 degrees C, at which the disruption of the spheres took place. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Measurement of the inclusive production of neutral pions and charged particles on the Z0 resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeva, B.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Akbari, H.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelov, T.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barone, L.; Bay, A.; Becker, U.; Behrens, J.; Beingessner, S.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biland, A.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Blömeke, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocciolini, M.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Bruyant, F.; Buisson, C.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burq, J. P.; Busenitz, J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Carbonara, F.; Cardenal, P.; Carminati, F.; Cartacci, A. M.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Chollet, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Conforto, G.; Contin, A.; Crijns, F.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Diez-Hedo, F.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Diviá, R.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Driever, T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Faber, G.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, Q.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Fehlmann, J.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Glaubman, M.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzales, E.; Gordeev, A.; Göttlicher, P.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Grinnell, C.; Gruenewald, M.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Haan, H.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Herten, U.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hsu, L. S.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Isiksal, E.; Janssen, H.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Khoze, V.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kinnison, W.; Kirkby, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Krammer, R. W.; Kramer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krizmanic, J.; Kumar, K. S.; Kumar, V.; Kunin, A.; Lalieu, V.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D.; Leedom, I.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leistam, L.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Lettry, J.; Levchenko, P. M.; Leytens, X.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, J. F.; Li, L.; Li, P. J.; Li, Q.; Lli, X. G.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Linnhofer, D.; Liu, R.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Lue, X.; Luminari, L.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Magahiz, R.; Maire, M.; Malhotra, P. K.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Manña, C.; Mao, D. N.; Mao, Y. F.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marchionni, A.; Martin, B.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Matsuda, T.; Mazumdar, K.; McBride, P.; McMahon, T.; McNally, D.; Meinholz, Th.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, G.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Niessen, L.; Nowak, H.; Pandoulas, D.; Plasil, F.; Passaleva, G.; Paternoster, G.; Patricelli, S.; Pei, Y. J.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Produit, N.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Rind, O.; Rippich, C.; Rizvi, H. A.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Röhner, S.; Roeser, U.; Romero, L.; Rose, J.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rubio, M.; Ruckstuhl, W.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Sanders, G.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauvage, G.; Savin, A.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmiemann, K.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shotkin, S.; Schreiber, H. J.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Schütte, J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, J.; Sciacca, C.; Scott, I.; Sehgal, R.; Seiler, P. G.; Sens, J. C.; Sheer, I.; Shen, D. Z.; Shevchenko, V.; Shevchenko, S.; Shi, X. R.; Shmakov, K.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Smirnov, N.; Soderstrom, E.; Sopczak, A.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Spiess, B.; Spillantini, P.; Starosta, R.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Sticozzi, F.; Stoeffl, W.; Stone, H.; Strauch, K.; Stringfellow, B. C.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sumner, R. L.; Sun, L. Z.; Suter, H.; Sutton, R. B.; Swain, J. D.; Syed, A. A.; Tang, X. W.; Tarkovsky, E.; Taylor, L.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tong, Y. P.; Tonisch, F.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Trowitzsch, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Urbán, L.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Vikas, U.; Vivargent, M.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; von Dardel, G.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorobyov, An. A.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, C. R.; Wang, G. H.; Wang, J. H.; Wang, Q. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Weber, J.; Weill, R.; Wenaus, T. J.; Wenninger, J.; White, M.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wright, D.; Wu, R. J.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, Y. G.; Wyslouch, B.; Xie, Y. Y.; Xu, Y. D.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z. L.; Yan, D. S.; Yan, X. J.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, G.; Yang, K. S.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, Z. Q.; Ye, C. H.; Ye, J. B.; Ye, Q.; Yeh, S. C.; Yin, Z. W.; You, J. M.; Yzerman, M.; Zaccardelli, C.; Zehnder, L.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, J. F.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zichichi, A.

    1991-04-01

    We present a study of the inclusive production of neutral pions and charged particles from 112 000 hadronic Z0 decays. The measured inclusive momentum distributions can be reproduced by parton shower Monte Carlo programs and also by an analytical QCD calculation. Comparing our results to e+e- data between √s = 9 and 91 GeV, we findfind that the evolution of the spectra with center of mass energy is consistent with the QCD predictions. Supported by the German Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie.

  7. Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles Using Optical Nanofibers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary; Kumar, Ravi; Prel, Eugen; Russell, Laura; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-01-01

    The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications. PMID:23945738

  8. Thermodynamic properties of neutral particle in the presence of topological defects in magnetic cosmic string background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanabadi, H.; Hosseinpour, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study the covariant form of the non-relativistic Schrödinger-Pauli equation in the space-time generated by a cosmic string and discuss the solutions of this equation in the presence of interaction between the magnetic dipole momentum and electromagnetic field. We study the influence of the topology on this system. We obtain the solution of radial part as well as the energy levels. We consider all thermodynamic properties of a neutral particle in a magnetic cosmic string background by using an approach based on the partition function method.

  9. New techniques for calculating heat and particle source rates due to neutral-beam injection in axisymmetric tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R.J.; McCune, D.C.; Towner, H.H.; Davis, S.L.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1981-02-01

    A set of numerical techniques are described for calculating heat and particle source rates due to neutral beam injection in axisymmetric tokamaks. While these techniques consume a substantial amount of computer time, they take into account a number of significant, and normally neglected, effects. Examples of these effects are reionization of escaping charge exchanged beam particles, finite fast ion orbit excursions, beam deposition through collisions of beam neutrals with circulating beam ions, and the transport of thermal neutrals in the plasma due to charge changing collisions with beam ions.

  10. Particle-in-cell simulations of plasma accelerators and electron-neutral collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhwiler, David L.; Giacone, Rodolfo E.; Cary, John R.; Verboncoeur, John P.; Mardahl, Peter; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, W.P.; Shadwick, B.A.

    2001-10-01

    We present 2-D simulations of both beam-driven and laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerators, using the object-oriented particle-in-cell code XOOPIC, which is time explicit, fully electromagnetic, and capable of running on massively parallel supercomputers. Simulations of laser-driven wakefields with low ({approx}10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}) and high ({approx}10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) peak intensity laser pulses are conducted in slab geometry, showing agreement with theory and fluid simulations. Simulations of the E-157 beam wakefield experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, in which a 30 GeV electron beam passes through 1 m of preionized lithium plasma, are conducted in cylindrical geometry, obtaining good agreement with previous work. We briefly describe some of the more significant modifications of XOOPIC required by this work, and summarize the issues relevant to modeling relativistic electron-neutral collisions in a particle-in-cell code.

  11. Improved discrete ordinates calculations for an approximate model of neutral particle transport in ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, R.D.M.; Ono, S.

    1999-09-01

    An improved implementation of the discrete ordinates method for computing neutral particle transport in ducts is presented. The considered one-dimensional model makes use of two basic functions to represent the transverse and azimuthal dependencies of the particle angular flux in the duct. It is shown that if the problem is decomposed into uncollided and collided problems prior to using the discrete ordinates approximation, the number of ordinates necessary to achieve a desired degree of accuracy in the solution can be greatly reduced, especially for long ducts with significant wall absorption. Further savings in computer time can be attained by employing a composite quadrature based on a (nonstandard) half-range quadrature that can be generated in an effective and efficient way with one of the classical methods in the constructive theory of orthogonal polynomials.

  12. Modelling the transport of deuterium and tritium neutral particles in a divertor plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokar, M. Z.; Kotov, V.

    2012-10-01

    A fluid model for transport of deuterium and tritium atoms in two-dimensional geometry of a poloidal divertor is elaborated by taking into account the coupling of both isotopes through the processes of cross-charge-exchange. Calculations are performed for the plasma parameters predicted with the code package B2-EIRENE (SOLPS4.3) for the divertor region in ITER. The results demonstrate that the transparency of the scrape-off layer for neutral particles generated by recycling on target plates and recombination of electrons and ions in the plasma volume can be significantly different for deuterium and tritium atoms. This difference has to be taken into account by considering the global particle balances in a reactor. The numerical approach applied for calculations is verified by comparing with an analytical model elaborated for the case of plasma parameters homogeneous in the divertor domain.

  13. Developing QSPR model of gas/particle partition coefficients of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Quan; Ma, Guangcai; Xu, Ting; Serge, Bakire; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun

    2016-10-01

    Poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of synthetic fluorinated organic substances that raise increasing concern because of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and widespread presence in various environment media and organisms. PFASs can be released into the atmosphere through both direct and indirect sources, and the gas/particle partition coefficient (KP) is an important parameter that helps us to understand their atmospheric behavior. In this study, we developed a temperature-dependent predictive model for log KP of PFASs and analyzed the molecular mechanism that governs their partitioning equilibrium between gas phase and particle phase. All theoretical computation was carried out at B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level based on neutral molecular structures by Gaussian 09 program package. The regression model has a good statistical performance and robustness. The application domain has also been defined according to OECD guidance. The mechanism analysis shows that electrostatic interaction and dispersion interaction play the most important role in the partitioning equilibrium. The developed model can be used to predict log KP values of neutral fluorotelomer alcohols and perfluor sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols with different substitutions at nitrogen atoms, providing basic data for their ecological risk assessment.

  14. Mass spectra of neutral particles released during electrical breakdown of thin polymer films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A special type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer triggered from the breakdown event was developed to study the composition of the neutral particle flux released during the electrical breakdown of polymer films problem. Charge is fed onto a metal-backed polymer surface by a movable smooth platinum contact. A slowly increasing potential from a high-impedance source is applied to the contact until breakdown occurs. The breakdown characteristics is made similar to those produced by an electron beam charging system operating at similar potentials. The apparatus showed that intense instantaneous fluxes of neutral particles are released from the sites of breakdown events. For Teflon FEP films of 50 and 75 microns thickness the material released consists almost entirely of fluorocarbon fragments, some of them having masses greater than 350 atomic mass units amu, while the material released from a 50 micron Kapton film consists mainly of light hydrocarbons with masses at or below 44 amu, with additional carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The apparatus is modified to allow electron beam charging of the samples.

  15. Jet Electrochemical Machining of Particle Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites with Different Neutral Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Lehnert, N.; Martin, A.; Schubert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional mechanical machining of particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) is challenging because the hard ceramic particles in the soft aluminum matrix lead to an increased tool wear. Furthermore, the mechanical and thermal impact during conventional machining affects the microstructure of the AMCs. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is an alternative method to machine AMCs. Based on anodic dissolution, ECM has a slight influence on the work piece material structure and is independent of material strength and hardness. So the microstructure of the work piece remains unaffected. One method of ECM is electrochemical machining with continuous electrolytic free jet (Jet-ECM). Hereby the electrochemical removal is localized by the geometry of the electrolyte jet. By moving the electrolyte jet micro-structures and microgeometries can be generated quickly and flexibly in metallic parts [1]. Another advantage of Jet-ECM is the low consumption of electrolyte which allows an easy and inexpensive change of electrolyte for investigations with different types of electrolyte. In this study AMCs reinforced with different amounts of SiC-particles are machined with two pH-neutral electrolytes using Jet-ECM. The results provide information about the suitability of the selected electrolytes for the machining of AMCs. In addition, the influence of the particle content on the electrochemical removal result will be evaluated.

  16. Regular and chaotic aspects of charged particle motion in a magnetotail-like field with a neutral line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savenkov, Boris V.; Zelenyi, Lev M.; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Buechner, Jorg

    1991-01-01

    The motion of charged particles is studied numerically and analytically using a test particle approach. Acceleration near the X-type neutral line is described in terms of adiabatic invariants and separatrix crossings. The relation between regular and chaotic properties of the process is discussed for a realistic source in the plasma mantle.

  17. Workshop on advances in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wingate, C.A.; Miller, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    This proceedings contains viewgraphs presented at the 1993 workshop held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Discussed topics include: negative stress, reactive flow calculations, interface problems, boundaries and interfaces, energy conservation in viscous flows, linked penetration calculations, stability and consistency of the SPH method, instabilities, wall heating and conservative smoothing, tensors, tidal disruption of stars, breaking the 10,000,000 particle limit, modelling relativistic collapse, SPH without H, relativistic KSPH avoidance of velocity based kernels, tidal compression and disruption of stars near a supermassive rotation black hole, and finally relativistic SPH viscosity and energy.

  18. The effects of neutralized particles on the sampling efficiency of polyurethane foam used to estimate the extrathoracic deposition fraction.

    PubMed

    Tomyn, Ronald L; Sleeth, Darrah K; Thiese, Matthew S; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-01-01

    In addition to chemical composition, the site of deposition of inhaled particles is important for determining the potential health effects from an exposure. As a result, the International Organization for Standardization adopted a particle deposition sampling convention. This includes extrathoracic particle deposition sampling conventions for the anterior nasal passages (ET1) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2). This study assessed how well a polyurethane foam insert placed in an Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler can match an extrathoracic deposition sampling convention, while accounting for possible static buildup in the test particles. In this way, the study aimed to assess whether neutralized particles affected the performance of this sampler for estimating extrathoracic particle deposition. A total of three different particle sizes (4.9, 9.5, and 12.8 µm) were used. For each trial, one particle size was introduced into a low-speed wind tunnel with a wind speed set a 0.2 m/s (∼40 ft/min). This wind speed was chosen to closely match the conditions of most indoor working environments. Each particle size was tested twice either neutralized, using a high voltage neutralizer, or left in its normal (non neutralized) state as standard particles. IOM samplers were fitted with a polyurethane foam insert and placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel. Foam sampling efficiencies were calculated for all trials to compare against the normalized ET1 sampling deposition convention. The foam sampling efficiencies matched well to the ET1 deposition convention for the larger particle sizes, but had a general trend of underestimating for all three particle sizes. The results of a Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test also showed that only at 4.9 µm was there a statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.03) between the foam sampling efficiency using the standard particles and the neutralized particles. This is interpreted to mean that static

  19. COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED MEDIUM. I. NEUTRAL RETURN FLUX AND ITS EFFECTS ON ACCELERATION OF TEST PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Blasi, P.; Morlino, G.; Bandiera, R.; Amato, E.; Caprioli, D.

    2012-08-20

    A collisionless shock may be strongly modified by the presence of neutral atoms through the processes of charge exchange between ions and neutrals and ionization of the latter. These two processes lead to exchange of energy and momentum between charged and neutral particles both upstream and downstream of the shock. In particular, neutrals that suffer a charge exchange downstream with shock-heated ions generate high-velocity neutrals that have a finite probability of returning upstream. These neutrals might then deposit heat in the upstream plasma through ionization and charge exchange, thereby reducing the fluid Mach number. A consequence of this phenomenon, which we refer to as the neutral return flux, is a reduction of the shock compression factor and the formation of a shock precursor upstream. The scale length of the precursor is determined by the ionization and charge-exchange interaction lengths of fast neutrals moving toward upstream infinity. In the case of a shock propagating in the interstellar medium, the effects of ion-neutral interactions are especially important for shock velocities <3000 km s{sup -1}. Such propagation velocities are common among shocks associated with supernova remnants, the primary candidate sources for the acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays. We then investigate the effects of the return flux of neutrals on the spectrum of test particles accelerated at the shock. We find that, for shocks slower than {approx}3000 km s{sup -1}, the particle energy spectrum steepens appreciably with respect to the naive expectation for a strong shock, namely, {proportional_to}E{sup -2}.

  20. Seiberg-Witten map and quantum phase effects for neutral Dirac particle on noncommutative plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kai; Wang, Jian-Hua; Yang, Huan-Xiong

    2016-05-01

    We provide a new approach to study the noncommutative effects on the neutral Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic or electric dipole moment on the noncommutative plane. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by investigating the noncommutative corrections on the Aharonov-Casher and He-McKellar-Wilkens effects. This approach is based on the effective U (1) gauge symmetry for the electrodynamics of spin on the two dimensional space. The Seiberg-Witten map for this symmetry is then employed when we study the noncommutative corrections. Because the Seiberg-Witten map preserves the gauge symmetry, the noncommutative corrections can be defined consistently with the ordinary phases. Based on this approach we find the noncommutative corrections on the Aharonov-Casher and He-McKellar-Wilkens phases consist of two terms. The first one depends on the beam particle velocity and consistence with the previous results. However the second term is velocity-independent and then completely new. Therefore our results indicate it is possible to investigate the noncommutative space by using ultra-cold neutron interferometer in which the velocity-dependent term is negligible. Furthermore, both these two terms are proportional to the ratio between the noncommutative parameter θ and the cross section Ae/m of the electrical/magnetic charged line enclosed by the trajectory of beam particles. Therefore the experimental sensitivity can be significantly enhanced by reducing the cross section of the charge line Ae/m.

  1. Surface-initiated polymerization within mesoporous silica spheres for the modular design of charge-neutral polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Müllner, Markus; Cui, Jiwei; Noi, Ka Fung; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2014-06-01

    We report a templating approach for the preparation of functional polymer replica particles via surface-initiated polymerization in mesoporous silica templates. Subsequent removal of the template resulted in discrete polymer particles. Furthermore, redox-responsive replica particles could be engineered to disassemble in a reducing environment. Particles, made of poly(methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) or poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] (POEGMA), exhibited very low association to human cancer cells (below 5%), which renders the reported charge-neutral polymer particles a modular and versatile class of highly functional carriers with potential applications in drug delivery.

  2. Mass analysis of neutral particles and ions released during electrical breakdowns on spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1983-01-01

    A specialized spectrometer was designed and developed to measure the mass and velocity distributions of neutral particles (molecules and molecular clusters) released from metal-backed Teflon and Kapton films. Promising results were obtained with an insulation breakdown initiation system based on a moveable contact touching the insulated surfaces. A variable energy, high voltage pulse is applied to the contact. The resulting surface damage sites can be made similar in size and shape to those produced by a high voltage electron beam system operating at similar discharge energies. The point discharge apparatus was used for final development of several high speed recording systems and for measurements of the composition of the materials given off by the discharge. Results with this apparatus show evolution of large amounts of fluorocarbon fragments from discharge through Teflon FEP, while discharges through Kapton produce mainly very light hydrocarbon fragments at masses below about 80 a.m.u.

  3. On Influence of Neutrals on Dust Particle Charging in Complex Plasmas in the Presence of Electromagnetic Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S. I.; Morzhakova, A. A.; Popel, S. I.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-11-29

    Effects associated with neutral component of complex (dusty) ionospheric plasmas which affect dust particle charging are studied. Microscopic ion currents on dust particles with taking into account ion-neutral interaction are presented. Calculations are performed both for the case of negative charges of dust particles, when the influence of Solar radiation on dust particle charging processes is negligible, and for the case of positive charges which is realized in the presence of sufficiently intensive UV or X-ray radiation. We also carry out investigation of the electron heating due to the photoelectric effect. We show that the efficiency of electron heating depends on the density of neutral component of the plasma. As result, we determine altitudes where the influence of the neutral plasma component on dust particle charging processes as well as the electron heating effect are significant and should be taken into account under consideration of the ionospheric complex plasmas. In particular, we show that the effects considered could be important for the description of noctilucent clouds, polar mesosphere summer echoes, and some other physical phenomena associated with dust particles in the ionosphere.

  4. How to reliably detect molecular clusters and nucleation mode particles with Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Hanna E.; Mirme, Sander; Mirme, Aadu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-08-01

    To understand the very first steps of atmospheric particle formation and growth processes, information on the size where the atmospheric nucleation and cluster activation occurs, is crucially needed. The current understanding of the concentrations and dynamics of charged and neutral clusters and particles is based on theoretical predictions and experimental observations. This paper gives a standard operation procedure (SOP) for Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) measurements and data processing. With the NAIS data, we have improved the scientific understanding by (1) direct detection of freshly formed atmospheric clusters and particles, (2) linking experimental observations and theoretical framework to understand the formation and growth mechanisms of aerosol particles, and (3) parameterizing formation and growth mechanisms for atmospheric models. The SOP provides tools to harmonize the world-wide measurements of small clusters and nucleation mode particles and to verify consistent results measured by the NAIS users. The work is based on discussions and interactions between the NAIS users and the NAIS manufacturer.

  5. Estimating dry deposition and gas/particle partition coefficients of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances in northern German coast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Mi, Wenying; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of 12 neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were estimated at Büsum located in northern German coast, and their gas/particle partition coefficients were predicted by employing the polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs). The gas deposition flux, particle deposition flux and total (gas + particle) flux of the 12 PFASs during sampling periods were 1088 ± 611, 189 ± 75 and 1277 ± 627 pg/(m(2) d), respectively. The gas deposition of PFASs played a key role during deposition to marine ecosystem. Sensitivity analysis showed that wind speed was the most sensitive parameter for gas deposition fluxes. Good agreements (within 1 log unit) were observed between the measured gas/particle partitioning data of PFASs and the predicted partition coefficients using PP-LFERs, indicating the model can reliably predict the gas/particle partitioning behaviors of atmospheric neutral PFASs.

  6. Regular threshold-energy increase with charge for neutral-particle emission in collisions of electrons with oligonucleotide anions.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, T; Noda, K; Saito, M; Starikov, E B; Tateno, M

    2004-07-23

    Electron-DNA anion collisions were studied using an electrostatic storage ring with a merging electron-beam technique. The rate of neutral particles emitted in collisions started to increase from definite threshold energies, which increased regularly with ion charges in steps of about 10 eV. These threshold energies were almost independent of the length and sequence of DNA, but depended strongly on the ion charges. Neutral particles came from breaks of DNAs, rather than electron detachment. The step of the threshold energy increase approximately agreed with the plasmon excitation energy. It is deduced that plasmon excitation is closely related to the reaction mechanism.

  7. Spectra of accelerated particles at supernova shocks in the presence of neutral hydrogen: the case of Tycho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlino, G.; Blasi, P.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The presence of neutral hydrogen in the shock proximity changes the structure of the shock and affects the spectra of particles accelerated through the first-order Fermi mechanism. This phenomenon has profound implications for the interpretation of the multifrequency spectra of radiation from supernova remnants. Aims: Neutrals that undergo charge exchange with hot ions downstream of the shock may result in fast neutrals moving towards the upstream gas, where they can suffer additional charge exchange or ionisation reactions, thereby depositing energy and momentum upstream. Here we discuss the implications of this neutral return flux, which was already predicted in our previous work on neutral mediated supernova shocks, and show how the spectra of accelerated particles turn out to be appreciably steeper than p-4, thereby affecting the gamma ray spectra from supernova remnants in general and from Tycho specifically. Methods: The theory that describes non-linear diffusive shock acceleration in the presence of neutral hydrogen has been developed in recent years. Here we use a semi-analytical theory developed in previous work and specialise our predictions to the case of the Tycho supernova shock, where there is evidence from gamma ray observations that the spectrum of the parent cosmic rays is steeper than expected from the traditional theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Results: We show that, if the fraction of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of the Tycho supernova shock is, as suggested by observations, ~70-90%, then spectra of accelerated protons steeper than p-4 may be a natural consequence of charge exchange reactions and the associated neutral return flux. The spectral shape is affected by this phenomenon for particles with energies below ~100-1000 GeV, for which the diffusion length is less than or at most comparable to the path length of charge exchange and ionisation upstream of the shock.

  8. Poiseuille flow of a mixture of neutrally buoyant particles in a fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Reinerrsman, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    Constitutive equations are given for the stress, couple stress, and interphase momentum transfer in a mixture consisting of neutrally buoyant particles in a fluid. The interphase momentum transfer terms include objective expressions quantifying Stokes; drag, Faxen force, shear life, Magnus lift, and rotational drag. Coefficients of the drag and lift terms are deduced from macroscopic theory. The viscosity of the solid phase and the cross viscosities are estimated to coincide with previous work in micropolar flow theory. The resulting equations of motion are solved numerically for this general model and for the subset of this model which complies with the principle of phase separation. These solutions are compared with the flows predicted by micropolar theory. Although the micropolar theory may provide a good approximation for multiphase flow in some regimes, micropolar theory cannot model the phase velocity differences and volume fraction gradients that occur in high pressure, small channel flow. The effect of controlling the boundary values of particle and fluid spin is investigated, including the effect of back spin and symmetric spin.

  9. Off-axis neutral beam current drive for advanced scenario development in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Masanori; Park, Jin Myung; Petty, C C.; Luce, T.C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Osborne, T.H.; Prater, R.; Wade, M R; Unterberg, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of the two existing DIII-D neutral beamlines is planned to allow vertical steering to provide off-axis neutral beam current drive (NBCD) peaked as far off-axis as half the plasma minor radius. New calculations for a downward-steered beam indicate strong current drive with good localization off-axis so long as the toroidal magnetic field, B-T, and the plasma current, I-p, point in the same direction. This is due to good alignment of neutral beam injection (NBI) with the local pitch of the magnetic field lines. This model has been tested experimentally on DIII-D by injecting equatorially mounted NBs into reduced size plasmas that are vertically displaced with respect to the vessel midplane. The existence of off-axis NBCD is evident in the changes seen in sawtooth behaviour in the internal inductance. By shifting the plasma upwards or downwards, or by changing the sign of the toroidal field, off-axis NBCD profiles measured with motional Stark effect data and internal loop voltage show a difference in amplitude (40-45%) consistent with differences predicted by the changed NBI alignment with respect to the helicity of the magnetic field lines. The effects of NBI direction relative to field line helicity can be large even in ITER: off-axis NBCD can be increased by more than 30% if the B-T direction is reversed. Modification of the DIII-D NB system will strongly support scenario development for ITER and future tokamaks as well as provide flexible scientific tools for understanding transport, energetic particles and heating and current drive.

  10. Off-axis Neutral Beam Current Drive for Advanced Scenario Development in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, M; Park, J; Petty, C; Luce, T; Heidbrink, W; Osborne, T; Wade, M; Austin, M; Brooks, N; Budny, R; Challis, C; DeBoo, J; deGrassie, J; Ferron, J; Gohil, P; Hobirk, J; Holcomb, C; Hollmann, E; Hong, R; Hyatt, A; Lohr, J; Lanctot, M; Makowski, M; McCune, D; Politzer, P; Prater, R; John, H S; Suzuki, T; West, W; Unterberg, E; Van Zeeland, M; Yu, J

    2008-10-13

    Modification of the two existing DIII-D neutral beam lines is proposed to allow vertical steering to provide off-axis neutral beam current drive (NBCD) as far off-axis as half the plasma radius. New calculations indicate very good current drive with good localization off-axis as long as the toroidal magnetic field, B{sub T}, and the plasma current, I{sub p}, are in the same direction (for a beam steered downward). The effects of helicity can be large: e.g., ITER off-axis NBCD can be increased by more than 20% if the B{sub T} direction is reversed. This prediction has been tested by an off-axis NBCD experiment using reduced size plasmas that are vertically shifted with the existing NBI on DIII-D. The existence of off-axis NBCD is evident in sawtooth and internal inductance behavior. By shifting the plasma upward or downward, or by changing the sign of the toroidal field, measured off-axis NBCD profiles, determined from MSE data, are consistent with predicted differences (40%-45%) arising from the NBI orientation with respect to the magnetic field lines. Modification of the DIII-D NB system will strongly support scenario development for ITER and future tokamaks as well as providing flexible scientific tools for understanding transport, energetic particles and heating and current drive.

  11. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Arzner, K.; Benz, A. O.; Browning, P.; Dauphin, C.; Emslie, A. G.; Fletcher, L.; Kontar, E. P.; Mann, G.; Onofri, M.; Petrosian, V.; Turkmani, R.; Vilmer, N.; Vlahos, L.

    2011-09-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  12. Advanced visualization technology for terascale particle accelerator simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, K-L; Schussman, G.; Wilson, B.; Ko, K.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.

    2002-11-16

    This paper presents two new hardware-assisted rendering techniques developed for interactive visualization of the terascale data generated from numerical modeling of next generation accelerator designs. The first technique, based on a hybrid rendering approach, makes possible interactive exploration of large-scale particle data from particle beam dynamics modeling. The second technique, based on a compact texture-enhanced representation, exploits the advanced features of commodity graphics cards to achieve perceptually effective visualization of the very dense and complex electromagnetic fields produced from the modeling of reflection and transmission properties of open structures in an accelerator design. Because of the collaborative nature of the overall accelerator modeling project, the visualization technology developed is for both desktop and remote visualization settings. We have tested the techniques using both time varying particle data sets containing up to one billion particle s per time step and electromagnetic field data sets with millions of mesh elements.

  13. MULTIDIMENSIONAL COUPLED PHOTON-ELECTRON TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS USING NEUTRAL PARTICLE SN CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan; Williams, Mark L; Peplow, Douglas E.; Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2008-01-01

    During the past two years a study was underway at ORNL to assess the suitability of the popular SN neutral particle codes ANISN, DORT and TORT for coupled photon-electron calculations specific to external beam therapy of medical physics applications. The CEPXS-BFP code was used to generate the cross sections. The computational tests were performed on phantoms typical of those used in medical physics for external beam therapy, with materials simulated by water at different densities and the comparisons were made against Monte Carlo simulations that served as benchmarks. Although the results for one-dimensional calculations were encouraging, it appeared that the higher dimensional transport codes had fundamental difficulties in handling the electron transport. The results of two-dimensional simulations using the code DORT with an S16 fully symmetric quadrature set agree fairly with the reference Monte Carlo results but not well enough for clinical applications. While the photon fluxes are in better agreement (generally, within less than 5% from the reference), the discrepancy increases, sometimes very significantly, for the electron fluxes. The paper, however, focuses on the results obtained with the three-dimensional code TORT which had convergence difficulties for the electron groups. Numerical instabilities occurred in these groups. These instabilities were more pronounced with the degree of anisotropy of the problem.

  14. Fabrication of advanced particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Juan; Han, Jun-Jie

    2011-07-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication of complex particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics are reviewed. Monodisperse particles with expected internal structures, morphologies, and sizes in the range of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers have received a good deal of attention in recent years. Due to the capability of generating monodisperse emulsions and of executing precise control and operations on the suspended droplets inside the microchannels, droplet-based microfluidic devices have become powerful tools for fabricating complex particles with desired properties. Emulsions and multiple-emulsions generated in the microfluidic devices can be composed of a variety of materials including aqueous solutions, gels, polymers and solutions containing functional nanoparticles. They are ideal microreactors or fine templates for synthesizing advanced particles, such as polymer particles, microcapsules, nanocrystals, and photonic crystal clusters or beads by further chemical or physical operations. These particles are promising materials that may be applicable for many fields, such as photonic materials, drug delivery systems, and bio-analysis. From simple to complex, from spherical to nonspherical, from polymerization and reaction crystallization to self-assembly, this review aims to help readers be aware of the many aspects of this field.

  15. Recent advances in the Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, P. S.; Dawson, S. A.; McKinley, M. S.; O'Brien, M. J.; Stevens, D. E.; Beck, B. R.; Jurgenson, E. D.; Ebbers, C. A.; Hall, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    We review recent physics and computational science advances in the Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We describe recent efforts to enable a nuclear resonance fluorescence capability in the Mercury photon transport. We also describe recent work to implement a probability of extinction capability into Mercury. We review the results of current parallel scaling and threading efforts that enable the code to run on millions of MPI processes. (authors)

  16. Massive Vector Particles Tunneling from the Neutral Rotating Anti-de Sitter Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ran; Zhao, Jun-Kun

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the massive vector particles' Hawking radiation from the neutral rotating Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in conformal gravity by using the tunneling method. It is well known that the dynamics of massive vector particles are governed by the Proca field equation. Applying WKB approximation to the Proca equation, the tunneling probabilities and radiation spectrums of the emitted particles are derived. Hawking temperature of the neutral rotating AdS black holes in conformal gravity is recovered, which is consistent with the previous result in the literature. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11205048, and the Foundation for Young Key Teacher of Henan Normal University

  17. Meteor Smoke Particles in the D-Region Ionosphere - Implications from the Sic Model on Ions and Other Neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, C.; Rapp, M.; Verronen, P. T.; Enell, C. F. T.; Kero, A.

    2014-12-01

    Meteor smoke particles (MSP) play an important role in the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere as shown by satellite, groundbased and in-situ measurements. Especially the MSPs influence on the D-region charge balance has been studied recently by rocket borne measurements and a simplified ionospheric model. Here, the influence of MSP on the ionosphere and also the neutral atmosphere is studied within the complete chemistry of the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry Model (SIC). The SIC model is a time dependent ionospheric model with 43 positive ion species, 29 negative ion species and 15 neutral species. In addition the output of an aerosol microphysics model is used to initialize the MSP distribution. The chemistry of these ions and neutrals is realised through more than 300 different reactions, e.g. photoionization, electron-ion recombination and ion-neutral interaction. The interaction between MSP and the charged components of the SIC model is expressed by MSP size dependent capture rates. By implementing MSP as new components into the reaction scheme of the SIC-model we can identify their influence on both, the D-region ionosphere and the neutral mesosphere. This influence is studied during polar night were electrons are effectively captured between 80 and 100 km. This lack of electrons causes an increase of positive ion numberdensity due to reduced electron-ion recombination. We concentrate in this paper on the changes in the negative and positive ion chemistry due to the presence of MSP.

  18. Repeating collisions in an optical trap and the evaluation of spin-dependent interactions among neutral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. B.; Chen, Z. F.; He, Y. Z.; Bao, C. G.

    2010-09-15

    A dynamic process of repeating collisions of a pair of trapped neutral particles with weak spin-dependent interaction is designed and studied. A related theoretical derivation and numerical calculation have been performed to study the inherent coordinate-spin and momentum-spin correlations. Because of the repeating collisions, the effect of the weak interaction can be accumulated and enlarged, and therefore can be eventually detected. Numerical results suggest that the Cr-Cr interaction, which has not yet been completely clarified, could thereby be determined. The design can be used in general to determine various interactions among neutral atoms and molecules, in particular for the determination of very weak forces.

  19. Compact and multi-view solid state neutral particle analyzer arrays on National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Tritz, K.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Hao, G. Z.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2016-11-01

    A compact and multi-view solid state neutral particle analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode arrays has been successfully tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade. The SSNPA diagnostic provides spatially, temporally, and pitch-angle resolved measurements of fast-ion distribution by detecting fast neutral flux resulting from the charge exchange (CX) reactions. The system consists of three 16-channel subsystems: t-SSNPA viewing the plasma mid-radius and neutral beam (NB) line #2 tangentially, r-SSNPA viewing the plasma core and NB line #1 radially, and p-SSNPA with no intersection with any NB lines. Due to the setup geometry, the active CX signals of t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA are mainly sensitive to passing and trapped particles, respectively. In addition, both t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA utilize three vertically stacked arrays with different filter thicknesses to obtain coarse energy information. The experimental data show that all channels are operational. The signal to noise ratio is typically larger than 10, and the main noise is x-ray induced signal. The active and passive CX signals are clearly observed on t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA during NB modulation. The SSNPA data also indicate significant losses of passing particles during sawteeth, while trapped particles are weakly affected. Fluctuations up to 120 kHz have been observed on SSNPA, and they are strongly correlated with magnetohydrodynamics instabilities.

  20. Characterization of the interactions within fine particle mixtures in highly concentrated suspensions for advanced particle processing.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Akira; Bryant, Gary

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to summarize recent investigations into the dispersion of fine particles, and the characterization of their interactions, in concentrated suspensions. This summary will provide a better understanding of the current status of this research, and will provide useful feedback for advanced particle processing. Such processes include the fabrication of functional nanostructures and the sustainable beneficiation of complex ores. For example, there has been increasing demand for complex ore utilization due to the noticeable decrease in the accessibility of high grade and easily extractable ores. In order to maintain the sustainable use of mineral resources, the effective beneficiation of complex ores is urgently required. It can be successfully achieved only with selective particle/mineral dispersion/liberation and the assistance of mineralogical and particle characterization. PMID:26298173

  1. Characterization of the interactions within fine particle mixtures in highly concentrated suspensions for advanced particle processing.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Akira; Bryant, Gary

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to summarize recent investigations into the dispersion of fine particles, and the characterization of their interactions, in concentrated suspensions. This summary will provide a better understanding of the current status of this research, and will provide useful feedback for advanced particle processing. Such processes include the fabrication of functional nanostructures and the sustainable beneficiation of complex ores. For example, there has been increasing demand for complex ore utilization due to the noticeable decrease in the accessibility of high grade and easily extractable ores. In order to maintain the sustainable use of mineral resources, the effective beneficiation of complex ores is urgently required. It can be successfully achieved only with selective particle/mineral dispersion/liberation and the assistance of mineralogical and particle characterization.

