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Sample records for advanced non-squamous non-small

  1. Pemetrexed in maintenance treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Minami, Seigo; Kijima, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Pemetrexed, a multitargeting antifolate cytotoxic drug, plays a leading role in front-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Following its approval as second-line monotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous NSCLC, pemetrexed has established itself as the first-line regimen in combination with cisplatin, and its powerful antitumor effects and less cumulative toxicities were then taken advantage of in the JMEN and PARAMOUNT trials, respectively, to pioneer a new treatment strategy of switch and continuation maintenance monotherapy. These developments have brought about a marked paradigm shift, and made pemetrexed indispensable in the treatment for non-squamous NSCLC. So far, only three drugs have been approved for maintenance therapy; pemetrexed both by switch and continuation maintenance, erlotinib by switch maintenance, and bevacizumab by continuation maintenance. Compared with observation alone after defined cycles of the first-line chemotherapy, subsequent pemetrexed maintenance therapy has provided significantly longer survival and infrequent severe adverse events. The cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed maintenance therapy is controversial, as well as the other two maintenance drugs, bevacizumab and erlotinib. The latest attractive attention is a combination maintenance therapy. We may have to consider epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status for selection of a combination pattern. A combination maintenance therapy of pemetrexed plus bevacizumab is potential for patients with wild-type EGFR status, while a EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-containing combination is promising for patients with active EGFR mutation status. Pemetrexed will be a pivotal drug when a combination maintenance therapy is used in practice. For future maintenance therapy, we need to explore reliable predictive selection or exclusion markers that can predict who will really benefit from maintenance therapy.

  2. Pemetrexed in maintenance treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Seigo; Kijima, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Pemetrexed, a multitargeting antifolate cytotoxic drug, plays a leading role in front-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Following its approval as second-line monotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous NSCLC, pemetrexed has established itself as the first-line regimen in combination with cisplatin, and its powerful antitumor effects and less cumulative toxicities were then taken advantage of in the JMEN and PARAMOUNT trials, respectively, to pioneer a new treatment strategy of switch and continuation maintenance monotherapy. These developments have brought about a marked paradigm shift, and made pemetrexed indispensable in the treatment for non-squamous NSCLC. So far, only three drugs have been approved for maintenance therapy; pemetrexed both by switch and continuation maintenance, erlotinib by switch maintenance, and bevacizumab by continuation maintenance. Compared with observation alone after defined cycles of the first-line chemotherapy, subsequent pemetrexed maintenance therapy has provided significantly longer survival and infrequent severe adverse events. The cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed maintenance therapy is controversial, as well as the other two maintenance drugs, bevacizumab and erlotinib. The latest attractive attention is a combination maintenance therapy. We may have to consider epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status for selection of a combination pattern. A combination maintenance therapy of pemetrexed plus bevacizumab is potential for patients with wild-type EGFR status, while a EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-containing combination is promising for patients with active EGFR mutation status. Pemetrexed will be a pivotal drug when a combination maintenance therapy is used in practice. For future maintenance therapy, we need to explore reliable predictive selection or exclusion markers that can predict who will really benefit from maintenance therapy

  3. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy for advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer with malignant pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Kaoru; Ando, Masahiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nishijima, Nobuhiko; Sugano, Teppei; Toyokawa, Masaru; Miwa, Koji; Kosaihira, Seiji; Noro, Rintaro; Minegishi, Yuji; Seike, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Akinobu; Gemma, Akihiko

    2013-02-01

    The presence of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) indicates a poorer prognosis for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and impairs their quality of life. Because vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the key mediator MPE production, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF antibody, in non-squamous NSCLC patients with MPE, especially regarding the control of pleural effusions. From November 1, 2009 to September 30, 2011, medical charts of 13 consecutive patients with MPE who received bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the initial or secondary treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 13 patients, 6 did not undergo pleurodesis, 3 were unsuccessfully treated by pleurodesis, 2 had encapsulated pleural effusion, and 2 had no re-expansion of the lung. Twelve patients (92.3 %) achieved MPE control lasting >8 weeks following bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. Five of 10 patients with measurable lesions had confirmed partial responses. Of 3 patients without measurable lesions, one had confirmed CR. Median progression-free survival time without re-accumulation of MPE was 312 days. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, hypertension, or proteinuria was observed in 2, 2, 1, or 1 patient, respectively. This is the first study to report that bevacizumab plus chemotherapy is highly effective for the management of MPE in non-squamous NSCLC patients. Prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate the efficacy of bevacizumab for MPE.

  4. Serum proteomic test in advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated in first line with standard chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, F; Rijavec, E; Genova, C; Barletta, G; Biello, F; Maggioni, C; Burrafato, G; Sini, C; Dal Bello, M G; Meyer, K; Roder, J; Roder, H; Grigorieva, J

    2017-01-01

    Background: VeriStrat is a blood-based proteomic test with predictive and prognostic significance in second-line treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This trial was designed to investigate the role of VeriStrat in first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC with standard chemotherapy. Here we present the results for 76 non-squamous patients treated with a combination of carboplatin or cisplatin with pemetrexed. Methods: The test-assigned classifications of VeriStrat Good or VeriStrat Poor to samples collected at baseline. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and objective response. Exploratory analyses of end points separately in carboplatin/pemetrexed and cisplatin/pemetrexed subgroups were also conducted. Results: Patients classified as VeriStrat Good had longer PFS and OS than VeriStrat Poor: 6.5 vs 1.6 months and 10.8 vs 3.4 months, respectively; the corresponding hazard ratios (HRs) were 0.36 (P<0.0001) and 0.26 (P<0.0001); they were also more likely to achieve objective response. Prognostic significance of VeriStrat was confirmed in multivariate analysis. Significant differences in OS and PFS between Veristrat classifications were also found when treatment subgroups were analysed separately. Conclusions: The trial demonstrated clinical utility of VeriStrat as a prognostic test for standard first-line chemotherapy of non-squamous advanced NSCLC. PMID:27898657

  5. Home administration of maintenance pemetrexed for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: rationale, practicalities and phase II feasibility study design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Home-based care in oncology is mainly reserved for patients at the end of life. Regulations regarding home delivery of cytotoxics differ across Europe, with a notable lack of practice guidelines in most countries. This has led to a lack of data addressing the feasibility of home-based administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. In advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, pemetrexed is approved as maintenance therapy after first-line chemotherapy. In this setting, patients have the potential to be treated long-term with maintenance therapy, which, in the absence of unacceptable toxicity, is continued until disease progression. The favourable safety profile of pemetrexed and the ease of its administration by 10-minute intravenous infusion every 3 weeks make this drug a suitable candidate for administration in a home setting. Methods Literature and regulations relevant to the home-based delivery of cytotoxic therapy were reviewed, and a phase II feasibility study of home administration of pemetrexed maintenance therapy was designed. At least 50 patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–1 and no progressive disease after four cycles of platinum-based first-line therapy are required to allow investigation of the feasibility of home-based administration of pemetrexed maintenance therapy (500 mg/m2 every 3 weeks until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity). Feasibility is being assessed as adherence to the home-based administration process (primary endpoint), patient safety, impact on patients’ quality of life, patient and physician satisfaction with home care, and healthcare resource use and costs. Enrolment of patients from the UK and Sweden, where home-based care is relatively well developed, commenced in December 2011. Discussion This feasibility study addresses an important aspect of maintenance therapy, that is, patient comfort during protracted home

  6. Preliminary safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of regorafenib, cisplatin, and pemetrexed in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Matthew D; Sturm, Isrid; Trnkova, Zuzana Jirakova; Lettieri, John; Diefenbach, Konstanze; Rizvi, Naiyer A.; Gettinger, Scott N.

    2016-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose The addition of bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenesis agent, to cytotoxic chemotherapy improves survival in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancers (nsNSCLCs). Regorafenib is an oral multi-targeted kinase inhibitor with potent anti-angiogenic activity that is approved for patients with advanced colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. This phase I trial evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of regorafenib with cisplatin and pemetrexed for patients with advanced nsNSCLCs. Methods Chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced nsNSCLCs were treated with regorafenib 60mg/day continuously and cisplatin 75mg/m2 plus pemetrexed 500mg/m2 once every three weeks for up to six cycles. Thereafter, regorafenib with or without pemetrexed could be continued as maintenance. Results Nine patients enrolled prior to premature termination of the study due to slow recruitment and a change in the development strategy of regorafenib by the study sponsor, partially due to slow enrollment. Five patients experienced at least one treatment-related Grade 3 adverse event. No grade 4–5 toxicity occurred. 5 of 9 (56%) patients had a partial response and the median progression-free survival was 7 months (range 1.5–15.1). Minor pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between regorafenib and chemotherapy were observed. Conclusions Regorafenib had acceptable tolerability and minor PK interactions in combination with standard doses of cisplatin and pemetrexed in patients with advanced nsNSCLCs. Encouraging activity was appreciated in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced nsNSCLCs. However, the small number of patients treated limits conclusions that can be drawn from these results. PMID:26003007

  7. EAGLES study: First-line Bevacizumab in Combination with Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Advanced, Metastatic, Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    DE Marinis, Filippo; Bidoli, Paolo; Luciani, Andrea; Amoroso, Domenico; Tonini, Giuseppe; Bertolini, Alessandro; Brandes, Alba A; Migliorino, Maria Rita; Favaretto, Adolfo; Gridelli, Cesare

    2017-05-01

    The management of elderly patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC includes several strategies. Patients (≥70 years) were randomly assigned to bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg i.v. on day 1) plus gemcitabine (1,200 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1-8) (arm A) or bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg i.v.) and cisplatin (60 mg/m(2) i.v.) plus gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1-8) (arm B), to independently evaluate treatments. The primary endpoint was progression-free rate at 6 months; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety profiles. At 6 months, 5 (11.6%) patients in arm A and 5 patients (12.5%) in arm B were found to be progression-free. Median PFS was 4.8 months in arm A and 6.5 months in arm B, respectively. In our experience, combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy had encouraging anti-tumor efficacy as first-line therapy in elderly patients with non-squamous NSCLC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. First-line bevacizumab, cisplatin and vinorelbine plus maintenance bevacizumab in advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer chemo-naïve patients.

    PubMed

    Leon, Luis; Vázquez, Sergio; Gracia, José Manuel; Casal, Joaquín; Lazaro, Martín; Firvida, José Luis; Amenedo, Margarita; Santome, Lucia; Macia, Sonia

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of first-line treatment with bevacizumab, cisplatin and vinorelbine and bevacizumab maintenance in non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Forty-nine patients with stage IIIB plus pleural effusion or stage IV NSCLC were included in a Phase II clinical trial. Treatment consisted of 3-week cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg on day 1), cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) on day 1) and vinorelbine (25 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8). After 6 cycles, non-progressing patients received bevacizumab maintenance therapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS), calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Thirteen (29%) of 45 evaluable patients presented a partial response. PFS and overall survival were 6.0 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5 - 7.5) and 14.7 months (95% CI 8.4 - 21), respectively. Fourteen patients (28%) experienced grade 3 - 4 neutropenia and 7 (14%) experienced febrile neutropenia during the combination treatment. During the maintenance phase, the most frequent grade 3 - 4 adverse event was hypertension. Neither grade 3 - 4 thrombocytopenia nor toxic death was observed. The studied regimen achieved a similar efficacy to other regimens containing platinum doublets. The data provide further evidence that bevacizumab may be used in combination with multiple standard platinum-based doublets in this setting.

  9. Maintenance therapy with pemetrexed and bevacizumab versus pemetrexed monotherapy after induction therapy with carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-squamous non small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Karayama, Masato; Inui, Naoki; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Kuroishi, Shigeki; Yokomura, Koshi; Koshimizu, Naoki; Sato, Masaki; Toyoshima, Mikio; Shirai, Toshihiro; Masuda, Masafumi; Yamada, Takashi; Imokawa, Shiro; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-05-01

    Single agent maintenance therapy is widely accepted for advanced non-squamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there is no consensus on the initial and maintenance phase regimens, and the clinical benefit of adding bevacizumab to cytotoxic drugs in the maintenance phase remains unclear. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with non-squamous NSCLC were randomly assigned to maintenance therapy with pemetrexed and bevacizumab or pemetrexed alone, after achieving disease control after four cycles of induction therapy with carboplatin (area under the curve = 6), pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2)), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg). The primary end-point was 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate. One hundred ten patients were enrolled in the study, with 55 patients assigned to the two groups. The mean 1-year PFS rate was 43.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29.6-59.2%) in the combination maintenance group and 35.2% (95% CI: 22.1-51.0%) in the pemetrexed maintenance group, and the difference was not significant (p = 0.433). Median PFS measured from enrolment was 11.5 months (95% CI: 7.1-19.0) in the combination maintenance group and 7.3 months (95% CI: 5.7-14.1, hazard ratio: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.44-1.19, log-rank p = 0.198) in the pemetrexed maintenance group. Nasal haemorrhage, hypertension, and proteinuria were significantly more frequent in the combination maintenance group, but they were mild and tolerable. Both maintenance therapy with pemetrexed alone and pemetrexed and bevacizumab in combination were feasible in patients with non-squamous NSCLC who have achieved disease control after induction therapy with carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab. According to the selection design, differences in the superiority between these maintenance therapies were not demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maximizing Benefits from Maintenance Pemetrexed with Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Oligoprogressive Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shao-Lun; Hsu, Feng-Ming; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Ho, Chao-Chi; Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance pemetrexed offers survival benefit with well-tolerated toxicities for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We present 3 consecutively enrolled patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC, receiving stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for oligoprogressive disease during maintenance pemetrexed. All of them had sustained local control of thoracic oligoprogression after the SABR, while maintenance pemetrexed were kept for additionally long progression-free interval. SABR targeting oligoprogression with continued pemetrexed is an effective and safe approach to extend exposure of maintenance pemetrexed, thus maximizing the benefit from it. PMID:27721771

  11. Treatment Algorithms for Patients with Metastatic Non-Small Cell, Non-Squamous Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A number of developments have altered the treatment paradigm for metastatic non-small cell, non-squamous lung cancer. These include increasing knowledge of molecular signal pathways, as well as the outcomes of several large-scale trials. As a result, treatments are becoming more efficacious and more personalized, and are changing the management and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer patients. This is resulting in increased survival in select patient groups. In this paper, a simplified algorithm for treating patients with metastatic non-small cell, non-squamous lung cancer is presented. PMID:25325013

  12. Cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin as first line treatment for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer in Spain.

    PubMed

    González García, Jonathan; Gutiérrez Nicolás, Fernando; Nazco Casariego, Gloria Julia; Valcárcel Nazco, Cristina; Batista López, Jose Norberto; Oramas Rodríguez, Juana

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the third most frequent neoplastic tumour in Spain, with around 27 000 new cases diagnosed per year; 80-95% of these are non-small-cell cancer (NSCLC), and the majority of cases are diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, and for this reason it is one of the oncologic conditions with higher mortality rates (21.4% mean survival at 5 years). The main treatment regimens used for first-line treatment of NSCLC are: cisplatin/pemetrexed (cis/pem), cisplatin/gemcitabine/ bevacizumab (cis/gem/bev), and carboplatin/paclitaxel/ bevacizumab (carb/pac/bev). The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of antineoplastic 1st line NSCLC treatment regimens, from the point of view of hospital management. A cost-efficacy mathematical model was prepared, based on a decision tree. The efficacy variable was Progression Free Survival, obtained from the PARAMOUNT, AVAIL and SAIL Phase III clinical trials. The study was conducted from the perspective of the hospital management, considering only the direct costs of drug acquisition. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted to confirm the robustness of outcomes. The PFS obtained in clinical trials with cis/pem, cis/ gem/bev and carb/pac/bev was: 6.9, 6.7 and 6.2 months, respectively. Based on our model, the mean cost of treatment per patient for these regimens was: 19 942 €, 15 594 € and 36 095 €, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per month of additional PFS between cis/pem and cis/gem/bev was 19 303 €. Estimating a 30% reduction in acquisition costs for pemetrexed (Alimta®Eli Lilly Nederland B.V.), due to the forthcoming launch of generic medications, the cis/pem treatment would become the predominant alternative for 1st line treatment of NSCLC patients, by offering the best health results at a lower cost. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Current Treatment Algorithms for Patients with Metastatic Non-Small Cell, Non-Squamous Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The treatment paradigm for metastatic non-small cell, non-squamous lung cancer is continuously evolving due to new treatment options and our increasing knowledge of molecular signal pathways. As a result of treatments becoming more efficacious and more personalized, survival for selected groups of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is increasing. In this paper, three algorithms will be presented for treating patients with metastatic non-squamous, NSCLC. These include treatment algorithms for NSCLC patients whose tumors have EGFR mutations, ALK rearrangements, or wild-type/wild-type tumors. As the world of immunotherapy continues to evolve quickly, a future algorithm will also be presented. PMID:28373963

  14. First-line pemetrexed plus cisplatin followed by gefitinib maintenance therapy versus gefitinib monotherapy in East Asian patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: a randomised, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Mok, Tony; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Srimuninnimit, Vichien; Lin, Chia-Chi; Kim, Dong-Wan; Tsai, Chun-Ming; Barraclough, Helen; Altug, Sedat; Orlando, Mauro; Park, Keunchil

    2014-09-01

    In the Iressa Pan-ASia Study (IPASS), gefitinib claimed improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus carboplatin-paclitaxel in clinically selected lung cancer patients. The primary objective of this study was to assess the PFS of pemetrexed-cisplatin (PC) followed by gefitinib maintenance versus gefitinib monotherapy in an IPASS-like population. In this open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, eligible patients were ⩾18 years, chemonaïve, East Asian, light ex-smokers/never-smokers with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1 and unknown epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status who enrolled at 12 sites in Asia. Patients randomly received (1:1) pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2)) plus cisplatin (75mg/m(2)) for six 21-day cycles, followed by gefitinib maintenance or gefitinib monotherapy (250 mg/day). Patient tissue was retrospectively analysed for EGFR mutations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01017874. Between 23rd November 2009 and 27th April 2012, 253 patients entered, and 236 patients were randomly assigned to and treated with PC therapy (N=114) and gefitinib monotherapy (N=118). Between-arm baseline characteristics were balanced. PFS was not significantly different between treatment arms (p=0.217). The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.13). The HR should be cautiously interpreted as it was not constant. EGFR mutation status was determined for 74 tissue samples; 50 (67.6%) had mutations. In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, only the treatment-by-EGFR mutation interaction was significant (p=0.008) for PFS. For the entire treatment period, a higher proportion of patients in the PC/gefitinib arm versus gefitinib experienced possibly drug-related grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events (39 of 114 [34%] versus 19 of 118 [16%]; p=0.002). In the intention-to-treat (ITT) population, PFS was not significantly different

  15. A randomized, phase 2 study comparing pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus best supportive care as maintenance therapy after first-line treatment with pemetrexed and cisplatin for advanced, non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Nabil; Gaafar, Rabab; Shehata, Samir; Hashem, Tarek; Abigeres, Dani; Azim, Hamdy A; El-Husseiny, Gamal; Al-Husaini, Hamed; Liu, Zhixin

    2012-09-24

    Maintenance therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) aims to extend disease control after first-line chemotherapy with active and well-tolerated agents. The utility of continuation maintenance therapy requires further research. This multicenter, randomized, phase 2 study compared continuation maintenance therapy with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 every 21 days) and best supportive care (BSC) versus BSC alone in patients with advanced, non-squamous NSCLC who had not progressed after 4 cycles of induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) from randomization, was analyzed using a Cox model, stratified for the tumor response at the end of induction therapy, at a one-sided alpha of 0.2. Secondary endpoints: response and disease control rates, overall survival (OS), one year survival rates, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). A total of 106 patients commenced induction therapy, of whom 55 patients were randomized to maintenance pemetrexed/BSC (n = 28) or BSC (n = 27). Although the median PFS time for maintenance phase for both arms was 3.2 months, the one-sided p-value for the PFS HR comparison was less than the prespecified limit of 0.2 (HR = 0.76, two-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42 to 1.37; one-sided p-value = 0.1815), indicating that PFS was sufficiently long in the pemetrexed/BSC arm to warrant further investigation. Similar PFS results were observed for the overall study period (induction plus maintenance) and when the PFS analysis was adjusted for sex, baseline disease stage, and the ECOG PS prior to randomization. The median OS for the maintenance phase was 12.2 months (95%CI: 5.6 to 20.6) for the pemetrexed/BSC arm and 11.8 months (95% CI: 6.3 to 25.6) for BSC arm. The one-year survival probabilities were similar for both arms for the maintenance phase and the overall study period. Both the induction and continuation

  16. Carboplatin and pemetrexed with or without pembrolizumab for advanced, non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised, phase 2 cohort of the open-label KEYNOTE-021 study.

    PubMed

    Langer, Corey J; Gadgeel, Shirish M; Borghaei, Hossein; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; Patnaik, Amita; Powell, Steven F; Gentzler, Ryan D; Martins, Renato G; Stevenson, James P; Jalal, Shadia I; Panwalkar, Amit; Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Gubens, Matthew; Sequist, Lecia V; Awad, Mark M; Fiore, Joseph; Ge, Yang; Raftopoulos, Harry; Gandhi, Leena

    2016-11-01

    Limited evidence exists to show that adding a third agent to platinum-doublet chemotherapy improves efficacy in the first-line advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) setting. The anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab has shown efficacy as monotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC and has a non-overlapping toxicity profile with chemotherapy. We assessed whether the addition of pembrolizumab to platinum-doublet chemotherapy improves efficacy in patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. In this randomised, open-label, phase 2 cohort of a multicohort study (KEYNOTE-021), patients were enrolled at 26 medical centres in the USA and Taiwan. Patients with chemotherapy-naive, stage IIIB or IV, non-squamous NSCLC without targetable EGFR or ALK genetic aberrations were randomly assigned (1:1) in blocks of four stratified by PD-L1 tumour proportion score (<1% vs ≥1%) using an interactive voice-response system to 4 cycles of pembrolizumab 200 mg plus carboplatin area under curve 5 mg/mL per min and pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks followed by pembrolizumab for 24 months and indefinite pemetrexed maintenance therapy or to 4 cycles of carboplatin and pemetrexed alone followed by indefinite pemetrexed maintenance therapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an objective response, defined as the percentage of patients with radiologically confirmed complete or partial response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 assessed by masked, independent central review, in the intention-to-treat population, defined as all patients who were allocated to study treatment. Significance threshold was p<0·025 (one sided). Safety was assessed in the as-treated population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of the assigned study treatment. This trial, which is closed for enrolment but continuing for follow-up, is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02039674. Between Nov 25, 2014, and Jan 25, 2016

  17. A randomized, phase 2 study comparing pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus best supportive care as maintenance therapy after first-line treatment with pemetrexed and cisplatin for advanced, non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maintenance therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) aims to extend disease control after first-line chemotherapy with active and well-tolerated agents. The utility of continuation maintenance therapy requires further research. Methods This multicenter, randomized, phase 2 study compared continuation maintenance therapy with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 every 21 days) and best supportive care (BSC) versus BSC alone in patients with advanced, non-squamous NSCLC who had not progressed after 4 cycles of induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) from randomization, was analyzed using a Cox model, stratified for the tumor response at the end of induction therapy, at a one-sided alpha of 0.2. Secondary endpoints: response and disease control rates, overall survival (OS), one year survival rates, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results A total of 106 patients commenced induction therapy, of whom 55 patients were randomized to maintenance pemetrexed/BSC (n = 28) or BSC (n = 27). Although the median PFS time for maintenance phase for both arms was 3.2 months, the one-sided p-value for the PFS HR comparison was less than the prespecified limit of 0.2 (HR = 0.76, two-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42 to 1.37; one-sided p-value = 0.1815), indicating that PFS was sufficiently long in the pemetrexed/BSC arm to warrant further investigation. Similar PFS results were observed for the overall study period (induction plus maintenance) and when the PFS analysis was adjusted for sex, baseline disease stage, and the ECOG PS prior to randomization. The median OS for the maintenance phase was 12.2 months (95%CI: 5.6 to 20.6) for the pemetrexed/BSC arm and 11.8 months (95% CI: 6.3 to 25.6) for BSC arm. The one-year survival probabilities were similar for both arms for the maintenance phase and the overall study period. Both the

  18. Doublet chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed is associated with a favorable outcome in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer who are eligible for bevacizumab and maintenance therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Haruyasu; Omori, Shota; Wakuda, Kazushige; Ono, Akira; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Endo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The previous AVAPERL trial demonstrated that induction therapy with first-line cisplatin (CDDP), pemetrexed (PEM) and bevacizumab (BEV), followed by continuation maintenance therapy with PEM+BEV, improved the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with BEV alone (median PFS, 10.2 vs. 6.6 months and median OS, 19.8 vs. 15.9 months, respectively) in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (non-Sq NSCLC). However, those findings were based on selected patients who were eligible for BEV and maintenance therapy. To assess the efficacy of CDDP+PEM as first-line therapy in selected patients depending on their eligibility for BEV and maintenance therapy, consecutive patients with non-Sq NSCLC who received first-line chemotherapy with CDDP+PEM at the Shizuoka Cancer Center (Shizuoka, Japan) between July, 2009 and December, 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 160 patients were assessed, including 92 who were eligible and 68 who were not eligible for BEV treatment. In the BEV-eligible group, CDDP+PEM treatment followed by maintenance PEM exhibited significantly superior efficacy compared with that in the BEV-ineligible group (median PFS, 5.8 vs. 4.8 months, respectively, P=0.013; and median OS, 21.3 vs. 12.6 months, respectively, P=0.0025). In the BEV-eligible group, 60 patients were suitable for maintenance therapy with PEM (group A) and 32 patients were unsuitable (group B). In the BEV-ineligible group, 31 patients were suitable for maintenance therapy with PEM (group C) and 37 patients were unsuitable (group D). In group A, the median PFS and OS were 6.9 and 31.8 months, respectively, compared with 2.4 and 10.5 months in group B, 6.1 and 18.5 months in group C, and 2.8 and 7.7 months in group D. The PFS and OS in group A were significantly better compared with those in the other groups. Thus, the PFS and OS with CDDP+PEM were favorable among patients with advanced non-Sq NSCLC who were eligible for BEV and

  19. Doublet chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed is associated with a favorable outcome in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer who are eligible for bevacizumab and maintenance therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Haruyasu; Omori, Shota; Wakuda, Kazushige; Ono, Akira; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Endo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2016-11-01

    The previous AVAPERL trial demonstrated that induction therapy with first-line cisplatin (CDDP), pemetrexed (PEM) and bevacizumab (BEV), followed by continuation maintenance therapy with PEM+BEV, improved the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with BEV alone (median PFS, 10.2 vs. 6.6 months and median OS, 19.8 vs. 15.9 months, respectively) in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (non-Sq NSCLC). However, those findings were based on selected patients who were eligible for BEV and maintenance therapy. To assess the efficacy of CDDP+PEM as first-line therapy in selected patients depending on their eligibility for BEV and maintenance therapy, consecutive patients with non-Sq NSCLC who received first-line chemotherapy with CDDP+PEM at the Shizuoka Cancer Center (Shizuoka, Japan) between July, 2009 and December, 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 160 patients were assessed, including 92 who were eligible and 68 who were not eligible for BEV treatment. In the BEV-eligible group, CDDP+PEM treatment followed by maintenance PEM exhibited significantly superior efficacy compared with that in the BEV-ineligible group (median PFS, 5.8 vs. 4.8 months, respectively, P=0.013; and median OS, 21.3 vs. 12.6 months, respectively, P=0.0025). In the BEV-eligible group, 60 patients were suitable for maintenance therapy with PEM (group A) and 32 patients were unsuitable (group B). In the BEV-ineligible group, 31 patients were suitable for maintenance therapy with PEM (group C) and 37 patients were unsuitable (group D). In group A, the median PFS and OS were 6.9 and 31.8 months, respectively, compared with 2.4 and 10.5 months in group B, 6.1 and 18.5 months in group C, and 2.8 and 7.7 months in group D. The PFS and OS in group A were significantly better compared with those in the other groups. Thus, the PFS and OS with CDDP+PEM were favorable among patients with advanced non-Sq NSCLC who were eligible for BEV and

  20. Safety profiles of first-line therapies for metastatic non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Losanno, Tania; Gridelli, Cesare

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer still represents the leading cause of death for cancer. About the 70% of diagnosis are in advanced-stage. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the 85% of all diagnosed lung cancers and non-squamous histology represents the 40% of all NSCLC. First-line therapies increase survival, control symptoms and improve quality of life, compared with best supportive care. It is crucial to choose a treatment with a low impact on patient's life considering the related toxicities. Adverse events (AEs) of first-line therapies for non-squamous NSCLC are here reviewed and discussed, from evidences in clinical trials conducting to drugs approval. For advanced disease, palliation and preserving patients QoL are still the primary goal of treatment. Therefore, differing toxicity profiles are often a deciding factor in first-line and also maintenance setting for non-squamous NSCLC. Special attention is necessary to renal function and drugs' nephrotoxicity. Moreover, it is to consider the specific AEs of drugs classes: hypertension, bleeding, and proteinuria, for anti-VEGF therapy; skin toxicity, diarrhea, interstitial lung disease for TKIs; vision disorders, and hepatotoxicity for ALK-inhibitor. It is important to select patients for a treatment on the basis of their comorbidities and the presence of risk factors.

  1. A phase II study of pemetrexed monotherapy in chemo-naïve Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 2 patients with EGFR wild-type or unknown advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (HANSHIN Oncology Group 002).

    PubMed

    Hata, Akito; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Shiro; Nanjo, Shigeki; Takeshita, Jumpei; Tanaka, Kosuke; Kaneda, Toshihiko; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Nishimura, Takashi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Morita, Satoshi; Urata, Yoshiko; Negoro, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed monotherapy in chemo-naïve Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) 2 patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type or unknown advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pemetrexed was administered at 500 mg/m(2) triweekly until progression with supplementations in chemo-naïve ECOG PS 2 patients with EGFR wild-type or unknown advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Between September 2009 and April 2013, twenty-eight patients were enrolled. Median age was 75 (range 59-89). Nineteen (68 %) of 28 were ever smoker, and 18 (64 %) had pulmonary emphysema. Sixteen (57 %) had comorbidities such as hypertension, heart disease, and/or diabetes. In 26 eligible patients, the overall response rate, disease control rate, median PFS, and median overall survival were 11.5, 53.8 %, 3.0 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.9-5.7] months and 9.5 (95 % CI 3.3-12.5) months, respectively. Median administered course number was 3 (range 1-14). Median duration of PS maintenance ≤2 was 4.9 (95 % CI 1.3-9.7) months. Common (≥10 %) grade 3/4 toxicities included 7 (27 %) neutropenia, 7 (27 %) leukopenia, 4 (15 %) fatigue, and 3 (12 %) thrombocytopenia. Febrile neutropenia and interstitial lung disease were not observed. There were no treatment-related deaths. Pemetrexed monotherapy demonstrated moderate efficacy and good safety in chemo-naïve PS 2 patients with EGFR wild-type or unknown non-squamous NSCLC. It can be a therapeutic option in "frail" PS 2 non-squamous NSCLC patients without the indication of combination regimens, if the patient is EGFR wild-type.

  2. Oral vinorelbine plus cisplatin versus pemetrexed plus cisplatin as first-line treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer: cost minimization analysis in 12 European countries.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Francesco; Bennouna, Jaafar; Havel, Libor; Hochmair, Maximillian; Almodovar, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    A combination of vinorelbine and cisplatin is a standard treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer; oral vinorelbine is registered in 45 countries. Pemetrexed and cisplatin are recommended in front-line chemotherapy of non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC). The objective of this study was to conduct a cost minimization analysis from the perspective of the national health service (NHS) in each of 12 European countries, based on a randomized phase II study in NS-NSCLC (NAVoTRIAL01), with 100 oral vinorelbine plus cisplatin patients (arm A) and 51 pemetrexed plus cisplatin patients (arm B). Country-specific costs and DRG codes considered included those relating to anticancer drugs, administration settings (out-patient/in-patient/at home), serious adverse events (defined as involving hospitalization and considered due to anticancer drugs) and concomitant medications. Relevant costs were calculated based on country-specific reimbursement procedures and official tariffs. Cost and savings per patient. Using the NHS perspective, savings per patient treated with oral vinorelbine ranged from €1317 (Denmark) to €35,001 (Germany). Expressed as percentages, savings per patient treated with oral vinorelbine compared with pemetrexed ranged between 5% (France) and 83% (Czech Republic). Pooled average costs for each treatment arm across the 12 countries resulted in cost savings for payers of €12,871, favoring oral vinorelbine plus cisplatin. Given the reported efficacy with both regimens, this pan-European economic analysis provides compelling evidence supporting oral vinorelbine use over pemetrexed for the treatment of NS-NSCLC. Oral vinorelbine provides similar efficacy and an easily manageable safety profile at lower overall cost per patient treated, combined with an easier/more convenient mode of administration. Sensitivity analysis across varied scenarios demonstrated the robustness of the results. The principle weakness of our study was its reliance upon a

  3. A single-arm phase II trial of pazopanib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology with disease progression on bevacizumab containing therapy.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jared M; Villaruz, Liza C; Socinski, Mark A; Ivanova, Anastasia; Grilley-Olson, Juneko; Dhruva, Nirav; Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2014-11-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy with bevacizumab is a standard therapy for patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with non-squamous (NS) histology. Mechanisms of resistance to bevacizumab include increased VEGF signaling or activation of VEGF receptors. Pazopanib is a multi-targeted VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase with single agent activity in NSCLC. Stage IIIB/IV patients with adequate organ function, who progressed on a bevacizumab containing therapy were eligible if it had been ≤8 weeks since the last bevacizumab treatment. The primary end-point was disease control rate (DCR), defined as partial or complete response, or stable disease for ≥12 weeks. Patients were assessed radiographically every 2 cycles (6 weeks). A Simon 2-stage design was used, and if in the first stage ≤4 of 17 patients experienced disease control the trial was to have been stopped for futility. An unplanned analysis was performed after 15 patients were evaluable secondary to slow accrual. Between December 2010 and November 2013, 15 patients were treated on trial. The median age was 61 years (range 39-74), and all patients had stage IV disease. Of the 15 patients, 4 discontinued therapy prior to cycle 2 evaluation due to adverse events (n=3) and medical illness (n=1), 5 patients had progressive disease, 4 patients had stable disease for <12 weeks, and 2 patients had stable disease for ≥12 weeks. No responses were observed. The DCR observed was 13% (2/15), and the trial did not meet the criteria to proceed to the second stage. Episodes of grade 3 treatment related toxicities observed included: increased ALT (n=2), increased AST (n=1), anorexia (n=3), fatigue (n=3), hypertension (n=1), infection (n=1), mucositis (n=2), nausea (n=3), pericardial effusion (n=1), and vomiting (n=1). Pazopanib has limited activity in NSCLC-NS in patients who have experienced disease progression on bevacizumab. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A phase II randomized trial evaluating gefitinib intercalated with pemetrexed/platinum chemotherapy or pemetrexed/platinum chemotherapy alone in unselected patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Xianghua; Luo, Zhiguo; Wang, Huijie; Sun, Si; Peng, Wei; Qiao, Jie; Feng, Yu; Wang, Jialei; Chang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Current pemetrexed/platinum chemotherapy does not produce a satisfactory therapeutic response in advanced lung cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether the administration of gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), intercalated with pemetrexed/platinum could improve the efficacy in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC without subsequent gefitinib maintenance therapy. Treatment-naïve patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 d1) and either cisplatin (75 mg/m2 d1) or carboplatin (AUC = 5 d1) plus gefitinib (250 mg/d on days 3 to 16 of a 3-week cycle) (PC-G) or pemetrexed–platinum (PC) alone. Randomization was stratified according to the tobacco smoking status and EGFR mutational status of the patients. The primary endpoint was the non-progression rate (NPR) at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and biosafety. The NPR at 12 weeks was 84.5% for the PC-G treatment arm and 83.1% for the PC treatment arm (P = 0.87). Median PFS was 7.9 months for the PC-G arm and 7.0 months for the PC arm (P = 0.57). The ORR was 50.0% for the PC-G arm and 47.4% for the PC arm (P = 0.78). Median survival was 25.4 mo for the PC-G arm and 20.8 mo for the PC arm (P = 0.54). The incidence of adverse events was similar between the two treatment arms, except for a higher incidence of skin rash with PC-G. Predefined subgroup analyses demonstrated that PC-G significantly increased the PFS compared with the PC regimen in patients with EGFR mutations (P = 0.017). Although gefitinib intercalated with pemetrexed/platinum chemotherapy did not improve the NPR at 12 weeks compared with chemotherapy, an improvement in the PFS for the intercalated treatment arm was seen in the subgroup of patients with EGFR mutations. PMID:24755888

  5. Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Johanna; Stanisic, Sanja; Kaier, Klaus; Hagist, Christian; Gultyaev, Dmitry; Walzer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the savings accrued using bevacizumab-based treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer from the societal perspective, taking only public costs into account, in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Methods Societal costs were estimated by collecting and analyzing labor costs, carer costs, sickness benefits, disability benefits, and home care benefits. Cost inputs were derived from publicly available databases or from the published literature. Expert opinion was only used if no other source was available. Efficacy data from two randomized clinical trials were used. The time horizon in the health economic model was lifetime. Efficacy and costs were discounted by 3.5%. All main model parameters were tested in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results Mean incremental savings to society per patient ranged from €2277 in Italy to €4461 in Germany. The results were most sensitive to the change in proportion of patients working fulltime and the proportion of patients who were able to return to work. Conclusion This analysis shows that bevacizumab-based treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with more savings to society compared to standard chemotherapy in terms of increased productivity and decreased social benefits paid to patients who are able to work in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. PMID:23071397

  6. A phase II study of carboplatin plus weekly paclitaxel with bevacizumab for elderly patients with non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NEJ016).

    PubMed

    Miura, Satoru; Maemondo, Makoto; Iwashima, Akira; Harada, Toshiyuki; Sugawara, Shunichi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Inoue, Akira; Nakagawa, Taku; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishida, Takashi; Terada, Masaki; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Gemma, Akihiko; Yoshizawa, Hirohisa

    2017-04-01

    Background The efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer remain controversial. This study focused on both selecting fit elderly patients and overcoming interpatient variability with respect to pharmacodynamics. Methods Elderly (age: ≥70 years) patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled. Patients with uncontrolled congestive heart failure and uncontrolled diabetes were excluded. The treatment regimen comprised carboplatin at an area under the curve of 5 mg/ml/min on day 1, paclitaxel at 90 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8, and bevacizumab at 15 mg/kg on day 1 every 21 days for up to 4 cycles, followed by maintenance bevacizumab. Dose reduction due to side effects was performed, with a wide range of doses of paclitaxel from 23 mg/m(2)/week to 60 mg/m(2)/week. Results Of the 36 patients entered, 38.9% required a dose reduction or cancellation of paclitaxel administration on day 8, and 75% patients were able to complete 4 cycles of triplet therapy. The response rate, primary endpoint, was 69.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 51.9-83.7). The median progression free survival and overall survival were 8.4 months and 29.2 months, respectively. The most common adverse events included neutropenia, hypertension, anemia, and infection. Although Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were observed in 24 patients (66.7%), there were no deaths due to toxicity. Conclusion Carboplatin plus weekly paclitaxel with bevacizumab is a feasible, effective first-line regimen for elderly non-small cell lung cancer patients. (UMIN00006622).

  7. Recent Advances in Targetable Therapeutics in Metastatic Non-Squamous NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Pranshu; Osman, Diaa; Gan, Gregory N.; Simon, George R.; Boumber, Yanis

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). With the discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, and effective targeted therapies, therapeutic options are expanding for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we review novel therapies in non-squamous NSCLC, which are directed against oncogenic targets, including EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF, MET, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), RET, and NTRK. With the rapidly evolving molecular testing and development of new targeted agents, our ability to further personalize therapy in non-squamous NSCLC is rapidly expanding. PMID:27200298

  8. Impacts of EGFR mutation and EGFR-TKIs on incidence of brain metastases in advanced non-squamous NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Xiao; Ou, Wei; Mao, Xiao-Yong; Liu, Zui; Wu, Hui-Qi; Wang, Si-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Brain metastases remain lethal in lung cancer patients. The impacts of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on the incidence of brain metastases in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still uncertain. A total of 1672 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC with a definitive report on EGFR mutation status between January 2005 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The impacts of EGFR mutation status and EGFR TKIs use on the incidence of brain metastases and survival were investigated. Of the 1672 patients, 465 (27.8%) had an EGFR mutation, and 1207 (72.2%) did not. Four hundred and eighteen (25.0%) patients had baseline brain metastases. The cumulative incidence of brain metastases for patients in EGFR+ group was significantly higher than patients in EGFR- group (HR, 1.27; 95% CI 1.06-1.52; P=0.008). The cumulative incidence of brain metastases was also higher for patients who received an EGFR-TKI as their first-line treatment than those who received other first-line treatment (HR, 1.36; 95% CI 1.14-1.64; P=0.001). Patients harboring EGFR mutations had prolonged overall survival (OS) than patients with wild-type EGFR (HR, 0.47; 95% CI 0.41-0.54; P<0.001; median, 25.2 vs. 12.9 months). Both the EGFR mutation-positive status and the use of a TKI are associated with higher incidence of brain metastases for patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of a 14-gene risk score assay to target adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua A; Billings, Paul; Ramsey, Scott D; Dumanois, Robert; Carlson, Josh J

    2014-05-01

    Life Technologies has developed a 14-gene molecular assay that provides information about the risk of death in early stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients after surgery. The assay can be used to identify patients at highest risk of mortality, informing subsequent treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this novel assay. Patients and Methods. We developed a Markov model to estimate life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs for testing versus standard care. Risk-group classification was based on assay-validation studies, and chemotherapy uptake was based on pre- and post-testing recommendations from a study of 58 physicians. We evaluated three chemotherapy-benefit scenarios: moderately predictive (base case), nonpredictive (i.e., the same benefit for each risk group), and strongly predictive. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and performed one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results. In the base case, testing and standard-care strategies resulted in 6.81 and 6.66 life years, 3.76 and 3.68 QALYs, and $122,400 and $118,800 in costs, respectively. The ICER was $23,200 per QALY (stage I: $29,200 per QALY; stage II: $12,200 per QALY). The ICER ranged from "dominant" to $92,100 per QALY in the strongly predictive and nonpredictive scenarios. The model was most sensitive to the proportion of high-risk patients receiving chemotherapy and the high-risk hazard ratio. The 14-gene risk score assay strategy was cost-effective in 68% of simulations. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the 14-gene risk score assay may be a cost-effective alternative to standard guideline-based adjuvant chemotherapy decision making in early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

  10. Pemetrexed monotherapy for chemo-naïve elderly (aged ≥80) patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: results from combined analysis of two single arm phase II studies (HANSHIN002 and 003).

    PubMed

    Hata, Akito; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Kosuke; Fujita, Shiro; Kotani, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Takashi; Imamura, Fumio; Yokota, Soichiro; Satouchi, Miyako; Monden, Kazuya; Otsuka, Kojiro; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Tsubouchi, Kazuya; Kaneda, Toshihiko; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Morita, Satoshi; Negoro, Shunichi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate via combined analysis the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed monotherapy for chemo-naïve elderly patients aged ≥80 with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a combined analysis from two phase II studies of pemetrexed for chemo-naïve elderly (aged ≥75) (n = 47) and performance status 2 (n = 28) patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Population aged ≥80 (80+ Group) was compared to those aged 70-79 (70's Group). We analyzed a total of 66 patients (37 70s and 29 80+ Groups) after exclusion of 4 ineligible and 5 aged ≤69 patients. Overall response rate, disease control rate, median progression-free survival, and median overall survival of 70s vs. 80+ Groups were 13.5 vs. 13.8% [p = not significant (NS)], 67.6 vs. 58.6% (p = 0.608), 3.7 months vs. 4.2 months (p = 0.5588) and 18.5 vs. 13.5 months (p = 0.2621), respectively. Non-hematological and hematological toxicities ≥grade 3 of 70s vs. 80+ Groups were 24 vs. 35% (p = 0.4192) and 49 vs. 52% (p = NS), respectively. Dose reduction and/or delay due to toxicities of 70s vs. 80+ Groups was 19 vs. 28% (p = 0.7784). Febrile neutropenia and interstitial lung disease were not observed. Treatment-related death (bacterial pneumonia) was confirmed in one (3%) of 29 80+ Group patients. Pemetrexed monotherapy demonstrated similar efficacy and safety between aged ≥80 and aged 70-79 populations. It could be a therapeutic option in clinical practice for elderly non-squamous NSCLC patients aged ≥80 without indications of carboplatin-based combination regimens or docetaxel monotherapy.

  11. Safety Analyses of Pemetrexed-cisplatin and Pemetrexed Maintenance Therapies in Patients With Advanced Non-squamous NSCLC: Retrospective Analyses From 2 Phase III Studies.

    PubMed

    Langer, Corey J; Paz-Ares, Luis G; Wozniak, Antoinette J; Gridelli, Cesare; de Marinis, Filippo; Pujol, Jean-Louis; San Antonio, Belen; Chen, Jian; Liu, Jingyi; Oton, Ana B; Visseren-Grul, Carla; Scagliotti, Giorgio V

    2017-09-01

    In a phase III study, maintenance pemetrexed showed superior survival over placebo (PARAMOUNT) for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who completed 4 cycles of pemetrexed plus cisplatin (PC) induction therapy, with low incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) generally associated with pemetrexed. Prior analyses did not account for toxicities carried over from induction; thus, the current analysis was developed to understand toxicities that may be attributed to pemetrexed maintenance versus PC induction, and how treatment duration affects toxicity. Selected clinically relevant TEAEs were explored in 2 analyses: assessing induction versus maintenance treatment in PARAMOUNT, and comparing PC from PARAMOUNT with toxicity data from a previous phase III study that established the role of PC in front-line therapy of non-squamous NSCLC (JMDB trial). In PARAMOUNT, the incidence of most drug-related TEAEs was higher during induction than maintenance, for both the pemetrexed and placebo randomized populations. The majority of TEAEs during maintenance, except renal events, were carried over from induction with no change in severity from the end of induction; the incidence of TEAEs associated with pemetrexed maintenance was low. The cross-trial analysis showed that 6 cycles of PC in JMDB compared with 4 cycles in PARAMOUNT increased grade 1/2 fatigue (34.1% vs. 25.0%), anemia (24.0% vs. 13.5%), and renal events (11.8% vs. 3.6%). Safety data presented here support the favorable risk benefit of 4 cycles of PC followed by maintenance pemetrexed in patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term survival in advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients treated with first-line bevacizumab-based therapy.

    PubMed

    De Castro, J; González-Larriba, J L; Vázquez, S; Massutí, B; Sanchez-Torres, J M; Dómine, M; Garrido, P; Calles, A; Artal, A; Collado, R; García, R; Sereno, M; Majem, M; Macías, J A; Juan, O; Gómez-Codina, J; Hernández, B; Lázaro, M; Ortega, A L; Cobo, M; Trigo, J M; Carcereny, E; Rolfo, C; Macia, S; Muñoz, J; Diz, P; Méndez, M; Rosillo, F; Paz-Ares, L; Cardona, J V; Isla, D

    2017-02-01

    First-line bevacizumab-based therapies have been shown to improve clinical outcomes in patients with non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to descriptively analyse patients with non-squamous NSCLC who received a long-term period of maintenance bevacizumab. This retrospective study included 104 patients who had already reached a progression-free survival (PFS) of at least 9 months. Median overall survival and PFS were 30.7 and 15.1 months, respectively. The overall response rate was 83 %. Weight loss ≤5 %, ECOG PS = 0, or low number of metastatic sites seem to be predictive factors of good evolution. The incidence of bevacizumab-related adverse events appeared to be similar as the previous studies. Our findings show that there is a long-term survivor group whom the administration of bevacizumab resulted in a relevant prolongation of response without new safety signals. Due to the population heterogeneity, it was not possible to identify the standardised predictive factors.

  13. Investigation of PD-L1 Biomarker Testing Methods for PD-1 Axis Inhibition in Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Brandon S; Fulton, Regan; Kalloger, Steve E; Milne, Katy; Geller, Georgia; Jones, Martin; Jacquemont, Celine; Zachara, Susanna; Zhao, Eric; Pleasance, Erin; Laskin, Janessa; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Yip, Stephen; Nelson, Brad H; Gown, Allen M; Ho, Cheryl; Ionescu, Diana N

    2016-10-01

    Inhibitors of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) signaling axis have recently demonstrated efficacy and are rapidly being incorporated into the treatment of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Despite clear benefits to certain patients, the association of these responses with a predictive biomarker remains uncertain. Several different biomarkers have been proposed, with differing results and conclusions. This study compares multiple methods of biomarker testing for treatment of NSCLCs with PD1-axis inhibitors. Tissue microarrays of matched primary and metastatic NSCLCs were used to compare four different PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) IHC techniques, as well as RNA ISH. Additional cases with whole genome and transcriptome data were assessed for molecular correlates of PD-L1 overexpression. Eighty cases were included in the IHC study. Multiple IHC methodologies showed a high rate of agreement (Kappa = 0.67). When calibrated to RNA expression, agreement improved significantly (Kappa = 0.90, p=0.0049). PD-L1 status of primary and metastatic tumors was discordant in 17 (22%) cases. This study suggests that different IHC methodologies for PD-L1 assessment provide slightly different results. There is significant discordance between the PD-L1 status of primary tumors and lymph node metastases. RNA ISH may be a useful adjunct to complement PD-L1 IHC testing.

  14. Pemetrexed/Carboplatin/Bevacizumab followed by Maintenance Pemetrexed/Bevacizumab in Hispanic Patients with Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Outcomes according to Thymidylate Synthase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Carranza, Hernán; Vargas, Carlos; Otero, Jorge; Cuello, Mauricio; Corrales, Luis; Martín, Claudio; Ortiz, Carlos; Franco, Sandra; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed, carboplatin and bevacizumab (PCB) followed by maintenance therapy with pemetrexed and bevacizumab (PB) in chemotherapy-naïve patients with stage IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through the influence of thymidylate synthase (TS) protein and mRNA expression on several outcomes. The primary endpoints were the overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods A cohort of 144 patients were administered pemetrexed (500 mg/m2), carboplatin (AUC, 5.0 mg/ml/min) and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) intravenously every three weeks for up to four cycles. Maintenance PB was administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results One hundred forty-four Colombian patients with a median follow-up of 13.8 months and a median number of 6 maintenance cycles (range, 1–32) were assessed. The ORR among the patients was 66% (95% CI, 47% to 79%). The median PFS and (OS) rates were 7.9 months (95% CI, 5.9–10.0 months) and 21.4 months (95% CI, 18.3 to 24.4 months), respectively. We documented grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities, including anemia (14%), neutropenia (8%), and thrombocytopenia (16%). The identified grade 3/4 non-hematologic toxicities were proteinuria (2%), venous thrombosis (4%), fatigue (11%), infection (6%), nephrotoxicity (2%), and sensory neuropathy (4%). No grade >3 hemorrhagic events or hypertension cases were reported. OS was significantly higher in patients with the lowest TS mRNA levels [median, 29.6 months (95% CI, 26.2–32.9)] compared with those in patients with higher levels [median, 9.3 months (95% CI, 6.6–12.0); p = 0.0001]. TS expression (mRNA levels or protein expression) did not influence the treatment response. Conclusion Overall, PCB followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab was effective and tolerable in Hispanic patients with non-squamous NSCLC. This regimen was associated with acceptable toxicity and

  15. Pemetrexed/Carboplatin/Bevacizumab followed by Maintenance Pemetrexed/Bevacizumab in Hispanic Patients with Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Outcomes according to Thymidylate Synthase Expression.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Andrés Felipe; Rojas, Leonardo; Wills, Beatriz; Arrieta, Oscar; Carranza, Hernán; Vargas, Carlos; Otero, Jorge; Cuello, Mauricio; Corrales, Luis; Martín, Claudio; Ortiz, Carlos; Franco, Sandra; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed, carboplatin and bevacizumab (PCB) followed by maintenance therapy with pemetrexed and bevacizumab (PB) in chemotherapy-naïve patients with stage IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through the influence of thymidylate synthase (TS) protein and mRNA expression on several outcomes. The primary endpoints were the overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A cohort of 144 patients were administered pemetrexed (500 mg/m2), carboplatin (AUC, 5.0 mg/ml/min) and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) intravenously every three weeks for up to four cycles. Maintenance PB was administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. One hundred forty-four Colombian patients with a median follow-up of 13.8 months and a median number of 6 maintenance cycles (range, 1-32) were assessed. The ORR among the patients was 66% (95% CI, 47% to 79%). The median PFS and (OS) rates were 7.9 months (95% CI, 5.9-10.0 months) and 21.4 months (95% CI, 18.3 to 24.4 months), respectively. We documented grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities, including anemia (14%), neutropenia (8%), and thrombocytopenia (16%). The identified grade 3/4 non-hematologic toxicities were proteinuria (2%), venous thrombosis (4%), fatigue (11%), infection (6%), nephrotoxicity (2%), and sensory neuropathy (4%). No grade >3 hemorrhagic events or hypertension cases were reported. OS was significantly higher in patients with the lowest TS mRNA levels [median, 29.6 months (95% CI, 26.2-32.9)] compared with those in patients with higher levels [median, 9.3 months (95% CI, 6.6-12.0); p = 0.0001]. TS expression (mRNA levels or protein expression) did not influence the treatment response. Overall, PCB followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab was effective and tolerable in Hispanic patients with non-squamous NSCLC. This regimen was associated with acceptable toxicity and prolonged OS, particularly in patients with low TS

  16. Necitumumab plus pemetrexed and cisplatin as first-line therapy in patients with stage IV non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (INSPIRE): an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    Paz-Ares, Luis; Mezger, Jörg; Ciuleanu, Tudor E; Fischer, Jürgen R; von Pawel, Joachim; Provencio, Mariano; Kazarnowicz, Andrzej; Losonczy, György; de Castro, Gilberto; Szczesna, Aleksandra; Crino, Lucio; Reck, Martin; Ramlau, Rodryg; Ulsperger, Ernst; Schumann, Christian; Miziara, Jose Elias A; Lessa, Álvaro E; Dediu, Mircea; Bálint, Beatrix; Depenbrock, Henrik; Soldatenkova, Victoria; Kurek, Raffael; Hirsch, Fred R; Thatcher, Nick; Socinski, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Necitumumab is a second-generation recombinant human immunoglobulin G1 EGFR monoclonal antibody that competitively inhibits ligand binding. We aimed to compare necitumumab plus pemetrexed and cisplatin with pemetrexed and cisplatin alone in patients with previously untreated, stage IV, non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We did this randomised, open-label, controlled phase 3 study at 103 sites in 20 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2 and adequate organ function, were randomly assigned 1:1 to treatment with a block randomisation scheme (block size of four) via a telephone-based interactive voice-response system or interactive web-response system. Patients received either cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) and pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) on day 1 of a 3-week cycle for a maximum of six cycles alone, or with necitumumab 800 mg on days 1 and 8. Necitumumab was continued after the end of chemotherapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. Randomisation was stratified by smoking history, ECOG performance status, disease histology, and geographical region. Patients and study investigators were not masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00982111. Between Nov 11, 2009, and Feb 2, 2011, we randomly assigned 633 patients to receive either necitumumab plus pemetrexed and cisplatin (n=315) or pemetrexed and cisplatin alone (n=318). Enrolment was stopped on Feb 2, 2011, after a recommendation from the independent data monitoring committee. There was no significant difference in overall survival between treatment groups, with a median overall survival of 11·3 months (95% CI 9·5-13·4) in the necitumumab plus pemetrexed and cisplatin group versus 11·5 months (10·1-13·1) in the pemetrexed and cisplatin group (hazard ratio 1·01 [95% CI 0·84-1·21

  17. Cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab-based therapy versus cisplatin plus pemetrexed for the first-line treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC in Korea and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Myung-Ju; Tsai, Chun-Ming; Hsia, Te-Chun; Wright, Elaine; Chang, John Wen-Cheng; Kim, Heung Tae; Kim, Joo-Hang; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Sang-We; Bae, Eun-Jin; Kang, Mijeong; Lister, Johanna; Walzer, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this analysis is to investigate the mean incremental costs and life expectancy associated with two first-line treatments for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Korea and Taiwan; bevacizumab plus cisplatin and gemcitabine (BevCG) and cisplatin plus pemetrexed (CP). A health economic (area under curve) model with three health states was developed to assess health outcomes (life-years gained [LYG]), direct costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were derived from randomized clinical trials and used in an indirect comparison in order to estimate their cost effectiveness. A life-time horizon was used. Costs and outcomes were discounted yearly by 5% in Korea and by 3% in Taiwan. The incremental LYG for the BevCG patients compared with patients treated with CP were 1.10 (13.2 months) in Korea and 1.19 (14.3 months) in Taiwan. The incremental costs were 37,439,968 ($ 33,322) in Korea and NT$ 1,910,615 ($ 64,541) in Taiwan. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 34,064,835 ($ 30,318) in Korea and NT$ 1,607,960 ($ 54,317) in Taiwan. The inputs tested in one-way sensitivity analyses had very little impact on the overall cost effectiveness. This analysis shows that BevCG is more costly but is also associated with additional life-years in Korea and Taiwan. The ICER per LYG suggests that BevCG is a cost-effective therapy when compared to CP for patients with advanced NSCLC in Korea and Taiwan. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. First-Line Treatment with Bevacizumab and Platinum Doublet Combination in Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Study in US Oncology Community Practices.

    PubMed

    Lunacsek, Orsolya E; Ravelo, Arliene; Coutinho, Anna D; Hazard, Sebastien J; Green, Mark R; Willey, Joanne; Eaddy, Michael; Goertz, Hans-Peter

    2016-09-01

    Real-world evidence is lacking on the impact of bevacizumab added to carboplatin/paclitaxel (Bev + CP) therapy versus CP alone for patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC), particularly in those excluded from clinical trials. This is a retrospective electronic medical record analysis of patients who received first-line therapy with Bev + CP or CP between 1 October 2006 and 30 June 2013. We identified four subsets: elderly patients (≥65 years), patients with brain/central nervous system (CNS) metastases, patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≥2, and patients receiving anticoagulation. We used descriptive statistics to describe patient characteristics and treatment patterns and evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) using survival analyses. The study included 431 patients (Bev + CP: 231; CP: 200). The Bev + CP cohort was more likely to receive four or more cycles of induction therapy (72 vs. 50 %) and was more likely to receive maintenance therapy (45 vs. 21 %) than patients receiving CP. In the overall population, median PFS and OS were significantly longer in the Bev + CP cohort than in the CP cohort: 6.7 vs. 5.1 months (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.92; p = 0.008) and 11.9 vs. 9.0 months (HR 0.57; 95 % CI 0.44-0.73; p < 0.001), respectively. Treatment with Bev + CP in patients aged ≥65 years and in those with brain/CNS metastases was also associated with a significant risk reduction in PFS (35 and 51 %, respectively; p < 0.05 for both) and OS (46 and 62 %, respectively; p < 0.05 for both) compared with CP alone. Bev + CP is associated with a significant improvement in PFS and OS in patients with NS-NSCLC and in subsets with brain/CNS metastases and those aged ≥65 years.

  19. A phase I trial of temsirolimus and pemetrexed in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waqar, Saiama N.; Baggstrom, Maria Q.; Morgensztern, Daniel; Williams, Kristina; Rigden, Caron; Govindan, Ramaswamy

    2017-01-01

    Background Pemetrexed is an anti-folate chemotherapeutic agent approved for use in non-small cell lung cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is implicated in lung cancer development, and is inhibited by temsirolimus. Methods We performed a phase I study evaluating the combination of pemetrexed and temsirolimus in advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results Eight patients were enrolled in this study. The dose limiting toxicities included grade 4 thrombocytopenia, grade 3 leukopenia and grade 3 neutopenia. The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be pemetrexed 375 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1 and temsirolimus 25 mg intravenously on days 1,8 and 15. No objective responses were noted, and 3 patients had stable disease as the best response. Conclusion The combination of pemetrexed and temsirolimus is feasible and well tolerated. This combination may be further evaluated in patients with mTOR pathway activation, particularly in patients with TSC1 or STK11 mutations. PMID:26780363

  20. Risk Factors for Brain Metastases in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With Definitive Chest Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Zhe; Bi, Nan; Wang, Jingbo; Hui, Zhouguang; Xiao, Zefen; Feng, Qinfu; Zhou, Zongmei; Chen, Dongfu; Lv, Jima; Liang, Jun; Fan, Chengcheng; Liu, Lipin; Wang, Luhua

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We intended to identify risk factors that affect brain metastases (BM) in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) receiving definitive radiation therapy, which may guide the choice of selective prevention strategies. Methods and Materials: The characteristics of 346 patients with stage III NSCLC treated with thoracic radiation therapy from January 2008 to December 2010 in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. BM rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for BM. Results: The median follow-up time was 48.3 months in surviving patients. A total of 74 patients (21.4%) experienced BM at the time of analysis, and for 40 (11.7%) of them, the brain was the first site of failure. The 1-year and 3-year brain metastasis rates were 15% and 28.1%, respectively. In univariate analysis, female sex, age ≤60 years, non-squamous cell carcinoma, T3-4, N3, >3 areas of lymph node metastasis, high lactate dehydrogenase and serum levels of tumor markers (CEA, NSE, CA125) before treatment were significantly associated with BM (P<.05). In multivariate analysis, age ≤60 years (P=.004, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.491), non-squamous cell carcinoma (P=.000, HR=3.726), NSE >18 ng/mL (P=.008, HR=1.968) and CA125 ≥ 35 U/mL (P=.002, HR=2.129) were independent risk factors for BM. For patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 to 4 risk factors, the 3-year BM rates were 7.3%, 18.9%, 35.8%, and 70.3%, respectively (P<.001). Conclusions: Age ≤60 years, non-squamous cell carcinoma, serum NSE >18 ng/mL, and CA125 ≥ 35 U/mL were independent risk factors for brain metastasis. The possibilities of selectively using prophylactic cranial irradiation in higher-risk patients with LA-NSCLC should be further explored in the future.

  1. Crizotinib for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III clinical trial that compared crizotinib versus chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced lung cancer whose tumors have an EML4-ALK fusion gene.

  2. Renal insufficiency is the leading cause of double maintenance (bevacizumab and pemetrexed) discontinuation for toxicity to advanced non-small cell lung cancer in real world setting.

    PubMed

    Sassier, Marion; Dugué, Audrey Emmanuelle; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Lesueur, Paul; Avrillon, Virginie; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Auliac, Jean-Bernard; Kaluzinski, Laure; Tillon, Julie; Robinet, Gilles; Le Caer, Hervé; Monnet, Isabelle; Madroszyk, Anne; Boza, Gabriella; Falchero, Lionel; Fournel, Pierre; Egenod, Thomas; Toffart, Anne-Claire; Leiber, Nathalie; Do, Pascal; Gervais, Radj

    2015-08-01

    In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), maintenance therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic reference for patients with non-progressive disease after platinum-based induction chemotherapy. However, the use of double maintenance (DM) with pemetrexed and bevacizumab is still being evaluated in terms of its clinical benefits and safety profile. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the reasons for DM discontinuation in a real-world setting. Patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC were eligible if they had received at least 4 cycles of induction chemotherapy, followed by at least 1 cycle of DM. They were identified by using the oncology pharmacy database of 17 French centers. Eighty-one patients who began a DM after induction chemotherapy were identified from September 2009 to April 2013. Among the 78 patients who had stopped DM at the time of the analysis, the main reasons for discontinuation were disease progression (42%), adverse events (33%), and personal preference (8%). The most frequent toxicity responsible for DM discontinuation was renal insufficiency (54%). For patients with advanced NSCLC eligible for DM therapy, a particular attention should be paid to potential renal failure. Kidney function should be monitored carefully before and during DM to detect and manage early this adverse event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antiangiogenic Agents in Combination with Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ulahannan, Susanna V; Brahmer, Julie R

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) present with advanced disease requiring systemic chemotherapy. Treatment with the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab in combination with standard platinum-based doublet chemotherapy has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with advanced NSCLC. Several multitargeted antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g., sorafenib, sunitinib, cediranib, vandetanib, BIBF 1120, pazopanib, and axitinib) are also being evaluated in combination with standard chemotherapy. Here we review current clinical data with combination therapy involving antiangiogenic agents and cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:21469981

  4. Potential role of immunotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Ramon Andrade; Veloso, Ana Flávia; Esrom Catarina, Paulo; Nadine, Sara; Antoniou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Immuno checkpoint inhibitors have ushered in a new era with respect to the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Many patients are not suitable for treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (eg, gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib) or with anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors (eg, crizotinib and ceritinib). As a result, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors may play a novel role in the improvement of outcomes in a metastatic setting. The regulation of immune surveillance, immunoediting, and immunoescape mechanisms may play an interesting role in this regard either alone or in combination with current drugs. Here, we discuss advances in immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer as well as future perspectives within this framework. PMID:28031719

  5. Personalized Combined Modality Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. Nathan; Nam, Taek-Keun; Choe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, and we have embarked on an era where patients will benefit from individualized therapeutic strategies based on identifiable molecular characteristics of the tumor. The landmark studies demonstrating the importance of molecular characterization of tumors for NSCLC patients, the promising molecular pathways, and the potential molecular targets/agents for treatment of this disease will be reviewed. Understanding these issues will aid in the development of rationally designed clinical trials, so as to determine best means of appropriately incorporating these molecular strategies, to the current standard of radiation and chemotherapy regimens, for the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. PMID:22802745

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase testing and mutation prevalence in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in Switzerland: A comprehensive evaluation of real world practices.

    PubMed

    Ess, S M; Herrmann, C; Frick, H; Krapf, M; Cerny, T; Jochum, W; Früh, M

    2017-05-30

    In order to improve outcomes, identification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genes has become crucial in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of the present study is to analyse time trends and frequency of testing, factors affecting testing as well as prevalence of mutations in the Swiss population. We analysed EGFR and ALK testing in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed metastasised non-squamous NSCLC in the catchment area of the cancer registry Eastern Switzerland in the years 2008-2014. We analysed prevalence of mutations and studied clinicopathological characteristics and survival of tested and non-tested patients and of patients with and without mutations. Among 718 patients identified, 11% (51/447) harboured an EGFR mutation in the exons 18, 19 or 21 and further 12% (31/265) showed a positive test result for ALK rearrangements. In non-smokers the proportions of mutations were 31% and 23% respectively. Testing rates increased over time and reached 79% in 2014. We observed significantly lower testing rates and poorer survival in elderly, patients with limited life expectancy and patients treated at hospitals not involved in clinical research. Outcomes can be further improved in a considerable proportion of patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Update on Programmed Death-1 and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Inhibition in the Treatment of Advanced or Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Iafolla, Marco A J; Juergens, Rosalyn A

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a large worldwide prevalence with a high mortality rate. Chemotherapy has offered modest improvements in survival over the past two decades. Immune checkpoint modulation with programmed death-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibition has shown the promise of changing the future landscape of cancer therapy. This update reviews recent advances in the treatment of NSCLC with immune checkpoint modulation. Publications and proceedings were identified from searching PubMed and proceedings from the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, European Society for Medical Oncology, and European Lung Cancer Conference. Atezolizumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab increase overall survival in second-line treatment of Stage III/IV squamous and non-squamous NSCLC when compared to docetaxel. Pembrolizumab increases progression-free survival in the first-line treatment of Stage IV NSCLC with 50% PD-L1 expression when compared to platinum-based chemotherapy. Combination therapy with chemotherapy and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors has shown promise in early trials. Immune checkpoint modulation produces durable responses and overall survival benefits with less toxicity compared to conventional chemotherapy. Future investigations are combining PD-1/L1 inhibition with chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or other immuno-oncology agents in an effort to further improve efficacy.

  8. Clinical outcomes in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: results from ARIES, a bevacizumab observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, A J; Kosty, M P; Jahanzeb, M; Brahmer, J R; Spigel, D R; Leon, L; Fish, S; Flick, E D; Hazard, S J; Lynch, T J

    2015-04-01

    Retrospective analyses from first-line clinical studies in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have reported conflicting results on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival benefits with the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in elderly patients. Here we report effectiveness and safety outcomes by age subgroup for patients with NSCLC in the ARIES observational cohort study. ARIES enrolled patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC who received first-line bevacizumab-containing treatment per physician's choice. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate medians and 95% confidence intervals for PFS and overall survival for patients aged <65, ≥65, <75 and ≥75 years. In total, 1967 patients receiving first-line treatment with bevacizumab and chemotherapy were enrolled. The median PFS and overall survival values were 6.4 (95% confidence interval = 6.0-6.8) and 14.2 (95% confidence interval = 12.7-15.2) months for patients aged <65 years, respectively, and 6.8 (95% confidence interval = 6.3-7.0) and 12.1 (95% confidence interval = 11.4-13.1) months for patients ≥65 years, respectively. For patients <75 years, the median PFS and overall survival values were 6.6 (95% confidence interval = 6.3-6.9) and 13.5 (95% confidence interval = 12.6-14.5) months, respectively, and 6.6 (95% confidence interval = 5.9-7.1) and 11.6 (95% confidence interval = 10.0-12.5) months, respectively, for patients ≥75 years. Incidence proportions of bevacizumab-associated adverse events were generally similar across all age groups. Data from the ARIES study suggest that treatment with bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy is a viable first-line treatment option for elderly bevacizumab-eligible patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advances in surgical techniques in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anthony W; Detterbeck, Frank C

    2013-12-01

    Thoracic surgery is a dynamic field, and many scientific, technological, technical, and organizational changes are occurring. A prominent example is the use of less invasive approaches to major resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both thoracoscopic and robotic. Sophisticated technology corroborated by clinical data has led to these approaches becoming accepted additions to the armamentarium. Additionally, improvements in perioperative pain management have also contributed to dramatically changing the experience of patients who undergo modern thoracic surgery. Lung cancer is being detected more often at an early stage. At the same time, advances in techniques, patient care, clinical science, and multidisciplinary treatment support an increased role for aggressive resection in the face of larger locally advanced tumors or for those with limited metastatic disease. These advances, conducted in the setting of multidisciplinary decision making, have resulted in real and palpable advancements for patients with lung cancer. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Nivolumab: a review in advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2015-11-01

    Nivolumab (Opdivo(®); Nivolumab BMS™) was the first programmed death (PD)-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor to be approved for use in advanced, squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following prior chemotherapy. In the pivotal CheckMate 017 trial, intravenous nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks was associated with significantly better overall survival and progression-free survival and a significantly higher overall response rate than intravenous docetaxel in the second-line treatment of advanced, squamous NSCLC. Nivolumab was also better tolerated than docetaxel in CheckMate 017, and its adverse event profile (which included immune-mediated adverse events) was manageable. In conclusion, nivolumab represents an important advance in previously-treated, advanced, squamous NSCLC.

  11. Long-lasting control with erlotinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Teresa; Castro, Ana; Cortesão, Nuno; Ferreira, Jorge; João, Fernanda

    2008-10-01

    The authors present a clinical case of a caucasian male patient, 59 years-old, non-smoker, with an advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), with 3 years of follow-up, received erlotinib for 18 months, after failure of more than one chemotherapy schedule, without evidence of oncologic progression. The patient evidences excellent quality of life, controlled sintomatology, recovery of the capacity of tolerance to the effort and it maintains his professional activities. The treatment with erlotinib has been well tolerated, although exhibiting grade 1 cutaneous toxicity. Rev Port Pneumol 2008; XIV (Supl 3): S9-S15.

  12. [Nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Lan-Fang; Wang, Hua-Qing; Liu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Hui-Lai; Qiu, Li-Hua; Qian, Zheng-Zi; Li, Wei

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the role of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical data of 37 NSCLC patients who received nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital from January 2009 to October 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the thirty-seven patients, 12 patients were in stage III B, 25 patients in stage IV. Twenty-four patients recived platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with nimotuzumab, 13 patients recived nonplatinum-based chemotherapy in combination with nimotuzumab. Ten patients received nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy as first-line regimen, 23 patients as second-line regimen, 4 patients as third-line regimen. Of the 37 advanced NSCLC patients who received nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy, the total number of chemotherapy were 137 cycles, the mean number was 3.7 cycles. One patient had complete remission (CR), 9 patients had partial remission (PR), 16 cases had stable disease (SD), and 11 patients had progressive disease (PD). The response rate (RR) was 27% and clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 70.3%. The main side effects were bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal reactions. Grade I acneiform rash was found in one patient. The regimen of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy can improve the response rate and was well tolerated in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

  13. Prognostic factors of advanced stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ben Amar, Jihen; Ben Safta, Boutheina; Zaibi, Haifa; Dhahri, Besma; Baccar, Mohamed Ali; Azzabi, Saloua

    2016-05-01

    Background Lung cancer is the main cause of death from cancer in the world. The 5-year survival is about 15%. Despite the progress of medicine the mortality rate decreased only marginally. This poor prognosis is due to late diagnosis. Aim To evaluate overall survival and prognostic factors in patients locally advanced or metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Retrospective study including 180 patients with non-small cell lung cancer hospitalized in the department of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis between January 2007 and December 2014. Results The mean age was 61.5 years with a male predominance (93.3%). The median overall survival was 6 months. The poor prognostic factors were the performans status (PS) and early delays of management (<30 days). The factors that improve survival were surgical treatment and delays of management more than 45 days.  Conclusion The prognostic factors in locally advanced and metastatic NSLC in our patient were: PS, management delay and treatment. These factors should be considered in management of patient with advanced stage NSCLC.

  14. Erlotinib in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: an update for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongsheng; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has become an important target in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Erlotinib and gefitinib, two small molecular agents that target the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR, were approved in many countries for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC as a second- or third-line regimen. Since then, randomized trials have evaluated the role of these two targeted agents alone or combined with chemotherapy in maintenance and first-line settings. This review summarizes the results of recent clinical trials with these tyrosine kinase inhibitors, with a focus on erlotinib, as first-line treatment towards a form of personalized medicine aimed at improving clinical outcome in advanced NSCLC. PMID:22229045

  15. Molecular targeted therapy in the treatment of advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Kumarakulasinghe, Nesaretnam Barr; van Zanwijk, Nico; Soo, Ross A

    2015-04-01

    Historically, patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with chemotherapy alone, but a therapeutic plateau has been reached. Advances in the understanding of molecular genetics have led to the recognition of multiple molecularly distinct subsets of NSCLC. This in turn has led to the development of rationally directed molecular targeted therapy, leading to improved clinical outcomes. Tumour genotyping for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangement has meant chemotherapy is no longer given automatically as first-line treatment but reserved for when patients do not have a 'druggable' driver oncogene. In this review, we will address the current status of clinically relevant driver mutations and emerging new molecular subsets in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and the role of targeted therapy and mechanisms of acquired resistance to targeted therapy.

  16. Update on targeted therapies for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: nivolumab in context

    PubMed Central

    Le, Alexander D; Alzghari, Saeed K; Jean, Gary W; La-Beck, Ninh M

    2017-01-01

    While the initial treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) usually relies on surgical resection followed by systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, recent advances in understanding of NSCLC biology and immunology have spurred the development of numerous targeted therapies. In particular, a class of immune modulatory drugs targeting the immune checkpoint pathways has demonstrated remarkable durable remissions in a select minority of advanced NSCLC patients, potentially heralding the elusive “cancer cure”. This review focuses on the clinical evidence for one of these agents, nivolumab, and clarifies the role of this drug in the context of the other targeted therapies currently available for the treatment of NSCLC. We also discuss the impact of nivolumab on patient quality of life and health economics. PMID:28260909

  17. Clinical roundtable monograph: Recent advances in taxanes for the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Socinski, Mark A; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Spigel, David

    2012-10-01

    Treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are based on the broad categories of squamous or non-squamous histology. Frontline treatment options include pemetrexed and cisplatin, pemetrexed and a taxane, gemcitabine with cisplatin, and the addition of bevacizumab to a taxane and carboplatin. Pemetrexed is used for maintenance therapy for non-squamous NSCLC, whereas patients with squamous NSCLC lack easy options for maintenance therapy. nab-Paclitaxel overcomes the solubility and toxicity issues of solvent-based paclitaxel, and the albumin in nab-paclitaxel improves the concentration of the drug in the tumor. A recent phase III trial in NSCLC compared nab-paclitaxel with carboplatin versus solvent-based paclitaxel with carboplatin, and found improved overall response rates (ORRs) in the nab-paclitaxel arm (33% vs 25%; P=.005). In a subset analysis, NSCLC patients with squamous histology had a higher ORR (41%) with nab-paclitaxel than with solvent-based paclitaxel (24%; P<.001). Another subset analysis found that patients ages 70 years and older had improved overall survival (median 19.9 months) with nab-paclitaxel compared with solvent-based paclitaxel (median 10.4 months; P=.009). Patients in the nab-paclitaxel arm had less neuropathy, less hearing loss, and fewer interruptions in daily living than patients in the solvent-based paclitaxel arm.

  18. Eligibility of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer for phase III chemotherapy trials

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidence that chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life in patients with stage IIIB & IV non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on large randomized controlled trials. The purpose of this study was to determine eligibility of patients with advanced NSCLC for major chemotherapy trials. Methods Physicians treating stage IIIB/IV NSCLC at Sydney Cancer Centre assessed patient eligibility for the E1594, SWOG9509 and TAX326 trials for patients presenting from October 2001 to December 2002. A review of the centre's registry was used to obtain missing data. Results 199 patients with advanced NSCLC were registered during the 14-month period. Characteristics of 100 patients were defined prospectively, 85 retrospectively: 77% males, median age 68 (range 32–88), 64% stage IV disease. Only 35% met trial eligibility for E1594 and 28% for SWOG9509 and TAX326. Common reasons for ineligibility were: co-morbidities 75(40%); ECOG Performance Status ≥2 72(39%); symptomatic brain metastasis 15(8%); and previous cancers 21(11%). Many patients were ineligible by more than one criterion. Conclusion The majority of patients with advanced NSCLC were ineligible for the large chemotherapy trials. The applicability of trial results to advanced lung cancer populations may be limited. Future trials should be conducted in a more representative population. PMID:19402889

  19. Retrospective analysis of third-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tatli, Ali Murat; Arslan, Deniz; Uysal, Mukremin; Goksu, Sema Sezgin; Gunduz, Seyda Gulenay; Coskun, Hasan Senol; Ozdogan, Mustafa; Savas, Burhan; Bozcuk, Hakan Sat

    2015-01-01

    First- and second-line chemotherapies have been demonstrated to be effective in treatment of patients with inoperable, advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although the role of third-line chemotherapy remains unclear. The present investigation assessed treatment outcomes in patients with advanced NSCLC who received third-line and higher chemotherapy. This retrospective study included consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC who received at least three lines of systemic chemotherapy. A total of 72 patients who had received third-line or higher chemotherapy were included in the analysis. The median age of patients was 49 years (range 41-76), and there were 13 (18.1%) women and 59 (81.9%) men. Estimated median survival was 26 months. Moreover, overall survival was significantly longer in patients for whom disease control was achieved after second-line chemotherapy compared to those with disease progression (34 vs. 17 months, respectively). Survival after third-line treatment was significantly longer in the group with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1 at the beginning of third-line therapy compared to patients with a status of 2-3. In patients with advanced stage NSCLC, administration of third-line and higher systemic chemotherapy may be associated with increase in overall survival. Furthermore, greater increases in overall survival were also observed in patients for whom disease control was achieved after second-line therapy and in those with ECOG performance status of 0-1 before third-line treatment.

  20. Definitive radiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: dose and fractionation.

    PubMed

    Dağoğlu, Nergiz; Karaman, Şule; Arifoğlu, Alptekin; Küçücük, Seden; Oral, Ethem N

    2014-12-01

    Definitive radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC). After the impact of RT dose for lung cancer was established, a number of trials were structured with the aim of better local control and overall survival by either dose escalation or shortening the total treatment time through conventional/altered fractionation, even in combination with chemotherapy (CT) and other targeted agents. In spite of the increased number of these studies, the optimal dose or fractionation still remains to be determined. Another aspect questioned is the incorporation of these higher doses and shorter treatment times with chemotherapy or targeted agents. This review summarises the results of significant trials on dose and altered fractionation in the treatment of LA-NSCLC with an emphasis on possible future perspectives.

  1. Molecularly targeted therapies for advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Soley; Rocha-Lima, Caio M

    2013-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy has been a standard for patients with advanced stage disease. Improvements in overall survival and quality of life have been modest. Improved knowledge of the aberrant molecular signaling pathways found in NSCLC has led to the development of biomarkers with associated targeted therapeutics, thus changing the treatment paradigm for many NSCLC patients. In this review, we present a summary of many of the currently investigated biologic targets in NSCLC, discuss their current clinical trial status, and also discuss the potential for development of other targeted agents. PMID:23696960

  2. Chemotherapy and targeted therapeutics as maintenance of response in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Melissa L; Patel, Jyoti D

    2014-02-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Survival for patients with advanced disease remains meager with standard platinum-based doublet therapy even given initially. Improved efficacy and tolerability of third-generation chemotherapies and small-molecule inhibitors has prompted the evaluation of these agents in the maintenance setting in order to enhance current outcomes. Two separate strategies have evolved: the introduction of a non-cross-resistant drug immediately following first-line or induction chemotherapy (switch maintenance), or the continuation of the non-platinum partner initially introduced during induction (continuation maintenance). Here we review the available clinical trial data evaluating both maintenance strategies, and offer our assessment of their contemporary clinical implications and cost-effectiveness.

  3. A Structured Exercise Program for Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Temel, Jennifer S.; Greer, Joseph A.; Goldberg, Sarah; Vogel, Paula Downes; Sullivan, Michael; Pirl, William F.; Lynch, Thomas J.; Christiani, David C.; Smith, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Exercise improves functional outcome and symptoms for certain cancer populations, but the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of structured exercise in patients with lung cancer is unknown. In this study, we examined the feasibility of a hospital-based exercise program for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Methods This study included patients with newly diagnosed advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–1. A physical therapist facilitated twice-weekly sessions of aerobic exercise and weight training over an 8-week period. The primary end point was feasibility of the intervention, defined as adherence to the exercise program. Secondary endpoints included functional capacity, measured by the 6-minute walk test and muscle strength, as well as quality of life, lung cancer symptoms and fatigue, measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-lung and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-fatigue scales. Results Between October 2004 and August 2007, 25 patients enrolled in the study. All participants received anticancer therapy during the study period. Twenty patients (80%) underwent the baseline physical therapy evaluation. Eleven patients (44%) completed all 16 sessions. An additional 6 patients attended at least 6 sessions (range, 6–15), and 2 patients only attended one session. Study completers experienced a significant reduction in lung cancer symptoms and no deterioration in their 6-minute walk test or muscle strength. Conclusions Although the majority of participants attempted the exercise program, less than half were able to complete the intervention. Those who completed the program experienced an improvement in their lung cancer symptoms. Community-based or briefer exercise interventions may be more feasible in this population. PMID:19276834

  4. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Biliary, Pancreatic, Urothelial, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  5. Molecular-targeted therapy for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    ANTONELLI, GIOVANNA; LIBRA, MASSIMO; PANEBIANCO, VINCENZO; RUSSO, ALESSIA ERIKA; VITALE, FELICE VITO; COLINA, PAOLO; D'ANGELO, ALESSANDRO; ROSSELLO, ROSALBA; FERRAÙ, FRANCESCO

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in men and women. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents close to 90% of all lung cancers. When diagnosed, >50% of patients are >65 years old. Through an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in lung oncogenesis, molecular-targeted approaches have become an essential element for the treatment of patients with NSCLC. As the toxicity profiles of the techniques are definitely more favorable compared with chemotherapy, they are particularly attractive for use in elderly patients, who are potentially more susceptible to the toxicity of systemic oncological therapies. However, studies on the activity of molecular-targeted agents in this aged patient setting are much more limited compared with those in their younger counterparts. In the present review, the literature on molecular-targeted therapy for elderly patients with advanced NSCLC is discussed. It is concluded that bevacizumab should be reserved only for highly select elderly patients with advanced NSCLC when the clinician deems it useful in the face of acceptable toxicities. In elderly patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive NSCLC, erlotinib and gefitinib appear to repeat the same favorable performance as that documented on a larger scale in the overall population of patients with activating mutations. A good toxicity profile is also confirmed for active molecules on different pathways, such as crizotinib. PMID:26870160

  6. Salvage treatment with apatinib for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhengbo; Yu, Xinmin; Lou, Guangyuan; Shi, Xun; Zhang, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Objective No definitive chemotherapeutic regimen has been established in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who failed second- or third-line treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate apatinib, a VEGFR-2 inhibitor, in advanced NSCLC as salvage treatment. Methods We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of apatinib in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC from 2014 to 2015 in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Forty-two patients were included in the present study. Four patients achieved partial response, and 22 achieved stable disease, representing a response rate of 9.5% and a disease control rate of 61.9%. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.2 and 6.0 months, respectively. The toxicities associated with apatinib were generally acceptable with a total grade 3/4 toxicity of 50%. Conclusion Apatinib appears to have some activity against advanced NSCLC when utilized as salvage treatment. PMID:28367065

  7. Molecular-targeted therapy for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Giovanna; Libra, Massimo; Panebianco, Vincenzo; Russo, Alessia Erika; Vitale, Felice Vito; Colina, Paolo; D'Angelo, Alessandro; Rossello, Rosalba; Ferraù, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in men and women. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents close to 90% of all lung cancers. When diagnosed, >50% of patients are >65 years old. Through an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in lung oncogenesis, molecular-targeted approaches have become an essential element for the treatment of patients with NSCLC. As the toxicity profiles of the techniques are definitely more favorable compared with chemotherapy, they are particularly attractive for use in elderly patients, who are potentially more susceptible to the toxicity of systemic oncological therapies. However, studies on the activity of molecular-targeted agents in this aged patient setting are much more limited compared with those in their younger counterparts. In the present review, the literature on molecular-targeted therapy for elderly patients with advanced NSCLC is discussed. It is concluded that bevacizumab should be reserved only for highly select elderly patients with advanced NSCLC when the clinician deems it useful in the face of acceptable toxicities. In elderly patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive NSCLC, erlotinib and gefitinib appear to repeat the same favorable performance as that documented on a larger scale in the overall population of patients with activating mutations. A good toxicity profile is also confirmed for active molecules on different pathways, such as crizotinib.

  8. Nivolumab: A Review in Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-06-01

    The programmed death (PD)-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab (Opdivo(®)) is approved in the USA for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy and in the EU for the treatment of adults with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC after prior chemotherapy. In previously-treated patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, overall survival was significantly prolonged and the overall response rate was significantly higher in patients who received intravenous nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks versus intravenous docetaxel in the pivotal CheckMate 057 trial. Progression-free survival did not significantly differ between patients receiving nivolumab and those receiving docetaxel. Intravenous nivolumab had a manageable adverse event profile (including immune-mediated adverse events) and was better tolerated than docetaxel in the CheckMate 057 trial. Thus, nivolumab is an important new option for use in previously-treated patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.

  9. Canadian consensus: inhibition of ALK-positive tumours in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, B.; Agulnik, J.; Albadine, R.; Banerji, S.; Bebb, D.G.; Bethune, D.; Blais, N.; Butts, C.; Cheema, P.; Cheung, P.; Cohen, V.; Deschenes, J.; Ionescu, D.N.; Juergens, R.; Kamel-Reid, S.; Laurie, S.A.; Liu, G.; Morzycki, W.; Tsao, M.S.; Xu, Z.; Hirsh, V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (alk) is an oncogenic driver in non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ALK gene occur in up to 4% of nonsquamous nsclc patients and lead to constitutive activation of the alk signalling pathway. ALK-positive nsclc is found in relatively young patients, with a median age of 50 years. Patients frequently have brain metastasis. Targeted inhibition of the alk pathway prolongs progression-free survival in patients with ALK-positive advanced nsclc. The results of several recent clinical trials confirm the efficacy and safety benefit of crizotinib and ceritinib in this population. Canadian oncologists support the following consensus statement: All patients with advanced nonsquamous nsclc (excluding pure neuroendocrine carcinoma) should be tested for the presence of an ALK rearrangement. If an ALK rearrangement is present, treatment with a targeted alk inhibitor in the first-line setting is recommended. As patients become resistant to first-generation alk inhibitors, other treatments, including second-generation alk inhibitors can be considered. PMID:27330348

  10. Old wine in new pipes? Treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with trofosfamide.

    PubMed

    Reißig, Angelika; Walther, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the effect of oral trofosfamide in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with histologically or cytologically proven NSCLC, who had received at least 2 other therapies, were enrolled. The primary clinical end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included overall survival (OS), response rate and toxicity. 23 patients were enrolled, 1 of whom was excluded due to non-compliance. The patients had received a median of 3 prior therapies (range 2-4). Regarding all 22 patients, median PFS was 14 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.96-18.04). The median OS was 32 weeks (95% CI 17.12-46.88). The median duration of trofosfamide therapy was 10.5 weeks (interquartile range 6.5-17.3). 20 patients (90.9%) had stable disease; 2 were not assessable. Trofosfamide therapy was stopped in 4 patients (18.2%) due to side effects. Trofosfamide is an orally applicable, well-tolerated and cost-effective drug that works in patients with advanced NSCLC, who have undergone at least 2 lines of therapy. Trofosfamide seems to be a therapeutic option in NSCLC as a further therapy line. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in a larger trial. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of paclitaxel plus cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Earle, C C; Evans, W K

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel/cisplatin, compared with standard etoposide/cisplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We obtained the primary survival and resource utilization data from a large three-arm randomized trial comparing: paclitaxel 135 mg m−2 by 24-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion + cisplatin; paclitaxel 250 mg m−2 by 24-h i.v. infusion + cisplatin + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF); and standard etoposide/cisplatin in patients with stage IIIb or IV NSCLC. We also modelled the regimens with paclitaxel 135 mg m−2 + cisplatin administered as an outpatient by 3-h infusion, as clinical data suggest that this is equivalent to 24-h infusion. We collected costing data from the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre and applied it to the resources consumed in the randomized trial. We integrated these data into the Statistics Canada POpulation HEalth Model (POHEM), which generated hypothetical cohorts of patients treated with each regimen. The POHEM model assigned diagnostic work-up, treatment, disease progression and survival characteristics to each individual in these cohorts and tabulated the costs associated with each. We did sensitivity analyses around the costs of chemotherapy and its administration, and the survival differences between the two regimens. All costs are in 1997 Canadian dollars ($1.00 Canadian ˜ £0.39 sterling). The perspective is that of the Canadian health care system. In the trial, the two paclitaxel-containing arms had almost identical survival curves with a median survival of 9.7 months compared with 7.4 months for etoposide/cisplatin. As administered in the trial, paclitaxel/cisplatin cost $76 370 per life-year gained (LYG) and paclitaxel/cisplatin/G-CSF $138 578 per LYG relative to etoposide/cisplatin. However, when modelled as an outpatient 3-h infusion, paclitaxel/cisplatin was moderately cost-effective at $30 619 per LYG

  12. Nivolumab Monotherapy for First-Line Treatment of Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gettinger, Scott; Rizvi, Naiyer A; Chow, Laura Q; Borghaei, Hossein; Brahmer, Julie; Ready, Neal; Gerber, David E; Shepherd, Frances A; Antonia, Scott; Goldman, Jonathan W; Juergens, Rosalyn A; Laurie, Scott A; Nathan, Faith E; Shen, Yun; Harbison, Christopher T; Hellmann, Matthew D

    2016-09-01

    Nivolumab, a programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has demonstrated improved survival over docetaxel in previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). First-line monotherapy with nivolumab for advanced NSCLC was evaluated in the phase I, multicohort, Checkmate 012 trial. Fifty-two patients received nivolumab 3 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks until progression or unacceptable toxicity; postprogression treatment was permitted per protocol. The primary objective was to assess safety; secondary objectives included objective response rate (ORR) and 24-week progression-free survival (PFS) rate; overall survival (OS) was an exploratory end point. Any-grade treatment-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 71% of patients, most commonly: fatigue (29%), rash (19%), nausea (14%), diarrhea (12%), pruritus (12%), and arthralgia (10%). Ten patients (19%) reported grade 3 to 4 treatment-related AEs; grade 3 rash was the only grade 3 to 4 event occurring in more than one patient (n = 2; 4%). Six patients (12%) discontinued because of a treatment-related AE. The confirmed ORR was 23% (12 of 52), including four ongoing complete responses. Nine of 12 responses (75%) occurred by first tumor assessment (week 11); eight (67%) were ongoing (range, 5.3+ to 25.8+ months) at the time of data lock. ORR was 28% (nine of 32) in patients with any degree of tumor PD-ligand 1 expression and 14% (two of 14) in patients with no PD-ligand 1 expression. Median PFS was 3.6 months, and the 24-week PFS rate was 41% (95% CI, 27 to 54). Median OS was 19.4 months, and the 1-year and 18-month OS rates were 73% (95% CI, 59 to 83) and 57% (95% CI, 42 to 70), respectively. First-line nivolumab monotherapy demonstrated a tolerable safety profile and durable responses in first-line advanced NSCLC. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Activity of gefitinib in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with very poor performance status.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Yin, Ming-Chang; Lin, Ching-Pei; Kuo, Benjamin Ing-Tiau; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with poor performance status (PS) are less likely to respond to chemotherapy, or to have an improvement in survival, but more likely to experience toxicity. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of gefitinib in patients with advanced NSCLC and very poor PS in Taiwan. Patients with stage IIIB, IV NSCLC with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS of 3-4 received oral gefitinib 250 mg once daily. Totally, 52 patients were included (25 men, 27 women). Forty-three patients (82.7%) were in a PS of 3. Tumor response rate was 25.0% (13/52). Tumor response rate to gefitinib was highest in chemonaive patients 38.1% (8/21) vs. failed 1 chemotherapy regimen 13.3% (2/15) vs. failed 2 or more chemotherapy regimens 18.8% (3/16), p = 0.015. The median overall survival was 2.5 months (response group 9.1 months, stable disease 3.1 months, and progressive group 0.8 month, p < 0.001). Adverse events, mainly skin reactions and diarrhea, were generally mild (grade 1 or 2) except paronychia and acne. Thus, gefitinib has clinically antitumor activity and good tolerability in Taiwan patients with advanced NSCLC and very poor performance status, with a higher response rate than that seen Europe or in European heritage Americans. Chemonaive patients responded better than patients with prior chemotherapy. Formal clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the role of gefitinib in this situation.

  14. EGFR Testing in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer, A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Sheikine, Yuri; Rangachari, Deepa; McDonald, Danielle C; Huberman, Mark S; Folch, Erik S; VanderLaan, Paul A; Costa, Daniel B

    2016-11-01

    Expert consensus guidelines have defined minimum requirements for routine testing and identification of classical epidermal growth factor (EGFR) mutations (ie, exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R substitution) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements in advanced non-small-cell lung cancers of adenocarcinoma histology, with the intent of permitting use of these predictive biomarkers to select patients who will derive maximal benefit from approved oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) directed against EGFR and ALK, respectively. However, the practice of precision medicine is incumbent upon optimal tumor sampling, accurate tumor testing, and informed application of results to patient care. We report on a brief review of EGFR testing methodologies (Sanger sequencing, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, and targeted next-generation sequencing) to identify classical and other (ie, exon 18 G719X, exon 19 insertions, exon 20 insertions, exon 21 L861Q) EGFR mutations; practical considerations (type of tissue/biopsies with different success rates of DNA isolation, and timeliness of result-reporting to facilitate therapeutic decision-making); role of rebiopsy (to identify mechanisms of acquired resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR TKIs, most importantly EGFR-T790M); and clinical vignettes highlighting the nuances of testing in day-to-day practice.

  15. Immunotherapy in locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer: releasing the brakes on consolidation?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) is optimally treated with definitive chemoradiation or surgery in combination with chemotherapy or chemoradiation. Prognosis, however, remains poor, and attempts to improve outcomes using consolidation or maintenance chemotherapy have not improved overall survival. Given the limited success of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapies as maintenance therapy for LA-NSCLC, recent studies have investigated the role of novel agents such as maintenance or consolidation, including antiangiogenic agents and molecular targeted therapy. With multiple newly reported trials demonstrating improved outcomes with immunotherapy over cytotoxic chemotherapy for stage IV NSCLC, integrating immunotherapy with definitive chemoradiation regimens or as consolidative therapy for LA-NSCLC is an attractive option. The recently published START trial is the first to test immunotherapy in LA-NSCLC in a randomized, phase III setting. In that trial, the administration of maintenance tecemotide (L-BLP25), which induces a T-cell response to the mucin 1 (MUC1) glycoprotein, was found to be well tolerated and improve overall survival compared with placebo among patients receiving concurrent, but not sequential, chemoradiation. Despite the promising findings of this trial, numerous questions regarding immunotherapy for LA-NSCLC remain, and several additional immunotherapy trials are underway or planned in this patient population. PMID:26958509

  16. Maintenance therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: evolution, tolerability and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coate, Linda E.; Shepherd, Frances A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death in the industrialized world. Despite significant progress in early stage disease, survival rates for advanced disease remain low. Maintenance therapy is a treatment strategy that has been investigated extensively in NSCLC and has been the subject of considerable recent debate. Options for maintenance include continuing the initial combination chemotherapy regimen, continuing only single agent chemotherapy (‘continuation maintenance’) or introducing a new agent (‘switch’ maintenance therapy). Therapies that have been studied in this setting in randomized trials to date include chemotherapy, molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapy approaches. Following the development of multiple new agents that show activity in NSCLC, and have a tolerable side-effect profile, there has been increasing interest in utilizing them to maintain response to initial therapy after treatment with platinum-based doublets. Despite considerable controversy, it has become an acceptable treatment paradigm. Here, we briefly outline the evolution of this treatment paradigm and examine which subgroups of patients are most likely to benefit. PMID:21904577

  17. Pulmonary atelectasis and survival in advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Atelectasis was reported as a favorable prognostic sign of pulmonary carcinoma; however, the underlying mechanism in those patients is not known. In this study, we aimed to investigate prospectively the potential impact of atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonitis (AO) on survival and the relation between atelectasis and some laboratory blood parameters. The study was conducted on 87 advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Clinical and laboratory parameters of patients at first presentation were recorded, and patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of AO in thorax computed tomography (CT). Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier and univariate Cox's regression analyses. Laboratory parameters that might be related with prolonged survival in atelectasis were compared using chi-square, Student's t, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Of the patients, 54% had stage IV disease, and AO was detected in 48.3% of all cases. Overall median survival was 13.2 months for all cases, 10.9 months for patients without AO, and 13.9 months for patients with AO (P = 0.067). Survival was significantly longer in stage III patients with AO (14.5 months versus 9.2 months, P = 0.032), but not in stage IV patients. Patients with AO in stage III had significantly lower platelet counts (P = 0.032) and blood sedimentation rates than did those with no AO (P = 0.045). We concluded that atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonitis was associated with prolonged survival in locally advanced NSCLC. There was also a clear association between atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonitis and platelets and blood sedimentation rate. PMID:20636252

  18. Pulmonary atelectasis and survival in advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bulbul, Yilmaz; Eris, Bulent; Orem, Asim; Gulsoy, Ayhan; Oztuna, Funda; Ozlu, Tevfik; Ozsu, Savas

    2010-08-01

    Atelectasis was reported as a favorable prognostic sign of pulmonary carcinoma; however, the underlying mechanism in those patients is not known. In this study, we aimed to investigate prospectively the potential impact of atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonitis (AO) on survival and the relation between atelectasis and some laboratory blood parameters. The study was conducted on 87 advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Clinical and laboratory parameters of patients at first presentation were recorded, and patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of AO in thorax computed tomography (CT). Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier and univariate Cox's regression analyses. Laboratory parameters that might be related with prolonged survival in atelectasis were compared using chi-square, Student's t, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Of the patients, 54% had stage IV disease, and AO was detected in 48.3% of all cases. Overall median survival was 13.2 months for all cases, 10.9 months for patients without AO, and 13.9 months for patients with AO (P=0.067). Survival was significantly longer in stage III patients with AO (14.5 months versus 9.2 months, P=0.032), but not in stage IV patients. Patients with AO in stage III had significantly lower platelet counts (P=0.032) and blood sedimentation rates than did those with no AO (P=0.045). We concluded that atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonitis was associated with prolonged survival in locally advanced NSCLC. There was also a clear association between atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonitis and platelets and blood sedimentation rate.

  19. Advances in the Development of Molecularly Targeted Agents in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Saoirse O; Collins, Dearbhaile C; Sundar, Raghav; Popat, Sanjay; Yap, Timothy A

    2017-04-04

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a significant global health challenge and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The traditional 'one-size-fits-all' treatment approach has now evolved into one that involves personalized strategies based on histological and molecular subtypes. The molecular era has revolutionized the treatment of patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 gene aberrations. In the appropriately selected population, anti-tumor agents against these molecular targets can significantly improve progression-free survival. However, the emergence of acquired resistance is inevitable. Novel potent compounds with much improved and rational selectivity profiles, such as third-generation EGFR T790M resistance mutation-specific inhibitors, have been developed and added to the NSCLC armamentarium. To date, attempts to overcome resistance bypass pathways through downstream signaling blockade has had limited success. Furthermore, the majority of patients still do not harbor known driver genetic or epigenetic alterations and/or have no new available treatment options, with chemotherapy remaining their standard of care. Several potentially actionable driver aberrations have recently been identified, with the early clinical development of multiple inhibitors against these promising targets currently in progress. The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to significant benefit for advanced NSCLC patients with durable responses observed. Further interrogation of the underlying biology of NSCLC, coupled with modern clinical trial designs, is now required to develop novel targeted therapeutics rationally matched with predictive biomarkers of response, so as to further advance NSCLC therapeutics through the next decade.

  20. CIMAvax-EGF: A New Therapeutic Vaccine for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Danay; Crombet, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the common fatal illness with the highest incidence and mortality globally. Epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression by tumor cells is associated with uncontrolled proliferation, angiogenesis, anti-apoptotic signals, metastization, and invasiveness. CIMAvax-EGF vaccine consists of a chemical conjugate of the EGF with the P64 protein derived from the Meningitis B bacteria and Montanide ISA 51, as adjuvant. The vaccine is projected to induce antibodies against EGF that results in EGF withdrawal. CIMAvax-EGF demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The efficacy study was an open-label, multicentric Phase III clinical trial, which enrolled 405 advanced NSCLC patients. Patients with proven stage IIIB/IV NSCLC, who had completed four to six cycles of chemotherapy (CTP) were randomized to receive CIMAvax-EGF or best supportive care. CIMAvax-EGF resulted in a significantly larger overall survival in patients receiving at least four doses. High EGF concentration at baseline was a good predictive biomarker of the vaccine activity and a poor prognostic biomarker for the non-treated population. The proportion of CD8+CD28− cells, CD4 cells, and the CD4/CD8 ratio after first-line CTP was also associated with CIMAvax-EGF clinical benefit. After completing the Phase III, a Phase IV trial was done where the vaccine was administered in primary care units. Administering the vaccine at primary care institutions granted better access and treatment compliance. Safety was confirmed. Several clinical trials are currently ongoing to validate EGF as a predictive biomarker of CIMAvax-EGF efficacy. PMID:28348561

  1. Budget impact of erlotinib for maintenance therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Josh J; Wong, William B; Veenstra, David L; Reyes, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Assess the budgetary impact of adding erlotinib for maintenance therapy (MTx) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from a US health plan perspective. A budget impact model was developed to analyze the costs (drug, administration, adverse events) associated with adding erlotinib MTx to a hypothetical 500,000 member US health plan. Treatment durations and dosing were derived from randomized controlled trials, FDA labeling, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Treatment patterns and assumptions were based on market research data, the SEER registry, and published literature. Cost data were obtained from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services payment rates and a drug pricing database. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty. Overall health plan expenditures increased by $0.010 per member per month (PMPM). The main driver of additional cost was the erlotinib drug cost (∼$66,000) with the administration ($464) and side-effect ($47) costs being relatively modest. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that the results were most sensitive to the proportion of members receiving MTx; however, the PMPM did not exceed $0.013. The overall budget impact to a health plan of expanding the use of erlotinib from the 2nd/3rd-line advanced NSCLC setting to include the maintenance setting was relatively small. This was primarily due to the proportion of patients who would receive erlotinib MTx, the low cost of side-effects and minimal cost of drug administration. Additional research may be warranted to estimate the relative clinical and economic impacts of erlotinib MTx versus alternative MTx treatments.

  2. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, VDR polymorphisms, and survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Heist, Rebecca Suk; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Geoffrey; Neuberg, Donna; Su, Li; Asomaning, Kofi; Hollis, Bruce W; Lynch, Thomas J; Wain, John C; Giovannucci, Edward; Christiani, David C

    2008-12-01

    We showed previously that in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), serum vitamin D levels and VDR polymorphisms were associated with survival. We hypothesized that vitamin D levels and VDR polymorphisms may also affect survival among patients with advanced NSCLC. We evaluated the relationship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels; VDR polymorphisms, including Cdx-2 G>A (rs11568820), FokI C>T (rs10735810), and BsmI C>T (rs144410); and overall survival among patients with advanced NSCLC. Analyses of survival outcomes were performed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for sex, stage, and performance status. There were 294 patients and 233 deaths, with median follow-up of 42 months. We found no difference in survival by circulating vitamin D level. The C/C genotype of the FokI polymorphism was associated with improved survival: median survival for C/C was 21.4 months, for C/T was 12.1 months, and for T/T was 15.6 months (log-rank P = .005). There were no significant effects on survival by the Cdx-2 or BsMI polymorphism. However, having increasing numbers of protective alleles was associated with improved survival (adjusted hazard ratio for two or more v zero to one protective alleles, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.79; P = .0008). On haplotype analysis, the G-T-C (Cdx-2-FokI-BsmI) haplotype was associated with worse survival compared with the most common haplotype of G-C-T (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.14; P = .001). There was no main effect of vitamin D level on overall survival in the advanced NSCLC population. The T allele of the VDR FokI>T polymorphism and the G-T-C (Cdx-2-FokI-BsmI) haplotype were associated with worse survival.

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Emoto-Yamamoto, Y; Iida, S; Kawanishi, T; Fukuoka, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate the relationship between erlotinib exposure and the occurrence of interstitial lung disease (ILD)-like events. Population pharmacokinetics analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling software (NONMEM) based on 348 plasma samples from 97 patients obtained in two phase II clinical studies. Individual empirical Bayesian estimates (EBEs) of apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and Cmax were compared between the patients who developed and did not develop ILD-like events. A 1-compartment model with first-order absorption and first-order elimination was used to describe the plasma concentrations of erlotinib. The estimated population pharmacokinetics parameters were as follows: 4·71 L/h for CL/F, 163 L for apparent volume of distribution (Vc /F) and 1·97 h(-1) for absorption rate constant (Ka ). Total bilirubin (TBIL) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were identified as statistically significant covariates for CL/F. No differences in CL/F and Cmax were observed between the patients with ILD-like events and those without ILD-like events. A population pharmacokinetics model of erlotinib was developed and validated in Japanese patients. There was no relationship between exposure of erlotinib before the occurrence of ILD-like events and the occurrence of ILD-like events when erlotinib was administered at the same dosage. The high plasma concentration of erlotinib reported in patients after the onset of ILD-like events may be explained by CL/F decrease which occurs along with increasing levels of AGP which was identified as a covariate for CL/F. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Overview of chemoradiation clinical trials for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Isamu

    2008-04-01

    The standard of care for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is combined-modality therapy with both chemotherapy and thoracic radiation therapy (TRT). A phase III trial by the West Japan Lung Cancer Group revealed that the combination of mitomycin, vindesine, and cisplatin (MVP) with concurrent TRT yielded a median survival time of 16.6 months and a 5-year survival rate of 16% in patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC. Although evidence indicates that concurrent chemotherapy and TRT (chemoradiation) increases survival to a moderately greater extent than sequential therapeutic approaches, the optimal strategies for such concurrent treatment remain to be defined, and differ between full-dose systemic and low-dose radio-enhancing protocols. Two phase III trials have been initiated in Japan to address these issues and they have recently reported preliminary data. Early results of the Okayama Lung Cancer Study Group (OLCSG) trial, comparing chemoradiation based on divided docetaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy with MVP-based chemoradiation, have been reported. The West Japan Oncology Group (WJOG) is comparing the efficacy and toxicity of TRT and concurrent chemotherapy with either carboplatin-paclitaxel or carboplatin-irinotecan, followed by full-dose consolidation chemotherapy, with the efficacy and toxicity of MVP-based chemoradiation. Several phase I/II studies to test the optimal use of new agents such as S-1 (an oral anticancer drug combining tegafur, 5-chloro-2, 4-dihydroxypyridine, and potassium oxonate) and gefitinib (an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor) are also ongoing. In addition, radiation dose intensification with three-dimensional planning approaches is currently under evaluation. A phase I clinical trial by WJOG to establish, prospectively, the maximum tolerated dose of three-dimensional hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent weekly chemotherapy (carboplatin-paclitaxel) is

  5. Efficacy and tolerance of frontline bevacizumab-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients: a multicenter, phase IV study of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG).

    PubMed

    Matikas, A; Kentepozidis, Ν; Ardavanis, A; Vaslamatzis, M; Polyzos, A; Emmanouilides, Ch; Katsaounis, P; Koinis, F; Xynogalos, S; Christopoulou, A; Ziras, N; Tegos, Th; Prinarakis, E; Hatzidaki, D; Georgoulias, V; Kotsakis, A

    2016-08-01

    The addition of bevacizumab to the first-line chemotherapy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of non-squamous histology has been shown to improve survival. A multicenter, single-arm, phase IV study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of frontline bevacizumab-based chemotherapy regimens in real life. Patients with previously untreated recurrent or metastatic non-squamous, NSCLC, with no contraindications for bevacizumab, were enrolled. Bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) was administered in combination with both platinum- and non-platinum-based chemotherapy doublets or with single-agent chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. Treatment with bevacizumab was continued until disease progression. The primary end point of the study was the safety profile of bevacizumab regimens, whereas the secondary end points included overall survival, progression-free survival, and overall response rate. From February 2010 to April 2014, a total of 314 patients were enrolled in the study; the median age was 63, 74.8 % were men, 95.9 % had a performance status of 0-1, 90.4 % had metastatic disease, and 94.3 % had adenocarcinoma. Grade ≥3 neutropenia occurred in 11.5 % of the patients, 1.3 % experienced febrile neutropenia, 2.6 % grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia, 2.8 % thromboembolism, and 1.6 % severe bleeding. Treatment discontinuation occurred in 7.0 % of patients because of adverse events. There were three toxic deaths. Median progression-free survival was 7.7 months, and median overall survival was 17.6 months. The combination of bevacizumab with chemotherapy in the first-line setting of NSCLC is safe and active when used in appropriately selected patients. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01934465.

  6. Guidelines for biomarker testing in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. A national consensus of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP).

    PubMed

    Garrido, Pilar; de Castro, Javier; Concha, Ángel; Felip, Enriqueta; Isla, Dolores; López-Ríos, Fernando; Paz-Ares, Luis; Ramírez, José; Sanz, Julián; Gómez, José Javier

    2012-05-01

    Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations can now have specific treatment based on the result of biomarker analysis and patients with rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene will probably soon be able to. This will give them better quality of life and progression-free survival than conventional chemotherapy. This consensus statement was conceived as a joint initiative of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP), and makes diagnostic and treatment recommendations for advanced NSCLC patients based on the scientific evidence on biomarker use. It therefore provides an opportunity to improve healthcare efficiency and resource use, which will undoubtedly benefit these patients. Although this field is in continuous evolution, at present, with the available data, this panel of experts recommends that all patients with advanced NSCLC of non-squamous cell subtype, or non-smokers regardless of the histological subtype, should be tested for EGFR gene mutations within a maximum of 7 days from the pathological diagnosis. Involved laboratories must participate in external quality control programmes. In contrast, ALK gene rearrangements should only be tested in the context of a clinical trial, although the promising data obtained will certainly justify in the near future its routine testing in patients with no EGFR mutations. Lastly, routine testing for other molecular abnormalities is not considered necessary in the current clinical practice.

  7. Interaction of Treatment and Biomarker in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Pingfu; Pennell, Nathan A; Sharma, Neelesh; Yi, Qizhi; Dowlati, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the investigation of interactions in science. The objective of the study is to evaluate interaction between Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutation and treatment from randomized, phase II study of chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus erlotinib in patients with progressive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) following clinical benefit from erlotinib. Forty-six patients with advanced stage NSCLC and progression from erlotinib were randomized to receive chemotherapy (pemetrexed or docetaxel) or chemotherapy plus erlotinib between 2008 and 2012. Patient characteristics at baseline including age, gender, tumor stage, race, smoking history and EGFR mutation status along with the clinical outcomes, namely response, Progression- Free Survival (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS) were obtained. The effects of treatment, EGFR mutation and interaction between the two on survival outcomes were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards model with first-order interaction. For PFS, there was a significant interaction between treatment (arm B) and EGFR mutation (mutant EGFR+) (p = 0.018), although the main effects of treatment (arm B vs. arm A) and EGFR mutation (mutant vs. wild-type EGFR) were statistically significant (with p = 0.03 and p = 0.088, respectively) favoring arm B and mutant EGFR+. Thus when taking the interaction between treatment and EGFR into account, the hazard ratio comparing arm B to arm A when EGFR is positive was 1.49 (95% CI: 0.72, 3.11); and the hazard ratio comparing arm B to arm A when EGFR is negative was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.04 - 0.84). Similarly, for OS, there was a significant interaction between treatment and EGFR mutation (p = 0.02), with significant main effects of treatment and EGFR favoring arm B and mutant EFGR+. Taking together, the hazard ratio comparing arm B to arm A when EGFR is positive was 1.61 (95% CI: 0.68 - 3.82); and the hazard ratio comparing arm B to arm A when EGFR is negative was 0.16 (95

  8. Radiation Treatment Time and Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Matthew T; Ojerholm, Eric; Verma, Vivek; Higgins, Kristin A; Singhal, Sunil; Predina, Jarrod D; Berman, Abigail T; Grover, Surbhi; Robinson, Cliff G; Simone, Charles B

    2017-08-01

    Prolonged radiation treatment (RT) time (RTT) has been associated with worse survival in several malignancies. The present study investigated whether delays during RT are associated with overall survival (OS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with stage III NSCLC who had received definitive concurrent chemotherapy and fractionated RT to standard doses (59.4-70.0 Gy) and fractionation from 2004 to 2013. The RTT was classified as standard or prolonged for each treatment regimen according to the radiation dose and number of fractions. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, RT fractionation, demographic and pathologic factors, and chemotherapeutic agents. Of 14,154 patients, the RTT was prolonged in 6262 (44.2%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT included female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.21, P<.0001), black race (OR 1.20, P=.001), nonprivate health insurance (OR 1.30, P<.0001), and lower income (<$63,000 annually, OR 1.20, P<.0001). The median OS was significantly worse for patients with prolonged RTT than that for those with standard RTT (18.6 vs 22.7 months, P<.0001). Furthermore, the OS worsened with each cumulative interval of delay (standard RTT vs prolonged 1-2 days, 20.5 months, P=.009; prolonged 3-5 days, 17.9 months, P<.0001; prolonged 6-9 days, 17.7 months, P<.0001; prolonged >9 days, 17.1 months, P<.0001). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was independently associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.21, P<.0001). Prolonged RTT as a continuous variable was also significantly associated with worse OS (hazard ratio 1.001, P=.0007). Delays during RT appear to negatively affect survival for patients with locally advanced NSCLC. We have detailed the demographic and socioeconomic barriers influencing prolonged RTT as a method to address the health disparities in this regard. Cumulative interruptions of RT should be

  9. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  10. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutated Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Changing Treatment Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Suchita; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2017-02-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are present in approximately 15% of US patients with lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are associated with high response rate and progression-free survival for patients with non-small cell lung cancer with this genotype. Gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are presently in clinical use. Understanding resistance mechanisms has led to the identification of a secondary mutational target, T790M, in more than half of patients, for which osimertinib has been approved. This article reviews the current treatments, resistance mechanisms, and strategies to overcome resistance.

  11. Radiotherapy Dosing for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: “MTD” or “ALARA”?

    PubMed Central

    Ohri, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) is typically treated with thoracic radiotherapy, often in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Despite tremendous advances in the evaluation, treatment techniques, and supportive care measures provided to LA-NSCLC patients, local disease progression and distant metastases frequently develop following definitive therapy. A recent landmark randomized trial demonstrated that radiotherapy dose escalation may reduce survival rates, highlighting our poor understanding of the effects of thoracic radiotherapy for LA-NSCLC. Here, we present rationale for further studies of radiotherapy dose escalation as well as arguments for exploring relatively low radiotherapy doses for LA-NSCLC.

  12. Update on taxanes in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Socinski, M A

    2014-10-01

    Based on demonstrated favourable risk-benefit profiles, taxanes remain a key component in the first-line standard of care for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) and nsclc subtypes. In 2012, a novel taxane, nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane: Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, U.S.A.), was approved, in combination with carboplatin, for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or meta-static nsclc. The approval was granted because of demonstrated improved antitumour activity and tolerability compared with solvent-based paclitaxel-carboplatin in a phase iii trial. This review focuses on the evolution of first-line taxane therapy for advanced nsclc and the new options and advances in taxane therapy that might address unmet needs in advanced nsclc.