  2. Kinetics of positive ions and electrically neutral active particles in afterglow in neon at low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Pejović, Milić M. Nešić, Nikola T.; Pejović, Momčilo M.

    2014-04-15

    Kinetics of positive ions and electrically neutral active particles formed during breakdown and successive discharge in neon-filled tube at 6.6 millibars pressure had been analyzed. This analysis was performed on the basis of mean value of electrical breakdown time delay t{sup ¯}{sub d} dependence on afterglow period τ (memory curve). It was shown that positive ions are present in the 1μs < τ < 30 ms interval, which is manifested through t{sup ¯}{sub d} slow increase with the increase of τ. A rapid t{sup ¯}{sub d} increase in the 30 ms < τ < 3 s interval is a consequence of significant decrease of positive ions concentration and dominant role in breakdown initiation have ground state nitrogen atoms, which further release secondary electrons from the cathode by catalytic recombination process. These atoms are formed during discharge by dissociation of ground state nitrogen molecules that are present as impurities in neon. For τ > 3 s, breakdown is initiated by cosmic rays and natural radioactivity. The increase of discharge current leads to decrease of t{sup ¯}{sub d} due to the increase of positive ions concentration in inter electrode gap. The increase of applied voltage also decreases t{sup ¯}{sub d} for τ > 30 ms due to the increase of the probability for initial electron to initiate breakdown. The presence of UV radiation leads to the decrease of t{sup ¯}{sub d} due to the increased electron yield caused by photoelectrons. The influence of photoelectrons on breakdown initiation can be noticed for τ > 0.1 ms, while they dominantly determine t{sup ¯}{sub d} for τ > 30 ms.

  3. Kinetics of positive ions and electrically neutral active particles in afterglow in neon at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejović, Milić M.; Nešić, Nikola T.; Pejović, Momčilo M.

    2014-04-01

    Kinetics of positive ions and electrically neutral active particles formed during breakdown and successive discharge in neon-filled tube at 6.6 millibars pressure had been analyzed. This analysis was performed on the basis of mean value of electrical breakdown time delay t¯d dependence on afterglow period τ (memory curve). It was shown that positive ions are present in the 1μs < τ < 30 ms interval, which is manifested through t ¯d slow increase with the increase of τ. A rapid t¯d increase in the 30 ms < τ < 3 s interval is a consequence of significant decrease of positive ions concentration and dominant role in breakdown initiation have ground state nitrogen atoms, which further release secondary electrons from the cathode by catalytic recombination process. These atoms are formed during discharge by dissociation of ground state nitrogen molecules that are present as impurities in neon. For τ > 3 s, breakdown is initiated by cosmic rays and natural radioactivity. The increase of discharge current leads to decrease of t¯d due to the increase of positive ions concentration in inter electrode gap. The increase of applied voltage also decreases t¯d for τ > 30 ms due to the increase of the probability for initial electron to initiate breakdown. The presence of UV radiation leads to the decrease of t¯d due to the increased electron yield caused by photoelectrons. The influence of photoelectrons on breakdown initiation can be noticed for τ > 0.1 ms, while they dominantly determine t¯d for τ > 30 ms.

  4. Production of energetic neutral particles and low energy electrons from four anode rods ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafa, O. A.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M.

    2013-11-15

    The factors affecting the energetic neutral current, the low energy electron current, and the positive ion current emerging from a four-anode-rods ion source have been studied using argon gas. The neutral and electron current were measured using a simple, new technique. It was found that the energetic neutral current and the electron current depend on the positive ion current and the gas pressure. The ratio of the neutral and electron current to the positive ion current increases by increasing the gas pressure. Also it was found that at a pressure equal to 9 × 10{sup −4} mmHg, the ratio of the neutral to the positive ion current reaches 2.34 while the ratio of the electron current to the positive ion current reaches 1.7.

  5. Data driven search in the displaced pair channel for a Higgs boson decaying to long-lived neutral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halyo, Valerie; Lou, Hou Keong; Lujan, Paul; Zhu, Wenhan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a proposal for a new search channel for the Higgs boson decaying to two long-lived neutral particles, each of which decays to at a displaced vertex. The decay length considered is such that the decay takes place within the LHC beampipe. We present a new data-driven analysis using jet substructure and properties of the tracks from the highly-displaced vertices. We consider a model with a 125 GeV Higgs boson with a significant branching fraction to decay via this mode, with the long-lived neutral particle having a mass in the range of 15-40 GeV and a decay length commensurate with the beam pipe radius. Such a signal can be readily observed with an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1 at 8 TeV at the LHC.

  6. A transmission/escape probabilities model for neutral particle transport in the outer regions of a diverted tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W.M.

    1992-12-01

    A new computational model for neutral particle transport in the outer regions of a diverted tokamak plasma chamber is presented. The model is based on the calculation of transmission and escape probabilities using first-flight integral transport theory and the balancing of fluxes across the surfaces bounding the various regions. The geometrical complexity of the problem is included in precomputed probabilities which depend only on the mean free path of the region.

  7. The effect of particle precipitation events on the neutral and ion chemistry of the middle atmosphere. II - Odd hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S.; Rusch, D. W.; Gerard, J.-C.; Reid, G. C.; Crutzen, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    A one dimensional time-dependent model of the neutral and ion chemistry of the middle atmosphere has been used to examine the production of odd hydrogen (H, OH, and HO2) during charged particle precipitation. At altitudes above about 65 km, odd hydrogen production depends on the ionization rate, and the atomic oxygen and water vapor densities. Odd hydrogen production is shown to exhibit diurnal and other time dependent variations during such an event at these altitudes, and the assumption that two odd hydrogen particles are always produced per ionization is reexamined.

  8. Angular-divergence calculation for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak neutral beam injection ion source based on spectroscopic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Yuan; Hu, Chundong; Zhuang, Ge

    2014-02-15

    Calorimetric method has been primarily applied for several experimental campaigns to determine the angular divergence of high-current ion source for the neutral beam injection system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). A Doppler shift spectroscopy has been developed to provide the secondary measurement of the angular divergence to improve the divergence measurement accuracy and for real-time and non-perturbing measurement. The modified calculation model based on the W7AS neutral beam injectors is adopted to accommodate the slot-type accelerating grids used in the EAST's ion source. Preliminary spectroscopic experimental results are presented comparable to the calorimetrically determined value of theoretical calculation.

  9. Estimating dry deposition and gas/particle partition coefficients of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances in northern German coast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Mi, Wenying; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of 12 neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were estimated at Büsum located in northern German coast, and their gas/particle partition coefficients were predicted by employing the polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs). The gas deposition flux, particle deposition flux and total (gas + particle) flux of the 12 PFASs during sampling periods were 1088 ± 611, 189 ± 75 and 1277 ± 627 pg/(m(2) d), respectively. The gas deposition of PFASs played a key role during deposition to marine ecosystem. Sensitivity analysis showed that wind speed was the most sensitive parameter for gas deposition fluxes. Good agreements (within 1 log unit) were observed between the measured gas/particle partitioning data of PFASs and the predicted partition coefficients using PP-LFERs, indicating the model can reliably predict the gas/particle partitioning behaviors of atmospheric neutral PFASs. PMID:25818091

  10. Modeling of Localized Neutral Particle Sources in 3D Edge Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V; Rognlien, T D; Fenstermacher, M E; Borchardt, M; Mutzke, A; Riemann, J; Schneider, R; Owen, L W

    2002-05-23

    A new edge plasma code BoRiS [1] has a fully 3D fluid plasma model. We supplement BoRiS with a 3D fluid neutral model including equations for parallel momentum and collisional perpendicular diffusion. This makes BoRiS an integrated plasma-neutral model suitable for a variety of applications. We present modeling results for a localized gas source in the geometry of the NCSX stellarator.

  11. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles

    PubMed Central

    Moeschler, Sarah; Locher, Samira; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Krämer, Beate; Zimmer, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses. PMID:27649230

  12. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles.

    PubMed

    Moeschler, Sarah; Locher, Samira; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Krämer, Beate; Zimmer, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses. PMID:27649230

  13. Chimeric gag-V3 virus-like particles of human immunodeficiency virus induce virus-neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, L; Li, Y; Cannon, P M; Kim, S; Kang, C Y

    1992-01-01

    A 41-kDa unprocessed human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) gag precursor protein that has a deletion of a portion of the viral protease assembles as virus-like particles by budding through the cytoplasmic membrane of recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. We have constructed six different combinations of chimeric genes by coupling the truncated HIV-2 gag gene to the neutralizing domain (V3) or the neutralizing and the CD4 binding domains (V3+CD4BD) of gp120 env gene sequences from HIV-1 or HIV-2. The env gene sequences were inserted either into the middle of the gag gene or at the 3' terminus of the gag gene. Virus-like particles were formed by chimeric gene products only when the env gene sequences were linked to the 3' terminus of the gag gene. Insertion of env gene sequence in the middle of the gag gene resulted in high-level chimeric gene expression but without the formation of virus-like particles. Three different chimeric genes [gag gene with HIV-1 V3 (1V3), gag gene with HIV-2 V3 (2V3), and gag gene with HIV-2 V3+CD4BD (2V3+CD4BD)] formed virus-like particles that were secreted into the cell culture medium. In contrast, the HIV-1 V3+CD4BD/HIV-2 gag construct did not form virus-like particles. The chimeric gag-env particles had spherical morphology and the size was slightly larger than that of the gag particles, but the chimeric particles were similar to the mature HIV particles. Western blot analysis showed that the gag-env chimeric proteins were recognized by antibodies in HIV-positive human serum and rabbit anti-gp120 serum. Rabbit anti-gag 1V3 and anti-gag 2V3 sera reacted with authentic gp120 of HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively, and neutralized homologous HIV infectivity. Our results show that precursor gag protein has potential as a carrier for the presentation of foreign epitopes in good immunological context. The gag protein is highly immunogenic and has the ability to carry large foreign inserts; as such, it offers an attractive approach for

  14. Synergism between low-energy neutral particles and energetic ions in the pulsed glow discharge deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev-Charkin, I. V.; Nastasi, M.

    2004-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon films were deposited using pulsed glow discharge deposition at 4kV. The duty factor was varied and all other parameters were kept constant. It was shown that the contribution of neutral particles to the total number of deposition atoms is much larger than that of energetic ions. At the same time, there is a relationship between the deposition of neutral particles and ion bombardment. The sticking coefficient of the neutral particles in proportional to the flux of energetic ions and does not exceed 5×10-4 for the deposition parameters used in our experiment.

  15. Laser neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, O.G.

    1986-06-17

    Laser photodetachment of the excess electron to neutralize relativistic ions offers many advantages over the more conventional collisional methods using gases or thin foils as the neutralization agents. Probably the two most important advantages of laser photodetachment are the generation of a compact and low divergence beam, and the production of intense neutral beams at very high efficiency (approximately 90%). The high intensities or high current densities of the neutral beam result from the fixed maximum divergence that can be added to the beam by photodetachment of the charge using laser intensity of fixed wavelength and incident angle. The high neutralization efficiency is possible because there is no theoretical maximum to the neutralization efficiency, although higher efficiencies require higher laser powers and, therefore, costs. Additional advantages include focusability of the laser light onto the ion beam to maximize its efficacy. There certainly is no residual gas left in the particle beam path as is typical with gas neutralizers. The photodetachment process leaves the neutral atoms in the ground state so there is no excited state fluorescence to interfere with the subsequent beam sensing. Finally, since the beams to be neutralized are very high powered, for a large range of neutralization efficiencies the neutral beam can be increased more by increasing the power to the laser neutralizer than by adding an equal amount of power to the primary accelerator. 26 figs.

  16. Recent advances of harmonic delay models for the neutral atmosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Pain, G.

    2013-12-01

    The path delay caused by the neutral atmosphere is one of the main factors limiting the accuracy of positioning products from the analysis of space geodetic observations, like those from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems). For a precise account of this effect, the slant path delays are typically separated into a hydrostatic part and a wet part with each of them being the product of the zenith delay and a mapping function. If available, the analyst is advised to determine the zenith hydrostatic delay from pressure values recorded at the site, to derive the mapping functions from operational analysis fields of numerical weather models, and to estimate the zenith wet delay within the least-squares adjustment. If neither local pressure values nor operational mapping functions can be accessed, it is recommended to use so-called blind models which are based on harmonic functions and do not need any parameters other than approximate position and date. We outline the recent advances made in this field of empirical models for tropospheric slant delays by reference to GPT2, an improved version of the Global Pressure and Temperature (GPT) model and the Global Mapping Functions (GMF). Characterized by an increased horizontal resolution of 5 degrees, a temporal variability down to semi-annual periodicities, and an extended set of meteorological parameters, the model's excellent usability for GNSS applications is demonstrated by validation against in-situ pressure and temperature observations as well as ray-traced delays. In addition, real time positioning and navigation applications profit from another, currently developed augmentation of GPT2 in terms of accurate a priori estimates for zenith wet delays. We discuss the subtleties of this extension and assess its performance by comparing to zenith total delays from GNSS solutions in 2011-2012.

  17. GTNEUT: A code for the calculation of neutral particle transport in plasmas based on the Transmission and Escape Probability method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrekas, John

    2004-08-01

    GTNEUT is a two-dimensional code for the calculation of the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas. It is based on the Transmission and Escape Probabilities (TEP) method and can be considered a computationally efficient alternative to traditional Monte Carlo methods. The code has been benchmarked extensively against Monte Carlo and has been used to model the distribution of neutrals in fusion experiments. Program summaryTitle of program: GTNEUT Catalogue identifier: ADTX Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTX Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The program was developed on a SUN Ultra 10 workstation and has been tested on other Unix workstations and PCs. Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: Solaris 8, 9, HP-UX 11i, Linux Red Hat v8.0, Windows NT/2000/XP. Programming language used: Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 6 219 388 bytes No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 300 709 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 365 Distribution format: compressed tar gzip file Keywords: Neutral transport in plasmas, Escape probability methods Nature of physical problem: This code calculates the transport of neutral particles in thermonuclear plasmas in two-dimensional geometric configurations. Method of solution: The code is based on the Transmission and Escape Probability (TEP) methodology [1], which is part of the family of integral transport methods for neutral particles and neutrons. The resulting linear system of equations is solved by standard direct linear system solvers (sparse and non-sparse versions are included). Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The current version of the code can

  18. Development of thin foils for use in generating neutral particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Adair, H.L.; Culpepper, C.A.; McCulla, W.H.; Nolan, T.A.; Hughes, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) was requested to prepare large-area, ultrathin aluminum and carbon foils for use in beam neutralization experiments. There were two major parts to this request. The first was to immediately provide a number of 5-cm-dia foils 5 to 20 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ thick for use in experiments at the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility and at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The second, longer-term request was to develop methods to prepare 25-cm x 25-cm, 10-..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ aluminum neutralizer foils. Both parts of the request have been successfully met.

  19. Oscillating motions of neutrally buoyant particle and red blood cell in Poiseuille flow in a narrow channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lingling; Yu, Yao; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2014-04-01

    Two motions of oscillation and vacillating breathing (swing) of red blood cell with a stiffened membrane have been observed in bounded Poiseuille flows [L. Shi, T.-W. Pan, and R. Glowinski, "Deformation of a single blood cell in bounded Poiseuille flows," Phys. Rev. E 85, 16307 (2012)]. To understand such motions, we have compared them with the oscillating motion of a neutrally buoyant particle of the same shape in Poiseuille flow in a narrow channel since a suspended cell is actually a neutrally buoyant entity. In a narrow channel, the particle can be held in the central region for a while with its mass center moving up and down if it is placed at the centerline initially. Its inclination angle oscillates at the beginning; but its range of oscillation keeps increasing and at the end the particle tumbles when the particle migrates away from the centerline due to the inertia effect. When the particle mass center is restricted to move only on the channel centerline, the inclination angle has been locked to a fixed angle without oscillation. Since the mass center of a deformable cell always migrates toward the channel central region in Poiseuille flow, its inclination angle behaves similar to the aforementioned oscillating motion of the particle as long as the cell keeps the long body shape and moves up and down. But when the up-and-down oscillation of the cell mass center damps out, the oscillating motion of the inclination angle also damps out and the cell inclination angle also approaches to a fixed angle.

  20. Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying to jets in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. 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C.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savard, P.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. 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M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. 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L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-04-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb-1 of data collected in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

  1. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, P. A.; Blank, H.; Geiger, B.; Mank, K.; Martinov, S.; Ryter, F.; Weiland, M.; Weller, A.

    2015-07-15

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  2. Monte Carlo model of neutral-particle transport in diverted plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Heifetz, D.; Post, D.; Petravic, M.; Weisheit, J.; Bateman, G.

    1981-11-01

    The transport of neutral atoms and molecules in the edge and divertor regions of fusion experiments has been calculated using Monte-Carlo techniques. The deuterium, tritium, and helium atoms are produced by recombination in the plasma and at the walls. The relevant collision processes of charge exchange, ionization, and dissociation between the neutrals and the flowing plasma electrons and ions are included, along with wall reflection models. General two-dimensional wall and plasma geometries are treated in a flexible manner so that varied configurations can be easily studied. The algorithm uses a pseudo-collision method. Splitting with Russian roulette, suppression of absorption, and efficient scoring techniques are used to reduce the variance. The resulting code is sufficiently fast and compact to be incorporated into iterative treatments of plasma dynamics requiring numerous neutral profiles. The calculation yields the neutral gas densities, pressures, fluxes, ionization rates, momentum transfer rates, energy transfer rates, and wall sputtering rates. Applications have included modeling of proposed INTOR/FED poloidal divertor designs and other experimental devices.

  3. Monte-Carlo model of neutral-particle transport in diverted plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Heifetz, D.; Post, D.; Petravic, M.; Weisheit, J.; Bateman, G.

    1982-05-01

    The transport of neutral atoms and molecules in the edge and divertor regions of fusion experiments has been calculated using Monte-Carlo techniques. The deuterium, tritium, and helium atoms are produced by recombination at the walls. The relevant collision processes of charge exchange, ionization, and dissociation between the neutrals and the flowing plasma electrons and ions are included, along with wall-reflection models. General two-dimensional wall and plasma geometries are treated in a flexible manner so that varied configurations can be easily studied. The algorithm uses a pseudocollision method. Splitting with Russian roulette, suppression of absorption, and efficient scoring techniques are used to reduce the variance. The resulting code is sufficiently fast and compact to be incorporated into iterative treatments of plasma dynamics requiring numerous neutral profiles. The calculation yields the neutral gas densities, pressures, fluxes, ionization rates, momentum-transfer rates, energy-transfer rates, and wall-sputtering rates. Applications have included modeling of proposed INTOR/FED poloidal divertor designs and other experimental devices.

  4. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P A; Blank, H; Geiger, B; Mank, K; Martinov, S; Ryter, F; Weiland, M; Weller, A

    2015-07-01

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account. PMID:26233384

  5. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P. A.; Blank, H.; Geiger, B.; Mank, K.; Martinov, S.; Ryter, F.; Weiland, M.; Weller, A.

    2015-07-01

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  6. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P A; Blank, H; Geiger, B; Mank, K; Martinov, S; Ryter, F; Weiland, M; Weller, A

    2015-07-01

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  7. Performance of Advanced Light Source particle beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, is complete. The particle beam diagnostics have been installed and tested. The beam injection systems have been running for two years. We have performance data on beam position monitors, beam intensity monitors, scintillators, beam collimators, a 50 {Omega} Faraday cup, and broad-band striplines and kickers used in the linac, transport lines, and the booster synchrotron. The single-turn monitoring capability of the booster beam position monitoring system has been particularly useful for studying beam dynamics. Beam diagnostics for the storage ring are being commissioned. In this paper we describe each instrument, show its performance, and outline how the instruments are controlled and their output data displayed.

  8. Recent advances in UHV techniques for particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. Rao

    1995-01-01

    The ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) requirements for storage rings and accelerators, and the development of the science and technology of UHV for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices have been recently reviewed by N.B. Mistry and H.F. Dylla respectively. In this paper, the latest developments in the advancement of UHV techniques for the vacuum integrity of Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and for successfully dealing with the synchrotron radiation related beam line vacuum problem encountered in the design of the SSC are reviewed: the review includes developments in extreme sensitivity He leak detection technique based on the dynamic adsorption and desorption of He, operation of ionization gauges at Lhe temperatures, metal sponges for the effective cryopumping of H{sup 2} and He to pressures better than 10{sup -14} torr, and low cost and high He sensitivity RGA's. The details of a new extreme sensitivity He leak detector system are also discussed here.

  9. Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boseman, Adam J.

    This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.

  10. Design of a neutral three-dimensional electro-Fenton system with foam nickel as particle electrodes for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel three-dimensional electro-Fenton system (3D-E-Fenton) for wastewater treatment with foam nickel, activated carbon fiber and Ti/RuO(2)-IrO(2) as the particle electrodes, the cathode, and the anode respectively. This 3D-E-Fenton system could exhibit much higher rhodamine B removal efficiency (99%) than the counterpart three-dimensional electrochemical system (33%) and E-Fenton system (19%) at neutral pH in 30 min. The degradation efficiency enhancement was attributed to much more hydroxyl radicals generated in the 3D-E-Fenton system because foam nickel particle electrodes could activate molecular oxygen to produce O(2)(-) via a single-electron transfer pathway to subsequently generate more H(2)O(2) and hydroxyl radicals. This is the first observation of molecular oxygen activation over the particle electrodes in the three-dimensional electrochemical system. These interesting findings could provide some new insight on the development of high efficient E-Fenton system for wastewater treatment at neutral pH. PMID:23141376

  11. Self-consistent modelling of charged and neutral particle dynamics in short-gap helium and hydrogen discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugroot, M.; Bayle, P.; Yousfi, M.; Eichwald, O.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent model of charged and neutral particle dynamics is developed for the case of high pressure short-gap discharges in helium 0022-3727/32/2/007/img7 and hydrogen 0022-3727/32/2/007/img8 and 0022-3727/32/2/007/img9. Boundary wall effects on the electron swarm parameters are first investigated by a Monte Carlo method in order to verify the validity of the classical local field approximation in short-gap discharges. The hydrodynamic transport equations of the self-consistent model are then described with an emphasis on the different terms involved in the close coupling between charged and neutral particles and the electric field. These equations are solved by powerful two-dimensional numerical schemes for both transport and electrical field equations. The discharges are studied from an initial electronic cloud to the first stages of breakdown. Cathode emission is discussed in terms of its prime importance in the spatio-temporal evolution of the short-gap discharges and it is shown that the principal difference between helium and hydrogen discharges is due to the mode of cathode emission. The particular observations in the luminosity in hydrogen are discussed in terms of ionization of the gas and secondary emission processes at the surface. A detailed analysis reveals a complex distribution of charged particles due to the superposition of ionization and transport effects. Furthermore, Joule heating of the neutral medium is evaluated in the entire time scale of the discharge and its influence on the discharge evolution is discussed.

  12. Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the advanced photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1993-07-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e -, e +) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest X-ray sources in the 10-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV injector synchrotron (IS), 7-GeV storage ring (SR), and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  13. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  14. Mode-particle resonances during near-tangential neutral beam injection in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaita, R.; White, R. B.; Morris, A. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; McGuire, K. M.; Medley, S. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Scott, S. D.

    1990-07-01

    Coherent magnetohydrodynamic modes have been observed previously during neutral beam injection in the PDX tokamak [Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 891 (1983)] and they have now been seen in the TFTR tokamak [Phys. Fluids 26, 2958 (1983)]. Periodic bursts of oscillations were detected with several plasma diagnostics, and Fokker-Planck calculations show that the populations of trapped particles in both tokamaks are sufficient to account for fishbone destabilization if a resonant interaction, between the mode and the beam ions, is assumed. Estimates of mode parameters are in reasonable agreement with the experiments, and they indicate that the fishbone mode may continue to affect the performance of intensely heated tokamaks.

  15. Momentum transfer collision frequency of O(+)-O. [interactions between ions and neutral particles in planetary ionospheres and thermospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Omidvar, Kazem; Hoegy, Walter R.

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of the thermosphere and ionosphere is largely governed by collisions between ions and neutral particles. On Venus and the Earth, O(+) is a dominant ion, and atomic O dominates throughout much of the thermosphere; therefore an accurate O(+)-O cross section is an important prerequisite for understanding the dynamics of planetary upper atmospheres. The cross section and momentum transfer collision frequency are calculated with a quantum mechanical code which includes resonance charge exchange, polarization, and charge-quadrupole effects. Our results agree well with earlier calculations of Stubbe (1968) and Stallcop et al. (1991).

  16. Fast-ion radial diffusivity evaluated from vertical neutral particle measurements following short pulse beam injection into a TFTR ohmic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kusama, Y. . Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Heidbrink, W.W. ); Barnes, C.W. ); Beer, M.; Hammett, G.W.; McCune, D.C.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.; Zarnstorff, M.C. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    The radial diffusivity of fast ions was evaluated from vertical neutral particle measurements in experiments where a short pulse of neutral deuterium beams was injected into a TFTR ohmic deuterium plasma. A comparison between the temporal evolution of the measured neutral particle flux and theoretical calculations showed that the spatially-averaged diffusion coefficient of fast ions is {le} 0.1 m{sup 2}/sec. This value is approximately an order of magnitude less than the diffusion coefficient for thermal ions and is consistent with results obtained previously on TFTR from other diagnostics.

  17. Application of Natural Diamond Detector to Energetic Neutral Particle Measurements on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Alekseyev; D.S. Darrow; A.L. Roquemore; V.N. Amosov; A.V. Krasilnikov; D.V. Prosvirin; A.Yu. Tsutskikh

    2003-03-01

    Two natural diamond detectors have been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to look at escaping neutrals at or near the neutral-beam-injection energy. Time-resolved measurements have been obtained from these detectors at various tangency radii. The close proximity of the detector to the vessel required the development of a very fast low-noise preamplifier, which has been shown to be superior to similar commercial units. With this amplifier arrangement, electromagnetic pick-up noise was reduced to acceptable levels. However, radiation shielding was required to reduce the background levels from neutron-induced pulses in the detector. Calibration data along with the measured energy resolution is presented in the useful energy range of NSTX. Example data from plasma discharges will also be presented.

  18. Cherenkov friction on a neutral particle moving parallel to a dielectric.

    PubMed

    Pieplow, Gregor; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-06-01

    We describe a simple mechanism of quantum friction for a particle moving parallel to a dielectric, based on a fully relativistic framework and the assumption of local equilibrium. The Cherenkov effect explains how the bare ground state becomes globally unstable and how fluctuations of the electromagnetic field and the particle's dipole are converted into pairs of excitations. Modeling the particle as a silver nano-sphere, we investigate the spectrum of the force and its velocity dependence. We find that the damping of the plasmon resonance in the silver particle has a relatively strong impact near the Cherenkov threshold velocity. We also present an expansion of the friction force near the threshold velocity for both damped and undamped particles. PMID:25965087

  19. Particle and momentum confinement in tokamak plasmas with unbalanced neutral beam injection and strong rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a self-consistent theory of the effects of neutral beam injection on impurity transport in tokamak plasmas. The theory predicts that co-injection drives impurities outward and that counter-injection enhances the normally inward flow of impurities. The theory was applied to carry out a detailed analysis of the large experimental database from the PLT and the ISX-B tokamaks. The theory was found to generally model the experimental data quite well. It is, therefore, concluded that neutral beam co-injection can drive impurities outward to achieve clean central plasmas and a cool radiating edge. Theoretical predictions for future thermonuclear reactors such as INTOR, TIBER II, and ITER indicated that neutral beam driven flow reversal might be an effective impurity control method if the rate of beam momentum deposited per plasma ion is adequate. The external momentum drag, which is a pivotal concept in impurity flow reversal theory, is correctly predicted by the gyroviscous theory of momentum confinement. The theory was applied to analyze experimental data from the PLT and the PDX tokamaks with exact experimental conditions. The theory was found to be in excellent agreement with experiment over a wide range of parameters. It is, therefore, possible to formulate the impurity transport theory from first principles, without resort to empiricism.

  20. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Xianyu, Lingzhi; Lyu, Songya

    2015-06-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice (6-8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing mAbs (D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect >95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 µg/mL solution (lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing mAbs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for mAbs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  1. Exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport in two-dimensional cartesian coordinates. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, B.M.

    1993-09-01

    The exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport with rectangular cells is developed. Numerical problems arising in the derivation required the development of exponential moment functions. These functions are used to remove indeterminant forms which can cause catastrophic cancellations. The EC method is positive and nonlinear. It conserves particles and satisfies first moment balance. Comparisons of the EC method's performance to other methods in optically thin and thick spatial cells were performed. For optically thin cells, the EC method was shown to converge to the correct answer, with third order truncation error in the thin cell limit. In deep penetration problems, the EC method attained its highest computational efficiencies compared to the other methods. For all the deep penetration problems examined, the number of spatial cells required by the EC method to attain a desired accuracy was less than the other methods.... Mathematics functions, Nuclear radiation, Nuclear engineering, Radiation attenuation, Radiation shielding, Transport theory, Radiation transport.

  2. Relating influenza virus membrane fusion kinetics to stoichiometry of neutralizing antibodies at the single-particle level.

    PubMed

    Otterstrom, Jason J; Brandenburg, Boerries; Koldijk, Martin H; Juraszek, Jarek; Tang, Chan; Mashaghi, Samaneh; Kwaks, Ted; Goudsmit, Jaap; Vogels, Ronald; Friesen, Robert H E; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2014-12-01

    The ability of antibodies binding the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein to neutralize viral infectivity is of key importance in the design of next-generation vaccines and for prophylactic and therapeutic use. The two antibodies CR6261 and CR8020 have recently been shown to efficiently neutralize influenza A infection by binding to and inhibiting the influenza A HA protein that is responsible for membrane fusion in the early steps of viral infection. Here, we use single-particle fluorescence microscopy to correlate the number of antibodies or antibody fragments (Fab) bound to an individual virion with the capacity of the same virus particle to undergo membrane fusion. To this end, individual, infectious virus particles bound by fluorescently labeled antibodies/Fab are visualized as they fuse to a planar, supported lipid bilayer. The fluorescence intensity arising from the virus-bound antibodies/Fab is used to determine the number of molecules attached to viral HA while a fluorescent marker in the viral membrane is used to simultaneously obtain kinetic information on the fusion process. We experimentally determine that the stoichiometry required for fusion inhibition by both antibody and Fab leaves large numbers of unbound HA epitopes on the viral surface. Kinetic measurements of the fusion process reveal that those few particles capable of fusion at high antibody/Fab coverage display significantly slower hemifusion kinetics. Overall, our results support a membrane fusion mechanism requiring the stochastic, coordinated action of multiple HA trimers and a model of fusion inhibition by stem-binding antibodies through disruption of this coordinated action.

  3. `Majorana Mass' Fermions as Untrue Majorana Particles, Rather Endowed with Pseudoscalar-Type Charges than Genuinely Neutral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziino, G.

    2016-03-01

    The idea of a `Majorana mass' to make a chiral neutrino really neutral is here reconsidered. It is pointed out that such an approach, unlike Majorana's (non-chiral) old one, does not strictly lead, in general, to a true self-conjugate particle. This can be seen on directly using the basic definition (or fundamental representation) of charge conjugation C in Quantum Field Theory, as an operation just acting on annihilation and creation operators and just expressing particle-antiparticle interchange. It is found, indeed, that the `active' and `sterile' whole fields which can be obtained from mixing the chiral components of two mutually charge-conjugate Dirac fields are themselves `charge conjugate' to each other (rather than individually self-conjugate). These fields, taken as mass eigenfields (as in the `Majorana mass' case), are shown to describe particles carrying pseudoscalar-type charges and being neutral relative to scalar-type charges only. For them, ` CP symmetry' would be nothing but pure mirror symmetry, and C violation (already implied in their respective `active' and `sterile' behaviors) should then involve time-reversal violation as well. The new (no longer strictly chargeless) `Majorana mass' neutrino model still proves, however, neither to affect the usual expectation for a neutrinoless double β-decay, nor to prevent `active' and `sterile' neutrino varieties from generally taking different mass values. One has, on the other hand, that any fermion being just a genuine (i.e. really self-conjugate) Majorana particle cannot truly exist in two distinct—`active' and `sterile'—versions, and it can further bear only a unified mass kind which may at once be said to be either a `Majorana-like' or a `Dirac-like' mass kind.

  4. A Lentiviral Vector Expressing Japanese Encephalitis Virus-like Particles Elicits Broad Neutralizing Antibody Response in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Souque, Philippe; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Paulous, Sylvie; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Summerfield, Artur; Charneau, Pierre; Desprès, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia. Vaccination of domestic pigs has been suggested as a “one health” strategy to reduce viral disease transmission to humans. The efficiency of two lentiviral TRIP/JEV vectors expressing the JEV envelope prM and E glycoproteins at eliciting protective humoral response was assessed in a mouse model and piglets. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the envelope proteins prM and E from a genotype 3 JEV strain was inserted into a lentiviral TRIP vector. Two lentiviral vectors TRIP/JEV were generated, each expressing the prM signal peptide followed by the prM protein and the E glycoprotein, the latter being expressed either in its native form or lacking its two C-terminal transmembrane domains. In vitro transduction of cells with the TRIP/JEV vector expressing the native prM and E resulted in the efficient secretion of virus-like particles of Japanese encephalitis virus. Immunization of BALB/c mice with TRIP/JEV vectors resulted in the production of IgGs against Japanese encephalitis virus, and the injection of a second dose one month after the prime injection greatly boosted antibody titers. The TRIP/JEV vectors elicited neutralizing antibodies against JEV strains belonging to genotypes 1, 3, and 5. Immunization of piglets with two doses of the lentiviral vector expressing JEV virus-like particles led to high titers of anti-JEV antibodies, that had efficient neutralizing activity regardless of the JEV genotype tested. Conclusions/Significance Immunization of pigs with the lentiviral vector expressing JEV virus-like particles is particularly efficient to prime antigen-specific humoral immunity and trigger neutralizing antibody responses against JEV genotypes 1, 3, and 5. The titers of neutralizing antibodies elicited by the TRIP/JEV vector are sufficient to confer protection in domestic pigs against different genotypes of JEV and this could be of a great

  5. NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR HELIUM PARAMETERS BASED ON IBEX-Lo OBSERVATIONS AND TEST PARTICLE CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokol, J. M.; Hlond, M.; Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Leonard, T.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Schwadron, N. A.; Crew, G. B.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-02-01

    Because of its high ionization potential and weak interaction with hydrogen, neutral interstellar helium (NISHe) is almost unaffected at the heliospheric interface with the interstellar medium and freely enters the solar system. This second most abundant species provides some of the best information on the characteristics of the interstellar gas in the local interstellar cloud. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is the second mission to directly detect NISHe. We present a comparison between recent IBEX NISHe observations and simulations carried out using a well-tested quantitative simulation code. Simulation and observation results compare well for times when measured fluxes are dominated by NISHe (and contributions from other species are small). Differences between simulations and observations indicate a previously undetected secondary population of neutral helium, likely produced by interaction of interstellar helium with plasma in the outer heliosheath. Interstellar neutral parameters are statistically different from previous in situ results obtained mostly from the GAS/Ulysses experiment, but they do agree with the local interstellar flow vector obtained from studies of interstellar absorption: the newly established flow direction is ecliptic longitude 79.{sup 0}2, latitude -5.{sup 0}1, the velocity is {approx}22.8 km s{sup -1}, and the temperature is 6200 K. These new results imply a markedly lower absolute velocity of the gas and thus significantly lower dynamic pressure on the boundaries of the heliosphere and different orientation of the Hydrogen Deflection Plane compared to prior results from Ulysses. A different orientation of this plane also suggests a new geometry of the interstellar magnetic field, and the lower dynamic pressure calls for a compensation by other components of the pressure balance, most likely a higher density of interstellar plasma and strength of interstellar magnetic field.