  13. Is the chemotherapy era in advanced non-small cell lung cancer really over? Maybe not yet.

    PubMed

    Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Imbimbo, Martina; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-06-02

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumors in both the male and female population. In Italy it is the leading cause of cancer deaths in men and the third in women. Although the 5-year survival rate has moderately increased in the last years, the diagnosis remains associated with a very poor prognosis. However, in the last decade significant progress has been made, also in the treatment of advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer. The advent of targeted therapies and the recent explosion of immunotherapy seem to have limited the role of chemotherapy. But is this completely true? The aim of this editorial is to discuss some of the most controversial aspects of the therapeutic scenario in non-small cell lung cancer, with particular attention to the role that chemotherapy still plays.

  14. Biomarkers and Targeted Systemic Therapies in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Vinicius, Ernani; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed significant growth in therapeutic options for patients diagnosed with lung cancer. This is due in major part to our improved technological ability to interrogate the genomics of cancer cells, which has enabled the development of biologically rational anticancer agents. The recognition that lung cancer is not a single disease entity dates back many decades to the histological subclassification of malignant neoplasms of the lung into subcategories of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While SCLC continues to be regarded as a single histologic and therapeutic category, the NSCLC subset has undergone additional subcategorizations with distinct management algorithms for specific histologic and molecular subtypes. The defining characteristics of these NSCLC subtypes have evolved into important tools for prognosis and for predicting the likelihood of benefit when patients are treated with anticancer agents. PMID:26187108

  15. Treatment modalities for advanced ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ivana; Planchard, David

    2016-04-01

    The ALK gene plays a key role in the pathogenesis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with NSCLC harboring an ALK-rearrangement represent the second oncogene addiction to be identified in this disease. Crizotinib was the first ALK inhibitor showing pronounced clinical activity, and is now a reference treatment for ALK-positive NSCLC disease. However, despite initial impressive responses to crizotinib, acquired resistance almost invariably develops within 12 months. The pressing need for effective second-line agents has prompted the rapid development of next-generation ALK inhibitors. These agents, notably ceritinib and alectinib as the most developed, have a higher potency against ALK than crizotinib, along with activity against tumors harboring crizotinib-resistant mutations and potentially improved CNS penetration.

  16. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. )

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  17. PD-L1 expression is associated with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiquan; Mei, Jiandong; Liu, Lunxu; Wang, Guochen; Li, Zuosheng; Hou, Jingpu; Zhang, Qiuyang; You, Zongbing; Zhang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-associated mortalities worldwide. Novel immunotherapies have been developed to improve the clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Antibodies against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been tested in clinical trials, and anti-PD-1 antibody has been approved for the treatment of NSCLC. The aim of the present study was to assess expression of PD-1, PD-L1 and programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) in 48 patients with NSCLC, using immunohistochemical staining. The results found that 35.4% (17/48) of patients were positive for PD-1 expression, 64.6% (31/48) were positive for PD-L1 expression and 45.8% (22/48) were positive for PD-L2 expression. Neither PD-1 nor PD-L2 expression was associated with gender, histology, differentiation status, tumor stage or lymph node metastasis. PD-L1 expression was not associated with gender, histology, differentiation status or lymph node metastasis; however, PD-L1 expression was significantly increased in stage III NSCLC (85.7% PD-L1+) compared with stage I/II NSCLC (55.9% PD-L1+) (P=0.049). PMID:27446371

  18. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer: locally advanced stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, W E E; De Ruysscher, D; Weder, W; Le Péchoux, C; De Leyn, P; Hoffmann, H; Westeel, V; Stahel, R; Felip, E; Peters, S

    2015-08-01

    To complement the existing treatment guidelines for all tumour types, ESMO organises consensus conferences to focus on specific issues in each type of tumour. The 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference on Lung Cancer was held on 11-12 May 2013 in Lugano. A total of 35 experts met to address several questions on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in each of four areas: pathology and molecular biomarkers, first-line/second and further lines of treatment in advanced disease, early-stage disease and locally advanced disease. For each question, recommendations were made including reference to the grade of recommendation and level of evidence. This consensus paper focuses on locally advanced disease.

  20. Chemotherapy in recurrent advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, M.; Nicholas, G.; Goss, G.D.; Wheatley-Price, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite adjuvant systemic therapy in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc), many will subsequently relapse. We investigated treatment choices at relapse and assessed the effect of palliative platinum doublet systemic therapy in this population. Methods With research ethics board approval, we performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with resected nsclc who received adjuvant systemic therapy from January 2002 until December 2008 at our institution. The primary outcome was the response rate to first-line palliative systemic therapy among patients who relapsed. Results We identified 176 patients who received adjuvant platinum doublet systemic therapy (82% received cisplatin–vinorelbine). In the 85 patients who relapsed (48%), median time to relapse was 18.5 months (95% confidence interval: 15 months to 21.3 months). Palliative systemic therapy was given in 43 patients. Of those 43 patients, 25 (58%) were re-challenged with platinum doublet systemic therapy, with a response rate of 29% compared with 18% in 18 patients who received other systemic therapy (p = 0.48). We observed a trend toward an increased clinical benefit rate (complete response + partial response + stable disease) in patients who were treated with a platinum doublet (67% vs. 41%, p = 0.12). Median overall survival (os) from relapse was 15.3 months in patients receiving palliative systemic therapy and 7.8 months in those receiving best supportive care alone. Compared with patients treated with non-platinum regimens, the platinum-treated group experienced longer survival after relapse (18.4 months vs. 9.7 months, p = 0.041). Conclusions In patients previously treated with adjuvant systemic therapy, re-treatment with platinum doublet chemotherapy upon relapse is feasible. Moreover, compared with patients receiving other first-line systemic therapy, patients receiving platinum doublets experienced higher response rates and significantly longer

  1. [Clinical application value of prognostic nutritional index for predicting survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Xu, W J; Kang, Y M; Zhou, L; Chen, F F; Song, Y H; Zhang, C Q

    2017-02-23

    Objective: To explore the clinical application value of prognostic nutritional index(PNI) for predicting overall survival(OS) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: 123 patients with histologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in this study, and their clinical and laboratory data were reviewed. The PNI was calculated as 10×serum albumin value+ 5×total lymphocyte countin peripheral blood.Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the potential prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC. Results: PNI of the 123 NSCLC patients was 46.24±6.56. PNI was significantly associated with age, weight loss and pleural effusion (P<0.05). However, it showed no relationship with sex, smoking, hemoptysis, chest pain, dyspnea, histological type, clinical stage, and administration of chemotherapy (P>0.05). The median OS of the 123 patients was 19.5 months. The median OS in the higher PNI group (PNI≥46.24) and lower PNI group(PNI<46.24) were 25.2 months and 16.4 months, respectively.The 1-year survival rates were 80.6% and 63.9%, and 2-year survival rates were 54.8% and 19.6%, respectively (P<0.01). Univariate analysis showed that PNI, age, dyspnea, and weight loss were related to the OS of the advanced NSCLC patients (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis identified PNI as an independent prognostic factor for OS of advanced NSCLC (P<0.001). Conclusion: PNI can be easily calculated, and may be used as a relatively new prognostic indicator for advanced NSCLC in clinical practice.

  2. Effect of vinorelbine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin combination chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J B; Ko, W K; Lee, J G; Shim, K Y; Jeung, H C; Park, J O; Yoo, N C; Kim, B S; Kim, S K; Kim, S K; Kim, J H

    2000-12-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is being tried in the treatment of nonoperable cases of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognosis is unfavorable and to improve survival, clinical studies using various combinations of a variety of drugs as well as experimental material are in progress. We compared the efficacy and toxicities of combination chemotherapy using different doses of vinorelbine and ifosfamide with a constant dose of cisplatin in this study. Patients diagnosed with inoperable stage III or IV NSCLC between June 1997 and December 1998 were included. Cisplatin was administered at a constant dose of 80 mg/m2 on day 5, whereas vinorelbine on days 1 and 5 and ifosfamide on day 5 were administered in one of two different doses. In arm A, vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 and ifosfamide 3.0 g/m2 were administered. In arm B, vinorelbine 20 mg/m2 and ifosfamide 2.5 g/m2 were administered. Also, we reviewed for phase II and III studies that test 1) cisplatin, 2) vinorelbine monotherapy, and 3) vinorelbine/cisplatin/ifosfamide combination chemotherapy for stage IIIb-IV non-SCLC. Summation dose intensity (SDI) was calculated in each published and current study. Twenty patients in arm A and 35 patients in arm B were available for evaluation. There was no difference in patient activity, pathologic diagnosis, and differentiation or stage between the two arms. The median number of cycles was four in both arms. The response rate was 50% in arm A and 30% in arm B. The median survival times for arm A and B were 40 and 42 weeks, respectively, whereas the SDI was 1.94 and 1.7, respectively. More than grade III leukopenia was observed in 28.9% in arm A, which is more frequent than the 17.2% in arm B. There was a significant correlation between the SDIs and response rates and median survival (r2 = 0.629, p = 0.001; r2 = 0.453, p = 0.001, respectively). Although the follow-up period is relatively short, the survival time was similar in both arms. Because a high response rate may

  3. Pemetrexed for advanced stage nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer: latest evidence about its extended use and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Pascale; Barlesi, Fabrice; Mascaux, Celine; Greillier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still the leading cause of cancer-related death, and the treatment of advanced NSCLC relies on systemic treatments. During the last decade, pemetrexed, an antifolate agent, gradually became a key component of the treatment for patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. It has indeed been shown to be efficient for first-line, maintenance and second- or third-line treatment in this subgroup of NSCLC. Moreover, it is usually well tolerated, with few grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Several studies have tried to identify predictive biomarkers of pemetrexed efficacy. Due to pemetrexed’s mechanism of action, thymidilate synthase expression predictive value was investigated but could not be demonstrated. Currently, more than 400 trials of pemetrexed for the treatment of nonsquamous NSCLC are ongoing. PMID:27239238

  4. Clinical efficacy of CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Si-Xiang; Yang, Gui-Qing; Liu, Han-Chen; Sun, Dong-Ning; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2013-05-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is responsible for at least 80% of all lung tumors and has a poor prognosis, since 75% of NSCLCs are first diagnosed at an advanced stage. This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CyberKnife in combination with chemotherapy and hyperthermia for selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical charts, imaging and pathology reports of patients with advanced NSCLC who underwent CyberKnife therapy in our Tumor Therapy Center were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical efficacy was evaluated for local control, Karnofsky performance status scale (KPS) and toxicity analysis. A total of 119 patients with 136 target areas were evaluated. A prescribed dose of 24-51 Gy to the gross tumor volume was delivered in 3-6 fractions. The median prescription dose was 35 Gy (mean, 34.73±4.80 Gy), with an average of five fractions. Patients, who voluntarily participated in the study, were assigned to one of three groups, which were as follows: CyberKnife therapy alone, CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia. The median follow-up period was 6 months and curative efficiencies were 62.16, 71.79 and 90.70%, respectively, as determined by radiographic and clinical re-examinations. Patients treated by CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia achieved optimal improvement in the aspect of KPS, which was statistically different compared to the other two groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia achieved favorable short-term outcomes and may be a more viable option for patients with advanced NSCLC. However, further investigations are required to evaluate long-term outcomes.

  5. Safety and feasibility of uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jie; Wang, Qi; Chang, Zhibo

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a feasible and safe surgery in high-volume centers with significant VATS experience. Uniportal VATS lobectomy has been recently been reported to be a promising, less invasive approach. The purpose of this study is to explore the safety and feasibility of uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (U-VATS) for the treatment of patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Methods From January 2013 to September 2015, a total of 132 patients with locally advanced NSCLC underwent U-VATS or open thoracotomy major pulmonary resections and standard mediastinal lymph node dissection. Patients were divided into two groups: (I) locally advanced NSCLC underwent U-VATS (U-VATS); (II) locally advanced NSCLC underwent open thoracotomy (open). A descriptive and retrospective study was performed, including the operative time, operative blood loss, postoperative chest tube duration, postoperative hospital stay, lymph node dissection, postoperative complications and postoperative recovery. Results A total of 132 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were included in this study: 64 (U-VATS) vs. 68 (open) patients. The patient demographic data was similar in both groups. Median operative time (157.0 vs. 160.6) and median number of lymph nodes (35.5 vs. 32.5) were similar in both groups. Chest tube duration and hospital of stay were statistically shorter in U-VATS group while rate of complications were higher in open thoracotomy group. One patient died on the 55th postoperative day because of tumor metastasis and bronchopleural fistula. A higher percentage of patients who underwent UVATS resections were able to receive adjuvant therapy timely compared to the open group. Conclusions Uniportal VATS major pulmonary resections and mediastinal lymph node dissection is a safe and feasible procedure for the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. Particularly it is

  6. A retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety of adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy as first- and second-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Quan, Rencui; Huang, Jiaxing; Chen, Nan; Fang, Wenfeng; Hu, Zhihuang; Zhan, Jianhua; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-08-01

    Several phase III clinical trials had authenticated that the addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel plus carboplatin or gemcitabine plus cisplatin showed encouraging efficacy as first-line therapy for advanced NSCLC patients. However, the benefits of adding bevacizumab to other chemotherapy regimens in first- or second-line therapy have not been reported. To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of bevacizumab concomitant with chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced NSCLC as first- or second-line therapy, we retrospectively reviewed the effects of adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy regimens in naive-chemotherapy and pre-chemotherapy patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. A total of 79 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC received at least two cycles of bevacizumab with chemotherapy between October 2010 and December 2013 were selected. Our primary end points were overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR). The secondary objective was overall survival (OS) and safety. Seventy-nine patients were included in this study. Overall response rates at first evaluation (after 2 cycles) were 23.1 % (9/39) and 5.0 % (2/40) in first- and second-line therapy (P = 0.020), respectively. And disease control rates were 84.6 % (33/39) and 50 % (20/40), respectively (P = 0.001). The median OS were 27.2 months (95 % CI 13.3-41.1 months) and 29.6 months (95 % CI 6.7-52.5 months), respectively (P = 0.740). Grade 3-4 adverse events included leukopenia (2/39), and neutropenia (3/39) in first-line therapy versus neutropenia (1/40) and thrombocytopenia (2/40) in second-line treatment. In our experience, combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy had encouraging anti-tumor efficacy as both first- and second-line therapy.

  7. Combining chemotherapy with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Linda; Loong, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of advanced stage lung cancer is changing rapidly. With the new found knowledge on molecular targets such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), effective therapy is now available in a selected population with the target mutation. Single-agent epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) is a standard first-line therapy for patients with activating-EGFR mutation such as base-pair deletion in exon 19 or point mutation at exon 21. At the same time, this class of drugs may be combined with chemotherapy. Studies on the concurrent combination of chemotherapy and EGFR-TKI confirmed a lack of efficacy. A phase II study on sequential intercalated combination has demonstrated an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but this needs to be validated by the ongoing phase III study. The third approach is to combine EGFR-TKI as maintenance therapy after tumour response or stable disease to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Two phase III studies have shown improvement in PFS, but the use of biomarkers for the selection of maintenance therapy remains debatable. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against EGFR and its combination with chemotherapy was shown to improve overall survival in an unselected population. A new biomarker using the H-score will help to select patients for this combination. PMID:22754591

  8. Prognostic Index for Survival in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Third-Generation Agents.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Mari; Sunaga, Tomiko; Nakamura, Shoko; Akita, Takahiro; Kurihara, Tatsuya; Shikama, Yusuke; Nakajima, Hiroaki; Tobe, Takashi; Yoneyama, Keiichiro; Kiuchi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated clinical data from patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with third-generation chemotherapy agents prior to treatment, to determine a reliable method for predicting prognosis in such patients. We analyzed 100 patients who received third-generation agents (paclitaxel, docetaxel, gemcitabine, irinotecan, and vinorelbine) for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Factors significantly related to prognosis were evaluated using the Cox regression model, and the prognostic index (PI) was determined by combining these factors. The mean follow-up duration was 12.6 months (0.2-67.0 months). Multivariate analysis identified pleural effusion, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level as significant factors that independently contribute to prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with third-generation agents (p < 0.05). The PI was calculated using these 3 factors, according to the following formula: PI = 0.581 × pleural effusion + 0.125 × ANC + 0.105 × CRP. The death rate in the group with the highest PI scores was significantly higher than in the group with the lowest scores (p < 0.001). Pleural effusion, ANC, and CRP level were the most important factors that contributed to prognosis following chemotherapy with third-generation agents in patients with advanced NSCLC. The PI is suggested to be an appropriate index to predict the prognosis of patients with NSCLC. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Third-generation inhibitors targeting EGFR T790M mutation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhang; Cang, Shundong; Liu, Delong

    2016-04-12

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are widely used in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, EGFR T790M mutation leads to resistance to most clinically available EGFR TKIs. Third-generation EGFR TKIs against the T790M mutation have been in active clinical development. These agents include osimertinib, rociletinib, HM61713, ASP8273, EGF816, and PF-06747775. Osimertinib and rociletinib have shown clinical efficacy in phase I/II trials in patients who had acquired resistance to first- or second-generation TKIs. Osimertinib (AZD9291, TAGRISSO) was recently approved by FDA for metastatic EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC. HM61713, ASP8237, EGF816, and PF-06747775 are still in early clinical development. This article reviews the emerging data regarding third-generation agents against EGFR T790M mutation in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC.

  10. Managing treatment-related adverse events associated with egfr tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, V.

    2011-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) has the highest prevalence of all types of lung cancer, which is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Canada. The need for more effective and less toxic treatment options for nsclc has led to the development of agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr)–mediated signalling pathway, such as egfr tyrosine kinase inhibitors (egfr-tkis). Although egfr-tkis are less toxic than traditional anti-neoplastic agents, they are commonly associated with acneiform-like rash and diarrhea. This review summarizes the clinical presentation and causes of egfr-tki–induced rash and diarrhea, and presents strategies for effective assessment, monitoring, and treatment of these adverse effects. Strategies to improve the management of egfr-tki–related adverse events should improve clinical outcomes, compliance, and quality of life in patients with advanced nsclc. PMID:21655159

  11. Metronomic treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with daily oral vinorelbine – a Phase I trial

    PubMed Central

    Guetz, Sylvia; Tufman, Amanda; von Pawel, Joachim; Rittmeyer, Achim; Borgmeier, Astrid; Ferré, Pierre; Edlich, Birgit; Huber, Rudolf Maria

    2017-01-01

    Micro-abstract In a Phase I dose-finding study of metronomic daily oral vinorelbine in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, a recommended dose was established for this therapeutic approach. In addition, this trial revealed promising efficacy data and an acceptable tolerability profile. The observed vinorelbine blood concentrations suggest continuous anti-angiogenic coverage. Introduction We present a Phase I dose-finding study investigating metronomic daily oral vinorelbine (Navelbine® Oral, NVBo) in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods Patients with stage III/IV NSCLC received daily NVBo at fixed dose levels of 20–50 mg/d for 21 days of each 4-week cycle. Primary end point was the maximum tolerated dose. Secondary end points included tumor response, time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS) and tolerability. Results Twenty-seven patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled. Most of them were extensively pretreated. Daily NVBo was well tolerated up to 30 mg/d. At 40 mg/d, two of five patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). Three of six patients had DLTs at the 50 mg/d level. The recommended dose was established at 30 mg/d in cycle 1, with escalation to 40 mg/d in cycle 2, if tolerated. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed continuous blood exposure over 21 days and only marginal accumulation. The tolerability profile was acceptable (all dose levels – all grades: decreased appetite 33%, diarrhea 33%, leukopenia 33%, nausea 30%, vomiting 26%; ≥grade 3: leukopenia 30%, lymphopenia 19%, neutropenia 19%, febrile neutropenia 15%). Disease control rate, OS and TTP signaled a treatment effect. Conclusion Daily metronomic NVBo therapy in extensively pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC is feasible and safe at the recommended dose of 30 mg/d. Escalation to 40 mg/d in the second cycle is possible. The blood concentrations of vinorelbine after daily metronomic dosing reached lower peaks than intravenous or oral conventional

  12. Meta-analysis Exploring the Effectiveness of S-1-Based Chemotherapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Sun, Li; Zhang, Shu-Ling; Xiong, Zhi-Cheng; Ma, Jie-Tao; Han, Cheng-Bo

    2017-01-01

    S-1 is a new oral fluoropyrimidine formulation that comprises tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine, and potassium oxonate. S-1 is designed to enhance antitumor activity and to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity. Several studies have demonstrated that both S-1 monotherapy and S-1 combination regimens showed encouraging efficacies and mild toxicities in the treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. However, it is unclear whether S-1 can be used as standard care in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of S-1-based chemotherapy, compared with standard chemotherapy, in patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 2,134 patients with a similar ratio of different pathological types were included. In first-line or second-line chemotherapy, compared with standard chemotherapy, S-1-based chemotherapy showed similar efficacy in terms of median overall survival (mOS), median progression free survival (mPFS), and objective response rate (ORR) (all P > 0.1), and significantly reduced the incidence of grade ≥ 3 hematological toxicities. In patients with locally advanced NSCLC receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy, compared with standard chemoradiotherapy, significantly improved survival in the S-1-based chemotherapy was noted in terms of mOS and mPFS (risk radio [RR] = 1.289, P = 0.009; RR = 1.289, P = 0.000, respectively) with lower incidence of grade ≥ 3 neutropenia (RR = 0.453, P = 0.000). The present meta-analysis demonstrates that S-1-based chemotherapy shows similar benefits in advanced NSCLC and improves survival in locally advanced NSCLC, compared with standard treatment.

  13. Implementation status and explanatory analysis of early advance care planning for Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tokito, Takaaki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Mori, Keita; Osaka, Iwao; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2015-03-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology published the goals of individualized care including advance care planning for advanced cancer patients in 2011. However, no data are available on the implementation status of advance care planning. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and informed consent forms of consecutive Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy between January 2010 and December 2012 at our institution. Two outcomes were defined to investigate the advance care planning implementation status: C-D, the duration from the last day of chemotherapy to death and D-D, that from the day of confirmed do-not-attempt-resuscitation order to death. The study included 136 eligible patients. The advance care planning implementation status in participating patients was as follows: 96 (70%) patients received information on 'incurable disease before first-line chemotherapy', 69 (50%) were informed about 'supportive care before first-line chemotherapy', whereas 43 (32%) learned about their prognosis. The do-not-attempt-resuscitation decision was reflected in 29 patients' will (21%). The median C-D was 64 days. Receipt of ≤2 chemotherapy regimens and provision of prognosis information to patients were significantly associated with long C-D in multivariate analysis. The median D-D was 25 days. Provision of information on supportive care before first-line chemotherapy and provision of prognosis information to patients were significantly associated with long D-D in multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that there is possible benefit from providing information on supportive care before first-line chemotherapy and informing patients about their prognosis in prolonging the duration of supportive care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Intrinsic resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with activating EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Baocheng; Chu, Huili; Yao, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying activating EGFR mutations is a useful predictive strategy that helps select a population of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations (predominantly an in-frame deletion in exon 19 and an L858R substitution) are highly responsive to first-generation EGFR TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, and show improved progression-free survival without serious side effects. However, all patients with activating EGFR mutations who are initially responsive to EGFR TKIs eventually develop acquired resistance after a median progression-free survival of 10–16 months, followed by disease progression. Moreover, ~20%–30% of NSCLC patients have no objective tumor regression on initial EGFR TKI treatment, although they harbor an activating EGFR mutation. These patients represent an NSCLC subgroup that is defined as having intrinsic or primary resistance to EGFR TKIs. Different mechanisms of acquired EGFR TKI resistance have been identified, and several novel compounds have been developed to reverse acquired resistance, but little is known about EGFR TKI intrinsic resistance. In this review, we summarize the latest findings involving mechanisms of intrinsic resistance to EGFR TKIs in advanced NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations and present possible therapeutic strategies to overcome this resistance. PMID:27382309

  15. Strategies of dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: image guidance and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chi, Alexander; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Welsh, James S; Tse, William; Monga, Manish; Oduntan, Olusola; Almubarak, Mohammed; Rogers, John; Remick, Scot C; Gius, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose in the setting of chemo-radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been historically limited by the risk of normal tissue toxicity and this has been hypothesized to correlate with the poor results in regard to local tumor recurrences. Dose escalation, as a means to improve local control, with concurrent chemotherapy has been shown to be feasible with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in early phase studies with good clinical outcome. However, the potential superiority of moderate dose escalation to 74 Gy has not been shown in phase III randomized studies. In this review, the limitations in target volume definition in previous studies; and the factors that may be critical to safe dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC, such as respiratory motion management, image guidance, intensity modulation, FDG-positron emission tomography incorporation in the treatment planning process, and adaptive radiotherapy, are discussed. These factors, along with novel treatment approaches that have emerged in recent years, are proposed to warrant further investigation in future trials in a more comprehensive and integrated fashion.

  16. Treatment algorithm in 2014 for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: therapy selection by tumour histology and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Manegold, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The availability of antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies, small molecules and newer cytotoxics such as pemetrexed, the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib as well as the anti-angiogenic bevacizumab and the ALK-inhibitor crizotinib has recently changes the treatment algorithm of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Decision making in 2014 is characterized by customizing therapy, by selecting a specific therapeutic regimen based on the histotype and the genotype of the tumour. This refers to first-line induction therapy and maintenance therapy as well, but also to subsequent lines of therapy since anti-neoplastic drugs and regimens used upfront clinically influence the selection of agents/regimes considered for second-/third-line treatment. Consequently, therapy customization through tumour histology and molecular markers has significantly influenced the work of pathologists around the globe and the process of obtaining an extended therapeutically relevant tumour diagnosis. Not only histological sub-typing became standard but molecular information is also considered of increasing importance for treatment selection. Routine molecular testing in certified laboratories must be established, and the diagnostic process should ideally be performed under the guidance of evidence based recommendation. The process of investigating and implementing medical targeting in lung cancer therefore, requires advanced diagnostic techniques and expertise and because of its large dimension is costly and influenced by the limitation of financial and clinical resources. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  17. Pilot study of a novel combination of two therapeutic vaccines in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Zaima Mazorra; Ramos, Tania Crombet

    2014-07-01

    Cancer vaccines contain tumor antigens in a pro-inflammatory context with the purpose to generate potent antitumor immune responses. However, tumor cells develop different immunosuppressive mechanisms that limit the effectiveness of an anticancer immune response. Therefore, therapeutic vaccine treatment alone is usually not sufficient to generate tumor regression or survival improvement, especially in the advanced disease scenario in which most clinical studies have been conducted. Combining cancer vaccines with different anticancer therapies such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other immunotherapeutic agents has had different levels of success. However, the combination of cancer vaccines with different mechanisms of action has not been explored in clinical trials. To address this issue, the current review summarizes the main clinical and immunological results obtained with two different therapeutic vaccines used in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients, inducing an immune response against epidermal growth factor (CIMAvax-EGF) and NGcGM3 ganglioside (racotumomab). We also discuss preliminary findings obtained in a trial of combination of these two vaccines and future challenges with these therapies.

  18. Matrine promotes the efficacy and safety of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Biaoxue; Zhao, Chongchong; Gao, Wenlong; Yang, Shuanying

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Many studies have investigated the efficacy of matrine combined with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy (PBDC) versus PBDC alone for treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study is an analytic value of available evidence. Methods: twenty-two studies reporting matrine combined with PBDC versus PBDC alone for treating advanced NSCLC were reviewed. Pooled odds ratios and hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using either the fixed effects model or random effects model. Results: The overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) of matrine combined with PBDC for treating NSCLC were significantly higher than those of PBDC alone, with 15.1% and 19.7% improvement, respectively (P < 0.00001). In addition, the mean survival time (MST) and quality of life (QOL) were improved after the treatment of matrine combined with PBDC (P < 0.00001). The main adverse effects found in this review were hematological reactions, nausea and vomiting. Matrine combined with PBDC had a lower incidence of adverse reactions compared with PBDC alone (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Matrine combined with PBDC was associated with higher RR, DCR, and MST as well as superior QOL profiles compared with PBDC alone. Matrine combined with PBDC decrease the incidence of adverse reactions compared with PBDC alone. PMID:26628952

  19. Strategies of Dose Escalation in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Image Guidance and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Alexander; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Welsh, James S.; Tse, William; Monga, Manish; Oduntan, Olusola; Almubarak, Mohammed; Rogers, John; Remick, Scot C.; Gius, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose in the setting of chemo-radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been historically limited by the risk of normal tissue toxicity and this has been hypothesized to correlate with the poor results in regard to local tumor recurrences. Dose escalation, as a means to improve local control, with concurrent chemotherapy has been shown to be feasible with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in early phase studies with good clinical outcome. However, the potential superiority of moderate dose escalation to 74 Gy has not been shown in phase III randomized studies. In this review, the limitations in target volume definition in previous studies; and the factors that may be critical to safe dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC, such as respiratory motion management, image guidance, intensity modulation, FDG–positron emission tomography incorporation in the treatment planning process, and adaptive radiotherapy, are discussed. These factors, along with novel treatment approaches that have emerged in recent years, are proposed to warrant further investigation in future trials in a more comprehensive and integrated fashion. PMID:24999451

  20. Management of advanced non-small cell lung cancers with known mutations or rearrangements: latest evidence and treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Shea, Meghan; Costa, Daniel B; Rangachari, Deepa

    2016-04-01

    Precision oncology is now the evidence-based standard of care for the management of many advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Expert consensus has defined minimum requirements for routine testing and identification of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) mutations (15% of tumors harbor EGFR exon 19 deletions or exon 21 L858R substitutions) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements (5% of tumors) in advanced lung adenocarcinomas (ACs). Application of palliative targeted therapies with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced/metastatic lung ACs harboring abnormalities in EGFR (gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib) and ALK/ROS1/MET (crizotinib) has consistently led to more favorable outcomes compared with traditional cytotoxic agents. In addition, mutations leading to resistance to first-line EGFR and ALK TKIs can now be successfully inhibited by soon to be approved third-generation EGFR TKIs (osimertinib, rociletinib) and second-generation ALK TKIs (ceritinib, alectinib). Notably, increasing feasibility, accessibility, and application of molecular profiling technologies has permitted dynamic growth in the identification of actionable driver oncogenes. Emerging genomic aberrations for which TKIs have shown impressive results in clinical trials and expansion of drug labels for approved agents are awaited include ROS1 rearrangements (1-2% of tumors, drug: crizotinib) and BRAF-V600E mutations (1-3% of tumors, drugs: vemurafenib, dafrafenib + trametinib). Evolving genomic events in which TKI responses have been reported in smaller series include MET exon 14 skipping mutations (2-4% of tumors, drug: crizotinib); high-level MET amplification (1-2% of tumors, drug: crizotinib); RET rearrangements (1% of tumors, drug: cabozantinib); and ERBB2 mutations (2-3% of tumors, drug: afatinib), among others. Unfortunately, the most common genomic event in NSCLC, KRAS mutations (25-30% of tumors), is not targetable with approved or in development small molecule

  1. A clinical study on global TCM therapy in treating senile advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian-hua; Liu, Wei-sheng; Li, Zhi-ming; Wang, Zhi-guang

    2007-12-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy of global traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy in treating senile advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with the aim of seeking a standardized, rational and economical way to treat advanced NSCLC in old patients. A retrospective analysis and comparison was carried out in 86 patients with senile advanced NSCLC, 44 treated by global TCM (TCM group) and 42 by chemotherapy (control group) through dynamical observation on related indexes including tumor size, quality of life and the survival time, as well as on the fee for medical service at various time points in the course of the treatment. The changes of tumor size, score of clinical main symptoms and behavior condition (by ZPS scoring), as well as survival rates in the two groups at corresponding time points, were not different significantly (P>0.05). The mean survival time in the TCM group was 13.20+/-1.52 months and that in the chemotherapy group was 13.45+/-1.94 months, showing insignificant difference between them. However, the median survival time in the TCM group (12 months) was actually longer than that in the chemotherapy group (9 months, P<0.05). The mean daily expense and the mean expense (RMB yuan) for each patient in the TCM group were significantly lower than that in the control group, which was 180.73+/-93.21 vs 825.84+/-329.63 for the mean daily expense and 34077.21+/-14638.04 vs 58516.59+/-45429.76 for the mean expense for each patient (both P<0.01). Treatment of senile advanced NSCLC with TCM alone has its apparent superiority in stabilizing tumor focus, improving clinical symptoms, elevating quality of life and prolonging the survival time. TCM is also less expensive, making it a good alternative therapeutic approach for this specific group of people.

  2. Microwave Ablation in Combination with Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhigang Ye, Xin Yang, Xia Zheng, Aimin Huang, Guanghui Li, Wenhong Ni, Xiang Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoying

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo verify whether microwave ablation (MWA) used as a local control treatment had an improved outcome regarding advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) when combined with chemotherapy.MethodsThirty-nine patients with histologically verified advanced NSCLC and at least one measurable site other than the ablative sites were enrolled. Primary tumors underwent MWA followed by platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. Modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST) and RECIST were used to evaluate therapeutic response. Complications were assessed using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (version 3.0).ResultsMWA was administered to 39 tumors in 39 patients. The mean and median diameters of the primary tumor were 3.84 cm and 3.30 cm, respectively, with a range of 1.00–9.00 cm. Thirty-three (84.6 %) patients achieved a partial response. No correlation was found between MWA efficacy and clinicopathologic characteristics. For chemotherapy, 11 patients (28.2 %) achieved a partial response, 18 (46.2 %) showed stable disease, and 10 (25.6 %) had progressive disease. The overall objective response rate and disease control rate were 28.2 and 74.4 %, respectively. The median progression-free survival time was 8.7 months (95 % CI 5.5–11.9). The median overall survival time was 21.3 months (95 % CI 17.0–25.4). Complications were observed in 22 (56.4 %) patients, and grade 3 adverse events were observed in 3 (7.9 %) patients.ConclusionsPatients with advanced NSCLC could benefit from MWA in combination with chemotherapy. Complications associated with MWA were common but tolerable.

  3. Phase I study of docetaxel and irinotecan in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nogami, Naoyuki; Harita, Shingo; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Yonei, Toshiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Kamei, Haruhito; Tabata, Masahiro; Segawa, Yoshihiko; Gemba, Kenichi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2004-07-01

    The role of non-platinum combination chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not yet been clarified. In this phase I study, the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) and the antitumor activity of a two-drug combination of docetaxel (DCT) and irinotecan (CPT) in patients with advanced NSCLC were evaluated. Previously untreated patients with NSCLC in stage IIIB with malignant pleural effusion or stage IV were eligible. Both drugs were administered by 1-h intravenous infusion on day 1, and repeated every 3 weeks. DCT was given before CPT administration. Five escalating dose levels of DCT/CPT (40/135, 50/135, 50/150, 60/150, and 60/165 mg/m2) were studied. Eighteen patients received 44 courses. The DLT was considered to be neutropenia, because grade 4 neutropenia lasting for 3 days or more was observed in three patients, which was accompanied with three episodes of febrile neutropenia. As a non-hematological toxicity, grade 3 diarrhea occurred in three patients. Since all the three patients treated at the fifth dose level (DCT at 60 mg/m2 and CPT at 165 mg/m2) experienced DLT (grade 4 neutropenia in two patients and grade 3 hepatic toxicity in one), this dose level was determined to be the MTD. The objective response rate was 33.3%, and the median survival time was 13.6 months. To confirm the effectiveness of this combination for advanced NSCLC which was suggested in the present study, a phase II study with the recommended doses (150 mg/m2 for CPT and 50-60 mg/m2 for DCT) is warranted.

  4. Weight gain as a surrogate marker of longer survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss (WL), as a key step of the irreversible and fatal cancer-related anorexia cachexia syndrome is present to some degree in 80% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients upon diagnosis which has been clearly proved to negatively alter patients’ performance status, quality of life (QOL), response to treatment, and prognosis. However, WL is not a problem encountered only upon diagnosis but is also commonly reported during the course of aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT) and particularly the concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT) which may further diminish QOL measures and clinical outcomes. In general, the NSCLC literature has concentrated on WL during the treatment course, but recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to preserve or even experience weight gain (WG) during or just short after the discontinuation of various cancer treatments in approximately 40% to 45% NSCLC patients. Considering the fact that recent evidence suggest a prognostic and predictive role for WG in anticipation of longer survival times and better response rates in weight gainers, this current manuscript will specifically aim to realize the actual value of WG in locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients which may potentially be added to the conventional prognostic and predictive factors as a novel surrogate marker of outcomes in such patients. PMID:27826583

  5. Acute esophagitis for patients with local-regional advanced non small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Brink, Carsten; Knap, Marianne; Khalil, Azza A; Nyhus, Christa H; McCulloch, Tine; Holm, Bente; Wu, Yi-long; Schytte, Tine; Hansen, Olfred

    2016-03-01

    Esophagitis is common in patients treated with definitive radiotherapy for local-regional advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to estimate the dose-effect relationship using clinical and dosimetric parameters in patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concomitant chemotherapy (CCT). Between 2009 and 2013, 117 patients with stages IIB-IIIB NSCLC were treated in a multicenter randomized phase II trial with 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy followed by IMRT and CCT. The esophagitis was prospectively scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Clinical and dosimetric variables were analyzed for the correlation with grade ⩾2 esophagitis through logistic regression. Grade 2 esophagitis was experienced by 31 (27%). All models including gender, institution, a dosimetric parameter and a position parameter were significantly associated with esophagitis. The two models using the relative esophagus volume irradiated above 40 Gy (V40, OR=2.18/10% volume) or the length of esophagus irradiated above 40 Gy (L40, OR=4.03/5 cm) were optimal. The upper part of esophagus was more sensitive and females experienced more toxicity than men. V40 and L40 were most effective dosimetric predictors of grade ⩾2 esophagitis. The upper part of esophagus was more sensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Weekly paclitaxel as second/third-line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients: efficacy and tolerability.

    PubMed

    Camps, Carlos; Caballero, Cristina; Blasco, Ana; Safont, Maria Jose; Berrocal, Alfonso; Garde, Javier; Juarez, Asunción; Sirera, Rafael; Bremnes, Roy M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of weekly paclitaxel as second- or third-line treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The outcome measured in 37 patients were: response rates, symptom relief (dyspnoea, asthenia and pain), toxicity, overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). Objective response was seen in 8%, stable disease in 27% and disease progression in 62%. Three paclitaxel courses reduced the frequency of WHO grade 2-3 dyspnoea and asthenia from 38% and 43% to 13.5% and &1%, respectively. Moderate to severe pain (VAS score 3-8) was reduced from 35.1% to 24.3%. Median OS was 38 weeks and TTP 12 weeks. Haematological toxicity included anaemia (30% grade 2-3) and neutropenia (8% grade 3). Nonhaematological toxicity included peripheral neuropathy (41% grade 1-2). In the routine outpatient setting, weekly paclitaxel is feasible, active and well-tolerated as second/third-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC.

  7. Antiangiogenic Therapy in Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Phase III Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Jacques; Chan, Kelvin; Karim, Safiya; Kerbel, Robert; Lam, Henry; Santos, Keemo Delos; Saluja, Ronak; Verma, Sunil

    2017-01-12

    We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of adding any antiangiogenic therapy (AT) to the standard of care in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The electronic databases Ovid PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase were searched to identify eligible trials. We included all phase III randomized trials with any line and type of treatment, histology. and AT dose. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), and pooled odds ratio (OR) for overall response rates (RR) were calculated. We divided the population into 2 subgroups based on the bevacizumab dose. Data of 19,098 patients from 25 phase III trials were analyzed. Compared with the standard of care, the addition of AT did not prolong OS (HR 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.00; P = .1 and HR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-1.00; P = .06 for groups 1 and 2, respectively). However, there was a significant improvement in PFS with the addition of AT (HR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.91; P < .00001 and HR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75-0.88; P < .00001 for groups 1 and 2, respectively) and overall RR (OR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.30-2.01; P < .0001 and OR 1.72; 95% CI, 1.39-2.14; P < .00001 for groups 1 and 2, respectively). This is the first meta-analysis including only all phase III trials with AT in NSCLC showing no significant effect on OS and an improvement in PFS and RR only. The role of AT in advanced NSCLC is still questionable; strong validated biomarkers are eagerly needed to predict which subgroup might benefit the most from such therapy.

  8. Targeted erlotinib for first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Preeti S; Veenstra, David L; Goertz, Hans-Peter; Carlson, Josh J

    2014-08-01

    A recent phase III trial showed that patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors harbor specific EGFR mutations significantly benefit from first-line treatment with erlotinib compared to chemotherapy. This study sought to estimate the budget impact if coverage for EGFR testing and erlotinib as first-line therapy were provided in a hypothetical 500,000-member managed care plan. The budget impact model was developed from a US health plan perspective to evaluate administration of the EGFR test and treatment with erlotinib for EGFR-positive patients, compared to non-targeted treatment with chemotherapy. The eligible patient population was estimated from age-stratified SEER incidence data. Clinical data were derived from key randomized controlled trials. Costs related to drug, administration, and adverse events were included. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty. In a plan of 500,000 members, it was estimated there would be 91 newly diagnosed advanced NSCLC patients annually; 11 are expected to be EGFR-positive. Based on the testing and treatment assumptions, it was estimated that 3 patients in Scenario 1 and 6 patients in Scenario 2 receive erlotinib. Overall health plan expenditures would increase by $0.013 per member per month (PMPM). This increase is largely attributable to erlotinib drug costs, in part due to lengthened progression-free survival and treatment periods experienced in erlotinib-treated patients. EGFR testing contributes slightly, whereas adverse event costs mitigate the budget impact. The budget impact did not exceed $0.019 PMPM in sensitivity analyses. Coverage for targeted first-line erlotinib therapy in NSCLC likely results in a small budget impact for US health plans. The estimated impact may vary by plan, or if second-line or maintenance therapy, dose changes/interruptions, or impact on patients' quality-of-life were included.

  9. The relationship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and survival in newly diagnosed advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Pankaj G; Edwin, Persis; Popiel, Brenten; Gupta, Digant

    2015-12-24

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the major circulating form of vitamin D used for evaluating the vitamin D status of patients, has been associated with survival in a variety of cancers with conflicting evidence. We aimed to investigate this association in newly diagnosed advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This was a consecutive cohort of 359 newly diagnosed stages III-IV NSCLC patients who underwent a baseline serum 25(OH)D evaluation prior to receiving any treatment at our institution between January 2008 and December 2010. We used the vitamin D categories of "deficient (<20 ng/ml)" and "not deficient (> = 20 ng/ml)". Cox regression was used to evaluate the prognostic significance of serum 25(OH)D after adjusting for relevant confounders. Mean age at diagnosis was 57.4 years. Of the 359 patients, 151 (42.1 %) were deficient in vitamin D at the time of diagnosis. The median survival in deficient and not deficient cohorts was 11.7 and 12.8 months respectively (p = 0.06). Season of diagnosis, performance status, smoking status and hospital location significantly predicted vitamin D status. On univariate Cox analysis, gender, stage of disease, hospital location, histologic subtype, subjective global assessment (SGA), performance status, smoking status, body mass index and serum albumin were significantly associated with survival (p <0.05 for all). On multivariate Cox analysis, six variables demonstrated statistically significant associations with survival: stage of disease, hospital location, histologic subtype, SGA, smoking status and serum albumin (p <0.05 for all). Serum vitamin D, which was borderline significant in univariate analysis, lost its significance in multivariate analysis. We found season of diagnosis, performance status and smoking history to be predictive of vitamin D status. Consistent with previously published research in advanced NSCLC, we did not find any significant association between pre-treatment serum 25(OH)D and

  10. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hida, Toyoaki; Nishio, Makoto; Nogami, Naoyuki; Ohe, Yuichiro; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hiroshi; Satouchi, Miyako; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Isobe, Hiroshi; Fujita, Shiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Minato, Koichi; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Maemondo, Makoto; Takeda, Koji; Saka, Hideo; Goto, Koichi; Atagi, Shinji; Hirashima, Tomonori; Sumiyoshi, Naoki; Tamura, Tomohide

    2017-03-07

    Limited treatment options are available for stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nivolumab, a programmed cell death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has been shown to be effective for the treatment of NSCLC. This study investigated the effectiveness and safety of nivolumab in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent squamous NSCLC that progressed after platinum-containing chemotherapy. In this multicenter phase II study, patients were treated with nivolumab (3mg/kg, intravenously) every 2 weeks until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity was seen. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) assessed by independent radiology review committee (IRC) and secondary endpoints included a study site-assessed ORR, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response, time to response, best overall response (BOR), and safety. The study included 35 patients from 17 sites in Japan. Patients had IRC-assessed ORR of 25.7% (95% CI 14.2, 42.1) and the study site-assessed ORR was 20.0% (95% CI 10.0, 35.9). The median OS, median time to response and median PFS were 16.3 (95% CI 12.4-25.4), 2.7 (range 1.2-5.5) and 4.2 (95% CI 1.4-7.1) months, respectively. The IRC-assessed BOR was partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease for 25.7%, 28.6%, and 45.7% of patients, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events were reported in 24 patients (68.6%), most of which resolved with appropriate treatment including steroid therapy or ‎discontinuation of nivolumab. Nivolumab was effective and well tolerated in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent squamous NSCLC that progressed after platinum-containing chemotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Circulating DNA in diagnosis and monitoring EGFR gene mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Del Re, Marzia; Danesi, Romano; Tiseo, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are current treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR gene mutations. Histological or cytological samples are the standard tumor materials for EGFR mutation analysis. However, the accessibility of tumor samples is not always possible and satisfactory in advanced NSCLC patients. Moreover, totality of EGFR mutated NSCLC patients will develop resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Repeat biopsies to study genetic evolution as a result of therapy are difficult, invasive and may be confounded by intra-tumor heterogeneity. Thus, exploring accurate and less invasive techniques to (I) diagnosis EGFR mutation if tissue is not available or not appropriate for molecular analysis and to (II) monitor EGFR-TKI treatment are needed. Circulating DNA fragments carrying tumor specific sequence alterations [circulating cell-free tumor DNA (cftDNA)] are found in the cell-free fraction of blood, representing a variable and generally small fraction of the total circulating DNA. cftDNA has a high degree of specificity to detect EGFR gene mutations in NSCLC. Studies have shown the feasibility of using cftDNA to diagnosis of EGFR activating gene mutations and also to monitor tumor dynamics in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. These evidences suggested that non-invasive techniques based on blood samples had a great potential in EGFR mutated NSCLC patients. In this review, we summarized these non-invasive approaches and relative scientific data now available, considering their possible applications in clinical practice of NSCLC treatment. PMID:26629427

  12. Treatment Recommendations for Locally Advanced, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The Influence of Physician and Patient Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Irwin H.; Hayman, James A.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Tepper, Joel; Goodman, Karyn A.; Keating, Nancy L.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of patient age, comorbidity, and physician factors on treatment recommendations for locally advanced, unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We surveyed radiation oncologists regarding their recommendations for treatment (chemoradiation, radiation alone, chemotherapy alone, or no therapy) for hypothetical patients with Stage IIIB NSCLC who varied by age (55 vs. 80 years) and comorbid illness (none, moderate, or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the impact of physician and practice characteristics on radiation oncologists' treatment recommendations for three scenarios with the least agreement. Results: Of 214 radiation oncologists, nearly all (99%) recommended chemoradiation for a healthy 55 year old. However, there was substantial variability in recommendations for a 55 year old with severe COPD, an 80-year-old with moderate COPD, and an 80-year-old with severe COPD. Physicians seeing a lower volume of lung cancer patients were statistically less likely to recommend radiotherapy for younger or older patients with severe COPD (both p < 0.05), but the impact was modest. Conclusions: Nearly all radiation oncologists report following the evidence-based recommendation of chemoradiation for young, otherwise healthy patients with locally advanced, unresectable NSCLC, but there is substantial variability in treatment recommendations for older or sicker patients, probably related to the lack of clinical trial data for such patients. The physician and practice characteristics we examined only weakly affected treatment recommendations. Additional clinical trial data are necessary to guide recommendations for treatment of elderly patients and patients with poor pulmonary function to optimize their management.

  13. Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Requiring Inpatient Medical Oncology Consultation: Characteristics, Referral Patterns, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gotfrit, Joanna; Zhang, Tinghua; Zanon-Heacock, Silvia; Wheatley-Price, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) occasionally are hospitalized at the time of initial medical oncology consultation. We investigated the characteristics and outcomes of this population. With ethics approval, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients with advanced NSCLC at our institution whose initial consult occurred while hospitalized from 2007 to 2012. This was an exploratory analysis. Multivariate survival analysis was performed using Cox regression models. A total of 223 patients were included. Baseline demographics were as follows: median age, 65 years; 52% were female; median Charlson Comorbidity Index of 10; 69% performance status (PS) 3 to 4; 49% were current smokers; 90% had stage IV disease; and 52% had ≥ 5% weight loss. Only 24% received chemotherapy. Among those treated, the median time from diagnosis to chemotherapy was 43 days. Common reasons for not receiving chemotherapy included poor PS (72%) and patient choice (9%). Factors associated with receiving chemotherapy in multivariate analysis were good PS (odds ratio [OR], 9.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.55-23.26; P < .001), no leukocytosis (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.35-9.35; P = .01), and age < 70 years (OR, 6.80; 95% CI, 1.78-26.32; P = .005). Factors associated with shorter overall survival in multivariate analysis were not receiving chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 2.11; 95% CI, 1.28-3.48; P = .003), PS 3 to 4 (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.26; P = .045), leukocytosis (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.44-3.13; P < .001), and thrombocytosis (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.03-2.09; P = .036). Patients whose first consultation with medical oncologists occurs while hospitalized are an inherently sick population. Earlier diagnosis and referral would give more patients access to treatment options before a terminal functional decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Are Research Biopsies a Barrier to Participation in Clinical Trials?

    PubMed

    Lim, Charles; Sung, Mike; Shepherd, Frances A; Nouriany, Nazanin; Sawczak, Magdalena; Paul, Tuhina; Perera-Low, Nicole; Foster, Andrea; Zawisza, Dianne; Feld, Ronald; Liu, Geoffrey; Leighl, Natasha B

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials of therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are increasingly requiring mandatory tumor samples or research biopsies, both of which are potential barriers to trial participation. We assessed the impact of performance of research biopsies on the enrollment of patients with advanced NSCLC in clinical trials. The cases of patients with advanced NSCLC who had been evaluated for clinical trials of systemic therapy at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre from January 2007 to March 2015 were reviewed. Of the 55 clinical trials identified, 38 required tumor samples for enrollment. Six mandated repeat biopsies, whereas 32 permitted use of archival samples. Trial participation was offered to 636 patients at 940 unique study encounters, with some patients enrolling in multiple trials. Of the patients in 549 encounters during which participation in a therapeutic trial was offered, 60% received study treatment. More patients received study treatment (83% versus 55%, p < 0.0001) and study treatment was started earlier (after 9 days versus after 16, p = 0.002) when the trial did not have a mandatory tissue sample requirement. A similar trend was noted for trials permitting use of archival tissue versus mandatory repeat biopsies. The most common barriers to trial enrollment included absence of a required biomarker (34%), withdrawal of consent (20%), deterioration or death (17%), other exclusion criteria (15%), and insufficient biopsy tissue (10%). A growing number of NSCLC trials are requiring tumor tissue for treatment eligibility, which appears to be a significant barrier to trial enrollment. Potential solutions include use of available diagnostic samples (e.g., cytology samples), development of peripheral blood assays for molecular markers, faster central laboratory testing turnaround time, and more resources for rapid biopsy. Copyright © 2015 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrospective analysis of third-line and fourth-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Hajime; Sekine, Ikuo; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Kubota, Kaoru; Tamura, Tomohide

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of third-line and further-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. We evaluated the clinical outcome of third- and fourth-line chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced NSCLC in consecutive patients who received first-line chemotherapy at our institute between July 2002 and June 2006. From a hospital-based registry, the following data were extracted: (a) patient characteristics, (b) type of chemotherapeutic agents, and (c) objective response and survival data. A total of 599 patients were included in this analysis. Overall, 69.3%, 38.4%, 17.7%, and 6.0% of the patients received second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth-line chemotherapy, respectively. Significant differences in age (P < .0001), performance status at the start of first-line chemotherapy (P < .0001), and histology (P = .0175) were observed between patients who received third-line chemotherapy and those who did not. Docetaxel, gefitinib, and S-1 were the most frequently used regimens for third- or fourth-line chemotherapy. Five percent of the patients had participated in phase I trials of investigational new drugs. The objective response rates and disease control rates of third- and fourth-line chemotherapy were 17.0% and 34.4% and 11.3% and 24.5%, respectively. The median survival times (95% confidence interval [CI]) from the start of first-, second-, third-, and fourth-line chemotherapy until death were 15.3 months (95% CI, 13.8-16.5 months), 12.8 months (95% CI, 10.7-14.5 months), 12.0 months (95% CI, 9.3-14.2 months), and 9.9 months (95% CI, 8.6-12.0 months), respectively. As many as 38% of patients with advanced NSCLC who received first-line chemotherapy could receive third-line chemotherapy. This result emphasizes the need for randomized controlled trials of third-line treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nimotuzumab combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin as second-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Qing; Ren, Yangang; Qian, Zheng-Zi; Fu, Kai; Zhang, Hui-Lai; Li, Wei; Hou, Yun; Zhou, Shi-Yong; Hao, Xi-Shan; Xie, Cong-Hua

    2012-02-01

      To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin as second-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate the association of the status of KRAS gene mutation and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genotype with clinical outcome.   Twenty-eight patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in this single center, uncontrolled pilot clinical study. All the patients developed drug resistance or disease progression after first-line chemotherapy of either a docetaxel + cisplatin regimen or a vinorelbine + cisplatin regimen and then received nimotuzumab combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin as second-line chemotherapy. Eight cases were stage IIIB and 20 were stage IV. An i.v. dosage regimen of 200 mg of nimotuzumab was given as a single dose, injected into the patient at days 1, 8 and 15; i.v. gemcitabine was injected at a dose of 1000 mg/m(2) at days 1 and 8 and cisplatin (25 mg/m(2) i.v.) at days 1, 2 and 3. Each patient received four or more therapeutic cycles. The efficacy and toxic reactions were evaluated, as well as time to progression and overall survival.   In total, 28 patients with advanced NSCLC received 101 therapeutic cycles. The mean cycle number was 3.6. Median time to progression was 4.9 (2.5-6.5) months; median overall survival and 1-year survival rate were 9.8 months and 48.5%, respectively. There was one case of complete response, six cases of partial response, 11 cases of stable disease and 10 cases of progressive disease. Response rate was 25%, and clinical benefit rate was 64.3%. Major toxic reactions were bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal reaction. Only one patient developed grade I acneiform eruption.   Nimotuzumab combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin as second-line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC was active and well-tolerated in this setting. Patients with EGFR amplification and KRAS gene wild type had a better prognosis. Prospective

  17. Phase II study of plitidepsin in pretreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Christian; Hartmann, Joerg T; Schmittel, Alexander; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Schneller, Folker; Keilholz, Ulrich; Buchheidt, Dieter; Millan, Susana; Izquierdo, Miguel Angel; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the progression-free rate (PFR) at 3 months (13+/-1 weeks), antitumor response, time-to-event efficacy endpoints, and toxicity profile of plitidepsin administered as a 3-h continuous i.v. infusion at a dose of 5mg/m(2), every 2 weeks, to patients with chemotherapy pretreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This was a multicenter, non-randomized, exploratory, phase II study. Treatment lasted until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient refusal or treatment delay for >2 weeks. PFR (primary efficacy endpoint) and objective response rate (secondary efficacy endpoint) were evaluated according to RECIST, while the toxic profile of plitidepsin was assessed using the NCI-CTC, version 2.0. A total of 21 patients with a median age of 61 years and with locally advanced or metastatic non-resectable NSCLC, who had previously received only one line of chemotherapy in an advanced setting, received a total of 54 cycles of treatment (median of two cycles per patient; range: 1-8). Antitumor activity was seen in 3 (1 PR, 2 SD) out of 17 evaluable patients according to RECIST. One patient was responder for the primary (PFR at 13+/-1 weeks) and secondary efficacy endpoint (stable disease according to RECIST). Other two patients were non-responders for the primary efficacy endpoint, but had stable disease (not confirmed at weeks 13+/-1 due to previous withdrawal due to adverse events). With a median follow-up of 12.3 months, the median time to progression (TTP) and the median overall survival (OS) were 1.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively. The incidence of plitidepsin-related toxicities was low and most of them were mild-to-moderate in severity. The most common side effects were anemia, and asymptomatic and non-cumulative increases of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and liver transaminase levels. This study shows that plitidepsin 3-h continuous i.v. infusion (5mg/m(2)) every 2 weeks, was feasible and well tolerated in patients with pretreated

  18. Prognostic impact of education level of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer enrolled in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Massimo; Signoriello, Simona; Morabito, Alessandro; Rossi, Antonio; Maione, Paolo; Piantedosi, Francovito; Bilancia, Domenico; Cigolari, Silvio; Barbera, Santi; Gebbia, Vittorio; Daniele, Bruno; Robbiati, Sergio Federico; Illiano, Alfonso; Ceribelli, Anna; Carrozza, Francesco; Favaretto, Adolfo; Piazza, Elena; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Daniele, Gennaro; Giordano, Pasqualina; Costanzo, Raffaele; Sandomenico, Claudia; Rocco, Gaetano; Gallo, Ciro; Perrone, Francesco; Gridelli, Cesare

    2012-06-01

    Socioeconomic status can potentially affect prognosis of cancer patients. Our aim was to describe potential differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, and survival by education level in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) enrolled in clinical trials of first-line treatment. Individual data of Italian patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IV, or IIIB with supraclavicular nodes or malignant pleural effusion), ECOG performance status (PS) 0-2, enrolled in four phase III randomized trials conducted between 1996 and 2005 were pooled. Information about education was available for 1680 of 1709 patients (98.3%). Patients were divided in two groups according to education level: high (patients with at least high school diploma) or low (those with less than high school diploma). Survival analyses were stratified by treatment arm within trial. There were 312 (19%) and 1368 (81%) patients with high and low education, respectively. Education level was significantly different among birth cohorts, with a time-trend toward higher education level. Patients with high education were significantly younger (median age 65 vs. 70), were less frequently unfit at diagnosis (ECOG PS2 5% vs. 16%), and their tumor type was more frequently adenocarcinoma (47% vs. 37%). Number of treatment cycles received was not significantly different between education groups. Median survival was 9.4 and 7.6 months in high and low education, respectively (p=0.012). At multivariable analysis, female sex, better PS and high education level (Hazard Ratio 0.85, 95%CI 0.73-0.99, p=0.03) were independently associated with longer survival. In Italian patients enrolled in four randomized trials of first-line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC, high education was significantly more frequent among younger patients, and was associated with lower proportion of PS2 patients. Education level did not significantly affect number of chemotherapy cycles received. Overall survival was

  19. Survival Analysis of Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated by Using Wheel Balance Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongmin; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect and the overall survival (OS) rate of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have undergone Wheel Balance Cancer Therapy (WBCT). Methods The cases of 33 patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with WBCT at the East West Cancer Center (EWCC) between October 4, 2004, and October 3, 2013, without undergoing concurrent conventional treatment were analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the OS of the cases, and the median OS was calculated according to age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS), conventional-treatment history, WBCT treatment duration, and histological tumor type. Results The median OS of all patients was 31.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5-58.7) months; the OS rates were 63.6% and 24.2% at years 1 and 2, respectively. The median OS rates of patients under and over 65 years were 45.2 (95% CI = 13.5-76.9) and 19.5 (95% CI = 7.1-31.8) months, respectively (P = .189). The median OS rates of patients who received WBCT for >14 days but <28 days and those who received WBCT for ≥28 days were 16.2 (95% CI = 13.3-19.2) and 45.2 (95% CI = 14.4-76.0) months, respectively (P = .437). The median OS rates of patients who had undergone prior conventional treatment and those who had not were 45.2 (95% CI = 9.1-81.3) and 3.9 (95% CI = unable to calculate) months, respectively (P = .000). The median OS rates of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and non-SCC lung cancer were 5.6 (95% CI = unable to calculate) and 45.2 (95% CI = 9.1-81.3) months, respectively (P = .262). The median OS rate of patients with ECOG PS ≥3 was 14.3 (95% CI = 8.8-19.8) months; that of patients ECOG PS <3 could not be calculated. However, the mean OS rates of patients with ECOG PS <3 and with ECOG PS ≥3 were 85.7 (95% CI = 58.4-113.0) and 12.7 (95% CI = 8.5-16.9) months, respectively (P = .000). No severe adverse events were encountered. Conclusions Our study

  20. Molecular profiling in Italian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: An observational prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gobbini, Elisa; Galetta, Domenico; Tiseo, Marcello; Graziano, Paolo; Rossi, Antonio; Bria, Emilio; Di Maio, Massimo; Rossi, Giulio; Gregorc, Vanesa; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Scotti, Vieri; Ceribelli, Anna; Buffoni, Lucio; Delmonte, Angelo; Franchina, Tindara; Migliorino, Maria Rita; Cortinovis, Diego; Pisconti, Salvatore; Bordi, Paola; Catino, Annamaria; Maiello, Evaristo; Arizio, Francesca; Novello, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    Molecular profiling of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is recommended according to European and Italian guidelines. However, molecular routine assessment remains still heterogeneous. This observational study aimed to take a picture of the real clinical practice in molecular testing and therapeutic choices in advanced Italian NSCLCs. This study prospectively enrolled newly diagnosed advanced or recurrent NSCLCs referred to 38 Italian centres, from November 2014 to November 2015. Information regarding molecular profiling and treatment choices were collected. Description of patients' outcome included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival in first (PFS1) and second-line (PFS2). Among 1787 patients enrolled, 1388 (78%) performed at least one molecular analysis during the history of disease: 76% were tested for EGFR, 53% for ALK, 27% for KRAS, 16% for ROS1, 14% for BRAF, 5% for HER2, 4% for MET and 1% for FGFR. The remaining 399 patients (22.3%) did not receive any molecular test. Among patients receiving at least one molecular analysis, 583 (42%) presented a molecular alteration. Considering EGFR mutated and/or ALK rearranged patients (402), for which target agents were routinely reimbursed at time of study in Italy, the 86% received a personalized treatment as first and/or second line: the 90% (286) of EGFR mutants received an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, mostly gefitinib (41.1%) or afatinib (36.4%) while 74% (62) of ALK translocated patients received an ALK inhibitor, mostly crizotinib (64%). Median OS was 9.34 months (95% CI 8.62-10.0), median PFS1 was 4.61 months (95%CI 4.31-4.84) and median PFS2 was 2.76 months (95%CI 2.57-3.19). In the Italian clinical practice, routine molecular assessment was largely applied in NSCLC patients, according to national guidelines, but a low level of ALK test was reached. Most of EGFR mutants an ALK rearranged patients received a personalized treatment as first and/or second line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  1. Image Guided Hypofractionated 3-Dimensional Radiation Therapy in Patients With Inoperable Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Agolli, Linda; Valeriani, Maurizio; Falco, Teresa; Bracci, Stefano; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HypoRT) can potentially improve local control with a higher biological effect and shorter overall treatment time. Response, local control, toxicity rates, and survival rates were evaluated in patients affected by inoperable advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received HypoRT. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled; 27% had stage IIIA, 50% had stage IIIB, and 23% had stage IV disease. All patients underwent HypoRT with a prescribed total dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions of 3 Gy each. Radiation treatment was delivered using an image guided radiation therapy technique to verify correct position. Toxicities were graded according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity score. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up was 13 months (range, 4-56 months). All patients completed radiation therapy and received the total dose of 60 Gy to the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes. The overall response rate after radiation therapy was 83% (3 patients with complete response and 22 patients with partial response). The 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 38.1% and 36%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence/persistence occurred in 11 (37%) patients. Distant metastasis occurred in 17 (57%) patients. Acute toxicities occurred consisting of grade 1 to 2 hematological toxicity in 5 patients (17%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; grade 1 to 2 esophagitis in 12 patients (40%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; and grade 1 to 2 pneumonitis in 6 patients (20%) and grade 3 in 2 patients (7%). Thirty-three percent of patients developed grade 1 to 2 late toxicities. Only 3 patients developed grade 3 late adverse effects: esophagitis in 1 patient and pneumonitis in 2 patients. Conclusions: Hypofractionated curative radiation therapy is a feasible and well-tolerated treatment for patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Randomized

  2. Image guided hypofractionated 3-dimensional radiation therapy in patients with inoperable advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Agolli, Linda; Valeriani, Maurizio; Falco, Teresa; Bracci, Stefano; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2013-03-01

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HypoRT) can potentially improve local control with a higher biological effect and shorter overall treatment time. Response, local control, toxicity rates, and survival rates were evaluated in patients affected by inoperable advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received HypoRT. Thirty patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled; 27% had stage IIIA, 50% had stage IIIB, and 23% had stage IV disease. All patients underwent HypoRT with a prescribed total dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions of 3 Gy each. Radiation treatment was delivered using an image guided radiation therapy technique to verify correct position. Toxicities were graded according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity score. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up was 13 months (range, 4-56 months). All patients completed radiation therapy and received the total dose of 60 Gy to the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes. The overall response rate after radiation therapy was 83% (3 patients with complete response and 22 patients with partial response). The 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 38.1% and 36%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence/persistence occurred in 11 (37%) patients. Distant metastasis occurred in 17 (57%) patients. Acute toxicities occurred consisting of grade 1 to 2 hematological toxicity in 5 patients (17%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; grade 1 to 2 esophagitis in 12 patients (40%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; and grade 1 to 2 pneumonitis in 6 patients (20%) and grade 3 in 2 patients (7%). Thirty-three percent of patients developed grade 1 to 2 late toxicities. Only 3 patients developed grade 3 late adverse effects: esophagitis in 1 patient and pneumonitis in 2 patients. Hypofractionated curative radiation therapy is a feasible and well-tolerated treatment for patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Randomized studies are needed to compare HypoRT to conventional

  3. Toxicity of concurrent radiochemotherapy for locally advanced non--small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Koning, Caro C; Wouterse, Sanne J; Daams, Joost G; Uitterhoeve, Lon L; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Belderbos, José S

    2013-09-01

    Concurrent radiochemotherapy (RCT) is the treatment of choice for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two meta-analyses were inconclusive in an attempt to define the optimal concurrent RCT scheme. Besides efficacy, treatment toxicity will influence the appointed treatment of choice. A systematic review of the literature was performed to record the early and late toxicities, as well as overall survival, of concurrent RCT regimens in patients with NSCLC. The databases of PubMed, Ovid, Medline, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles on concurrent RCT published between January 1992 and December 2009. Publications of phase II and phase III trials with ≥ 50 patients per treatment arm were selected. Patient characteristics, chemotherapy regimen (mono- or polychemotherapy, high or low dose) and radiotherapy scheme, acute and late toxicity, and overall survival data were compared. Seventeen articles were selected: 12 studies with cisplatin-containing regimens and 5 studies using carboplatin. A total of 13 series with mono- or polychemotherapy schedules--as single dose or double or triple high-dose or daily cisplatin-containing (≤ 30 mg/m(2)/wk) chemotherapy were found. Acute esophagitis ≥ grade 3 was observed in up to 18% of the patients. High-dose cisplatin regimens resulted in more frequent and severe hematologic toxicity, nausea, and vomiting than did other schemes. The toxicity profile was more favorable in low-dose chemotherapy schedules. From phase II and III trials published between 1992 and 2010, it can be concluded that concurrent RCT with monochemotherapy consisting of daily cisplatin results in favorable acute and late toxicity compared with concurrent RCT with single high-dose chemotherapy, doublets, or triplets.

  4. Third-generation chemotherapy agents in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Baggstrom, Maria Q; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Fried, Daniel B; Poole, Charles; Hensing, Thomas A; Socinski, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    To estimate the efficacy of third-generation (3G) chemotherapy agents (paclitaxel, docetaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and irinotecan) on response and survival in stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A meta-analysis was performed using trials identified through MEDLINE. Results on tumor response and survival were collected from randomized trials comparing 3G monotherapy versus best supportive care (BSC), 3G monotherapy versus second-generation (2G) platinum-based regimens, and 3G platinum-based regimens versus 2G platinum-based regimens. Of the 2480 citations screened, 20 randomized controlled trials fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 19 trials were used in the analyses. The data from two, three-arm trials were used in two different comparisons. Five trials (n = 1029 patients) compared 3G monotherapy with BSC. The summary risk difference (RD) for 1-year survival favored 3G agents by 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2%, 12%). Four trials (n = 871 patients) compared treatment with 3G monotherapy versus 2G platinum-based regimens. The response RD was -6% (95% CI: -11%, 0%), and the 1-year survival rate RD was 3% (95% CI: -3%, 10%), suggesting that despite a slightly higher response rate for 2G platinum-based regimens relative to 3G monotherapy, there is equivalency in survival. Twelve trials (n = 3995) compared 3G versus 2G platinum-based regimens. The RD for response was 12% (95% CI: 10%, 15%). A RD for 1-year was not calculated, because of heterogeneity among the trials. A subset analysis of 3G versus 2G platinum-based doublets revealed a 1-year survival-rate RD of 6% (95% CI: 2%, 10%), favoring 3G platinum-based regimens without evidence of heterogeneity. 3G agents have been a significant advance in the treatment of NSCLC.

  5. Response to combined modality therapy correlates with survival in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong Wook; Shyr, Yu; Chen, Heidi; Akerley, Wallace; Johnson, David H.; Choy, Hak . E-mail: Hak.Choy@utsouthwestern.edu

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: Although concurrent chemoradiotherapy can now achieve demonstrated long-term survival in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LANSCLC), it is difficult to predict which patients will benefit most from this therapeutic approach. Studies have suggested that local control, and the response to therapy, may be linked to improved survival; however, detailed analysis of the impact of tumor response to chemoradiotherapy on survival has not been thoroughly reported. Therefore, we sought to determine the impact of the response rate on survival for patients who were treated with combined modality therapy for LANSCLC. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the data from 116 patients enrolled between 1994 and 1997 in three trials investigating paclitaxel-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy for LANSCLC. Tumor size measurements were assessed immediately before and 2 months after completion of combined modality therapy to determine the response and to calculate the percentage of decrease in tumor size. Results: Patients with a response (complete or partial) had an improved 4-year overall survival rate compared with patients with no response (stable or progressive disease; 21.1% vs. 3.3%, p <0.0001) in the 109 assessable patients. Progression-free survival also improved significantly with response. An analysis of the percentage of decrease in tumor size vs. survival was performed (n = 74) using Cox proportion model analysis. After combined modality therapy, a 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% decrease in tumor size conferred a 39%, 63%, 78%, 86%, and 92% reduction in risk of death compared with a 0% decrease in tumor size (p <0.0001). Conclusion: The response by conventional response criteria correlated strongly with improved overall survival and progression-free survival and an increasing percentage of decrease in tumor size resulted in a reduction in the risk of death. Additional investigation of the degree of response as a factor predictive of improved

  6. [Cisplatin and vinca alkaloid combination chemotherapy of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in the aged].

    PubMed

    Teramoto, S; Nagase, T; Fukuchi, Y; Ishida, K; Yamaoka, M; Matsuse, T; Jo, C; Orimo, H

    1990-11-01

    Fifteen patients aged over 65 years of age with advanced non-small-cl lung cancer (mean age = 70.7, stage IIIb: IV = 4:11) were treated with combination chemotherapy consisting of Cisplatin (50 or 80 mg/m2) and a vinca-alkaloid (Vindesine 3 mg/m2 or Etoposide 80 mg/m2). The effectiveness and side effects of this cisplatin therapy in different combinations of vinca-alkaloid regimens (Vindesine vs Etoposide) were examined. The mean dose of Cisplatin in the Etoposide combination group (75.2 mg/m2) was significantly higher than that in the Vindesine combination group (54.3 mg/m2) (p less than 0.01). A notable reduction the tumor size was observed in 25% of the Etoposide group, only. The 6-month survival rate and one-year survival rate were respectively 85.7%, 57.1% in the Vindesine + Cisplatin group, and 87.5%, 50% in the Etoposide + Cisplatin group. The common side effects were nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and alopecia. These symptoms were either alleviated by antiemetic drugs or followed by spontaneous recovery. Leucopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia were found in both groups, and there was no difference in the time course of myelosuppression between the two groups. The extent of nephrotoxicity was assessed by creatinine clearance rate. Its decrease in the Vindesine group (60.1----38.9 ml/min) was higher than that in the Etoposide group (64.9----48.9 ml/min), while there was no significant change in BUN, serum creatinine and urine NAG between the two groups. There were no cases in which chemotherapy schedules had to be interrupted due to myelosuppression and nephrotoxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Mature autologous dendritic cell vaccines in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase I pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overall therapeutic outcomes of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are poor. The dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy has been developed as a new strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and immunologic responses in use in mature, antigen-pulsed autologous DC vaccine in NSCLC patients. Methods Five HLA-A2 patients with inoperable stage III or IV NSCLC were selected to receive two doses of 5 × 107 DC cells administered subcutaneous and intravenously two times at two week intervals. The immunologic response, safety and tolerability to the vaccine were evaluated by the lymphoproliferation assay and clinical and laboratorial evolution, respectively. Results The dose of the vaccine has shown to be safe and well tolerated. The lymphoproliferation assay showed an improvement in the specific immune response after the immunization, with a significant response after the second dose (p = 0.005). This response was not long lasting and a tendency to reduction two weeks after the second dose of the vaccine was observed. Two patients had a survival almost twice greater than the expected average and were the only ones that expressed HER-2 and CEA together. Conclusion Despite the small sample size, the results on the immune response, safety and tolerability, combined with the results of other studies, are encouraging to the conduction of a large clinical trial with multiples doses in patients with early lung cancer who underwent surgical treatment. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN45563569 PMID:21682877

  8. Increased NDRG1 expression is associated with advanced T stages and poor vascularization in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chuifeng; Yu, Juanhan; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hongtao; Wang, Enhua

    2012-07-01

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a member of the N-myc downstream regulated gene family which belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily. Earlier studies have shown its association with inhibition of tumor metastasis. However, its function in malignant tumors is not fully enunciated. Recently there was increasing evidence that NDRG1 is involved in stress responses. In the current study, we examined the expression of NDRG1 and its correlation with clinicopathological factors and microvessel density (MVD) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). NDRG1 expression in NSCLC (71/115, 61.7%) was higher than that in normal lung tissues (32/115, 27.8%) (p < 0.05). NDRG1 expression in NSCLC cells was found in cytoplasm (63/115, 54.8%), nuclear (24/115, 20.9%) and cell membrane (13/115, 11.3%). NDRG1 expression in NSCLC with advanced T stages (T2-4) (63/84, 75.0%) was significantly higher than that with T1 stage (8/31, 25.8%) (P < 0.05). No other clinicopathological factors including lymph node metastasis were found to be associated with NDRG1 expression (p > 0.05). Moreover increased NDRG1 expression was associated with lower MVD in NSCLC (P < 0.05). MVD in adenocarcinoma (33.4 ± 8.4/HP) was significantly higher than that in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19.3 ± 8.1/HP) (P < 0.05). No other clinicopathological factors were associated with MVD in NSCLC (p > 0.05). The present findings indicate an increase of NDRG1 expression with the progress of tumour extent which may be due to unbalanced tumor oxygenation on account of poor vascularization in NSCLC.

  9. Estimation of the additional costs of chemotherapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maslove, L; Gower, N; Spiro, S; Rudd, R; Stephens, R; West, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: A large multicentre randomised trial, the Big Lung Trial, which in part compared supportive care with or without cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, provided an opportunity to evaluate the impact on the UK National Health Service of the costs incurred with the use of chemotherapy. Methods: This costing study was based on the retrospective collection of resource use data from hospital records. Case notes from 194 patients (98 chemotherapy + supportive care (C), 96 supportive care alone (NoC)) were inspected in eight centres recruiting the largest numbers of patients into the Big Lung Trial. Quantities were multiplied by fixed unit costs to calculate a total cost for each patient. The main outcome measure was the total cost incurred by the use of secondary care resources (including investigations, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgical procedures, inpatient days, outpatient attendances, and hospice inpatient care) in the two groups. Results: Patients randomised to receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy had an average of 3.4 more inpatient bed days than the mean of 11.9 days for patients randomised to supportive care alone, and more outpatient attendances. NoC patients were more likely to have received palliative radiotherapy. The mean total cost for C patients was £5355 compared with £3595 for the NoC group, difference £1760 (95% CI £781 to £2742). When split, the cost in the C group associated with the administration of chemotherapy was £1233 and non-chemotherapy costs were £4122. Conclusion: The additional cost of chemotherapy was not offset by a reduction in subsequent costs (as the non-chemotherapy costs were similar), so the survival benefit of about 10 weeks observed in the C group was achieved with the cost of chemotherapy administration. PMID:15994264

  10. cN-II expression predicts survival in patients receiving gemcitabine for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sève, Pascal; Mackey, John R; Isaac, Sylvie; Trédan, Olivier; Souquet, Pierre Jean; Pérol, Maurice; Cass, Carol; Dumontet, Charles

    2005-09-01

    Resistance to gemcitabine is likely to be multifactorial and could involve a number of mechanisms involved in drug penetration, metabolism and targeting. In vitro studies of resistant human cell lines have confirmed that human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1)-deficient cells display resistance to gemcitabine. Overexpression of certain nucleotidases, such as cN-II, has also been frequently shown in gemcitabine-resistant models. In this study, we applied immunohistochemical methods to assess the protein abundance of cN-II, hENT1, human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (hCNT3) and deoxycitidine kinase (dCK) in malignant cells in from 43 patients with treatment-naïve locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All patients subsequently received gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. Response to chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were correlated with abundance of these proteins. Among the 43 samples, only 7 (16%) expressed detectable hENT1, with a low percentage of positive cells, 18 expressed hCNT3 (42%), 36 (86%) expressed cN-II and 28 (66%) expressed dCK. In univariate analysis, only cN-II expression levels were correlated with overall survival. None of the parameters were correlated with freedom from progression survival nor with response. Patients with low levels of expression of cN-II (less than 40% positively stained cells) had worse overall survival than patients with higher levels of cN-II expression (6 months and 11 months, respectively). In a multivariate analysis taking into account age, sex, weight loss, stage and immunohistochemical results, cN-II was the only predictive factor associated with overall survival. This study suggests that cN-II nucleotidase expression levels identify subgroups of NSCLC patients with different outcomes under gemcitabine-based therapy. Larger prospective studies are warranted to confirm the predictive value of cN-II in these patients.

  11. Selumetinib in advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harbouring KRAS mutation: endless clinical challenge to KRAS-mutant NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Paolo, Maione; Assunta, Sgambato; Antonio, Rossi; Claudia, Sacco Paola; Anna, Bareschino Maria; Clorinda, Schettino; Francesca, Casaluce; Fortunato, Ciardiello; Cesare, Gridelli

    2013-06-01

    During the past few years, oncologists have witnessed the reclassification of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as not one disease, but several molecularly defined subsets of disease with relevant therapeutic implications in the field of molecularly targeted therapies. Two not very common genetically defined subsets of NSCLC, including those with EGFR or ALK activating mutations, and show high sensitivity to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors such that patients frequently have sustained clinical responses to therapy. However, the largest subset harbours an activating KRAS mutation and up to now, no successful targeted therapy has been developed for RAS-mutant lung cancer, with few compounds being assessed by clinical trials. In fact, KRAS has remained an elusive target for cancer therapy for biologic reasons. The chief value of KRAS lies in providing information about the other biomarkers that are directly druggable, that is, EGFR and ALK. The presence of mutated KRAS rules out ALK and EGFR, and KRAS may therefore form part of an efficient pathway in a testing algorithm. Currently, KRAS itself remains undruggable despite decades of effort, but attention has recently focused on inhibition of the Ras-contingent downstream signalling. Selumetinib (AZD6244; ARRY-142886) is an oral, tight-binding, uncompetitive inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MEK) 1 and 2, downstream of KRAS, with preclinical evidence of synergistic activity with docetaxel in KRAS-mutant cancers and currently in clinical development. The Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway is frequently deregulated in cancer and a number of inhibitors that target this pathway are currently in clinical development. Recently, in a randomised, phase II trial selumetinib plus docetaxel has proven to improve progression free survival compared to docetaxel alone in previously treated patients with advanced KRAS-mutant NSCLC.

  12. Clinical retrospective analysis of erlotinib in the treatment of elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Platania, Marco; Agustoni, Francesco; Formisano, Barbara; Vitali, Milena; Ducceschi, Monika; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Zilembo, Nicoletta; Gelsomino, Francesco; Pusceddu, Sara; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    In order to evaluate the clinical efficacy and the safety profile of molecularly targeted therapies as a palliative approach in elderly populations affected by advanced thoracic neoplasms, we retrospectively studied, in terms of effectiveness and toxicities, a group of pretreated elderly metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients admitted to our institution and treated with erlotinib at standard daily/dose. Forty-three patients aged 70 years or older who had previously failed on chemotherapy or radiotherapy were treated with oral Eerlotinib (150 mg/d) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Clinical data, pathological types, potential prognostic factors, efficacy and toxicity of erlotinib were included in this analysis. In our series we observed: objective responses in six patients (14%) and stable disease in 15 (35%). Skin rash was the most common side effect (67%). Grade 3-4 adverse events were observed in 16 cases (37%). The median overall survival and the median progression-free survival were 8.4 months (CI 95%: 0.7-43.6) and 3 months (CI 95%: 0.4-28.4), respectively. Patients with adenocarcinoma achieved the best disease control rate (p = 0.027), while not/former smokers showed a better response (p = 0.069). In our experience the use of erlotinib after chemotherapy failure in an unselected elderly population affected by NSCLC showed moderate efficacy and a moderate safety profile. However, erlotinib represents a valid option in this setting, but other factors such as biological information, comorbidities and concomitant medications need to be carefully take into consideration in this particular subset of cancer patients.

  13. Individualized Dose Prescription for Hypofractionation in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Radiotherapy: An in silico Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Aswin L.; Troost, Esther G.C.; Huizenga, Henk; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Bussink, Johan

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Local tumor control and outcome remain poor in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by external beam radiotherapy. We investigated the therapeutic gain of individualized dose prescription with dose escalation based on normal tissue dose constraints for various hypofractionation schemes delivered with intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: For 38 Stage III NSCLC patients, the dose level of an existing curative treatment plan with standard fractionation (66 Gy) was rescaled based on dose constraints for the lung, spinal cord, esophagus, brachial plexus, and heart. The effect on tumor total dose (TTD) and biologic tumor effective dose in 2-Gy fractions (TED) corrected for overall treatment time (OTT) was compared for isotoxic and maximally tolerable schemes given in 15, 20, and 33 fractions. Rescaling was accomplished by altering the dose per fraction and/or the number of fractions while keeping the relative dose distribution of the original treatment plan. Results: For 30 of the 38 patients, dose escalation by individualized hypofractionation yielded therapeutic gain. For the maximally tolerable dose scheme in 33 fractions (MTD{sub 33}), individualized dose escalation resulted in a 2.5-21% gain in TTD. In the isotoxic schemes, the number of fractions could be reduced with a marginal increase in TED. For the maximally tolerable dose schemes, the TED could be escalated up to 36.6%, and for all patients beyond the level of the isotoxic and the MTD{sub 33} schemes (range, 3.3-36.6%). Reduction of the OTT contributed to the therapeutic gain of the shortened schemes. For the maximally tolerable schemes, the maximum esophageal dose was the dominant dose-limiting constraint in most patients. Conclusions: This modeling study showed that individualized dose prescription for hypofractionation in NSCLC radiotherapy, based on scaling of existing treatment plans up to normal tissue dose constraints, enables dose

  14. Approval summary: pemetrexed maintenance therapy of advanced/metastatic nonsquamous, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Martin H; Cortazar, Patricia; Justice, Robert; Pazdur, Richard

    2010-01-01

    On July 2, 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved pemetrexed injection (Alimta® Injection; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN) for maintenance treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer whose disease has not progressed after four cycles of platinum-based doublet induction chemotherapy. A double-blind study of pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care was conducted. Pemetrexed, 500 mg/m(2) i.v., was administered every 21 days until disease progression. Folic acid, vitamin B(12), and a corticosteroid were given to all study patients. There were 663 randomized patients (pemetrexed, 441; placebo, 222). Treatments were well balanced with respect to baseline disease characteristics and stratification factors. The median overall survival (OS) time for intent-to-treat (ITT) patients was 13.4 months for patients receiving pemetrexed and 10.6 months for those receiving placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-0.95; p = .012). Median OS times were 15.5 months versus 10.3 months for patients with nonsquamous histologies receiving pemetrexed and placebo, respectively (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.88). The median OS time in patients with squamous histology receiving pemetrexed was 9.9 months, versus 10.8 months for those receiving placebo (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.77-1.50). A significantly longer progression-free survival interval for both the ITT and nonsquamous patient populations receiving pemetrexed maintenance therapy was also observed. The most common (>5%) adverse reactions in patients receiving pemetrexed were hematologic toxicity, an increase in hepatic enzymes, fatigue, gastrointestinal toxicity, sensory neuropathy, and skin rash.

  15. Approval Summary: Pemetrexed Maintenance Therapy of Advanced/Metastatic Nonsquamous, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Cortazar, Patricia; Justice, Robert; Pazdur, Richard

    2010-01-01

    On July 2, 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved pemetrexed injection (Alimta® Injection; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN) for maintenance treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer whose disease has not progressed after four cycles of platinum-based doublet induction chemotherapy. A double-blind study of pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care was conducted. Pemetrexed, 500 mg/m2 i.v., was administered every 21 days until disease progression. Folic acid, vitamin B12, and a corticosteroid were given to all study patients. There were 663 randomized patients (pemetrexed, 441; placebo, 222). Treatments were well balanced with respect to baseline disease characteristics and stratification factors. The median overall survival (OS) time for intent-to-treat (ITT) patients was 13.4 months for patients receiving pemetrexed and 10.6 months for those receiving placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.95; p = .012). Median OS times were 15.5 months versus 10.3 months for patients with nonsquamous histologies receiving pemetrexed and placebo, respectively (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56–0.88). The median OS time in patients with squamous histology receiving pemetrexed was 9.9 months, versus 10.8 months for those receiving placebo (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.77–1.50). A significantly longer progression-free survival interval for both the ITT and nonsquamous patient populations receiving pemetrexed maintenance therapy was also observed. The most common (>5%) adverse reactions in patients receiving pemetrexed were hematologic toxicity, an increase in hepatic enzymes, fatigue, gastrointestinal toxicity, sensory neuropathy, and skin rash. PMID:21148615

  16. Third-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: identifying the candidates for routine practice.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nicolas; Jacoulet, Pascale; Gainet, Marie; Elleuch, Rami; Pernet, Didier; Depierre, Alain; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Westeel, Virginie

    2009-12-01

    The interest of first- and second-line treatments in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been demonstrated by successive randomized trials. Improvements in lung cancer care have routinely allowed a significant proportion of patients to be considered for third-line treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed, including all consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC, who received at least three lines of systemic antineoplastic treatment at our institution. From a population of 613 patients treated with first-line treatment, a total of 173 patients received third-line treatment (cytotoxic chemotherapy in 131 patients; epidermal growth factor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors in 42 patients). Only 13 patients (8%) received less than 75% of the theoretical dose intensity; 22 patients (13%) presented with severe toxicities. Symptom relief and performance status (PS) improvement were observed in 121 (92% of the 131 patients with symptoms) and 90 patients (52%), respectively. Using multivariate analysis, survival after third-line treatment was significantly increased in patients younger than 70 years-old (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.99, p = 0.047), who smoked less than 10 pack-years (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93, p = 0.036), with no cancer-related symptoms (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.92, p = 0.007), a weight loss inferior to 5 kg since the beginning of second-line (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.75, p = 0.013), a PS 0 to 1 (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.76-0.86, p = 0.008), and no extrathoracic tumor spread at initiation of third-line treatment (HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47-0.94, p = 0.042). Disease control after both first- and second-line treatments was the strongest predictor of prolonged survival after third-line treatment (HR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.33-0.67, p = 0.001). Patients with advanced NSCLC may benefit from third-line treatment. The best candidates can be identified using standard prognostic factors, such as PS, and disease control after first

  17. Effects of MICA Expression on the Prognosis of Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and the Efficacy of CIK Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Gen; Guo, Zeng-qing; Zhou, Zhi-feng; He, Zhi-yong; Ye, Yun-bin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of the expression of MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and explore the relationship between MICA expression and the efficacy of cytokine-induced killer cell (CIK) therapy for treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Methods We obtained data on 222 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, including data on MICA expression, age, gender, ECOG score, pathological type, stage, treatment history (including 38 patients who were given autologous CIK cell infusion), and overall survival (OS). MICA expression in lung cancer tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Analyses of MICA expression, and CIK therapy association with survival outcomes were performed using Cox proportional models, Kaplan-Meier methods, and the log-rank test. Result s MICA was expressed in both membrane and cytoplasm. MICA expression correlated with the stage of lung cancer, ECOG score, gender and age. Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that the expression of MICA was an independent prognostic factor of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (p = 0.002). In subgroup analysis, we divided the 222 patients into CIK and control groups. In the CIK group, the medium OS (mOS) of patients with a high expression of MICA was longer than in those with low expression of MICA (27 months vs. 13 months). In the control group, the mOS in patients with a high expression of MICA was shorter than in patients with low MICA expression (9 months vs. 18 months). COX regression analysis showed that the MICA expression affects the effect of CIK therapy (p<0.0001). Conclusion 1) The high expression of MICA is one of the indicators of a poor prognosis for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. 2) The high expression of MICA might be one of the predictive factors for successful CIK therapy. PMID:23935919

  18. Chemotherapy with cetuximab versus chemotherapy alone for chemotherapy-naive advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zu-Yao; Liu, Li; Mao, Chen; Wu, Xin-Yin; Huang, Ya-Fang; Hu, Xue-Feng; Tang, Jin-Ling

    2014-11-17

    In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the effectiveness of standard cytotoxic chemotherapy seems to have reached a 'plateau', and there is a continuous need for new treatments to further improve the prognosis. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody targeted at the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway. Basically, it is designed to inhibit the growth and metastasis among other biological processes of cancer. In combination with chemotherapy, it has been evaluated as a first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC in some randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with inconsistent results. To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy plus cetuximab, compared with chemotherapy alone, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously untreated with chemotherapy or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted drugs. We systematically searched the Cochrane Lung Cancer Review Group's Specialized Register (from inception to 17 December 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 12), MEDLINE (accessed through PubMed, 1966 to 17 December 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 17 December 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (from inception to 17 December 2013), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (from inception to 17 December 2013). We also handsearched the proceedings related to lung cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology and European Society of Medical Oncology (2000 to 17 December 2013). We checked the reference lists of all eligible primary studies and review articles for additional potentially eligible studies. Eligible studies were RCTs that compared chemotherapy plus cetuximab with the same chemotherapy alone, in advanced NSCLC, previously untreated with chemotherapy or EGFR-targeted drugs, and measured at least one of the following: overall survival, progression-free survival, one-year survival rate, objective response rate

  19. Clinical potential of necitumumab in non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Genova, Carlo; Hirsch, Fred R

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant progress, new therapeutic approaches for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are highly needed, particularly for the treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often overexpressed in NSCLC and represents a relevant target for specific treatments. Although EGFR mutations are more frequent in non-squamous histology, the receptor itself is more often overexpressed in squamous NSCLC. Necitumumab is a human monoclonal antibody that is able to inhibit the EGFR pathway and cause antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. This drug has been studied in combination with first-line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC in two Phase III trials, and a significant survival benefit was reported in squamous NSCLC (SQUIRE trial); by contrast, necitumumab did not prove itself beneficial in non-squamous histotype (INSPIRE trial). On the basis of the SQUIRE results, necitumumab was approved in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine as a first-line treatment for advanced squamous NSCLC, both in the US and Europe, where its availability is limited to patients with EGFR-expressing tumors. The aim of this review is to describe the tolerability and the efficacy of necitumumab by searching the available published data and define its potential role in the current landscape of NSCLC treatment. PMID:27621656

  20. The Risk of Neutropenia and Leukopenia in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian-Guo; Tian, Xu; Cheng, Long; Zhou, Quan; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yu; Bai, Yu-ju; Ma, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are a critical member of systemic therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Erlotinib is the first-generation EGFR-TKIs, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend it as a first-line agent in patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations. However, the safety of erlotinib plus chemotherapy (CT) or erlotinib alone for advanced NSCLC remains controversial. We carried out a systematic meta-analysis to determine the overall risk of neutropenia and leukopenia associated with erlotinib. PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, WanFang database, The Cochrane library, Web of Science, as well as abstracts presented at ASCO conferences and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify relevant studies. RR with 95% CIs for neutropenia and leukopenia were all extracted. The random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs and 95% CIs. Power calculation was performed using macro embedded in SAS software after all syntheses were conducted. We identified 12 eligible studies involving 3932 patients. Erlotinib plus CT or alone relative to CT is associated with significantly decreased risks of neutropenia and leukopenia in patients with advanced NSCLC (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21–0.71; P = 0.00; incidence: 9.9 vs. 35.2%) and (RR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11–0.93; P = 0.04; incidence: 3.5 vs. 11.6%), respectively. The subgroup analysis by erlotinb with or without CT showed that erlotinib combine with CT have no significance decrease the relative risks of neutropenia or leukopenia (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.78–1.23; P = 0.87; incidence: 26.2 vs. 30.5%) and (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.34–1.95; P = 0.64; incidence: 6.5 vs. 9.3%), respectively. However, erlotinib alone could decrease incidence of neutropenia (RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.07–0.27; P = 0.00; incidence: 3.7 vs. 40.8%) or leukopenia (RR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01–0.45; P = 0.01; incidence: 0.8 vs. 15.7%). The power analysis

  1. Outcomes of Elderly Patients Who Receive Combined Modality Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Mark; Dominello, Michael; Dyson, Gregory; Gadgeel, Shirish; Wozniak, Antoinette; Miller, Steven; Paximadis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review our institution's experience among patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) treated with chemotherapy and radiation and to determine the prognostic significance of age. Patients were included if they underwent sequential or concurrent chemoradiotherapy from 2006 to 2014 for LA-NSCLC. Patients were stratified according to age ≤70 and >70 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were performed to evaluate overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). One hundred twenty-three patients were identified. Ninety-eight patients were 70 years of age or younger and 25 patients were older than 70 years of age. The median radiotherapy dose was 6660 cGy (range, 3780-7600 cGy). A greater percentage of elderly patients were men, 72% (18 patients) versus 39% (38 patients) (P = .006) and received carboplatin/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy, 60% (15 patients) versus 21% (20 patients) (P < .001). Median follow-up for OS was 25.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.3-33.9) months. There was no difference in the PFS of older patients versus younger patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.15; P = .64), adjusted for significant covariates. The 1-year PFS rate for patients 70 years of age or younger was 51% (95% CI, 42%-63%) versus 45% (95% CI, 28%-71%) in patients older than 70 years. After adjusting for significant covariates, there was no difference in the OS of older patients compared with younger patients (HR, 1.18; P = .65). The 1-year OS rate for patients 70 years of age or younger was 77% (95% CI, 68%-86%) versus 56% (95% CI, 39%-81%) in patients younger than 70 years. Chemoradiotherapy is an effective treatment in elderly patients with LA-NSCLC, with outcomes similar to that in younger patients. Appropriately selected elderly patients should be considered for chemoradiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of opioid requirement and cancer pain with survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zylla, D; Kuskowski, M A; Gupta, K; Gupta, P

    2014-10-10

    Pain is associated with shorter survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer cells express opioid receptors. Opioids promote angiogenesis, tumour growth, and metastases, and shorten survival in animal models. We examined retrospectively if long-term opioid requirement, independently of chronic pain, is associated with reduced survival in 209 patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC. Opioid doses were converted to average oral morphine equivalents (OME). Patients were stratified by proportion of time they reported severe pain, and required <5 or ≥5 mg day(-1) OME. Effects of pain, opioid requirement, and known prognostic variables on overall survival were analysed. Severe pain before chemotherapy initiation was associated with shorter survival (hazards ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.87, P=0.035). The magnitude of pain and opioid requirement during first 90 days of chemotherapy were predictive of shorter survival: patients with no/mild pain and requiring <5 mg day(-1) OME had 12 months longer median survival compared with those requiring more opioids, experiencing more pain, or both (18 compared with 4.2-7.7 months, P≤0.002). Survival differences (16 compared with 5.5-7.8 months, P<0.001) were similar when chronic pain and opioid requirement were assessed until death or last follow-up. In multivariable models, opioid requirement and chronic pain remained independent predictors of survival, after adjustment for age, stage, and performance status. The severity of chronic cancer-related pain or greater opioid requirement is associated with shorter survival in advanced NSCLC, independently of known prognostic factors. While pain adversely influences prognosis, controlling it with opioids does not improve survival. Prospective studies should determine if pain control using equi-analgesic opioid-sparing approaches can improve outcomes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia 2014. This work is written by

  3. Critical Appraisal of Acuros XB and Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Dose Calculation in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical impact of the Acuros XB algorithm (implemented in the Varian Eclipse treatment-planning system) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Methods and Materials: A CT dataset of 10 patients presenting with advanced NSCLC was selected and contoured for planning target volume, lungs, heart, and spinal cord. Plans were created for 6-MV and 15-MV beams using three-dimensional conformal therapy, intensity-modulated therapy, and volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc. Calculations were performed with Acuros XB and the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm. To distinguish between differences coming from the different heterogeneity management and those coming from the algorithm and its implementation, all the plans were recalculated assigning Hounsfield Unit (HU) = 0 (Water) to the CT dataset. Results: Differences in dose distributions between the two algorithms calculated in Water were <0.5%. This suggests that the differences in the real CT dataset can be ascribed mainly to the different heterogeneity management, which is proven to be more accurate in the Acuros XB calculations. The planning target dose difference was stratified between the target in soft tissue, where the mean dose was found to be lower for Acuros XB, with a range of 0.4% {+-} 0.6% (intensity-modulated therapy, 6 MV) to 1.7% {+-} 0.2% (three-dimensional conformal therapy, 6 MV), and the target in lung tissue, where the mean dose was higher for 6 MV (from 0.2% {+-} 0.2% to 1.2% {+-} 0.5%) and lower for 15 MV (from 0.5% {+-} 0.5% to 2.0% {+-} 0.9%). Mean doses to organs at risk presented differences up to 3% of the mean structure dose in the worst case. No particular or systematic differences were found related to the various modalities. Calculation time ratios between calculation time for Acuros XB and the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm were 7 for three-dimensional conformal therapy, 5 for intensity-modulated therapy, and 0.2 for volumetric modulated arc therapy

  4. Randomized Phase II Trial of Erlotinib Beyond Progression in Advanced Erlotinib-Responsive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Nathan A.; Fu, Pingfu; Saad, Shumaila; Gadgeel, Shirish; Otterson, Gregory A.; Mekhail, Tarek; Snell, Michael; Kuebler, J. Philip; Sharma, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is clearly beneficial in patients with advanced EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance develops uniformly and the benefit of continuation of EGFR TKI therapy beyond progression remains unclear. Materials and Methods. This was a randomized phase II study of chemotherapy (arm A: pemetrexed or docetaxel) versus chemotherapy plus erlotinib (ERL) (arm B) in patients with progressive NSCLC following clinical benefit from erlotinib. In arm B, chemotherapy was given with erlotinib at an oral daily dose of 150 mg on days 2–19 of each cycle to minimize negative pharmacodynamic interactions. The primary endpoint was that continuation of erlotinib in this patient population could extend progression-free survival (PFS) by 50%. Results. A total of 46 patients were randomized (arm A: 24; arm B: 22). Patient characteristics were well balanced except there were more female patients in arm A (p = .075). The median PFS of patients in arm A was 5.5 months and for those in arm B, 4.4 months (p = .699). The response rates were 13% and 16% in arms A and B, respectively (p = .79). EGFR status data were available for 39 of the 46 patients and no significant difference in PFS was seen for continuing ERL beyond progression in mutation-positive patients. Substantially more toxicity was seen in arm B than arm A. Conclusion. There was added toxicity but no benefit with the continuation of ERL beyond progression along with chemotherapy as compared with chemotherapy alone. Implications for Practice: The benefits of continuing erlotinib upon progression alongside conventional chemotherapy are unclear. This randomized phase II study, initiated prior to the establishment of routine epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing, addressed this clinically relevant issue through randomizing patients with prior clinical benefit from erlotinib (thereby enriching

  5. Phase II study of S-1, a novel oral fluorouracil, in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, M; Furuse, K; Segawa, Y; Yoshimori, K; Matsui, K; Kudoh, S; Hasegawa, K; Niitani, H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel oral anticancer fluoropyrimidine derivative, S-1, in patients receiving initial chemotherapy for unresectable, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Between June 1996 and July 1998, 62 patients with NSCLC who had not received previous chemotherapy for advanced disease were enrolled in this study. 59 patients (22 stage IIIB and 37 stage IV) were eligible for the evaluation of efficacy and safety. S-1 was administered orally, twice daily, after meals. 3 dosages of S-1 were prescribed according to body surface area (BSA) so that they would be approximately equivalent to 80 mg m−2day−1: BSA < 1.25 m2, 40 mg b.i.d.; BSA≥1.25 but <1.5 m2; 50 mg b.i.d., and BSA≥1.5 m2: 60 mg b.i.d. One cycle consisted of consecutive administration of S-1 for 28 days followed by a 2-week rest period, and cycles were repeated up to 4 times. The partial response (PR) rate of the eligible patients was 22.0% (13/59); (95% confidence interval: 12.3–34.7%). A PR was observed in 22.7% (5/22) of the stage IIIB patients and 21.6% (8/37) of the stage IV patients. The median response duration was 3.4 months (1.1–13.7 months or longer). Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in one of the 59 patients (1.7%). The grade 3 or 4 toxicities consisted of decreased haemoglobin level in 1.7% of patients (1/59), neutropenia in 6.8% (4/59), thrombocytopenia in 1.7% (1/59), anorexia in 10.2% (6/59), diarrhoea in 8.5% (5/59), stomatitis in 1.7% (1/59), and malaise in 6.8% (4/59), and their incidences were relatively low. There were no irreversible, severe or unexpected toxicities. The median survival time (MST) of all patients was 10.2 months (95% confidence interval: 7.7–14.5 months), and the one-year survival rate was 41.1%. The MST of the stage IIIB patients was 7.9 months, and that of the stage IV patients was 11.1 months. The one-year survival rates of the stage IIIB and IV patients were 30.7% and 47

  6. New targeted treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer – role of nivolumab

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Giulia; Muller, Mirte; van den Heuvel, Michel; Baas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is often diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, where it is no longer amenable to curative treatment. During the last decades, the survival has only improved significantly for lung cancer patients who have tumors harboring a driver mutation. Therefore, there is a clear unmet need for effective therapies for patients with no mutation. Immunotherapy has emerged as an effective treatment for different cancer types. Nivolumab, a monoclonal inhibitory antibody against PD-1 receptor, can prolong survival of NSCLC patients, with a manageable toxicity profile. In two Phase III trials, nivolumab was compared to docetaxel in patients with, respectively, squamous (CheckMate 017) and non-squamous NSCLC (CheckMate 057). In both trials, nivolumab significantly reduced the risk of death compared to docetaxel (41% and 27% lower risk of death for squamous and non-squamous NSCLC, respectively). Therefore, nivolumab has been approved in the US and in Europe as second-line treatment for advanced NSCLC. Unfortunately, accurate predictive factors for patient selection are lacking, making it difficult to decide who will benefit and who will not. Currently, there are many ongoing trials that evaluate the efficacy of nivolumab in different settings and in combination with other agents. This paper reviews the present literature about the role of nivolumab in the treatment of NSCLC. Particular attention has been given to efficacy studies, toxicity profile, and current and emerging predictive factors. PMID:27536062

  7. New targeted treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer - role of nivolumab.

    PubMed

    Zago, Giulia; Muller, Mirte; van den Heuvel, Michel; Baas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is often diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, where it is no longer amenable to curative treatment. During the last decades, the survival has only improved significantly for lung cancer patients who have tumors harboring a driver mutation. Therefore, there is a clear unmet need for effective therapies for patients with no mutation. Immunotherapy has emerged as an effective treatment for different cancer types. Nivolumab, a monoclonal inhibitory antibody against PD-1 receptor, can prolong survival of NSCLC patients, with a manageable toxicity profile. In two Phase III trials, nivolumab was compared to docetaxel in patients with, respectively, squamous (CheckMate 017) and non-squamous NSCLC (CheckMate 057). In both trials, nivolumab significantly reduced the risk of death compared to docetaxel (41% and 27% lower risk of death for squamous and non-squamous NSCLC, respectively). Therefore, nivolumab has been approved in the US and in Europe as second-line treatment for advanced NSCLC. Unfortunately, accurate predictive factors for patient selection are lacking, making it difficult to decide who will benefit and who will not. Currently, there are many ongoing trials that evaluate the efficacy of nivolumab in different settings and in combination with other agents. This paper reviews the present literature about the role of nivolumab in the treatment of NSCLC. Particular attention has been given to efficacy studies, toxicity profile, and current and emerging predictive factors.

  8. Cisplatin versus carboplatin in combination with third-generation drugs for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    de Castria, Tiago B; da Silva, Edina M K; Gois, Aecio F T; Riera, Rachel

    2013-08-16

    An estimated 220,000 new cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 160,000 deaths are expected to occur in the US in 2013, representing about 28% of cancer-related mortality. Approximately 75% of these people will have locally advanced or metastatic disease and will be treated in a palliative setting. Platinum-based combination chemotherapy has benefits in terms of survival and symptom control when compared with best supportive care. To assess the efficacy and safety of carboplatin-based chemotherapy when compared with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, both in combination with a third-generation drug, in people with advanced NSCLC. To compare quality of life in people with advanced NSCLC receiving chemotherapy with cisplatin and carboplatin combined with a third-generation drug. We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed) (1966 to 6 March 2013), EMBASE (via Ovid) (1974 to 6 March 2013), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 2, 2013), and LILACS (1982 to 6 March 2013). In addition, we handsearched the proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Meetings (January 1990 to March 2013), reference lists from relevant resources and the Clinical Trial.gov database. Randomised clinical trials comparing regimens with carboplatin or cisplatin combined with a third-generation drug in people with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC. We accepted any regimen and number of cycles that included these drugs, since there is no widely accepted standard regimen. Two review authors independently assessed search results and a third review author resolved any disagreements. We analysed the following endpoints: overall survival, one-year survival, quality of life, toxicity and response rate. We included 10 trials with 5017 people, 3973 of whom were available for meta-analysis. There was no difference between carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapy in overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1.00; 95% confidence

  9. Second primary cancer in survivors following concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takigawa, N; Kiura, K; Segawa, Y; Watanabe, Y; Kamei, H; Moritaka, T; Shibayama, T; Ueoka, H; Gemba, K; Yonei, T; Tabata, M; Shinkai, T; Hiraki, S; Takemoto, M; Kanazawa, S; Matsuo, K; Tanimoto, M

    2006-01-01

    Long-term cancer survivors risk development of second primary cancers (SPC). Vigilant follow-up may be required. We report outcomes of 92 patients who underwent chemoradiation for unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer, with a median follow-up of 8.9 years. The incidence of SPC was 2.4 per 100 patient-years (95% confidence interval: 1.0–4.9). PMID:17031394

  10. First-line ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ASCEND-4): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    Soria, Jean-Charles; Tan, Daniel S W; Chiari, Rita; Wu, Yi-Long; Paz-Ares, Luis; Wolf, Juergen; Geater, Sarayut L; Orlov, Sergey; Cortinovis, Diego; Yu, Chong-Jen; Hochmair, Maximillian; Cortot, Alexis B; Tsai, Chun-Ming; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Campelo, Rosario G; McCulloch, Tracey; Sen, Paramita; Dugan, Margaret; Pantano, Serafino; Branle, Fabrice; Massacesi, Cristian; de Castro, Gilberto

    2017-03-04

    The efficacy of ceritinib in patients with untreated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not known. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in these patients. This randomised, open-label, phase 3 study in untreated patients with stage IIIB/IV ALK-rearranged non-squamous NSCLC was done in 134 centres across 28 countries. Eligible patients were assigned via interactive response technology to oral ceritinib 750 mg/day or platinum-based chemotherapy ([cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) or carboplatin AUC 5-6 plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2)] every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by maintenance pemetrexed); randomisation was stratified by World Health Organization performance status (0 vs 1-2), previous neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, and presence of brain metastases as per investigator's assessment at screening. Investigators and patients were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was blinded independent review committee assessed progression-free survival, based on all randomly assigned patients (the full analysis set). Efficacy analyses were done based on the full analysis set. All safety analyses were done based on the safety set, which included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01828099. Between Aug 19, 2013, and May 11, 2015, 376 patients were randomly assigned to ceritinib (n=189) or chemotherapy (n=187). Median progression-free survival (as assessed by blinded independent review committee) was 16·6 months (95% CI 12·6-27·2) in the ceritinib group and 8·1 months (5·8-11·1) in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio 0·55 [95% CI 0·42-0·73]; p<0·00001). The most common adverse events were diarrhoea (in 160 [85%] of 189 patients), nausea (130 [69%]), vomiting (125 [66%]), and an increase in alanine aminotransferase (114 [60%]) in the ceritinib group and nausea (in 97 [55%] of 175

  11. Therapeutic strategies for combined-modality therapy of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: rationale for consolidation docetaxel therapy.

    PubMed

    Gandara, David R; Vallières, Eric; Gaspar, Laurie E; Kelly, Karen; Albain, Kathy S; Herbst, Roy S; Lara, Primo N; Mack, Philip; Gumerlock, Paul H; Crowley, John J

    2005-12-01

    Currently, there is no accepted standard of care for locally advanced and surgically unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer. Typically, treatment for patients with good performance status consists of a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic radiation therapy (RT), but the integration of these modalities and the respective dose schedules vary considerably. Herein, we review the rationale for a treatment paradigm employing consolidation docetaxel therapy after concurrent chemotherapy/RT and the results of recent clinical trials using this approach.

  12. A voice that wraps around the body--communication problems in the advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R. J.; Chamberlain, R. M.; Khuri, F. R.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Significant problems in clinician-patient communication have been described in the oncology literatures. Advanced stage non-small lung cancer a devastating disease, can cause the communication between survivors, significant others, and clinicians to falter. To date, however, no studies have used qualitative methods to examine experiential aspects of living with non-small cell lung cancer. Nor have any studies evaluated the tools survivors might use to repair some of the damage caused by living with this disease. METHODS: Exploratory, two-part qualitative design. RESULTS: Survivors of non-small cell lung cancer live with multiple fears and losses. These include a diminished sense of self, the loss of health, fears of pain in a future tainted by the threat of death, and increased feelings of alienation due to the loss of previous sources of meaning in life. These experiences significantly affect cancer survivors abilities to communicate with clinicians and significant others. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of non-small cell lung cancer often have difficulty sharing their experiences with others not suffering a similar affliction. Through their narratives with other survivors, however, patients are better able to initiate a biopsychosocial mechanism which enables them to create a cognitive map. This cognitive map helps survivors share their experiences with others, thereby repairing some of the damage caused by this disease, including the harm done to their communication with other people. PMID:11922184

  13. Effect of Amifostine on Response Rates in Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated on Randomized Controlled Trials: A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mell, Loren K. . E-mail: lmell@radonc.uchicago.edu; Malik, Renuka; Komaki, Ritsuko; Movsas, Benjamin; Swann, R. Suzanne; Langer, Corey; Antonadou, Dosia; Koukourakis, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: Amifostine can reduce the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, but concerns remain regarding its possible tumor-protective effects. Studies with sufficient statistical power to address this question are lacking. Methods and Materials: We performed a meta-analysis of all published clinical trials involving locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, who had been randomized to treatment with amifostine vs. no amifostine or placebo. Random effects estimates of the relative risk of overall, partial, and complete response were obtained. Results: Seven randomized trials involving 601 patients were identified. Response rate data were available for six studies (552 patients). The pooled relative risk (RR) estimate was 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.18; p = 0.18), 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.78; p = 0.33), and 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.26; p = 0.95) for overall, complete, and partial response, respectively (a RR >1 indicates improvement in response with amifostine compared with the control arm). The results were similar after sensitivity analyses. No evidence was found of treatment effect heterogeneity across the studies. Conclusions: Amifostine has no effect on tumor response in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy.

  14. TT genotype of GNAS1 T393C polymorphism predicts better outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hong-Yun; Hu, Wei-Guo; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhu, Fan; Song, Qin-Bin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential prognostic value of GNAS1 T393C polymorphism in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: We extracted genomic DNA from the peripheral blood leucocytes of 94 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the allelic discrimination. The correlation between genotype and overall survival was evaluated using the multivariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier approach. RESULTS: Thirty-eight out of 94 (40%) patients displayed a TT genotype, 29 out of 94 (31%) a CT genotype and 27 out of 94 (29%) a CC genotype. The median survival of TT (25 mo) genotype carriers was longer than CT (12 mo) or CC (8 mo) genotype carriers. The favorable TT genotype predicted better overall survival (OS) (2-year OS: 48%; P =0.01) compared with CT (2-year OS: 18%) or CC (2-year OS: 15%) genotype. However, dichotomization between C-genotypes (CC + CT) and T-genotypes (TT) revealed significantly lower survival rates (2-year OS: 16%; P = 0.01) for C allele carriers. CONCLUSION: Our data provided strong evidence that the GNAS1 T393C genetic polymorphism influenced the prognosis in advanced non-small lung cancer with a worse outcome for C allele carriers. PMID:25516778

  15. Bevacizumab in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Costanzo, Francesco; Mazzoni, Francesca; Micol Mela, Marinella; Antonuzzo, Lorenzo; Checcacci, Daniele; Saggese, Matilde; Di Costanzo, Federica

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in Western countries. The median survival time for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor and chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for most patients with metastatic NSCLC. Platinum-based chemotherapy has long been the standard of care for advanced NSCLC. The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is needed for the growth and invasiveness of primary tumours, and plays an important role in metastatic growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has emerged as a key potential target for the pharmacological inhibition of tumour angiogenesis. This review discusses current data and the future potential of bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds VEGF, in the treatment of NSCLC. Results from a phase II study showed that the addition of bevacizumab to the first-line chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin (CP) may increase the overall survival (OS) and the time to progression in advanced NSCLC. Based on these promising results, a randomized phase III trial compared the combination of bevacizumab with CP versus CP alone in the treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC. The combination of CP plus bevacizumab led to a statistically significant increase in median OS and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with CP alone, with a response rate (RR) in the CP arm of 15% compared with 35% in the bevacizumab plus CP arm (p < 0.001). More recently, the randomized AVAIL (Avastin in Lung Cancer) study, which evaluated cisplatin with gemcitabine plus bevacizumab in two different dosages versus chemotherapy alone in 1043 patients with recurrent or advanced non-squamous NSCLC, reported a significant increase of PFS, RR and duration of response for both of the bevacizumab-containing arms. Bevacizumab has also been investigated in combination with erlitonib as second-line treatment in two small early phase trials, with interesting results. Bevacizumab was

  16. Osimertinib and Navitoclax in Treating Patients With EGFR-Positive Previously Treated Advanced or Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-12

    EGFR Activating Mutation; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  17. Personalized treatment in advanced ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer: from bench to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Antonio; Lazzari, Chiara; Karachaliou, Niki; Spitaleri, Gianluca; Pochesci, Alessia; Catania, Chiara; Rosell, Rafael; de Marinis, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements and the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) that target them have achieved unprecedented success in the management of patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the high efficacy of crizotinib, the first oral ALK TKI approved for the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC, almost all patients inevitably develop acquired resistance, showing disease progression in the brain or in other parenchymal sites. Second- or third-generation ALK TKIs have shown to be active in crizotinib-pretreated or crizotinib-naïve ALK-positive patients, even in those with brain metastases. In this review, the current knowledge regarding ALK-positive NSCLC, focusing on the biology of the disease and the available therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:27799783

  18. Unravelling signal escape through maintained EGFR activation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): new treatment options.

    PubMed

    Remon, Jordi; Besse, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has opened up a new era in the development of more effective treatments for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, patients with EGFR-activating mutated NSCLC treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) ultimately develop acquired resistance (AR). Among known cases of patients with AR, 70% of the mechanisms involved in the development of AR to EGFR TKI have been identified and may be categorised as either secondary EGFR mutations such as the T790M mutation, activation of bypass track signalling pathways such as MET amplification, or histologic transformation. EGFR-mutant NSCLC tumours maintain oncogenic addiction to the EGFR pathway beyond progression with EGFR TKI. Clinical strategies that can be implemented in daily clinical practice to potentially overcome this resistance and prolong the outcome in this subgroup of patients are presented.

  19. Unravelling signal escape through maintained EGFR activation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Remon, Jordi; Besse, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has opened up a new era in the development of more effective treatments for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, patients with EGFR-activating mutated NSCLC treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) ultimately develop acquired resistance (AR). Among known cases of patients with AR, 70% of the mechanisms involved in the development of AR to EGFR TKI have been identified and may be categorised as either secondary EGFR mutations such as the T790M mutation, activation of bypass track signalling pathways such as MET amplification, or histologic transformation. EGFR-mutant NSCLC tumours maintain oncogenic addiction to the EGFR pathway beyond progression with EGFR TKI. Clinical strategies that can be implemented in daily clinical practice to potentially overcome this resistance and prolong the outcome in this subgroup of patients are presented. PMID:27843631

  20. Development of renal cysts after crizotinib treatment in advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Wang, Yu-Fen; Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Yu, Chong-Jen; Wu, Shang-Gin; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2014-11-01

    The development of complex renal cysts after crizotinib treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a reported side effect. However, its occurrence and characteristics have not been reported. Medical records and computed tomography images of crizotinib-treated patients in three prospective clinical trials were reviewed. The size and Bosniak category of the renal cysts before and after crizotinib treatment were determined. Patients' clinical characteristics, tumor stage, treatment response, renal function, and outcomes were analyzed. During December 2010 to March 2013, we enrolled 32 patients who received crizotinib. There were 23 patients who had renal cysts before crizotinib. The median follow-up time was 493 days. Seven patients (22%, six with baseline renal cyst and one without baseline renal cyst) had significant renal cyst change. Four (13% of all) had new complex renal cysts. The median time from crizotinib treatment to first recognization of significant renal cyst change was 77 days. After stopping crizotinib, complex renal cysts regressed significantly. Patients with significant renal cyst change received more previous anticancer therapy (median, 5 lines versus 3 lines, p = 0.04) and received crizotinib for longer duration (median, 956 days versus 248 days, p = 0.007) compared with those without significant renal cyst change. Change of renal cysts after crizotinib treatment is not uncommon. Development of complex renal cysts reverses after stopping crizotinib.