  6. Novel particle and radiation sources and advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mako, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    The influence Norman Rostoker had on the lives of those who had the pleasure of knowing him is profound. The skills and knowledge I gained as a graduate student researching collective ion acceleration has fueled a career that has evolved from particle beam physics to include particle and radiation source development and advanced materials research, among many other exciting projects. The graduate research performed on collective ion acceleration was extended by others to form the backbone for laser driven plasma ion acceleration. Several years after graduate school I formed FM Technologies, Inc., (FMT), and later Electron Technologies, Inc. (ETI). Currently, as the founder and president of both FMT and ETI, the Rostoker influence can still be felt. One technology that we developed is a self-bunching RF fed electron gun, called the Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). The MPG has important applications for RF accelerators and microwave tube technology, specifically clinically improved medical linacs and "green" klystrons. In addition to electron beam and RF source research, knowledge of materials and material interactions gained indirectly in graduate school has blossomed into breakthroughs in materials joining technologies. Most recently, silicon carbide joining technology has been developed that gives robust helium leak tight, high temperature and high strength joints between ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal. This joining technology has the potential to revolutionize the ethylene production, nuclear fuel and solar receiver industries by finally allowing for the practical use of silicon carbide as furnace coils, fuel rods and solar receptors, respectively, which are applications that have been needed for decades.

  7. Introduction: advances and opportunities in cluster research. [Neutral (metal) and ionic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Examples of neutral and ionic clusters include these in the upper and lower atmosphere, interstellar grain formation, combustion, radiation physics and chemistry, surface bombardment, fission product transport in reactors, corrosion, etc. This paper is a brief overview of some recent developments in cluster research. (DLC)

  8. A case study of nondelamination glass dissolution resulting in visible particles: implications for neutral pH formulations.

    PubMed

    Ratnaswamy, Gayathri; Hair, Alison; Li, Gary; Thirumangalathu, Renuka; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Brych, Lejla; Dharmavaram, Vasumathi; Wen, Zai-Qing; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Jing, Wendy; Sethuraman, Ananth; Swift, Rob; Ricci, Margaret Speed; Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy

    2014-04-01

    Visible particles were unexpectedly observed in a neutral-pH placebo formulation stored in glass vials but were not observed in the same formulation composition that contained protein. The particles were identified as silica gel (SiO2 ) and polysorbate 20, suggesting dissolution of the glass vial. Time course studies were performed to assess the effect of variables such as pH, excipients, storage temperature, and duration on particle formation. Data suggest that glass dissolution occurred during the storage in the liquid state, as shown by increased Si levels in solution. Upon freezing, the samples underwent freeze concentration and likely became supersaturated, which resulted in the appearance of visible silica particles upon thawing. The glass degradation described here is unique and differs from the more commonly reported delamination, defined by the presence of reflective, shard-like glass flakes in solution that are often termed lamellae. This case study underscores the importance of an early assessment (during formulation development) of potential incompatibility of the formulation with the primary container.

  9. Advances in sublimation studies for particles of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furstenberg, Robert; Nguyen, Viet; Fischer, Thomas; Abrishami, Tara; Papantonakis, Michael; Kendziora, Chris; Mott, David R.; McGill, R. Andrew

    2015-05-01

    When handling explosives, or related surfaces, the hands routinely become contaminated with particles of explosives and related materials. Subsequent contact with a solid surface results in particle crushing and deposition. These particles provide an evidentiary trail which is useful for security applications. As such, the opto-physico-chemical characteristics of these particles are critical to trace explosives detection applications in DOD or DHS arenas. As the persistence of these particles is vital to their forensic exploitation, it is important to understand which factors influence their persistence. The longevity or stability of explosives particles on a substrate is a function of several environmental parameters or particle properties including: Vapor pressure, particle geometry, airflow, particle field size, substrate topography, humidity, reactivity, adlayers, admixtures, particle areal density, and temperature. In this work we deposited particles of 2,4-dinitrotoluene on standard microscopy glass slides by particle sieving and studied their sublimation as a function of airflow velocity, areal particle density and particle field size. Analysis of 2D microscopic images was used to compute and track particle size and geometrical characteristics. The humidity, temperature and substrate type were kept constant for each experiment. A custom airflow cell, using standard microscopy glass slide, allowed in-situ photomicroscopy. Areal particle densities and airflow velocities were selected to provide relevant loadings and flow velocities for a range of potential applications. For a chemical of interest, we define the radial sublimation velocity (RSV) for the equivalent sphere of a particle as the parameter to characterize the sublimation rate. The RSV is a useful parameter because it is independent of particle size. The sublimation rate for an ensemble of particles was found to significantly depend on airflow velocity, the areal density of the particles, and the

  10. Comparisons Between Model Predictions and Spectral Measurements of Charged and Neutral Particles on the Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Zeitlin, Cary; Hassler, Donald M.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Boettcher, Stephan; Boehm, Eckart; Guo, Jingnan; Koehler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Posner, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012. RAD is a particle detector that measures the energy spectrum of charged particles (10 to approx. 200 MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (approx 8 to 200 MeV). The data obtained on the surface of Mars for 300 sols are compared to the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used. For describing the daily column depth of atmosphere, daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) are implemented into transport calculations. Particle flux at RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere depends on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD "E" dosimetry detector by the rest of the instrument. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and suggest that future radiation environments on Mars can be predicted accurately. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to astronauts for the planning of various mission scenarios

  11. Thermodynamics of strongly coupled repulsive Yukawa particles in ambient neutralizing plasma: Thermodynamic instability and the possibility of observation in fine particle plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Totsuji, Hiroo

    2008-07-15

    The thermodynamics is analyzed for a system composed of particles with hard cores, interacting via the repulsive Yukawa potential (Yukawa particulates), and neutralizing ambient (background) plasma. An approximate equation of state is given with proper account of the contribution of ambient plasma and it is shown that there exists a possibility for the total isothermal compressibility of Yukawa particulates and ambient plasma to diverge when the coupling between Yukawa particulates is sufficiently strong. In this case, the system undergoes a transition into separated phases with different densities and we have a critical point for this phase separation. Examples of approximate phase diagrams related to this transition are given. It is emphasized that the critical point can be in the solid phase and we have the possibility to observe a solid-solid phase separation. The applicability of these results to fine particle plasmas is investigated. It is shown that, though the values of the characteristic parameters are semiquantitative due to the effects not described by this model, these phenomena are expected to be observed in fine particle plasmas, when approximately isotropic bulk systems are realized with a very strong coupling between fine particles.

  12. Search for long-lived neutral particle decays using the full statistic collected in Run I with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verducci, M.

    2016-01-01

    Many extensions of the Standard Model (SM) include neutral weakly coupled particles that can be long-lived. These long-lived particles occur in many models, included gauge-mediated extensions of the Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM), MSSM with R-parity violation, inelastic dark matter and the Hidden Valley (HV) scenario. Results are presented on ATLAS searches at the LHC for scalar boson decays (including rare Higgs boson decays) to pair of neutral, long-lived hidden-sector particles that lead to final states containing fermion anti-fermion pairs or pairs of collimated lepton jets. No excess of events above the expected background has been observed for 20.3fb-1 of data collected in 2012 at a center of mass energy of 8TeV. Limits are presented as a function of the proper lifetime of the long-lived neutral particle.

  13. Advance in Vertical Buffered Electropolishing on Niobium for Particle Accelerators*

    SciTech Connect

    A.T. Wu, S. Jin, J.D. Mammosser, C.E. Reece, R.A. Rimmer,L. Lin, X.Y. Lu, K. Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Niobium (Nb) is the most popular material that has been employed for making superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities to be used in various particle accelerators over the last couple of decades. One of the most important steps in fabricating Nb SRF cavities is the final chemical removal of 150 {mu}m of Nb from the inner surfaces of the SRF cavities. This is usually done by either buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP). Recently a new Nb surface treatment technique called buffered electropolishing (BEP) has been developed at Jefferson Lab. It has been demonstrated that BEP can produce the smoothest surface finish on Nb ever reported in the literature while realizing a Nb removal rate as high as 10 {mu}m/min that is more than 25 and 5 times quicker than those of EP and BCP(112) respectively. In this contribution, recent advance in optimizing and understanding BEP treatment technique is reviewed. Latest results from RF measurements on BEP treated Nb single cell cavities by our unique vertical polishing system will be reported.

  14. Production of neutral strange particles in muon-nucleon scattering at 490 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Aderholz, M.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kadija, K.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G. E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H. J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, R.; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.

    1994-12-01

    The production of K 0, Λ andbar Λ particles is studied in the E665 muon-nucleon experiment at Fermilab. The average multiplicities and squared transverse momenta are measured as a function of x F and W 2. Most features of the data can be well described by the Lund model. Within this model, the data on the K0/π± ratios and on the average K 0 multiplicity in the forward region favor a strangeness suppression factor s/u in the fragmentation process near 0.20. Clear evidence for QCD effects is seen in the average squared transverse momentum of K 0 and Λ particles.

  15. [Development of infectious pseudo-particle harboring three subtypes hepatitis C virus glycoproteins and their application in neutralization assays].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Tan, Wen-jie; Deng, Yao; Li, Jing; Wu, Xiao-bing; Ruan, Li

    2008-07-01

    In this study, three expression vectors encoding unmodified glycoproteins E1 and E2 from H77 (1a), Hebei (1b) and JFH1 (2a) strains were constructed to form pVRC-H77-E1E2, pVRC-HeBei-E1E2 and pVRC-JFH1-E1E2 expressing constructs. The protein expression was confirmed by immunofluorescene assay(IFA) and Western blot. The Lentiviral vector has the ability to package the cellular membrane into pseudo-particles. The plasmid expressing HCV E1-E2 glycoproteins in native form was co-transfected into 293FT cells with a lentiviral packaging plasmid (pHR'CMV delta R8.2)and a self-inactivated (SIN) transfer plasmid (pCS-CG) containing a reporter EGFP gene to produce infectious HCV pseudo-particles(pp). Flow cytometry assays showed that the HCVpp could infect Huh7 and Huh7-CD81, and the infectivity in Huh7-CD81 was about 2-3 times higher than that in Huh7 cells. Meanwhile, HCVpp could neither infect non-liver cells, for example, the 293 cells, nor HepG2 cell . Titration of HCVpp by p24 ELISA assay or infection assay showed that this HCVpp may contain 5-25 ng/mL p24 or 10(4)-10(5) TU (transducing unit)/ ml. An in vitro HCV neutralizing assays based on HCVpp (1a, 1b, 2a) were then established using AP33, a monoclone antibody with cross-neutralizing ability to different HCV strains. The neutralizing ability of the antibodies from HCV infected patients was further studied with this HCVpp system. In summary, three kinds of HCVpp (1a, 1b, 2a subtype) were successfully developed; In vitro HCV neutralizing assays based on HCVpp and SIN lentiviral system were established. This system paves a way for characterization of early steps of HCV infection (host tropisms, receptor binding, membrane fusion, et al. ) or screening anti-HCV drugs (such as inhibitor to virus entry). This system can be further applied to assess the human immune responses in HCV patients or evaluate HCV vaccine candidates.

  16. SEPServer advances overview on Solar Energetic Particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, O.

    2013-09-01

    SEPServer hosted activities related to the scientific analysis of SEP event observations, including data analysis using both data-driven and simulation-based methods. The scientific conclusions of this effort are drawn with the implementation and release to the SEP community of multiple SEP event catalogs based on different spacecrafts and instruments, covering a broad timescale from 1975 to 2013 as well as a variety of distances from 0.3 to ~5 AU in the heliosphere. SEP events from Helios A & B missions, going back to 1975, at distances 0.3-1 AU, together with their Electromagnetic (EM) counterpart from OSRA data are being released for the first time. A catalog covering solar cycle 23 based upon the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) highenergy (~68 MeV) protons at 1 AU with parallel analysis of SOHO/ Electron Proton Helium Instrument (EPHIN) and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) / Electron, Proton and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) data, including the relevant EM associations has also been delivered. Furthermore, the first complete Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) SEP catalog based on the Low Energy Telescope (LET) protons (610 MeV) and the Solar Electron Proton Telescope (SEPT) electrons (65-105 keV) covering the rising phase of solar cycle 24 has been implemented. Moreover, the Cosmic Ray and Solar Particle Investigation (COSPIN) Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) data of 38-125 MeV has been used to identify a new catalog of SEP events observed in and out of the ecliptic plane over solar cycle 23, with simultaneous analysis of electrons recorded by the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra, Composition and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HISCALE). For selected cases simulation based analysis has been applied in order to identify the timing of the injection history and to provide a cross reference to the EM emissions, leading to a comprehensive treatment of these events and to the corresponding testing of

  17. Core-ion temperature measurement of the ADITYA tokamak using passive charge exchange neutral particle energy analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Santosh P.; Ajay, Kumar; Mishra, Priyanka; Dhingra, Rajani D.; Govindarajan, J.

    2013-02-15

    Core-ion temperature measurements have been carried out by the energy analysis of passive charge exchange (CX) neutrals escaping out of the ADITYA tokamak plasma (minor radius, a= 25 cm and major radius, R= 75 cm) using a 45 Degree-Sign parallel plate electrostatic energy analyzer. The neutral particle analyzer (NPA) uses a gas cell configuration for re-ionizing the CX-neutrals and channel electron multipliers (CEMs) as detectors. Energy calibration of the NPA has been carried out using ion-source and {Delta}E/E of high-energy channel has been found to be {approx}10%. Low signal to noise ratio (SNR) due to VUV reflections on the CEMs was identified during the operation of the NPA with ADITYA plasma discharges. This problem was rectified by upgrading the system by incorporating the additional components and arrangements to suppress VUV radiations and improve its VUV rejection capabilities. The noise rejection capability of the NPA was experimentally confirmed using a standard UV-source and also during the plasma discharges to get an adequate SNR (>30) at the energy channels. Core-ion temperature T{sub i}(0) during flattop of the plasma current has been measured to be up to 150 eV during ohmically heated plasma discharges which is nearly 40% of the average core-electron temperature (typically T{sub e}(0) {approx} 400 eV). The present paper describes the principle of tokamak ion temperature measurement, NPA's design, development, and calibration along with the modifications carried out for minimizing the interference of plasma radiations in the CX-spectrum. Performance of the NPA during plasma discharges and experimental results on the measurement of ion-temperature have also been reported here.

  18. Laminar, turbulent, and inertial shear-thickening regimes in channel flow of neutrally buoyant particle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow.

  19. A Massively Parallel Particle Code for Rarefied Ionized and Neutral Gas Flows in Earth and Planetary Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the global structure, dynamics, and physical and chemical processes occurring in the upper atmospheres, exospheres, and ionospheres of the Earth, the other planets, comets and planetary satellites and their interactions with their outer particles and fields environs, it is often necessary to address the fundamentally non-equilibrium aspects of the physical environment. These are regions where complex chemistry, energetics, and electromagnetic field influences are important. Traditional approaches are based largely on hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic MHD) formulations and are very important and highly useful. However, these methods often have limitations in rarefied physical regimes where the molecular collision rates and ion gyrofrequencies are small and where interactions with ionospheres and upper neutral atmospheres are important.

  20. [Standardization of neutralization tests using the COBL cell line and comparison with the particle agglutination test for measles serology].

    PubMed

    Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Yalçinkaya, Tülay; Ozkaya, Etem; Kurtoğlu, Demet; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Miyamura, Kikuko

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was the detection and comparison of measles antibody titers with particle agglutination (PA) and neutralization (Nt) methods, in the sera samples of 364 subjects from different age groups. PA method was performed with a commercial test kit (Serodiameasles, Fujirebio Com. Japan), and Nt test which was standardized in this study, by using COBL (cord blood) cell lines, has been started to use in our laboratory as a reference method. As a result, antibody titers detected by PA were in parallel to the titers which detected by Nt test, and it was concluded that the differences in antibody titers would arise from the differences of test principles and viral antigens.

  1. Interpretation of time-of-flight distributions for neutral particles under pulsed laser evaporation using direct Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Alexey A.

    2013-12-21

    A theoretical study of the time-of-flight (TOF) distributions under pulsed laser evaporation in vacuum has been performed. A database of TOF distributions has been calculated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. It is shown that describing experimental TOF signals through the use of the calculated TOF database combined with a simple analysis of evaporation allows determining the irradiated surface temperature and the rate of evaporation. Analysis of experimental TOF distributions under laser ablation of niobium, copper, and graphite has been performed, with the evaluated surface temperature being well agreed with results of the thermal model calculations. General empirical dependences are proposed, which allow indentifying the regime of the laser induced thermal ablation from the TOF distributions for neutral particles without invoking the DSMC-calculated database.

  2. Frequency of collisions between ion and neutral particles from the cloning characteristics of filamentary currents in an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bing; Zhang, Mengdie; Pan, Lizhu; Zhou, Qiujiao; Huang, Jianjun; Liu, Ying

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a cold He atmospheric pressure plasma jet that is generated using a dielectric barrier discharge configuration device is presented. This device is equipped with double-grounded ring electrodes that are driven by a sinusoidal excitation voltage. The properties of the cloning of filamentous current are studied. The frequency of the collisions between the ion and the neutral particles is calculated by measuring the current phase difference between the filamentous current and its corresponding clone. The frequency of the collisions between the ion and the neutral particles is of the order of 108 Hz.

  3. Application of a Java-based, univel geometry, neutral particle Monte Carlo code to the searchlight problem

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Wemple; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2005-04-01

    A univel geometry, neutral particle Monte Carlo transport code, written entirely in the Java programming language, is under development for medical radiotherapy applications. The code uses ENDF-VI based continuous energy cross section data in a flexible XML format. Full neutron-photon coupling, including detailed photon production and photonuclear reactions, is included. Charged particle equilibrium is assumed within the patient model so that detailed transport of electrons produced by photon interactions may be neglected. External beam and internal distributed source descriptions for mixed neutron-photon sources are allowed. Flux and dose tallies are performed on a univel basis. A four-tap, shift-register-sequence random number generator is used. Initial verification and validation testing of the basic neutron transport routines is underway. The searchlight problem was chosen as a suitable first application because of the simplicity of the physical model. Results show excellent agreement with analytic solutions. Computation times for similar numbers of histories are comparable to other neutron MC codes written in C and FORTRAN.

  4. User's manual for ONEDANT: a code package for one-dimensional, diffusion-accelerated, neutral-particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R.D.; Brinkley, F.W. Jr.; Marr, D.R.

    1982-02-01

    ONEDANT is designed for the CDC-7600, but the program has been implemented and run on the IBM-370/190 and CRAY-I computers. ONEDANT solves the one-dimensional multigroup transport equation in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (k/sub eff/ and eigenvalue search) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo, or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. ONEDANT numerically solves the one-dimensional, multigroup form of the neutral-particle, steady-state form of the Boltzmann transport equation. The discrete-ordinates approximation is used for treating the angular variation of the particle distribution and the diamond-difference scheme is used for phase space discretization. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero-and-correct algorithm. A standard inner (within-group) iteration, outer (energy-group-dependent source) iteration technique is used. Both inner and outer iterations are accelerated using the diffusion synthetic acceleration method. (WHK)

  5. User's guide for TWODANT: a code package for two-dimensional, diffusion-accelerated, neutral-particle transport. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alcouffe, R E; Brinkley, F W; Marr, D R; O'Dell, R D

    1984-10-01

    TWODANT solves the two-dimensional multigroup transport equation in x-y, r-z, and r-theta geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous (fixed source and homogeneous (k-effective and eigenvalue search)) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. TWODANT numerically solves the two-dimensional multigroup form of the neutral-particle, steady-state Boltzmann transport equation. The discrete-ordinates form of approximation is used for treating the angular variation of the particle distribution and the diamond-difference scheme is used for space-angle discretization. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero-and-correct algorithm. A standard inner (within-group) iteration, outer (energy-group-dependent source) iteration technique is used. Both inner and outer iterations are accelerated using the diffusion synthetic acceleration method. The diffusion solver uses the multigrid method and Chebychev acceleration of the fission source.

  6. Ebola virus-like particles produced in insect cells exhibit dendritic cell stimulating activity and induce neutralizing antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Ling; Lin Jianguo; Sun Yuliang; Bennouna, Soumaya; Lo, Michael; Wu Qingyang; Bu Zhigao; Pulendran, Bali; Compans, Richard W. . E-mail: compans@microbio.emory.edu; Yang Chinglai . E-mail: chyang@emory.edu

    2006-08-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses (rBV) expressing Ebola virus VP40 (rBV-VP40) or GP (rBV-GP) proteins were generated. Infection of Sf9 insect cells by rBV-VP40 led to assembly and budding of filamentous particles from the cell surface as shown by electron microscopy. Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by coinfection of Sf9 cells with rBV-VP40 and rBV-GP, and incorporation of Ebola GP into VLPs was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Recombinant baculovirus infection of insect cells yielded high levels of VLPs, which were shown to stimulate cytokine secretion from human dendritic cells similar to VLPs produced in mammalian cells. The immunogenicity of Ebola VLPs produced in insect cells was evaluated by immunization of mice. Analysis of antibody responses showed that most of the GP-specific antibodies were of the IgG2a subtype, while no significant level of IgG1 subtype antibodies specific for GP was induced, indicating the induction of a Th1-biased immune response. Furthermore, sera from Ebola VLP immunized mice were able to block infection by Ebola GP pseudotyped HIV virus in a single round infection assay, indicating that a neutralizing antibody against the Ebola GP protein was induced. These results show that production of Ebola VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses represents a promising approach for vaccine development against Ebola virus infection.

  7. A solution of the monoenergetic neutral particle transport equation for adjacent half-spaces with anisotropic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Mostacci, D.; Previti, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present highly accurate solutions to the neutral particle transport equation in a half-space. While our initial motivation was in response to a recently published solution based on Chandrasekhar's H-function, the presentation to follow has taken on a more comprehensive tone. The solution by H-functions certainly did achieved high accuracy but was limited to isotropic scattering and emission from spatially uniform and linear sources. Moreover, the overly complicated nature of the H-function approach strongly suggests that its extension to anisotropic scattering and general sources is not at all practical. For this reason, an all encompassing theory for the determination of highly precise benchmarks, including anisotropic scattering for a variety of spatial source distributions, is presented for particle transport in a half-space. We illustrate the approach via a collection of cases including tables of 7-place flux benchmarks to guide transport methods developers. The solution presented can be applied to a considerable number of one and two half-space transport problems with variable sources and represents a state-of-the-art benchmark solution.

  8. A massively parallel method of characteristic neutral particle transport code for GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, W. R.; Smith, K.; Forget, B.

    2013-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, parallel computing has enabled computers to grow ever larger and more powerful while scientific applications have advanced in sophistication and resolution. This trend is being challenged, however, as the power consumption for conventional parallel computing architectures has risen to unsustainable levels and memory limitations have come to dominate compute performance. Heterogeneous computing platforms, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), are an increasingly popular paradigm for solving these issues. This paper explores the applicability of GPUs for deterministic neutron transport. A 2D method of characteristics (MOC) code - OpenMOC - has been developed with solvers for both shared memory multi-core platforms as well as GPUs. The multi-threading and memory locality methodologies for the GPU solver are presented. Performance results for the 2D C5G7 benchmark demonstrate 25-35 x speedup for MOC on the GPU. The lessons learned from this case study will provide the basis for further exploration of MOC on GPUs as well as design decisions for hardware vendors exploring technologies for the next generation of machines for scientific computing. (authors)

  9. Recent advances in the simulation of particle-laden flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harting, J.; Frijters, S.; Ramaioli, M.; Robinson, M.; Wolf, D. E.; Luding, S.

    2014-10-01

    A substantial number of algorithms exists for the simulation of moving particles suspended in fluids. However, finding the best method to address a particular physical problem is often highly non-trivial and depends on the properties of the particles and the involved fluid(s) together. In this report, we provide a short overview on a number of existing simulation methods and provide two state of the art examples in more detail. In both cases, the particles are described using a Discrete Element Method (DEM). The DEM solver is usually coupled to a fluid-solver, which can be classified as grid-based or mesh-free (one example for each is given). Fluid solvers feature different resolutions relative to the particle size and separation. First, a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann algorithm (mesh-based and with rather fine resolution) is presented to study the behavior of particle stabilized fluid interfaces and second, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics implementation (mesh-free, meso-scale resolution, similar to the particle size) is introduced to highlight a new player in the field, which is expected to be particularly suited for flows including free surfaces.

  10. Advances in Bayesian Model Based Clustering Using Particle Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Merl, D M

    2009-11-19

    Recent work by Carvalho, Johannes, Lopes and Polson and Carvalho, Lopes, Polson and Taddy introduced a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) alternative to traditional iterative Monte Carlo strategies (e.g. MCMC and EM) for Bayesian inference for a large class of dynamic models. The basis of SMC techniques involves representing the underlying inference problem as one of state space estimation, thus giving way to inference via particle filtering. The key insight of Carvalho et al was to construct the sequence of filtering distributions so as to make use of the posterior predictive distribution of the observable, a distribution usually only accessible in certain Bayesian settings. Access to this distribution allows a reversal of the usual propagate and resample steps characteristic of many SMC methods, thereby alleviating to a large extent many problems associated with particle degeneration. Furthermore, Carvalho et al point out that for many conjugate models the posterior distribution of the static variables can be parametrized in terms of [recursively defined] sufficient statistics of the previously observed data. For models where such sufficient statistics exist, particle learning as it is being called, is especially well suited for the analysis of streaming data do to the relative invariance of its algorithmic complexity with the number of data observations. Through a particle learning approach, a statistical model can be fit to data as the data is arriving, allowing at any instant during the observation process direct quantification of uncertainty surrounding underlying model parameters. Here we describe the use of a particle learning approach for fitting a standard Bayesian semiparametric mixture model as described in Carvalho, Lopes, Polson and Taddy. In Section 2 we briefly review the previously presented particle learning algorithm for the case of a Dirichlet process mixture of multivariate normals. In Section 3 we describe several novel extensions to the original

  11. Exponential-characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete-ordinates neutral-particle transport in slab geometry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoden, G.E.

    1992-03-01

    A new discrete ordinates spatial quadrature scheme is presented for solving neutral particle transport problems. This new scheme, called the exponential characteristic method, is developed here in slab geometry with isotropic scattering. This method uses a characteristic integration of the Boltzmann transport equation with an exponential function as the assumed from of the source distribution, continuous across each spatial cell. The exponential source function is constructed to globally conserve zeroth and first spatial source moments and is non-negative. Characteristic integration ensures non-negative fluxes and flux moments. Numerical testing indicates that convergence of the exponential characteristic scheme is fourth order in the limit of vanishingly thin cells. Highly accurate solutions to optically thick problems can result using this scheme with very coarse meshes. Comparing accuracy and computational cost with existing spatial quadrature schemes (diamond difference, linear discontinuous, linear characteristic, linear adaptive, etc.), the exponential characteristic scheme typically performed best. This scheme is expected to be expandable to two dimensions in a straight forward manner. Due to the high accuracies achievable using coarse meshes, this scheme may allow researchers to obtain solutions to transport problems once thought too large or too difficult to be adequately solved conventional computer systems.

  12. Goal-based angular adaptivity applied to a wavelet-based discretisation of the neutral particle transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Goffin, Mark A.; Buchan, Andrew G.; Dargaville, Steven; Pain, Christopher C.; Smith, Paul N.; Smedley-Stevenson, Richard P.

    2015-01-15

    A method for applying goal-based adaptive methods to the angular resolution of the neutral particle transport equation is presented. The methods are applied to an octahedral wavelet discretisation of the spherical angular domain which allows for anisotropic resolution. The angular resolution is adapted across both the spatial and energy dimensions. The spatial domain is discretised using an inner-element sub-grid scale finite element method. The goal-based adaptive methods optimise the angular discretisation to minimise the error in a specific functional of the solution. The goal-based error estimators require the solution of an adjoint system to determine the importance to the specified functional. The error estimators and the novel methods to calculate them are described. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods. It is shown that the methods can significantly reduce the number of unknowns and computational time required to obtain a given error. The novelty of the work is the use of goal-based adaptive methods to obtain anisotropic resolution in the angular domain for solving the transport equation. -- Highlights: •Wavelet angular discretisation used to solve transport equation. •Adaptive method developed for the wavelet discretisation. •Anisotropic angular resolution demonstrated through the adaptive method. •Adaptive method provides improvements in computational efficiency.

  13. A Northern Sky Survey for Point-like Sources of EeV Neutral Particles with the Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the search for steady point-like sources of neutral particles around 1018 eV between 2008 and 2013 May with the scintillator SD of the Telescope Array experiment. We found overall no significant point-like excess above 0.5 EeV in the northern sky. Subsequently, we also searched for coincidence with the Fermi bright Galactic sources. No significant coincidence was found within the statistical uncertainty. Hence, we set an upper limit on the neutron flux that corresponds to an averaged flux of 0.07 km-2 yr-1 for E\\gt 1 EeV in the northern sky at the 95% confidence level. This is the most stringent flux upper limit in a northern sky survey assuming point-like sources. The upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the neutron flux from Cygnus X-3 is also set to 0.2 km-2 yr-1 for E\\gt 0.5 EeV. This is an order of magnitude lower than previous flux measurements.

  14. Coordinated Observations of Ion-Neutral Dynamics from a Ground-based Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) and an Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Kosch, M.; Nicolls, M. J.; Conde, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between the plasma and neutral components of the upper atmosphere result in a diverse set of phenomena that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Investigating these interactions requires essentially simultaneous measurements of (spatially resolved) ion and neutral parameters at a time resolution comparable to the time-scales of the underlying driving forces. Two instruments that are ideally suited to such investigations are the Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) and the Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR). The SDI is capable of resolving small-scale neutral horizontal flow structures and temperature fields across a wide field-of-view, with a temporal resolution of around 4 minutes. The AMISR allows for 'volumetric' ionospheric imaging by sampling along multiple range resolved beams simultaneously, with integration times at least comparable to the SDI. Here we present initial results from a campaign of coordinated observations between an AMISR and SDI located at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. This study focuses on the observed signatures of ion-neutral coupling at E and F-region altitudes, in particular the directly measured local ion-neutral velocity difference (required for calculating frictional heating rates) and estimates of the ion-neutral collision frequency from measurements taken along the local geomagnetic field-aligned direction. These observations are placed in the context of the large-scale neutral and ion flows.

  15. Arcing and rf signal generation during target irradiation by a high-energy, pulsed neutral particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Robiscoe, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    We present a theory describing the dynamics of arc discharges in bulk dielectric materials on board space-based vehicles. Such ''punch-through'' arcs can occur in target satellites irradiated by high-energy (250 MeV), pulsed (100 mA x 10 ms) neutral particle beams. We treat the arc as a capacitively limited avalanche current in the target dielectric material, and we find expressions for the arc duration, charge transport, currents, and discharge energy. These quantities are adjusted to be consistent with known scaling laws for the area of charge depleted by the arc. After a brief account of the statistical distribution of voltages at which the arc starts and stops, we calculate the signal strength and frequency spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation broadcast by the arc. We find that arcs from thick ()similarreverse arrowto)1 cm) targets can generate rf signals detectable up to 1000 km from the target, bu a radio receiver operating at frequency 80 MHz, bandwidth 100 kHz, and detection threshold -105 dBm. These thick-target arc signals are 10 to 20 dB above ambient noise at the receiver, and they provide target hit assessment if the signal spectrum can be sampled at several frequencies in the nominal range 30-200 MHz. Thin-target ()similarreverse arrowto)1 mm) arc signals are much weaker, but when they are detecable in conjunction with thick-target signals, target discrimination is possible by comparing the signal frequency spectra. 24 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Properties of the S(N)-equivalent integral transport operator and the iterative acceleration of neutral particle transport methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Massimiliano

    We have derived expressions for the elements of the matrix representing a certain angular (SN) and spatial discretized form of the neutron integral transport operator. This is the transport operator that if directly inverted on the once-collided fixed particle source produces, without the need for an iterative procedure, the converged limit of the scalar fluxes for the iterative procedure. The asymptotic properties of this operator's elements have then been investigated in homogeneous and periodically heterogeneous limits in one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometries. The thesis covers the results obtained from this asymptotic study of the matrix structure of the discrete integral transport operator and illustrates how they relate to the iterative acceleration of neutral particle transport methods. Specifically, it will be shown that in one-dimensional problems (both homogeneous and periodically heterogeneous) and homogeneous two-dimensional problems, containing optically thick cells, the discrete integral transport operator acquires a sparse matrix structure, implying a strong local coupling of a cell-averaged scalar flux only with its nearest Cartesian neighbors. These results provide further insight into the excellent convergence properties of diffusion-based acceleration schemes for this broad class of transport problems. In contrast, the results of the asymptotic analysis for two-dimensional periodically heterogeneous problems point to a sparse but non-local matrix structure due to long-range coupling of a cell's average flux with its neighboring cells, independent of the distance between the cells in the spatial mesh. The latter results indicate that cross-derivative coupling, namely coupling of a cell's average flux to its diagonal neighbors, is of the same order as self-coupling and coupling with its first Cartesian neighbors. Hence they substantiate the conjecture that the loss of robustness of diffusion-based acceleration schemes, in particular of the

  17. A spin-orbit coupling for a neutral particle from Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the CPT-odd sector of the Standard Model Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belich, H.; Bakke, K.

    2015-07-01

    We start by investigating the arising of a spin-orbit coupling and a Darwin-type term that stem from Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the CPT-odd sector of the Standard Model Extension. Then, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry that gives rise to a linear confining potential and an effective electric field in which determines the spin-orbit coupling for a neutral particle analogous to the Rashba coupling [E. I. Rashba, Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1109 (1960)]. Finally, we confine the neutral particle to a quantum dot [W.-C. Tan and J. C. Inkson, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1635 (1996)] and analyze the influence of the linear confining potential and the spin-orbit coupling on the spectrum of energy.

  18. A new EV71 VP3 epitope in norovirus P particle vector displays neutralizing activity and protection in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liping; Fan, Rongjun; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; Su, Weiheng; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Feng; Xu, Fei; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-11-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), as the main agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), have become a serious public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 were identified as targets for promising vaccine candidates. Structural studies of Picornaviridae indicated that potent immunodominant epitopes typically lie in the hypervariable loop of capsid surfaces. However, cross-neutralizing antibodies and cross-protection between EV71 and CVA16 have not been observed. Therefore, we speculated that divergent sequences of the two viruses are key epitopes for inducing protective neutralizing responses. In this study, we selected 10 divergent epitope candidates based on alignment of the EV71 and CVA16 P1 amino acid sequences using the Multalin interface page, and these epitopes are conserved among all subgenotypes of EV71. Simultaneously, by utilizing the norovirus P particle as a novel vaccine delivery carrier, we identified the 71-6 epitope (amino acid 176-190 of VP3) as a conformational neutralizing epitope against EV71 in an in vitro micro-neutralization assay as well as an in vivo protection assay in mice. Altogether, these results indicated that the incorporation of the 71-6 epitope into the norovirus P domain can provide a promising candidate for an effective synthetic peptide-based vaccine against EV71.

  19. A new EV71 VP3 epitope in norovirus P particle vector displays neutralizing activity and protection in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liping; Fan, Rongjun; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; Su, Weiheng; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Feng; Xu, Fei; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-11-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), as the main agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), have become a serious public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 were identified as targets for promising vaccine candidates. Structural studies of Picornaviridae indicated that potent immunodominant epitopes typically lie in the hypervariable loop of capsid surfaces. However, cross-neutralizing antibodies and cross-protection between EV71 and CVA16 have not been observed. Therefore, we speculated that divergent sequences of the two viruses are key epitopes for inducing protective neutralizing responses. In this study, we selected 10 divergent epitope candidates based on alignment of the EV71 and CVA16 P1 amino acid sequences using the Multalin interface page, and these epitopes are conserved among all subgenotypes of EV71. Simultaneously, by utilizing the norovirus P particle as a novel vaccine delivery carrier, we identified the 71-6 epitope (amino acid 176-190 of VP3) as a conformational neutralizing epitope against EV71 in an in vitro micro-neutralization assay as well as an in vivo protection assay in mice. Altogether, these results indicated that the incorporation of the 71-6 epitope into the norovirus P domain can provide a promising candidate for an effective synthetic peptide-based vaccine against EV71. PMID:26529072

  20. Transient Enhancement ('Spike-on-Tail') Observed on Neutral-Beam-Injected Energetic Ion Spectra Using the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Medley; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2010-06-01

    An increase of up to four-fold in the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) charge exchange neutral flux localized at the Neutral Beam (NB) injection full energy is observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Termed the High-Energy Feature (HEF), it appears on the NB-injected energetic ion spectrum only in discharges where tearing or kink-type modes (f < 10 kHz) are absent, TAE activity (f ~ 10-150 kHz) is weak (δBrms < 75 mGauss) and CAE/GAE activity (f ~ 400 – 1200 kHz) is robust. The feature exhibits a growth time of ~ 20 - 80 ms and occasionally develops a slowing down distribution that continues to evolve over periods of 100's of milliseconds, a time scale long compared with the typical ~ 10's ms equilibration time of the NB injected particles. The HEF is observed only in H-mode (not L-mode) discharges with injected NB power of 4 MW or greater and in the field pitch range v||/v ~ 0.7 – 0.9; i.e. only for passing (never trapped) energetic ions. The HEF is suppressed by vessel conditioning using lithium deposition at rates ~ 100 mg/shot, a level sufficient to suppress ELM activity. Increases of ~ 10 - 30 % in the measured neutron yield and total stored energy are observed to coincide with the feature along with broadening of measured Te(r), Ti(r) and ne(r) profiles. However, TRANSP analysis shows that such increases are driven by plasma profile changes and not the HEF phenomenon itself. Though a definitive mechanism has yet to be developed, the HEF appears to be caused by a form of TAE/CAE wave-particle interaction that distorts of the NB fast ion distribution in phase space.