  1. Advances in molecular biology of lung disease: aiming for precision therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Claire; Sethi, Tariq

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related mortality in the developed world, accounting for almost one-quarter of all cancer deaths. Traditional treatment algorithms have largely relied on histologic subtype and have comprised pragmatic chemotherapy regimens with limited efficacy. However, because our understanding of the molecular basis of disease in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has improved exponentially, it has become apparent that NSCLC can be radically subdivided, or molecularly characterized, based on recurrent driver mutations occurring in specific oncogenes. We know that the presence of such mutations leads to constitutive activation of aberrant signaling proteins that initiate, progress, and sustain tumorigenesis. This persistence of the malignant phenotype is referred to as "oncogene addiction." On this basis, a paradigm shift in treatment approach has occurred. Rational, targeted therapies have been developed, the first being tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which entered the clinical arena > 10 years ago. These were tremendously successful, significantly affecting the natural history of NSCLC and improving patient outcomes. However, the benefits of these drugs are somewhat limited by the emergence of adaptive resistance mechanisms, and efforts to tackle this phenomenon are ongoing. A better understanding of all types of oncogene-driven NSCLC and the occurrence of TKI resistance will help us to further develop second- and third-generation small molecule inhibitors and will expand our range of precision therapies for this disease.

  2. [Advances in Liquid Biopsy and its Clinical Application in the Diagnosis 
and Treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Difan; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-06-20

    With the advances of technology, great progresses have been made in liquid biopsy in recent years. Liquid biopsy is currently playing a more and more important role in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Compared with traditional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is more popular in clinical practice due to its non-invasiveness, convenience and high repeatability. It has huge potential in the future. This review introduces circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as the most important objects in liquid biopsy, mainly focusing on their history, biological characteristics, detection technologies, limitations and applications in non-small cell lung cancer.

  3. GTI-2040 and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent, Metastatic, or Unresectable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Other Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  4. Is there a role of nab-paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer? The data suggest yes

    PubMed Central

    Villaruz, Liza C.; Socinski, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Nab-paclitaxel is a novel therapeutic agent, which was approved in combination with carboplatin in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) regardless of histologic subtype in the United States of America by the Food and Drug Administration in 2012 and by the European Commission in 2015. This approval was based on the results of a phase III clinical trial showing superior response rates compared with solvent-based paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin. This review will focus on the early development and clinical data to date supporting the use of nab-paclitaxel in advanced NSCLC. The clinical question central to this review is whether nab-paclitaxel has a place in the current therapeutic landscape of advanced NSCLC. PMID:26875112

  5. Circulating Thrombospondin-2 and FGF-2 in Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Correlation with Survival.

    PubMed

    Naumnik, W; Ossolińska, M; Płońska, I; Chyczewska, E; Nikliński, J

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) is an endogenous negative regulator of vascularization in human cancer. TSP-2 regulates angiogenesis through binding and sequestration of the proangiogenic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). However, it is unclear whether TSP-2 and FGF-2 are related to prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To study this issue, we measured serum (Elisa) levels of TSP-2 and FGF-2 in 40 NSCLC patients (before chemotherapy) and 22 healthy subjects. Both TSP-2 and FGF-2 concentrations were elevated in the NSCLC group compared with control (TSP-2: 26.72±8.00 vs. 18.64±5.50 ng/ml, p=0.002; FGF-2: 11.90±5.80 vs. 7.26±3.90 pg/ml, p=0.01). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to find the cut-off serum levels of TSP-2 and FGF-2 (NSCLC vs. healthy: TSP-2=15.09 ng/ml, FGF-2=2.23 pg/ml). Patients before treatment with the TSP-2 level<24.15 ng/ml had a median survival of 23.7 months, but those with TSP-2>24.15 ng/ml had only 9 months' median survival (p=0.007). Patients with FGF-2 level>11.21 pg/ml had significantly shorter survival than patients with FGF-2<11.21 pg/ml (7.5 months vs. 16 months, p=0.034). We conclude that NSCLC patients have higher serum concentrations of TSP-2 and FGF-2 than healthy people. High levels of TSP-2 and FGF-2 may predict worse survival.

  6. First line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer – specific focus on albumin bound paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Hatoum, Hassan; Dy, Grace K

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of activity against various malignancies, including NSCLC. Paclitaxel is poorly soluble in water and thus, until recently, its commercially available preparations contained a non-ionic solvent Cremophor EL®. Cremophor EL® improves the solubility of paclitaxel and allows its intravenous administration. However, certain side-effects associated with paclitaxel, such as hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and peripheral neuropathy, are known to be worsened by Cremophor®. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ([nab-paclitaxel] ABRAXANE® ABI-007) is a new generation formulation of paclitaxel that obviates the need for Cremophor®, resulting in a safer and faster infusion without requiring the use of premedications to avoid hypersensitivity. Albumin-binding receptor-mediated delivery and lack of sequestering Cremophor® micelles allow higher intratumoral concentration of pharmacologically active paclitaxel. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a superior tolerability profile of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to solvent-bound paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel). A recent Phase III trial compared the effects of weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus sb-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin given every 3 weeks for first line treatment of NSCLC. This trial highlights the weekly nab-paclitaxel combination as an alternate treatment option for NSCLC, with higher response rate in squamous cell NSCLC and longer survival in elderly patients. This review will focus on the properties of nab-paclitaxel and its use in the first line treatment of NSCLC. PMID:24399877

  7. First line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer - specific focus on albumin bound paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Hatoum, Hassan; Dy, Grace K

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of activity against various malignancies, including NSCLC. Paclitaxel is poorly soluble in water and thus, until recently, its commercially available preparations contained a non-ionic solvent Cremophor EL®. Cremophor EL® improves the solubility of paclitaxel and allows its intravenous administration. However, certain side-effects associated with paclitaxel, such as hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and peripheral neuropathy, are known to be worsened by Cremophor®. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ([nab-paclitaxel] ABRAXANE® ABI-007) is a new generation formulation of paclitaxel that obviates the need for Cremophor®, resulting in a safer and faster infusion without requiring the use of premedications to avoid hypersensitivity. Albumin-binding receptor-mediated delivery and lack of sequestering Cremophor® micelles allow higher intratumoral concentration of pharmacologically active paclitaxel. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a superior tolerability profile of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to solvent-bound paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel). A recent Phase III trial compared the effects of weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus sb-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin given every 3 weeks for first line treatment of NSCLC. This trial highlights the weekly nab-paclitaxel combination as an alternate treatment option for NSCLC, with higher response rate in squamous cell NSCLC and longer survival in elderly patients. This review will focus on the properties of nab-paclitaxel and its use in the first line treatment of NSCLC.

  8. The impact of de novo liver metastasis on clinical outcome in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Mu; Lai, Chien-Hao; Lin, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Wen-Feng; Huang, Cherng-Hua; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Chen, Hung-Chen; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Liver metastasis has been found to affect outcome in prostate cancer and colorectal cancer, but its role in lung cancer is unclear. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of de novo liver metastasis (DLM) on stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) outcomes and to examine whether tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) reverse poor prognosis in patients with DLM and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant NSCLC. Among 1392 newly diagnosed NSCLC patients, 490 patients with stage IV disease treated between November 2010 and March 2014 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to DLM status. There were 75 patients in the DLM group and 415 patients in the non-DLM group. The DLM group included more patients with bone metastasis, fewer patients with a lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) > 3.1, and fewer patients with pleural metastasis. In the DLM group, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 3–4 and LMR ≦3.1 were associated with poor outcome. In patients without DLM, overall survival (OS) was longer in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC than in those without (20.2 vs. 7.3 months, p < 0.001). Among DLM patients, OS was similar between the EGFR-mutant and wild-type EGFR tumor subgroups (11.9 vs. 7.7 months, p = 0.155). We found that DLM was a significant poor prognostic factor in the EGFR-mutant patients treated with EGFR-TKIs, whereas DLM did not affect the prognosis of EGFR-wild-type patients. PMID:28591157

  9. Reproducibility of the EGFR immunohistochemistry scores for tumor samples from patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Avilés-Salas, Alejandro; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Maldonado-Martínez, Héctor Aquiles; Chanona-Vilchis, José G.; Ramírez-Tirado, Laura-Alejandra; HernáNdez-Pedro, Norma; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; RuíZ-Morales, José Manuel; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Arrieta, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in >60% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. In combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, first-line treatments with antibodies against EGFR, including cetuximab and necitumumab, have demonstrated benefits by increasing overall survival (OS), particularly in patients who overexpress EGFR. The present study evaluated the interobserver agreement among three senior pathologists, who were blinded to the clinical outcomes and assessed tumor samples from 85 patients with NSCLC using the H-score method. EGFR immunohistochemistry was performed using a qualitative immunohistochemical kit. The reported (mean ± standard deviation) H-scores from each pathologist were 111±102, 127±103 and 128.53±104.03. The patients with average H-scores ≥1, ≥100, ≥200 and between 250–300 were 85.9, 54.1, 28.2 and 12.9, respectively. Patients who had an average H-score >100 had a shorter OS time compared with those with lower scores. Furthermore, patients with EGFR mutations who were treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and had an average H-score >100 had a longer OS time compared with those with an average H-score <100. The interobserver concordance for the total H-scores were 0.982, 0.980 and 0.988, and for a positive H-score ≥200, the interobserver concordance was 0.773, 0.710 and 0.675, respectively. The determination of EGFR expression by the H-score method is highly reproducible among pathologists and is a prognostic factor associated with a poor OS in all patients. Additionally, the results of the present study suggest that patients with EGFR mutations that are treated with EGFR-TKIs and present with a high H-score have a longer OS time. PMID:28356978

  10. [A meta-analysis of the curative effects of carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens on advance non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-wei; Liang, Xiao-hua; Zhou, Xin-li; Huang, Ruo-fan

    2006-10-10

    To evaluate whether there is a difference in the curative effect of carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens on advance non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The databases PudMed, CENTRAL, and Chinese biomedical database were retrieved by using the key words "non-small cell lung cancer" or "carcinoma, non-small cell lung" so as to search the materials about the randomized controlled clinical trials that had compared the curative effects of carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens on advance NSCLC. A meta-analysis was conducted. Eighteen documents about randomized controlled clinical trials, including 6478 patients, from the retrieved 3531 documents accorded to the demand of enrollment. The overall response rates of the carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic groups were both 27% (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86 approximately 1.01, P = 0.10). Neither funnel plot nor rank correlation test regarding response rate indicated the existence of publication bias (chi(2) = 18.63, P = 0.63). The 0ne-year survival rate of the carboplatin-based regimen group was 36%, not significantly different from that of the cisplatin-based regimen group (35%, RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 - 1.17, P = 0.5). Sensitive analysis confirmed the non-existence of differences in the overall response rate and one-year survival rate between these 2 groups. The curative effects of the carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are similar. The choice of carboplatin or cisplatin depends on the toxicity of the drugs and the patients' tolerance.

  11. Metformin use and its effect on survival in diabetic patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Oscar; Varela-Santoyo, Edgar; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Sánchez-Reyes, Roberto; De la Torre-Vallejo, Martha; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Cardona, Andrés F

    2016-08-12

    Previous population-based studies have demonstrated an association between metformin use and improved survival among diabetic patients with cancer. We sought to analyze the effects of diabetes and its treatment in terms of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Overall, 1106 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (94.3 % with stage IV disease) were included. The outcomes were compared between the patients with (n = 186) and without diabetes (n = 920). The characteristics associated with antidiabetic treatment and proper glycemic control (defined as a mean plasma glucose <130 mg/dL) were examined at diagnosis. The overall survivals (OSs) of the different patient populations were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves, and a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the influences of the patient and tumor characteristics on survival. The OS for the entire population was 18.3 months (95 % CI 16.1-20.4). There was no difference in the OSs of the diabetic and non-diabetic patients (18.5 vs 16.4 months, p = 0.62). The diabetic patients taking metformin exhibited a superior OS than did those on other antidiabetic treatments (25.6 vs 13.2 months, p = 0.017). Those with proper glycemic control had a better OS than did those without proper glycemic control and the non-diabetics (40.5 vs 13.2 and 18.5 months, respectively, p < 0.001). Both the use of metformin (HR 0.53, p < 0.0001 and HR 0.57, p = 0.017, respectively) and proper glycemic control (HR 0.49, p < 0.0001 and HR 0.40, p = 0.002, respectively) were significant protective factors in all and only diabetic patients, respectively. The diabetic patients with proper glycemic control exhibited a better OS than did those without proper glycemic control and even exhibited a better OS than did the patients without diabetes mellitus. Metformin use was independently associated with a better OS.

  12. Cost-minimization analysis for Portugal of five doublet chemotherapy regimens from two phase III trials in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, F L; Bhalla, S; Laranjeira, L; Guerreiro, M

    2006-06-01

    Economic evaluations of chemotherapy regimens for stage IIIB or IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been conducted for many European countries, but not for Portugal. This study evaluates the total health care costs of five commonly used doublet regimens with similar efficacy results. Using the methodology reported by Schiller [Schiller JH, Tilden D, Aristides M, Lees M, Kielhorn A, Maniadakis N, et al. Restropective cost analysis of gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer compared to other combination therapies in Europe. Lung Cancer 2004;43:101-12], we conducted a cost-minimization analysis to compare vinorelbine-cisplatin (Vin/Cis), gemcitabine-cisplatin (Gem/Cis), paclitaxel-carboplatin (Pac/Carb), docetaxel-cisplatin (Doc/Cis), and paclitaxel-cisplatin (Pac/Cis). The perspective was that of the Portuguese National Health Service and included only direct medical costs (reimbursed costs plus co-payments): chemotherapy acquisition, chemotherapy administration, hospitalizations due to adverse events, and other medical resources. Unit costs were drawn from official sources (Diagnosis Related Groups and retail/hospital costs) (2003 value [Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) published at Diário da República; 2003]). Resource use was estimated from two multicenter randomized phase III trials [Comella P, Frasci G, Panza N, Manzione L, De Cataldis G, Cioffi R, et al. Randomized trial comparing cisplatin, gemcitabine, and vinorelbine with either cisplatin and gemcitabine or cisplatin and vinorelbine in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: interim analysis of a phase III trial of the Southern Italy Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1451-7; Schiller JH, Harrington D, Belani CP, Langer C, Sandler A, Krook J, et al. Comparison of four chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2002;346:92-8]. A time horizon of a full course of therapy was adopted. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed

  13. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia blast crisis in a patient with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Isamu; Yoshimoto, Goichi; Obara, Teppei; Ijichi, Kayo; Iwama, Eiji; Harada, Taishi; Akashi, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2017-03-01

    A 59-year-old woman with epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutation-positive advanced lung adenocarcinoma was treated with afatinib after a diagnosis of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Twenty-one weeks later, she developed agranulocytosis, and CMML subsequently progressed to blast crisis. After complete remission of CMML, gefitinib was initiated; however, agranulocytosis recurred. This is the first reported case of both EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer with CMML, and of CMML blast crisis. Physicians should be aware of such risks and monitor EGFR-TKI-treated patients with myeloid neoplasms accordingly. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Overcoming resistance to first/second generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ALK inhibitors in oncogene-addicted advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Romanidou, Ourania; Landi, Lorenza; Cappuzzo, Federico; Califano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represent the two oncogenic events with an impact on current clinical practice. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and crizotinib are the standard of care for the treatment of EGFR mutant and ALK gene rearranged advanced NSCLC patients. Unfortunately, despite initial clinical benefit, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs or crizotinib usually develops after an average of 10–12 months of treatment. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanisms of resistance to first/second generation EGFR-TKIs and crizotinib. In particular, we focus on strategies to overcome resistance due to secondary EGFR T790M mutation and mutations of the ALK domain. PMID:27239236

  15. Skin rash during erlotinib for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: is age a clinical predictor?

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Marzola, Marina

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity and the duration of acneiform skin rash in young and elderly patients, to define a possible relationship between age and skin rash. We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC who developed acneiform skin rash during erlotinib treatment at our Clinical Oncology Unit from June 2006 to May 2011. We divided the general case study into two subgroups: young and elderly patients (≥ 65 years) and we compared clinical, pathological and therapeutical characteristics of both subgroups. Among 25 patients affected by advanced NSCLC treated with erlotinib during the reference period, 19 patients (76.0 %) developed acneiform skin rash. Fourteen (73.7 %) of 19 patients were elderly. The majority of elderly patients has developed acneiform skin rash (82.4 vs 62.5 %). In addition, in elderly patients, acneiform skin rash has a higher intensity (for mild rash 7.1 vs 20.0 %, for moderate rash 57.1 vs 60.0 %, for severe rash 35.7 vs 20.0 %) and longer duration, especially for mild and moderate rash (for mild rash 154 vs 40 days, for moderate rash 120 vs 76 days, for severe rash 31 vs 85 days). The univariate analysis showed no statistical significant difference in OS between young and elderly patients (p = 0.191), such as age, does not seem to influence the appearance (p = 0.386), duration (p = 0.455) and grade of acneiform skin rash (p = 0.765). In conclusion, we can affirm that age is an insufficient predictor of acneiform skin rash during erlotinib treatment in advanced NSCLC and does not seem to statistically influence the appearance, duration and grade of skin rash.

  16. A phase I trial of gefitinib and nimotuzumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyun; Shim, Hyo Sup; Cho, Jaeho; Jeong, Jae Heon; Kim, Sun Mi; Hong, Yun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Hee; Ha, Sang-Jun; Kim, Hye Ryun; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Joo Hang; Tania, Crombet; Cho, Byoung Chul

    2013-03-01

    Nimotuzumab (TheraCIM®) is a humanized anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) with minimal skin toxicity. Combining a different class of anti-EGFR drug with gefitinib is a new strategy to overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance to gefitinib. The aim of this phase I trial was to determine recommended phase II dose (RPIID) and the safety of gefitinib and nimotuzumab combination treatment. Patients with advanced/metastatic NSCLC were treated with escalating doses of weekly nimotuzumab (100mg or 200mg, IV) and fixed doses of daily gefitinib (250 mg/day, PO) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. We planned to enroll 10 additional patients at RPIID to ascertain the safety of treatment. EGFR mutations and KRAS mutations were analyzed from available tumor samples. A total of 16 patients were enrolled (3 in 100mg cohort, 13 in 200mg cohort). Six patients (37.5%) were female, and 5 (31.3%) were never smokers. Adenocarcinoma was the major histologic type (13 patients, 81.3%). Treatment was well-tolerated without dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Four patients (25.0%) experienced grade 2 skin toxicity (1 in 100mg cohorts, 3 in 200mg cohort). Other common grade 1/2 toxicities were fatigue (37.5%) and diarrhea (25.0%). Among 16 evaluable patients, four patients (25.0%) achieved partial response and 7 patients (43.8%) had stable disease. Two of 4 responders had EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion). Dual agent molecular targeting of EGFR with nimotuzumab and gefitinib in patients with advanced NSCLC is well-tolerated. The RPIID for nimotuzumab is 200mg weekly IV and for gefitinib 250 mg/day PO. Based upon this phase I trial, we are planning to conduct a randomized phase II trial comparing gefitinib and nimotuzumab with gefitinib alone in patients with advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in molecular-based personalized non-small-cell lung cancer therapy: targeting epidermal growth factor receptor and mechanisms of resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jotte, Robert M; Spigel, David R

    2015-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapies, directed against the features of a given tumor, have allowed for a personalized approach to the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The reversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib and erlotinib had undergone turbulent clinical development until it was discovered that these agents have preferential activity in patients with NSCLC harboring activating EGFR mutations. Since then, a number of phase 3 clinical trials have collectively shown that EGFR-TKI monotherapy is more effective than combination chemotherapy as first-line therapy for EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. The next generation of EGFR-directed agents for EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC is irreversible TKIs against EGFR and other ErbB family members, including afatinib, which was recently approved, and dacomitinib, which is currently being tested in phase 3 trials. As research efforts continue to explore the various proposed mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy, agents that target signaling pathways downstream of EGFR are being studied in combination with EGFR TKIs in molecularly selected advanced NSCLC. Overall, the results of numerous ongoing phase 3 trials involving the EGFR TKIs will be instrumental in determining whether further gains in personalized therapy for advanced NSCLC are attainable with newer agents and combinations. This article reviews key clinical trial data for personalized NSCLC therapy with agents that target the EGFR and related pathways, specifically based on molecular characteristics of individual tumors, and mechanisms of resistance. PMID:26310719

  18. Salvage surgery for locoregional recurrence or persistent tumor after high dose chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dickhoff, C; Dahele, M; Paul, M A; van de Ven, P M; de Langen, A J; Senan, S; Smit, E F; Hartemink, K J

    2016-04-01

    Curative intent treatment options for locoregional recurrence or persistent tumor after radical chemoradiotherapy for locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are limited. In selected patients, surgery can be technically feasible, although it is widely believed to be hazardous. As data regarding the outcome of this approach is sparse, we evaluated our institutional experience with salvage surgery. Patients with a pulmonary resection for in-field locoregional recurrence or persistent tumor after high dose chemoradiotherapy (≥60 Gy) for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, were identified and retrospectively analyzed. A total of 15 patients treated between January 2007 and August 2015 were eligible for evaluation. In 13 patients (87%), the indication for surgery was a locoregional recurrence, while 2 patients had persistent tumor. The prior median radiotherapy dose was 66 Gy (range 60-70). All patients underwent an anatomical resection, with 8 patients having a pneumonectomy, and all pathological specimens revealed the presence of viable tumor. The in-hospital morbidity rate was 40% (6 patients), and the 90-day mortality rate was 6.7% (1 patient). Median follow-up was 12.1 months. The estimated median overall and event-free survivals were 46 months and 43.6 months, respectively. Salvage surgery for locoregional recurrence or persistent tumor after high dose chemoradiotherapy, resulted in acceptable morbidity, mortality and promising outcome. It should be considered as a treatment option for selected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimated Creatinine Clearance Rate Is Associated With the Treatment Effectiveness and Toxicity of Pemetrexed As Continuation Maintenance Therapy for Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Lin, Jou-Wei; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive factors of the effectiveness and treatment toxicity for pemetrexed as continuation maintenance therapy in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients with an estimated creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) < 60 mL/min had a significantly longer survival. However, a decrease in estimated Ccr was associated with a increased risk of Grade 3/4 neutropenia and anemia. The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive factors of the effectiveness and treatment toxicity for pemetrexed as continuation maintenance therapy in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC treated with pemetrexed as continuation maintenance therapy were enrolled. The medical records were reviewed and analyzed, including data on basic characteristics, estimated creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), treatment responses, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicities. A total of 124 patients were included and all had adenocarcinoma. Patients with an estimated Ccr < 60 mL/min had a significantly longer PFS and OS (P = .045, and P = .006, respectively). Each 10 mL/min increase in estimated Ccr was associated with an increase of 9.8% in the risk of disease progression, and an increase of 9.2% in the risk of death. In contrast, an increase of 10 mL/min in estimated Ccr was associated with a decreased risk of Grade 3/4 neutropenia by 50.9% and anemia by 42.2%. Estimated Ccr is helpful in predicting the effectiveness and treatment toxicities of pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimizing the use of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in advanced non-small-lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Shash, Emad; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Azim, Hatem A

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in US and Europe. Treatment with a platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care, however with modest effect on quality of life and overall survival which seldom reaches 1 year. Recently, several classes of targeted agents have emerged showing promising results. In particular, agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) showed impressive clinical activity both in the first line and salvage settings. However, it is evident that these drugs are not effective in all patients. Putting into consideration the very high cost of these agents, there is an urgent need to provide reliable tools to identify those patients that would derive the maximum benefit from these drugs. Several predictive biomarkers were developed to identify those patients who would derive the maximal benefit of these drugs. In this review we will discuss the recent updates on the role of EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and the role of predictive bio-markers in patient selection. PMID:22263061

  1. Usefulness of circulating free DNA for monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Ramirez, Santiago Viteri; Ariza, Nuria Jordana; Balada, Ariadna; Garzón, Mónica; Teixidó, Cristina; Karachaliou, Niki; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Molina-Vila, Miguel Ángel; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Genomic analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) released from cancer cells into the bloodstream has been proposed as a useful method to capture dynamic changes during the course of the disease. In particular, the ability to monitor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) isolated from advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients EGFR can help to the correct management of the disease and overcome the challenges associated with tumor heterogeneity and insufficient biopsied material to perform key molecular diagnosis. Here, we report a case of long term monitorization of EGFR mutation status in cfDNA from peripheral blood in an NSCLC patient in, with excellent correlation with clinical evolution. PMID:27826535

  2. A short radiotherapy course for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): effective palliation and patients' convenience.

    PubMed

    Plataniotis, G A; Kouvaris, J R; Dardoufas, C; Kouloulias, V; Theofanopoulou, M A; Vlahos, L

    2002-02-01

    In order to facilitate patients with symptomatic locally advanced NSCLC, especially those coming from remote areas we have employed two palliative RT schedules. The first (S1) is the well known from Medical Research Council (MRC) randomized studies 2 x 8.5 Gy one week apart and the second (S2) is a two-day RT schedule: three fractions of 4.25 Gy are given on the first day and two fractions of 4.25 Gy on the second day. The records of 92 patients were reviewed (48 for S1 and 44 for S2). Patients, disease characteristics and results were similar for both groups; rates of symptom disappearance were for S1 and S2, respectively: cough 24 and 20%, hemoptysis 60 and 67%, chest pain 57 and 64% and dyspnoea 55 and 45% The overall condition improved in 39 and 36%, respectively. The median palliation time in days was in S1 and S2, respectively: cough 70 and 66, haemoptysis 133 and 139, chest pain 68 and 62 and dyspnoea 74 and 69 days. The median survival was 25 weeks in both S1 and S2 groups (P=0.89 log-rank test). At 52 weeks (one year), ten (21%) and seven (16%) of the patients were alive in S1 and S2 groups, respectively. At 104 weeks, the corresponding figures were two (4%) and two (4.7%) for S1 and S2. Our results are in accordance to those reported in literature regarding the safety and efficacy of palliative hypofractionated radiotherapy schemes. Their use in selected patients could be cost-effective and convenient for patients especially those coming from remote areas.

  3. Dose and volume reduction for normal lung using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Murshed, Hasan; Liu, H Helen; Liao, Zhongxing; Barker, Jerry L; Wang, Xiaochun; Tucker, Susan L; Chandra, Anurag; Guerrero, Thomas; Stevens, Craig; Chang, Joe Y; Jeter, Melinda; Cox, James D; Komaki, Ritsuko; Mohan, Radhe; Change, Joe Y

    2004-03-15

    To investigate dosimetric improvements with respect to tumor-dose conformity and normal tissue sparing using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Forty-one patients with Stage III-IV and recurrent NSCLC who previously underwent 3D-CRT were included. IMRT plans were designed to deliver 63 Gy to 95% of the planning target volume using nine equidistant coplanar 6-MV beams. Inverse planning was performed to minimize the volumes of normal lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord irradiated above their tolerance doses. Dose distributions and dosimetric indexes for the tumors and critical structures in both plans were computed and compared. Using IMRT, the median absolute reduction in the percentage of lung volume irradiated to >10 and >20 Gy was 7% and 10%, respectively. This corresponded to a decrease of >2 Gy in the total lung mean dose and of 10% in the risk of radiation pneumonitis. The volumes of the heart and esophagus irradiated to >40-50 Gy and normal thoracic tissue volume irradiated to >10-40 Gy were reduced using the IMRT plans. A marginal increase occurred in the spinal cord maximal dose and lung volume >5 Gy in the IMRT plans, which could be have resulted from the significant increase in monitor units and thus leakage dose in IMRT. IMRT planning significantly improved target coverage and reduced the volume of normal lung irradiated above low doses. The spread of low doses to normal tissues can be controlled in IMRT with appropriately selected planning parameters. The dosimetric benefits of IMRT for advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer must be evaluated further in clinical trials.

  4. Post-study therapy as a source of confounding in survival analysis of first-line studies in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zietemann, Vera D; Schuster, Tibor; Duell, Thomas Hg

    2011-06-01

    Clinical trials exploring the long-term effects of first-line therapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer generally disregard subsequent treatment although most patients receive second and third-line therapies. The choice of further therapy depends on critical intermediate events such as disease progression and it is usually left at the physician's discretion. Time-dependent confounding may then arise with standard survival analyses producing biased effect estimates, even in randomized trials. Herein we describe the concept of time-dependent confounding in detail and discuss whether the response to first-line treatment may be a potential time-dependent confounding factor for survival in the context of subsequent therapy. A prospective observational study of 406 patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer served as an example base. There is evidence that time-dependent confounding may occur in multivariate survival analysis after first-line therapy when disregarding subsequent treatment. In the light of this important but underestimated aspect some of the large and meaningful recent clinical first-line lung cancer studies are discussed, focussing on subsequent treatment and its potential impact on the survival of the study patients. No recently performed lung cancer trial applied adequate statistical analyses despite the frequent use of subsequent therapies. In conclusion, effect estimates from standard survival analysis may be biased even in randomized controlled trials because of time-dependent confounding. To adequately assess treatment effects on long-term outcomes appropriate statistical analyses need to take subsequent treatment into account.

  5. Pemetrexed single agent chemotherapy in previously treated patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Francesca; Bearz, Alessandra; Pampaloni, Gianni

    2008-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of second-line pemetrexed in Stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. Methods Overall, 95 patients received pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 i.v. over Day 1 of a 21-day cycle. Patients also received oral dexamethasone, oral folic acid and i.m. vitamin B12 supplementation to reduce toxicity. NCI CTC 2.0 was used to rate toxicity. All the adverse events were graded in terms of severity and relation to study treatment. Dose was reduced in case of toxicity and treatment was delayed for up to 42 days from Day 1 of any cycle to allow recovering from study drug-related toxicities. Tumor response was measured using the RECIST criteria. Results Patients received a median number of 4 cycles and 97.8% of the planned dose. Overall, 75 patients (78.9% of treated) reported at least one adverse event: 34 (35.8%) had grade 3 as worst grade and only 5 (5.2%) had grade 4. Drug-related events occurred in 57.9% of patients. Neutropenia (8.4%) and leukopenia (6.3 %) were the most common grade 3/4 hematological toxicities. Grade 3 anemia and thrombocytopenia were reported in 3.2% and 2.1% of patients, respectively. Diarrhea (6.3%), fatigue (3.2%) and dyspnea (3.2%) were the most common grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicities. The most common drug-related toxicities (any grade) were pyrexia (11.6%), vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and asthenia (9.5%) and fatigue (8.4%). Tumor Response Rate (CR/PR) in treated patients was 9.2%. The survival at 4.5 months (median follow-up) was 79% and the median PFS was 3.1 months. Twenty patients (21.1%) died mainly because of disease progression. Conclusion Patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC could benefit from second-line pemetrexed, with a low incidence of hematological and non-hematological toxicities. PMID:18667090

  6. Correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor efficacy and circulating tumor cell levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenjie; Li, Wenhui; Jiang, Bo; Chang, Li; Jin, Congguo; Tu, Changlin; Li, Yunfen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) and circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in reducing CTC counts in patients with advanced NSCLC was studied. Patients and methods A total of 66 patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled and divided into two groups (those with high CTC counts and those with low CTC counts) based on the patients’ median CTC counts. All the patients were treated with an EGFR-TKI, and the treatment efficacy and prognoses were compared. Results The treatment efficacies were 53.3% (16/30) and 27.8% (10/36) for the low CTC group and high CTC group, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The median overall survival was 22.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.9–26.8 months) for the low CTC group and 18.3 months (95% CI: 2.9–8.2 months) for the high CTC group. The median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% CI: 8.1–15 months) and 5.6 months (95% CI: 2.9–8.2 months) for the low and high CTC groups, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The CTC count can be used as an index for predicting the EGFR-TKI effect on patients with advanced NSCLC. Efficacy and prognosis of EGFR-TKI treatment and CTC count were considered important, and the CTC count could be used to predict the efficacy of EGFR-TKI treatment and prognosis of advanced NSCLC. The change in CTC expression levels can be used as an index for evaluating the prognosis of patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:28003764

  7. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: preclinical and early clinical data.

    PubMed

    Reboul, François L

    2004-02-01

    Over the past 20 years, combined treatment with radiotherapy and second-generation chemotherapy drugs was extensively studied in patients with locally advanced NSCLC and became the standard over radiotherapy alone in patients with good performance status. Radiosensitizing properties of cisplatin have been identified in the laboratory. Close temporal administration of cisplatin and radiation is mandatory for enhanced antitumor efficacy, but results in significant toxicity to normal tissues. Early clinical studies demonstrated that the concurrent administration of cisplatin during STD-RT was feasible, with acceptable esophageal toxicity, and had the potential of significantly improving locoregional control. Carboplatin administered concurrently with accelerated HFX-RT was responsible for a higher rate of esophageal toxicity. Further improvement in survival also requires an effective treatment of micro-metastatic disease through full-dose delivery of cytotoxic drugs and the addition of at least one more active drug in conjunction with cisplatin and radiotherapy to further improve locoregional control of the disease. In most clinical studies, etoposide was the second drug of choice because of its own radiosensitizing properties and possible synergy with cisplatin. In numerous phase II studies, concurrent radiotherapy and PE resulted in reproducible results in terms of local control (30%-40%), median survival (15-18 months), survival at 2 years (35%-40%), and survival at 5 years (25%-30%). In phase III studies, these results were shown to be superior to radiotherapy alone and to induction chemotherapy followed by STD-RT. The question of the potential benefit of HFX-RT combined with PE has been addressed in phase II and III studies. At this time, there is no firm evidence that concurrent chemotherapy with HFX-RT is superior to concurrent chemotherapy with STD-RT in terms of local control and survival. Only a significant benefit in terms of local control or survival would

  8. Risk of adverse events with bevacizumab addition to therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xi-Xi; Xu, Ren-Ai; Yu-Ping, Li; Yang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor ligand, has shown survival benefits in the treatment of many types of malignant tumors, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the risk of the most clinically relevant adverse events related to bevacizumab in advanced NSCLC. Databases from PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to August 2015, were searched to identify relevant studies. We included prospective randomized controlled Phase II/III clinical trials that compared therapy with or without bevacizumab for advanced NSCLC. Summary relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects or fixed effects according to the heterogeneity among included trials. A total of 3,745 patients from nine clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Summary RRs showed a statistically significant bevacizumab-associated increased risk in three of the adverse outcomes studied: proteinuria (RR =7.55), hypertension (RR =5.34), and hemorrhagic events (RR =2.61). No statistically significant differences were found for gastrointestinal perforation (P=0.60), arterial and venous thromboembolic events (P=0.35 and P=0.92, respectively), or fatal events (P=0.29). The addition of bevacizumab to therapy in advanced NSCLC did significantly increase the risk of proteinuria, hypertension, and hemorrhagic events but not arterial/venous thromboembolic events, gastrointestinal perforation, or fatal adverse events.

  9. Variations within 3′-UTR of MDM4 gene contribute to clinical outcomes of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients following platinum-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Gao, Wen; Ding, Xi; Xu, Wen; Liu, Di; Su, Bo; Sun, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites may modulate the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and explain individual sensitivity to platinum agents. This study aimed to investigate the impact of SNPs located at 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of MDM4 gene, on clinical outcomes of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Four SNPs were genotyped by using DNA from blood samples of advanced NSCLC patients (642 in the Discovery set and 330 in the Replication set) and were analyzed the relationships with clinical outcomes. Carriers with rs10900598 CC genotype and rs4245739 AC genotype showed increased overall survival (OS) than those with AA genotype (P = 0.017 and P = 0.037, respectively) in the Discovery set and after pooling results from the Replication set. A combined effect on survival of variant alleles was also concluded and validated. Stratification analysis revealed that the effect of MDM4 SNPs was more pronounced in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) subgroups. A reduced expression of the reporter gene for the C allele of rs4245739 was observed in NSCLC cells using luciferase reporter gene assays. Taken together, our results demonstrate that genetic variations in 3′-UTR of MDM4 gene may influence outcomes of advanced NSCLC by miRNAs-mediated regulation. PMID:27462918

  10. Erlotinib or best supportive care for third-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a real-world cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Ian; van der Hoek, Kimberly; Malfair Taylor, Suzanne C; Melosky, Barbara; Peacock, Stuart

    2012-06-01

    Erlotinib has been approved as a third-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in British Columbia (BC). A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to compare costs and effectiveness in patients who received third-line erlotinib to those in a historical patient cohort that would have been eligible had erlotinib been available. In a population of patients who have been treated with drugs for advanced NSCLC, overall survival (OS), progression-to-death survival (PTD) and probability of survival one year after end of second-line (1YS) were determined using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Costs were collected retrospectively from the perspective of the BC health care system. Incremental mean OS was 90 days (0.25 LYG), and incremental mean cost was $11,102 (CDN 2009), resulting in a mean ICER of $36,838/LYG. Univariate sensitivity analysis yielded ICERs ranging from $21,300 to $51,700/LYG. Our analysis suggests that erlotinib may be an effective and cost-effective third-line treatment for advanced NSCLC compared to best supportive care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Review of Regimens Combining Pemetrexed With an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in the Treatment of Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Mok, Tony; Han, Baohui; Orlando, Mauro; Puri, Tarun; Park, Keunchil

    2017-07-06

    Pemetrexed is a standard first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a standard first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations. Pemetrexed and EGFR TKIs have different mechanisms of action and minimally overlapping toxicity profiles; therefore, it is hypothesized that their combination might result in acceptable toxicity, provided that the synergistic antitumor activity observed in preclinical studies is achieved. This review summarizes clinical trials of pemetrexed in combination with an EGFR TKI for the treatment of advanced nonsquamous NSCLC in the first- and second-line settings, using intercalated, sequential, and concurrent treatment strategies. As would be expected, such strategies were most efficacious in patients with the activating EGFR mutations associated with response to an EGFR TKI. In the studies that compared a pemetrexed-EGFR TKI combination with pemetrexed alone or the EGFR TKI alone, the pemetrexed-EGFR TKI combination was more efficacious than the single-agent regimens. The pemetrexed-EGFR TKI combinations were generally associated with a higher incidence of grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events than the single-agent regimens; however, such toxicities were clinically manageable. Future studies of pemetrexed-EGFR TKI combinations should focus on optimizing treatment strategies in patients with activating EGFR mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation as supplemental therapy after systemic chemotherapy for selected advanced non-small cell lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xishan; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Jianpeng; Fan, Weijun; Li, Wang; Pan, Tao; Wu, Peihong

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as a supplemental therapy after systemic chemotherapy for selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 220 patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with platinum-doublet chemotherapy between January 2000 and January 2012. Among them, 49 patients underwent RFA as a supplemental therapy for tumors in partial response or stable diseases after first-line chemotherapy. The progression-free survival (PFS) was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method. There were nine women and 40 men (median age, 60 years; range, 24-82 years), including 28 patients with stage IIIb cancer and 21 with stage IV cancer. All 49 patients (partial response, 23 patients; stable disease, 26 patients) underwent 67 RFA sessions for 61 targeted tumors after systemic chemotherapy. There were no procedure-related deaths. Pneumothorax requiring chest tubes developed in eight sessions (11.9%). Thirty-one patients (63.3%) had complete response, 12 patients (24.5%) had partial response, six patients (12.2%) had stable disease, and no patients had progressive disease. The median follow-up period was 19 months (range, 6-34), and the median PFS was 16 weeks (95% CI, 14.5-17.5). Percutaneous CT-guided RFA can be performed as a feasible minimally invasive supplemental therapy with satisfactory PFS after systemic chemotherapy for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  13. Gefitinib Combined With Standard Chemoradiotherapy in EGFR-Mutant Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The LOGIK0902/OLCSG0905 Intergroup Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Katsuyuki; Sasaki, Jiichiro; Saeki, Sho; Takigawa, Nagio; Katsui, Kuniaki; Takayama, Koichi; Nogami, Naoyuki; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Bessho, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Junji; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Ichinose, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we describe an ongoing phase II trial in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Patients with chemotherapy-naive locally advanced disease with active EGFR mutations will receive the induction treatment, specified as gefitinib monotherapy (250 mg/body) for 8 weeks. Patients whose disease has not progressed during the induction therapy will receive cisplatin and docetaxel (40 mg/m(2)) on days 1, 8, 29, and 36, and concurrent 3-dimensional conformal thoracic radiotherapy with a single daily fraction of 2 Gy, for 5 consecutive days each week to provide a total dose of 60 Gy. The primary end point is overall survival at 24 months. A target sample size of 21 evaluable patients is considered sufficient to validate an expected rate of 85%, and 60% would be the lower limit of interest, with 80% power and a 1-sided α of 5%. Secondary end points include toxicity, response rate, and overall survival. This study will clarify whether tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeted to EGFR can produce a maximal effect in selected NSCLC patients with the relevant driver mutation, even in the locally advanced setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics and Prognostic Impact of Pneumonitis during Systemic Anti-Cancer Therapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Daichi; Kato, Ryoji; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shimizu, Ryoko; Sato, Yuki; Kogo, Mariko; Ito, Jiro; Teraoka, Shunsuke; Nagata, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Tomii, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on characteristics, outcomes, and prognosis of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who develop pneumonitis during systemic anti-cancer therapy (pneumonitis) are currently lacking. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 910 consecutive patients diagnosed with advanced NSCLC between January 2004 and January 2014. Of these, 140 patients were excluded because they did not receive systemic anti-cancer therapy at this hospital. Results A total of 770 patients were included in the study, of whom 44 (6%) were diagnosed with pneumonitis. The mortality rate of pneumonitis was 36%. The incidence of pneumonitis was independently associated with pre-existing ILD (adjusted odds ratio, 2.99, P = 0.008), and survivors were significantly associated with younger age (P = 0.003) and radiographic non-acute interstitial pneumonia pattern (P = 0.004). In all patients, pneumonitis was identified as an independent predictor of overall survival (OS) (adjusted hazard ratio 1.53, 95% CI, 1.09–2.09, P = 0.015). Performance status was poor in 82% of survivors of pneumonitis; in 62% of survivors, the PS worsened after the pneumonitis improved. Additionally, 54% of survivors received no further systemic anti-cancer therapy after pneumonitis. The median survival time of survivors after pneumonitis was 3.5 months (95% CI, 2.3–7.2 months). Conclusions Our study indicated that 6% of patients with advanced NSCLC developed pneumonitis during systemic anti-cancer therapy. The early mortality rate of pneumonitis is high, and the survival and PS after pneumonitis is extremely poor. Additionally, pneumonitis has an adverse impact on the survival of patients with advanced NSCLC. These data should be considered for the management of pneumonitis, and we recommend that future work focuses on pneumonitis particularly to improve the survival of patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:28006019

  15. From clinical trials to clinical practice: predictors of response to erlotinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients pretreated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Francesca; Rotella, Virginia; Pratesi, Nicola; Boni, Luca; Simi, Lisa; Orlando, Claudio; Comin, Camilla Eva; Maddau, Cristina; Di Costanzo, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway with tyrosine kinase inhibitors can improve outcome of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer after first-line chemotherapy. The use of clinical characteristics and molecular markers may permit the identification of patients who are more likely to benefit from erlotinib. Retrospective analysis of unselected patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who had previously failed on at least one line of chemotherapy and treated at our institution with erlotinib (150 mg/day orally) until disease progression. Mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (exon 19-21) and KRAS (codon 12-13) genes were screened with high-resolution melting analysis and identified with direct sequencing. Fifty-three patients were included in the study. The disease control rate was 38%. Median progression-free survival and median overall survival were 4 and 15 months, respectively. Skin rash, diarrhea and mucositis were the most common toxicities of erlotinib. In 19 patients, erlotinib dose was reduced for toxicity. The disease control rate and progression-free survival were significantly better in non-smokers, responders to chemotherapy and patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. Overall survival was longer in patients with skin toxicity and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. In our experience, epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, response to previous chemotherapy and non-smoking status were predictors of higher disease control rate and longer progression-free survival. Overall survival was significantly longer in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and skin toxicity.

  16. A phase II study of weekly docetaxel-cisplatin as first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Binder, Daniel; Hackenthal, Matthias; Graseck, Lutz; Schweisfurth, Hans; Schäper, Christoph; Krüll, Matthias; Temmesfeld-Wollbrück, Bettina; Suttorp, Norbert; Beinert, Thomas; Hellriegel, Klaus-Peter

    2009-09-01

    The combination of docetaxel and cisplatin is an effective first-line regimen in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, the recommended three-weekly schedule is associated with frequent neutropenia and infections. Because of the toxicity of cisplatin, patients may need to be hospitalized to ensure adequate hydration. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a weekly schedule of docetaxel and cisplatin. Patients with inoperable stage International Union Against Cancer IIIB (malignant effusion) or IV non-small cell lung cancer received docetaxel (35 mg/m(2), 30 minutes infusion) and cisplatin (25 mg/m(2), 30 minutes infusion) on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks for 4 to 6 cycles. Ondansetron (8 mg) and dexamethasone (8 mg) were given intravenously before chemotherapy. The patients received oral dexamethasone 2 x 4 mg daily from the day before until the day after chemotherapy. NK1-antagonists were given at the investigator's discretion. The majority of patients was treated in outpatient departments. Safety was assessed using CTCAE v3.0. The primary end point was response rate (RECIST). Forty-four patients were included. Twelve of 44 patients achieved an objective response (11 partial, 1 complete, intent-to-treat response rate 27%). Median time to progression was 4.4 months (95% confidence interval: 4.0-4.7) and median survival 9.6 months (95% confidence interval: 2.9-16.2). Patients received a median of three full cycles. Four patients (9%) required dose reductions. No cases of febrile neutropenia or grade 2 to 4 thrombocytopenia were observed. One patient (2%) experienced grade 3/4 nausea and vomiting. Weekly docetaxel-cisplatin demonstrated comparable efficacy with three-weekly schedules. Although the frequencies of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were low, non-neutropenic infections remained a problem. Because of relatively short hydration, the schedule can be safely administered in an outpatient setting.

  17. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  18. Safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy of multiple-site vaccination with an Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) based cancer vaccine in advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with advanced non small cell lung (NSCLC) cancer remains dismal. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor is over-expressed in many epithelial derived tumors and its role in the development and progression of NSCLC is widely documented. CimaVax-EGF is a therapeutic cancer vaccine composed by human recombinant Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) conjugated to a carrier protein, P64K from Neisseria Meningitides. The vaccine is intended to induce antibodies against self EGF that would block EGF-EGFR interaction. CimaVax-EGF has been evaluated so far in more than 1000 advanced NSCLC patients, as second line therapy. Two separate studies were compared to assess the impact of high dose vaccination at multiple anatomic sites in terms of immunogenicity, safety and preliminary efficacy in stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients. In both clinical trials, patients started vaccination 1 month after finishing first line chemotherapy. Vaccination at 4 sites with 2.4 mg of EGF (high dose) was very safe. The most frequent adverse events were grade 1 or 2 injection site reactions, fever, headache and vomiting. Patients had a trend toward higher antibody response. The percent of very good responders significantly augmented and there was a faster decrease of circulating EGF. All vaccinated patients and those classified as good responders immunized with high dose at 4 sites, had a large tendency to improved survival. PMID:22024351

  19. Maintenance or non-maintenance therapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: that is the question.

    PubMed

    Galetta, D; Rossi, A; Pisconti, S; Millaku, A; Colucci, G

    2010-11-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma, accounting for about 85% of all lung cancer types with most of the patients presenting with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. In this setting first-line platinum-based chemotherapy for no more than 4-6 cycles are recommended. After these cycles of treatment, non-progressing patients enter in the so called "watch and wait" period in which no further therapy is administered until there is disease progression. In order to improve the advanced NSCLC outcomes, the efficacy of further treatment in the "watch and wait" period was investigated. This is the "maintenance therapy". Recently, the results coming from randomized phase III trials investigating two new agents, pemetrexed and erlotinib, in this setting led to their registration for maintenance therapy. Here, we report and discuss these results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of gefitinib in early stage treatment on circulating cytokines and lymphocytes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jin; Fang, Wenfeng; Liu, Xia; Xing, Shan; Zhan, Jianhua; Ma, Yuxiang; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Ningning; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on the human immune system remains undefined. This study illustrates the immunomodulatory effect of gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its relevant prognostic significance. Patients and methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 54 patients at baseline and after 4 weeks of gefitinib treatment. Circulating lymphocyte populations and cytokine levels were measured. Pilot investigation of the impact of gefitinib on programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression was conducted by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results and conclusion A significant increase of peripheral natural killer cells and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) after 4 weeks of gefitinib treatment (P=0.005 and 0.02, respectively). In addition, circulating interleukin (IL)-6 was significantly decreased, especially in patients sensitive to gefitinib (P<0.001). Higher levels of IL-6 at baseline independently correlated with poorer progression-free survival. Experiments with NSCLC specimens illustrated that PD-L1 expression were downregulated after 4 weeks of gefitinib treatment. In summary, it was found that gefitinib treatment can alter circulating cytokines and lymphocytes. Dynamic changes of circulating lymphocytes, cytokines, and even PD-L1 IHC expression around gefitinib treatment support the specific immunomodulatory effect of this agent for advanced NSCLC. PMID:28260924

  1. Molecular Profiling of Circulating Tumour Cells Identifies Notch1 as a Principal Regulator in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mariscal, Javier; Alonso-Nocelo, Marta; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Barbazan, Jorge; Vieito, Maria; Abalo, Alicia; Gomez-Tato, Antonio; Maria de los Angeles, Casares de Cal; Garcia-Caballero, Tomas; Rodriguez, Carmela; Brozos, Elena; Baron, Francisco; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Abal, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis colonization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) remains incomplete. A complete overview integrating driver mutations, primary tumour heterogeneity and overt metastasis lacks the dynamic contribution of disseminating metastatic cells due to the inaccessibility to the molecular profiling of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). By combining immunoisolation and whole genome amplification, we performed a global gene expression analysis of EpCAM positive CTCs from advanced NSCLC patients. We identified an EpCAM+ CTC-specific expression profile in NSCLC patients mostly associated with cellular movement, cell adhesion and cell-to-cell signalling mediated by PI3K/AKT, ERK1/2 and NF-kB pathways. NOTCH1 emerged as a driver connecting active signalling pathways, with a reduced number of related candidate genes (NOTCH1, PTP4A3, LGALS3 and ITGB3) being further validated by RT-qPCR on an independent cohort of NSCLC patients. In addition, these markers demonstrated high prognostic value for Progression-Free Survival (PFS). In conclusion, molecular characterization of EpCAM+ CTCs from advanced NSCLC patients provided with highly specific biomarkers with potential applicability as a “liquid biopsy” for monitoring of NSCLC patients and confirmed NOTCH1 as a potential therapeutic target to block lung cancer dissemination. PMID:27901069

  2. Retrospective analysis of the prognostic role of p16 protein inactivation in plasma in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sirera, Rafael; Gil, Mireia; Blasco, Ana; Cabrera, Andrea; Safont, María José; Iranzo, Vega; Cayuela, Diego; Rosell, Rafael; Camps, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    It has been analyzed the frequency of p16 inactivation in 67 blood samples of patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), to establish the relationship between p16 inactivation and time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS), and its relationship with various clinical parameters. This is a retrospective study of 67 patients diagnosed with advanced NSCLC between August 2000 and July 2003 in the Hospital General de Valencia analysing p16 inactivation by assessing in plasma either loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or p16 promoter methylation. The study shows p16 inactivation in 28.3% (either by LOH or by p16 methylation). No significant differences were found between the group with p16 inactivation and the group without p16 inactivation, either in patients' TTP (31 weeks vs. 24 weeks; p=0.7) or in OS (53 weeks vs. 43 weeks; p=0.48). No relationship was found between the state of p16 and the clinical parameters analyzed (stage, ECOG, histology). Despite the fact that p16 is important in NSCLC carcinogenesis, the data obtained in our study do not allow the prognostic impact of this biological marker to be established.

  3. Mistletoe as complementary treatment in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with carboplatin-based combinations: a randomised phase II study.

    PubMed

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Wollner, Mira; Hammer, Liat; Agbarya, Abed; Dudnik, Elizabeth; Haim, Nissim

    2013-03-01

    Mistletoe preparations, such as iscador, are common complementary medications. This randomised phase II study of iscador combined with carboplatin-containing regimens was conducted in chemotherapy-naïve advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to assess its influence on chemotherapy-related side-effects and QoL. Patients with advanced NSCLC were randomised to receive chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus iscador thrice weekly until tumour progression. Chemotherapy consisted of 21-day cycles of carboplatin combined with gemcitabine or pemetrexed. Seventy-two patients (control: 39; iscador: 33) were enrolled in the study. Most (65%) were in stage IV, and 62% had squamous histology. Median overall survival in both groups was 11 months. Median TTP was 4.8 months for the controls and 6 months in the iscador arm (p=NS). Differences in grade 3-4 haematological toxicity were not significant but more control patients had chemotherapy dose reductions (44% versus 13%, p=0.005), grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicities (41% versus 16%, p=0.043) and hospitalisations (54% versus 24%, p=0.016). No effect of iscador could be found on quality of life or total adverse events. Nevertheless, chemotherapy dose reductions, severe non-haematological side-effects and hospitalisations were less frequent in patients treated with iscador, warranting further investigation of iscador as a modifier of chemotherapy-related toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval: crizotinib for treatment of advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer that is anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive.

    PubMed

    Malik, Shakun M; Maher, Virginia Ellen; Bijwaard, Karen E; Becker, Robert L; Zhang, Lijun; Tang, Shenghui W; Song, Pengfei; Liu, Qi; Marathe, Anshu; Gehrke, Brenda; Helms, Whitney; Hanner, Diane; Justice, Robert; Pazdur, Richard

    2014-04-15

    On August 26, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved crizotinib (XALKORI Capsules, Pfizer Inc.) for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive as detected by an FDA-approved test. The Vysis ALK Break-Apart FISH Probe Kit (Abbott Molecular, Inc.) was approved concurrently. In two multicenter, single-arm trials, patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC previously treated with one or more systemic therapies received crizotinib orally at a dose of 250 mg twice daily. In 119 patients with ALK-positive NSCLC by local trial assay, the objective response rate (ORR) was 61% [95% confidence intervals (CI), 52%-70%] with a median response duration of 48 weeks. In 136 patients with ALK-positive NSCLC by the to-be-marketed test, the ORR was 50% (95% CI, 42%-59%) with a median response duration of 42 weeks. The most common adverse reactions (≥25%) were vision disorder, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, edema, and constipation. Accelerated approval was granted on the basis of the high ORRs and durable responses. On November 20, 2013, crizotinib received full approval based on an improvement in progression-free survival in patients with metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC previously treated with one platinum-based chemotherapy regimen.

  5. A phase I study of S-1 with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy in elderly patients with localized advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Hosokawa, Shinobu; Nogami, Naoyuki; Aoe, Keisuke; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Harita, Shingo; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Himei, Kengo; Shinkai, Tetsu; Fujiwara, Yoshirou; Takata, Saburo; Tabata, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2011-01-01

    S-1, an oral 5-fluorouracil derivative, is effective against advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with mild toxicity and synergistic effects with radiation in preclinical trials. In this phase I study, we evaluated the dose-limiting toxicity and recommended dose of S-1 for a future phase II study when administered concurrently with thoracic radiation (total dose of 60 Gy at 2 Gy per daily fraction) in elderly patients (>75 years old) with localized advanced NSCLC. S-1 was administered on days 1-14 and 29-42 at the following dosages: 60, 70, and 80 mg/m(2)/day. Twenty-two previously untreated patients were enrolled in this study. Dose-limiting toxicity included febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, stomatitis, and pneumonitis. One patient had grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. No other patient experienced radiation pneumonitis or esophagitis exceeding grade 2. The recommended dose for S-1 was determined to be 80 mg/m(2)/day, which produced an overall response rate of 75% (n=12). The median progression-free survival time was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval: 7.1-15.8 months) with a median follow-up time of 27.9 months. These results indicate that concurrent treatment with S-1 and thoracic radiation is a feasible option for NSCLC in the elderly. A phase II study is currently under way.

  6. A phase I study of combination S-1 plus cisplatin chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chikamori, Kenichi; Kishino, Daizo; Takigawa, Nagio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Nogami, Naoyuki; Kamei, Haruhito; Kuyama, Shoichi; Gemba, Kenichi; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Segawa, Yoshihiko; Takata, Saburo; Tabata, Masahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2009-07-01

    A combination of S-1, a newly developed oral 5-fluorouracil derivative, and cisplatin is reported to show anti-tumour activity against advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because S-1 shows synergistic effects with radiation, we conducted a phase I study to evaluate the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs), recommended doses (RDs), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of cisplatin and S-1 when combined with concurrent thoracic radiation (total dose of 60 Gy with 2 Gy per daily fraction) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Chemotherapy consisted of two 4-week cycles of cisplatin administered on days 1 and 8, and S-1 administered on days 1-14. S-1/cisplatin dosages (mg/m(2)/day) were escalated as follows: 60/30, 60/40, 70/40, 80/40 and 80/50. Twenty-two previously untreated patients were enrolled. The MTDs and RDs for S-1/cisplatin were 80/50 and 80/40, respectively. DLTs included febrile neutropaenia, thrombocytopaenia, bacterial pneumonia and delayed second cycle of chemotherapy. No patient experienced radiation pneumonitis>grade 2 and only one patient experienced grade 3 radiation oesophagitis. The overall response rate was 86.4% with a median survival time of 24.4 months. These results indicate that combination cisplatin-S-1 chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiation would be a feasible treatment option and a phase II study is currently under way.

  7. The Impact of Baseline Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale Scores on Treatment and Survival in Patients With Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    McGee, Sharon F; Zhang, Tinghua; Jonker, Hannah; Laurie, Scott A; Goss, Glen; Nicholas, Garth; Albaimani, Khalid; Wheatley-Price, Paul

    2017-06-08

    Palliative systemic therapy is frequently underutilized in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), for many reasons. The aim of this study was to identify patient-reported factors that may predict for treatment decisions and survival in advanced NSCLC, using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), which is a self-reported questionnaire that quantifies symptom burden by asking patients to rate the severity of 9 common symptoms. With ethics approval, we analyzed ESAS scores at initial oncology consultation for 461 patients with advanced NSCLC seen at The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre from 2009 to 2012. Subgroup analysis was performed to determine if treatment strategies or overall survival (OS) were related to the total symptom burden, as defined by the sum of the individual ESAS symptom scores. The severity of the ESAS total symptom burden score was positively correlated with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (R = 0.48; P < .0001). Furthermore, patients with a higher symptom burden were less likely to receive systemic chemotherapy than those with fewer symptoms (43% vs. 66%; P < .0001), and had a significantly reduced OS (5.5 vs. 9.9 months; P < .0001). A higher ESAS symptom burden score was also associated with reduced OS by univariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.18; P < .0001), although multivariate analysis showed only a trend towards significance (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.62; P = .06). Overall, this demonstrates a novel role for the ESAS as a prognostic tool that could complement existing patient assessment models, such as Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, in the development of optimal treatment plans and estimation of survival, in patients with advanced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A large, single-center, real-world study of clinicopathological characteristics and treatment in advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Yaxiong; Yan, Fang; Fang, Wenfeng; Yang, Yunpeng; Hong, Shaodong; Miao, Siyu; Wu, Manli; Huang, Xiaodan; Luo, Youli; Zhou, Cong; Gong, Run; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Ningning; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2017-04-04

    Crizotinib has achieved astonishing success in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement. However, no real-world studies described the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment of such patients in China. Patients were consecutively collected from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Chi-square test was applied to explore the relationship between ALK fusion status and metastasis sites. Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable analyses were used to estimate progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 291 advanced NSCLC patients (ALK (+), N = 97; both ALK & epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (-), N = 194) were enrolled. The occurrence of brain metastasis in ALK-positive patients was significantly higher than double-negative ones both at baseline (26.5% vs. 16.5%, P = 0.038) and during treatment (25.8% vs. 11.9%, P = 0.003), but opposite for pleural effusion (6.2% vs. 26.9%, P < 0.001 at baseline; 3.1% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.031 during treatment). ALK-positive patients of 53.6% used crizotinib, whereas others only received chemotherapy (37.1%) or supportive care (9.3%). Usage of crizotinib prolonged PFS compared with chemotherapy in ALK-positive patients (median PFS 17.6 m vs. 4.8 m, P < 0.001). ALK-positive NSCLC had more brain metastasis and less pleural effusion than double-negative ones. Crizotinib showed better PFS than chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive NSCLC at any line. However, half advanced ALK-positive patients never received crizotinib, which was grim and need improving.

  9. Dendritic cell vaccine and cytokine-induced killer cell therapy for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LIHONG; YANG, XUEJING; SUN, ZHEN; LI, JIALI; ZHU, HUI; LI, JING; PANG, YAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the survival time, immune response and safety of a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine and cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell therapy (DC-CIK) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present retrospective study enrolled 507 patients with advanced NSCLC; 99 patients received DC-CIK [immunotherapy group (group I)] and 408 matched patients did not receive DC-CIK, and acted as the control [non-immunotherapy group (group NI)]. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), quality of life (QOL) and safety were analyzed in group I. The follow-up period for the two groups was 489.2±160.4 days. The overall survival (OS) time was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. DTH was observed in 59 out of 97 evaluated patients (60.8%) and 67 out of 98 evaluated patients (68.4%) possessed an improved QOL. Fever and a skin rash occurred in 36 out of 98 patients (36.7%) and 7 out of 98 patients (7.1%) in group I. DTH occurred more frequently in patients with squamous cell carcinoma compared with patients with adenocarcinoma (77.1 vs. 40.4%; P=0.0013). Radiotherapy was not associated with DC-CIK-induced DTH (72.7 vs. 79.6%; P=0.18), but chemotherapy significantly reduced the rate of DTH (18.2 vs. 79.6%; P=0.00). The OS time was significantly increased in group I compared with group NI (P=0.03). In conclusion, DC-CIK may induce an immune response against NSCLC, improve the QOL, and prolong the OS time of patients, without adverse effects. Therefore, the present study recommends DC-CIK for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:27073525

  10. First-line gefitinib in patients aged 75 or older with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations: NEJ 003 study.

    PubMed

    Maemondo, Makoto; Minegishi, Yuji; Inoue, Akira; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Harada, Masao; Okinaga, Shoji; Morikawa, Naoto; Oizumi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Isobe, Hiroshi; Kudoh, Shoji; Hagiwara, Koichi; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Gemma, Akihiko; Gemmah, Akihiko

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that first-line treatment with gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR)-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is significantly superior to standard chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR sensitive mutations. Meanwhile, the efficacy of gefitinib therapy among elderly populations diagnosed with EGFR-mutated NSCLC has not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of gefitinib for chemotherapy-naive patients aged 75 or older with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations; generally, these patients have no indication for treatment with platinum doublets. Chemotherapy-naive patients aged 75 years or older with performance status 0 to 1 and advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations, as determined by the peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamp method, were enrolled. The enrolled patients received 250 mg/day of gefitinib orally. Between January 2008 and May 2009, 31 patients were enrolled, all of whom were eligible. The median age was 80 (range, 75-87) years. Twenty-five patients (81%) were women, and 30 patients (97%) had adenocarcinoma. The overall response rate was 74% (95% confidence interval, 58%-91%), and the disease control rate was 90%. The median progression-free survival was 12.3 months. The common adverse events were rash, diarrhea, and liver dysfunction. One treatment-related death because of interstitial lung disease occurred. This is the first study that verified safety and efficacy of first-line treatment with gefitinib in elderly patients having advanced NSCLC with EGFR mutation. Considering its strong antitumor activity and mild toxicity, first-line gefitinib may be preferable to standard chemotherapy for this population.

  11. The safety and efficacy of weekly paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin for advanced non-small cell lung cancer with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Yuji; Sudoh, Junko; Kuribayasi, Hideaki; Mizutani, Hideki; Seike, Masahiro; Azuma, Arata; Yoshimura, Akinobu; Kudoh, Shoji; Gemma, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are one of the most common complications in patients with lung cancer. In lung cancer patients with IIP, the most serious toxicity is acute exacerbation of IIP caused by anticancer treatment in Japan. However, there has been no consensus and no evidence presented, regarding optimal treatment for advanced lung cancer with IIP. Chemotherapy-naïve patients of inoperable stage, or post-operative recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with IIPs were enrolled. Patients received paclitaxel at a dose of 100mg/m(2) on Days 1, 8, 15, and carboplatin every 28 days at a target dose of area under the curve (AUC) 5.0 on Day 1. Between May 2004 and October 2008, 18 patients, including 6 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), were enrolled and treated for a median of four cycles (range, 1-6). One patient (5.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0-17%) with histologically confirmed IPF had acute exacerbation of IIPs associated with the treatment. The overall response rate was 61% (95% CI, 36-86%). The median progression-free survival, median survival time, and 1-year survival rate were 5.3 months, 10.6 months, and 22%, respectively. This is the first report indicating that advanced NSCLC patients with IIP may benefit from chemotherapy. Weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin combination chemotherapy was as effective as conventional regimens in advanced NSCLC patients without IIP and was safer than previously reported for NSCLC patients with IIP. The results from this study would support, on ethical grounds, the conduct of a large-scale study to confirm the feasibility of this regimen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maintenance treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results of an international expert panel meeting of the Italian association of thoracic oncology.

    PubMed

    Gridelli, Cesare; de Marinis, Filippo; Di Maio, Massimo; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Belani, Chandra P; Cappuzzo, Federico; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Fidias, Panagiotis; Paz-Ares, Luis; Perrone, Francesco; Pirker, Robert; De Petris, Luigi; Stahel, Rolf

    2012-06-01

    Several randomized trials have recently investigated the role of maintenance treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with responding or stable disease after completion of first-line chemotherapy. Maintenance strategy has relevant implications in terms of potential toxicity, logistics and costs, and all of these aspects should be taken into account, together with the magnitude of benefit for the patient. In order to assess the strengths and limitations of available evidence, to help clinical practice, and to suggest priorities for future clinical research, the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology (AIOT) organized an International Experts Panel Meeting on maintenance treatment of advanced NSCLC, which took place in Sperlonga (Italy) in May 2011. Based on the available evidence, panelists agreed that maintenance therapy represents a treatment option in advanced NSCLC. Maintenance should be discussed with patients not progressed after 4-6 cycles of first-line chemotherapy, who are fit (performance status 0-1) and without persistent chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Patients need to be well informed about potential advantages and disadvantages of accepting additional therapy without a "treatment-free period". Two different strategies, switch or continuation maintenance, are supported by available evidence. At the moment, there is no direct comparison between switch maintenance and continuation maintenance. For future trials, the panel recommends the use of overall survival as the primary endpoint, with pre-defined second-line treatment. Translational research is essential to identify predictive factors, and should be performed, whenever feasible, in order to achieve treatment optimization with proper patient selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment, outcome and quality of life of 1239 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer - final results from the prospective German TLK cohort study.

    PubMed

    von Verschuer, Ulla; Schnell, Roland; Tessen, Hans Werner; Eggert, Jochen; Binninger, Adrian; Spring, Lisa; Jänicke, Martina; Marschner, Norbert

    2017-08-22

    Real-life data on advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are centrally important to complement the results from clinical trials and to improve the standard of care. We present data on the choice of systemic first- and second-line treatment, number of treatment lines, survival and longitudinal data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients treated by medical oncologists in Germany. 1239 patients with advanced NSCLC were recruited at start of first-line therapy into the prospective German clinical cohort study TLK (Tumour Registry Lung Cancer) by 107 sites between February 2010 and December 2013 and followed-up until January 2016. HRQOL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 questionnaires. Most patients receive carboplatin- or cisplatin-based doublet chemotherapy in first-line treatment. The choice of platinum agent did neither influence the outcome: median overall survival (OS) was 12.2 months for carboplatin combinations (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.0-13.8) and 11.9 months for cisplatin combinations (95% CI 10.2-13.8), nor did it have a marked impact on the HRQOL. Patients receiving cisplatin were younger and fitter at start of therapy than patients receiving carboplatin or mono-chemotherapy. The longitudinal HRQOL analysis revealed the main symptoms that need to be addressed in follow-up care, irrespective of the platinum agent: fatigue, nausea, dyspnoea and pain. The patients receiving targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) had a median OS of 22.1 months (95% CI 15.0-35.1) and considerably superior HRQOL. There was no difference in outcome between the platinum compounds cisplatin and carboplatin in first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC in routine care. This is the first report of longitudinal HRQOL data comparing treatments, showing no difference between carboplatin and cisplatin. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutation and expression of multiple treatment response-related genes in a population with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    LU, HONG-YANG; SU, DAN; PAN, XIAO-DAN; JIANG, HONG; MA, SHENG-LIN

    2012-01-01

    Individual therapy based on various pathohistological types and biological characteristics may be the practical trend of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. To provide a molecular criterion for drug selection, we investigated the incidence of somatic mutation and mRNA expression levels of common genes relevant to treatment response in a population with locally advanced NSCLC. Mutant-enriched and branched DNA-liquidchip technology (bDNA-LCT) were used to detect the somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), KRAS, BRAF and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase catalytic α (PIK3CA) genes, and mRNA levels of EGFR, ERCC1, class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) and TYMS, separately, in paraffin tissue blocks from 30 patients with stage IIIA NSCLC. Our current findings revealed that 6, 4 and 2 out of 30 samples were found with mutations in exons 19, 21 and 20 of the EGFR gene, respectively. The mutation incidence of exons 19 and 21 had a positive correlation with EGFR mRNA expression. Mutations in exons 12 and 13 of the K-ras gene were found in 2 out of 30, and 1 out of 30 samples, separately. Three out of 30 samples were found with mutations in codon 542 of the PIK3CA gene. No mutations were found in the BRAF gene. The expression levels of ERCC1 and TUBB3 mRNAs were higher in patients with adenocarcinoma than those in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of TYMS mRNA in patients with adenocarcinoma was lower than that in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, mutations and mRNA expression of these commonly studied genes provides a basis for the selection of suitable molecular markers for individual treatment in a population with locally advanced NSCLC. PMID:22740923

  15. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-2/beta3 Integrin Expression Profile: Signature of Local Progression After Chemoradiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Massabeau, Carole; Rouquette, Isabelle; Lauwers-Cances, Valerie; Mazieres, Julien; Bachaud, Jean-Marc; Armand, Jean-Pierre; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Favre, Gilles; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: No biologic signature of chemoradiotherapy sensitivity has been reported for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have previously demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and alphavbeta3 integrin pathways control tumor radioresistance. We investigated whether the expression of the proteins involved in these pathways might be associated with the response to treatment and, therefore, the clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: FGF-2, beta3 integrin, angiopoietin-2, and syndecan-1 expression was studied using immunohistochemistry performed on biopsies obtained, before any treatment, from 65 patients exclusively treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced NSCLC. The response to treatment was evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria using computed tomography at least 6 weeks after the end of the chemoradiotherapy. Local progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and disease-free survival were studied using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: Among this NSCLC biopsy population, 43.7% overexpressed beta3 integrin (beta3{sup +}), 43% FGF-2 (FGF-2{sup +}), 41.5% syndecan-1, and 59.4% angiopoietin-2. Our results showed a strong association between FGF-2 and beta3 integrin expression (p = .001). The adjusted hazard ratio of local recurrence for FGF-2{sup +}/beta3{sup +} tumors compared with FGF-2{sup -}/beta3{sup -} tumors was 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-14.6, p = .005). However, the risk of local recurrence was not increased when tumors overexpressed beta3 integrin or FGF-2 alone. Moreover, the co-expression of these two proteins was marginally associated with the response to chemoradiotherapy and metastasis-free survival. Conclusion: The results of this study have identified the combined profile FGF-2/beta3 integrin expression as a signature of local control in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced

  16. Pretreatment Quality of Life Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Patients with Advanced Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yingwei; Schild, Steven E.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Tan, Angelina D.; Krook, James E.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Soori, Gamini S.; Adjei, Alex A.; Sloan, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis We conducted this pooled analysis to assess the prognostic value of pretreatment Quality of Life (QOL) assessments on overall survival (OS) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Four hundred twenty patients with advanced NSCLC (stages IIIB with pleural effusion and IV) from six North Central Cancer Treatment Group trials were included in this study. QOL assessments included the single-item Uniscale (355 patients), Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (217 patients), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (197 patients). QOL scores were transformed to a 0 to 100 scale with higher scores representing better status and categorized using the sample median or clinically deficient score (CDS, ≤50 versus >50). Cox proportional hazards models stratified by study were used to evaluate the prognostic importance of QOL on OS alone and in the presence of other prognostic factors such as performance status, age, gender, body mass index, and laboratory parameters. Results Pretreatment QOL accessed by Uniscale was significantly associated with OS univariately (p < 0.0001). Uniscale (p < 0.0001; hazard ratio = 1.6 for the sample median and 2.0 for the CDS categorization) and body mass index were the only significant predictors of OS multivariately. The median survival of patients who had a Uniscale score less than or equal to the CDS (≤50) was 5.7 versus 11.1 months for the >50 group; and 7.8 versus 13 months for the less than or equal to sample median (≤83) group and >83 group, respectively. The Lung Cancer Symptom Scale and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung total scores were not significant predictors of OS. Conclusions Pretreatment QOL measured by Uniscale is a significant and an independent prognostic factor for OS, and QOL should be routinely integrated as a stratification factor in advanced NSCLC trials. PMID:19546817

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Nab-Paclitaxel as Second-line Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced and Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenjing; Sun, Ping; Mu, Zhengbin; Liu, Jiannan; Yu, Caiyan; Liu, Aina

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as second-line chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the treatment of 34 patients with advanced NSCLC whose first-line treatment had failed. These patients received nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) on day 1 and day 8 of a 21-day cycle from July 2014 to February 2016. One cycle of treatment lasted 3 weeks and all patients completed more than two cycles. All patients were assessed for adverse events related to treatment. No patient achieved complete response (CR); 12 patients reached partial response (PR), 12 patients achieved stable disease (SD) and 10 patients progressive disease (PD). The overall response rate (ORR) was 35.3% and the disease control rate (DCR) 70.6 %. There was no significant difference in either ORR or DCR within the subgroups. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.7 months (95% confidence interval (CI)=3.8-7.6) and the median overall survival (OS) was 9 months (95% CI=8.3-9.7). There was no statistical difference in OS (p=0.066), but subgroup analysis showed that patients with squamous carcinoma benefited more in PFS (the median PFS of squamous carcinoma vs. adenocarcinoma was 7.3 months vs. 5 months, p=0.001). Major adverse events included myelosuppression, gastrointestinal response, baldness, myalgia and neurotoxicity. Hypersensitivity reactions were not reported. Nab-paclitaxel is an effective chemotherapy for locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC as treatment and has a superior application prospect for squamous NSCLC. Toxicity is generally mild and manageable. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. The relevance of serum carcinoembryonic antigen as an indicator of brain metastasis detection in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Soo; Kim, Yeon-Sil; Jung, So-Lyoung; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kang, Jin-Hyoung; Park, Sarah; Kim, Young-Kyoon; Yoo, Ie-Ryung; Choi, Byung-Ock; Jang, Hong-Seok; Yoon, Sei-Chul

    2012-08-01

    Although many biomarkers have emerged in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the predictive value of site-specific spread is not fully defined. We designed this study to determine if there is an association between serum biomarkers and brain metastasis in advanced NSCLC. We evaluated 227 eligible advanced NSCLC patients between May 2005 and March 2010. Patients who had been newly diagnosed with stage IV NSCLC but had not received treatment previously, and had available information on at least one of the following pretreatment serum biomarkers were enrolled: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 19-9, and squamous cancer cell antigen. Whole body imaging studies and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were reviewed, and the total number of metastatic regions was scored. Brain metastasis was detected in 66 (29.1%) patients. Although serum CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA 125 levels were significantly different between low total metastatic score group (score 1-3) and high total metastatic score group (score 4-7), only CEA level was significantly different between patients with brain metastasis and those without brain metastasis (p < 0.0001). The area under the receiver operating curve of serum CEA for the prediction of brain metastasis was 0.724 (p = 0.0001). The present study demonstrated that the pretreatment serum CEA level was significantly correlated with brain metastasis in advanced NSCLC. These findings suggested the possible role of CEA in the pathogenesis of brain invasion. More vigilant surveillance would be warranted in the high-risk group of patients with high serum CEA level and multiple synchronous metastasis.

  19. Minimally invasive (robotic assisted thoracic surgery and video-assisted thoracic surgery) lobectomy for the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Bernard J; Yang, Hao-Xian; Woo, Kaitlin M; Sima, Camelia S

    2016-04-01

    Insufficient data exist on the results of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) traditionally approached by thoracotomy. The use of telerobotic surgical systems may allow for greater utilization of MIS approaches to locally advanced disease. We will review the existing literature on MIS for locally advanced disease and briefly report on the results of a recent study conducted at our institution. We performed a retrospective review of a prospective single institution database to identify patients with clinical stage II and IIIA NSCLC who underwent lobectomy following induction chemotherapy. The patients were classified into two groups (MIS and thoracotomy) and were compared for differences in outcomes and survival. From January 2002 to December 2013, 428 patients {397 thoracotomy, 31 MIS [17 robotic and 14 video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)]} underwent induction chemotherapy followed by lobectomy. The conversion rate in the MIS group was 26% (8/31) The R0 resection rate was similar between the groups (97% for MIS vs. 94% for thoracotomy; P=0.71), as was postoperative morbidity (32% for MIS vs. 33% for thoracotomy; P=0.99). The median length of hospital stay was shorter in the MIS group (4 vs. 5 days; P<0.001). The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 48.3% in the MIS group and 56.6% in the thoracotomy group (P=0.84); the corresponding 3-year DFS were 49.0% and 42.1% (P=0.19). In appropriately selected patients with NSCLC, MIS approaches to lobectomy following induction therapy are feasible and associated with similar disease-free and OS to those following thoracotomy.

  20. Feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of the concurrent addition of erlotinib to thoracic radiotherapy in locally advanced unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: a Phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Enrique; Martínez, Maite; Rico, Mikel; Hernández, Berta; Casas, Francesc; Viñolas, Nuria; Pérez-Casas, Ana; Dómine, Manuel; Mínguez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although many studies have confirmed the synergic effects of combining chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT), clinical data evaluating safety and efficacy of erlotinib in combination with RT in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of the concurrent addition of erlotinib to the standard three-dimensional conformal thoracic RT in patients with unresectable or locally advanced NSCLC who are not candidates for receiving standard CT. Patients and methods Feasibility and tolerability, assessed by evaluating adverse events (AEs), and effectiveness, by calculating progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and objective response rate (ORR), were analyzed in 30 patients receiving RT alone and 60 receiving RT and erlotinib. Results Erlotinib with RT showed an extended CSS and a higher rate of complete responses compared with RT alone. No differences between groups were found regarding OS, PFS, and ORR. AEs were significantly higher in the combined treatment, which mainly included cutaneous toxicity, dyspnea, fatigue, hyporexia, diarrhea, and infection. Erlotinib did not increase the toxicity produced by RT. Conclusion The combination of erlotinib with RT produced, in our study, a scarce clinical benefit in the treatment of unresectable or locally advanced NSCLC, limited to complete responses and longer CSS rate compared with RT alone. Increased toxicity events were associated with combined therapy, which mainly included cutaneous toxicity. In our opinion, further studies in molecularly unselected lung cancer patients treated with EGFR TKIs and RT are not indicated. The use of biomarkers for the identification of patients that are most likely to benefit from this treatment is an essential next step in the research of this condition. PMID:27042098

  1. 125I brachytherapy of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy: a comparison with best supportive care

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingjing; Fan, Xiaoxi; Zhao, Zhongwei; Chen, Minjiang; Chen, Weiqian; Wu, Fazong; Zhang, Dengke; Chen, Li; Tu, Jianfei; Ji, Jiansong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided 125I brachytherapy alone in improving the survival and quality of life of patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy. Patients and methods Sixteen patients with locally advanced NSCLC were treated with CT-guided 125I brachytherapy after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy (group A). Sixteen patients who received only best supportive care (group B) were matched up with the patients in group A. Primary end point included survival, and secondary end point included assessment of safety, effectiveness of CT-guided 125I brachytherapy, and improvement in the quality of life. Results The two groups were well balanced in terms of age, disease histology, tumor stage, tumor location, and performance status (P>0.05). The median follow-up time was 16 months (range, 3–30). The total tumor response rate was 75.0% in group A, which was significantly higher than that in group B (0.0%) (P<0.01). The median progression-free survival time was 4.80 months for patients in group A and 1.35 months for patients in group B (P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the median survival time of group A was 9.4±0.3 months versus 8.4±0.1 months in group B (P=0.013). Tumor-related symptoms of patients were significantly relieved, and the quality of life was markedly improved in group A than in group B. Conclusion CT-guided 125I brachytherapy improved the survival of patients with locally advanced NSCLC and quality of life after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy compared with best supportive care. PMID:28280369

  2. Phase II trial of sequential gefitinib after minor response or partial response to chemotherapy in Chinese patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian Ming; Han, Yu; Li, Yue Min; Zhao, Chuan Hua; Wang, Yan; Paradiso, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    Background Basic research of gefitinib (Iressa, ZD1839) has demonstrated the combination effects of gefitinib and chemotherapy were sequence-dependent. To evaluate the efficacy of sequential administration of gefitinib following a minor response or partial response to two to three cycles of chemotherapy, a phase II clinical trial was done in Chinese patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Thirty-three consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC that had been pretreated with at least one chemotherapeutic regimen and were responding to chemotherapy following 2 to 3 cycles of treatment, entered the trial from May 2004 to February 2006. Patients received gefitinib at an oral dose of 250 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Results Thirty-three patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. The objective response rate was 24.2% (8 of 33)(95% CI, 11% to 42%). The symptom improvement rate was 54.5% (18 of 33) (95% CI, 41% to 69%). The median duration of response was 7 months (95%CI, 4.0 to 13.2 months). The median time to disease progression (TTP) was 6.5 months (95%CI, 0.7 to 16.6 months). The median overall survival time (OS) was 9.8 months (range, 2.1 to 18.0 months), and the actuarial 1-year survival was 36.4%. Toxicity was relatively mild and included only one patient (3.0%) with grade 4 diarrhea, 1 (3.0%) with grade 3 rash, 1 (3.0%) with grade 3 nausea, and 1 with grade 3 vomiting (3.0%). Conclusion Preliminary results suggest that sequential administration of gefitinib following a response to chemotherapy may be beneficial for Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC. Further randomized clinical trials are needed. PMID:17173694

  3. Carboplatin plus pemetrexed offers superior cost-effectiveness compared to pemetrexed in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and performance status 2.

    PubMed

    Schluckebier, Luciene; Garay, Osvaldo U; Zukin, Mauro; Ferreira, Carlos G

    2015-09-01

    Pemetrexed plus carboplatin offers survival advantage in first line treatment of advanced lung cancer patients with performance status of 2. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of this combined regimen compared to pemetrexed alone in a Brazilian population. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted based on a randomized phase III trial in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and ECOG performance status of 2 (PS2), comparing doublet regimen pemetrexed plus carboplatin with pemetrexed alone. The perspective adopted was the public health care sector over a three-year period. Direct medical costs and survival time were calculated from patient-level data and utility values were extracted from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate uncertainties in the results. The combined regimen pemetrexed plus carboplatin yielded a gain of 0.16 life year (LY) and 0.12 quality-adjusted life year (QALY) compared to pemetrexed alone. The total cost was 17,674.31 USD for the combined regimen and 15,722.39 USD for pemetrexed alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $12,016.09 per LY gained and $15,732.05 per QALY gained. The factors with the greatest impact on the ICER are pemetrexed price and the time to progression utility value. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed an upper 90% probability of pemetrexed plus carboplatin being cost-effective with a threshold between two and three GDP per capita. Our study suggests superiority of the combined pemetrexed plus carboplatin regimen in terms of efficacy as well as cost-effectiveness in advanced NSCLC patients with a poor performance status of 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health-related quality of life after first-line anti-cancer treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Szu-Chun; Lai, Wu-Wei; Hsiue, Tzuen-Ren; Su, Wu-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-06-01

    This study attempted to compare changes in the Quality-of-Life (QoL) scores after three different first-line anti-cancer treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a real-world clinical setting. From May 2011 to December 2013, we prospectively measured the QoL scores of patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC using the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Each QoL measurement was matched by age and sex with one healthy referent from the National Health Interview Survey. Dynamic changes in patients' QoL scores and major determinants were repeatedly assessed by construction of a mixed-effects model to adjust for possible confounders. A total of 336 patients with 577 QoL measurements related to first-line anti-cancer treatments were enrolled. Performance status was the most important predictor of QoL scores in all domains after controlling for potential confounders. With age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as the reference, patients treated with gemcitabine + platinum showed significantly lower scores in multiple physical and psychological domain items in the WHOQOL-BREF. However, pemetrexed + platinum and gefitinib/erlotinib affected patients' QoL scores in 'energy/fatigue' and 'daily activities' with smaller magnitudes, and the scores appeared to improve after 3-4 months of treatment. Patients receiving gemcitabine + platinum as first-line anti-cancer treatment for advanced NSCLC experienced relatively poor QoL scores throughout treatment course. Studies to develop a real-time computerized system automatically updating the mixed-effects model for QoL to facilitate participatory clinical decision making by physicians, patients, and their families merit further research.

  5. The Efficacy of Brucea javanica Oil Emulsion Injection as Adjunctive Therapy for Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Xu, Zhengyuan; Ye, Tong; Shi, Qionghua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of Brucea javanica oil emulsion injection (BJOEI) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during chemotherapy. Method. Electronic database of EMBASE and PubMed and the conference proceeding of ASCO, CNKI, CBMdisc, VIP, and Wanfang database were searched to select RCTs comparing BJOEI plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in the treatment of advanced NSCLC, until June 1, 2016. Two reviewers independently performed the analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Review Manager 5.3 and STATA 12.0 were employed for data analysis. Result. Twenty-one studies including 2234 cases were included. The pooled result indicated that there were significant differences in ORR (RR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14–1.36; P < 0.00001), improvement of QOL (RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.63–2.15; P < 0.00001), nausea and vomiting (RR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46–0.98; P = 0.04), leukopenia (RR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.52–0.75; P < 0.00001), but there was no difference in thrombocytopenia (RR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.49–1.23; P = 0.29). Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test indicated that no publication bias was found. The sensitivity analysis suggested the stability of the pooled result. Conclusion. The addition of BJOEI can enhance efficacy, improve QOL, and decrease incidence of nausea and vomiting and leukopenia for advanced NSCLC patients. However, higher quality RCTs are needed to further confirm this finding. PMID:28050192

  6. Dacomitinib versus erlotinib in patients with advanced-stage, previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (ARCHER 1009): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Suresh S; Jänne, Pasi A; Mok, Tony; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Boyer, Michael J; Von Pawel, Joachim; Pluzanski, Adam; Shtivelband, Mikhail; Docampo, Lara Iglesias; Bennouna, Jaafar; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Jane Q; Doherty, Jim P; Taylor, Ian; Mather, Cecile B; Goldberg, Zelanna; O'Connell, Joseph; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Dacomitinib is an irreversible pan-EGFR family tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Findings from a phase 2 study in non-small cell lung cancer showed favourable efficacy for dacomitinib compared with erlotinib. We aimed to compare dacomitinib with erlotinib in a phase 3 study. In a randomised, multicentre, double-blind phase 3 trial in 134 centres in 23 countries, we enrolled patients who had locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, progression after one or two previous regimens of chemotherapy, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2, and presence of measurable disease. We randomly assigned patients in a 1:1 ratio to dacomitinib (45 mg/day) or erlotinib (150 mg/day) with matching placebo. Treatment allocation was masked to the investigator, patient, and study funder. Randomisation was stratified by histology (adenocarcinoma vs non-adenocarcinoma), ethnic origin (Asian vs non-Asian and Indian sub-continent), performance status (0-1 vs 2), and smoking status (never-smoker vs ever-smoker). The coprimary endpoints were progression-free survival per independent review for all randomly assigned patients, and for all randomly assigned patients with KRAS wild-type tumours. The study has completed accrual and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01360554. Between June 22, 2011, and March 12, 2013, we enrolled 878 patients and randomly assigned 439 to dacomitinib (256 KRAS wild type) and 439 (263 KRAS wild type) to erlotinib. Median progression-free survival was 2·6 months (95% CI 1·9-2·8) in both the dacomitinib group and the erlotinib group (stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0·941, 95% CI 0·802-1·104, one-sided log-rank p=0·229). For patients with wild-type KRAS, median progression-free survival was 2·6 months for dacomitinib (95% CI 1·9-2·9) and erlotinib (95% CI 1·9-3·0; stratified HR 1·022, 95% CI 0·834-1·253, one-sided p=0·587). In patients who received at least one dose of study drug, the most frequent grade

  7. Gallic acid inhibition of Src-Stat3 signaling overcomes acquired resistance to EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Ai N.H.; Hua, Tuyen N.M.; Kim, Min-Kyu; Vo, Vu T.A.; Choi, Jong-Whan; Kim, Hyun-Won; Rho, Jin Kyung; Kim, Ki Woo; Jeong, Yangsik

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have clinically benefited to lung cancer patients harboring a subset of activating EGFR mutations. However, even with the remarkable therapeutic response at the initial TKI treatment, most lung cancer patients eventually have relapsed aggressive tumors due to acquired resistance to the TKIs. Here, we report that 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid or gallic acid (GA), a natural polyphenolic compound, shows anti-tumorigenic effects in TKI-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using both in vitro growth assay and in vivo xenograft animal model, we demonstrated tumor suppressive effect of GA was more selective for the TKI-resistant cancer compared to the TKI-sensitive one. Mechanistically, GA treatment inhibited Src-Stat3-mediated signaling and decreased the expression of Stat3-regulated tumor promoting genes, subsequently inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the TKI-resistant lung cancer but not in the TKI-sensitive one. Consistent with the in vitro results, in vivo xenograft experiments showed the TKI-resistant tumor-selective growth inhibition and suppression of Src-Stat3-dependent signaling in the GA-treated tumors isolated from the xenograft model. This finding identified an importance of Src-Stat3 signaling cascade in GA-mediated tumor-suppression activity and, more importantly, provides a novel therapeutic insight of GA for advanced TKI-resistant lung cancer. PMID:27419630

  8. Comparison of outcomes of tyrosine kinase inhibitor in first- or second-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with sensitive EGFR mutations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianlin; Zhang, Xueyan; Yang, Haitang; Ding, Guozheng; Jin, Bo; Lou, Yuqing; Zhang, Yanwei; Wang, Huimin; Han, Baohui

    2016-10-18

    Direct comparisons between the use of first- and second-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with sensitive EGFR mutations are limited. A total of 264 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with sensitive mutations received EGFR TKI therapy as the first-line therapy, and a total of 187 patients received TKI as the second-line therapy at Shanghai Chest Hospital. First-line EGFR TKI therapy [12.9 months, 95% confidence interval (CI), 10.7-15.2] provided longer progression-free survival (PFS) than did second-line EGFR TKI therapy (9.0 months, 95% CI, 7.7-10.2) [hazard ratio (HR): 0.78, P = 0.034]. The objective response rate (ORR) of first-, and second-line TKI therapy were 67.8% (159/233) and 55.6% (94/169), respectively (P = 0.001). The overall survival (OS) for patients (n = 141) receiving first-line TKI followed by second-line chemotherapy were longer than those for patients (n = 187) receiving first-line chemotherapy followed by second-line TKI (HR: 0.69, P = 0.02).Compared with second-line TKI, first-line therapy achieved a significant and longer PFS, and higher ORR in the sensitive EGFR mutated NSCLC patients. The therapeutic strategy of using TKI followed by chemotherapy achieved longer OS than that using chemotherapy followed by TKI.

  9. A phase II study of cetuximab and radiation in elderly and/or poor performance status patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (N0422).

    PubMed

    Jatoi, A; Schild, S E; Foster, N; Henning, G T; Dornfeld, K J; Flynn, P J; Fitch, T R; Dakhil, S R; Rowland, K M; Stella, P J; Soori, G S; Adjei, A A

    2010-10-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a disease of the elderly. Seeking a tolerable but effective regimen, we tested cetuximab + radiation in elderly and/or poor performance status patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Older patients [≥ 65 years with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1, or 2] or younger patients (performance status of 2) received cetuximab 400 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1 followed by weekly cetuximab 250 mg/m(2) i.v. with concomitant radiation of 6000 cGy in 30 fractions. The primary end point was the percentage who lived 11+ months. This 57-patient cohort had a median age (range) of 77 years (60-87), and 12 (21%) had a performance status of 2. Forty of 57 (70%) lived 11+ months, thus exceeding the anticipated survival rate of 50%. The median survival was 15.1 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.1-19.3 months], and the median time to cancer progression was 7.2 months (95% CI 5.8-8.6 months). No treatment-related deaths occurred, but 31 patients experienced grade 3+ adverse events, most commonly fatigue, anorexia, dyspnea, rash, and dysphagia, each of which occurred in <10% of patients. This combination merits further study in this group of patients.

  10. Activity of pemetrexed-based regimen as first-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer with asymptomatic inoperable brain metastasis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiyou; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Wu, Chen; Li, Wei; Guo, Renhua; Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Yiqian; Shu, Yongqian; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2015-08-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to assess the efficacy of combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin/carboplatin as first-line treatment in inoperable and asymptomatic brain metastasis (BM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 30 patients with adenocarcinoma were included. Nine patients had solitary, and 21 patients had multiple BM. At evaluation after two cycles, the complete response (CR) rate, partial response (PR) rate, and stable disease (SD) for brain lesions was 0, 33.3, and 46.7%, respectively. The overall CR, PR, and SD were 0, 23.3, and 46.7%, respectively. The median time to tumour progression of BM (TTP-BM) was 6.0 months (95% CI 4.068-7.932). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 5.0 months (95% CI 4.197-5.803) and 11.0 months (95% CI 7.398-14.602), respectively. Pemetrexed has comparable activity on brain lesions as on extracranial tumours in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with inoperable and asymptomatic BM.

  11. A phase II study of cetuximab and radiation in elderly and/or poor performance status patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (N0422)

    PubMed Central

    Jatoi, A.; Schild, S. E.; Foster, N.; Henning, G. T.; Dornfeld, K. J.; Flynn, P. J.; Fitch, T. R.; Dakhil, S. R.; Rowland, K. M.; Stella, P. J.; Soori, G. S.; Adjei, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a disease of the elderly. Seeking a tolerable but effective regimen, we tested cetuximab + radiation in elderly and/or poor performance status patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Patients and methods: Older patients [≥65 years with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1, or 2] or younger patients (performance status of 2) received cetuximab 400 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 followed by weekly cetuximab 250 mg/m2 i.v. with concomitant radiation of 6000 cGy in 30 fractions. The primary end point was the percentage who lived 11+ months. Results: This 57-patient cohort had a median age (range) of 77 years (60–87), and 12 (21%) had a performance status of 2. Forty of 57 (70%) lived 11+ months, thus exceeding the anticipated survival rate of 50%. The median survival was 15.1 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.1–19.3 months], and the median time to cancer progression was 7.2 months (95% CI 5.8–8.6 months). No treatment-related deaths occurred, but 31 patients experienced grade 3+ adverse events, most commonly fatigue, anorexia, dyspnea, rash, and dysphagia, each of which occurred in <10% of patients. Conclusion: This combination merits further study in this group of patients. PMID:20570832

  12. Interfractional Positional Variability of Fiducial Markers and Primary Tumors in Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer During Audiovisual Biofeedback Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, Nicholas O.; Shepherd, Wes; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate implanted markers as a surrogate for tumor-based setup during image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy with audiovisual biofeedback. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were implanted bronchoscopically with gold coils. Markers, tumor, and a reference bony structure (vertebra) were contoured for all 10 phases of the four-dimensional respiration-correlated fan-beam computed tomography and weekly four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography. Results: The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-tumor centroid displacements were 2/3, 2/2, and 3/3 mm in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) directions, respectively. The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/3, and 2/3 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. The systematic/random tumor-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/4, and 4/4 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. All displacements changed significantly over time (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although marker-based image guidance may decrease the risk for geometric miss compared with bony anatomy-based positioning, the observed displacements between markers and tumor centroids indicate the need for repeated soft tissue imaging, particularly in situations with large tumor volume change and large initial marker-to-tumor centroid distance.

  13. Pembrolizumab versus docetaxel for previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-010): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Roy S; Baas, Paul; Kim, Dong-Wan; Felip, Enriqueta; Pérez-Gracia, José L; Han, Ji-Youn; Molina, Julian; Kim, Joo-Hang; Arvis, Catherine Dubos; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Majem, Margarita; Fidler, Mary J; de Castro, Gilberto; Garrido, Marcelo; Lubiniecki, Gregory M; Shentu, Yue; Im, Ellie; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Garon, Edward B

    2016-04-09

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, there remains a need for effective treatments for progressive disease. We assessed the efficacy of pembrolizumab for patients with previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We did this randomised, open-label, phase 2/3 study at 202 academic medical centres in 24 countries. Patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer with PD-L1 expression on at least 1% of tumour cells were randomly assigned (1:1:1) in blocks of six per stratum with an interactive voice-response system to receive pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg, pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg, or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival both in the total population and in patients with PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumour cells. We used a threshold for significance of p<0.00825 (one-sided) for the analysis of overall survival and a threshold of p<0.001 for progression-free survival. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01905657. Between Aug 28, 2013, and Feb 27, 2015, we enrolled 1034 patients: 345 allocated to pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg, 346 allocated to pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg, and 343 allocated to docetaxel. By Sept 30, 2015, 521 patients had died. In the total population, median overall survival was 10.4 months with pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg, 12.7 months with pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg, and 8.5 months with docetaxel. Overall survival was significantly longer for pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg versus docetaxel (hazard ratio [HR] 0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.88; p=0.0008) and for pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg versus docetaxel (0.61, 0.49-0.75; p<0.0001). Median progression-free survival was 3.9 months with pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg, 4.0 months with pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg, and 4.0 months with docetaxel, with no significant difference for pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg versus docetaxel (0.88, 0.74-1.05; p=0.07) or for pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg versus docetaxel (HR 0

  14. Erlotinib usage after prior treatment with gefitinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A clinical perspective and review of published literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Jindal, Aditya; Behera, Digambar

    2014-12-10

    Erlotinib and gefitinib are among the most widely researched, used and available molecularly targeted therapies for treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They are both tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In the past decade, there have been reports on clinical benefit from use of erlotinib after gefitinib failure in NSCLC patients. A review of published literature on this focussed topic is provided herein. Pooled analysis of published literature shows that majority of patients were female (60.6%), non-smokers (64.5%), had adenocarcinoma histology (88.3%) and were of East Asian ethnicity (92.3%). Presence of sensitizing EGFR mutation was detected in 48.4% of subjects. Disease control rates with prior gefitinib therapy and with subsequent erlotinib treatment were 79.4% and 45.4% respectively. Based upon our review, the most important predictive factor for clinical benefit from erlotinib identified was previous response to gefitinib. The exact explanations for the potential benefit from erlotinib use in this patient population is still not known and further studies are required to determine the role of molecular mechanisms especially those related to resistance to initial EGFR TKI therapy.

  15. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  16. Modern Treatments in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Temporal Trends and Effect on Survival. A French Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Olivier; Selvaggi, Lucia; Jégu, Jérémie; Purohit, Ashok; Prim, Nathalie; Velten, Michel; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Extrapolation of clinical trials results to the general population is always challenging. We analysed 1047 patients diagnosed with an advanced stage disease between 1998 and 2005 in a french administrative department and found a good spread of modern chemotherapy since 1998 and targeted therapy since 2002. Moreover, the outcomes in patients treated according to guidelines are very proximal from those obtained in clinical trials. Management of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer has considerably evolved during the past 2 decades. In this study we aimed to assess how treatments have spread at a population-based level and their effect on survival. Medical records of patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2005 in the French department of Bas-Rhin were checked to collect data on patient characteristics and treatments received. Multivariate analysis of survival was performed using pretherapeutic and therapeutic factors including targeted therapies received as third-line treatment. We included 1047 patients with stage IIIB to IV non-small-cell lung cancer. The proportion of patients who underwent chemotherapy increased from 373/471 (79.2%) to 491/576 (85.2%) over the 1998 to 2001 and 2002 to 2005 periods, and there was an increased use of third-generation drugs associated with platin. Third-line treatment was gefitinib or erlotinib in 73/155 (47.1%) of the cases among patients diagnosed from 2002 to 2005. Compared with older agents, targeted therapy administered as third-line treatment was associated with a longer survival but there was no significant difference in survival with recent chemotherapy agents in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio, 0.773; 95% confidence interval, 0.445-1.343). Results of our study showed a good spread of modern chemotherapy and targeted therapy use at a population-based level. However, even if the general outcomes were improved along the years, the results observed in real clinical practice were slightly different from those reported in clinical

  17. Osimertinib in Pretreated T790M-Positive Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: AURA Study Phase II Extension Component.

    PubMed

    Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Kim, Dong-Wan; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Sequist, Lecia V; Su, Wu-Chou; Kim, Sang-We; Kim, Joo-Hang; Planchard, David; Felip, Enriqueta; Blackhall, Fiona; Haggstrom, Daniel; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Novello, Silvia; Gold, Kathryn; Hirashima, Tomonori; Lin, Chia-Chi; Mann, Helen; Cantarini, Mireille; Ghiorghiu, Serban; Jänne, Pasi A

    2017-02-21

    Purpose Osimertinib is an irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) selective for both EGFR-TKI sensitizing ( EGFRm) and T790M resistance mutations. AURA (NCT01802632) is a phase I/II clinical trial to determine the dose, safety, and efficacy of osimertinib. This article reports the results from the phase II extension component. Patients and Methods Patients with EGFR-TKI-pretreated EGFRm- and T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) received once-daily osimertinib 80 mg. T790M status was confirmed by central testing from a tumor sample taken after the most recent disease progression. Patients with asymptomatic, stable CNS metastases that did not require corticosteroids were allowed to enroll. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by independent radiology assessment. Secondary end points were disease control rate, duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), and safety. Patient-reported outcomes comprised an exploratory objective. Results In total, 201 patients received treatment, with a median treatment duration of 13.2 months at the time of data cutoff (November 1, 2015). In evaluable patients (n = 198), ORR was 62% (95% CI, 54% to 68%), and the disease control rate was 90% (95% CI, 85 to 94). Median duration of response in 122 responding patients was 15.2 months (95% CI, 11.3 to not calculable). Median PFS was 12.3 months (95% CI, 9.5 to 13.8). The most common possibly causally related adverse events (investigator assessed) were diarrhea (43%; grade ≥ 3, < 1%) and rash (grouped terms; 40%; grade ≥ 3, < 1%). Interstitial lung disease (grouped terms) was reported in eight patients (4%; grade 1, n = 2; grade 3, n = 3; grade 5, n = 3). Conclusion In patients with EGFRm T790M advanced NSCLC who progress after EGFR-TKI treatment, osimertinib provides a high ORR, encouraging PFS, and durable response.

  18. Cancer patients' attitudes toward treatment options for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: implications for patient education and decision support.

    PubMed

    Brundage, M D; Feldman-Stewart, D; Cosby, R; Gregg, R; Dixon, P; Youssef, Y; Mackillop, W J

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how people weigh both median survival time and 1-year survival probability when considering a choice between palliative Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with best supportive care (C+BSC) versus best supportive care alone (BSC) as treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sixty people, previously treated for cancer, were interviewed as surrogate patients making a treatment decision. The interview included a structured description of the treatment options, and trade-off exercises used to clarify the participants' attitudes pertaining to the survival probabilities associated with each treatment.Participants' attitudes ranged from choosing the more toxic treatment if it offered no survival advantage to declining C+BSC no matter how large its advantage. Fifty-seven percent of participants would choose chemotherapy if the 1-year survival were 10% higher with C+BSC than with BSC alone. For 44 participants (76%), both their median survival and 1-year survival thresholds for accepting C+BSC were consistent, and for two (3%), neither threshold was consistent with their stated treatment preference. For the remaining 12 (21%), one threshold was discordant, but in all cases, this threshold was less relevant to his/her decision. Participants' thresholds could not be predicted reliably on the basis of patient age, sex, education, preferred role in treatment decision making, or previous treatment with chemotherapy. All but one participant recommended the interview as a decision-support strategy for actual patients. The findings suggest that patients with advanced NSCLC should be offered more than one treatment option, and that a systematic process for educating patients and for eliciting their preferences is desirable. The process described herein has potential for use in this clinical setting.

  19. Economic Evaluation of Companion Diagnostic Testing for EGFR Mutations and First-Line Targeted Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eun-A; Bae, Eunmi; Lim, Jaeok; Shin, Young Kee; Choi, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background As targeted therapy becomes increasingly important, diagnostic techniques for identifying targeted biomarkers have also become an emerging issue. The study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treating patients as guided by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status compared with a no-testing strategy that is the current clinical practice in South Korea. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted to compare an EGFR mutation testing strategy with a no-testing strategy from the Korean healthcare payer’s perspective. The study population consisted of patients with stage 3b and 4 lung adenocarcinoma. A decision tree model was employed to select the appropriate treatment regimen according to the results of EGFR mutation testing and a Markov model was constructed to simulate disease progression of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The length of a Markov cycle was one month, and the time horizon was five years (60 cycles). Results In the base case analysis, the testing strategy was a dominant option. Quality-adjusted life-years gained (QALYs) were 0.556 and 0.635, and total costs were $23,952 USD and $23,334 USD in the no-testing and testing strategy respectively. The sensitivity analyses showed overall robust results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) increased when the number of patients to be treated with erlotinib increased, due to the high cost of erlotinib. Conclusion Treating advanced adenocarcinoma based on EGFR mutation status has beneficial effects and saves the cost compared to no testing strategy in South Korea. However, the cost-effectiveness of EGFR mutation testing was heavily affected by the cost-effectiveness of the targeted therapy. PMID:27483001

  20. Cancer-related inflammation as predicting tool for treatment outcome in locally advanced and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Korsic, Marta; Mursic, Davorka; Samarzija, Miroslav; Cucevic, Branka; Roglic, Mihovil; Jakopovic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths and the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents 80% of all cases. In most cases when diagnosed, it is in locally advanced or metastatic stage, when platinum based doublet chemotherapy is the established therapeutic option for majority of the patients. Predictive factors to filter the patients who will benefit the most from the chemotherapy are not clearly defined. Objective of this study was to explore predictive value of pre-treatment C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and their interaction, for the response to the frontline chemotherapy. Methods In this retrospective cohort study 170 patients with locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC were included. Relationship between baseline level of CRP and fibrinogen and response to the frontline chemotherapy was assessed. Results We found that pre-treatment CRP and fibrinogen values were statistically significantly correlated. Chemotherapy and CRP, fibrinogen, and their interaction were independently significantly associated with disease control rate at re-evaluation. There was statistically significant difference in median pre-treatment CRP level between the patients with disease control or progression at re-evaluation, 13.8 vs. 30.0 mg/L respectively, P=0.026. By Johnson-Neyman technique we found that in patients with initial fibrinogen value below 3.5 g/L, CRP level was significantly associated with disease control or progression of the disease. Above this fibrinogen value the association of CRP and disease control was lost. Conclusions The findings from this study support the growing evidence of inflammation and cancer relationship, where elevated pre-treatment level of CRP has negative predictive significance on the NSCLC frontline chemotherapy response. PMID:27499936

  1. Potential of Adaptive Radiotherapy to Escalate the Radiation Dose in Combined Radiochemotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Wilbert, Juergen; Richter, Anne; Baier, Kurt; Flentje, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in terms of lung sparing and dose escalation. Methods and Materials: In 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC, weekly CT images were acquired during radio- (n = 1) or radiochemotherapy (n = 12) for simulation of ART. Three-dimensional (3D) conformal treatment plans were generated: conventionally fractionated doses of 66 Gy were prescribed to the planning target volume without elective lymph node irradiation (Plan{sub 3}D). Using a surface-based algorithm of deformable image registration, accumulated doses were calculated in the CT images acquired during the treatment course (Plan{sub 4}D). Field sizes were adapted to tumor shrinkage once in week 3 or 5 and twice in weeks 3 and 5. Results: A continuous tumor regression of 1.2% per day resulted in a residual gross tumor volume (GTV) of 49% {+-} 15% after six weeks of treatment. No systematic differences between Plan{sub 3}D and Plan{sub 4}D were observed regarding doses to the GTV, lung, and spinal cord. Plan adaptation to tumor shrinkage resulted in significantly decreased lung doses without compromising GTV coverage: single-plan adaptation in Week 3 or 5 and twice-plan adaptation in Weeks 3 and 5 reduced the mean lung dose by 5.0% {+-} 4.4%, 5.6% {+-} 2.9% and 7.9% {+-} 4.8%, respectively. This lung sparing with twice ART allowed an iso-mean lung dose escalation of the GTV dose from 66.8 Gy {+-} 0.8 Gy to 73.6 Gy {+-} 3.8 Gy. Conclusions: Adaptation of radiotherapy to continuous tumor shrinkage during the treatment course reduced doses to the lung, allowed significant dose escalation and has the potential of increased local control.

  2. Pemetrexed combined with paclitaxel in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase I-II trial.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, George P; Dimitroulis, John; Toubis, Michael; Katis, Costas; Karaindros, Dimitris; Stathopoulos, John; Koutandos, John

    2007-07-01

    Pemetrexed, a novel multi-targeted agent established for the treatment of mesothelioma, has been under investigation for other malignancies, and in recent years particularly for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present trial we investigated pemetrexed in combination with paclitaxel as front-line treatment in advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Our objectives were to determine the response rate, median and overall survival and toxicity. From April 2005 until May 2006, 51 patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC were enrolled and 48 were considered evaluable. There were 39 males and nine females, median age 62 years (range 37-81 years), one patient stage IIIA N(2), 23 patients, IIIB and 24, stage IV. All patients had a cytologically- or histologically-confirmed diagnosis. Pemetrexed was administered at a standard dose of 500mg/m(2) and paclitaxel at an escalating dose starting at 135mg/m(2), then 150mg/m(2) and ending at a dose of 175mg/m(2); the level was increased every three patients. Both agents were administered on day 1, repeated every 3 weeks for six courses. A 39.6% partial response rate was observed with a median survival of 14 months. Toxicity was mild with 8.3% grade 3 and 4 neutropenia and other very mild hematologic and non-hematologic adverse reactions. The combination of pemetrexed and paclitaxel at doses of 500mg/m(2) and 175mg/m(2), respectively, has been shown to be an effective combination with very limited toxicity.

  3. Trial-Based Cost-Utility Analysis of Icotinib versus Gefitinib as Second-Line Therapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxiang; Zhang, Hongmei; Shi, Jinning; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xiuwei; Yang, Jian; Zhai, Qizhi; Ma, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    Our objective is to compare the cost-utility of icotinib and gefitinib for the second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system. Model technology was applied to assess the data of randomized clinical trials and the direct medical costs from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system. Five-year quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) were calculated. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were performed. Our model suggested that the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.2 months in the icotinib group and 3.5 months in the gefitinib group while they were 4.6 months and 3.4 months, respectively, in the trials. The 5-year QALYs was 0.279 in the icotinib group and 0.269 in the gefitinib group, and the according medical costs were $10662.82 and $13127.57. The ICUR/QALY of icotinib versus gefitinib presented negative in this study. The most sensitive parameter to the ICUR was utility of PFS, ranging from $-1,259,991.25 to $-182,296.61; accordingly the icotinib treatment consistently represented a dominant cost-utility strategy. The icotinib strategy, as a second-line therapy for advanced NSCLC patients in China, is the preferred strategy relative to gefitinib because of the dominant cost-utility. In addition, icotinib shows a good curative effect and safety, resulting in a strong demand for the Chinese market.

  4. Relationship between quality of life and clinical outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: best supportive care (BSC) versus BSC plus chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thongprasert, S; Sanguanmitra, P; Juthapan, W; Clinch, J

    1999-04-01

    In a prospective randomized study, 287 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIb or IV with ECOG performance status (PS) 0-1 or 2 were randomly assigned to receive either best supportive care (BSC) or supportive care plus combination chemotherapy (IEP regimen: ifosfamide 3 gm/m2 IV with mesna uroprotection, epirubicin 60 mg/m2 IV on day 1 and cisplatin 60 mg/m2 IV on day 2; or MVP regimen: mitomycin-C 8 mg/m2, cisplatin 100 mg/m2 IV on day 1, vinblastine 4 mg/m2 IV on days 1 and 15). Serial assessment of Karnofsky performance status (KPS), modified Functional Living Index-Cancer (T-FLIC) and modified Quality of Life-Index (T-QLI) were used to estimate the quality of life. Interviews were done at entry, at the third month and at 2 months post complete treatment. At least two courses of chemotherapy were considered to be adequate for response evaluation. Patients were treated for a total of four to six courses or until progression of disease. Partial response rates were 40 and 41.7% in IEP and MVP arms. Median survival durations were 5.9 and 8.1 months for the IEP and MVP chemotherapy arms, and 4.1 months for BSC (log-rank test: P = 0.0003). One year survival was 13, 29.8 and 39.3% for the BSC, IEP and MVP regimens, respectively. Two years survival was 7.8, 6.4 and 13.1% for the BSC, IEP and MVP regimens, respectively. Improvement in quality of life (QOL) scores at the first, second and third interview were seen in chemotherapy arms only, not in the BSC arm. We conclude that combination chemotherapy improves the quality of life as well as prolonging the survival of patients with advanced NSCLC.

  5. Vitamin D receptor genetic variants are associated with chemotherapy response and prognosis in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liwen; Cheng, Jinsong; Gao, Jinyu; Wang, Jipeng; Liu, Xiaoning; Wang, Lixin

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) genetic polymorphisms and platinum-based chemotherapy response as well as the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Chinese cohort. Seven hundred fifty-five patients with advanced NSCLC (stage III [A + B] or stage IV) were enrolled. Platinum-based chemotherapy was given to each patient with NSCLC, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated. The VDR polymorphisms were genotyped. Three hundred twenty-one (42.5%) patients responded to chemotherapy (complete response [CR] or partial response [PR]) and 434 (57.5%) patients were nonresponders (stable disease [SD] or progressive disease [PD]). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of FokI, BsmI, and TaqI were not significantly different between chemotherapy responders and nonresponders. However, the genotypic and allelic frequencies of ApaI thymine (T) > guanine (G) were significantly different between the responders and nonresponders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that GG genotype carriers of ApaI T > G had a higher chance of being responders. The ApaI T > G polymorphisms affected mean overall survival (OS). The GG genotype carriers of ApaI polymorphisms had a longer mean OS compared with TT carriers. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that ApaI T > G was significantly associated with OS. We found that there was an effect of ApaI T > G polymorphisms of the VDR gene on the chemotherapy response in patients with NSCLC, as well as a prognostic role of the VDR gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A phase I study of nimotuzumab plus docetaxel in chemotherapy-refractory/resistant patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Zhuo, Minglei; Wang, Zhijie; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Shuhang; An, Tongtong; Wu, Meina; Wang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    To determine the safety and therapeutic efficacy of nimotuzumab (h-R3) combined with docetaxel in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who have failed to respond to prior first-line chemotherapy. In this single-center, open-label, dose-escalating phase I trial, patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing stage IV NSCLC were treated with nimotuzumab plus docetaxel according to a dose escalation schedule. The safety and efficacy of the combination treatment were observed and analyzed. There were 12 patients with EGFR-expressing stage IV NSCLC enrolled. The dose of nimotuzumab was escalated from 200 to 600 mg/week. The longest administration of study drug was 40 weeks at the 600 mg/week dose level. Grade III-IV toxicities included neutropenia and fatigue, and other toxicities included rash. Dose-limiting toxicity occurred with Grade 3 fatigue at the 200 mg dose level of nimotuzumab and Grade 4 neutropenia with pneumonia at the 600 mg dose level of nimotuzumab. No objective responses were observed, and stable disease was observed in eight patients (66.7%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.4 months in all patients, 1.3 months in patients with the EGFR mutation, and 4.4 months in those with wild type EGFR (EGFR WT). The median survival time (MST) was 21.1 months in all patients, 21.1 months in patients with EGFR mutation, and 26.4 months in patients with EGFR WT. Nimotuzumab and docetaxel combination therapy was found to be well tolerated and efficacious. Further study of nimotuzumab is warranted in advanced NSCLC patients.