  1. A PbWO4-based Neutral Particle Spectrometer in Hall C at 12 GeV JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    The Neutral Particle Spectrometer is a standalone electromagnetic calorimeter capable of detecting high energy photons from, for instance, DVCS or π0 decay with good energy and spatial resolution in a high rate environment. It can be used together with the Hall C high-momentum spectrometers for a suite of experiments with the underlying scientific objective of studying quark dynamics through exclusive and semi-inclusive reactions.

  2. Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM 2.5 Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald J. Keeler; Masako Morishita

    2006-12-31

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). A series of ambient PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in communities in southwestern Detroit, MI (close to multiple combustion sources) and Steubenville, OH (close to several coal fired utility boilers). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) -imaging showed a series of nano-metal particles including transition metals and elemental composition of individual particles in detail. Submicron and nano-particles with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, U, V, Cr, Si, Ba, Mn, Ni, K and S were observed and characterized from the samples. Among the identified nano-particles, combinations of Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti nano-particles embedded in carbonaceous particles were observed most frequently. These particles showed very similar characteristics of ultrafine coal fly ash particles that were previously reported. By utilizing HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDX, and EF-TEM, this investigation was able to gain information on the size, morphology, structure, and elemental composition of individual nano-particles collected in Detroit and Steubenville. The results showed that the contributions of local combustion sources - including coal fired utilities - to ultrafine particle levels were significant. Although this combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques by itself can not identify source categories, these techniques can be utilized as complementary analytical tools that are capable of providing detailed information on individual particles.

  3. Local pellet based and line-integrated nonperturbing charge exchange measurements with a compact neutral particle analyzer on Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, P. R.; Ozaki, T.; Sudo, S.; Tamura, N.; Veshchev, E. A.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Krasilnikov, A. V.

    2006-10-15

    Experiments on suprathermal ion physics are carried out on the Large Helical Device (LHD) with a 40 channel compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA). The analyzer is used both in passive nonperturbing chord-integral neutral particle flux measurements and for local probing with an impurity pellet. The analyzer observes trapped particles with vertical bar v{sub parallel}/v vertical bar <0.25 and the pitch angle cosine value v{sub parallel}/v changes sign along the diagnostic sight line. The measurable energy range for H{sup 0} is 1-170 keV. Radially resolved data on local H{sup 0} atomic energy spectra have been obtained on LHD by the pellet charge exchange method with CNPA, as well as chord-integral atomic energy distribution data for electron cyclotron heated, neutral beam injected, and high power ion cyclotron heated plasma. The article addresses the diagnostic technical background and the analysis scheme of measurement results taking into account the helical geometry and the species and densities of the charge exchange targets.

  4. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Harry W.K.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    This mini-course gives an introduction to the techniques used in experimental particle physics with an emphasis on the impact of technological advances. The basic detector types and particle accelerator facilities will be briefly covered with examples of their use and with comparisons. The mini-course ends with what can be expected in the near future from current technology advances. The mini-course is intended for graduate students and post-docs and as an introduction to experimental techniques for theorists.

  5. Design of asymmetric particles containing a charged interior and a neutral surface charge: comparative study on in vivo circulation of polyelectrolyte microgels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Xu, Jing; Luft, J Christopher; Tian, Shaomin; Raval, Jay S; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2014-07-16

    Lowering the modulus of hydrogel particles could enable them to bypass in vivo physical barriers that would otherwise filter particles with similar size but higher modulus. Incorporation of electrolyte moieties into the polymer network of hydrogel particles to increase the swelling ratio is a straightforward and quite efficient way to decrease the modulus. In addition, charged groups in hydrogel particles can also help secure cargoes. However, the distribution of charged groups on the surface of a particle can accelerate the clearance of particles. Herein, we developed a method to synthesize highly swollen microgels of precise size with near-neutral surface charge while retaining interior charged groups. A strategy was employed to enable a particle to be highly cross-linked with very small mesh size, and subsequently PEGylated to quench the exterior amines only without affecting the internal amines. Acidic degradation of the cross-linker allows for swelling of the particles to microgels with a desired size and deformability. The microgels fabricated demonstrated extended circulation in vivo compared to their counterparts with a charged surface, and could potentially be utilized in in vivo applications including as oxygen carriers or nucleic acid scavengers.

  6. Advanced analysis of polymer emulsions: Particle size and particle size distribution by field-flow fractionation and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Makan, Ashwell C; Spallek, Markus J; du Toit, Madeleine; Klein, Thorsten; Pasch, Harald

    2016-04-15

    Field flow fractionation (FFF) is an advanced fractionation technique for the analyses of very sensitive particles. In this study, different FFF techniques were used for the fractionation and analysis of polymer emulsions/latexes. As model systems, a pure acrylic emulsion and emulsions containing titanium dioxide were prepared and analyzed. An acrylic emulsion polymerization was conducted, continuously sampled from the reactor and subsequently analyzed to determine the particle size, radius of gyration in specific, of the latex particles throughout the polymerization reaction. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF), coupled to a multidetector system, multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), ultraviolet (UV) and refractive index (RI), respectively, were used to investigate the evolution of particle sizes and particle size distributions (PSDs) as the polymerization progressed. The obtained particle sizes were compared against batch-mode dynamic light scattering (DLS). Results indicated differences between AF4 and DLS results due to DLS taking hydration layers into account, whereas both AF4 and SdFFF were coupled to MALLS detection, hence not taking the hydration layer into account for size determination. SdFFF has additional separation capabilities with a much higher resolution compared to AF4. The calculated radii values were 5 nm larger for SdFFF measurements for each analyzed sample against the corresponding AF4 values. Additionally a low particle size shoulder was observed for SdFFF indicating bimodality in the reactor very early during the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, different emulsions were mixed with inorganic species used as additives in cosmetics and coatings such as TiO2. These complex mixtures of species were analyzed to investigate the retention and particle interaction behavior under different AF4 experimental conditions, such as the mobile phase. The AF4 system was coupled online

  7. Pluto, Near and Far: PEPSSI Measurements of Energetic Particles During the New Horizons Flyby and Investigating a Pluto Torus of Circumsolar Neutral Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Matthew Eric; Kollmann, Peter; McNutt, Ralph L.; Smith, H. Todd; Bagenal, Fran; Brown, Lawrence E.; Elliott, Heather A.; Haggerty, Dennis K.; Horanyi, Mihaly; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Kusterer, Martha; Lisse, Carey M.; McComas, David J.; Piquette, Marcus; Strobel, Darrell; Szalay, Jamey; Vandegriff, Jon; Zirnstein, Eric; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Cathy B.; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    The energetic particle environment at Pluto has been unknown, and little modeled, until this year’s historic encounter by the New Horizon (NH) spacecraft on 14 July 2015. The first energetic particle observations, made with the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument, were downlinked in August 2015. There are variations in the intensities of suprathermal (~3-30 keV/nucleon) ions that are associated with a combination of the position of the spacecraft relative to Pluto, the look direction of PEPSSI, and (potentially) temporal evolution in the system. We present the results of the near encounter with Pluto, to as close as ~11.6 Rp (1 Rp = 1187 km), which, early analysis shows, include large intensity variations associated with Pluto. We also present the concept of a neutral gas torus surrounding the Sun, aligned with Pluto’s orbit, and place observational constraints on it based primarily on comparison of NH measurements with a 3-D Monte Carlo model adapted from analogous satellite tori surrounding Saturn and Jupiter. Such a torus, or perhaps partial torus, could result from neutral N2 escaping from Pluto’s exosphere. Unlike other more massive planets, gaseous neutrals escape Pluto readily via Jeans escape (i.e., owing to the high thermal speed relative to the escape velocity). These neutrals are not directly observable by NH but, once ionized to N2+ or N+ via photolysis or charge exchange, are picked up by the solar wind, ultimately reaching ~50 keV or more, making these pickup ions detectable by PEPSSI. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  8. Energetic Neutral Atom Spectra in the 0.2-3.0 keV from a Residual Source Across the Sky Obtained by the Neutral Particle Detector on board Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus; Roelof, Edmond; Wurz, Peter; Decker, Robert; Barabash, Stas; Bazell, David; Sotirelis, Thomas

    We have surveyed the sky for residual energetic neutral atom (ENA) signals in the energy range of 0.2-3.0 keV [Brandt et al., AIP Proceedings, 2009]. Approximately three years of data obtained by the Neutral Particle Detector (NPD) on board Venus Express (VEX) from May 2006 through August 2009 have been analyzed. After applying strict viewing criteria to minimize all known signals and subtracting the UV background from the Milky Way, we find a residual energy spectral shape with a ledge/bump at around 0.5 keV and a break in the spectral slope at about 1.0 keV, reiminiscent of the spectral shape obtained in reverse shocks. The ledge/bump at about 0.5 keV appears consistent with twice the plasma flow velocity obtained by the V1 measurements in the inner HS. When the ENA spectrum is divided by the energy dependent charge exchange cross section its slope above 1 keV has a spectral power-law index of 1.5, with some variations across the sky. In order to better understand the spectral shape over an extended energy range we compare the spectra obtained by VEX/NPD with the ones reported by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) [Funsten et al., Science, 2009], by the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board Cassini [Krimigis et al., Science, 2009]and with those measured in-situ in the inner heliosheath (HS) by the Low-Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument (>40 keV) on board Voyager-1 (V1).

  9. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn's moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  10. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn’s moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  11. Single Particle ICP-MS: Advances toward routine analysis of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Manuel D; Olesik, John W; Barber, Angela G; Challis, Katie; Ranville, James F

    2016-07-01

    From its early beginnings in characterizing aerosol particles to its recent applications for investigating natural waters and waste streams, single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) has proven to be a powerful technique for the detection and characterization of aqueous dispersions of metal-containing nanomaterials. Combining the high-throughput of an ensemble technique with the specificity of a single particle counting technique and the elemental specificity of ICP-MS, spICP-MS is capable of rapidly providing researchers with information pertaining to size, size distribution, particle number concentration, and major elemental composition with minimal sample perturbation. Recently, advances in data acquisition, signal processing, and the implementation of alternative mass analyzers (e.g., time-of-flight) has resulted in a wider breadth of particle analyses and made significant progress toward overcoming many of the challenges in the quantitative analysis of nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of spICP-MS development from a niche technique to application for routine analysis, a discussion of the key issues for quantitative analysis, and examples of its further advancement for analysis of increasingly complex environmental and biological samples. Graphical Abstract Single particle ICP-MS workflow for the analysis of suspended nanoparticles.

  12. Effect of an external electric field on the diffusion-influenced geminate reversible reaction of a neutral particle and a charged particle in three dimensions. IV. Excited-state ABCD reaction.

    PubMed

    Reigh, Shang Yik

    2014-02-14

    In the presence of an external electric field, an excited-state A + B(*q) <−> C(*q) + D diffusion-influenced geminate reversible reaction of a neutral particle and a charged particle, with two unimolecular decay rates and contact quenching processes, is investigated in three dimensions. The probability density functions to find individual particles, rates of reactions, and survival probabilities are analytically derived in the Laplace domain and the long-time kinetics is resolved. The probability density functions to find the particles and the rates of reactions in a scaled form exhibit a kinetic transition behavior from a t(-3/2) power law to t(-3/2)e(t) increase with the increase of external fields. The scaled survival probabilities present a kinetic transition behavior of t(-3/2) → constant → exponential with the increase of field strengths. The critical fields are found to determine the kinetic transition behaviors.

  13. Current Advances in Virus-Like Particles as a Vaccination Approach against HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chongbo; Ao, Zhujun; Yao, Xiaojian

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine candidates against HIV-1 infection. They are capable of preserving the native conformation of HIV-1 antigens and priming CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses efficiently via cross presentation by both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. Progress has been achieved in the preclinical research of HIV-1 VLPs as prophylactic vaccines that induce broadly neutralizing antibodies and potent T cell responses. Moreover, the progress in HIV-1 dendritic cells (DC)-based immunotherapy provides us with a new vision for HIV-1 vaccine development. In this review, we describe updates from the past 5 years on the development of HIV-1 VLPs as a vaccine candidate and on the combined use of HIV particles with HIV-1 DC-based immunotherapy as efficient prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies. PMID:26805898

  14. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between ions and neutrals in a partially ionized plasma are important throughout heliophysics, including near the solar surface in prominences. Understanding how ion-neutral coupling affects formation, support, structure, and dynamics of prominences will advance our physical understanding of magnetized systems involving a transition from a weakly ionized dense gas to a fully ionized tenuous plasma. We address the fundamental physics of prominence support, which is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force, and the implications for observations. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized, it is necessary to consider the support of the both the ionized and neutral components. Support of the neutrals is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material.

  15. Partial Protection against Porcine Influenza A Virus by a Hemagglutinin-Expressing Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine in the Absence of Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ricklin, Meret E; Vielle, Nathalie J; Python, Sylvie; Brechbühl, Daniel; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Zimmer, Gert; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This work was initiated by previous reports demonstrating that mismatched influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines can induce enhanced disease, probably mediated by antibodies. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate if a vaccine inducing opsonizing but not neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a selected heterologous challenge virus would enhance disease or induce protective immune responses in the pig model. To this end, we immunized pigs with either whole inactivated virus (WIV)-vaccine or HA-expressing virus replicon particles (VRP) vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both types of vaccines induced virus neutralizing and opsonizing antibodies against homologous virus as shown by a highly sensitive plasmacytoid dendritic cell-based opsonization assay. Opsonizing antibodies showed a broader reactivity against heterologous IAV compared with neutralizing antibodies. Pigs immunized with HA-recombinant VRP vaccine were partially protected from infection with a mismatched IAV, which was not neutralized but opsonized by the immune sera. The VRP vaccine reduced lung lesions, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, serum IFN-α responses, and viral loads in the airways. Only the VRP vaccine was able to prime IAV-specific IFNγ/TNFα dual secreting CD4(+) T cells detectable in the peripheral blood. In summary, this work demonstrates that with the virus pair selected, a WIV vaccine inducing opsonizing antibodies against HA which lack neutralizing activity, is neither protective nor does it induce enhanced disease in pigs. In contrast, VRP-expressing HA is efficacious vaccines in swine as they induced both potent antibodies and T-cell immunity resulting in a broader protective value. PMID:27446083

  16. Partial Protection against Porcine Influenza A Virus by a Hemagglutinin-Expressing Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine in the Absence of Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Meret E.; Vielle, Nathalie J.; Python, Sylvie; Brechbühl, Daniel; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Zimmer, Gert; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This work was initiated by previous reports demonstrating that mismatched influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines can induce enhanced disease, probably mediated by antibodies. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate if a vaccine inducing opsonizing but not neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a selected heterologous challenge virus would enhance disease or induce protective immune responses in the pig model. To this end, we immunized pigs with either whole inactivated virus (WIV)-vaccine or HA-expressing virus replicon particles (VRP) vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both types of vaccines induced virus neutralizing and opsonizing antibodies against homologous virus as shown by a highly sensitive plasmacytoid dendritic cell-based opsonization assay. Opsonizing antibodies showed a broader reactivity against heterologous IAV compared with neutralizing antibodies. Pigs immunized with HA-recombinant VRP vaccine were partially protected from infection with a mismatched IAV, which was not neutralized but opsonized by the immune sera. The VRP vaccine reduced lung lesions, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, serum IFN-α responses, and viral loads in the airways. Only the VRP vaccine was able to prime IAV-specific IFNγ/TNFα dual secreting CD4+ T cells detectable in the peripheral blood. In summary, this work demonstrates that with the virus pair selected, a WIV vaccine inducing opsonizing antibodies against HA which lack neutralizing activity, is neither protective nor does it induce enhanced disease in pigs. In contrast, VRP-expressing HA is efficacious vaccines in swine as they induced both potent antibodies and T-cell immunity resulting in a broader protective value. PMID:27446083

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Hypervariable Region 1 Variants Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bankwitz, Dorothea; Osburn, William; Viazov, Sergei; Brovko, Olena; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman; Khudyakov, Yury; Nassal, Michael; Pumpens, Paul; Pietschmann, Thomas; Timm, Jörg; Roggendorf, Michael; Walker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a serious global health burden. Despite improved therapeutic options, a preventative vaccine would be desirable especially in undeveloped countries. Traditionally, highly conserved epitopes are targets for antibody-based prophylactic vaccines. In HCV-infected patients, however, neutralizing antibodies are primarily directed against hypervariable region I (HVRI) in the envelope protein E2. HVRI is the most variable region of HCV, and this heterogeneity contributes to viral persistence and has thus far prevented the development of an effective HVRI-based vaccine. The primary goal of an antibody-based HCV vaccine should therefore be the induction of cross-reactive HVRI antibodies. In this study we approached this problem by presenting selected cross-reactive HVRI variants in a highly symmetric repeated array on capsid-like particles (CLPs). SplitCore CLPs, a novel particulate antigen presentation system derived from the HBV core protein, were used to deliberately manipulate the orientation of HVRI and therefore enable the presentation of conserved parts of HVRI. These HVRI-CLPs induced high titers of cross-reactive antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies. The combination of only four HVRI CLPs was sufficient to induce antibodies cross-reactive with 81 of 326 (24.8%) naturally occurring HVRI peptides. Most importantly, HVRI CLPs with AS03 as an adjuvant induced antibodies with a 10-fold increase in neutralizing capability. These antibodies were able to neutralize infectious HCVcc isolates and 4 of 19 (21%) patient-derived HCVpp isolates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the induction of at least partially cross-neutralizing antibodies is possible. This approach might be useful for the development of a prophylactic HCV vaccine and should also be adaptable to other highly variable viruses. PMID:25014219

  18. Search for resonant pair production of neutral long-lived particles decaying to bb in pp collisions at square root(S)=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Backusmayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Devaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; da Silva, W L Prado; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-08-14

    We report on a first search for resonant pair production of neutral long-lived particles (NLLP) which each decay to a bb pair, using 3.6 fb(-1) of data recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We search for pairs of displaced vertices in the tracking detector at radii in the range 1.6-20 cm from the beam axis. No significant excess is observed above background, and upper limits are set on the production rate in a hidden-valley benchmark model for a range of Higgs boson masses and NLLP masses and lifetimes. PMID:19792632

  19. Search for Resonant Pair Production of Neutral Long-Lived Particles Decaying to b bmacr in p pmacr Collisions at s=1.96TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Ancu, L. S.; Andeen, T.; Anzelc, M. S.; Aoki, M.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Arthaud, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; Backusmayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A.-F.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calfayan, P.; Calpas, B.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Carrera, E.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Cheu, E.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christoudias, T.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de, K.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Devaughan, K.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Escalier, M.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, F.; Guo, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Huske, N.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jamin, D.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kaushik, V.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, M.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lacroix, F.; Lam, D.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lellouch, J.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Mättig, P.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Magerkurth, A.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martin, B.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendoza, L.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Mitrevski, J.; Mondal, N. K.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Mundal, O.; Mundim, L.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nilsen, H.; Nogima, H.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Ochando, C.; Onoprienko, D.; Orduna, J.; Oshima, N.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Otec, R.; Otero Y Garzón, G. J.; Owen, M.; Padilla, M.; Padley, P.; Pangilinan, M.; Parashar, N.; Park, S.-J.; Park, S. K.; Parsons, J.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Pawloski, G.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, K.; Peters, Y.; Pétroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Piper, J.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pogorelov, Y.; Pol, M.-E.; Polozov, P.; Popov, A. V.; da Silva, W. L. Prado; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rakitine, A.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Renkel, P.; Rich, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robinson, S.; Rominsky, M.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Sanghi, B.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schliephake, T.; Schlobohm, S.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Siccardi, V.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sopczak, A.; Sosebee, M.; Soustruznik, K.; Spurlock, B.; Stark, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strandberg, J.; Strang, M. A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.; Stutte, L.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Svoisky, P.; Takahashi, M.; Tanasijczuk, A.; Taylor, W.; Tiller, B.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Torchiani, I.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Tuts, P. M.; Unalan, R.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; van den Berg, P. J.; van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vint, P.; Vokac, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Wagner, R.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Wenger, A.; Wetstein, M.; White, A.; Wicke, D.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, R.; Yang, W.-C.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Yoo, H. D.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zelitch, S.; Zhao, T.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.

    2009-08-01

    We report on a first search for resonant pair production of neutral long-lived particles (NLLP) which each decay to a b bmacr pair, using 3.6fb-1 of data recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We search for pairs of displaced vertices in the tracking detector at radii in the range 1.6-20 cm from the beam axis. No significant excess is observed above background, and upper limits are set on the production rate in a hidden-valley benchmark model for a range of Higgs boson masses and NLLP masses and lifetimes.

  20. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  1. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  2. Search for neutral, long-lived particles decaying into two muons in pp[over] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Jesus, A C S Assis; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, B; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; Cruz-Burelo, E De La; Martins, C De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Bihan, A-C Le; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; McCarthy, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'dell, V; O'neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, K; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Kooten, R Van; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J-R; Toerne, E Von; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2006-10-20

    We present a search for a neutral particle, pair produced in pp[over] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV, which decays into two muons and lives long enough to travel at least 5 cm before decaying. The analysis uses approximately 380 pb(-1) of data recorded with the D0 detector. The background is estimated to be about one event. No candidates are observed, and limits are set on the pair-production cross section times branching fraction into dimuons + X for such particles. For a mass of 10 GeV and lifetime of 4x10(-11) s, we exclude values greater than 0.14 pb (95% C.L.). These results are used to limit the interpretation of NuTeV's excess of dimuon events. PMID:17155383

  3. Particle trapping at an advancing solidification front with interfacial-curvature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, A. W.; Worster, M. G.

    2001-03-01

    We predict the maximum solidification rate, or critical velocity, Vc at which an insoluble particle suspended in a melt is pushed ahead of an advancing solidification front by intermolecular forces. At higher solidification rates the particle is incorporated within the solid. The net intermolecular force pushing the particle and the viscous resistance opposing it are both significantly influenced by the shape of the front as it conforms to the particle in response to interfacial pre-melting. We predict the entire shape of the front, within a thin-film approximation, accounting for the freezing-point depression due to curvature. We show how the interface shape varies with the magnitude of the surface energy and the closeness of the particle, and compare these to previous, ad hoc representations of the interface. We confirm the scaling results of previous, more approximate, analyses for the case in which the intermolecular forces are dominated by non-retarded van der Waals interactions, and provide new results for other power-law interactions. We examine how the particle behaviour changes as its radius increases so that the effect of interfacial curvature is diminished.

  4. A new instrument to measure charged and neutral cometary dust particles at low and high impact velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economon, T.; Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    A new class of dust particle detector, the PVDF dust detector, was designed for space missions such as the Halley Comet missions where the particle impact velocity is very high. It is demonstrated that this same PVDF detector (operating in a different mode) also has the capability of detecting dust particles having low velocity (approx. 100 m/s). This low velocity detection capability is extremely important in terms of planned missions requiring measurement of low velocity dust particles such as comet rendezvous missions. An additional detecting element (charge induction cylinder) was also developed which, when combined with a PVDF detector, yields a system which will measure the charge (magnitude and sign) carried by a cometary particle as well as the particle velocity and mass for impact velocities in the range 100 to 500 m/s. Since the cylinder-PVDF detector system has a relatively small geometry factors, an array of PVDF detectors was included having a total sensing area of 0.1 sq m for measurements in regions of space where the dust flux is expected to be low. The characteristics of the detectors in this array have been chosen to provide optimum mass sensitivity for both low-velocity cometary dust as well as high-velocity asteroid associated and interplanetary dust.

  5. Advanced In-Situ Detection and Chemical Analysis of Interstellar Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Gemer, A.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Maute, K.; Postberg, F.; Srama, R.; Williams, E.; O'brien, L.; Rocha, J. R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Ulysses dust detector discovered that interstellar dust particles pass through the solar system. The Hyperdsut instrument is developed for the in-situ detection and analysis of these particles to determine the elemental, chemical and isotopic compositions. Hyperdust builds on the heritage of previous successful instruments, e.g. the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on Cassini. Hyperdust combines a highly sensitive Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) and the high mass resolution Chemical Analyzer (CA). The DTS will detect dust particles as small as 0.3 μm in radius, and the velocity vector information is used to confirm the interstellar origin and/or reveal the dynamics from the interactions within the solar system. The effective target area of the CA is > 600 cm2 achieves mass resolution in excess of 200, which is considerably higher than that of CDA, and is acheved by advanced ion optics design. The Hyperdust instrument is in the final phases of development to TRL 6.

  6. Deposition rate and etching rate due to neutral radicals and dust particles measured using QCMs together with a dust eliminating filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ryu; Koga, Kazunori; Yamashita, Daisuke; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Shiratani, Masaharu; Ashikawa, Naoko; Tokitani, Masayuki; Masuzaki, Suguru; Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Sagara, Akio; the LHD experimental Group Team

    2015-09-01

    We have developed an in-situ method for measuring deposition rate of radicals and dust particles using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) together with a dust eliminating filter. The QCMs have three channels of quartz crystals. Channel 1 was used to measure total deposition rate due to radicals and dust particles. Channel 2 was covered with a dust eliminating filter. Channel 3 was covered with a stainless-steel plate. Moreover, all QCMs are covered with a grounded stainless steel mesh for suppressing influx of charged particles. The measurements were conducted in the Large Helical Device in the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. Although the deposition measurements during the discharges were difficult, we obtained deposition rate and etching rate by comparing the data before and after each discharge. The frequency difference for channel 1 changes from 0.1 Hz (etching) to -0.5 Hz (deposition), while those for channels 2 and 3 are within a range of +/-0.1 Hz and +/-0.05 Hz, respectively. The QCM method gives information on deposition rate and etching rate due to neutral radicals and dust particles.

  7. Settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced particles in advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Deng, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Ferrate(VI) as an emerging water treatment agent has recently recaptured interests for advanced wastewater treatment. A large number of studies were published to report ferrate(VI)-driven oxidation for various water contaminants. In contrast, very few efforts were made to characterize ferrate(VI) resultant particles in water and wastewater. In this study, jar tests were performed to examine the settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide particles, particularly the non-settable fraction of these particles, after ferrate(VI) reduction in a biologically treated municipal wastewater. The particle settleability was evaluated through the measurement of turbidity and particulate iron concentration in the supernatant with the settling time. Results showed that a majority of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide aggregates remained suspended and caused an increased turbidity. For example, at a Fe(VI) dose of 5.0 mg/L and pH 7.50, 82% of the added iron remained in the supernatant and the turbidity was 8.97 NTU against the untreated sample turbidity (2.33 NTU) after 72-h settling. The poor settling property of these particles suggested that coagulation and flocculation did not perform well in the ferrate(VI) treatment. Particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that nano-scale particles were produced after ferrate(VI) decomposition, and gradually aggregated to form micro-scale larger particles in the secondary effluent. Zeta potentials of the non-settable ferrate(VI) resultant aggregates varied between -7.36 and -8.01 mV at pH 7.50 during the 72-h settling. The negative surface charges made the aggregates to be relatively stable in the wastewater matrix. PMID:26900976

  8. Settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced particles in advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Deng, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Ferrate(VI) as an emerging water treatment agent has recently recaptured interests for advanced wastewater treatment. A large number of studies were published to report ferrate(VI)-driven oxidation for various water contaminants. In contrast, very few efforts were made to characterize ferrate(VI) resultant particles in water and wastewater. In this study, jar tests were performed to examine the settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide particles, particularly the non-settable fraction of these particles, after ferrate(VI) reduction in a biologically treated municipal wastewater. The particle settleability was evaluated through the measurement of turbidity and particulate iron concentration in the supernatant with the settling time. Results showed that a majority of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide aggregates remained suspended and caused an increased turbidity. For example, at a Fe(VI) dose of 5.0 mg/L and pH 7.50, 82% of the added iron remained in the supernatant and the turbidity was 8.97 NTU against the untreated sample turbidity (2.33 NTU) after 72-h settling. The poor settling property of these particles suggested that coagulation and flocculation did not perform well in the ferrate(VI) treatment. Particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that nano-scale particles were produced after ferrate(VI) decomposition, and gradually aggregated to form micro-scale larger particles in the secondary effluent. Zeta potentials of the non-settable ferrate(VI) resultant aggregates varied between -7.36 and -8.01 mV at pH 7.50 during the 72-h settling. The negative surface charges made the aggregates to be relatively stable in the wastewater matrix.

  9. Modeling Neutral Hydrogen in the Heliospheric Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N.

    2009-05-01

    Observational data of neutral atoms provides us with a 1 AU picture of the neutral atom flux in the heliosphere. The large mean free paths of neutrals allow us to infer properties of their distant source, as well as the properties of the intermediary medium. Energetic neutral hydrogen, for example, travels on almost straight trajectories, so that the particles observed coming from a particular direction were created from energetic protons along that line of sight. Similarly, low energy interstellar atoms are attenuated and deflected as they enter the heliosphere, and this deflection tells us something about the structure of the heliospheric interface. Of course, to infer quantitative features of the global heliosphere from neutral atom observations at 1 AU, we need accurate models that capture the 3D structure of the heliosphere. We will present an advanced MHD-neutral model of the heliosphere which is 3D, employs kinetic neutral Hydrogen, and incorporates a suprathermal tail on the solar wind proton distribution to approximate pick-up ions. We will demonstrate that with the help of such a model, we can test various hypotheses regarding the heliospheric boundary via forward modeling and comparison with data.

  10. Heterogeneous Nucleation of n-Butanol Vapor on Submicrometer Charged and Neutral Particles of Lactose and Monosodium Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Chen; Tao; Shu

    2000-04-01

    Condensation of a supersaturated vapor of n-butanol on monodisperse submicrometer particles of lactose and monosodium glutamate is investigated in a flow cloud chamber (FCC). The dependence of critical supersaturation S(cr) on the particle size in the range 30 to 90 nm is experimentally examined. The results show that the size dependence of S(cr) qualitatively agrees with that predicted by the Fletcher version of the Volmer theory of heterogeneous nucleation, but to a lesser degree. The experimental S(cr) is smaller than the theoretical prediction even with the line tension and surface diffusion taken into account, and they induce heterogeneous nucleation better than perfectly wetted particles. The discrepancy can not be fully accounted for by the effects of line tension and surface diffusion and the existing theory concerning the curvature-dependent surface tension. The condensation on single positive-charged particles of diameter 30, 60, and 90 nm is also examined. A lowering of S(cr) at an efficiency much larger than the prediction by Volmer's theory for ion-induced nucleation is observed, and the charge effect fades away as particle size increases. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10708489

  11. Advances and future needs in particle production and transport code developments

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    The next generation of accelerators and ever expanding needs of existing accelerators demand new developments and additions to Monte-Carlo codes, with an emphasis on enhanced modeling of elementary particle and heavy-ion interactions and transport. Challenges arise from extremely high beam energies and beam power, increasing complexity of accelerators and experimental setups, as well as design, engineering and performance constraints. All these put unprecedented requirements on the accuracy of particle production predictions, the capability and reliability of the codes used in planning new accelerator facilities and experiments, the design of machine, target and collimation systems, detectors and radiation shielding and minimization of their impact on environment. Recent advances in widely-used general-purpose all-particle codes are described for the most critical modules such as particle production event generators, elementary particle and heavy ion transport in an energy range which spans up to 17 decades, nuclide inventory and macroscopic impact on materials, and dealing with complex geometry of accelerator and detector structures. Future requirements for developing physics models and Monte-Carlo codes are discussed.

  12. Trapping neutral particles endowed with a magnetic moment by an electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum: Semiclassical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; RadoŻycki, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    The motion of a neutral atom endowed with a magnetic moment interacting with the magnetic field is determined from the Ehrenfest-like equations of motion. These equations for the average values of the translational and spin degrees of freedom are derived from the Schrödinger-Pauli wave equation, and they form a set of nine coupled nonlinear evolution equations. The numerical and analytic solutions of these equations are obtained for the combination of the rotating magnetic field of a wave carrying orbital angular momentum and a static magnetic field. The running wave traps the atom only in the transverse direction, while the standing wave traps the atom also in the direction of the beam.

  13. Single particle and pair dynamics in water-formic acid mixtures containing ionic and neutral solutes: nonideality in dynamical properties.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rini; Chandra, Amalendu

    2008-05-14

    A series of molecular dynamics simulations of water-formic acid mixtures containing either an ionic solute or a neutral hydrophobic solute has been performed to study the extent of nonideality in the dynamics of these solutes for varying composition of the mixtures. The diffusion coefficients of the charged solutes, both cationic and anionic, are found to show nonideal behavior with variation of composition, and similar nonideality is also observed for the diffusion and orientational relaxation of solvent molecules in these mixtures. The diffusion coefficient of a neutral hydrophobic solute, however, decreases monotonically with increase in water concentration. We have also investigated some of the pair dynamical properties such as water-water and water-formic acid hydrogen bond relaxation and residence dynamics of water molecules in water and formic acid hydration shells. The lifetimes of water-water hydrogen bonds are found to be longer than those between formic acid carbonyl oxygen-water hydrogen bonds, whereas the lifetimes of formic acid hydroxyl hydrogen-water hydrogen bonds are longer than those of water-water hydrogen bonds. In general, the hydrogen bond lifetimes for both water-water and water-formic acid hydrogen bonds are found to decrease with increase in water concentration. Residence times of water molecules also show the same trend with increase in formic acid concentration. Interestingly, these pair dynamical properties show a monotonic dependence on composition without any maximum or minimum and behave almost ideally with respect to changes in the composition of the mixtures. The present calculations are performed with fixed-charge nonpolarizable models of the solvent and solute molecules without taking into account many-body polarization effects in an explicit manner. PMID:18532825

  14. Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george

    2016-10-01

    "Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.

  15. Exclusive neutral strange particle production from double Pomeron exchange produced by proton-proton interactions at radical s = 62 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Skeens, J.

    1990-09-21

    Data are presented for the first time on exclusive Pomeron-Pomeron interactions which produce a neutral strange and neutral antistrange particle pair in a central system X. In this paper, the system, X, is identified as one of the following neutral combinations; K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sub s}{sup 0}, K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sup {plus minus}}{pi}{sup {minus plus}}, {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0}, {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0}*. These data were obtained in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 62 GeV at the CERN ISR. The triggering systems used to obtain these data are described, followed by a description of the data. The central system mass distributions are presented along with differential mass cross section estimates. A broad enhancement is seen in the K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sub s}{sup 0} system at a mass of 1.2 GeV, and is likely to have the quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 0{sup ++}. Total cross section estimates of 1.3 {plus minus} .64 {mu}b in the K{sub 2}{sup 0}K{sub s}{sup 0} system, . 44 {plus minus} .14 {mu}b in the K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sup {plus minus}}{pi}{sup {minus plus}} system, .20 {plus minus} .14 {mu}b in the {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0} system, and .13 {plus minus} .06 {mu}b in the {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0}* system are obtained.

  16. Transfer of a weakly bound electron in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles. I. Long-range interaction effects in the ionic-covalent coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V. S. Narits, A. A.

    2013-10-15

    Ion-pair formation processes are studied in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles possessing small electron affinities. Nonadiabatic transitions from a Rydberg covalent term to an ionic term of a quasi-molecule are considered using the modified Landau-Zener theory supplemented with calculation of survival factors of an anion decaying in the Coulomb field of a positive ion core. Using the technique of irreducible tensor operators and the momentum representation of the wavefunction of a highly excited atom, exact expressions are obtained for transition matrix elements and the ionic-covalent coupling parameter. The approach developed in the paper provides the description beyond the scope of a conventional assumption about a small variation of the wavefunction of the Rydberg atom on the range of electron coordinates determined by the characteristic radius of the wavefunction of the anion. This allows one to correctly consider long-range effects of the interaction between a weakly bound electron and the neutral core of a negative ion in processes under study. It is shown by the example of thermal collisions of Xe(nf) atoms with CH{sub 3}CN molecules that this is very important for a reliable quantitative description of anion formation with a low binding energy. The results are compared with experiments and calculations performed within the framework of a number of approximate methods.

  17. The Response of the Ionospheric Cusp to the Solar Wind Through Two Perspectives: Low Energy Charged Particle In-Situ Measurements and Low-Energy Neutral Atom Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, V. N.; Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission provides a new perspective on the study of the response of the magnetosphere/ionosphere system to changing solar wind conditions, particularly the variability of ion outflow. Learning to interpret this new type of data becomes an essential step in the process of melding these results with the wealth of in-situ charged particle observations obtained over the past 25 years. In order to understand how the in-situ data correspond to and contrast with IMAGE results we will perform a conjunctive study of event data from two instruments to shed light on the coupling of the solar wind and ionosphere from these different perspectives. We will use the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) which images energetic neutral atom emissions from upward flowing ionospheric ions and the Thermal Ion Dynamics Instrument (TIDE) on the Polar satellite which measures in-situ ion outflow from 0.3-300 eV. Our primary goal will be to understand how comparing the imaging and in-situ perspectives can aid in the analysis of both data sets.

  18. Multi-parameter exploration of HIV-1 virus-like particles as neutralizing antibody immunogens in guinea pigs, rabbits and macaques.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tommy; Crooks, Ema T; Osawa, Keiko; Robinson, James E; Barnes, Mary; Apetrei, Cristian; Binley, James M

    2014-05-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) offer a platform to test the hypothesis that, since antibody binding to native envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers results in HIV-1 neutralization, that native Env trimers presented in membranes may be useful for inducing neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in a vaccine setting. So far, VLPs have not fulfilled this potential. Here, using a "shotgun" approach, we evaluated a wide cross-section of variables in a series of VLP immunizations. We identified 3 tentative leads. First, that VLP doses may not have been sufficient for optimal nAb induction. Second, that dampening the antigenicity of non-functional Env (for example uncleaved gp160) using either protease digests or IgG masking may be useful. Third, that guinea pig sera preferentially target non-conserved epitopes and exhibit relatively high background activity, suggesting that rabbits may be preferable as small animal vaccine models. Recent immunogenicity studies in rabbits appear to bear out all 3 of these leads. PMID:24889225

  19. Peste des petits ruminants virus-like particles induce both complete virus-specific antibodies and virus neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Zou, Yanli; Li, Lin; Wang, Zhiliang

    2015-03-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), an etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. In a previous study, a recombinant baculovirus has been constructed to co-express the PPRV matrix (M), haemagglutinin (H) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins in insect cells, causing budding of PPR virus-like particles (VLPs) from insect cell membranes by viewing of ultrathin section with a transmission electron microscope. In this follow-up study, these PPR VLPs were purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation for immunizing mice twice. Three weeks post-primary immunization and 2 weeks post-secondary immunization, all serum samples were obtained and subsequently subjected to indirect ELISA detection on complete virus-specific antibodies. In addition, all serum samples, which were collected 2 weeks post-secondary immunization, were used for virus neutralization test on PPRV neutralizing antibodies. The results showed that the purified PPR VLPs induced both types of antibodies mentioned above in mice, indicating a given potential of VLP-based vaccine candidate against PPR. PMID:25486084

  20. Effects on a Landau-type system for a neutral particle with no permanent electric dipole moment subject to the Kratzer potential in a rotating frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Abinael B.; Bakke, Knut

    2016-06-01

    The behaviour of a neutral particle (atom, molecule) with an induced electric dipole moment in a region with a uniform effective magnetic field under the influence of the Kratzer potential (Kratzer 1920 Z. Phys. 3, 289-307. (doi:10.1007/BF01327754)), and rotating effects is analysed. It is shown that the degeneracy of the Landau-type levels is broken and the angular frequency of the system acquires a new contribution that stems from the rotation effects. Moreover, in the search for bound state solutions, it is shown that the possible values of this angular frequency of the system are determined by the quantum numbers associated with the radial modes and the angular momentum, the angular velocity of the rotating frame and by the parameters associated with the Kratzer potential.

  1. Neutral Particle Analyzer Vertically Scanning Measurements of MHD-induced Energetic Ion Redistribution or Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley, R. Andre, R.E. Bell, D.S. Darrow, C.W. Domier, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, K.C. Lee, F.M. Levinton, D. Liu, N.C. Luhmann, Jr., J.E. Menard, H. Park, D. Stutman, A.L. Roquemore, K. Tritz, H. Yuh and the NSTX Team

    2007-11-15

    Observations of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) induced redistribution or loss of energetic ions measured using the vertically scanning capability of the Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented along with TRANSP and ORBIT code analysis of the results. Although redistribution or loss of energetic ions due to bursting fishbone-like and low-frequency (f ~ 10 kHz) kinktype MHD activity has been reported previously, the primary goal of this work is to study redistribution or loss due to continuous Alfvénic (f ~ 20 – 150 kHz) modes, a topic that heretofore has not been investigated in detail for NSTX plasmas. Initial indications are that the former drive energetic ion loss whereas the continuous Alfvénic modes only cause redistribution and the energetic ions remain confined.

  2. Advances in associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe diagnostics for substance detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; Frey, M.

    1995-07-01

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) shows potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. Generally no collimators or radiation shielding are needed. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Most recently, inspection applications have been investigated for radioactive waste characterization, presence of cocaine in propane tanks, and uranium and plutonium smuggling. Based on lessons learned with the present APSTNG system, an advanced APSTNG tube (along with improved high voltage supply and control units) is being designed and fabricated that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  3. Particles, waves and storms in geospace: Recent advances and persistent gaps in our comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.

    2016-07-01

    The terrestrial magnetosphere features plasma populations with a wide dynamic range of energies, spanning more than 8 orders of magnitude -- from ≃V in the plasmasphere to tens of MeV in the outer Van Allen belt and hundreds of MeV in the inner Van Allen belt. A wealth of in-situ measurements of particles and waves, and ground-based measurements of waves, has shaped a comprehensive understanding of the interactions of the various plasma populations with electromagnetic waves during geospace magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms. We shall discuss recent advances and persistent gaps in our comprehension of inner magnetosphere dynamics.

  4. [Polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) in city aerosols. 2. Measuring of emissions from domestic fuel and vehicle exhaust and from immission particles in Berlin (West)].

    PubMed

    Moriske, H J; Freise, R; Schneider, C; Rüden, H

    1987-10-01

    During April and May 1985, some emission samples from private coal firing (domestic fuel) were taken and were fired with two different kind of coal (bituminous and brown coal). Also, measurements were done under different combustion conditions (low and high concentrations of oxygenium during the combustion process). In June and November 1985, some emission samples from heavy diesel-engines were taken in a special tunnel equipment, at different engine conditions. During September 1985, also suspended particulates in a highway traffic tunnel were taken. All these samples were taken using high volume cascade impactors which give a fractionation of the suspended particulates into different particle sizes, according to their retention behaviour in the human respiratory system. The results of these emission samples and samples in the highway tunnel were compared with prior immission measurements of urban suspended particulates in Berlin-West, during January 1984. The etherextractable organic matter (= EEOM) of the total suspended particulate matter (= TPM) was determined using ultrasonic extraction method. The EEOM was separated into an acidic (= AF), a basic (= BF) and a neutral fraction (= NF) by dissolution in acidic and basic agents. Of the neutral fraction (NF), further separation was done into aliphatic compounds (= AIP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (= PAH) and polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) by using thin layer chromatography. From the PAH and POCN, single compounds were identified by gas chromatographic analysis with dual capillary collumns and internal standard method. All organic fractions were tested to their mutagenic activity in the Salmonella typhimurium mammalian microsome bioassay by Ames. The following results were gained: the neutral fraction (NF) made the highest part of the EEOM (greater than or equal to 60%) whereas the part of the AF amounted to 10-25% and of the basic fraction (BF) to approximatively 5-20%. Making further separation of

  5. Space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy free of high-energy neutral particle noise in wavelength range of 10–130 Å on the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xianli; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Dong, Chunfeng

    2014-04-15

    A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10–130 Å has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Z{sub eff} and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (≤180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise from the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 μm thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 μm thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 μm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 μm Be and 3.3 μm PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of λ ≤ 20 Å, the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 μm PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 Å even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}, when the 0.5 μm PET filter is used. The iron n = 3–2 Lα transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 10–18 Å. Each transition in the Lα array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 Å is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength

  6. Space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy free of high-energy neutral particle noise in wavelength range of 10-130 Å on the large helical device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianli; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Dong, Chunfeng

    2014-04-01

    A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10-130 Å has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Zeff and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (≤180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise from the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 μm thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 μm thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 μm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 μm Be and 3.3 μm PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of λ ≤ 20 Å, the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 μm PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 Å even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 × 10(13) cm(-3), when the 0.5 μm PET filter is used. The iron n = 3-2 Lα transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 10-18 Å. Each transition in the Lα array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 Å is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength response of the used

  7. Neutralizer optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Mohajeri, Kayhan

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary results of a test program to optimize a neutralizer design for 30 cm xenon ion thrusters are discussed. The impact of neutralizer geometry, neutralizer axial location, and local magnetic fields on neutralizer performance is discussed. The effect of neutralizer performance on overall thruster performance is quantified, for thruster operation in the 0.5-3.2 kW power range. Additionally, these data are compared to data published for other north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) and primary propulsion xenon ion thruster neutralizers.

  8. Inorganic ions in ambient fine particles over a National Park in central India: Seasonality, dependencies between SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+, and neutralization of aerosol acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Samresh; Sunder Raman, Ramya

    2016-10-01

    Twelve hour integrated ambient fine particles (PM2.5) were collected over an Van Vihar National Park (VVNP), in Bhopal, Central India. Samples were collected on filter substrates every-other-day for two years (2012 and 2013). In addition to PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were also measured. Further, on-site meteorological parameters including temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, rainfall and atmospheric pressure were recorded. During 2012, the average PM2.5 concentration was 40 ± 31 μgm-3 while during 2013 it was 48 ± 50 μgm-3. Further, in about 20% of the samples the 12 h integrated fine PM mass exceeded the daily (24 h) average standards (60 μgm-3). This observation suggests that the PM2.5 mass concentration at the study site is likely to be in violation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), India. During the study period the sum of three major ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for 19.4% of PM2.5 mass on average. Air parcel back trajectory ensembles revealed that emissions from thermal power plants were likely to be the main regional source of particulate SO42- and NO3- measured over VVNP. Further, local traffic activities appeared to have no significant impact on the concentrations of PM2.5 and its WSIIs constituents, as revealed by a day-of-the-week analysis. PM2.5 mass, SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ showed a pronounced seasonal trend with winter (Jan, Feb) and post-monsoon (Oct, Nov, Dec) highs and pre-monsoon (Mar, Apr, May) and monsoon (Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep) lows, during both 2012 and 2013. Further, when the sum of SO42- and NO3- constituted greater than 90% of water soluble inorganic anions by mass, they were linearly dependent on one another and moderately anti-correlated (r2 = 0.60). The molar ratios of NH4+ and non-sea salt SO42- were examined to understand the aerosol neutralization mechanisms and particulate NO3- formation. An assessment of these ratios and subsequent analyses

  9. Search for neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-09-29

    A search for pair production of neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles (Θ0) is performed in processes where one Θ0 decays to a pair of b quark jets and the other to a Z boson plus a jet, with the Z boson decaying to a pair of electrons or muons. The search is performed with data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV. The number of observed events is found to be in agreement with the standard model predictions. The 95% confidence levelmore » upper limit on the product of the cross section and branching fraction is obtained as a function of the Θ0 mass. The 95% confidence level lower bounds on the Θ0 mass are found to be 623 and 426 GeV, for two different octo-triplet theoretical scenarios. These are the first direct experimental bounds on particles predicted by the octo-triplet model.« less

  10. Search for neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-09-29

    A search for pair production of neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles0) is performed in processes where one Θ0 decays to a pair of b quark jets and the other to a Z boson plus a jet, with the Z boson decaying to a pair of electrons or muons. The search is performed with data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV. The number of observed events is found to be in agreement with the standard model predictions. The 95% confidence level upper limit on the product of the cross section and branching fraction is obtained as a function of the Θ0 mass. The 95% confidence level lower bounds on the Θ0 mass are found to be 623 and 426 GeV, for two different octo-triplet theoretical scenarios. These are the first direct experimental bounds on particles predicted by the octo-triplet model.

  11. Search for neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Dobur, D.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randleconde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Ali, A.; Aly, R.; Aly, S.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Lotfy, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Masod, R.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Pekkanen, J.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. 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F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sudhakar, K.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Vetere, M. Lo; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Sgaravatto, M.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Gabusi, M.; Magnani, A.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Trapani, P. P.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Ryu, M. S.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Ramirez Sanchez, G.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Carpinteyro, S.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Toriashvili, T.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Myagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Berruti, G. M.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; du Pree, T.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Salerno, D.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Ferro, C.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Zorbilmez, C.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Albayrak, E. A.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, T.; Cankocak, K.; Günaydin, Y. O.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Sagir, S.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Hu, Z.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Yin, H.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Wang, S. J.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Mareskas-palcek, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Sen, S.; Snyder, C.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Mcginn, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Demortier, L.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Christian, A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2015-09-01

    A search for pair production of neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles (Θ0) is performed in processes where one Θ0 decays to a pair of b quark jets and the other to a Z boson plus a jet, with the Z boson decaying to a pair of electrons or muons. The search is performed with data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at √{s}=8 TeV. The number of observed events is found to be in agreement with the standard model predictions. The 95% confidence level upper limit on the product of the cross section and branching fraction is obtained as a function of the Θ0 mass. The 95% confidence level lower bounds on the Θ0 mass are found to be 623 and 426 GeV, for two different octo-triplet theoretical scenarios. These are the first direct experimental bounds on particles predicted by the octo-triplet model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Advances in Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy Structure Determination applied to Sub-tomogram Averaging.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Russo, Christopher J; Löwe, Jan; Passmore, Lori A; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2015-09-01

    Recent innovations in specimen preparation, data collection, and image processing have led to improved structure determination using single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we explore some of these advances to improve structures determined using electron cryotomography (cryo-ET) and sub-tomogram averaging. We implement a new three-dimensional model for the contrast transfer function, and use this in a regularized likelihood optimization algorithm as implemented in the RELION program. Using direct electron detector data, we apply both single-particle analysis and sub-tomogram averaging to analyze radiation-induced movements of the specimen. As in single-particle cryo-EM, we find that significant sample movements occur during tomographic data acquisition, and that these movements are substantially reduced through the use of ultrastable gold substrates. We obtain a sub-nanometer resolution structure of the hepatitis B capsid, and show that reducing radiation-induced specimen movement may be central to attempts at further improving tomogram quality and resolution.

  13. On the behaviour of foreign particles at an advancing solid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pötschke, Jürgen; Rogge, Volker

    1989-03-01

    The present paper describes a theoretical approach to the behaviour at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of foreign particles present in the melt as a separate phase. The temperature field and the influence of a contaminant in the melt were taken into account. The equations which arose were solved numerically. The numerical data can be described with satisfactory accuracy by a function, so that the result can be communicated in the form of a self-contained expression. The use of this equation is found to be in good agreement with recent measurements of latex particles in water: the model gives the critical solidification velocity at which the latex particles of a specific size are only just pushed along by the ice front. An assessment of other measured values given in the literature is not possible since the material values and experimental parameters are not completely known. To consolidate the theory, therefore, further quantitative measurements of systems with known material values, interfacial free energies in particular, are required.

  14. Advancements in the Coupling of State-of-the-Art Energetic Particle and Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorby, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in coupling the Earth Moon Mars Radiation Environment Module (EMMREM) and two MHD models, Magnetohydrodynamics Around a Sphere (MAS) and ENLIL, have yielded promising results for predicting differential energy flux and radiation doses at 1AU. The EMMREM+MAS coupling focuses on the details of particle acceleration due to CMEs initiated low in the corona (1Rs - 20Rs). The EMMREM+ENLIL coupling gives results for CMEs initiated at ~20Rs and is part of a predictive capability being developed in conjunction with the CCMC. The challenge in forming large solar energetic particle events in both the prompt scenario lower down or for a gradual CME further out is to have enhanced scattering within the acceleration regions while also allowing for efficient escape of accelerated particles downstream. We present here details of the MHD parameters and topology of a CME around the acceleration regions in the early evolution (below 2Rs), dose and flux predictions at 1AU, and how compression regions vs. shocks affect the evolution and spectrum of an SEP event.

  15. Advances in Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy Structure Determination applied to Sub-tomogram Averaging.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Russo, Christopher J; Löwe, Jan; Passmore, Lori A; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2015-09-01

    Recent innovations in specimen preparation, data collection, and image processing have led to improved structure determination using single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we explore some of these advances to improve structures determined using electron cryotomography (cryo-ET) and sub-tomogram averaging. We implement a new three-dimensional model for the contrast transfer function, and use this in a regularized likelihood optimization algorithm as implemented in the RELION program. Using direct electron detector data, we apply both single-particle analysis and sub-tomogram averaging to analyze radiation-induced movements of the specimen. As in single-particle cryo-EM, we find that significant sample movements occur during tomographic data acquisition, and that these movements are substantially reduced through the use of ultrastable gold substrates. We obtain a sub-nanometer resolution structure of the hepatitis B capsid, and show that reducing radiation-induced specimen movement may be central to attempts at further improving tomogram quality and resolution. PMID:26256537

  16. The movement of particles in liquid metals under gravity forces and the interaction of particles with advancing solid-liquid interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    The problems of shrinkage and gas porosity are discussed. Gravity forces enhance the removal of gas bubbles from a metal melt and contribute to the feeding of shrinkage porosity in castings. Experiments are reviewed which determine how large a density difference is required for metal particles to float or sink in a metal melt and to what extent do factors not considered in Stokes Law influence particle movement in a real system. As to the interaction of particles with an advancing solid-liquid interface, the results indicate that the metal particles are not rejected in a metal melt, and that concentrations of particles in a metal following solidification are due to other factors.

  17. New multigroup Monte Carlo scattering algorithm suitable for neutral- and charged-particle Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, D.P.

    1983-05-01

    Morel (1981) has developed multigroup Legendre cross sections suitable for input to standard discrete ordinates transport codes for performing charged-particle Fokker-Planck calculations in one-dimensional slab and spherical geometries. Since the Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MORSE, uses the same multigroup cross section data that discrete ordinates codes use, it was natural to consider whether Fokker-Planck calculations could be performed with MORSE. In order to extend the unique three-dimensional forward or adjoint capability of MORSE to Fokker-Planck calculations, the MORSE code was modified to correctly treat the delta-function scattering of the energy operator, and a new set of physically acceptable cross sections was derived to model the angular operator. Morel (1979) has also developed multigroup Legendre cross sections suitable for input to standard discrete ordinates codes for performing electron Boltzmann calculations. These electron cross sections may be treated in MORSE with the same methods developed to treat the Fokker-Planck cross sections. The large magnitude of the elastic scattering cross section, however, severely increases the computation or run time. It is well-known that approximate elastic cross sections are easily obtained by applying the extended transport (or delta function) correction to the Legendre coefficients of the exact cross section. An exact method for performing the extended transport cross section correction produces cross sections which are physically acceptable. Sample calculations using electron cross sections have demonstrated this new technique to be very effective in decreasing the large magnitude of the cross sections.

  18. Decays of a neutral particle with zero spin and arbitrary CP parity into two off-mass-shell Z bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagoskin, T. V.; Korchin, A. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate effects of CP symmetry violation in the decay of a scalar particle X (the Higgs boson) into two off-mass-shell Z bosons both decaying into a fermion-antifermion pair, X to {Z_1}*{Z_2}* to {f_1}{bar f_1}{f_2}{bar f_2}. The most general form of the amplitude of the transition X → Z 1* Z 2*, wherein the boson X may not have definite CP parity, is considered. The applicability limits of the narrow- Z-width approximation used in obtaining differential widths of the decay under consideration are determined. Various observables connected with the structure of the amplitude of the decay X → Z 1* Z 2* are studied. These observables are analyzed in the Standard Model as well as in models conceding indefinite CP parity of the Higgs boson. An experimental measurement of angular and invariant mass distributions of the decay X to {Z_1}*{Z_2}* to {f_1}{bar f_1}{f_2}{bar f_2} at the LHC can give information about the CP properties of the Higgs boson and its interaction with the Z boson.

  19. Prevalence of AAV1 neutralizing antibodies and consequences for a clinical trial of gene transfer for advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, B; Butler, J; Felker, G M; Ponikowski, P; Voors, A A; Pogoda, J M; Provost, R; Guerrero, J; Hajjar, R J; Zsebo, K M

    2016-03-01

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) has many advantages as a gene therapy vector, but the presence of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is an important limitation. This study was designed to determine: (1) characteristics of AAV NAbs in human subjects, (2) prevalence of AAV1 NAbs in heart failure patients and (3) utility of aggressive immunosuppressive therapy in reducing NAb seroconversion in an animal model. NAb titers were assessed in a cohort of heart failure patients and in patients screened for a clinical trial of gene therapy with AAV1 carrying the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase gene (AAV1/SERCA2a). AAV1 NAbs were found in 59.5% of 1552 heart failure patients. NAb prevalence increased with age (P=0.001) and varied geographically. The pattern of NAb titers suggested that exposure is against AAV2, with AAV1 NAb seropositivity due to crossreactivity. The effects of immunosuppression on NAb formation were tested in mini-pigs treated with immunosuppressant therapy before, during and after a single AAV1/SERCA2a infusion. Aggressive immunosuppression did not prevent formation of AAV1 NAbs. We conclude that immunosuppression is unlikely to be a viable solution for repeat AAV1 dosing. Strategies to reduce NAbs in heart failure patients are needed to increase eligibility for gene transfer using AAV vectors.

  20. Results of prototype particle-beam diagnostics tests for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation source (hard x-rays) based on 7-GeV positrons circulating in a 1,104-m circumference storage ring. In the past year a number of the diagnostic prototypes for the measurement of the charged-particle beam parameters throughout the subsystems of the facility (ranging from 450-MeV to 7-GeV positrons and with different pulse formats) have been built and tested. Results are summarized for the beam position monitor (BPM), current monitor (CM), loss monitor (LM), and imaging systems (ISYS). The test facilities ranged from the 40-MeV APS linac test stand to the existing storage rings at SSRL and NSLS.

  1. Observation of Energetic Particle Driven Modes Relevant to Advanced Tokamak Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    R. Nazikian; B. Alper; H.L. Berk; D. Borba; C. Boswell; R.V. Budny; K.H. Burrell; C.Z. Cheng; E.J. Doyle; E. Edlund; R.J. Fonck; A. Fukuyama; N.N. Gorelenkov; C.M. Greenfield; D.J. Gupta; M. Ishikawa; R.J. Jayakumar; G.J. Kramer; Y. Kusama; R.J. La Haye; G.R. McKee; W.A. Peebles; S.D. Pinches; M. Porkolab; J. Rapp; T.L. Rhodes; S.E. Sharapov; K. Shinohara; J.A. Snipes; W.M. Solomon; E.J. Strait; M. Takechi; M.A. Van Zeeland; W.P. West; K.L. Wong; S. Wukitch; L. Zeng

    2004-10-21

    Measurements of high-frequency oscillations in JET [Joint European Torus], JT-60U, Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, and TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] plasmas are contributing to a new understanding of fast ion-driven instabilities relevant to Advanced Tokamak (AT) regimes. A model based on the transition from a cylindrical-like frequency-chirping mode to the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) has successfully encompassed many of the characteristics seen in experiments. In a surprising development, the use of internal density fluctuation diagnostics has revealed many more modes than has been detected on edge magnetic probes. A corollary discovery is the observation of modes excited by fast particles traveling well below the Alfven velocity. These observations open up new opportunities for investigating a ''sea of Alfven Eigenmodes'' in present-scale experiments, and highlight the need for core fluctuation and fast ion measurements in a future burning-plasma experiment.

  2. Coated Particles Fuel Compact-General Purpose Heat Source for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    Coated Particles Fuel Compacts (CPFC) have recently been shown to offer performance advantage for use in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) and design flexibility for integrating at high thermal efficiency with Stirling Engine converters, currently being considered for 100 We. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS). The particles in the compact consist of 238PuO2 fuel kernels with 5-μm thick PyC inner coating and a strong ZrC outer coating, whose thickness depends on the maximum fuel temperature during reentry, the fuel kernel diameter, and the fraction of helium gas released from the kernels and fully contained by the ZrC coating. In addition to containing the helium generated by radioactive decay of 238Pu for up to 10 years before launch and 10-15 years mission lifetime, the kernels are intentionally sized (>= 300 μm in diameter) to prevent any adverse radiological effects on reentry. This paper investigates the advantage of replacing the four iridium-clad 238PuO2 fuel pellets, the two floating graphite membranes, and the two graphite impact shells in current State-Of-The-Art (SOA) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) with CPFC. The total mass, thermal power, and specific power of the CPFC-GPHS are calculated as functions of the helium release fraction from the fuel kernels and maximum fuel temperature during reentry from 1500 K to 2400 K. For the same total mass and volume as SOA GPHS, the generated thermal power by single-size particles CPFC-GPHS is 260 W at Beginning-Of-Mission (BOM), versus 231 W for the GPHS. For an additional 10% increase in total mass, the CPFC-GPHS could generate 340 W BOM; 48% higher than SOA GPHS. The corresponding specific thermal power is 214 W/kg, versus 160 W/kg for SOA GPHS; a 34% increase. Therefore, for the same thermal power, the CPFC-GPHS is lighter than SOA GPHS, while it uses the same amount of 238PuO2 fuel and same aeroshell. For the same helium release fraction and fuel temperature, binary-size particles CPFC-GPHS could

  3. Overview of charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-,e+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FEL's and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  4. Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1992-08-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-), e(+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  5. Overview of charged-particle beam diagnostics for the advanced photon source (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1992-07-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-,e+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  6. Rational design and optimization of downstream processes of virus particles for biopharmaceutical applications: current advances.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Tiago; Mota, José P B; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2011-01-01

    The advent of advanced therapies in the pharmaceutical industry has moved the spotlight into virus-like particles and viral vectors produced in cell culture holding great promise in a myriad of clinical targets, including cancer prophylaxis and treatment. Even though a couple of cases have reached the clinic, these products have yet to overcome a number of biological and technological challenges before broad utilization. Concerning the manufacturing processes, there is significant research focusing on the optimization of current cell culture systems and, more recently, on developing scalable downstream processes to generate material for pre-clinical and clinical trials. We review the current options for downstream processing of these complex biopharmaceuticals and underline current advances on knowledge-based toolboxes proposed for rational optimization of their processing. Rational tools developed to increase the yet scarce knowledge on the purification processes of complex biologicals are discussed as alternative to empirical, "black-boxed" based strategies classically used for process development. Innovative methodologies based on surface plasmon resonance, dynamic light scattering, scale-down high-throughput screening and mathematical modeling for supporting ion-exchange chromatography show great potential for a more efficient and cost-effective process design, optimization and equipment prototyping.

  7. Advances in 4D Treatment Planning for Scanned Particle Beam Therapy — Report of Dedicated Workshops

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Christoph; Graeff, Christian; Riboldi, Marco; Nill, Simeon; Baroni, Guido; Knopf, Antje-Christin

    2014-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the field of mobile tumor treatment with scanned particle beams, as discussed in the latest editions of the 4D treatment planning workshop. The workshop series started in 2009, with about 20 people from 4 research institutes involved, all actively working on particle therapy delivery and development. The first workshop resulted in a summary of recommendations for the treatment of mobile targets, along with a list of requirements to apply these guidelines clinically. The increased interest in the treatment of mobile tumors led to a continuously growing number of attendees: the 2012 edition counted more than 60 participants from 20 institutions and commercial vendors. The focus of research discussions among workshop participants progressively moved from 4D treatment planning to complete 4D treatments, aiming at effective and safe treatment delivery. Current research perspectives on 4D treatments include all critical aspects of time resolved delivery, such as in-room imaging, motion detection, beam application, and quality assurance techniques. This was motivated by the start of first clinical treatments of hepato cellular tumors with a scanned particle beam, relying on gating or abdominal compression for motion mitigation. Up to date research activities emphasize significant efforts in investigating advanced motion mitigation techniques, with a specific interest in the development of dedicated tools for experimental validation. Potential improvements will be made possible in the near future through 4D optimized treatment plans that require upgrades of the currently established therapy control systems for time resolved delivery. But since also these novel optimization techniques rely on the validity of the 4DCT, research focusing on alternative 4D imaging technique, such as MRI based 4DCT generation will continue. PMID:24354749

  8. The Advanced Composition Explorer Shock Database and Application to Particle Acceleration Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of particle acceleration via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) has been studied in depth by Gosling et al. (1981), van Nes et al. (1984), Mason (2000), Desai et al. (2003), Zank et al. (2006), among many others. Recently, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) using the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) shock database at 1 AU explored two questions: does the upstream distribution alone have enough particles to account for the accelerated downstream distribution and can the slope of the downstream accelerated spectrum be explained using DSA? As was shown in this research, diffusive shock acceleration can account for a large population of the shocks. However, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) used a subset of the larger ACE database. Recently, work has successfully been completed that allows for the entire ACE database to be considered in a larger statistical analysis. We explain DSA as it applies to single and multiple shocks and the shock criteria used in this statistical analysis. We calculate the expected injection energy via diffusive shock acceleration given upstream parameters defined from the ACE Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) data to construct the theoretical upstream distribution. We show the comparison of shock strength derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory to observations in the 50 keV to 5 MeV range from an instrument on ACE. Parameters such as shock velocity, shock obliquity, particle number, and time between shocks are considered. This study is further divided into single and multiple shock categories, with an additional emphasis on forward-forward multiple shock pairs. Finally with regard to forward-forward shock pairs, results comparing injection energies of the first shock, second shock, and second shock with previous energetic population will be given.

  9. The Advanced Composition Explorer Shock Database and Application to Particle Acceleration Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of particle acceleration via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) has been studied in depth by Gosling et al. (1981), van Nes et al. (1984), Mason (2000), Desai et al. (2003), Zank et al. (2006), among many others. Recently, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) using the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) shock database at 1 AU explored two questions: does the upstream distribution alone have enough particles to account for the accelerated downstream distribution and can the slope of the downstream accelerated spectrum be explained using DSA? As was shown in this research, diffusive shock acceleration can account for a large population of the shocks. However, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) used a subset of the larger ACE database. Recently, work has successfully been completed that allows for the entire ACE database to be considered in a larger statistical analysis. We explain DSA as it applies to single and multiple shocks and the shock criteria used in this statistical analysis. We calculate the expected injection energy via diffusive shock acceleration given upstream parameters defined from the ACE Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) data to construct the theoretical upstream distribution. We show the comparison of shock strength derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory to observations in the 50 keV to 5 MeV range from an instrument on ACE. Parameters such as shock velocity, shock obliquity, particle number, and time between shocks are considered. This study is further divided into single and multiple shock categories, with an additional emphasis on forward-forward multiple shock pairs. Finally with regard to forwardforward shock pairs, results comparing injection energies of the first shock, second shock, and second shock with previous energetic population will be given.

  10. Human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicit mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli-Haefliger, D; Roden, R B; Benyacoub, J; Sahli, R; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Schiller, J T; Lachat, P; Potts, A; De Grandi, P

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated strains of Salmonella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The ability to induce immune responses in the reproductive tract may be critical for the effectiveness of a prophylactic vaccine against genital human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are important etiologic agents in the development of cervical cancer. To examine the potential of a live Salmonella-based vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection, the L1 major capsid protein from HPV type 16 (HPV16) was constitutively expressed in the PhoPc strain of Salmonella typhimurium. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the L1 protein expressed in these bacteria assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble authentic papillomavirus virions. This is the first demonstration that papillomavirus VLPs can self-assemble in prokaryotes. BALB/c mice were immunized with the HPV16 L1 recombinant PhoPc strain by the oral and nasal routes. Despite a low stability of the L1-expressing plasmid in vivo, a double nasal immunization was effective in inducing L1-specific serum antibodies that recognized mainly native, but not disassembled, VLPs. These antibodies effectively neutralized HPV16 pseudotyped virions in an in vitro infectivity assay. Conformationally dependent anti-VLP immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG were also detected in oral and vaginal secretions, indicating that potentially protective antibody responses were elicited at mucosal sites. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella expressing HPV capsids may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV infection. PMID:9234794

  11. A new effective process for production of curdlan oligosaccharides based on alkali-neutralization treatment and acid hydrolysis of curdlan particles in water suspension.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zong, Yu; Li, Wei-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Biologically active β-1,3-oligosaccharides with rapidly growing biomedical applications are produced from hydrolysis of curdlan polysaccharide. The water-insoluble curdlan impedes its hydrolysis efficiency which is enhanced by our newly developed alkali-neutralization treatment process to increase the stability of curdlan suspension to more than 20 days, while the untreated control settled within 5 min. A putative double-layer structure model comprising of a compact core and a hydrated outer layer was proposed to describe the treated curdlan particles based on sedimentation and scanning electron microscopy observation. This model was verified by single- and two-step acid hydrolysis, indicative of the reduced susceptibility to hydrolysis when close to the compact core. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography analyses, and effective HPLC procedure led to the development of improved process to produce purified individual β-1,3-oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization from 2 to 10 and potential for biomedical applications from curdlan hydrolyzate. Our new curdlan oligosaccharide production process offers an even better alternative to the previously published processes.

  12. Development and Validation of a Critical Gradient Energetic Particle Driven Alfvén Eigenmode Transport Model for DIII-D Tilted Neutral Beam Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Bass, E. M.

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D with tilted neutral beam injection (NBI), which significantly vary the beam energetic particle (EP) source profiles, have provided strong evidence that unstable Alfvén eigenmodes (AE) drive stiff EP transport at a critical EP density gradient. We hope to identify the critical gradient with the condition that the maximum local AE growth rate falls to the local ion temperature gradient (ITG)/trapped electron mode (TEM) rate at the same low toroidal mode number. This condition was supported by early nonlinear local GYRO simulations and more is more optimistic than stiff EP transport at the AE marginal stability gradient used in a recent ITER projection of AE driven alpha confinement losses. The AE and ITG/TEM growth rates are from GYRO with comparison of Maxwellian and slowing down beam-like EP distributions. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-FC02-08ER54977.

  13. Development and validation of a critical gradient energetic particle driven Alfven eigenmode transport model for DIII-D tilted neutral beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Bass, E. M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; VanZeeland, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments with the DIII-D tilted neutral beam injection (NBI) varying the beam energetic particle (EP) source profiles have provided strong evidence that unstable Alfven eigenmodes (AE) drive stiff EP transport at a critical EP density gradient [Heidbrink et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 093006]. Here the critical gradient is identified by the local AE growth rate being equal to the local ITG/TEM growth rate at the same low toroidal mode number. The growth rates are taken from the gyrokinetic code GYRO. Simulation show that the slowing down beam-like EP distribution has a slightly lower critical gradient than the Maxwellian. The ALPHA EP density transport code [Waltz and Bass 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 104006], used to validate the model, combines the low-n stiff EP critical density gradient AE mid-core transport with the Angioni et al (2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 055013) energy independent high-n ITG/TEM density transport model controling the central core EP density profile. For the on-axis NBI heated DIII-D shot 146102, while the net loss to the edge is small, about half the birth fast ions are transported from the central core r/a  <  0.5 and the central density is about half the slowing down density. These results are in good agreement with experimental fast ion pressure profiles inferred from MSE constrained EFIT equilibria.

  14. On the influence of a Rashba-type coupling induced by Lorentz-violating effects on a Landau system for a neutral particle

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.; Belich, H.

    2015-03-15

    We study a possible scenario of the Lorentz symmetry violation background that allows us to build an analogue of the Landau system for a nonrelativistic Dirac neutral particle interacting with a field configuration of crossed electric and magnetic fields. We also discuss the arising of analogues of the Rashba coupling, the Zeeman term and the Darwin term from the Lorentz symmetry breaking effects, and the influence of these terms on the analogue of the Landau system confined to a two-dimensional quantum ring. Finally, we show that this analogy with the Landau system confined to a two-dimensional quantum ring allows us to establish an upper bound for the Lorentz symmetry breaking parameters. - Highlights: • Landau system from crossed electric and magnetic fields and fixed time-like vector. • Analogues of the Rashba coupling, the Zeeman term and the Darwin term. • Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on a two-dimensional quantum ring. • Upper bound for the Lorentz symmetry breaking parameters.