  7. A phase I study of nimotuzumab plus docetaxel in chemotherapy-refractory/resistant patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Zhuo, Minglei; Wang, Zhijie; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Shuhang; An, Tongtong; Wu, Meina

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the safety and therapeutic efficacy of nimotuzumab (h-R3) combined with docetaxel in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who have failed to respond to prior first-line chemotherapy. Methods In this single-center, open-label, dose-escalating phase I trial, patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing stage IV NSCLC were treated with nimotuzumab plus docetaxel according to a dose escalation schedule. The safety and efficacy of the combination treatment were observed and analyzed. Results There were 12 patients with EGFR-expressing stage IV NSCLC enrolled. The dose of nimotuzumab was escalated from 200 to 600 mg/week. The longest administration of study drug was 40 weeks at the 600 mg/week dose level. Grade III–IV toxicities included neutropenia and fatigue, and other toxicities included rash. Dose-limiting toxicity occurred with Grade 3 fatigue at the 200 mg dose level of nimotuzumab and Grade 4 neutropenia with pneumonia at the 600 mg dose level of nimotuzumab. No objective responses were observed, and stable disease was observed in eight patients (66.7%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.4 months in all patients, 1.3 months in patients with the EGFR mutation, and 4.4 months in those with wild type EGFR (EGFR WT). The median survival time (MST) was 21.1 months in all patients, 21.1 months in patients with EGFR mutation, and 26.4 months in patients with EGFR WT. Conclusions Nimotuzumab and docetaxel combination therapy was found to be well tolerated and efficacious. Further study of nimotuzumab is warranted in advanced NSCLC patients. PMID:27041923

  8. Spotlight on crizotinib in the first-line treatment of ALK-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: patients selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Leprieur, Etienne Giroux; Fallet, Vincent; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Around 4% of advanced non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) have an ALK rearrangement at the time of diagnosis. This molecular feature is more frequent in young patients, with no/light smoking habit and with adenocarcinoma pathological subtype. Crizotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, targeting ALK, ROS1, RON, and MET. The preclinical efficacy results led to a fast-track clinical development. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval was achieved after the Phase I clinical trial in 2011 in ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC progressing after a first-line treatment. In 2013, the randomized Phase III trial PROFILE-1007 confirmed the efficacy of crizotinib in ALK-rearranged NSCLC, compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, in second-line setting or more. In 2014, the PROFILE-1014 trial showed the superiority of crizotinib in the first-line setting compared to the pemetrexed platinum doublet chemotherapy. The response rate was 74%, and the progression-free survival was 10.9 months with crizotinib. Based on these results, crizotinib received approval from the FDA and European Medicines Agency for first-line treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC. The various molecular mechanisms at the time of the progression (ALK mutations or amplification, ALK-independent mechanisms) encourage performing re-biopsy at the time of progression under crizotinib. The best treatment strategy at the progression (crizotinib continuation beyond progression, switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or cytotoxic chemotherapy) depends on the phenotype of the progression, the molecular status, and the physical condition of the patient. PMID:28210164

  9. Effect of overall treatment time on outcomes after concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma: Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) experience

    SciTech Connect

    Machtay, Mitchell; Hsu Chuanchieh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Sause, William T.; Swann, R. Suzanne; Langer, Corey J.; Byhardt, Roger W.; Curran, Walter J.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether overall treatment time affects outcomes after definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Data were analyzed from 3 prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials (RTOG 91-06, 92-04, and 94-10) in which immediate concurrent chemoradiation (cisplatin-based) was the primary therapy for good-performance status Stage III (and selected inoperable Stage II) NSCLC. 'Short' overall treatment time (per protocol) was defined as completing treatment within 5 days of plan; other patients were considered to have had 'prolonged' treatment time (protocol violation); treatment time was also analyzed as a continuous variable in a multivariate model. Actuarial analysis was performed for overall survival, progression-free survival, freedom from local-regional progression, and toxicity. Results: A total of 474 patients were analyzed. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 6.1 years. Treatment time was delivered per protocol in 387 (82%), whereas 87 patients (18%) had a prolonged treatment time. Long treatment time was significantly associated with severe acute esophagitis. Median survival was slightly better in patients completing treatment on time (19.5 months vs. 14.8 months), but this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.15) in the univariate analysis. However, in the multivariate analysis of treatment time as a continuous variable, prolonged treatment time was significantly associated with poorer survival (p = 0.02), indicating a 2% increase in the risk of death for each day of prolongation in therapy. Histology (squamous fared worse) and performance status were also significant in the multivariate model. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis demonstrates a correlation between prolonged overall radiotherapy treatment time and survival in patients with locally advanced NSCLC, even when concurrent chemotherapy is used. Further study of novel radiation

  10. Safety and efficacy of nivolumab and standard chemotherapy drug combination in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a four arms phase Ib study

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, S.; Goto, K.; Shiraishi, H.; Kubo, E.; Tanaka, A.; Utsumi, H.; Sunami, K.; Kitazono, S.; Mizugaki, H.; Horinouchi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Nokihara, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Hozumi, H.; Tamura, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human IgG4 monoclonal antibody nivolumab targets programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and promotes antitumor response by blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands. This single-center phase Ib study investigated the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of nivolumab combined with standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods Patients who had stage IIIB without indication for definitive radiotherapy, stage IV, or recurrent NSCLC were eligible. Regimens were nivolumab 10 mg/kg + gemcitabine/cisplatin (arm A), pemetrexed/cisplatin (arm B), paclitaxel/carboplatin/bevacizumab (arm C), or docetaxel (arm D). Regimens A, B, and D were repeated every 3 weeks for up to four cycles and regimen C was repeated for up to six cycles; nivolumab alone (arm A), with pemetrexed (arm B), bevacizumab (arm C), or docetaxel (arm D) was continued every 3 weeks as maintenance therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was evaluated during the first treatment cycle. Results As of March 2014, six patients were enrolled in each arm. The combination of nivolumab 10 mg/kg and chemotherapy was well tolerated. DLT was observed in only one patient in arm A (alanine aminotransferase increased). Select adverse events (those with a potential immunologic cause) of any grade were observed in six, four, six, and five patients in arms A, B, C, and D, respectively. Three, three, six, and one patient achieved partial response while median progression-free survival was 6.28, 9.63 months, not reached, and 3.15 months in arms A, B, C, and D, respectively. Conclusions Combination of nivolumab 10 mg/kg and chemotherapy showed an acceptable toxicity profile and encouraging antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC. Clinical trials number Japanese Pharmaceutical Information Center Clinical Trials Information (JapicCTI)-132071. PMID:27765756

  11. Front-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with docetaxel and gemcitabine: a multicenter phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Georgoulias, V; Kouroussis, C; Androulakis, N; Kakolyris, S; Dimopoulos, M A; Papadakis, E; Bouros, D; Apostolopoulou, F; Papadimitriou, C; Agelidou, A; Hatzakis, K; Kalbakis, K; Kotsakis, A; Vardakis, N; Vlachonicolis, J

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the tolerance and efficacy of the combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fifty-one chemotherapy-naive patients with NSCLC were treated with gemcitabine 900 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8 and docetaxel 100 mg/m2 intravenously on day 8 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (150 microg/m2, subcutaneously) support from day 9 to day 15. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. The patients' median age was 64 years. The World Health Organization performance status was 0 to 1 in 39 patients and 2 in 12 patients. Fifteen patients (29%) had stage IIIB disease, and 36 (71%) had stage IV; histology was mainly squamous cell carcinoma (59%). A partial response was achieved in 19 patients (37.5%; 95% confidence interval, 24% to 50%); stable disease and progressive disease were each observed in 16 patients (31.4%). The median duration of response and the time to tumor progression were 5 and 6 months, respectively. The median survival was 13 months, and the actuarial 1-year survival was 50.7%. Grade 4 anemia and thrombocytopenia were rare (2%). Four patients (8%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, and all were complicated with fever; there was no treatment-related death. Grade 3 or 4 diarrhea occurred in three patients (6%), grade 2 or 3 neurotoxicity in four patients (8%), grade 2 or 3 asthenia in 10 patients (20%), and grade 2 or 3 edema in 10 patients (20%). The combination of docetaxel/gemcitabine is well tolerated, can be used for outpatients, and is active for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. This treatment merits further comparison with other cisplatin- or carboplatin-based combinations.

  12. Human Leukocyte Antigen G Polymorphism and Expression Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Advanced Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Ben Amor, Amira; Beauchemin, Karine; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Hamzaoui, Agnes; Hamzaoui, Kamel; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G acts as negative regulator of the immune responses and its expression may enable tumor cells to escape immunosurveillance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of HLA-G allelic variants and serum soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels on risk of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 191 Caucasian adults with NSCLC and 191 healthy subjects recruited between January 2009 and March 2014 in Ariana (Tunisia). Serum sHLA-G levels were measured by immunoassay and HLA-G alleles were determined using a direct DNA sequencing procedures. The heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 010101 and -G 010401 were associated with increased risks of both NSCLC and advanced disease stages. In contrast, the heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 0105N and -G 0106 were associated with decreased risks of NSCC and clinical disease stage IV, respectively. Serum sHLA-G levels were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC and particularly in those with advanced disease stages compared to healthy subjects. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.82 for controls vs patients. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity achieved to detect NSCLC was 52.8% at a cutoff value of 24.9 U/ml. Patients with the sHLA-G above median level (≥ 50 U/ml) had a significantly shorter survival time. This study demonstrates that HLA-G allelic variants are independent risk factors for NSCLC. Serum sHLA-G levels in NSCLC patients could be useful biomarkers for the diagnostic and prognosis of NSCLC. PMID:27517300

  13. Is there a prognostic role of K-ras point mutations in the serum of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Camps, Carlos; Sirera, Rafael; Bremnes, Roy; Blasco, Ana; Sancho, Eva; Bayo, Pilar; Safont, Maria Jose; Sánchez, José Javier; Tarón, Miquel; Rosell, Rafael

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of K-ras mutations in circulating DNA in advanced non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Serum samples were assessed prior to platinum-based chemotherapy start in 67 patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB or IV), treated between April 1999 and June 2002. Patients were not previously treated with chemotherapy. K-ras oncogene mutations at codon 12 were analyzed by genomic amplification and direct sequencing of the patient's DNA present in serum. Pre-treatment serum was available in all 67 patients. Twenty patients (30%) demonstrated K-ras mutations while 47 patients (70%) had wild-type K-ras. Among K-ras mutations, the amino acid glycine was substituted by cystein in 90% and valine in 10%. When patients were grouped according to K-ras genotype, there was no significant difference for any of the baseline patient characteristics. There was a tendency towards a higher response rate for patients with K-ras mutations versus wild-type K-ras in serum, however not statistically significant (p=0.37). Median progression-free survival was 7.3 months versus 5.5 months in patients with mutations and with wild-type K-ras, respectively (p=0.23). For median overall survival time, the mutation group was comparable to the wild-type K-ras group with 12.5 and 11.4 months, respectively (p=0.28). In conclusion, there were no significant differences between the patients with K-ras mutations and those with wild-type genotype with respect to baseline patient characteristics, response rates, progression-free survival, or overall survival.

  14. Quantification in the serum of the catalytic fraction of reverse telomerase: a useful prognostic factor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Camps, Carlos; Sirera, Rafael; Bremnes, Roy M; Ródenas, Vanessa; Blasco, Ana; Safont, María José; Garde, Javier; Juarez, Asuncion; Caballero, Cristina; Sanchez, Josie Javier; Taron, Miquel; Rosell, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to study the association between the quantity of free circulating DNA and clinical variables in 99 advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC). The quantification in the serum of the gene of the catalytic fraction of telomerase (hTERT) by RT-PCR was used as a reference of the total amount of free DNA in blood. Patients were treated with cisplatin and docetaxel. The median hTERT level for patients in stage IIIB was 70.7 ng/ml vs. 53.1 ng/ml in patients in stage IV (p= 0.35). There was no association between hTERT values and therapy response, 53.9 ng/ml in the complete response (CR) + partial response (PR) group vs. 54.1 ng/ml in the stable disease (SD) + progressive disease (PD) group (p=0.23). In the multivariate analysis, hTERT was an independent predictive variable for time to progression (TTP) Hazard ratio (HR) 2.0, CI 95% 1.2-3.4, p=0.009) and overall survival (OS) (HR 2.4 CI 95% 1.3-4.3, p=0.004). The analysis of TTP and OS with a cut-off of hTERT at 40 ng/ml revealed that patients about this level had statistically poorer TTP (4 vs. 7 months, p= 0.009) and OS (5 vs. 15 months, p<0.0001). In conclusion, in advanced NSCLC, high serum hTERT levels may be a poor prognostic indicator for TTP and OS.

  15. Gefitinib (IRESSA) in patients of Asian origin with refractory advanced non-small cell lung cancer: subset analysis from the ISEL study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alex; Parikh, Purvish; Thongprasert, Sumitra; Tan, Eng Huat; Perng, Reury-Perng; Ganzon, Domingo; Yang, Chih-Hsin; Tsao, Chao-Jung; Watkins, Claire; Botwood, Nick; Thatcher, Nick

    2006-10-01

    The IRESSA Survival Evaluation in Lung Cancer (ISEL) phase III study compared the efficacy of gefitinib (IRESSA) versus placebo in patients with refractory advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although a statistically significant difference in survival was not seen between gefitinib and placebo in the overall ISEL population, preplanned subset analyses demonstrated a significant survival benefit in patients who had never smoked and in patients of Asian origin. In ISEL, 1692 patients who were refractory to or intolerant of their latest chemotherapy were randomized to receive either gefitinib (250 mg/day) or placebo, plus best supportive care. Preplanned subgroup analyses included an assessment of patients who were of Asian origin (n = 342). Two hundred thirty-five patients of Asian origin received gefitinib, and 107 received placebo. In these patients, treatment with gefitinib significantly improved survival compared with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48, 0.91; p = 0.010; median survival, 9.5 versus 5.5 months). Patients of Asian origin also experienced statistically significant improvements in time to treatment failure with gefitinib compared with placebo (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52, 0.91; p = 0.0084; 4.4 versus 2.2 months), and objective response rates were higher with gefitinib than with placebo (12 versus 2%). Gefitinib was generally well tolerated in patients of Asian origin, with rash and diarrhea being the most common adverse events. No unexpected adverse events were observed. Treatment with gefitinib was associated with a significant improvement in survival in a subgroup of patients of Asian origin with previously treated refractory advanced NSCLC.

  16. Evaluation of gefitinib efficacy according to body mass index, body surface area, and body weight in patients with EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hisao; Kuwako, Tomohito; Kaira, Kyoichi; Masuda, Tomomi; Miura, Yosuke; Seki, Kaori; Sakurai, Reiko; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Sunaga, Noriaki; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Ishihara, Shinichi; Ishizuka, Takao; Mogi, Akira; Hisada, Takeshi; Minato, Koichi; Takise, Atsushi; Saito, Ryusei; Yamada, Masanobu

    2017-03-01

    In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated, advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), common gefitinib-sensitive EGFR mutations that predict a greater response to therapy include the exon 19 deletion and L858R point mutation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether body surface area (BSA), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) affect gefitinib efficacy in such patients. The medical charts of 138 consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations, who underwent gefitinib treatment, were reviewed. The median BSA and BW were used as cutoff values to evaluate their impact on gefitinib efficacy. BMI was categorized as underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal (18.5-25 kg/m(2)), and overweight (≥25 kg/m(2)). The median BSA and BW were 1.48 m(2) and 53 kg, respectively. The overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 65.2%, 12.2, and 24.2 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes according to BSA, BW, or BMI alone. Subgroup analysis based on the mutation type and BSA revealed no significant differences in PFS between the groups; however, the median OS in those with exon 19 deletion combined with low BSA was significantly favorable compared with the other groups. Gefitinib efficacy in patients with NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations did not differ according to BSA, BW, and BMI. However, OS was superior in patients with both the exon 19 deletion and low BSA.

  17. Outcome and toxicity of intensity modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fondevilla Soler, A; López-Guerra, J L; Dzugashvili, M; Sempere Rincón, P; Sautbaet, A; Castañeda, P; Díaz, J M; Praena-Fernandez, J M; Rivin Del Campo, E; Azinovic, I

    2017-06-06

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and treatment outcome of intensity modulated radiation therapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-IMRT) in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 64 NSCLC patients with stage IIB (3%), IIIA (36%), and IIIB (61%) were treated with concomitant (N = 47; 73%) or sequential (N = 9; 14%) chemotherapy between February 2009 and January 2014. Eight patients (13%) received RT alone. All patients received the same irradiation scheme using IMRT: prophylactic dose for mediastinum was 56 Gy at 1.65 Gy/fraction and SIB to macroscopic disease up to 68 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction. The median follow-up was 16 months (range, 1-70 months). The overall survival rate for all patients was 79% after 1 year and 46% after 2 years. Disease-free survival (DFS) was 81 and 45% after 1 and 2 years, respectively, resulting in a median DFS of 16 months. Multivariate analysis showed a statistically significant association between stage IIIB patients and a higher risk of mortality (HR 2.11; P = 0.019). In addition, T4 stage associated with higher risk of recurrence (HR 2.23; P = 0.024) while concomitant chemoradiation was associated with lower risk of any recurrence (HR 0.34; P = 0.004) No patient experienced grade ≥3 esophagitis and only 6 cases (9%) had grade 3 pneumonitis. Only having a higher lung volume was associated with higher risk of pneumonitis in the multivariate analysis (HR 16.21; P = 0.022). This study in advanced NSCLC patients shows that SIB-IMRT is an effective technique with acceptable toxicity, also when combined with chemotherapy.

  18. Health-related quality of life in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer comparing carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel doublet chemotherapy with monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fiteni, Frédéric; Anota, Amélie; Bonnetain, Franck; Oster, Jean-Philippe; Pichon, Eric; Wislez, Marie; Dauba, Jérôme; Debieuvre, Didier; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Bigay-Game, Laurence; Molinier, Olivier; Dansin, Eric; Poudenx, Michel; Milleron, Bernard; Morin, Franck; Zalcman, Gérard; Quoix, Elisabeth; Westeel, Virginie

    2016-09-01

    In the Intergroupe Francophone de Cancérologie Thoracique 0501 trial the carboplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy increased toxicity (most frequent, decreased neutrophil count, asthenia). We longitudinally compared health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the two treatment arms.In total, 451 patients aged 70-89 years with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin plus paclitaxel or vinorelbine or gemcitabine. HRQoL was assessed by means of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire at baseline, week 6 and week 18.Using a five-point decrease as the minimal clinically important difference, patients treated with the chemotherapy doublet exhibited a significant longer time until definitive deterioration (TUDD) for two HRQoL dimensions: physical functioning (median TUDD: 2.04 for the doublet versus 1.71 months for monotherapy; log-rank p=0.01) and nausea and vomiting (median: not reached versus 4.83, respectively; log-rank p=0.046). Cox multivariate analysis revealed the carboplatin and paclitaxel arm to be independently associated with longer TUDD for these two HRQoL dimensions. In addition, TUDD didn't significantly differ between the two arms for all the other HRQoL dimensions.The chemotherapy doublet did not reduce TUDD in elderly patients with advanced NSCLC. Moreover, TUDD was prolonged for two HRQoL dimensions, namely physical functioning and nausea and vomiting. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  19. Phase II Clinical Trial of Gefitinib for the Treatment of Chemonaïve Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Poor Performance Status

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nagla Abdel; Musaad, Salma; Zarzour, Ahmad; Patil, Sadanand; Jazieh, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have no curative treatment options; therefore, improving their quality of life (QOL) is an important goal. Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, is a safe oral agent that may be of benefit to a specific population of NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS A Phase II clinical trial included chemonaïve patients with advanced NSCLC and poor performance status (PS). Response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, QOL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung (FACT-L) questionnaire, and Trial Outcome Index (TOI) were evaluated. RESULTS Twelve out of 19 enrolled patients were evaluable. The median age for the evaluable patients was 68.8 years (59.7–74.6). Out of all the patients, 7 (58.3%) had adenocarcinoma and 5 (41.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The median duration of treatment was 62.5 days (26.5–115.0) in the evaluable patients. Grade 3/4 toxicities included fatigue, rash, diarrhea, and nausea. One patient had partial response, eight patients had stable disease (SD), and three patients progressed. The median overall survival for the evaluable population was 4.9 months (2.3–16). The median progression-free survival was 3.7 months (1.9–6.6). TOI was marginally associated with the overall survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.0) (P = 0.061). FACT-L score and the TOI were highly correlated (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001). TOI scores were higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians and increased with age. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that gefitinib use in patients with NSCLC and poor PS may improve the QOL of older patients and African American patients. PMID:25520566

  20. Human Leukocyte Antigen G Polymorphism and Expression Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Advanced Disease Stage.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, Amira; Beauchemin, Karine; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Hamzaoui, Agnes; Hamzaoui, Kamel; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G acts as negative regulator of the immune responses and its expression may enable tumor cells to escape immunosurveillance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of HLA-G allelic variants and serum soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels on risk of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 191 Caucasian adults with NSCLC and 191 healthy subjects recruited between January 2009 and March 2014 in Ariana (Tunisia). Serum sHLA-G levels were measured by immunoassay and HLA-G alleles were determined using a direct DNA sequencing procedures. The heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 010101 and -G 010401 were associated with increased risks of both NSCLC and advanced disease stages. In contrast, the heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 0105N and -G 0106 were associated with decreased risks of NSCC and clinical disease stage IV, respectively. Serum sHLA-G levels were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC and particularly in those with advanced disease stages compared to healthy subjects. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.82 for controls vs patients. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity achieved to detect NSCLC was 52.8% at a cutoff value of 24.9 U/ml. Patients with the sHLA-G above median level (≥ 50 U/ml) had a significantly shorter survival time. This study demonstrates that HLA-G allelic variants are independent risk factors for NSCLC. Serum sHLA-G levels in NSCLC patients could be useful biomarkers for the diagnostic and prognosis of NSCLC.

  1. Bevacizumab, pemetrexed and carboplatin in first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer patients: Focus on patients with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Stefanou, Dimitra; Stamatopoulou, Sofia; Sakellaropoulou, Antigoni; Akakios, Gavriil; Gkiaouraki, Marina; Gkeka, Despina; Prevezanou, Maria; Ardavanis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Data concerning bevacizumab plus pemetrexed plus carboplatin as first-line treatment for patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with or without brain metastases (BM) are lacking. The present study analyzed the efficacy and safety of this combination as induction therapy, followed by maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus pemetrexed in non-squamous NSCLC patients with or without BM. Treatment-naïve patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0–2 were eligible. Treatment consisted of carboplatin (area under the curve of 5), pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. Responders and patients with stable disease received maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus pemetrexed until disease progression, which was evaluated every 3 cycles, or unacceptable toxicity. Kaplan-Meier median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times were the primary endpoints, and safety was the secondary endpoint. In total, 39 patients, aged 44–78 years (median, 60 years), were treated; 11 (28.2%) of whom presented with BM. The majority of patients (56.4%) completed 6 cycles of induction therapy, and 26 patients continued on to maintenance therapy. The median PFS time was 8.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.05–9.35] and the median OS time was 14.0 months (95% CI, 8.46–19.54). Median PFS and OS times did not differ significantly between patients with or without BM (log rank (Mantel-Cox): PFS, P=0.748 and OS, P=0.447). The majority of patients (76.9%) did not experience adverse events during treatment. Overall, bevacizumab plus pemetrexed plus carboplatin as induction therapy, followed by bevacizumab plus pemetrexed as maintenance therapy was effective and well tolerated in advanced NSCLC, whether brain metastases were present or not. PMID:28101218

  2. Pembrolizumab as first-line therapy for patients with PD-L1-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase 1 trial.

    PubMed

    Hui, R; Garon, E B; Goldman, J W; Leighl, N B; Hellmann, M D; Patnaik, A; Gandhi, L; Eder, J P; Ahn, M-J; Horn, L; Felip, E; Carcereny, E; Rangwala, R; Lubiniecki, G M; Zhang, J; Emancipator, K; Roach, C; Rizvi, N A

    2017-04-01

    Pembrolizumab improved survival as first- and second-line therapy compared with chemotherapy in patients with highly programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressing advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the long-term safety and clinical activity of pembrolizumab as first-line therapy for patients with advanced NSCLC and the correlation between PD-L1 expression and efficacy. In the open-label phase 1b KEYNOTE-001 trial, treatment-naive patients with advanced NSCLC whose tumors expressed PD-L1 (≥1% staining, assessed using a prototype assay) were randomly assigned to intravenous pembrolizumab 2 or 10 mg/kg every 3 (Q3W) or 2 (Q2W) weeks. Response was assessed per central RECIST v1.1 every 9 weeks in all patients who received ≥1 pembrolizumab dose. Using pre-treatment tumor tissue, a clinical assay quantified the percentage of tumor cells expressing PD-L1 as tumor proportion score (TPS). Between 1 March 2013 and 18 September 2015, 101 patients received pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg Q3W (n = 6), 10 mg/kg Q3W (n = 49), or 10 mg/kg Q2W (n = 46). Of these, 27 (26.7%) had TPS ≥50%, 52 (51.5%) had TPS 1%-49%, and 12 (11.9%) had TPS <1%. The objective response rate (ORR) was 27% (27/101, 95% CI 18-37) and median overall survival was 22.1 months (95% CI 17.1-27.2). In patients with PD-L1 TPS ≥50%, ORR, 12-month PFS, and 12-month OS were higher [14/27 (51.9%; 95% CI 32%-71%), 54%, and 85%, respectively] than the overall population [27/101 (26.7%; 95% CI 18.4%-36.5%), 35%, 71%]. Pembrolizumab was well tolerated, with only 12 (11.9%) patients experiencing grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events and no treatment-related deaths. Pembrolizumab provides promising long-term OS benefit with a manageable safety profile for PD-L1-expressing treatment-naive advanced NSCLC, with greatest efficacy observed in patients with TPS ≥50%. KEYNOTE-001 (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01295827).

  3. Intercalated Chemotherapy and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors for Patients With Advanced Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    La Salvia, Anna; Rossi, Antonio; Galetta, Domenico; Gobbini, Elisa; De Luca, Emmanuele; Novello, Silvia; Di Maio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of concurrent epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) plus chemotherapy for unselected patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) produced negative results. Intercalated administration could avoid the reduction of chemotherapy activity due to G1 cell-cycle arrest from EGFR-TKIs. A PubMed search was performed in December 2015 and updated in February 2016. The references from the selected studies were also checked to identify additional eligible trials. Furthermore, the proceedings of the main international meetings were searched from 2010 onward. We included RCTs comparing chemotherapy intercalated with an EGFR-TKI versus chemotherapy alone for patients with advanced NSCLC. Ten RCTs were eligible (6 with erlotinib, 4 with gefitinib): 39% of patients had a known EGFR mutational status, 43% of whom EGFR mutation positive. The intercalated combination was associated with a significant improvement in overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.95; P = .01), progression-free survival (PFS; HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.53-0.68; P < .00001), and objective response rate (ORR; odds ratio [OR], 2.70; 95% CI, 2.08-3.49; P < .00001). Considering only first-line trials, similar differences were found in OS (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-1.00; P = .05), PFS (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.55-0.73; P < .00001), and ORR (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.65-2.95; P < .00001). In EGFR mutation-positive patients, the addition of an intercalated EGFR-TKI produced a significant benefit in PFS (129 patients; HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.16-0.37; P < .00001) and ORR (168 patients; OR, 11.59; 95% CI, 5.54-24.25; P < .00001). In patients with advanced NSCLC, chemotherapy plus intercalated EGFR-TKIs was superior to chemotherapy alone, although a definitive interpretation was jeopardized by the variable proportion of patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumors included.

  4. Direct costs associated with the disease management of patients with unresectable advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Pompen, Marjolein; Gok, Murat; Novák, Annoesjka; van Wuijtswinkel, Rob; Biesma, Bonne; Schramel, Franz; Stigt, Jos; Smit, Hans; Postmus, Pieter

    2009-04-01

    Disease management and costs of treatment of patients with unresectable advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in The Netherlands are not well known. A retrospective medical chart review was performed by collecting data from the time of diagnosis until the time of death or the end of the evaluation period. In addition to the demographic data, information was collected on the overall management of the patient. Hospital resource utilisation data collected included number of outpatient specialist visits, number and length of hospitalisation, type and number of diagnostic and laboratory procedures, type and number of radiotherapy cycles and detailed information on chemotherapy. To evaluate the economic impact of second-line treatment, a distinction was made between patients who received only best supportive care (BSC, group A) and those who received chemotherapy as a second-line treatment in addition to BSC (group B). The study was performed from the hospital perspective and reports on 2005 costs. Of 102 patients, 74 belonged to group A and 28 to group B. Patient management included a multidisciplinary approach, the extent of which depended on symptoms of the disease and presence of metastases. The average total treatment cost per patient per year of unresectable advanced NSCLC in The Netherlands was euro32,840 in group A and euro31,187 in group B. In both groups, hospitalisation was the major cost driver. In group B second-line chemotherapy was the second largest contributor of the costs. In spite of the difference in numbers of treatment lines provided to patients in groups A and B the total average costs per patient per year were comparable. Overall, the management of unresectable advanced NSCLC appeared to conform with current guidelines in The Netherlands. These patients show high medical resource consumption, with hospitalisation being the main cost driver in both groups. As economic arguments are becoming increasingly important in medical decision making on

  5. A randomized phase II study of the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat as maintenance therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiappori, A A; Kolevska, T; Spigel, D R; Hager, S; Rarick, M; Gadgeel, S; Blais, N; Von Pawel, J; Hart, L; Reck, M; Bassett, E; Burington, B; Schiller, J H

    2015-02-01

    Continuation or 'switch' maintenance therapy is commonly used in patients with advancd non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the telomerase inhibitor, imetelstat, as switch maintenance therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. The primary end point of this open-label, randomized phase II study was progression-free survival (PFS). Patients with non-progressive, advanced NSCLC after platinum-based doublet (first-line) chemotherapy (with or without bevacizumab), any histology, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 were eligible. Randomization was 2 : 1 in favor of imetelstat, administered at 9.4 mg/kg on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle, or observation. Telomere length (TL) biomarker exploratory analysis was carried out in tumor tissue by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and telomerase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 116 patients enrolled, 114 were evaluable. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were more frequent with imetelstat. Median PFS was 2.8 and 2.6 months for imetelstat-treated versus control [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.844; 95% CI 0.54-1.31; P = 0.446]. Median survival time favored imetelstat (14.3 versus 11.5 months), although not significantly (HR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.41-1.12; P = 0.129). Exploratory analysis demonstrated a trend toward longer median PFS (HR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.14-1.3; P = 0.124) and overall survival (OS; HR = 0.41; 95% CI 0.11-1.46; P = 0.155) in imetelstat-treated patients with short TL, but no improvement in median PFS and OS in patients with long TL (HR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.39-1.88; and HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.2-1.28; P = 0.145). Maintenance imetelstat failed to improve PFS in advanced NSCLC patients responding to first-line therapy. There was a trend toward a improvement in median PFS and OS in patients with short TL. Short TL as a predictive biomarker will require further investigation for the clinical development of imetelstat. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  6. The Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjunctive Therapy for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ou-Yang, Chen Sheng; Wang, Xi-Xin; Yang, Zhen-Jiang; Tong, Yao; Cho, William C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Many published studies reflect the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) use in combination with conventional cancer therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM combined with conventional chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Publications in 11 electronic databases were extensively searched, and 24 trials were included for analysis. A sum of 2,109 patients was enrolled in these studies, at which 1,064 patients participated in CT combined CHM and 1,039 in CT (six patients dropped out and were not reported the group enrolled). Compared to using CT alone, CHM combined with CT significantly increase one-year survival rate (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.15–1.60, p = 0.0003). Besides, the combined therapy significantly increased immediate tumor response (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.19–1.56, p<1.0E−5) and improved Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (RR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.62–5.18, p = 0.0003). Combined therapy remarkably reduced the nausea and vomiting at toxicity grade of III–IV (RR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.12–0.50, p = 0.0001) and prevented the decline of hemoglobin and platelet in patients under CT at toxicity grade of I–IV (RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.51–0.80, p<0.0001). Moreover, the herbs that are frequently used in NSCLC patients were identified. This systematic review suggests that CHM as an adjuvant therapy can reduce CT toxicity, prolong survival rate, enhance immediate tumor response, and improve KPS in advanced NSCLC patients. However, due to the lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials in the included studies, further larger scale trials are needed. PMID:23469033

  7. Cost-effectiveness of adding rh-endostatin to first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Chen, Huafeng; Shen, Jinfang; Ye, Ming

    2011-10-01

    Adding rh-endostatin to standard platinum-based chemotherapy may significantly improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the cost-effectiveness of this practice is unclear. The purpose of this cost-effectiveness analysis was to estimate the effects of adding rh-endostatin to standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC on health and economic outcomes in China. A semi-Markov model was constructed to track 3-week patient transitions between 3 health states: progression-free survival, progressed survival, and death. Probabilities were derived mainly from the results of a pivotal Phase III trial assessing the addition of rh-endostatin to standard first-line chemotherapy with vinorelbine-cisplatin in patients with advanced NSCLC. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the Chinese health care system, and the analysis was run over a 10-year time horizon. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of adding rh-endostatin at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of 3 × the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. According to the model, treatment with rh-endostatin plus standard chemotherapy would increase overall survival by 0.63 years and 0.35 QALYs per patient compared with standard chemotherapy, at an additional cost of $8402.60. The ICER for adding rh-endostatin to chemotherapy was $24,454.25/QALY gained (at a 3% discounted rate). On 1-way sensitivity analysis, the utility value of progression-free survival was the most influential factor on the results, followed by the cost of rh-endostatin. On probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the probabilities of cost-effectiveness varied by region due to discrepant per-capita GDPs in China. Modeling to extrapolate clinical survival beyond trial completion was the main limitation. The findings from the present

  8. Correlation between the international consensus definition of the Cancer Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome (CACS) and patient-centered outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Thomas W; Nipp, Ryan D; Rushing, Christel N; Samsa, Greg P; Locke, Susan C; Kamal, Arif H; Cella, David F; Abernethy, Amy P

    2015-04-01

    The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is common in patients with advanced solid tumors and is associated with adverse outcomes including poor quality of life (QOL), impaired functioning, and shortened survival. To apply the recently posed weight-based international consensus CACS definition to a population of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore its impact on patient-reported outcomes. Ninety-nine patients participated in up to four study visits over a six-month period. Longitudinal assessments included measures of physical function, QOL, and other clinical variables such as weight and survival. Patients meeting the consensus CACS criteria at Visit 1 had a significantly shorter median survival (239.5 vs. 446 days; hazard ratio, 2.06, P < 0.05). Physical function was worse in the CACS group (mean Karnofsky Performance Status score 68 vs. 77, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status score 1.8 vs. 1.3, P < 0.05 for both), as was QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G] Lung Cancer subscale of 17.2 vs. 19.9, Anorexia/Cachexia subscale of 31.4 vs. 37.9, P < 0.05 for both). Differences in the FACT-G and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue subscale approached but did not reach statistical significance. Longitudinally, all measures of physical function and QOL worsened regardless of CACS status, but the rate of decline was more rapid in the CACS group. The weight-based component of the recently proposed international consensus CACS definition is useful in identifying patients with advanced NSCLC who are likely to have significantly inferior survival and who will develop more precipitous declines in physical function and QOL. This definition may be useful for clinical screening purposes and identify patients with high palliative care needs. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation between EGFR mutation status and response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shu; Wang, Zhehai; Guo, Jun; Liu, Jie; Li, Changzheng; Liu, Lin; Shi, Huan; Liu, Liyan; Li, Huihui; Xie, Chao; Zhang, Xia; Sun, Wenwen; Li, Minmin

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and the response to first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A total of 266 patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC who received platinum-based doublet therapies as first-line chemotherapy were investigated retrospectively, and their clinical data were assessed according to EGFR mutation. Results EGFR mutations were identified in 45.5% of patients. There was no significant difference in response rate between EGFR mutation carriers and EGFR wild-type carriers (P=0.484). Among the patients with Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) wild-type, however, those with EGFR mutations responded better to treatment than EGFR wild-type patients (46.2% versus 20.8%, P=0.043). The disease control rate associated with pemetrexed-based treatments was higher than for vinorelbine-based therapies in EGFR mutation patients (P=0.001). EGFR mutation was found in patients with longer progression-free survival and median survival time, and improved 1-year and 2-year overall survival when compared with EGFR wild-type patients (6.1 versus 5.0 months, P=0.004; 18.9 versus 13.8 months, P=0.001; 81.0% versus 63.4%, P=0.002; and 33.9% versus 22.8% P=0.044, respectively). Patients with the EGFR exon 19 mutation had longer progression-free survival than those with EGFR exon 21 mutation (P=0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that the response to first-line chemotherapy and the presence of EGFR mutations were independent prognostic factors in patients with advanced NSCLC. Conclusion Our data showed that the presence of EGFR mutations meant longer survival times for patients with advanced NSCLC who received platinum-based doublet first-line chemotherapy, especially in those with the exon 19 deletion mutation. Among KRAS wild-type patients, those with EGFR mutation responded better to first

  10. Weight Gain in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients During Treatment With Split-Course Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Is Associated With Superior Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Gielda, Benjamin T.; Mehta, Par; Khan, Atif; Marsh, James C.; Zusag, Thomas W.; Warren, William H.; Fidler, Mary Jo; Abrams, Ross A.; Bonomi, Philip; Liptay, Michael; Faber, L. Penfield

    2011-11-15

    Background: Preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is an accepted treatment for potentially resectable, locally advanced, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We reviewed a decade of single institution experience with preoperative split-course CRT followed by surgical resection to evaluate survival and identify factors that may be helpful in predicting outcome. Methods and Materials: All patients treated with preoperative split-course CRT and resection at Rush University Medical Center (RUMC) between January 1999 and December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Patient and treatment related variables were assessed for correlation with outcomes. Results: A total of 54 patients were analyzed, 76% Stage IIIA, 18% Stage IIIB, and 6% oligometastatic. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 31.5%, and the absence of nodal metastases (pN0) was 64.8%. Median OS and 3-year actuarial survival were 44.6 months and 50%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed initial stage (p < 0.01) and percent weight change during CRT (p < 0.01) significantly correlated with PFS/OS. On multivariate analysis initial stage (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.18-4.90; p = 0.02) and percent weight change (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.93; p < 0.01) maintained significance with respect to OS. There were no cases of Grade 3+ esophagitis, and there was a single case of Grade 3 febrile neutropenia. Conclusions: The strong correlation between weight change during CRT and OS/PFS suggests that this clinical parameter may be useful as a complementary source of predictive information in addition to accepted factors such as pathological response.

  11. Cost-utility and budget impact analyses of gefitinib in second-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer from Thai payer perspective.

    PubMed

    Thongprasert, Sumitra; Tinmanee, Sirana; Permsuwan, Unchalee

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the cost utility and budget impact of second-line gefitinib for non-small cell lung cancer from a Thai payer perspective.   A Markov model with three health states (pre-progression, post-progression and death) was constructed to estimate direct medical costs and outcomes comparing four treatment options, i.e., gefitinib, erlotinib, pemetrexed and docetaxel. The model followed patients for 2 years with discount rate of 3% annually. Clinical inputs and patients' characteristics were based on a randomized phase III trial (INTEREST). Costs were based on reference prices published by the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, and other information related to treatment from expert opinion and presented in 2010. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the impact of model parameters on results. In the base case model, gefitinib and erlotinib yielded equal quality-adjusted life years (QALY) but 0.0140 and 0.0110 more QALY compared with docetaxel and pemetrexed, respectively. Total costs were 188 848 Baht (US$6237) for gefitinib, 196 313 Baht (US$6483) for docetaxel, 249 177 Baht (US$8229) for erlotinib and 275 303 Baht (US$9092) for pemetrexed. Drug acquisition contributed the greatest component. A series of sensitivity analyses demonstrated the robustness to various parameter variations except for docetaxel cost and duration of treatment. The budget impact analyses demonstrate the greater the percentage of substitution of gefitinib for docetaxel (ranging from 10-60%) the greater the cost saving.   Gefitinib is a dominant cost saving strategy compared with docetaxel for the second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC from the Thai payer perspective. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Can Be Used Safely to Boost Residual Disease in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Feddock, Jonathan; Arnold, Susanne M.; Shelton, Brent J.; Sinha, Partha; Conrad, Gary; Chen, Li; Rinehart, John; McGarry, Ronald C.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a prospective, single-institution study evaluating the feasibility of conventional chemoradiation (CRT) followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a means of dose escalation for patients with stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with residual disease. Methods and Materials: Patients without metastatic disease and with radiologic evidence of limited residual disease (≤5 cm) within the site of the primary tumor and good or complete nodal responses after standard CRT to a target dose of 60 Gy were considered eligible. The SBRT boost was done to achieve a total combined dose biological equivalent dose >100 Gy to the residual primary tumor, consisting of 10 Gy × 2 fractions (20 Gy total) for peripheral tumors, and 6.5 Gy × 3 fractions (19.5 Gy total) for medial tumors using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0813 definitions. The primary endpoint was the development of grade ≥3 radiation pneumonitis (RP). Results: After a median follow-up of 13 months, 4 patients developed acute grade 3 RP, and 1 (2.9%) developed late and persistent grade 3 RP. No patients developed grade 4 or 5 RP. Mean lung dose, V2.5, V5, V10, and V20 values were calculated for the SBRT boost, and none were found to significantly predict for RP. Only advancing age (P=.0147), previous smoking status (P=.0505), and high CRT mean lung dose (P=.0295) were significantly associated with RP development. At the time of analysis, the actuarial local control rate at the primary tumor site was 82.9%, with only 6 patients demonstrating recurrence. Conclusions: Linear accelerator-based SBRT for dose escalation of limited residual NSCLC after definitive CRT was feasible and did not increase the risk for toxicity above that for standard radiation therapy.

  13. The effect of consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy on the survival of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinshuai; Ding, Xuezhen; Kong, Dejiu; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yibo; Ren, Jing; Hu, Xiaochen; Yang, Junqiang; Gao, Shegan

    2017-04-01

    Whether consolidation chemotherapy (CCT) after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) helps in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) is controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of CCT on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR) and toxicities in patients with inoperable LA-NSCLC. PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, WanFang, VIP, and CNKI were searched to identify any relevant publications. After screening the literature and completing quality assessment and data extraction, the meta-analysis was performed using RevMan5.3 software. Ultimately, 5 eligible studies with a total of 1036 patients were selected for the present meta-analysis. The results of the analysis indicated that treatment of LA-NSCLC patients with CRT followed by CCT improved OS (pooled HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.73-0.99; P = 0.03), but did not improve PFS (pooled HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.60-1.02; P = 0.07) and ORR (P = 0.26). Although it could increase the risk of grade ≥3 infection (P = 0.04), it may not increase the risk of grade ≥3 radiation pneumonitis (P = 0.09) during the CCT period. CCT after concurrent CRT may provide additional benefits in the treatment of LA-NSCLC. Although this therapeutic strategy did not prolong PFS, further assessment is warranted.

  14. Molecular predictors of outcome with gefitinib in a phase III placebo-controlled study in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Fred R; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Bunn, Paul A; Franklin, Wilbur A; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Thatcher, Nick; Chang, Alex; Parikh, Purvish; Pereira, José Rodrigues; Ciuleanu, Tudor; von Pawel, Joachim; Watkins, Claire; Flannery, Angela; Ellison, Gillian; Donald, Emma; Knight, Lucy; Parums, Dinah; Botwood, Nicholas; Holloway, Brian

    2006-11-01

    The phase III Iressa Survival Evaluation in Lung Cancer (ISEL) trial compared gefitinib with placebo in 1,692 patients with refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We analyzed ISEL tumor biopsy samples to examine relationships between biomarkers and clinical outcome after gefitinib treatment in a placebo-controlled setting. Biomarkers included epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number by fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 370); EGFR (n = 379) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) protein expression (n = 382) by immunohistochemistry; and mutations in EGFR (n = 215), KRAS (n = 152), and BRAF (n = 118). High EGFR gene copy number was a predictor of a gefitinib-related effect on survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61 for high copy number and HR, 1.16 for low copy number; comparison of high v low copy number HR, P = .045). EGFR protein expression was also related to clinical outcome (HR for positive, 0.77; HR for negative, 1.57; comparison of high v low protein expression HR, P = .049). Patients with EGFR mutations had higher response rates than patients without EGFR mutations (37.5% v 2.6%); there were insufficient data for survival analysis. No relationship was observed between p-Akt protein expression and survival outcome, and the limited amount of data collected for KRAS and BRAF mutations prevented any meaningful evaluation of clinical outcomes in relation to these mutations. EGFR gene copy number was a predictor of clinical benefit from gefitinib in ISEL. Additional studies are warranted to assess these biomarkers fully for the identification of patients most likely to benefit from gefitinib treatment.

  15. [Prognostic markers of advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma -  assessing the significance of oncomarkers using data-mining techiques RPA].

    PubMed

    Cingelová, S; Labudová, V; Berkešová, D; Dienerová, M; Dammak, A; Grmanová, E; Nádaská, O; Vasilenková, I; Najšelová, E; Skarbová, V; Migašová, M; Viktorínová, Z; Jurga, L

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new prognostic factors can help in designing future clinical studies. In the case of advanced non-small cell lung cancer, there might be good candidates - tumor markers CYFRA 21-1, CEA or NSE [1-8]. It is possible to evaluate the relationship between their expression and prognosis by data mining technique recursive partitioning and amalgamation. We analyzed retrospective data of 162 patients of Oncology clinics in Trnava. All of these patients were admitted between 2008 and 2012 for the administration of first-line chemotherapy according to current recommendations. We evaluated the impact of known pretreatment prognostic markers - performance status, weight loss, smoking, age, sex, stage, histologic subtype, comorbidity and oncomarkers CYFRA 21-1, CEA or NSE, as well as combinations of these factors on survival. Our analyses showed that there are three subgroups of patients with good, intermediate and unfavorable prognosis. Oncomarkers played an important role in formation of a subgroup of 49 patients with good prognosis - including patients with no pretreatment weight loss and low levels of CEA ( 4.1 ng/ml) or NSE ( 11.1 ng/ml). In this subgroup, the median survival time was at least 16 months (not achieved) and the difference in survival compared to the rest of the group was highly statistically significant (risk ratio 5.21, 95% CI 1.41-19.28; p < 0.0001). We showed the prognostic significance of low levels of NSE and CEA oncomarkers in the group of patients with no pretreatment weight loss. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation is a useful data mining method, but the generated hypothesis needs to be confirmed by further clinical study designed for this purpose

  16. A Phase III Clinical Trial of the Epidermal Growth Factor Vaccine CIMAvax-EGF as Switch Maintenance Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro C; Popa, Xitllaly; Martínez, Odeth; Mendoza, Silvia; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Crespo, Tatiana; Amador, Rosa M; Fleytas, Ricardo; Acosta, Soraida C; Otero, Yanine; Romero, Gala N; de la Torre, Ana; Cala, Mireysi; Arzuaga, Lina; Vello, Loisel; Reyes, Delmairis; Futiel, Niurka; Sabates, Teresa; Catala, Mauricio; Flores, Yoanna I; Garcia, Beatriz; Viada, Carmen; Lorenzo-Luaces, Patricia; Marrero, Maria A; Alonso, Liuba; Parra, Jenelin; Aguilera, Nadia; Pomares, Yaisel; Sierra, Patricia; Rodríguez, Gryssell; Mazorra, Zaima; Lage, Agustin; Crombet, Tania; Neninger, Elia

    2016-08-01

    EGFR is a well-validated target for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CIMAvax-EGF is a therapeutic cancer vaccine composed of human recombinant EGF conjugated to a carrier protein and Montanide ISA51 as adjuvant. The vaccine is intended to induce antibodies against self EGFs that block EGF-EGFR interaction. To evaluate overall survival, safety, immunogenicity, and EGF concentration in serum after CIMAvax-EGF, a randomized phase III trial was done in patients with advanced NSCLC. Four to 6 weeks after first-line chemotherapy, 405 patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were randomly assigned to a vaccine group, which received CIMAvax-EGF or a control group, treated with best supportive care. Long-term vaccination was very safe. Most frequent adverse reactions were grade 1 or 2 injection-site pain, fever, vomiting, and headache. Vaccination induced anti-EGF antibodies and decreased serum EGF concentration. In the safety population, median survival time (MST) was 10.83 months in the vaccine arm versus 8.86 months in the control arm. These differences were not significant according the standard log rank (HR, 0.82; P = 0.100), but according a weighted log rank (P = 0.04) that was applied once the nonproportionality of the HR was verified. Survival benefit was significant (HR, 0.77; P = 0.036) in the per-protocol setting (patients receiving at least four vaccine doses): MST was 12.43 months for the vaccine arm versus 9.43 months for the control arm. MST was higher (14.66 months) for vaccinated patients with high EGF concentration at baseline. Switch maintenance with CIMAvax-EGF was well tolerated and significantly increased MST of patients that completed induction vaccination. Baseline EGF concentration predicted survival benefit. Clin Cancer Res; 22(15); 3782-90. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Customized chemotherapy based on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status for elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Shiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Masago, Katsuhiro; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Tomii, Keisuke; Kaneda, Toshihiko; Hirabayashi, Masataka; Kunimasa, Kei; Morizane, Toshio; Mio, Tadashi

    2012-05-21

    Elderly patients are more vulnerable to toxicity from chemotherapy. Activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are associated with enhanced response to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. We studied patients with advanced NSCLC for whom treatment was customized based on EGFR mutation status. We screened 57 chemotherapy-naïve patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC, stage IIIB or IV, aged 70 years or older, and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, for EGFR exon 19 codon 746-750 deletion and exon 21 L858R mutation. Twenty-two patients with EGFR mutations received gefitinib; 32 patients without mutations received vinorelbine or gemcitabine. The primary endpoint was the response rate. The response rate was 45.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.4%, 67.8%) in patients with EGFR mutations and 18.8% (95% CI: 7.2%, 36.4%) in patients without EGFR mutations. The median overall survival was 27.9 months (95%CI: 24.4 months, undeterminable months) in patients with EGFR mutations and 14.9 months (95%CI: 11.0 months, 22.4 months) in patients without EGFR mutations. In the gefitinib group, grade 3/4 hepatic dysfunction and dermatitis occurred in 23% and 5% of patients, respectively. In patients treated with vinorelbine or gemcitabine, the most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (47%; four had febrile neutropenia), anemia (13%), and anorexia (9%). No treatment-related deaths occurred. Treatment customization based on EGFR mutation status deserves consideration, particularly for elderly patients who often cannot receive second-line chemotherapy due to poor organ function or comorbidities. This trial is registered at University hospital Medical Information Network-clinical trial registration (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm) with the registration identification number C000000436.

  18. Supraclavicular lymph node incisional biopsies have no influence on the prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Song; Zhao, Ning; Deng, Wei; Sun, Hui-Wen; Niu, Fei-Yu; Yang, Jin-Ji; Zhong, Wen-Zhao; Li, Feng; Yan, Hong-Hong; Xu, Chong-Rui; Zhang, Qiu-Yi; Yang, Xue-Ning; Liao, Ri-Qiang; Nie, Qiang; Wu, Yi-Long

    2017-01-09

    Supraclavicular lymph node (SCLN) biopsies play an important role in diagnosing and staging lung cancer. However, not all patients with SCLN metastasis can have a complete resection. It is still unknown whether SCLN incisional biopsies affect the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Patients who were histologically confirmed to have NSCLC with SCLN metastasis were enrolled in the study from January 2007 to December 2012 at Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute. The primary endpoint was OS, and the secondary endpoints were complications and local recurrence/progression. Two hundred two consecutive patients who had histologically confirmed NSCLC with SCLN metastasis were identified, 163 with excisional and 39 with incisional biopsies. The median OS was not significantly different between the excisional (10.9 months, 95% CI 8.7-13.2) and incisional biopsy groups (10.1 months, 95% CI 6.3-13.9), P = 0.569. Multivariable analysis showed that an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) ≥2 (HR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.71-4.38, P < 0.001) indicated a worse prognosis. Having an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.84, P = 0.004) and receiving systemic treatment (HR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.25-0.53, P < 0.001) were associated with a favorable OS. Neither the number (multiple vs. single) nor site (bilateral vs. unilateral) of SCLNs was associated with an unfavorable OS, and SCLN size or fixed SCLNs did not affect OS. SCLN incisional biopsies did not negatively influence the prognosis of NSCLC patients. It was safe and feasible to partly remove a metastatic SCLN as a last resort in advanced NSCLC.

  19. Body mass index and its association with clinical outcomes for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients enrolled on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Schiller, Joan H; Bonomi, Philip B; Sandler, Alan B; Brahmer, Julie R; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Johnson, David H

    2013-09-01

    Obesity increases the risk of death from many adverse health outcomes and has also been linked with cancer outcomes. The impact of obesity on outcomes of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients is unclear. The authors evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI) and outcomes in 2585 eligible patients enrolled in three consecutive first-line trials conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. BMI was categorized as underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m), normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to < 25 kg/m), overweight (BMI: 25 to < 30 kg/m), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m). In addition to analyzing overall and progression-free survival, reasons for treatment discontinuation were also assessed by BMI group. Of the patients enrolled, 4.6% were underweight, 44.1% were normal weight, 34.3% of patients were classified as overweight, and 16.9% were obese. Nonproportional hazards existed for obese patients relative to the other three groups of patients, with a change in overall survival hazard occurring at approximately 16 months. In multivariable Cox models, obese patients had superior outcomes earlier on study compared with normal/overweight patients 0.86 (HR=0.86, p=0.04; 95% CI: 0.75-0.99), but later experienced increased hazard (HR=1.54, p< 0.001; 95% CI: 1.22-1.94), indicating a time effect while undergoing treatment. Data from these three trials suggest differential outcomes associated with BMI, and additional studies of the mechanisms underlying this observation, as well as dietary and lifestyle interventions, are warranted to help optimize therapy.

  20. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gota, Vikram; Kavathiya, Krunal; Doshi, Kartik; Gurjar, Murari; Damodaran, Solai E; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Methods Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Results Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Conclusion Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation. PMID:24940080

  1. Prospective molecular marker analyses of EGFR and KRAS from a randomized, placebo-controlled study of erlotinib maintenance therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Wolfram; Triller, Nadja; Blasinska-Morawiec, Maria; Curescu, Stefan; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Manikhas, Georgy Moiseevich; Mazieres, Julien; Whittom, Renaud; Ward, Carol; Mayne, Karen; Trunzer, Kerstin; Cappuzzo, Federico

    2011-11-01

    The phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled Sequential Tarceva in Unresectable NSCLC (SATURN; BO18192) study found that erlotinib maintenance therapy extended progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had nonprogressive disease following first-line platinum-doublet chemotherapy. This study included prospective analysis of the prognostic and predictive value of several biomarkers. Mandatory diagnostic tumor specimens were collected before initiating first-line chemotherapy and were tested for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression by using immunohistochemistry (IHC), EGFR gene copy number by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and EGFR and KRAS mutations by using DNA sequencing. An EGFR CA simple sequence repeat in intron 1 (CA-SSR1) polymorphism was evaluated in blood. All 889 randomly assigned patients provided tumor samples. EGFR IHC, EGFR FISH, KRAS mutation, and EGFR CA-SSR1 repeat length status were not predictive for erlotinib efficacy. A profound predictive effect on PFS of erlotinib relative to placebo was observed in the EGFR mutation-positive subgroup (hazard ratio [HR], 0.10; P < .001). Significant PFS benefits were also observed with erlotinib in the wild-type EGFR subgroup (HR, 0.78; P = .0185). KRAS mutation status was a significant negative prognostic factor for PFS. This large prospective biomarker study found that patients with activating EGFR mutations derive the greatest PFS benefit from erlotinib maintenance therapy. No other biomarkers were predictive for outcomes with erlotinib, although the study was not powered for clinical outcomes in biomarker subgroups other than EGFR IHC-positive [corrected]. KRAS mutations were prognostic for reduced PFS. The study demonstrated the feasibility of prospective tissue collection for biomarker analyses in NSCLC.

  2. Switch maintenance chemotherapy using S-1 with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Niho, Seiji; Ohe, Yuichiro; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Umemura, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Goto, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    We conducted this single-institute; prospective, non-randomized parallel two-arm phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of switch maintenance chemotherapy with S-1 after induction therapy with a platinum-based regimen in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients not showing disease progression after induction platinum-based chemotherapy received S-1 at the dose of 40mg/m(2) twice daily for 14 consecutive days, every three weeks, with or without bevacizumab (Bev) at the dose of 15mg/kg. In cases where the induction chemotherapy regimen contained Bev, Bev was used as continuation maintenance chemotherapy where appropriate. The efficacy/toxicity of switch maintenance chemotherapy with S-1 and S-1+Bev was evaluated separately. The primary end point of this study was the treatment success rate at three months after the start of S-1 treatment. Between July 2010 and January 2014, 79 patients were enrolled, of which 78 were found to be eligible for inclusion in this study. The treatment success rate at three months was 28.2% (90% confidence interval (CI), 7.1-17.1%) in the S-1 group and 64.1% (90% CI, 50.0-76.8%) in the S-1+Bev group. The primary endpoint was met in the S-1+Bev group. The median PFS and OS were 2.6 months and 11.0 months in the S-1 group, and 4.6 months and 19.9 months in the S-1+Bev group, respectively. The most common grade three toxicity was neutropenia (10% incidence in the S-1+Bev group). There were no cases of febrile neutropenia. Switch maintenance chemotherapy with S-1 in combination with continuation maintenance chemotherapy with bevacizumab yielded modest efficacy with mild and acceptable toxicities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Randomized phase II study of gefitinib compared with placebo in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and poor performance status.

    PubMed

    Goss, Glenwood; Ferry, David; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Laurie, Scott A; Thompson, Joyce; Biesma, Bonne; Hirsch, Fred R; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Duffield, Emma; Ataman, Ozlem U; Zarenda, Marc; Armour, Alison A

    2009-05-01

    To compare gefitinib with placebo in chemotherapy naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and poor performance status. NSCLC patients (chemotherapy naïve, WHO performance status 2 or 3; unfit for chemotherapy; stage IIIB/IV) were randomly assigned to gefitinib (250 mg/d) plus best supportive care (BSC; n = 100) or placebo plus BSC (n = 101). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), quality of life (QOL), pulmonary symptom improvement (PSI), and safety. Correlation of gefitinib efficacy with EGFR gene copy number (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]) was explored. Hazard ratios (HRs; gefitinib:placebo) were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.60 to 1.12; P = .217) for PFS and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.15; P = .272) for OS. As expected for this patient population, OS for both arms was poor, at about 3 months. ORRs were 6.0% (gefitinib) and 1.0% (placebo). QOL and PSI rates were 21.1% and 28.3% (gefitinib) and 20.0% and 28.3% (placebo), respectively. In EGFR FISH-positive patients (n = 32), HRs were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.73) for PFS and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.12) for OS. No unexpected adverse events occurred. There was no statistically significant difference in PFS, OS, and ORRs after treatment with gefitinib or placebo, in the overall population; improvements in QOL and symptoms were similar in both groups. Tolerability profile of gefitinib was consistent with previous studies. PFS was statistically significantly improved for gefitinib-treated patients with EGFR FISH-positive tumors.