  15. The glow discharge inception and post-discharge relaxation of charged and neutral active particles in synthetic air at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, A. P.; Marković, V. Lj; Stamenković, S. N.; Stankov, M. N.

    2015-11-01

    The study of dc glow discharge inception and post-discharge relaxation of charged and neutral active particles in synthetic air at low pressure is presented. The breakdown time delay dependence as a function of relaxation time \\overline{{{t}\\text{d}}}(τ ) (the memory curve) is measured and modelled from milliseconds to the saturation region determined by the cosmic rays and natural radioactivity level. Due to fast conversion \\text{N}2++{{\\text{O}}2}\\to {{\\text{N}}2}+\\text{O}2+ , relaxation of dc discharge in synthetic air in the time interval from one to about ninety milliseconds is dominated by the diffusion decay of molecular oxygen {{O}}_2^ + ions. The change of regimes, from ambipolar to the free diffusion limit, is investigated and the variation of effective diffusion coefficients is determined. The late relaxation is explained by the kinetics of nitrogen atoms, recombining on the surfaces of gas discharge tube and stainless steel electrodes and relevant surface recombination coefficients are determined.

  16. Presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) E2 glycoprotein in VSV recombinant particles and induction of neutralizing BVDV antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Grigera, P R; Marzocca, M P; Capozzo, A V; Buonocore, L; Donis, R O; Rose, J K

    2000-08-01

    We generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-E2) encoding the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) E2 glycoprotein with the VSV-G protein signal peptide. Infection of BHK21 cells with VSV-E2 induced the synthesis of a recombinant E2 (rE2) that comigrated with authentic BVDV-E2 in PAGE-SDS gels. Non-reducing immunoblots showed that rE2 is a disulfide bond-linked homodimer with at least 10-fold higher avidity for conformation-dependent anti-BVDV-E2 antibodies than its reduced monomeric counterpart. Immunofluorescence microscopy also showed that rE2 was transported to the plasma membrane of infected cells and analysis of purified particles demonstrated that dimeric rE2 was incorporated into VSV-E2 virions in approximately 1:10 ratio with respect to the G glycoprotein. BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally with VSV-E2 doses of up to 10(7) plaque forming units (pfu) showed no symptoms of viral-induced disease and developed a specific BVDV neutralizing response that lasted for at least 180 days post inoculation. PMID:10989181

  17. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marchuk, Kyle

    2013-05-15

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  18. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchuk, Kyle

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  19. Recent advances in the modeling of plasmas with the Particle-In-Cell methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Lehe, Remi; Vincenti, Henri; Godfrey, Brendan; Lee, Patrick; Haber, Irv

    2015-11-01

    The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations of plasmas from first principles. The fundamentals of the PIC method were established decades ago but improvements or variations are continuously being proposed. We report on several recent advances in PIC related algorithms, including: (a) detailed analysis of the numerical Cherenkov instability and its remediation, (b) analytic pseudo-spectral electromagnetic solvers in Cartesian and cylindrical (with azimuthal modes decomposition) geometries, (c) arbitrary-order finite-difference and generalized pseudo-spectral Maxwell solvers, (d) novel analysis of Maxwell's solvers' stencil variation and truncation, in application to domain decomposition strategies and implementation of Perfectly Matched Layers in high-order and pseudo-spectral solvers. Work supported by US-DOE Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the US-DOE SciDAC program ComPASS. Used resources of NERSC, supported by US-DOE Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. A proposed neutral line signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxas, I.; Speiser, T. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Horton, W.

    1992-01-01

    An identifying signature is proposed for the existence and location of the neutral line in the magnetotail. The signature, abrupt density, and temperature changes in the Earthtail direction, was first discovered in test particle simulations. Such temperature variations have been observed in ISEE data (Huang et. al. 1992), but their connection to the possible existence of a neutral line in the tail has not yet been established. The proposed signature develops earlier than the ion velocity space ridge of Martin and Speiser (1988), but can only be seen by spacecraft in the vicinity of the neutral line, while the latter can locate a neutral line remotely.

  1. Advanced multi-frequency radar: Design, preliminary measurements and particle size distribution retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majurec, Ninoslav

    In the spring of 2001 the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) at the University of Massachusetts began the development of an advanced Multi-Frequency Radar (AMFR) system for studying clouds and precipitation. This mobile radar was designed to consist of three polarimetric Doppler subsystems operating at Ku-band (13.4 GHz), Ka-band (35.6 GHz) and W-band (94.92 GHz). This combination of frequency bands allows a measurement of a wide range of atmospheric targets ranging from weakly reflecting clouds to strong precipitation. The antenna beamwidths at each frequency were intentionally matched, ensuring consistent sampling volume. Multi-frequency radar remote sensing techniques are not widely used because few multi-frequency radars are available to the science community. One exception is the 33 GHz/95 GHz UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS), which AMFR is intended to replace. AMFR's multi-parameter capabilities are designed for characterizing the complex microphysics of layer clouds and precipitation processes in winter storms. AMFR will also play an important role in developing algorithms and validating measurements for an upcoming generation of space-borne radars. The frequency bands selected for AMFR match those of several sensors that have been deployed or are under development. These include the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agencies (JAXA's) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite Ku-band (13 GHz) radar, the CloudSat W-band (95 GHz) radar, and the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellite radars at Ku-band and Ka-band. This dissertation describes the AMFR hardware design and development. Compared to CPRS, the addition of one extra frequency band (Ku) will extend AMFR's measurement capabilities towards the larger particle sizes (precipitation). AMFR's design is based around high-power klystron amplifiers. This ensures complete coherency (CPRS uses magnetrons and coherent-on-receive technique). The partial loss in sensitivity due to

  2. On-sun testing of an advanced falling particle receiver system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Christian, Joshua M.; Yellowhair, Julius; Siegel, Nathan; Jeter, Sheldon; Golob, Matthew; Abdel-Khalik, Said I.; Nguyen, Clayton; Al-Ansary, Hany

    2016-05-01

    A 1 MWth high-temperature falling particle receiver was constructed and tested at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The continuously recirculating system included a particle elevator, top and bottom hoppers, and a cavity receiver that comprised a staggered array of porous chevron-shaped mesh structures that slowed the particle flow through the concentrated solar flux. Initial tests were performed with a peak irradiance of ~300 kW/m2 and a particle mass flow rate of 3.3 kg/s. Peak particle temperatures reached over 700 °C near the center of the receiver, but the particle temperature increase near the sides was lower due to a non-uniform irradiance distribution. At a particle inlet temperature of ~440 °C, the particle temperature increase was 27 °C per meter of drop length, and the thermal efficiency was ~60% for an average irradiance of 110 kW/m2. At an average irradiance of 211 kW/m2, the particle temperature increase was 57.1 °C per meter of drop length, and the thermal efficiency was ~65%. Tests with higher irradiances are being performed and are expected to yield greater particle temperature increases and efficiencies.

  3. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  4. Use of advanced particle methods in modeling space propulsion and its supersonic expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borner, Arnaud

    This research discusses the use of advanced kinetic particle methods such as Molecular Dynamics (MD) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to model space propulsion systems such as electrospray thrusters and their supersonic expansions. MD simulations are performed to model an electrospray thruster for the ionic liquid (IL) EMIM--BF4 using coarse-grained (CG) potentials. The model is initially featuring a constant electric field applied in the longitudinal direction. Two coarse-grained potentials are compared, and the effective-force CG (EFCG) potential is found to predict the formation of the Taylor cone, the cone-jet, and other extrusion modes for similar electric fields and mass flow rates observed in experiments of a IL fed capillary-tip-extractor system better than the simple CG potential. Later, one-dimensional and fully transient three-dimensional electric fields, the latter solving Poisson's equation to take into account the electric field due to space charge at each timestep, are computed by coupling the MD model to a Poisson solver. It is found that the inhomogeneous electric field as well as that of the IL space-charge improve agreement between modeling and experiment. The boundary conditions (BCs) are found to have a substantial impact on the potential and electric field, and the tip BC is introduced and compared to the two previous BCs, named plate and needle, showing good improvement by reducing unrealistically high radial electric fields generated in the vicinity of the capillary tip. The influence of the different boundary condition models on charged species currents as a function of the mass flow rate is studied, and it is found that a constant electric field model gives similar agreement to the more rigorous and computationally expensive tip boundary condition at lower flow rates. However, at higher mass flow rates the MD simulations with the constant electric field produces extruded particles with higher Coulomb energy per ion, consistent with

  5. Study of electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity into neutral plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, G. Rout, R. K.

    2015-07-31

    The major portion of the bulk plasma in magnetospheric space, interplanetary plasma belts and the solar winds contain neutral particles. Evidently these neutral particles undergo binary collisions with the charged particles and among themselves so as to contribute significantly to the transport and diffusion process in a singly charged electron – ion magnetoplasma. The effects of the neutral particles collisions on various diffusion transport coefficients are studied for magnetised electron-ion plasma and appropriately modified coefficients are derived analytically. The results reveal that these coefficients increase significantly owing to the effect of the charge -neutral and neutral-neutral collisions.

  6. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation.

  7. Heavy Charged Particle Radiobiology: Using Enhanced Biological Effectiveness and Improved Beam Focusing to Advance Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B.; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

  8. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

  9. The Interaction Between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface: Micro-Gravity Experiments and Theoretical Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Ssen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid/liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the past four decades. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (e.g., frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that the complex science associated with such an interaction is relevant to many other scientific fields encompassing metal matrix composites (MMCs), high temperature superconductors, inclusion management in steel, growth of monotectics, and preservation of biological cells. During solidification of a liquid containing an insoluble particle, three distinct interaction phenomena have been experimentally observed: instantaneous engulfment of the particle, continuous pushing, and particle pushing followed by engulfment. It was also observed that for given experimental conditions and particle size there is a critical solidification velocity, V(sub cr), above which a particle is engulfed. During solidification of MMCs pushing leads to particle agglomeration at the grain boundaries and this has detrimental effects on mechanical properties of the casting. Consequently, the process must be designed for instantaneous engulfment to occur. This implies the development of accurate theoretical models to predict V(sub cr), and perform benchmark experiments to test the validity of such models. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the pushing/engulfment phenomenon (PEP), its quantification in terms of the material and processing parameters remains a focus of research. Since natural convection currents occurring during terrestrial solidification experiments complicate the study of PEP, execution of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has been approved and funded by NASA. Extensive terrestrial (1g) experiments and preliminary micro-gravity (mu g) experiments on two space shuttle missions have been conducted in preparation for future experiments on the ISS. The investigated

  10. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  11. Particle generator

    DOEpatents

    Hess, Wayne P.; Joly, Alan G.; Gerrity, Daniel P.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Sushko, Peter V.; Shlyuger, Alexander L.

    2005-06-28

    Energy tunable solid state sources of neutral particles are described. In a disclosed embodiment, a halogen particle source includes a solid halide sample, a photon source positioned to deliver photons to a surface of the halide, and a collimating means positioned to accept a spatially defined plume of hyperthermal halogen particles emitted from the sample surface.

  12. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

    2012-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  13. Measurement of neutral strange particle production in the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2013-09-01

    Measurements are presented of the production of primary K(S)0 and Lambda particles in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV in the region transverse to the leading charged-particle jet in each event. The average multiplicity and average scalar transverse momentum sum of K(S)0 and Lambda particles measured at pseudorapidities abs(eta) < 2 rise with increasing charged-particle jet pt in the range 1-10 GeV and saturate in the region 10-50 GeV. The rise and saturation of the strange particle yields and transverse momentum sums in the underlying event are similar to those observed for inclusive charged particles, which confirms the impact-parameter picture of multiple parton interactions. The results are compared to recent tunes of the PYTHIA Monte Carlo event generator. The PYTHIA simulations underestimate the data by 15-30% for K(S)0 mesons and by about 50% for Lambda baryons, a deficit similar to that observed for the inclusive strange particle production in non-single-diffractive proton-proton collisions. The constant strange- to charged-particle activity ratios and the similar trends for mesons and baryons indicate that the multiparton-interaction dynamics is decoupled from parton hadronization, which occurs at a later stage.

  14. ADVANCED METHODS FOR THE COMPUTATION OF PARTICLE BEAM TRANSPORT AND THE COMPUTATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MULTIPARTICLE PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Alex J. Dragt

    2012-08-31

    Since 1980, under the grant DEFG02-96ER40949, the Department of Energy has supported the educational and research work of the University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory (DSAT) Group. The primary focus of this educational/research group has been on the computation and analysis of charged-particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods, and on advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and multiparticle phenomena. This Final Report summarizes the accomplishments of the DSAT Group from its inception in 1980 through its end in 2011.

  15. Characterizing the distribution of particles in urban stormwater: advancements through improved sampling technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.

    2014-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment in stormwater by integrating the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of particle size distribution from urban source areas. Collector streets had the lowest median particle diameter of 8 μm, followed by parking lots, arterial streets, feeder streets, and residential and mixed land use (32, 43, 50, 80 and 95 μm, respectively). Results from this study suggest there is no single distribution of particles that can be applied uniformly to runoff in urban environments; however, integrating more of the entire water column during the sample collection can address some of the shortcomings of a fixed-point sampler by reducing variability and bias caused by the stratification of solids in a water column.

  16. Modeling Combined Chemotherapy and Particle Therapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Marco; Tommasino, Francesco; Yamada, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the only cancer for which deaths are predicted to increase in 2014 and beyond. Combined radiochemotherapy protocols using gemcitabine and hypofractionated X-rays are ongoing in several clinical trials. Recent results indicate that charged particle therapy substantially increases local control of resectable and unresectable pancreas cancer, as predicted from previous radiobiology studies considering the high tumor hypoxia. Combination with chemotherapy improves the overall survival (OS). We compared published data on X-ray and charged particle clinical results with or without adjuvant chemotherapy calculating the biological effective dose. We show that chemoradiotherapy with protons or carbon ions results in 1 year OS significantly higher than those obtained with other treatment schedules. Further hypofractionation using charged particles may result in improved local control and survival. A comparative clinical trial using the standard X-ray scheme vs. the best current standard with carbon ions is crucial and may open new opportunities for this deadly disease. PMID:26217585

  17. Magnetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  18. Electromagnetic field interactions with micro channels, particles and cells: Application to advanced cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan

    This thesis involves a study of the interaction of laser beams with micro channels and micro particles/cells using the electromagnetic field approach. This problem is relevant to the next generation cytometry, in particular to model based design of flow cytometers. The field approach is applied to study light scatter from particles/cells and also internal and scattered fields of cylindrical micro channels that are important for optical interrogation of particles and cells flowing through. Though current flow cytometers use qualitative fluorescence measurements for biological analysis, other viable optical interrogation techniques like light scatter, quantitative fluorescence and Coherent anti-stokes Raman scatter (CARS) are being studied for application to flow cytometry. The light scatter from particles and cells in a flow cytometer has been studied with the objective of extracting useful information about the particles using scatter measurements. First, the correlation between the size of particles and the current forward scatter measurements was both analytically modeled and experimentally determined. These results indicated that integrated scatter measurements currently used in flow cytometry (forward and side scatter) cannot be used to unambiguously estimate size, shape or refractive index of particles for classification. It is shown that multi-angle scatter measurements can be used to classify micro spheres of different sizes/refractive indices and different bacteria species, provided the scatter measurements are designed based on numerical scatter models. The numerical scatter models were then also used to do a preliminary study of correlation of scatter with internal structure of simple cells like stem cells. A few multivariate statistical methods have been applied for the classification of such particles in flow cytometry using scatter and multi-spectral fluorescence measurements. Typically the micro channels used in flow cytometry have square or circular

  19. Eddy Current, Magnetic Particle and Hardness Testing, Aviation Quality Control (Advanced): 9227.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This unit of instruction includes the principles of eddy current, magnetic particle and hardness testing; standards used for analyzing test results; techniques of operating equipment; interpretation of indications; advantages and limitations of these methods of testing; care and calibration of equipment; and safety and work precautions. Motion…

  20. The Frontier of Modern Calorimetry: Hardware Advances and Application in Particle Physics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Tatiana

    While the last missing components of the SM puzzle seem to be successfully found, particle physicists remain hungry for what might be there, beyond the cosy boundaries of the well studies elementary particle world. However, the sophisticated technique of data analysis and acute Monte Carlo simulations remain fruitless. It appears that the successful intrusion into the realm, in which we were not welcome so far, may require a very different implication of effort. All those results might suggest, though banal, that we need an improvement on the hardware side. Indeed, the hadronic calorimeter of CMS is no competitor to its other state-of-art components. This obstacle in many cases significantly complicates the flow of the physics analysis. Besides, the era of high luminosity LHC operation in the offing is calling for the same. After exploration of the analysis debri with 8TeV collision data, we investigate various approaches for better calorimetry for the CMS detector.

  1. Advanced methods in global gyrokinetic full f particle simulation of tokamak transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ogando, F.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Henriksson, S.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Leerink, S.

    2006-11-30

    A new full f nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation code, named ELMFIRE, has been developed for simulating transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas. The code is based on a gyrokinetic particle-in-cell algorithm, which can consider electrons and ions jointly or separately, as well as arbitrary impurities. The implicit treatment of the ion polarization drift and the use of full f methods allow for simulations of strongly perturbed plasmas including wide orbit effects, steep gradients and rapid dynamic changes. This article presents in more detail the algorithms incorporated into ELMFIRE, as well as benchmarking comparisons to both neoclassical theory and other codes.Code ELMFIRE calculates plasma dynamics by following the evolution of a number of sample particles. Because of using an stochastic algorithm its results are influenced by statistical noise. The effect of noise on relevant magnitudes is analyzed.Turbulence spectra of FT-2 plasma has been calculated with ELMFIRE, obtaining results consistent with experimental data.

  2. ADVANCING THE ION BEAM THIN FILM PLANARIZATION PROCESS FOR THE SMOOTHING OF SUBSTRATE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkarimi, P B; Spiller, E; Baker, S L; Robinson, J C; Stearns, D G; Liddle, J A; Salmassi, F; Liang, T; Stivers, A R

    2004-10-19

    For a number of technologies small substrate contaminants are undesirable, and for one technology in particular, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), they can be a very serious issue. We have demonstrated that the Ion Beam Thin Film Planarization Process, a coating process designed to planarize substrate asperities, can be extended to smooth {approx}70 nm and {approx}80 nm diameter particles on EUVL reticle substrates to a height of {approx}0.5 nm, which will render them noncritical in an EUVL printing process. We demonstrate this smoothing process using controlled nanoscale substrate particles and lines fabricated with an e-beam lithography process. The above smoothing process was also modified to yield an excellent reflectance/wavelength uniformity and a good EUV reflectivity for the multilayer, which is required for EUVL reticles. Cross-sectional TEM on a smoothed substrate line defect shows excellent agreement with results obtained from our multilayer growth model.

  3. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of "hot" particles.

    PubMed

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application.

  4. Analysis of neutral hydrogenic emission spectra in a tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2015-10-01

    Balmer-α radiation by the excitation of thermal and fast neutral hydrogenic particles has been investigated in a magnetically confined fusion device, or tokamak, from the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). From the diagnostic point of view, the emission from thermal neutrals is associated with passive spectroscopy and that from energetic neutrals that are usually injected from the outside of the tokamak to the active spectroscopy. The passive spectroscopic measurement for the thermal Balmer-α emission from deuterium and hydrogen estimates the relative concentration of hydrogen in a deuterium-fueled plasma and therefore, makes a useful tool to monitor the vacuum wall condition. The ratio of hydrogen to deuterium obtained from this measurement qualitatively correlates with the energy confinement of the plasma. The Doppler-shifted Balmer-α components from the fast neutrals features the spectrum of the motional Stark effect (MSE) which is an essential principle for the measurement of the magnetic pitch angle profile. Characterization of this active MSE spectra, especially with multiple neutral beam lines crossing along the observation line of sight, has been done for the guideline of the multi-ion-source heating beam operation and for the optimization of the narrow bandpass filters that are required for the polarimeter-based MSE diagnostic system under construction at KSTAR.

  5. Comparison between an unipolar corona charger and a polonium-based bipolar neutralizer for the analysis of nanosized particles and biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Laschober, Christian; Kaufman, Stanley L; Reischl, Georg; Allmaier, Günter; SzymanskiWladyslaw, W

    2006-05-01

    In this work we present results on the charging efficiency of nanoparticles by means of a corona based unipolar charging unit. This device was designed to replace a Po210 bipolar charger unit in a commercial electrospray aerosol generator (TSI Mod 3480). The charging efficiency has been investigated for negative and positive charged particles of various chemical composition in the size range between 5 and 18 nm. The corona current has been found to be the most influential operation parameter on the charging efficiency. With a positive electrospray droplet charge and a negatively-biased corona needle, a rapidly decreasing yield of singly positively charged aerosol particles with increasing corona current was found. An increasing yield of negatively charged particles was observed with increasing current of the corona process. Providing appropriate corona settings nanoparticles with charge levels similar to these obtained with a Po210 charger were found. At optimal corona settings the yield of singly charged particles was found to be two to four times higher for negative and positive particles compared to bipolar charging. This gain in the charging efficiency increases directly the sensitivity of analysis and enhances all measurement and manipulation processes of airborne nanoparticles for which electrical charging is required.

  6. Advanced 3D Poisson solvers and particle-in-cell methods for accelerator modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, David B.; McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    We seek to improve on the conventional FFT-based algorithms for solving the Poisson equation with infinite-domain (open) boundary conditions for large problems in accelerator modeling and related areas. In particular, improvements in both accuracy and performance are possible by combining several technologies: the method of local corrections (MLC); the James algorithm; and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The MLC enables the parallelization (by domain decomposition) of problems with large domains and many grid points. This improves on the FFT-based Poisson solvers typically used as it doesn't require the all-to-all communication pattern that parallel 3d FFT algorithms require, which tends to be a performance bottleneck on current (and foreseeable) parallel computers. In initial tests, good scalability up to 1000 processors has been demonstrated for our new MLC solver. An essential component of our approach is a new version of the James algorithm for infinite-domain boundary conditions for the case of three dimensions. By using a simplified version of the fast multipole method in the boundary-to-boundary potential calculation, we improve on the performance of the Hockney algorithm typically used by reducing the number of grid points by a factor of 8, and the CPU costs by a factor of 3. This is particularly important for large problems where computer memory limits are a consideration. The MLC allows for the use of adaptive mesh refinement, which reduces the number of grid points and increases the accuracy in the Poisson solution. This improves on the uniform grid methods typically used in PIC codes, particularly in beam problems where the halo is large. Also, the number of particles per cell can be controlled more closely with adaptivity than with a uniform grid. To use AMR with particles is more complicated than using uniform grids. It affects depositing particles on the non-uniform grid, reassigning particles when the adaptive grid changes and maintaining the load

  7. Advanced oxidation of natural organic matter using hydrogen peroxide and iron-coated pumice particles.

    PubMed

    Kitis, M; Kaplan, S S

    2007-08-01

    The oxidative removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from waters using hydrogen peroxide and iron-coated pumice particles as heterogeneous catalysts was investigated. Two NOM sources were tested: humic acid solution and a natural source water. Iron coated pumice removed about half of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration at a dose of 3000 mg l(-1) in 24 h by adsorption only. Original pumice and peroxide dosed together provided UV absorbance reductions as high as 49%, mainly due to the presence of metal oxides including Al(2)O(3), Fe(2)O(3) and TiO(2) in the natural pumice, which are known to catalyze the decomposition of peroxide forming strong oxidants. Coating the original pumice particles with iron oxides significantly enhanced the removal of NOM with peroxide. A strong linear correlation was found between iron contents of coated pumices and UV absorbance reductions. Peroxide consumption also correlated with UV absorbance reduction. Control experiments proved the effective coating and the stability of iron oxide species bound on pumice surfaces. Results overall indicated that in addition to adsorptive removal of NOM by metal oxides on pumice surfaces, surface reactions between iron oxides and peroxide result in the formation of strong oxidants, probably like hydroxyl radicals, which further oxidize both adsorbed NOM and remaining NOM in solution, similar to those in Fenton-like reactions.

  8. An advanced stochastic model for mucociliary particle clearance in cystic fibrosis lungs

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background A mathematical model describing mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and its development with progressing course of the disease was developed. The approach should support the prediction of the disease state on the basis of measured bronchial clearance efficiencies. Methods The approach is based on the assumption of a steady-state steady-flow mucus transport through the tracheobronchial tree which enables the determination of airway generation-specific mucus velocities by using a measured tracheal mucus velocity and a realistic morphometric dataset of the human lung. Architecture of the tracheobronchial tree was approximated by a stochastic model, reflecting the intra-subject variability of geometric parameters within a given lung generation. Results As predicted by the appropriately validated mathematical approach, mucociliary clearance efficiency in CF patients is partly significantly decreased with respect to healthy controls. 24-h retention of patients with mild CF (FEV1 >70% of predicted) is reduced by 10% compared to healthy subjects, whilst 24-h retention of patients with moderate to severe CF (FEV1 <70% of predicted) differs by 25% from that of the healthy controls. These discrepancies are further enhanced with continuation of the clearance process. Conclusions The theoretical results lead to the conclusion that CF patients have a higher risk of inhaled particle accumulation and related particle overload in specific lung compartments than healthy subjects. PMID:22295167

  9. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  10. Particle exhaust schemes in the DIII-D advanced divertor configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    For density control in long-pulse operation, the open divertor on the DIII-D tokamak will be equipped with a baffled chamber and a pumping system. The throat of the baffle chamber is sized to provide optimal pumping for the typical plasma equilibrium configuration. Severe limitations on the toroidal conductance of this baffle chamber require the use of in-vessel pumping to achieve the desired particle exhaust of about 25 Torr{center dot}l/s. Two separate pumping schemes are considered: an array of titanium getter modules based on the design developed by the Tore Supra team and a cryocondensation pump. The merits and demerits of each scheme are analyzed, and the design considerations introduced by the tokamak environment are brought out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Advanced cell therapies: targeting, tracking and actuation of cells with magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Connell, John J; Patrick, P Stephen; Yu, Yichao; Lythgoe, Mark F; Kalber, Tammy L

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine would greatly benefit from a new platform technology that enabled measurable, controllable and targeting of stem cells to a site of disease or injury in the body. Superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles offer attractive possibilities in biomedicine and can be incorporated into cells, affording a safe and reliable means of tagging. This review describes three current and emerging methods to enhance regenerative medicine using magnetic particles to guide therapeutic cells to a target organ; track the cells using MRI and assess their spatial localization with high precision and influence the behavior of the cell using magnetic actuation. This approach is complementary to the systemic injection of cell therapies, thus expanding the horizon of stem cell therapeutics.

  12. Search for lepton flavor violating decays of a heavy neutral particle in p(-)p collisions at sqrt[s]=1.8 TeV.

    PubMed

    Acosta, D; Affolder, T; Akimoto, H; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amidei, D; Anikeev, K; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Bailey, S; de Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bonushkin, Y; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; Bromberg, C; Brozovic, M; Brubaker, E; Bruner, N; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Carlson, J; Carlsmith, D; Caskey, W; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chan, A W; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M-T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Christofek, L; Chu, M L; Chung, J Y; Chung, W-H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Clark, A G; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cranshaw, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; D'Auria, S; De Cecco, S; DeJongh, F; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Eddy, N; Einsweiler, K; Engels, E; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fan, Q; Farrington, S; Feild, R G; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Fukui, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Gallas, A; Gallinaro, M; Gao, T; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gay, C; Gerdes, D W; Gerstein, E; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Goncharov, M; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Green, C; Gresele, A; Grim, G; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guillian, G; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haas, R M; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hall, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hocker, A; Hoffman, K D; Hollebeek, R; Holloway, L; Hou, S; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J; Ikeda, H; Issever, C; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Kambara, H; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Kang, J; Karagoz Unel, M; Karr, K; Kartal, S; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K; Kelly, M; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R; Khazins, D; Kikuchi, T; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, T H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Koehn, P; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kotelnikov, K; Kovacs, E; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Kuznetsova, N; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Le, Y; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Liu, J B; Liu, T; Liu, Y C; Litvintsev, D O; Lobban, O; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lusin, S; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Mangano, M; Manca, G; Mariotti, M; Martignon, G; Martin, M; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Matthews, J A J; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Miao, T; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitselmakher, G; Miyazaki, Y; Moggi, N; Moore, E; Moore, R; Morita, Y; Moulik, T; Mulhearn, M; Mukherjee, A; Muller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Nachtman, J; Nagaslaev, V; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakano, I; Napora, R; Niell, F; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C-Y P; Nigmanov, T; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Partos, D; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pauly, T; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Penzo, A; Pescara, L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Pratt, T; Prokoshin, F; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pukhov, O; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rakitine, A; Ratnikov, F; Ray, H; Reher, D; Reichold, A; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Ribon, A; Riegler, W; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Robertson, W J; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Roy, A; Ruiz, A; Ryan, D; Safonov, A; St Denis, R

    2003-10-24

    We report on a search for a high mass, narrow width particle that decays directly to emu, etau, or microtau. We use approximately 110 pb(-1) of data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab from 1992 to 1995. No evidence of lepton flavor violating decays is found. Limits are set on the production and decay of sneutrinos with R-parity violating interactions. PMID:14611332

  13. The electrostatic co-assembly in non-stoichiometric aqueous mixtures of copolymers composed of one neutral water-soluble and one polyelectrolyte (either positively or negatively charged) block: a dissipative particle dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Šindelka, Karel; Limpouchová, Zuzana; Lísal, Martin; Procházka, Karel

    2016-06-28

    The electrostatic co-assembly in non-stoichiometric aqueous mixtures of diblock copolymers composed of a neutral water-soluble block and an either positively or negatively charged polyelectrolyte (PE) block has been studied by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The employed DPD variant includes explicit electrostatics and enables the investigation of the role of small ions in the co-assembly. The properties of core-shell associates containing insoluble interpolyelectrolyte complex cores and protective neutral shells were investigated as functions of the ratio of positive-to-negative charges in the system. This ratio was varied by increasing the number of positively charged PE chains of the same length as those of negatively charged chains, and by changing the PE length and charge density. The simulation results show that the associates formed in non-stoichiometric mixtures differ from those formed in stoichiometric mixtures: their association numbers are lower, their cores are charged and a fraction of excess chains remain free in the non-associated state. The study demonstrates the important role of the compatibility of the counterions with the polymer blocks. It simultaneously emphasizes the necessity of including the electrostatic interaction of all the charged species in the DPD computational scheme. PMID:27253089

  14. Search for a Heavy Neutral Particle Decaying to eμ, eτ, or μτ in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=8  TeV with the ATLAS Detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; 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Pralavorio, P; Pranko, A; Prasad, S; Prell, S; Price, D; Price, J; Price, L E; Primavera, M; Prince, S; Proissl, M; Prokofiev, K; Prokoshin, F; Protopapadaki, E; Protopopescu, S; Proudfoot, J; Przybycien, M; Ptacek, E; Puddu, D; Pueschel, E; Puldon, D; Purohit, M; Puzo, P; Qian, J; Qin, G; Qin, Y; Quadt, A; Quarrie, D R; Quayle, W B; Queitsch-Maitland, M; Quilty, D; Raddum, S; Radeka, V; Radescu, V; Radhakrishnan, S K; Radloff, P; Rados, P; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Rajagopalan, S; Rammensee, M; Rangel-Smith, C; Rauscher, F; Rave, S; Ravenscroft, T; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Readioff, N P; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reisin, H; Relich, M; Rembser, C; Ren, H; Renaud, A; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Rezanova, O L; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Richter, S; Richter-Was, E; Ricken, O; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Riegel, C J; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rinaldi, L; Ristić, B; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; 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Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    2015-07-17

    This Letter presents a search for a heavy neutral particle decaying into an opposite-sign different-flavor dilepton pair, e^{±}μ^{∓}, e^{±}τ^{∓}, or μ^{±}τ^{∓} using 20.3  fb^{-1} of pp collision data at sqrt[s]=8  TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The numbers of observed candidate events are compatible with the standard model expectations. Limits are set on the cross section of new phenomena in two scenarios: the production of ν[over ˜]_{τ} in R-parity-violating supersymmetric models and the production of a lepton-flavor-violating Z^{'} vector boson.

  15. Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dragt, A.J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group carries out research in two broad areas: the computation of charged particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods and advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Important improvements in the state of the art are believed to be possible in both of these areas. In addition, applications of these methods are made to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. The Lie algebraic method of computing and analyzing beam transport handles both linear and nonlinear beam elements. Tests show this method to be superior to the earlier matrix or numerical integration methods. It has wide application to many areas including accelerator physics, intense particle beams, ion microprobes, high resolution electron microscopy, and light optics. With regard to the area of electromagnetic fields and beam cavity interactions, work is carried out on the theory of beam breakup in single pulses. Work is also done on the analysis of the high behavior of longitudinal and transverse coupling impendances, including the examination of methods which may be used to measure these impedances. Finally, work is performed on the electromagnetic analysis of coupled cavities and on the coupling of cavities to waveguides.

  16. Incorporating advanced language models into the P300 speller using particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Deshpande, A.; Knall, J.; Pouratian, N.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a common brain-computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram models. While more sophisticated language models are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach. Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the model. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language model. Main result. This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov model (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance. These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance.

  17. Advanced antigen delivery of murine survivin: chimeric virus-like particles in cancer vaccine research.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Thomas; Ruehland, Claus; Schultheiss, Christine; Brinkman, Marc; Roedel, Franz; Reiser, Christian O A; Hess, Juergen; Reichel, Christoph

    2007-09-01

    Success in cancer immunotherapy depends on the identification and efficient targeting of specific tumor-associated antigens. Two pivotal strategies to prime patients' immune system against malignant cells are tumor-specific adoptive T-cell therapy and tumor-specific vaccination. Here, we will focus on immunotherapeutic vaccination and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies to deliver tumor-specific T-cell epitopes. A particular focus will be put on virus-like particles (VLPs) as vehicle to deliver tumor-specific epitopes in the context of full-length proteins, as multi-epitope constructs or as individual tumor-associated T-cell epitopes. VLPs represent non-infectious and non-replicating antigen delivery systems devoid of any nucleic acid. They constitute innovative immunotherapeutic agents against cancer due to their superior, adjuvant-like antigenicity. We will present various tumor-associated antigens currently in different stages of development including survivin, as promising candidates for targeted tumor therapies. PMID:23675044

  18. Advanced laser particle accelerator development at LANL: from fast ignition to radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, Kirk A; Gaillard, Sandrine A; Offermann, D T; Cobble, J A; Schmitt, M J; Gautier, D C; Kwan, T J T; Montgomery, D S; Kluge, Thomas; Bussmann, Micheal; Bartal, T; Beg, F N; Gall, B; Geissel, M; Korgan, G; Kovaleski, S; Lockard, T; Malekos, S; Schollmeier, M; Sentoku, Y; Cowan, T E

    2010-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, SN M detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high current and high energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology in conjunction with our partners at the ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent etliciencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  19. Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, K. A.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Gautier, D. C.; Kwan, T. J.; Montgomery, D. S.; Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Gall, B.; Kovaleski, S.; Geissel, M.; Schollmeier, M.; Korgan, G.; Malekos, S.; Lockard, T.

    2010-11-04

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  20. Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Cowan, T. E.; Gall, B.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Kwan, T. J.; Korgan, G.; Kovaleski, S.; Lockard, T.; Malekos, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schollmeier, M.; Sentoku, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity [1] and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser [2]. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  1. Advanced Antigen Delivery of Murine Survivin: Chimeric Virus-Like Particles in Cancer Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Thomas; Ruehland, Claus; Schultheiss, Christine; Brinkman, Marc; Roedel, Franz; Reiser, Christian O. A.; Hess, Juergen; Reichel, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Success in cancer immunotherapy depends on the identification and efficient targeting of specific tumor-associated antigens. Two pivotal strategies to prime patients’ immune system against malignant cells are tumor-specific adoptive T-cell therapy and tumor-specific vaccination. Here, we will focus on immunotherapeutic vaccination and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies to deliver tumor-specific T-cell epitopes. A particular focus will be put on virus-like particles (VLPs) as vehicle to deliver tumor-specific epitopes in the context of full-length proteins, as multi-epitope constructs or as individual tumor-associated T-cell epitopes. VLPs represent non-infectious and non-replicating antigen delivery systems devoid of any nucleic acid. They constitute innovative immunotherapeutic agents against cancer due to their superior, adjuvant-like antigenicity. We will present various tumor-associated antigens currently in different stages of development including survivin, as promising candidates for targeted tumor therapies. PMID:23675044

  2. Advanced antigen delivery of murine survivin: chimeric virus-like particles in cancer vaccine research.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Thomas; Ruehland, Claus; Schultheiss, Christine; Brinkman, Marc; Roedel, Franz; Reiser, Christian O A; Hess, Juergen; Reichel, Christoph

    2007-09-01

    Success in cancer immunotherapy depends on the identification and efficient targeting of specific tumor-associated antigens. Two pivotal strategies to prime patients' immune system against malignant cells are tumor-specific adoptive T-cell therapy and tumor-specific vaccination. Here, we will focus on immunotherapeutic vaccination and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies to deliver tumor-specific T-cell epitopes. A particular focus will be put on virus-like particles (VLPs) as vehicle to deliver tumor-specific epitopes in the context of full-length proteins, as multi-epitope constructs or as individual tumor-associated T-cell epitopes. VLPs represent non-infectious and non-replicating antigen delivery systems devoid of any nucleic acid. They constitute innovative immunotherapeutic agents against cancer due to their superior, adjuvant-like antigenicity. We will present various tumor-associated antigens currently in different stages of development including survivin, as promising candidates for targeted tumor therapies.

  3. Characterization techniques for the high-brightness particle beams of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) user facility in the hard x-ray regime (10--100 keV). The design objectives for the 7-GeV storage ring include a positron beam natural emittance of 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m-rad at an average current of 100 mA. Proposed methods for measuring the transverse and longitudinal profiles will be described. Additionally, a research and development effort using an rf gun as a low-emittance source of electrons for injection into the 200- to 650-MeV linac subsystem is underway. This latter system is projected to produce electron beams with a normalized, rms emittance of {approximately}2 {pi} mm-mrad at peak currents of near one hundred amps. This interesting characterization problem will also be briefly discussed. The combination of both source types within one laboratory facility will stimulate the development of diagnostic techniques in these parameter spaces.

  4. Neutralization efficiency estimation in a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniy, O. V.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the optimal conditions of neutral beam generation to maintain a high degree of neutralization and focusing during beam energy variation for a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma with a three-grid ion beam acceleration system. The neutral beam energy distribution was estimated by measuring the energy profiles of ions that 'survived' the neutralization after reflection. The energy measurements of the primary and reflected ions showed narrow distribution functions, each with only one peak. At higher beam energies, both the ratio of the ion energy loss to the primary energy and the degree of energy divergence decreased, confirming the precise alignment of the neutral beam. The neutralization efficiency of the neutral beam source with a three-grid acceleration system was found to be affected mainly by the beam angle divergence rather than by the particle translation energy.

  5. Advancement of Shock-wave Induced Spraying Process through the Study of Gas and Particle Flow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Esfahani, Mohammad

    This research advances the knowledge of the working principles of the Shock-wave Induced Spraying Process (SISP), a thermal spray material deposition technique. Pulses created by a fast acting valve pass through a heated line increasing energy content and interacting with metered batches of heated or non-heated powder introduced into the line. The powder is accelerated to high velocities before bonding to the substrate upon impact. Advantages over other cold spray processes include cost savings and a more effective transfer of thermal energy to the powder. The shock-wave occurring near the substrate in other cold spray processes is avoided. The SISP flow field is resolved by using a computational model. The two-dimensional model accounts for the valve, gas heater, a tapered nozzle at the tip of the device, and preheating of the powder. It is implemented with a commercial computational fluid dynamics code. Comparisons are made with one-dimensional predictions, and measurements of pressure and temperature. Particle flow predictions are validated using particle velocity and adhesion measurements. A flow region of both high temperature and velocity gas, favorable to material deposition, forms which is not present in comparable steady-state cold spray processes. Increasing gas pressure increases the gas speed, while increasing temperature increases speed and temperature of this region. Using helium results in greater energy levels but for shorter periods of time. This indicates the need for a powder feeder which places particles in the flow at correct instants and durations of time. The effects of particle flow parameters on system performance are examined. It is found that the device must be operated at very high main heater and powder heater temperatures: 900 °C and 700 °C respectively to achieve a coating with stainless steel using nitrogen as the driving gas. It is also shown that a heater length range of 0.9 m to 1.4 m results in the greatest likelihood of

  6. ATF neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Morris, R.N.; Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility is a stellarator torsatron being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate improved plasma confinement schemes. Plasmas heating will be carried out predominantly by means of neutral beam injection. This paper describes the basic parameters of the injection system. Numerical calculations were done to optimize the aiming of the injectors. The results of these calculations and their implications on the neutral power to the machine are elaborated. The effects of improving the beam optics and altering the focal length on the power transmitted to the plasma are discussed.

  7. Fast ion behavior during neutral beam injection in ATF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, M. R.; Thomas, C. E.; Colchin, R. J.; Rome, J. A.; England, A. C.; Fowler, R. H.; Aceto, S. C.

    In stellarators, single-particle confinement properties can be more complex than in their tokamak counterparts. Fast-ion behavior in tokamaks has been well characterized through an abundance of measurements on various devices and in general has been shown to be consistent with classical slowing-down theory, although anomalous ion behavior has been observed during intense beam injection in ISX-B, during fishbone instabilities in PDX, and in experiments on TFR. In contrast, fast ion behavior in stellarators is not as well established experimentally with the primary experiments to date focusing on near-perpendicular or perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI) on the Wendelstein 7-A stellarator and Heliotron-E. This paper addresses fast-ion confinement properties in a large aspect ratio, moderate shear stellarator, the Advanced Toroidal Facility, during tangential NBI. The primary data used in this study are the experimentally measured energy spectra of charge-exchange neutrals escaping from the plasma, using a two-dimensional scanning neutral particle analyzer. This diagnostic method is well established, having been used on several devices since the early 1970's. Various aspects of fast-ion behavior are investigated by comparing these data with computed theoretical spectra based on energetic ion distributions derived from the fast ion Fokker-Planck equation. Ion orbits are studied by computer orbit following, by the computation of J(sup *) surfaces, and by Monte Carlo calculations.

  8. Using advanced dispersion models and mobile monitoring to characterize spatial patterns of ultrafine particles in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwack, Leonard M.; Hanna, Steven R.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-09-01

    In urban settings with elevated bridges, buildings, and other complex terrain, the relationship between traffic and air pollution can be highly variable and difficult to accurately characterize. Atmospheric dispersion models are often used in this context, but incorporating background concentrations and characterizing emissions at high spatiotemporal resolution is challenging, especially for ultrafine particles (UFPs). Ambient pollutant monitoring can characterize this relationship, especially when using continuous real-time monitoring. However, it is challenging to quantify local source contributions over background or to characterize spatial patterns across a neighborhood. The goal of this study is to evaluate contributions of traffic to neighborhood-scale air pollution using a combination of regression models derived from mobile UFP monitoring observations collected in Brooklyn, NY and outputs from the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) model. QUIC is a dispersion model that can explicitly take into account the three-dimensional shapes of buildings. The monitoring-based regression model characterized concentration gradients from a major elevated roadway, controlling for real-time traffic volume, meteorological variables, and other local sources. QUIC was applied to simulate dispersion from this same major roadway. The relative concentration decreases with distance from the roadway estimated by the monitoring-based regression model after removal of background and by QUIC were similar. Horizontal contour plots with both models demonstrated non-uniform patterns related to building configuration and source heights. We used the best-fit relationship between the monitoring-based regression model after removal of background and the QUIC outputs ( R2 = 0.80) to estimate a UFP emissions factor of 5.7 × 10 14 particles/vehicle-km, which was relatively consistent across key model assumptions. Our joint applications of novel techniques for analyzing mobile monitoring

  9. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Philipp; Wallich, Reinhard; Nassal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF), and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC). Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) derived capsid-like particles (CLPs) to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission.

  10. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Philipp; Wallich, Reinhard; Nassal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF), and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC). Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) derived capsid-like particles (CLPs) to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission. PMID:26352137

  11. Magnetic particle imaging: advancements and perspectives for real-time in vivo monitoring and image-guided therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablico-Lansigan, Michele H.; Situ, Shu F.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology that allows the direct quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. MPI's increased sensitivity and short image acquisition times foster the creation of tomographic images with high temporal and spatial resolution. The contrast and sensitivity of MPI is envisioned to transcend those of other medical imaging modalities presently used, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray scans, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review, we present an overview of the recent advances in the rapidly developing field of MPI. We begin with a basic introduction of the fundamentals of MPI, followed by some highlights over the past decade of the evolution of strategies and approaches used to improve this new imaging technique. We also examine the optimization of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used for imaging, underscoring the importance of size homogeneity and surface engineering. Finally, we present some future research directions for MPI, emphasizing the novel and exciting opportunities that it offers as an important tool for real-time in vivo monitoring. All these opportunities and capabilities that MPI presents are now seen as potential breakthrough innovations in timely disease diagnosis, implant monitoring, and image-guided therapeutics.

  12. Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.

  13. RESULTS OF TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE A SIX-INCH DIAMETER COATER FOR PRODUCTION OF TRISO-COATED PARTICLES FOR ADVANCED GAS REACTOR EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISOcoated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a twoinch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2. While a thorough study of how coating parameters affect particle properties was not the goal of these tests, the test data obtained provides insight into process parameter/coated particle property relationships. Most relationships for the six-inch diameter coater followed trends found with the ORNL two-inch coater, in spite of differences in coater design and bed hydrodynamics. For example the key coating parameters affecting pyrocarbon anisotropy were coater temperature, coating gas fraction, total gas flow rate and kernel charge size. Anisotropy of the outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer also strongly correlates with coater differential pressure. In an effort to reduce the total particle fabrication run time, silicon carbide (SiC) was deposited with methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentrations up to 3 mol %. Using only hydrogen as the fluidizing gas, the high concentration MTS tests resulted in particles with lower than desired SiC densities. However when hydrogen was partially replaced with argon, high SiC densities were achieved with the high MTS gas fraction.

  14. RESULTS OF TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE A SIX-INCH-DIAMETER COATER FOR PRODUCTION OF TRISO-COATED PARTICLES FOR ADVANCED GAS REACTOR EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M Barnes

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISOcoated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a two inch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2. While a thorough study of how coating parameters affect particle properties was not the goal of these tests, the test data obtained provides insight into process parameter/coated particle property relationships. Most relationships for the six-inch diameter coater followed trends found with the ORNL two-inch coater, in spite of differences in coater design and bed hydrodynamics. For example the key coating parameters affecting pyrocarbon anisotropy were coater temperature, coating gas fraction, total gas flow rate and kernel charge size. Anisotropy of the outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer also strongly correlates with coater differential pressure. In an effort to reduce the total particle fabrication run time, silicon carbide (SiC) was deposited with methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentrations up to 3 mol %. Using only hydrogen as the fluidizing gas, the high concentration MTS tests resulted in particles with lower than desired SiC densities. However when hydrogen was partially replaced with argon, high SiC densities were achieved with the high MTS gas fraction.

  15. Recent advances in particle and droplet manipulation for lab-on-a-chip devices based on surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuochen; Zhe, Jiang

    2011-04-01

    Manipulation of microscale particles and fluid liquid droplets is an important task for lab-on-a-chip devices for numerous biological researches and applications, such as cell detection and tissue engineering. Particle manipulation techniques based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs) appear effective for lab-on-a-chip devices because they are non-invasive, compatible with soft lithography micromachining, have high energy density, and work for nearly any type of microscale particles. Here we review the most recent research and development of the past two years in SAW based particle and liquid droplet manipulation for lab-on-a-chip devices including particle focusing and separation, particle alignment and patterning, particle directing, and liquid droplet delivery.

  16. In-vacuum sensors for the beamline components of the ITER neutral beam test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Veltri, P.

    2016-11-01

    Embedded sensors have been designed for installation on the components of the MITICA beamline, the prototype ITER neutral beam injector (Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement), to derive characteristics of the particle beam and to monitor the component conditions during operation for protection and thermal control. Along the beamline, the components interacting with the particle beam are the neutralizer, the residual ion dump, and the calorimeter. The design and the positioning of sensors on each component have been developed considering the expected beam-surface interaction including non-ideal and off-normal conditions. The arrangement of the following instrumentation is presented: thermal sensors, strain gages, electrostatic probes including secondary emission detectors, grounding shunt for electrical currents, and accelerometers.

  17. Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method.

  18. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  19. Primary interstellar neutrals in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Hans R.; Moebius, Eberhard; Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

    Among other accomplishments, IBEX has detected direct interstellar helium and oxygen. With the help of a 3D MHD/kinetic hydrogen background heliosphere model by Pogorelov and Heerikhuisen, the distributions of primary interstellar neutrals throughout the heliosphere are calculated, identifying contributions from direct and indirect particle trajectories. The results are converted into expected fluxes at IBEX. The comparison of these fluxes to the measurements characterizes the density of neutrals in the pristine interstellar medium, and their filtration in the heliosphere.

  20. Neutral beam monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.

    1981-08-18

    Method and apparatus for monitoring characteristics of a high energy neutral beam. A neutral beam is generated by passing accelerated ions through a walled cell containing a low energy neutral gas, such that charge exchange neutralizes the high energy ion beam. The neutral beam is monitored by detecting the current flowing through the cell wall produced by low energy ions which drift to the wall after the charge exchange. By segmenting the wall into radial and longitudinal segments various beam conditions are further identified.

  1. MONTE CARLO ADVANCES FOR THE EOLUS ASCI PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. HENDRICK; G. W. MCKINNEY; L. J. COX

    2000-01-01

    The Eolus ASCI project includes parallel, 3-D transport simulation for various nuclear applications. The codes developed within this project provide neutral and charged particle transport, detailed interaction physics, numerous source and tally capabilities, and general geometry packages. One such code is MCNPW which is a general purpose, 3-dimensional, time-dependent, continuous-energy Monte Carlo fully-coupled N-Particle transport code. Significant advances are also being made in the areas of modern software engineering and parallel computing. These advances are described in detail.

  2. High energy particle astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  3. Advances in measurements and simulation of gas-particle flows and coal combustion in burners/combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. X.

    2009-02-01

    Innovative coal combustors were developed, and measurement and simulation of gas-particle flows and coal combustion in such combustors were done in the Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University. LDV/PDPA measurements are made to understand the behavior of turbulent gas-particle flows in coal combustors. Coal combustion test was done for the non-slagging cyclone coal combustor. The full two-fluid model developed by the present author was used to simulate turbulent gas-particle flows, coal combustion and NOx formation. It is found by measurements and simulation that the optimum design can give large-size recirculation zones for improving the combustion performance for all the combustors. The combustion test shows that the nonslagging coal combustor can burn 3-5mm coal particles with good combustion efficiency and low NO emission. Simulation in comparison with experiments indicates that the swirl number can significantly affect the NO formation in the swirl coal combustor.

  4. On neutral plasma oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can possess positive or negative free energy.

  5. PREFACE: Advanced Science Research Symposium 2009 Positron, Muon and other exotic particle beams for materials and atomic/molecular sciences (ASR2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higemoto, Wataru; Kawasuso, Atsuo

    2010-05-01

    It is our great pleasure to deliver the proceedings of ASR2009, the Advanced Science Research International Symposium 2009. ASR2009 is part of a series of symposia which is hosted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Advanced Science Research Center (JAEA-ASRC), and held every year with different scientific topics. ASR2009 was held at Tokai in Japan from 10-12 November 2009. In total, 102 participants, including 29 overseas scientists, made 44 oral presentations and 64 poster presentations. In ASR2009 we have focused on material and atomic/molecular science research using positrons, muons and other exotic particle beams. The symposium covered all the fields of materials science which use such exotic particle beams. Positrons, muons and other beams have similar and different features. For example, although positrons and muons are both leptons having charge and spin, they give quite different information about materials. A muon mainly detects the local magnetic state of the solid, while a positron detects crystal imperfections and electron momenta in solids. Other exotic particle beams also provide useful information about materials which is not able to be obtained with muons or positrons. Therefore, the complementary use of particle beams, coupled with an understanding of their relative advantages, leads to greater excellence in materials research. This symposium crossed the fields of muon science, positron science, unstable-nuclei science, and other exotic particle-beam science. We therefore believe that ASR2009 became an especially important meeting for finding new science with exotic particle beams. Finally, we would like to extend our appreciation to all the participants, committee members, and support staff for their great efforts to make ASR2009 a fruitful symposium. ASR2009 Chairs Wataru Higemoto and Atsuo Kawasuso Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency Organizing committee Y Hatano, JAEA (Director of ASRC) M Fujinami, Chiba Univ. R H

  6. Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas.

  7. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  8. Search for neutral leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references.

  9. Geometric phases generated by the non-trivial spatial topology of static vector fields linearly coupled to a neutral spin-endowed particle: application to 171Yb atoms trapped in a 2D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchiat, Marie-Anne; Bouchiat, Claude

    2012-10-01

    We have constructed the geometric phases emerging from the non-trivial topology of a space-dependent magnetic field B(r), interacting with the spin magnetic moment of a neutral particle. Our basic tool, adapted from a previous work on Berry’s phases, is the space-dependent unitary transformation {U}({\\mathbf {r}}), which leads to the identity, {U}({\\mathbf {r}})^{\\dag }\\, {\\mathbf {S}}\\,{\\bm \\cdot}\\, {\\mathbf {B}}({\\mathbf {r}}) \\, {U}({\\mathbf {r}}) = \\vert {\\mathbf {B}}({\\mathbf {r}}) \\vert \\, S_z, at each point r. In the ‘rotated’ Hamiltonian \\widehat{ H}, \\frac{ \\partial }{\\partial {\\mathbf {r}}} is replaced by the non-Abelian covariant derivative \\frac{ \\partial }{\\partial {\\mathbf {r}}}- \\frac{i}{\\hbar } {A}({\\mathbf {r}}) where {A}({\\mathbf {r}}) = i \\hbar \\, {U}^{\\dag }\\,{\\bm\\cdot}\\, \\frac{ \\partial }{\\partial {\\mathbf {r}}} {U} can be written as A1(r)Sx + A2(r)Sy + A3(r)Sz. The Abelian differentials Ak(r)·dr are given in terms of the Euler angles defining the orientation of B(r). The non-Abelian field {A}({\\mathbf {r}}) transforms as a Yang-Mills field; however, its vanishing ‘curvature’ reveals its purely geometric character. We have defined a perturbation scheme based upon the assumption that in \\widehat{ H} the longitudinal field A3(r) dominates the transverse field A1, 2(r) contributions, evaluated to second order. The geometry embedded in both the vector field A3(r) and the geometric magnetic field \\mathbf { B}_3 ({\\mathbf {r}}) = \\frac{ \\partial }{\\partial {\\mathbf {r}}}\\wedge {{\\mathbf {A}}}_3({\\mathbf {r}}) is described by their associated Aharonov-Bohm phase. As an illustration we study the physics of cold 171Yb atoms dressed by overlaying two circularly polarized stationary waves with orthogonal directions, which form a 2D square optical lattice. The frequency is tuned midway between the two hyperfine levels of the (6s6p)3P1 states to protect the optical B(r) field generated by the

  10. Modeling Neutral Hydrogen in the Heliospheric Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Brand, Pontus

    2010-03-01

    Observational data of neutral atoms provides us with a 1 AU picture of the neutral atom flux in the heliosphere. The large mean free paths of neutrals allow us to infer properties of their distant source, as well as the properties of the intermediary medium. Energetic neutral hydrogen, for example, travels on almost straight trajectories, so that the particles observed coming from a particular direction were created from energetic protons along that line of sight. Similarly, low energy interstellar atoms are attenuated and deflected as they enter the heliosphere, and this deflection tells us something about the structure of the heliospheric interface. Of course, to infer quantitative features of the global heliosphere from neutral atom observations at 1 AU, we need accurate models that capture the 3D structure of the heliosphere. In this paper we present our MHD-plasma/kinetic-neutral model of the heliospheric interface that uses a Lorentzian distribution function to approximate a suprathermal tail on the solar wind proton distribution due to pick-up ions. We investigate the effect the k parameter of the Lorentzian function has on the overall solution and the flux of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). ENA fluxes are also compared to ``pre-IBEX'' spacecraft data.

  11. Neutrality in Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The unavoidability of language makes it critical that language policies appeal to some notion of language neutrality as part of their rationale, in order to assuage concerns that the policies might otherwise be unduly discriminatory. However, the idea of language neutrality is deeply ideological in nature, since it is not only an attempt to treat…

  12. Kinetic Simulation and Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced simulation tools and measurement techniques have been developed to study the dynamic magnetosphere and its response to drivers in the solar wind. The Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) is a kinetic code that solves the 3D distribution in space, energy and pitch-angle information of energetic ions and electrons. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers have been carried in past and current satellite missions. Global morphology of energetic ions were revealed by the observed ENA images. We have combined simulation and ENA analysis techniques to study the development of ring current ions during magnetic storms and substorms. We identify the timing and location of particle injection and loss. We examine the evolution of ion energy and pitch-angle distribution during different phases of a storm. In this talk we will discuss the findings from our ring current studies and how our simulation and ENA analysis tools can be applied to the upcoming TRIO-CINAMA mission.

  13. Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 2. Direct measures of particle properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscombe, Daniel D.; Rubin, David M.

    2012-01-01

    1. In this, the second of a pair of papers on the structure of well-sorted natural granular material (sediment), new methods are described for automated measurements from images of sediment, of: 1) particle-size standard deviation (arithmetic sorting) with and without apparent void fraction; and 2) mean particle size in material with void fraction. A variety of simulations of granular material are used for testing purposes, in addition to images of natural sediment. Simulations are also used to establish that the effects on automated particle sizing of grains visible through the interstices of the grains at the very surface of a granular material continue to a depth of approximately 4 grain diameters and that this is independent of mean particle size. Ensemble root-mean squared error between observed and estimated arithmetic sorting coefficients for 262 images of natural silts, sands and gravels (drawn from 8 populations) is 31%, which reduces to 27% if adjusted for bias (slope correction between observed and estimated values). These methods allow non-intrusive and fully automated measurements of surfaces of unconsolidated granular material. With no tunable parameters or empirically derived coefficients, they should be broadly universal in appropriate applications. However, empirical corrections may need to be applied for the most accurate results. Finally, analytical formulas are derived for the one-step pore-particle transition probability matrix, estimated from the image's autocorrelogram, from which void fraction of a section of granular material can be estimated directly. This model gives excellent predictions of bulk void fraction yet imperfect predictions of pore-particle transitions.

  14. Bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-17

    Despite the great advantages of hollow structures as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, one apparent common drawback which is often criticized is their compromised volumetric energy density due to the introduced hollow interior. Here, we design and synthesize bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles to reduce the excessive hollow interior space while retaining the general advantages of hollow structures. As a result, the tap density can be increased about 30 %. The as-prepared bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles with conformal carbon support exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high capacity, stable cyclability and excellent rate capability.

  15. Advances in understanding the genesis and evolution solar energetic particle events over the last two solar cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami

    2016-04-01

    I will review the observational and modeling efforts related to solar energetic particle (SEP) events over the 23rd and 24th solar cycles. I will concentrate on large SEP events related to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), but discuss observations related to the possible role of flares in the acceleration of particles in those events, as well. The possible roles of various acceleration and transport processes in understanding the characteristics of the events will be discussed. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA).

  16. Bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-17

    Despite the great advantages of hollow structures as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, one apparent common drawback which is often criticized is their compromised volumetric energy density due to the introduced hollow interior. Here, we design and synthesize bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles to reduce the excessive hollow interior space while retaining the general advantages of hollow structures. As a result, the tap density can be increased about 30 %. The as-prepared bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles with conformal carbon support exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high capacity, stable cyclability and excellent rate capability. PMID:25251871

  17. Neutral theory and the species abundance distribution: recent developments and prospects for unifying niche and neutral perspectives.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Thomas J; Whittaker, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Published in 2001, The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (UNTB) emphasizes the importance of stochastic processes in ecological community structure, and has challenged the traditional niche-based view of ecology. While neutral models have since been applied to a broad range of ecological and macroecological phenomena, the majority of research relating to neutral theory has focused exclusively on the species abundance distribution (SAD). Here, we synthesize the large body of work on neutral theory in the context of the species abundance distribution, with a particular focus on integrating ideas from neutral theory with traditional niche theory. First, we summarize the basic tenets of neutral theory; both in general and in the context of SADs. Second, we explore the issues associated with neutral theory and the SAD, such as complications with fitting and model comparison, the underlying assumptions of neutral models, and the difficultly of linking pattern to process. Third, we highlight the advances in understanding of SADs that have resulted from neutral theory and models. Finally, we focus consideration on recent developments aimed at unifying neutral- and niche-based approaches to ecology, with a particular emphasis on what this means for SAD theory, embracing, for instance, ideas of emergent neutrality and stochastic niche theory. We put forward the argument that the prospect of the unification of niche and neutral perspectives represents one of the most promising future avenues of neutral theory research.

  18. Neutral theory and the species abundance distribution: recent developments and prospects for unifying niche and neutral perspectives.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Thomas J; Whittaker, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Published in 2001, The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (UNTB) emphasizes the importance of stochastic processes in ecological community structure, and has challenged the traditional niche-based view of ecology. While neutral models have since been applied to a broad range of ecological and macroecological phenomena, the majority of research relating to neutral theory has focused exclusively on the species abundance distribution (SAD). Here, we synthesize the large body of work on neutral theory in the context of the species abundance distribution, with a particular focus on integrating ideas from neutral theory with traditional niche theory. First, we summarize the basic tenets of neutral theory; both in general and in the context of SADs. Second, we explore the issues associated with neutral theory and the SAD, such as complications with fitting and model comparison, the underlying assumptions of neutral models, and the difficultly of linking pattern to process. Third, we highlight the advances in understanding of SADs that have resulted from neutral theory and models. Finally, we focus consideration on recent developments aimed at unifying neutral- and niche-based approaches to ecology, with a particular emphasis on what this means for SAD theory, embracing, for instance, ideas of emergent neutrality and stochastic niche theory. We put forward the argument that the prospect of the unification of niche and neutral perspectives represents one of the most promising future avenues of neutral theory research. PMID:25360266

  19. Neutral theory and the species abundance distribution: recent developments and prospects for unifying niche and neutral perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Thomas J; Whittaker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Published in 2001, The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (UNTB) emphasizes the importance of stochastic processes in ecological community structure, and has challenged the traditional niche-based view of ecology. While neutral models have since been applied to a broad range of ecological and macroecological phenomena, the majority of research relating to neutral theory has focused exclusively on the species abundance distribution (SAD). Here, we synthesize the large body of work on neutral theory in the context of the species abundance distribution, with a particular focus on integrating ideas from neutral theory with traditional niche theory. First, we summarize the basic tenets of neutral theory; both in general and in the context of SADs. Second, we explore the issues associated with neutral theory and the SAD, such as complications with fitting and model comparison, the underlying assumptions of neutral models, and the difficultly of linking pattern to process. Third, we highlight the advances in understanding of SADs that have resulted from neutral theory and models. Finally, we focus consideration on recent developments aimed at unifying neutral- and niche-based approaches to ecology, with a particular emphasis on what this means for SAD theory, embracing, for instance, ideas of emergent neutrality and stochastic niche theory. We put forward the argument that the prospect of the unification of niche and neutral perspectives represents one of the most promising future avenues of neutral theory research. PMID:25360266

  20. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  1. Results on intense beam focusing and neutralization from the neutralized beam experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Vanecek, D.L.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.

    2003-10-31

    We have demonstrated experimental techniques to provide active neutralization for space-charge dominated beams as well as to prevent uncontrolled ion beam neutralization by stray electrons. Neutralization is provided by a localized plasma injected from a cathode arc source. Unwanted secondary electrons produced at the wall by halo particle impact are suppressed using a radial mesh liner that is positively biased inside a beam drift tube. We present measurements of current transmission, beam spot size as a function of axial position, beam energy and plasma source conditions. Detailed comparisons with theory are also presented.

  2. Advanced development of particle-beam-probe diagnostic systems. Technical progress report, 1 July 1980-30 April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Woo, J.T.; Connor, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    The heavy ion beam probe system on the RENTOR tokamak has been reinstalled with considerably improved performance. The heavy neutral beam probe system on the ALEX baseball facility has demonstrated the capability of measuring space potential in minimum-B geometry. A large amount of data were obtained from the highly successful TMX beam probe system and are presently being analyzed. Technological improvements were made on both the RENTOR and ALEX diagnostic systems, new ion sources and extraction configurations were investigated, and the superiority of off-line processing techniques for beam probe data has been demonstrated. The development of high energy probing beams for application to major confinement experiments has been initiated and cross-over sweep systems to improve spatial resolution, differential pumping, and reduce energy requirements have been designed.

  3. Simulation And Design Of A Reflection Magnet For The EAST Neutral Beam System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Liangli; Dong Huchun

    2011-09-26

    The simulation and design of a reflection magnet to be installed in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) neutral beam injection system are reported. A parametric design and simulation for the reflection magnet was carried out. For a deuterium beam with 42 cm as the bending radius, the intensity of reflection magnet field is about 1376 Gs at the energy of 80 keV. In order to determine position of the ion dump and the surface power load, a particle simulation with Monte Carlo was developed to study ion trajectories. In addition, the louver design is introduced.

  4. Intense ion beam neutralization using underdense background plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berdanier, William; Roy, Prabir K.; Kaganovich, Igor

    2015-01-15

    Producing an overdense background plasma for neutralization purposes with a density that is high compared to the beam density is not always experimentally possible. We show that even an underdense background plasma with a small relative density can achieve high neutralization of intense ion beam pulses. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we show that if the total plasma electron charge is not sufficient to neutralize the beam charge, electron emitters are necessary for effective neutralization but are not needed if the plasma volume is so large that the total available charge in the electrons exceeds that of the ion beam. Several regimes of possible underdense/tenuous neutralization plasma densities are investigated with and without electron emitters or dense plasma at periphery regions, including the case of electron emitters without plasma, which does not effectively neutralize the beam. Over 95% neutralization is achieved for even very underdense background plasma with plasma density 1/15th the beam density. We compare results of particle-in-cell simulations with an analytic model of neutralization and find close agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations. Further, we show experimental data from the National Drift Compression experiment-II group that verifies the result that underdense plasma can neutralize intense heavy ion beams effectively.

  5. THE ROLE OF NEUTRALS IN H-MODE PEDESTAL FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. GROEBNER; M.A. MAHDAVI; A.W. LEONARD; T.H. OSBORNE; G.D. PORTER; R.J. COLCHIN; L.W.OWEN

    2001-11-01

    An analytic model, derived from coupled continuity equations for the electron and neutral deuterium densities, is consistent with many features of edge electron density profiles in the DIII-D tokamak. For an assumed constant particle diffusion coefficient, the model shows that particle transport and neutral fueling produce electron and neutral density profiles that have the same characteristic scale lengths at the plasma edge. For systematic variations of density in H-mode discharges, the model predicts that the width of the electron density transport barrier decreases and the maximum gradient increases, as observed in the experiments. The widths computed from the model agree quantitatively with the experimental widths for conditions in which the model is valid. These results support models of transport barrier formation in which the H-mode particle barrier is driven by the edge particle flux and the width of the barrier is approximately the neutral penetration length.

  6. Delivery of Differentiation Factors by Mesoporous Silica Particles Assists Advanced Differentiation of Transplanted Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kozhevnikova, Mariya; König, Niclas; Zhou, Chunfang; Leao, Richardson; Knöpfel, Thomas; Pankratova, Stanislava; Trolle, Carl; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Aldskogius, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application. Here, we report the development of a novel technological approach for the local delivery of exogenous trophic factor mimetics to transplanted cells using specifically designed silica nanoporous particles. We demonstrated that delivering Cintrofin and Gliafin, established peptide mimetics of the ciliary neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, respectively, with these particles enabled not only robust functional differentiation of motor neurons from transplanted embryonic stem cells but also their long-term survival in vivo. We propose that the delivery of growth factors by mesoporous nanoparticles is a potentially versatile and widely applicable strategy for efficient differentiation and functional integration of stem cell derivatives upon transplantation. PMID:24089415

  7. New Insights Into the Surface / Atmosphere Exchange of Particles Based on Recent Advances in Measurement Technology (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemitz, E.; Phillips, G. J.; Thomas, R.; di Marco, C. F.; Fowler, D.

    2009-12-01

    Dry deposition velocities of particles govern the deposition and atmospheric lifetime of aerosols and their constituents and need to be parameterised in chemical transport models to predict air quality, climate change and ecosystem impacts. The same micrometeorological flux measurement approaches used to measure deposition rates can be used to quantify emissions from area sources such as urban emissions and resuspension. This paper reviews recent measurements of fluxes of particle number and, importantly, individual aerosol chemical compounds, made with wet-chemistry gradient systems and eddy-covariance using aerosol mass spectrometry. The results indicate that aerosol exchange tends to be bi-directional and is modulated by particle dynamics due to evaporation and condensation growth. Often, some aerosol components are emitted or chemically formed below the measurement height, while other components deposit or evaporate. This has important implications on the use of field measurements of number fluxes for the development of model parameterisations. For example, measurements over a range of surfaces show that ammonium nitrate volatilises during the deposition to semi-natural vegetation, forming associated gaseous precursors, which deposit faster than the aerosol species. This evaporation therefore enhances total nitrogen deposition, and models need to use enhanced effective deposition rates to account for the effect. Conversely, the effect of particle dynamics on fluxes can be used to study aerosol processing, such as the in-situ formation of inorganic and organic secondary aerosol and the volatilisation of primary combustion aerosol. Examples will be shown from agricultural, natural and urban environments. Finally, the paper will discuss future research priorities to help improve parameterisations of dry deposition velocities further.

  8. Mixed sulfur-iron particles packed reactor for simultaneous advanced removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenghui; Liang, Peng; Wu, Zhongqin; Su, Fengfeng; Yuan, Lulu; Sun, Yanmei; Wu, Qing; Huang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    A mixed sulfur-iron particles packed reactor (SFe reactor) was developed to simultaneously remove total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) of the secondary effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Low effluent TN (<1.5 mg/L) and TP (<0.3 mg/L) concentrations were simultaneously obtained, and high TN removal rate [1.03 g N/(L·d)] and TP removal rate [0.29 g P/(L·d)] were achieved at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.13 h. Kinetic models describing denitrification were experimentally obtained, which predicted a higher denitrification rate [1.98 g N/(L·d)] of SFe reactor than that [1.58 g N/(L·d)] of sulfur alone packed reactor due to the mutual enhancement between sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification and iron-based chemical denitrification. A high TP removal obtained in SFe reactor was attributed to chemical precipitation of iron particles. Microbial community analysis based on 16S rRNA revealed that autotrophic denitrifying bacteria Thiobacillus and Sulfuricella were the dominant genus, indicating that autotrophic denitrification played important role in nitrate removal. These results indicate that sulfur and iron particles can be packed together in a single reactor to effectively remove nitrate and phosphorus.

  9. Airborne Particles: What We Have Learned About Their Role in Climate from Remote Sensing, and Prospects for Future Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Desert dust, wildfire smoke, volcanic ash, biogenic and urban pollution particles, all affect the regional-scale climate of Earth in places and at times; some have global-scale impacts on the column radiation balance, cloud properties, atmospheric stability structure, and circulation patterns. Remote sensing has played a central role in identifying the sources and transports of airborne particles, mapping their three-dimensional distribution and variability, quantifying their amount, and constraining aerosol air mass type. The measurements obtained from remote sensing have strengths and limitations, and their value for characterizing Earths environment is enhanced immensely when they are combined with direct, in situ observations, and used to constrain aerosol transport and climate models. A similar approach has been taken to study the role particles play in determining the climate of Mars, though based on far fewer observations. This presentation will focus what we have learned from remote sensing about the impacts aerosol have on Earths climate; a few points about how aerosols affect the climate of Mars will also be introduced, in the context of how we might assess aerosol-climate impacts more generally on other worlds.

  10. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  11. Observed vegetation patterns in tidal environments: neutral vs. non-neutral explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belluco, E.; Zillio, T.; Silvestri, S.; Maritan, A.; Marani, M.

    2009-12-01

    The quantitative retrieval of vegetation patterns in tidal environments from high-resolution satellite and airborne sensors has recently been shown to be accurate and repeatable. This makes available unprecedentedly accurate observations of competing species distributions over a broad range of spatial scales. Such distributions are here characterized statistically, suggesting the absence of characteristic scales, as revealed by the power-law form of cluster size pdf's. A competition model based on a neutral approach, serving as a reference null hypothesis, reproduces some of the basic observed system properties. It is, however, shown that the availability of spatially-detailed observations allows the development and application of a non-neutral model, which is seen to capture several observed bio-diversity properties (alpha and beta diversity). The non-neutral model developed, based on cloning and seed dispersal processes, is amenable to analytical solution and yields closed-form characterizations of beta-diversity. The validation of the non-neutral model shows a remarkable agreement with observations within the wide observational range of scales explored (0.5 m - 1000 m). We contend the good agreement of the neutral model with the more limited characterization of beta-diversity typical of the neutral theory to be misleading, as the recruitment rates by propagules and by seed dispersal assumed by the neutral model do not reflect known species characteristics and correspond to averages of those obtained under the more general non-neutral hypothesis. We conclude that non-neutral beta-diversity characterizations are required to describe ecosystem dynamics in the presence of species-dependent properties and to successfully relate the observed patterns to the underlying processes. The hypothesis of neutrality, often fostered by the lack of spatially-detailed data, is no longer a necessity, in view of the recent advances in remote-sensing retrievals of vegetation

  12. Advanced zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron particles for acidic magnetorheological finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited ZnS and other IR materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzman, S.; Giannechini, L. J.; Romanofsky, H. J.; Golini, N.; Taylor, B.; Jacobs, S. D.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a modified version of zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI) particles that were invented at the University of Rochester in 2008. The amount of zirconia on the coating is increased to further protect the iron particles from corrosion when introduced to an acidic environment. Five low-pH, magnetorheological (MR) fluids were made with five acids: acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric. All fluids were based on the modified zirconia-coated CI particles. Off-line viscosity and pH stability were measured for all acidic MR fluids to determine the ideal fluid composition for acidic MR finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) and other infrared (IR) optical materials, such as hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) ZnS, CVD zinc selenide (ZnSe), and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). Results show significant reduction in surface artifacts (millimeter-size, pebble-like structures on the finished surface) for several standard-grade CVD ZnS substrates and good surface roughness for the non-CVD MgF2 substrate when MR finished with our advanced acidic MR fluid.

  13. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  14. The Phobos neutral and ionized torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Curry, S. M.; Fatemi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Charged particle sputtering, micrometeoroid impact vaporization, and photon-stimulated desorption are fundamental processes operating at airless surfaces throughout the solar system. At larger bodies, such as Earth's Moon and several of the outer planet moons, these processes generate tenuous surface-bound exospheres that have been observed by a variety of methods. Phobos and Deimos, in contrast, are too gravitationally weak to keep ejected neutrals bound and, thus, are suspected to generate neutral tori in orbit around Mars. While these tori have not yet been detected, the distribution and density of both the neutral and ionized components are of fundamental interest. We combine a neutral Monte Carlo model and a hybrid plasma model to investigate both the neutral and ionized components of the Phobos torus. We show that the spatial distribution of the neutral torus is highly dependent on each individual species (due to ionization rates that span nearly 4 orders of magnitude) and on the location of Phobos with respect to Mars. Additionally, we present the flux distribution of torus pickup ions throughout the Martian system and estimate typical pickup ion fluxes. We find that the predicted pickup ion fluxes are too low to perturb the ambient plasma, consistent with previous null detections by spacecraft around Mars.

  15. Neutral Beam Ion Confinement in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; S.M. Kaye; S.S. Medley; and A.L. Roquemore

    2001-07-24

    Neutral-beam (NB) heating in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) began in September 2000 using up to 5 MW of 80 keV deuterium (D) beams. An initial assessment of beam ion confinement has been made using neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer (NPA), and a Faraday cup beam ion loss probe. Preliminary neutron results indicate that confinement may be roughly classical in quiescent discharges, but the probe measurements do not match a classical loss model. MHD activity, especially reconnection events (REs) causes substantial disturbance of the beam ion population.

  16. Analysis of uranium-zirconium-carbon-oxygen quaternary system for applications in advanced zirconium carbide coated TRISO particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degange, Jonathan Lee

    The implementation of ZrC for use in oxide TRISO particles for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) conditions to prevent kernel overpressurization and kernel migration has been proposed by several researchers. Analysis is performed incorporating first-principles thermodynamics along with out-of-pile experimental work. UO2+x-U4O9 powders are created and used for in-vacuo thermogravimetric testing with both carbon and zirconium carbide powders to evaluate the efficiency of ZrC for usage as an oxygen getter in oxide TRISO fuels.

  17. Advances in colloid and biocolloid transport in porous media: particle size-dependent dispersivity and gravity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Syngouna, Vasiliki I.

    2014-05-01

    Accurate prediction of colloid and biocolloid transport in porous media relies heavily on usage of suitable dispersion coefficients. The widespread procedure for dispersion coefficient determination consists of conducting conservative tracer experiments and subsequently fitting the collected breakthrough data with a selected advection-dispersion transport model. The fitted dispersion coefficient is assumed to characterize the porous medium and is often used thereafter to analyze experimental results obtained from the same porous medium with other solutes, colloids, and biocolloids. The classical advection-dispersion equation implies that Fick's first law of diffusion adequately describes the dispersion process, or that the dispersive flux is proportional to the concentration gradient. Therefore, the above-described procedure inherently assumes that the dispersive flux of all solutes, colloids and biocolloids under the same flow field conditions is exactly the same. Furthermore, the available mathematical models for colloid and biocoloid transport in porous media do not adequately account for gravity effects. Here an extensive laboratory study was undertaken in order to assess whether the dispersivity, which traditionally has been considered to be a property of the porous medium, is dependent on colloid particle size, interstitial velocity and length scale. The breakthrough curves were successfully simulated with a mathematical model describing colloid and biocolloid transport in homogeneous, water saturated porous media. The results demonstrated that the dispersivity increases very slowly with increasing interstitial velocity, and increases with column length. Furthermore, contrary to earlier results, which were based either on just a few experimental observations or experimental conditions leading to low mass recoveries, dispersivity was positively correlated with colloid particle size. Also, transport experiments were performed with biocolloids (bacteriophages:

  18. [Advances in Understanding Carcinogenetic Mechanisms of the Human Papillomavirus and Vaccines Based on Virus-like Particles].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhihong; Wang, Lili; Ma, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Prevention of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) has become a hot research topic since the relationship between the HPV and cervical cancer was confirmed. Persistent infection with HPV and early expression of proteins has an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Vaccines that protect against four high-risk types of HPV (-6, -11, -16, -18) have been used worldwide. A bivalent vaccine (HPV-16 and -18) developed by Walvax is in clinical trials. This study reviews progress in ascertainment of the structure and function of the HPV genome, the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis, and vaccines based on virus-like particles.

  19. Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A M; Lester, B J; Foss-Feig, M; Wall, M L; Rey, A M; Regal, C A

    2015-11-12

    To advance quantum information science, physical systems are sought that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of either Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. Although such interactions allow fast quantum gates, the interacting atoms must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring substantial wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects; however, such interactions present a new challenge: to distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, using a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. Ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and have detected entanglement with macroscopic observables; we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements. This new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunnelling is used to combine and separate atoms. These techniques provide a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.

  20. Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. M.; Lester, B. J.; Foss-Feig, M.; Wall, M. L.; Rey, A. M.; Regal, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    To advance quantum information science, physical systems are sought that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of either Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. Although such interactions allow fast quantum gates, the interacting atoms must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring substantial wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects; however, such interactions present a new challenge: to distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, using a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. Ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and have detected entanglement with macroscopic observables; we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements. This new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunnelling is used to combine and separate atoms. These techniques provide a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.

  1. Neoclassical electron transport in tokamaks with neutral-beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Helander, P.; Akers, R.J.

    2005-04-15

    The collisional interaction between neutral-beam ions and bulk plasma electrons leads to convective transport of particles and energy similar to the well-known Ware pinch. These transport fluxes are calculated, and it is found that the particle flux is outward when the neutral beams are in the same direction as the plasma current and inward otherwise, while the opposite holds for the electron heat transport. This effectively shifts the neutral-beam fueling profile approximately one fast-ion banana width outward during coinjection and inward during counterinjection, and could help to explain why very different plasma behavior is sometimes observed when the direction of the plasma current is reversed.

  2. An accessible heavy neutral lepton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi

    1982-09-01

    In the SUL(2) ⊗ SUR(2) ⊗ UB-L(1) model, an accessible heavy neutral lepton may exist owing to the mixing of generations. Based on a rough estimate, it is pointed out that the most hopeful experiments to observe this lepton are ν-production in an emulsion (because the track of a particle with lifetime 10-11-10-13 s could be seen) and e-production. The author thanks Professor J.D. Bjorken, Professor He Zuo-Xiu, Professor R.E. Mashark, Professor S.J. Chang, Professor Zhu Cong-Yuan and Professor M. Dine for helpful discussions and comments. He would like to thank the referee for valuable comments.

  3. Reversal of particle flux in collisional-finite beta tokamak discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Weiland, J.; Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.

    2015-01-15

    The mixed gradient method [Zhong et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 265001 (2013)] is adopted and effects of collisions and finite beta are included in the Weiland 9-equation fluid model. The particle flux and particle pinch, obtained using the Weiland anomalous transport fluid model, are compared with Tore Supra experimental results. Particle transport is also studied using predictive simulation data for an experimental advanced superconducting tokamak discharge in which neutral beam heating is utilized. The effects of collisions on particle transport are studied by turning collisions on and off in the Weiland model. It is found that the particle pinch region is related to the mode structure. The particle pinch region coincides with the region where the strong ballooning modes are present due to large gradients. The general properties of the fluid model are examined by finding regions where collisions can enhance the particle pinch.

  4. Use of particle beams for lunar prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toepfer, A. J.; Eppler, D.; Friedlander, A.; Weitz, R.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in choosing the appropriate site for a manned lunar base is the availability of resources, particularly oxygen and hydrogen for the production of water, and ores for the production of fuels and building materials. NASA has proposed two Lunar Scout missions that would orbit the Moon and use, among other instruments, a hard X-ray spectrometer, a neutron spectrometer, and a Ge gamma ray spectrometer to map the lunar surface. This passive instrumentation will have low resolution (tens of kilometers) due to the low signal levels produced by natural radioactivity and the interaction of cosmic rays and the solar wind with the lunar surface. This paper presents the results of a concept definition effort for a neutral particle beam lunar mapper probe. The idea of using particle beam probes to survey asteroids was first proposed by Sagdeev et al., and an ion beam device was fielded on the 1988 Soviet probe to the Mars moon Phobos. During the past five years, significant advances in the technology of neutral particle beams (NPB) have led to a suborbital flight of a neutral hydrogen beam device in the SDIO-sponsored BEAR experiment. An orbital experiment, the Neutral Particle Beam Far Field Optics Experiment (NPB-FOX) is presently in the preliminary design phase. The development of NPB accelerators that are space-operable leads one to consider the utility of these devices for probing the surface of the Moon using gamma ray, X-ray, and optical/UV spectroscopy to locate various elements and compounds. We consider the utility of the NPB-FOX satellite containing a 5-MeV particle beam accelerator as a probe in lunar orbit. Irradiation of the lunar surface by the particle beam will induce secondary and back scattered radiation from the lunar surface to be detected by a sensor that may be co-orbital with or on the particle beam satellite platform, or may be in a separate orbit. The secondary radiation is characteristic of the make-up of the lunar surface. The size of the

  5. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, O.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    Full particle PIC simulations are performed to study the neutralization of an ion beam in the cohesionless, mesothermal regime. Simulations further confirmed that neutralization is achieved through interactions between the trapped electrons and the potential well established by the propagation of the beam front along the beam direction and is not through plasma instabilities as previous studies suggested. In the transverse direction, the process is similar to that of the expansion of mesothermal plasma into vacuum. Parametric simulations are also performed to investigate the effects of beam radius and domain boundary condition on the neutralization process. The results suggests that, while the qualitative behavior may be similar in ground tests, quantitative parameters such as the beam potential will be affected significantly by the vacuum chamber because of the limits imposed on the expansion process by the finite chamber space.

  6. Acceleration of neutrals in a nanosecond laser produced nickel plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Philip, Reji

    2014-12-15

    Time of flight dynamics of slow neutrals, fast neutrals, and ions from a nanosecond laser produced nickel (Ni) plasma are investigated. Species arrival times confirm the hypothesis that fast neutrals are formed by the recombination of fast ions with free electrons. Both neutrals and ions are found to accelerate for a short interval immediately after ablation, which is attributed to internal Coulomb forces which create electrostatic potentials resulting in the charged particle acceleration. This process is further enhanced by laser-plasma energy coupling. Emission from neutrals could be measured for longer axial distances in the plume compared to that of ions confirming that the ions recombine to form neutrals as they move away from the target surface.

  7. Advanced electron microscopic techniques applied to the characterization of irradiation effects and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Lillo, T.M.; Trowbridge, T.L.; Madden, J.M.; Wu, Y.Q.; Goran, D.

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary electron microscopy of coated fuel particles from the AGR-1 experiment was conducted using characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates was performed. Although numerous micro- and nano-sized precipitates observed in the coating layers during initial SEM characterization of the cross-sections, and in subsequent TEM diffraction patterns, were indexed as UPd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, no Ag was conclusively found. Additionally, characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentrations of Ag in precipitates in the presence of significantly higher concentrations of Pd and U. The electron microscopy team followed a multi-directional and phased approach in the identification of fission products in irradiated TRISO fuel. The advanced electron microscopy techniques discussed in this paper, not only demonstrate the usefulness of the equipment (methods) as relevant research tools, but also provide relevant scientific results which increase the knowledge about TRISO fuel particles microstructure and fission products transport.

  8. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-01

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  9. Advanced spray-dried design, physicochemical characterization, and aerosol dispersion performance of vancomycin and clarithromycin multifunctional controlled release particles for targeted respiratory delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun-Woong; Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G; Hayes, Don; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Park, Eun-Seok; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-10-15

    Respirable microparticles/nanoparticles of the antibiotics vancomycin (VCM) and clarithromycin (CLM) were successfully designed and developed by novel organic solution advanced spray drying from methanol solution. Formulation optimization was achieved through statistical experimental design of pump feeding rates of 25% (Low P), 50% (Medium P) and 75% (High P). Systematic and comprehensive physicochemical characterization and imaging were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Karl Fischer titration (KFT), laser size diffraction (LSD), gravimetric vapor sorption (GVS), confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and spectroscopy for chemical imaging mapping. These novel spray-dried (SD) microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders displayed excellent aerosol dispersion performance as dry powder inhalers (DPIs) with high values in emitted dose (ED), respirable fraction (RF), and fine particle fraction (FPF). VCM DPIs displayed better aerosol dispersion performance compared to CLM DPIs which was related to differences in the physicochemical and particle properties of VCM and CLM. In addition, organic solution advanced co-spray drying particle engineering design was employed to successfully produce co-spray-dried (co-SD) multifunctional microparticulate/nanoparticulate aerosol powder formulations of VCM and CLM with the essential lung surfactant phospholipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), for controlled release pulmonary nanomedicine delivery as inhalable dry powder aerosols. Formulation optimization was achieved through statistical experimental design of molar ratios of co-SD VCM:DPPC and co-SD CLM:DPPC. XRPD and DSC confirmed that the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid-state was preserved following spray drying. Co-SD VCM:DPPC and co-SD CLM:DPPC dry powder aerosols demonstrated controlled release of antibiotic drug that was fitted to various

  10. Low-energy neutral-atom spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, D.E.; Cohen, S.A.

    1982-04-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of a low energy neutral atom spectrometer are described. Time-of-flight analysis is used to measure the energy spectrum of charge-exchange deuterium atoms emitted from the PLT tokamak plasma in the energy range from 20 to 1000 eV. The neutral outflux is gated on a 1 ..mu..sec time scale by a slotted rotating chopper disc, supported against gravity in vacuum by magnetic levitation, and is detected by secondary electron emission from a Cu-Be plate. The energy dependent detection efficiency has been measured in particle beam experiments and on the tokamak so that the diagnostic is absolutely calibrated, allowing quantitative particle fluxes to be determined with 200 ..mu..sec time resolution. In addition to its present application as a plasma diagnostic, the instrument is capable of making a wide variety of measurements relevant to atomic and surface physics.

  11. Benchmark of 3D halo neutral simulation in TRANSP and FIDASIM and application to projected neutral-beam-heated NSTX-U plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Medley, S. S.; Gorelenkova, M. V.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.

    2014-10-01

    A cloud of halo neutrals is created in the vicinity of beam footprint during the neutral beam injection and the halo neutral density can be comparable with beam neutral density. Proper modeling of halo neutrals is critical to correctly interpret neutral particle analyzers (NPA) and fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) signals since these signals strongly depend on local beam and halo neutral density. A 3D halo neutral model has been recently developed and implemented inside TRANSP code. The 3D halo neutral code uses a ``beam-in-a-box'' model that encompasses both injected beam neutrals and resulting halo neutrals. Upon deposition by charge exchange, a subset of the full, one-half and one-third beam energy components produce thermal halo neutrals that are tracked through successive halo neutral generations until an ionization event occurs or a descendant halo exits the box. A benchmark between 3D halo neural model in TRANSP and in FIDA/NPA synthetic diagnostic code FIDASIM is carried out. Detailed comparison of halo neutral density profiles from two codes will be shown. The NPA and FIDA simulations with and without 3D halos are applied to projections of plasma performance for the National Spherical Tours eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) and the effects of halo neutral density on NPA and FIDA signal amplitude and profile will be presented. Work supported by US DOE.

  12. Li(+)-conductive polymer-embedded nano-Si particles as anode material for advanced Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Zeng, Shi; Qian, Jianfeng; Wang, Yadong; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Ai, Xinping

    2014-03-12

    Si has been considered as a promising alternative anode for next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but the commercial application of Si anodes is still limited due to their poor cyclability. In this paper, we propose a new strategy to enhance the long-term cyclability of Si anode by embedding nano-Si particles into a Li(+)-conductive polymer to form a Si/polymer composite with core-shell structure, in which nano-Si cores act as active Li-storage phase and the polymeric matrix serves not only as a strong buffer to accommodate the volume change, but also as a protection barrier to prevent the direct contact of Si surface with electrolyte, so as to maintain the mechanical integrity of Si anode and suppress the repeated destruction and construction of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si surface. To realize this strategy, we synthesize a Si/PPP (polyparaphenylene) composite simply by ball-milling the Si nanoparticles with PPP polymer that has n-doping activity. Our experimental results demonstrate that the thus-prepared Si/PPP composite exhibits a high capacity of 3184 mA h g(-1) with an initial coulombic efficiency of 78%, an excellent rate capability with a considerably high capacity of 1670 mA h g(-1) even at a very high rate of 16 A g(-1), and a long-term cyclability with 60% capacity retention over 400 cycles, showing a great prospect for battery application. In addition, this structural design could be adopted to other Li-storable metals or alloys for developing cycle-stable anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  13. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  14. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  15. New applications of ORNL neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C. C.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    1998-01-01

    The injection of energetic hydrogen and deuterium atoms has been used to heat plasmas in various fusion experimental devices including tokamaks, mirrors, and stellarators. The neutral beam injection is a proven plasma heating technique for increasing plasma densities, temperatures, and pressures. For this fusion endeavor, scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed multimegawatt neutral beam injectors. Various ORNL injectors have been used for studying properties of beam-heated plasmas in Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK), Impurity Study Experiment-B (ISX-B), Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), Princeton Large Torus (PLT), and Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX) in the United States and in Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START) in the United Kingdom. By using a 30-cm and 100-A ion source, each ORNL neutral beam injector is capable of injecting >1.5 MW of hydrogen atoms at 50-keV for a pulse length up to 0.5 s. For increasing plasma densities and raising plasma temperatures in START, one such injector was installed and commissioned during 1995. The initial goal was to provide an injected neutral beam power of more than 0.5 MW at a beam energy of 40 keV for 20 ms. Addition of a getter pump has allowed the beam power to be raised to 1 MW at 33 keV. Recent experiments have demonstrated that neutral beam heating can play a big role in raising plasma pressures to a record volume-average beta value over 30%. ORNL neutral beam injectors have been approved for plasma heating experiments on both the TJ-II stellarator at CIEMAT, Spain, and the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Science Centre (Culham). Two proven ORNL NE injectors are being installed at the TJ-II facility. Additional ORNL beam equipment is being used to implement two 5-s NE injectors at the MAST facility. In this paper, we report and discuss the progress and plans for these neutral beam activities.

  16. The status of neutral currents

    SciTech Connect

    Zwirner, F.

    1987-11-01

    The situation of particle physics today is quite puzzling. On the one hand, the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions is consistent with all confirmed experimental data but theoretically rather unsatisfactory. On the other hand, none of the many theoretical speculations which try to go beyond the SM has (yet) received the slightest experimental support. The solution to this dilemma can only come from new data: either from the detection of a new particle threshold at high energy colliders, or from the appearance of some small discrepancy in high-precision experiments. A crucial sector for testing the SM and its extensions is that of neutral currents (NC), where an impressive amount of data has been collected in recent years. While waiting for the next generation of experiments, it is certainly useful to take stock of our knowledge, determining the NC parameters as precisely as we can and putting limits on possible deviations from the SM. The present talk contains the results of a recent analysis along these lines: the first part illustrates how a set of 'model-independent' parameters can be extracted from the available NC data, the second part particularizes the analysis to the SM and to some superstring-inspired models with an additional Z' in their low-energy spectrum. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Analysis of particle size and interface effects on the strength and ductility of advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettehad, Mahmood

    This thesis is devoted to the numerical investigation of mechanical behavior of Dual phase (DP) steels. Such grade of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is favorable to the automotive industry due the unique properties such as high strength and ductility with low finished cost. Many experimental and numerical studies have been done to achieve the optimized behavior of DP steels by controlling their microstructure. Experiments are costly and time consuming so in recent years numerical tools are utilized to help the metallurgist before doing experiments. Most of the numerical studies are based on classical (local) constitutive models where no material length scale parameters are incorporated in the model. Although these models are proved to be very effective in modeling the material behavior in the large scales but they fail to address some critical phenomena which are important for our goals. First, they fail to address the size effect phenomena which materials show at microstructural scale. This means that materials show stronger behavior at small scales compared to large scales. Another issue with classical models is the mesh size dependency in modeling the softening behavior of materials. This means that in the finite element context (FEM) the results will be mesh size dependent and no converged solution exist upon mesh refinement. Thereby by applying the classical (local) models one my loose the accuracy on measuring the strength and ductility of DP steels. Among the non-classical (nonlocal) models, gradient-enhanced plasticity models which consider the effect of neighboring point on the behavior of one specific point are proved to be numerically effective and versatile tools to accomplish the two concerns mentioned above. So in this thesis a gradient-enhanced plasticity model which incorporates both the energetic and dissipative material length scales is derived based on the laws of thermodynamics. This model also has a consistent yield-like function for the

  18. Energetic Neutral Atom Production due to Charge Exchange at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Erena

    2008-05-01

    An energetic neutral atom (ENA) is formed in a charge exchange process where an energetic ion picks up an electron from a neutral particle. Mars, having no notable global intrinsic magnetic field, cannot shield the neutral particles in its atmosphere from the flow of energetic solar wind protons. Consequently, an extensive production of energetic hydrogen atoms (H-ENAs) occurs. In this study a 3D hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) quasi-neutral particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation is being developed to investigate the production of H-ENAs due to collisions with atomic oxygen (O) and neutral nitrogen molecules (N2) in the transition region of the Martian near-space environment. In order to better study the interaction between Mars' exosphere and ionosphere, multi-species reactions such as ionization by photons, electron recombination and charge exchange are self-consisitently included in the simulation model. The major ions included are exospheric solar wind protons and the planetary O2^+, CO2^+, O^+, and N2^+ ions. The motion of the precipitating particles in the atmosphere is followed, and collisions with atmospheric ions and neutrals (O, CO2, N2) are governed by a Monte Carlo ``collision-by-collision'' algorithm. What is presented is a ``work in progress'' as we work towards our goal of computing the flux of escaping H-ENAs due to charge exchange with O and N2.

  19. Solar Wind - Mars Interactions: Energetic Neutral Atom Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Erena; Yau, Andrew; Brackbill, Jerry

    2012-10-01

    We study the energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) that are formed by charge exchange between solar wind ions and neutral particles in the Martian atmosphere. Mars Global Surveyor has shown that Mars has no notable global intrinsic magnetic field. Consequently, the neutral particles in the Martian atmosphere are unshielded from the flow of energetic solar wind protons. There results extensive production of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (H-ENAs). In our study, we use a 3D hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons), quasi-neutral, particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation to investigate the production of H-ENAs due to collisions with neutral oxygen (O, O) and nitrogen (N) molecules in the near-space environment of Mars. A detailed chemical model that comprises multi-species reactions, such as ionization by photons, electron recombination, particle collisions, and charge exchange, is self-consistently included in the simulation. These chemical interactions, which take place between ions, atoms, and molecules in the martian exosphere and ionosphere, control the production of the H-ENAs. What is presented is a ``work in progress'' highlighting the ionospheric chemical and physical model as we work towards our goal of computing the flux of escaping H-ENAs due to charge exchange.

  20. BEAM TRANSPORT AND STORAGE WITH COLD NEUTRAL ATOMS AND MOLECULES

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter L.

    2012-05-15

    A large class of cold neutral atoms and molecules is subject to magnetic field-gradient forces. In the presence of a field, hyperfine atomic states are split into several Zeeman levels. The slopes of these curves vs. field are the effective magnetic moments. By means of optical pumping in a field, Zeeman states of neutral lithium atoms and CaH molecules with effective magnetic moments of nearly {+-} one Bohr magneton can be selected. Particles in Zeeman states for which the energy increases with field are repelled by increasing fields; particles in states for which the energy decreases with field are attracted to increasing fields. For stable magnetic confinement, field-repelled states are required. Neutral-particle velocities in the present study are on the order of tens to hundreds of m/s and the magnetic fields needed for transport and injection are on the order of in the range of 0.01-1T. Many of the general concepts of charged-particle beam transport carry over into neutral particle spin-force optics, but with important differences. In general, the role of bending dipoles in charged particle optics is played by quadrupoles in neutral particle optics; the role of quadrupoles is played by sextupoles. The neutralparticle analog of charge-exchange injection into storage rings is the use of lasers to flip the state of particles from field-seeking to field-repelled. Preliminary tracking results for two neutral atom/molecule storage ring configurations are presented. It was found that orbit instabilities limit the confinment time in a racetrack-shaped ring with discrete magnetic elements with drift spaces between them; stable behavior was observed in a toroidal ring with a continuous sextupole field. An alternative concept using a linear sextupole or octupole channel with solenoids on the ends is presently being considered.

  1. A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, E T; Shumlak, U

    2012-04-06

    A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.

  2. Schemes and Optimization of Gas Flowing into the Ion Source and the Neutralizer of the DIII-D Neutral Beam Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, R.M.; Chiu, H.K.

    1999-11-01

    Performance comparisons of a DIII-D neutral beam ion source operated with two different schemes of supplying neutral gas to the arc chamber were performed. Superior performance was achieved when gas was puffed into both the arc chamber and the neutralizer with the gas flows optimized as compared to supplying gas through the neutralizer alone. To form a neutral beam, ions extracted from the arc chamber and accelerated are passed through a neutralizing cell of gas. Neutral gas is commonly puffed into the neutralizing cell to supplement the residual neutral gas from the arc chamber to obtain maximum neutralization efficiency. However, maximizing neutralization efficiency does not necessarily provide the maximum available neutral beam power, since high levels of neutral gas can increase beam loss through collisions and cause larger beam divergence. Excessive gas diffused from the neutralizer into the accelerator region also increases the number of energetic particles (ions and secondary electrons from the accelerator grid surfaces) deposited on the accelerator grids, increasing the possibility of overheating. We have operated an ion source with a constant optimal gas flow directly into the arc chamber while gas flow into the neutralizer was varied. Neutral beam power available for injecting into plasmas was obtained based on the measured data of beam energy, beam current, beam transmission, beam divergence, and neutralization efficiency for various neutralizer gas flow rates. We will present the results of performance comparison with the two gas puffing schemes, and show steps of obtaining the maximum available beam power and determining the optimum neutralizer gas flow rate.

  3. Between detection and neutralization.

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark Kamerer; Green, Mary Wilson; Adams, Douglas Glenn; Pritchard, Daniel Allison

    2005-08-01

    Security system analytical performance analysis is generally based on the probability of system effectiveness. The probability of effectiveness is a function of the probabilities of interruption and neutralization. Interruption occurs if the response forces are notified in sufficient time to engage the adversary. Neutralization occurs if the adversary attack is defeated after the security forces have actively engaged the adversary. Both depend upon communications of data. This paper explores details of embedded communications functions that are often assumed to be inconsequential. It is the intent of the authors to bring focus to an issue in security system modeling that, if not well understood, has the potential to be a deciding factor in the overall system failure or effectiveness.

  4. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  5. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  6. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  7. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  8. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A diver tests a secondary camera and maneuvering platform in Marshall's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS).The secondary camera will be beneficial for recording repairs and other extra vehicular activities (EVA) the astronuats will perform while making repairs on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The maneuvering platform was developed to give the astronauts something to stand on while performing maintenance tasks. These platforms were developed to be mobile so that the astronauts could move them to accommadate different sites.

  9. Ion and neutral polar winds for northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Larry C.; Schunk, Robert W.

    2006-08-01

    The coupling of the ionosphere/magnetosphere system at high-latitudes is dependent in part upon the transport of neutral atoms from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere, and visa versa. The neutral atoms that flow between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere are neutral stream atoms that are produced in charge exchange reactions between the ions in the polar wind and the background thermal and geocoronal atoms. The characteristics of these neutral stream particles are highly dependent upon the ions in the polar cap. The ions are convected across the polar cap due to convection electric fields, and thus the neutral stream particles are also indirectly affected by the convection electric fields due to charge exchange. The horizontal flow of neutral stream particles, therefore, shows a general anti-sunward motion during periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and a general sunward flow across the magnetic pole during times of northward IMF. The vertical fluxes of these neutral stream particles depend upon several processes, including the heat input due to precipitating electrons, the vertical velocity of the ions involved in the charge exchange reactions that produce the neutral stream particles, and the time history of neutral stream particles in the high-latitude region.

  10. Neutralizing antibodies in Borna disease virus-infected rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hatalski, C G; Kliche, S; Stitz, L; Lipkin, W I

    1995-01-01

    Borna disease is a neurologic syndrome caused by infection with a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus, Borna disease virus. Infected animals have antibodies to two soluble viral proteins, p40 and p23, and a membrane-associated viral glycoprotein, gp18. We examined the time course for the development of neutralization activity and the expression of antibodies to individual viral proteins in sera of infected rats. The appearance of neutralizing activity correlated with the development of immunoreactivity to gp18, but not p40 or p23. Monospecific and monoclonal antibodies to native gp18 and recombinant nonglycosylated gp18 were also found to have neutralizing activity and to immunoprecipitate viral particles or subparticles. These findings suggest that gp18 is likely to be present on the surface of the viral particles and is likely to contain epitopes important for virus neutralization. PMID:7815538

  11. Particles in the Heliosphere: Scientific and Technical Challenges in the Next Decade (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of research in solar and space physics is our ability to directly observe the velocity distributions functions and abundances of particles at points in space without disrupting the overall system. This allows us to obtain unique insights into fundamental physical processes including shocks, acceleration, magnetic reconnection, wave-particle interactions, and ion-neutral coupling that are relevant both for heliophysics and for broader plasma applications, including laboratory plasmas and more exotic astrophysical environments. This talk will highlight some of the most exciting scientific challenges in heliophysics related to particles in space, from thermal to relativistic energies, and from neutral gas to highly ionized plasma. Technological advances in instrumentation and spacecraft needed to answer these questions within the next decade will also be examined.

  12. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free Exercise and…

  13. Paramagnetic ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles as advanced T1 MRI contrast agent: account for large longitudinal relaxivity, optimal particle diameter, and in vivo T1 MR images.

    PubMed

    Park, Ja Young; Baek, Myung Ju; Choi, Eun Sook; Woo, Seungtae; Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Jung, Jae Chang; Chae, Kwon Seok; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Gang Ho

    2009-11-24

    Paramagnetic ultrasmall gadolinium oxide (Gd(2)O(3)) nanoparticles with particle diameters (d) of approximately 1 nm were synthesized by using three kinds of Gd(III) ion precursors and by refluxing each of them in tripropylene glycol under an O(2) flow. A large longitudinal relaxivity (r(1)) of water proton of 9.9 s(-1) mM(-1) was estimated. As a result, high contrast in vivo T(1) MR images of the brain tumor of a rat were observed. This large r(1) is discussed in terms of the huge surface to volume ratio (S/V) of the ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles coupled with the cooperative induction of surface Gd(III) ions for the longitudinal relaxation of a water proton. It is found from the d dependence of r(1) that the optimal range of d for the maximal r(1), which may be used as an advanced T(1) MRI contrast agent, is 1-2.5 nm.

  14. Oscillating ion streamline model of Jupiter's neutral sodium nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brian

    1993-10-01

    Recent observations of neutral sodium D line emissions within 10 jovian radii (RJ) of Jupiter have led to the proposal of a new mechanism for the production of fast neutral sodium. The mechanism involves corotating, sodium-bearing molecular ions from Io's exosphere which undergo dissociation and/or dissociative recombination, resulting in fast neutral sodium atoms on escape trajectories from Jupiter. Fast neutral sodium atoms ejected near Io are also required to explain observations of the 1000 RJ-wide neutral sodium nebula surrounding Jupiter. A new Monte Carlo model explicitly computes particle trajectories resulting from molecular ion velocities at the time of dissociation or dissociative recombination. Initial simulations compare favorably with the general morphology of the nebula. Model estimates of nebula parameters are given.

  15. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  16. Mechanism of human antibody-mediated neutralization of Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Flyak, Andrew I; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Murin, Charles D; Garron, Tania; Shen, Xiaoli; Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Slaughter, James C; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Ward, Andrew B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E

    2015-02-26

    The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit Marburg virus (MARV) are not known. We isolated a panel of neutralizing antibodies from a human MARV survivor that bind to MARV glycoprotein (GP) and compete for binding to a single major antigenic site. Remarkably, several of the antibodies also bind to Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. Single-particle EM structures of antibody-GP complexes reveal that all of the neutralizing antibodies bind to MARV GP at or near the predicted region of the receptor-binding site. The presence of the glycan cap or mucin-like domain blocks binding of neutralizing antibodies to EBOV GP, but not to MARV GP. The data suggest that MARV-neutralizing antibodies inhibit virus by binding to infectious virions at the exposed MARV receptor-binding site, revealing a mechanism of filovirus inhibition. PMID:25723164

  17. A superconducting NbN detector for neutral nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marksteiner, Markus; Divochiy, Alexander; Sclafani, Michele; Haslinger, Philipp; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Korneev, Alexander; Semenov, Alexander; Gol'tsman, Gregory; Arndt, Markus

    2009-11-01

    We present a proof-of-principle study of superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) for the detection of individual neutral molecules/nanoparticles at low energies. The new detector is applied to characterize a laser desorption source for biomolecules and allows retrieval of the arrival time distribution of a pulsed molecular beam containing the amino acid tryptophan, the polypeptide gramicidin as well as insulin, myoglobin and hemoglobin. We discuss the experimental evidence that the detector is actually sensitive to isolated neutral particles.

  18. Neutralization of rainwater acidity at Kanpur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Sheo Prasad; Sharma, Mukesh

    2010-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) levels show significant seasonal variability and this can influence the neutralization of rainwater acidity. Months were grouped in two periods: monsoon (July to October) and non-monsoon (November to June) for studying the seasonal variability in PM and rainwater composition. To clearly establish the cause effect relationship of acid rain neutralization, a two tier model was proposed involving source apportionment of particulates at two levels: (i) ambient air and (ii) rainwater particulate interaction. For modelling purpose, PM10 (n = 100), soil (n = 4) and rainwater (n = 83) samples were collected at Kanpur, India during 2000-2002. The collected samples were analysed for metals and water soluble ion composition to employ factor anal