  4. Predictive role of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor for the effect of celecoxib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sörenson, Sverre; Fohlin, Helena; Lindgren, Andrea; Lindskog, Magnus; Bergman, Bengt; Sederholm, Christer; Ek, Lars; Lamberg, Kristina; Clinchy, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to investigate if pretreatment plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are predictive of the effect of celecoxib on survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with palliative chemotherapy. A secondary objective is to describe the course of plasma VEGF levels during and after treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy combined with celecoxib or placebo. In a previously published double-blind multicenter phase III trial, 316 patients with NSCLC stage IIIB or IV and World Health Organisation (WHO) performance status 0-2 were randomised to receive celecoxib 400mg b.i.d. or placebo in combination with two-drug platinum-based chemotherapy. Chemotherapy cycle length was three weeks and planned duration of chemotherapy was four cycles. Celecoxib was given for a maximum of one year but was stopped earlier in case of disease progression or prohibitive toxicity. In a subset of patients, plasma VEGF levels were examined at onset of treatment and at 6, 12 and 20 weeks. VEGF levels at start of treatment were obtained in 107 patients at four study sites. The median value was 70 pg/ml. Mean values declined during the first 12 weeks and then increased at 20 weeks. A subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP) analysis showed an inverse relationship between initial plasma VEGF and the impact of celecoxib on survival with zero effect at 200 pg/ml. The effect on survival by celecoxib in the whole subset of patients was positive (hazard ratio (HR)=0.64 [confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.95], p=0.028). Low pretreatment plasma levels of VEGF appear to be predictive of a positive effect of celecoxib on survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells for the immunotherapy of patients with EGFR-expressing advanced relapsed/refractory non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kaichao; Guo, Yelei; Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Li, Xiang; Jia, Hejin; Han, Weidong

    2016-05-01

    The successes achieved by chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cells in hematological malignancies raised the possibility of their use in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). In this phase I clinical study (NCT01869166), patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive (>50% expression), relapsed/refractory NSCLC received escalating doses of EGFR-targeted CAR-T cell infusions. The EGFR-targeted CAR-T cells were generated from peripheral blood after a 10 to 13-day in vitro expansion. Serum cytokines in peripheral blood and copy numbers of CAR-EGFR transgene in peripheral blood and in tissue biopsy were monitored periodically. Clinical responses were evaluated with RECIST1.1 and immune- related response criteria, and adverse events were graded with CTCAE 4.0. The EGFR-targeted CAR-T cell infusions were well-tolerated without severe toxicity. Of 11 evaluable patients, two patients obtained partial response and five had stable disease for two to eight months. The median dose of transfused CAR(+) T cells was 0.97×10(7) cells kg(-1) (interquartile range (IQR), 0.45 to 1.09×10(7) cells kg(-1)). Pathological eradication of EGFR positive tumor cells after EGFR-targeted CAR-T cell treatment can be observed in tumor biopsies, along with the CAR-EGFR gene detected in tumor-infiltrating T cells in all four biopsied patients. The EGFR-targeted CAR-T cell therapy is safe and feasible for EGFR-positive advanced relapsed/refractory NSCLC.

  6. Optimizing Treatment Risk and Benefit for Elderly Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The Right Treatment for the Right Patient.

    PubMed

    Presley, Carolyn J; Gross, Cary P; Lilenbaum, Rogerio C

    2016-05-01

    The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in theJournal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published inJournal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice.A 78-year-old woman with a 40-pack-year smoking history has been referred for treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. She presented with a persistent cough and worsening dyspnea on exertion. A chest x-ray followed by a chest computed tomography scan revealed a 3-cm right upper lobe mass along with a moderate-size pleural effusion. Pleural fluid cytology was positive for adenocarcinoma. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan was negative. A reflex molecular profile, includingKRAS,EGFR,ALK,BRAF,HER2,RET,MET, andROS, did not reveal an actionable abnormality. Her past medical history includes diabetes, hypertension, and osteopenia. Her medications include a β-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, oral antidiabetic agent, calcium, and vitamin D. The laboratory evaluation is notable for a hemoglobin of 10.8 g/dL and a creatinine clearance of 36 mL/min. The other laboratories are within normal limits. She is somewhat limited by the shortness of breath but maintains an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1. She is independent in all of her instrumental and basic activities of daily living and denies falls. She has been referred to discuss treatment options.

  7. Consequences of Anatomic Changes and Respiratory Motion on Radiation Dose Distributions in Conformal Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, Keith R. Starkschall, George; Liu, Helen; Chang, Joe Y.; Bilton, Stephen; Ezhil, Muthuveni; John-Baptiste, Sandra C.; Kantor, Michael; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Mohan, Radhe

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of interfractional changes in anatomy on the target and normal tissue dose distributions during course of radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Weekly respiration-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography scans were acquired for 10 patients. Original beam arrangements from conventional and inverse treatment plans were transferred into each of the weekly four-dimensional computed tomography data sets, and the dose distributions were recalculated. Dosimetric changes to the target volumes and relevant normal structures relative to the baseline treatment plans were analyzed by dose-volume histograms. Results: The overall difference in the mean {+-} standard deviation of the doses to 95% of the planning target volume and internal target volume between the initial and weekly treatment plans was -11.9% {+-} 12.1% and -2.5% {+-} 3.9%, respectively. The mean {+-} standard deviation change in the internal target volume receiving 95% of the prescribed dose was -2.3% {+-} 4.1%. The overall differences in the mean {+-} standard deviation between the initial and weekly treatment plans was 3.1% {+-} 6.8% for the total lung volume exceeding 20 Gy, 2.2% {+-} 4.8% for mean total lung dose, and 34.3% {+-} 43.0% for the spinal cord maximal dose. Conclusion: Serial four-dimensional computed tomography scans provided useful anatomic information and dosimetric changes during radiotherapy. Although the observed dosimetric variations were small, on average, the interfractional changes in tumor volume, mobility, and patient setup was sometimes associated with dramatic dosimetric consequences. Therefore, for locally advanced lung cancer patients, efforts to include image-guided treatment and to perform repeated imaging during the treatment course are recommended.

  8. Correlation of early PET findings with tumor response to molecular targeted agents in patients with advanced driver-mutated non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Tomonobu; Fukushima, Toshirou; Gomi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Nodoka; Mamiya, Keiko; Tateishi, Kazunari; Katou, Akane; Oguchi, Kazuhiro

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) have facilitated not only the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer, but also the prediction of treatment outcome. The present study was designed to assess the usefulness of early FDG-PET examination for predicting subsequent tumor size reduction in response to molecular targeted agents in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with sensitive gene anomalies. I. In 29 targeted lesions of 10 NSCLC patients, changes in FDG uptake before and on day 7 after the initiation of molecular targeted therapy (gefitinib, n = 7; crizotinib, n = 3) were compared with subsequent radiographic tumor size reduction by RECIST. FDG uptake was evaluated as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of each targeted lesion. SUVmax decreased in all lesions after therapy (mean SUVmax 8.3 ± 3.4 before to 3.7 ± 1.8 after therapy, p < 0.05). The % decrease in SUVmax of each lesion was significantly correlated with the % tumor size reduction (r = 0.44). In addition, the reduction rate of SUVmax in metastatic bone lesions after initiation of molecular targeted therapy was significantly lower than that in targeted organs (27.1 ± 27.5 vs. 51.2 ± 21.3%, respectively, p < 0.05). Early reduction in FDG-PET uptake after initiation of molecular targeted agents was able to predict subsequent tumor reduction in patients harboring EGFR-mutated or ALK-positive NSCLC. In addition, nontargeted bone metastasis may have different glucose metabolism after TKI treatment compared with other involved organs.

  9. A prospective, multicentre clinical trial comparing cisplatin plus gemcitabine with cisplatin plus etoposide in patients with locally advanced and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Goksel, Tuncay; Hatipoglu, Osman Nuri; Ozturk, Can; Gorguner, Metin; Kiyik, Murat; Yilmaz, Ugur; Guzelant, Asuman; Tasbakan, Sezai; Tabakoglu, Erhan; Firat, Hikmet; Tutar, Umit; Cikrikicioglu, Sadettin; Akkoclu, Atila; Soyer, Serdar; Cakir, Ebru; Itil, Oya; Sanal, Salahattin

    2005-09-01

    Cisplatin-gemcitabine (PG) and cisplatin-etoposide (PE) combinations are active regimens for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study aimed to compare PG with PE in the treatment of patients with stage IIIB and IV NSCLC. We conducted a prospective, multicentre trial. A total of 166 patients were enrolled into the study and received either gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2)) on days 1, 8 and 15 plus cisplatin (80 mg/m(2)) on day 2 every 4 weeks, or etoposide (100 mg/m(2)) on days 1, 2 and 3 plus cisplatin (80 mg/m(2)) on day 1 every 3 weeks. The overall response rate was superior in the PG group (54.8%vs 39.0%, P=0.045). There was no significant difference in survival between the two groups, with respective median and 1-year survival of 38 weeks and 33.3% for the PG group, and 34 weeks and 23.2% for the PE group. There was also no statistical difference for time to progression between the two groups. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were seen more frequently in the PG group (grade 3 neutropenia, 33.3%vs 15.9%, P=0.012; grade 3 thrombocytopenia, 27.4%vs 3.7%, P<0.001 and grade 4 thrombocytopenia, 10.7%vs 1.2%, P=0.018). PG is an active chemotherapy regimen and has a better response rate than PE in advanced NSCLC, although there was no difference in time to progression and overall survival. A higher incidence of haematological toxicity was seen with PG than with PE.

  10. Pretreatment direct bilirubin and total cholesterol are significant predictors of overall survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Jianlin; Lou, Yuqing; Hu, Song; Yu, Keke; Li, Rong; Zhang, Xueyan; Jin, Bo; Han, Baohui

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the prediction of pretreatment circulating bilirubin and cholesterol for overall survival in 459 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Circulating total bilirubin, direct bilirubin (DB), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured at baseline. The mean age (standard deviation) of all study patients was 58.7 (10.5) years, and 42.9% of them was males. Ever smokers accounted for 27.0% and lung adenocarcinoma for 90.4%. The median follow-up time and survival time were 29.5 and 34.9 months, respectively. Patients with higher DB had a 1.68-fold increased risk of death compared with patients with lower DB (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.30, p = 0.001), while patients with higher TC were at a 63% reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower TC (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.20-0.67, p = 0.001). As for HDL-C, patients with higher levels had the risk of death reduced by 46% (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-1.00, p = 0.049) compared with patients with lower levels. After the Bonferroni correction, only DB and TC were significantly associated with NSCLC survival. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that pretreatment DB was identified as a significant risk factor, yet TC as a protective factor, for overall survival in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations.

  11. Concomitant etoposide and cisplatin provided improved survival compared with docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Fatma; Tambas, Makbule; Ozkaya, Kubra; Guveli, Murat Emin; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Ozkan, Berker; Oral, Ethem Nezih; Saglam, Esra Kaytan; Saip, Pinar; Toker, Alper; Demir, Adalet; Firat, Pinar; Aydiner, Adnan; Eralp, Yesim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Presently, there is no consensus regarding which chemotherapy regimen is best to administer with radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Herein, our aim was to compare the outcome of patients treated with either etoposide–cisplatin (EP) or docetaxel–cisplatin (DP) in this curative setting. Patients treated with either EP or DP and concurrent radiotherapy from 2004 to2012 were identified and their detailed medical records and follow-up information were obtained for analysis in this retrospective study. Survival rates were compared using Cox proportional hazards regression models with adjustments for confounding parameters provided by propensity score methods. A total of 105 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy for LA-NSCLC (stage IIB-IIIA-IIIB). The median ages were 54 years (range, 32–70 years) and 55 years (range, 37–73 years) in the EP (n = 50) and DP (n = 55) groups, respectively. The median follow-up time was 27 months (range, 1–132 months) in the EP group and 19 months (range, 1–96 months) in DP group. There was no significant difference in baseline clinicopathologic features including age, sex, performance status, histologic subtype, and clinical TNM stages between groups. In the univariate analysis, the median overall survival of patients treated with EP was higher than that of patients treated with DP (41 vs. 20 months, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis further revealed a survival advantage with EP compared with DP (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval: 0.25–0.83; P = 0.009). The toxicity profile of the 2treatment groups was similar except that pulmonary toxicity was higher in the DP group (grade 3–4: 0% vs. 6%, P = 0.024). Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with EP may provide more favorable outcomes than DP and with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:27472701

  12. Silencing of advanced glycosylation and glycosylation and product-specific receptor (RAGE) inhibits the metastasis and growth of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan Xia; Pan, Wen Chong; Cheng, Yu Feng

    2017-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes the main cases of lung cancer and is the world's most common and lethal cancer owing to regional invasion or distant metastasis. Growing morbidity and lethality demonstrates that valid molecular target in management of NSCLC metastasis is still absence. The receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been identified as an oncogenic gene and appears to promote the growth and metastasis of various cancers. Here, we investigated if RAGE targeted by RNA interference (RNAi) might have certain effect on the restraint of the growth of NSCLC and tumor metastasis. Wound healing and Transwell invasion assays indicated that RAGE favored the metastatic capabilities of NSCLC H1975 cells. Besides, soft-agar colony assay revealed that silencing RAGE significantly blocked colony-forming capability of H1975 cells in vitro. Furthermore, we observed that RAGE participated in H1975 cells growth, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating interdict crux intracellular signaling pathways, including phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine-threonine kinase (PI3K/AKT) and V-Ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog/RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (KRAS/RAF-1). In xenograft model, significantly reduction intumor growth and Ki67 expression was demonstrated in nude mice inoculation with RAGE down-regulation H1975 cells. To conclude, our study demonstrated that RAGE played a crucial role in the metastasis and growth of NSCLC by regulating PI3K/AKT and KRAS/RAF-1 signaling pathways, thereby might be a promising therapeutic target for NSCLC.

  13. Silencing of advanced glycosylation and glycosylation and product-specific receptor (RAGE) inhibits the metastasis and growth of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan Xia; Pan, Wen Chong; Cheng, Yu Feng

    2017-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes the main cases of lung cancer and is the world’s most common and lethal cancer owing to regional invasion or distant metastasis. Growing morbidity and lethality demonstrates that valid molecular target in management of NSCLC metastasis is still absence. The receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been identified as an oncogenic gene and appears to promote the growth and metastasis of various cancers. Here, we investigated if RAGE targeted by RNA interference (RNAi) might have certain effect on the restraint of the growth of NSCLC and tumor metastasis. Wound healing and Transwell invasion assays indicated that RAGE favored the metastatic capabilities of NSCLC H1975 cells. Besides, soft-agar colony assay revealed that silencing RAGE significantly blocked colony-forming capability of H1975 cells in vitro. Furthermore, we observed that RAGE participated in H1975 cells growth, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating interdict crux intracellular signaling pathways, including phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine-threonine kinase (PI3K/AKT) and V-Ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog/RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (KRAS/RAF-1). In xenograft model, significantly reduction intumor growth and Ki67 expression was demonstrated in nude mice inoculation with RAGE down-regulation H1975 cells. To conclude, our study demonstrated that RAGE played a crucial role in the metastasis and growth of NSCLC by regulating PI3K/AKT and KRAS/RAF-1 signaling pathways, thereby might be a promising therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:28670367

  14. Association between nuclear expression of retinoic acid receptor alpha and beta and clinicopathological features and prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Ramírez-Tirado, Laura-Alejandra; Aviles-Salas, Alejandro; Maldonado, Altagracia; Hernández-Cueto, Daniel; Baay-Guzmán, Guillermina; Arrieta, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    Transcription factors such as retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) and beta (RARβ) and Yin Yang 1 (YY1) are associated with the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In particular, a lack of RARβ expression is associated with NSCLC development. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of RARα, RARβ and YY1 and their relationship with prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC. The expression of RARα, RARβ and YY1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative computerized image software. Eighty-five patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were included in the analysis. The mean and standard deviation of the nuclear expression of RARα, RARβ and YY1 were 184.5 ± 124.4, 18 ± 27 and 16.6 ± 20.5, respectively. The nuclear expression of RARβ was associated with the nuclear expression of YY1 (R (2) = 0.28; p value < 0.0001). Patients with high nuclear expression of YY1 were likely to be non-smokers (61.9 vs 40.5 %). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.9 months (3.48-8.28). Low expression of RARα was independently associated with worse PFS following chemotherapy (10.3 vs 5.46 months p = 0.040). Median overall survival (OS) was 15.6 months (4.5-26.7), and lower nuclear expression of RARβ was independently associated with shorter OS (27.5 vs 8.7 months; p = 0.037). Our study suggests that the loss of RARs is associated with a worse prognosis and these receptors could be a potential molecular target for NSCLC.

  15. Efficacy of Second-line Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in the Treatment of Metastatic Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Harboring Exon 19 and 21 EGFR Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhen; Jin, Xiance; Lin, Baochai; Su, Huafang; Chen, Hanbin; Fei, Shaoran; Zhao, Lihao; Deng, Xia; Xie, Deyao; Xie, Congying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although superior clinical benefits of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) had been reported with different sensitivity, the sensitivity of second-line TKIs in NSCLC patients with different EFGR mutations was unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical outcome of second-line EGFR-TKIs in the treatment of NSCLC patients according to different EGFR genotypes. Methods: The treatment outcomes of 166 NSCLC patients with different EGFR mutations treated by second-line TKIs were retrospectively reviewed. The efficacy was evaluated with Pearson chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The disease control rate (DCR) and objective response rate (ORR) of enrolled NSCLC patients were 77.7% and 11.4%, respectively. The exon 19 deletion group had a significantly longer median progression-free survival (PFS) (6.7 vs. 4.5 months, P=0.002) and overall survival (OS) (13.7 vs. 11.7 months, P=0.02) compared with the exon 19 L858R mutation group for NSCLC patients, as well for patients with brain metastasis [PFS: (6.7 vs. 3.9 months, p<0.001), OS: (13.7 vs. 7.9 months, p=0.006)]. No significant difference on PFS and OS was observed between exon 19 deletion and L858R mutation group for patients with bone metastasis. EGFR genotype and ECOG PS were independent predictors of PFS. Never smoking, exon 19 deletion, EGOC PS (0-1) and no brain metastasis were correlated with longer OS. No significant difference on side effect between exon 19 and 21 mutation group was observed. Conclusions: NSCLC patients harboring exon 19 deletion achieved better PFS and OS than those with L858R mutation, indicating that EGFR mutation is a significant prognostic factor for advanced NSCLC patients with and without brain metastasis receiving second-line EGFR-TKIs treatment. PMID:28367239

  16. Clinical outcomes of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutation, ALK rearrangement and EGFR/ALK co-alterations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhou, Qing; Yan, Li-Xu; Xie, Zhi; Su, Jian; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Tu, Hai-Yan; Yan, Hong-Hong; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Chong-Rui; Jiang, Ben-Yuan; Wang, Bin-Chao; Bai, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Wen-Zhao; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Jin-Ji

    2016-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements constitutes a rare molecular subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we assessed the clinical outcomes and incidence of acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in this subtype. So we enrolled 118 advanced NSCLC treated with TKIs. EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements were detected by DNA sequencing or Scorpion amplification refractory mutation system and fluorescence in situ hybridization respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the activation of associated proteins. We found that nine in ten patients with EGFR/ALK co-alterations had good response with first-line EGFR TKI, and the objective response rate (ORR) of EGFR TKIs was 80% (8/10) for EGFR/ALK co-altered and 65.5% (55/84) for EGFR-mutant (P = 0.57), with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 11.2 and 13.2 months, (hazard ratio [HR]=0.95, 95% [CI], 0.49-1.84, P= 0.87). ORR of crizotinib was 40% (2/5) for EGFR/ALK co-altered and 73.9% (17/23) for ALK-rearranged (P= 0.29), with a median PFS of 1.9 and 6.9 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.40; 95% [CI] 0.15-1.10, P = 0.08). The median overall survival (OS) was 21.3, 23.7, and 18.5 months in EGFR-mutant, ALK-rearranged, and EGFR/ALK co-altered (P= 0.06), and there existed a statistically significant difference in OS between ALK-rearranged and EGFR/ALK co-altered (P=0.03). Taken together, the first-line EGFR-TKI might be the reasonable care for advanced NSCLC harbouring EGFR/ALK co-alterations, whether or nor to use sequential crizotinib should be guided by the status of ALK rearrangement and the relative level of phospho-EGFR and phospho-ALK. PMID:27533086

  17. Efficacy and safety of maintenance erlotinib in Asian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a subanalysis of the phase III, randomized SATURN study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Long; Kim, Joo-Hang; Park, Keunchil; Zaatar, Adel; Klingelschmitt, Gaëlle; Ng, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Maintenance therapy, commenced immediately after the completion of first-line chemotherapy, is a promising strategy for improving treatment outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The global phase III SequentiAl Tarceva in UnResectable NSCLC (SATURN) study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor erlotinib as maintenance treatment in NSCLC patients without progression after first-line chemotherapy. We report a retrospective subanalysis of Asian patients enrolled in SATURN. Patients with advanced NSCLC with no evidence of progression after four cycles of chemotherapy were randomized to receive erlotinib 150 mg/day or placebo, until progressive disease or limiting toxicity. The co-primary endpoints of SATURN were progression-free survival (PFS) in all patients and in those with positive EGFR immunohistochemistry (IHC) status. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), disease control rate, safety, quality of life (QoL) and biomarker analyses. In total, 126 patients from East and South-East Asian centers were randomized (14% of the intent-to-treat population): 88 from Korea, 28 from China and 10 from Malaysia; one patient was excluded from this analysis due to Indian ethnicity. PFS was significantly prolonged in the erlotinib treatment arm, both overall (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.57; p=0.0067) and in patients with EGFR IHC-positive disease (HR=0.50; p=0.0057). There was a trend towards an increase in OS, which reached statistical significance in the EGFR IHC-positive subgroup (p=0.0233). The overall response rate was significantly higher with erlotinib compared with placebo (24% versus 5%; p=0.0025). Erlotinib was generally well tolerated and had no negative impact on QoL in this subpopulation. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash, diarrhea and pruritus. Erlotinib was effective and well tolerated in Asian patients, producing benefits consistent with those

  18. Costs of adverse events associated with erlotinib or afatinib in first-line treatment of advanced EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Isla, Dolores; De Castro, Javier; Juan, Oscar; Grau, Santiago; Orofino, Javier; Gordo, Rocío; Rubio-Terrés, Carlos; Rubio-Rodríguez, Darío

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Epidermal growth factor receptor–tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are an established treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR mutation. According to published meta-analyses, no significant efficacy differences have been demonstrated between erlotinib and afatinib. However, the incidence of EGFR–TKI-related adverse events (AEs) was lower with erlotinib. This study compares the cost of management of the AEs associated with these two drugs from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Methods The frequency of AEs was established from a recently published meta-analysis. In Spain, the daily cost of both drugs can be considered similar; as a result, only the costs of management of the AEs were considered. Costs and resource utilization in the management of the AEs were estimated by a panel of Spanish oncologists and from studies previously carried out in Spain. A probabilistic analysis was performed based on a Monte Carlo simulation. Results The model generated 1,000 simulations. The total cost per patient treated with erlotinib and afatinib was €657.44 and €1,272.15, respectively. With erlotinib, the cost per patient and per AE of grades ≤2 and ≥3 was €550.86 and €106.58, respectively, whereas the cost with afatinib was €980.63 and €291.52, respectively. The reduction in the number of AEs with erlotinib could avoid a mean cost for the NHS of €614.71 (95% CI: €342.57–881.29) per patient. Conclusion In advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC patients, first-line treatment with erlotinib could reduce health care costs for the NHS, due to a decrease in the AE rate compared with afatinib. In long-term treatments, the avoidance of complications and the lowering of costs associated with the management of AEs are relevant factors that contribute to the sustainability of the health system. PMID:28115857

  19. Early Change in Metabolic Tumor Heterogeneity during Chemoradiotherapy and Its Prognostic Value for Patients with Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xinzhe; Sun, Xiaorong; Sun, Lu; Maxim, Peter G.; Xing, Lei; Huang, Yong; Li, Wenwu; Wan, Honglin; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To observe the early change of metabolic tumor heterogeneity during chemoradiotherapy and to determine its prognostic value for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods From January 2007 to March 2010, 58 patients with NSCLC were included who were received 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT before and following 40 Gy radiotherapy with the concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CCRT). Primary tumor FDG uptake heterogeneity was determined using global and local scale textural features extracted from standardized uptake value (SUV) histogram analysis (coefficient of variation [COV], skewness, kurtosis, area under the curve of the cumulative SUV histogram [AUC-CSH]) and normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, homogeneity). SUVmax and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) were also evaluated. Correlations were analyzed between parameters on baseline or during treatments with tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results Compared with non-responders, responders showed significantly greater pre-treatment COV, contrast and MTV (AUC = 0.781, 0.804, 0.686, respectively). Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that early change of tumor textural analysis serves as a response predictor with higher sensitivity (73.2%~92.1%) and specificity (80.0%~83.6%) than baseline parameters. Change in AUC-CSH and dissimilarity during CCRT could also predict response with optimal cut-off values (33.0% and 28.7%, respectively). The patients with greater changes in contrast and AUC-CSH had significantly higher 5-year OS (P = 0.008, P = 0.034) and PFS (P = 0.007, P = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, only change in contrast was found as the independent prognostic factor of PFS (HR 0.476, P = 0.021) and OS (HR 0.519, P = 0.015). Conclusions The metabolic tumor heterogeneity change during CCRT characterized by global and local scale textural features may be

  20. Nivolumab in Combination With Platinum-Based Doublet Chemotherapy for First-Line Treatment of Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Naiyer A; Hellmann, Matthew D; Brahmer, Julie R; Juergens, Rosalyn A; Borghaei, Hossein; Gettinger, Scott; Chow, Laura Q; Gerber, David E; Laurie, Scott A; Goldman, Jonathan W; Shepherd, Frances A; Chen, Allen C; Shen, Yun; Nathan, Faith E; Harbison, Christopher T; Antonia, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Nivolumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has demonstrated improved survival in previously treated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CheckMate 012, a phase I, multicohort study, was conducted to explore the safety and efficacy of nivolumab as monotherapy or combined with current standard therapies in first-line advanced NSCLC. Here, we report results for nivolumab plus platinum-based doublet chemotherapy (PT-DC). Patients (N = 56) received nivolumab (intravenously) plus PT-DC concurrently every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by nivolumab alone until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Regimens were nivolumab 10 mg/kg plus gemcitabine-cisplatin (squamous) or pemetrexed-cisplatin (nonsquamous) or nivolumab 5 or 10 mg/kg plus paclitaxel-carboplatin (all histologies). The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability. Secondary objectives included objective response rate and 24-week progression-free survival rate (per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1); exploratory objectives included overall survival (OS) and response by tumor programmed death ligand-1 expression. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred during the first 6 weeks of treatment. Forty-five percent of patients (25 of 56 patients) reported grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events (AEs); 7% of patients (n = 4) had pneumonitis. Twenty-one percent of patients (n = 12) discontinued all study therapy as a result of treatment-related AEs. Objective response rates for nivolumab 10 mg/kg plus gemcitabine-cisplatin, nivolumab 10 mg/kg plus pemetrexed-cisplatin, nivolumab 10 mg/kg plus paclitaxel-carboplatin, and nivolumab 5 mg/kg plus paclitaxel-carboplatin were 33%, 47%, 47%, and 43%, respectively; 24-week progression-free survival rates were 51%, 71%, 38%, and 51%, respectively; 2-year OS rates were 25%, 33%, 27%, and 62%, respectively. Responses were achieved regardless of tumor programmed

  1. Usefulness of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in evaluating response to chemotherapy in patients with advanced non small-cell lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels are an independent prognostic factor for recurrence and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its role as a predictive marker of treatment response has not been widely characterized. Methods 180 patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB or Stage IV), who had an elevated CEA serum level (>10 ng/ml) at baseline and who had no more than one previous chemotherapy regimen, were included. CEA levels were measured after two treatment cycles of platinum based chemotherapy (93%) or a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (7%). We assessed the change in serum CEA levels and the association with response measured by RECIST criteria. Results After two chemotherapy cycles, the patients who achieved an objective response (OR, 28.3%) had a reduction of CEA levels of 55.6% (95% CI 64.3-46.8) compared to its basal level, with an area under the ROC curve (AURC) of 0.945 (95% CI 0.91-0.99), and a sensitivity and specificity of 90.2 and 89.9%, respectively, for a CEA reduction of ≥14%. Patients that achieved a decrease in CEA levels ≥14% presented an overall response in 78% of cases, stable disease in 20.3% and progression in 1.7%, while patients that did not attain a reduction ≥14% had an overall response of 4.1%, stable disease of 63.6% and progression of 32.2% (p < 0.001). Patients with stable (49.4%) and progressive disease (22.2%) had an increase of CEA levels of 9.4% (95% CI 1.5-17.3) and 87.5% (95% CI 60.9-114) from baseline, respectively (p < 0.001). The AURC for progressive disease was 0.911 (95% CI 0.86-0.961), with sensitivity and specificity of 85 and 15%, respectively, for a CEA increase of ≥18%. PFS was longer in patients with a ≥14% reduction in CEA (8.7 vs. 5.1 months, p < 0.001). Reduction of CEA was not predictive of OS. Conclusions A CEA level reduction is a sensitive and specific marker of OR, as well as a sensitive indicator for progression to chemotherapy in patients

  2. SU-E-T-572: Normal Lung Tissue Sparing in Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, C; Ju, S; Ahn, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare normal lung-sparing capabilities of three advanced radiation therapy techniques for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) was performed in 10 patients with stage IIIb LA-NSCLC. The internal target volume (ITV); planning target volume (PTV); and organs at risks (OARs) such as spinal cord, total normal lung, heart, and esophagus were delineated for each CT data set. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), Tomohelical-IMRT (TH-IMRT), and TomoDirect-IMRT (TD-IMRT) plans were generated (total prescribed dose, 66 Gy in 33 fractions to the PTV) for each patient. To reduce the normal lung dose, complete and directional block function was applied outside the normal lung far from the target for both TH-IMRT and TD-IMRT, while pseudo- OAR was set in the same region for IMRT. Dosimetric characteristics of the three plans were compared in terms of target coverage, the sparing capability for the OAR, and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Beam delivery efficiency was also compared. Results: TH-IMRT and TD-IMRT provided better target coverage than IMRT plans. Lung volume receiving ≥–30 Gy, mean dose, and NTCP were significant with TH-IMRT than with IMRT (p=0.006), and volume receiving ≥20–30 Gy was lower in TD-IMRT than in IMRT (p<0.05). Compared with IMRT, TH-IMRT had better sparing effect on the spinal cord (Dmax, NTCP) and heart (V45) (p<0.05). NTCP for the spinal cord, V45 and V60 for the heart, and Dmax for the esophagus were significantly lower in TD-IMRT than in IMRT. The monitor units per fraction were clearly smaller for IMRT than for TH-IMRT and TD-IMRT (p=0.006). Conclusion: In LA-NSCLC, TH-IMRT gave superior PTV coverage and OAR sparing compared to IMRT. TH-IMRT provided better control of the lung volume receiving ≥5–30 Gy. The delivery time and monitor units were lower in TD-IMRT than in TH-IMRT.

  3. Radiological response and survival in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with three-drug induction chemotherapy followed by radical local treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Laura; Zago, Giulia; Marulli, Giuseppe; Del Bianco, Paola; Schiavon, Marco; Pasello, Giulia; Polo, Valentina; Canova, Fabio; Tonetto, Fabrizio; Loreggian, Lucio; Rea, Federico; Conte, PierFranco; Favaretto, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives If concurrent chemoradiotherapy cannot be performed, induction chemotherapy followed by radical-intent surgical treatment is an acceptable option for non primarily resectable non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). No markers are available to predict which patients may benefit from local treatment after induction. This exploratory study aims to assess the feasibility and the activity of multimodality treatment, including triple-agent chemotherapy followed by radical surgery and/or radiotherapy in locally advanced NSCLCs. Methods We retrospectively collected data from locally advanced NSCLCs treated with induction chemotherapy with carboplatin (area under the curve 6, d [day]1), paclitaxel (200 mg/m2, d1), and gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2 d1, 8) for three to four courses, followed by radical surgery and/or radiotherapy. We analyzed radiological response and toxicity. Estimated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were correlated to response, surgery, and clinical features. Results In all, 58 NSCLCs were included in the study: 40 staged as IIIA, 18 as IIIB (according to TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors–7th edition staging system). A total of 36 (62%) patients achieved partial response (PR), and six (10%) progressions were recorded. Grade 3–4 hematological toxicity was observed in 36 (62%) cases. After chemotherapy, 37 (64%) patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, and two patients received radical-intent radiotherapy. The median PFS and OS were 11 months and 23 months, respectively. Both PFS and OS were significantly correlated to objective response (P<0.0001) and surgery (P<0.0001 and P=0.002). Patients obtaining PR and receiving local treatment achieved a median PFS and OS of 35 and 48 months, respectively. Median PFS and OS of patients not achieving PR or not receiving local treatment were 5–7 and 11–15 months, respectively. The extension of surgery did not affect the outcome. Conclusion The

  4. A phase II study (ARCHER 1042) to evaluate prophylactic treatment of dacomitinib-induced dermatologic and gastrointestinal adverse events in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lacouture, M E; Keefe, D M; Sonis, S; Jatoi, A; Gernhardt, D; Wang, T; Doherty, J P; Giri, N; Nadanaciva, S; O'Connell, J; Sbar, E; Piperdi, B; Garon, E B

    2016-09-01

    ARCHER 1042, a randomized phase II trial, explored the impact of prophylactic treatment on select dermatologic adverse events of interest (SDAEI), diarrhea, and mucositis associated with dacomitinib, an oral irreversible pan-human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) inhibitor, in development for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with advanced NSCLC treated with dacomitinib were enrolled in two cohorts. Cohort I patients were randomized 1:1 to receive oral doxycycline or placebo (4 weeks). Cohort II patients received oral VSL#3 probiotic plus topical alclometasone. Primary end points for Cohorts I and II were incidence of all grade and grade ≥2 SDAEI in the first 8 weeks of treatment and quality of life (QoL) assessed by the Skindex-16 survey. Additional primary end points for Cohort II were incidence of all grade and grade ≥2 diarrhea and mucositis in the first 8 weeks of treatment; QoL regarding diarrhea and mucositis incidence was assessed by the modified-Oral Mucositis Daily Questionnaire. Cohort I randomized 114 evaluable patients: 56 in the doxycycline arm, 58 in the placebo arm. Cohort II enrolled 59 evaluable patients. Doxycycline significantly reduced the incidence of grade ≥2 SDAEI by 50% (P = 0.016) compared with placebo. The incidence of all grade SDAEI was lower with doxycycline than with placebo but did not reach statistical significance. Doxycycline was associated with less deterioration in QoL compared with placebo. Alclometasone was associated with less deterioration in QoL compared with placebo but did not statistically significantly reduce the incidence of all grade or grade ≥2 SDAEI. VSL#3 did not reduce the incidence of all grade or grade ≥2 diarrhea and did not impact mucositis scores. Doxycycline was effective as a prophylactic treatment for dacomitinib-induced grade ≥2 SDAEI. Both doxycycline and alclometasone reduced the negative impact in patient-reported dermatologic AEs. The probiotic was not effective

  5. A phase II trial of erlotinib monotherapy for pretreated elderly patients with advanced EGFR wild-type non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Minemura, Hiroyuki; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Azuma, Keisuke; Hirai, Ken-ichiro; Sekine, Satoko; Oshima, Kengo; Kanazawa, Kenya; Tanino, Yoshinori; Inokoshi, Yayoi; Ishii, Taeko; Katsuura, Yutaka; Oishi, Akio; Ishida, Takashi; Munakata, Mitsuru

    2015-06-05

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which is an effective treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially those harboring activating EGFR mutations. A previous phase III trial suggested that patients with EGFR wild-type (EGFR-wt) NSCLC or elderly patients with disease progression after cytotoxic chemotherapy might benefit from erlotinib monotherapy. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of second- or third-line erlotinib monotherapy for elderly patients with EGFR-wt advanced or recurrent NSCLC. Pretreated patients aged ≥70 years with EGFR-wt stage IIIB/IV NSCLC or those with postoperative recurrence were enrolled and received oral erlotinib at a dose of 150 mg/day until disease progression. Primary outcome was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included the disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profile. This study was terminated early because of the results from a Japanese phase III trial (DELTA trial). Sixteen patients were enrolled between April 2010 and May 2013. The median age was 78 years (range 70-84 years). Six patients were female. Five patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0. Eleven (69%) patients had adenocarcinoma. Fifteen (94%) patients were treated with erlotinib as a second-line therapy. The ORR was 0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0-17.1]. DCR was 56.3% (95% CI 33.2-76.9). The median PFS and OS were 1.7 months (95% CI 1.3-2.2) and 7.2 months (95% CI 5.6-8.7), respectively. The most commonly occurring adverse events included acneiform eruption (31.3%) and skin rash (25.0%). One patient developed grade 3 interstitial lung disease, which improved following steroid therapy. In pretreated elderly patients with advanced or recurrent EGFR-wt NSCLC, daily oral erlotinib was well tolerated; however, administration of the drug should not

  6. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Does Not Underdose the Microscopic Disease and has the Potential to Increase Tumor Control

    SciTech Connect

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Richter, Anne; Wilbert, Juergen; Flentje, Michael; Partridge, Mike

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate doses to the microscopic disease (MD) in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to model tumor control probability (TCP). Methods and Materials: In a retrospective planning study, three-dimensional conformal treatment plans for 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were adapted to shape and volume changes of the gross tumor volume (GTV) once or twice during conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with total doses of 66 Gy; doses in the ART plans were escalated using an iso-mean lung dose (MLD) approach compared to non-adapted treatment. Dose distributions to the volumes of suspect MD were simulated for a scenario with synchronous shrinkage of the MD and GTV and for a scenario of a stationary MD despite GTV shrinkage; simulations were performed using deformable image registration. TCP calculations considering doses to the GTV and MD were performed using three different models. Results: Coverage of the MD at 50 Gy was not compromised by ART. Coverage at 60 Gy in the scenario of a stationary MD was significantly reduced from 92% {+-} 10% to 73% {+-} 19% using ART; however, the coverage was restored by iso-MLD dose escalation. Dose distributions in the MD were sufficient to achieve a TCP >80% on average in all simulation experiments, with the clonogenic cell density the major factor influencing TCP. The combined TCP for the GTV and MD was 19.9% averaged over all patients and TCP models in non-adaptive treatment with 66 Gy. Iso-MLD dose escalation achieved by ART increased the overall TCP by absolute 6% (adapting plan once) and by 8.7% (adapting plan twice) on average. Absolute TCP values were significantly different between the TCP models; however, all TCP models suggested very similar TCP increase by using ART. Conclusions: Adaptation of radiotherapy to the shrinking GTV did not compromise dose coverage of volumes of suspect microscopic disease and has the potential to increase TCP by >40

  7. Prospective Study of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Concurrent With Individualized Radiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jing; Xia Tingyi; Wang Yingjie; Li Hongqi; Li Ping; Wang Jidong; Chang Dongshu; Liu Liyyuan; Di Yupeng; Wang Xuan; Wu Weizhang

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To establish the safety profile and efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) concurrent with individualized radiotherapy (RT) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: Between June 2007 and January 2010, 26 patients with Stage III/IV NSCLC were enrolled in this prospective study. These patients were treated with EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib 250 mg or erlotinib 150 mg, oral daily) concurrent with individualized RT with curative intent. The thoracic RT plans were individually designed on the basis of tumor size and normal tissue volume constraints. All patients were assessed for toxicity, and 25 patients were available for efficacy. The primary endpoints were acute toxicity, overall survival, and median survival time. The secondary endpoints included local control rate, time to tumor progression, and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Median gross tumor volume, mean lung dose, and lung V20 were 56 cm{sup 3}, 8.6 Gy, and 14%, respectively. Median thoracic radiation dose was 70 Gy at a margin of gross tumor volume (range, 42-82 Gy), and median biological equivalent dose was 105 Gy (range, 60-119 Gy). Acute skin, hematologic, esophageal, and pulmonary toxicities were acceptable and manageable. Severe adverse events included neutropenia (Grade 4, 4%) and thrombocytopenia (Grade 4, 8%), esophagitis (Grade 3, 4%), and pneumonitis (Grade 3, 4%). With a median follow-up of 10.2 months, a local control rate of 96% was achieved for thoracic tumor. Median time to progression, median PFS, and median survival time were 6.3, 10.2, and 21.8 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year PFS rates were both 42%, and 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 57%, 45%, and 30%, respectively. Conclusion: Concurrent EGFR-TKIs with individualized RT shows a favorable safety profile and promising outcome, therefore serving as a therapeutic option for patients with locally

  8. Maintenance erlotinib versus erlotinib at disease progression in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer who have not progressed following platinum-based chemotherapy (IUNO study).

    PubMed

    Cicènas, Saulius; Geater, Sarayut Lucien; Petrov, Petar; Hotko, Yevgeniy; Hooper, Gregory; Xia, Fan; Mudie, Nadejda; Wu, Yi-Long

    2016-12-01

    The phase III IUNO trial assessed the benefit of maintenance erlotinib versus erlotinib at progression in advanced/metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that had not progressed following four cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients had stage IIIB/IV NSCLC, no known epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating mutation, and objective response or disease stabilization after platinum-based induction chemotherapy. Central EGFR-mutation testing was undertaken on tumors from patients with unknown or wild-type EGFR status following local testing. Patients were randomized to receive blinded maintenance erlotinib 150mg/day ('early erlotinib') or placebo. Those who progressed on placebo received open-label erlotinib ('late erlotinib'); patients who progressed on erlotinib received approved second-line chemotherapy or best supportive care. Primary endpoint: overall survival (OS). 643 patients were randomized to receive maintenance erlotinib (n=322) or placebo (n=321). As of March 23, 2015, 242 (75.2%) OS events had occurred with 'early erlotinib' versus 235 (73.2%) with 'late erlotinib'. Median OS was 9.7 and 9.5 months with 'early erlotinib' and 'late erlotinib', respectively (HR, 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.22; log-rank p=0.82). No progression-free survival, objective response rate, or disease control rate benefit was observed with maintenance erlotinib. 410 patients entered the second-line phase of the study: 160 patients (50%) from the maintenance erlotinib arm and 250 patients (78%) from the maintenance placebo arm. The pattern of adverse events (AEs) was consistent with previous trials; 11 patients who received blinded erlotinib and 3 who received placebo died during the blinded maintenance phase due to nontreatment-related AEs. OS with maintenance erlotinib was not superior to second-line treatment in patients whose tumor did not harbor an EGFR-activating mutation. Safety results were consistent with the established safety profile of erlotinib. Thus

  9. Genetic variations in the transforming growth factor-beta pathway as predictors of survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, David J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Lu, Charles; Lin, Jie; Gu, Jian; Huang, Maosheng; Lippman, Scott M.; Wu, Xifeng

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of benefit is variable for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. The purpose of this study is to determine whether genetic variations in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) pathway are associated with clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Five hundred and ninety-eight advanced-stage NSCLC patients who received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy were recruited at the MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1995 and 2007. DNA from blood was genotyped for 227 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 TGF-β pathway-related genes to evaluate their associations with overall survival. In individual SNP analysis, 22 variants were significantly associated with overall survival, of which the strongest associations were found for BMP2:rs235756 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–1.90] and SMAD3:rs4776342 (HR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06–1.47). Fifteen and 18 genetic loci displayed treatment-specific associations for chemotherapy and chemoradiation, respectively, identifying a majority of the cases who would be predicted to respond favorably to a specific treatment regimen. BMP2:rs235753 and a haplotype in SMAD3 were associated with overall survival for both treatment modalities. Cumulative effect analysis showed that multiple risk genotypes had a significant dose-dependent effect on overall survival (Ptrend = 2.44 x 10−15). Survival tree analysis identified subgroups of patients with dramatically different median survival times of 45.39 versus 13.55 months and 18.02 versus 5.89 months for high- and low- risk populations when treated with chemoradiation and chemotherapy, respectively. These results suggest that genetic variations in the TGF-β pathway are potential predictors of overall survival in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation. PMID:21515830

  10. Glucocorticoid Receptor Status is a Principal Determinant of Variability in the Sensitivity of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells to Pemetrexed

    PubMed Central

    Patki, Mugdha; Gadgeel, Shirish; Huang, Yanfang; McFall, Thomas; Shields, Anthony F.; Matherly, Larry H.; Bepler, Gerold; Ratnam, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pemetrexed is an S-phase targeted drug in front-line or maintenance therapy of advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but methods are needed for predicting the drug response. Dexamethasone is typically administered the day before, the day of and the day after pemetrexed. As dexamethasone strongly regulates many genes including p53 through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we hypothesized that dexamethasone influences tumor response to pemetrexed. Methods Eight non-squamous NSCLC cell line models with varied p53 and GRα/GRβ status were used for gene expression and cell cycle analyses and for loss/gain-of-function experiments. Results In three cell lines dexamethasone profoundly, but reversibly, suppressed the fraction of S-phase cells. Dexamethasone also reversibly repressed expression of thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase which are primary targets of pemetrexed but are also quintessential S-phase enzymes as well as the S-phase dependent expression of thymidine kinase 1. Dexamethasone also decreased expression of the major pemetrexed transporters, the reduced folate carrier and the proton coupled folate transporter. Only cells expressing relatively high GRα showed these dexamethasone effects, regardless of p53 status. In cells expressing low GRα, the dexamethasone response was rescued by ectopic GRα. Further, depletion of p53 did not attenuate the dexamethasone effects. The presence of dexamethasone during pemetrexed treatment protected against pemetrexed cytotoxicity, in only the dexamethasone responsive cells. Conclusions The results predict that in non-squamous NSCLC tumors, reversible S-phase suppression by dexamethasone, possibly combined with a reduction in the drug transporters, attenuates responsiveness to pemetrexed and that GR status is a principal determinant of tumor variability of this response. PMID:24736075

  11. Intensified High-Dose Chemoradiotherapy With Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer-Safety and Toxicity Results Within a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Poettgen, Christoph; Eberhardt, Wilfried E.; Gauler, Thomas; Krbek, Thomas; Berkovic, Katharina; Abu Jawad, Jehad; Korfee, Soenke; Teschler, Helmut; Stamatis, Georgios; Stuschke, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze the toxicity profile of an intensified definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) schedule in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (Stage IIIA N2/selected IIIB) treated within a prospective multicenter trial. Patients and Methods: After mediastinoscopy and routine staging procedures, three cycles of induction chemotherapy (cisplatin 50 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 1 and 8; paclitaxel 175 mg/m{sup 2} Day 1, every 21 days) were planned, followed by concurrent CRT (accelerated-hyperfractionated regimen, 45 Gy, 2 x 1.5 Gy/d, cisplatin 50 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 64 and 71, vinorelbine 20 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 64 and 71). At 45 Gy, a multidisciplinary panel decision was made regarding operability. Inoperable patients received definitive radiotherapy (total dose 65 or 71 Gy, depending on the mean lung dose) with additional concurrent chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}, Day 85; vinorelbine 15 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 85 and 92). Results: A total of 28 patients (23 men and 5 women; median age, 58 years; range 41-73; Stage IIIA in 3 and Stage IIIB in 25) were judged ineligible for surgery by the multidisciplinary panel and underwent definitive CRT (75% of the patients received 71 Gy). The maximum toxicity (Grade 3 or greater) during induction chemotherapy included leukopenia (11%) and anemia (4%). During concurrent CRT, leukopenia (Grade 3 or greater) was observed in 39% of the patients. The maximal nonhematologic toxicity during concurrent CRT included esophagitis (Grade 3 or greater) in 18% and pneumonitis (Grade 3 or greater) in 4% of the patients. At 3 years, the locoregional control rate was 52% (95% confidence interval, 29-75%) and the overall survival rate was 31% (95% confidence interval, 12-50%). Conclusion: This intensified treatment protocol with induction chemotherapy and concurrent CRT, including hyperfractionated-accelerated RT, showed only moderate toxicity and proved feasible. This treatment represents the definitive CRT arm of our ongoing

  12. Does Response to Induction Chemotherapy Predict Survival for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Secondary Analysis of RTOG 8804/8808

    SciTech Connect

    McAleer, Mary Frances; Moughan, Jennifer M.S.; Byhardt, Roger W.; Cox, James D.; Sause, William T.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) improves survival compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LANSCLC) patients with good prognostic factors. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is superior to ICT followed by RT. The question arises whether ICT response predicts the outcome of patients subsequently treated with CCRT or RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 1992, 194 LANSCLC patients were treated prospectively with ICT (two cycles of vinblastine and cisplatin) and then CCRT (cisplatin plus 63 Gy for 7 weeks) in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8804 trial (n = 30) or ICT and then RT (60 Gy/6 wk) on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8808 trial (n = 164). Of the 194 patients, 183 were evaluable and 141 had undergone a postinduction assessment. The overall survival (OS) of those with complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) was compared with that of patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) after ICT. Results: Of the 141 patients, 6, 30, 99, and 6 had CR, PR, SD, and PD, respectively. The log-rank test showed a significant difference (p <0.0001) in OS when the response groups were compared (CR/PR vs. SD/PD). On univariate and multivariate analyses, a trend was seen toward a response to ICT with OS (p = 0.097 and p = 0.06, respectively). A squamous histologic type was associated with worse OS on univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.031 and p = 0.018, respectively). SD/PD plus a squamous histologic type had a hazard ratio of 2.25 vs. CR/PR plus a nonsquamous histologic type (p = 0.007) on covariate analysis. Conclusion: The response to ICT was associated with a significant survival difference when the response groups were compared. A response to ICT showed a trend toward, but was not predictive of, improved OS in LANSCLC patients. Patients with SD/PD after ICT and a squamous histologic type had the poorest OS. These data suggest that patients with squamous LANSCLC might benefit

  13. Customized chemotherapy based on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status for elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly patients are more vulnerable to toxicity from chemotherapy. Activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are associated with enhanced response to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. We studied patients with advanced NSCLC for whom treatment was customized based on EGFR mutation status. Methods We screened 57 chemotherapy-naïve patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC, stage IIIB or IV, aged 70 years or older, and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, for EGFR exon 19 codon 746–750 deletion and exon 21 L858R mutation. Twenty-two patients with EGFR mutations received gefitinib; 32 patients without mutations received vinorelbine or gemcitabine. The primary endpoint was the response rate. Results The response rate was 45.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.4%, 67.8%) in patients with EGFR mutations and 18.8% (95% CI: 7.2%, 36.4%) in patients without EGFR mutations. The median overall survival was 27.9 months (95%CI: 24.4 months, undeterminable months) in patients with EGFR mutations and 14.9 months (95%CI: 11.0 months, 22.4 months) in patients without EGFR mutations. In the gefitinib group, grade 3/4 hepatic dysfunction and dermatitis occurred in 23% and 5% of patients, respectively. In patients treated with vinorelbine or gemcitabine, the most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (47%; four had febrile neutropenia), anemia (13%), and anorexia (9%). No treatment-related deaths occurred. Conclusions Treatment customization based on EGFR mutation status deserves consideration, particularly for elderly patients who often cannot receive second-line chemotherapy due to poor organ function or comorbidities. Trial registration This trial is registered at University hospital Medical Information Network-clinical trial registration (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm) with the registration identification number C000000436

  14. The Impact of Local and Regional Disease Extent on Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Stage IIIB/IV Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, Daniel S.; Chen, Ronald C.; Tracton, Gregg; Morris, David E.; Halle, Jan; Rosenman, Julian G.; Stefanescu, Mihaela; Pham, Erica; Socinski, Mark A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced stage IIIB or stage IV non-small cell lung carcinoma are typically treated with initial platinum-based chemotherapy. A variety of factors (eg, performance status, gender, age, histology, weight loss, and smoking history) are generally accepted as predictors of overall survival. Because uncontrolled pulmonary disease constitutes a major cause of death in these patients, we hypothesized that clinical and radiographic factors related to intrathoracic disease at diagnosis may be prognostically significant in addition to conventional factors. The results have implications regarding the selection of patients for whom palliative thoracic radiation therapy may be of most benefit. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pooled analysis of 189 patients enrolled at a single institution into 9 prospective phase II and III clinical trials involving first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. Baseline clinical and radiographic characteristics before trial enrollment were analyzed as possible predictors for subsequent overall survival. To assess the relationship between anatomic location and volume of disease within the thorax and its effect on survival, the pre-enrollment computed tomography images were also analyzed by contouring central and peripheral intrapulmonary disease. Results: On univariate survival analysis, multiple pulmonary-related factors were significantly associated with worse overall survival, including pulmonary symptoms at presentation (P=.0046), total volume of intrathoracic disease (P=.0006), and evidence of obstruction of major bronchi or vessels on prechemotherapy computed tomography (P<.0001). When partitioned into central and peripheral volumes, central (P<.0001) but not peripheral (P=.74) disease was associated with worse survival. On multivariate analysis with known factors, pulmonary symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.46; P=.042), central disease volume (hazard ratio, 1.47; P=.042), and bronchial/vascular compression (hazard ratio, 1

  15. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A; Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A; Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X; Choi, M; Pai, S; Li, J; Cranford, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  16. Adaptive/Nonadaptive Proton Radiation Planning and Outcomes in a Phase II Trial for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Koay, Eugene J.; Lege, David; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Chang, Joe Y.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze dosimetric variables and outcomes after adaptive replanning of radiation therapy during concurrent high-dose protons and chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Nine of 44 patients with stage III NSCLC in a prospective phase II trial of concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin with proton radiation [74 Gy(RBE) in 37 fractions] had modifications to their original treatment plans after re-evaluation revealed changes that would compromise coverage of the target volume or violate dose constraints; plans for the other 35 patients were not changed. We compared patients with adaptive plans with those with nonadaptive plans in terms of dosimetry and outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up of 21.2 months (median overall survival, 29.6 months), no differences were found in local, regional, or distant failure or overall survival between groups. Adaptive planning was used more often for large tumors that shrank to a greater extent (median, 107.1 cm{sup 3} adaptive and 86.4 cm{sup 3} nonadaptive; median changes in volume, 25.3% adaptive and 1.2% nonadaptive; P<.01). The median number of fractions delivered using adaptive planning was 13 (range, 4-22). Adaptive planning generally improved sparing of the esophagus (median absolute decrease in V{sub 70}, 1.8%; range, 0%-22.9%) and spinal cord (median absolute change in maximum dose, 3.7 Gy; range, 0-13.8 Gy). Without adaptive replanning, target coverage would have been compromised in 2 cases (57% and 82% coverage without adaptation vs 100% for both with adaptation); neither patient experienced local failure. Radiation-related grade 3 toxicity rates were similar between groups. Conclusions: Adaptive planning can reduce normal tissue doses and prevent target misses, particularly for patients with large tumors that shrink substantially during therapy. Adaptive plans seem to have acceptable toxicity and achieve similar local, regional, and distant control and overall

  17. Adaptive/nonadaptive proton radiation planning and outcomes in a phase II trial for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Koay, Eugene J; Lege, David; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D; Chang, Joe Y

    2012-12-01

    To analyze dosimetric variables and outcomes after adaptive replanning of radiation therapy during concurrent high-dose protons and chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nine of 44 patients with stage III NSCLC in a prospective phase II trial of concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin with proton radiation [74 Gy(RBE) in 37 fractions] had modifications to their original treatment plans after re-evaluation revealed changes that would compromise coverage of the target volume or violate dose constraints; plans for the other 35 patients were not changed. We compared patients with adaptive plans with those with nonadaptive plans in terms of dosimetry and outcomes. At a median follow-up of 21.2 months (median overall survival, 29.6 months), no differences were found in local, regional, or distant failure or overall survival between groups. Adaptive planning was used more often for large tumors that shrank to a greater extent (median, 107.1 cm(3) adaptive and 86.4 cm(3) nonadaptive; median changes in volume, 25.3% adaptive and 1.2% nonadaptive; P<.01). The median number of fractions delivered using adaptive planning was 13 (range, 4-22). Adaptive planning generally improved sparing of the esophagus (median absolute decrease in V(70), 1.8%; range, 0%-22.9%) and spinal cord (median absolute change in maximum dose, 3.7 Gy; range, 0-13.8 Gy). Without adaptive replanning, target coverage would have been compromised in 2 cases (57% and 82% coverage without adaptation vs 100% for both with adaptation); neither patient experienced local failure. Radiation-related grade 3 toxicity rates were similar between groups. Adaptive planning can reduce normal tissue doses and prevent target misses, particularly for patients with large tumors that shrink substantially during therapy. Adaptive plans seem to have acceptable toxicity and achieve similar local, regional, and distant control and overall survival, even in patients with larger tumors, vs nonadaptive plans

  18. Effect of Midtreatment PET/CT-Adapted Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kong, Feng-Ming; Ten Haken, Randall K; Schipper, Matthew; Frey, Kirk A; Hayman, James; Gross, Milton; Ramnath, Nithya; Hassan, Khaled A; Matuszak, Martha; Ritter, Timothy; Bi, Nan; Wang, Weili; Orringer, Mark; Cease, Kemp B; Lawrence, Theodore S; Kalemkerian, Gregory P

    2017-06-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that tumors significantly decrease in size and metabolic activity after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated radiatiotherapy (RT), and that metabolic shrinkage is greater than anatomic shrinkage. This study aimed to determine whether 18F-fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) acquired during the course of treatment provides an opportunity to deliver higher-dose radiation to the more aggressive areas of the tumor to improve local tumor control without increasing RT-induced lung toxicity (RILT), and possibly improve survival. To determine whether adaptive RT can target high-dose radiation to the FDG-avid tumor on midtreatment FDG-PET to improve local tumor control of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phase 2 clinical trial conducted at 2 academic medical centers with 42 patients who had inoperable or unresectable stage II to stage III NSCLC enrolled from November 2008, to May 2012. Patients with poor performance, more than 10% weight loss, poor lung function, and/or oxygen dependence were included, providing that the patients could tolerate the procedures of PET scanning and RT. Conformal RT was individualized to a fixed risk of RILT (grade >2) and adaptively escalated to the residual tumor defined on midtreatment FDG-PET up to a total dose of 86 Gy in 30 daily fractions. Medically fit patients received concurrent weekly carboplatin plus paclitaxel followed by 3 cycles of consolidation. The primary end point was local tumor control. The trial was designed to achieve a 20% improvement in 2-year control from 34% of our prior clinical trial experience with 63 to 69 Gy in a similar patient population. The trial reached its accrual goal of 42 patients: median age, 63 years (range, 45-83 years); male, 28 (67%); smoker or former smoker, 39 (93%); stage III, 38 (90%). Median tumor dose delivered was 83 Gy (range, 63-86 Gy) in 30 daily fractions. Median follow-up for surviving patients

  19. Dabrafenib in BRAF V600E–Mutant Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: an Open-label, Single arm, Multicenter, Phase 2 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, David; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Quoix, Elisabeth; Riely, Gregory; Barlesi, Fabrice; Souquet, Pierre-John; Smit, Egbert F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Kelly, Ronan J.; Cho, B. C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Pandite, Lini; Nase, Christine; Ma, Bo; D’Amelio, Anthony; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Curtis, C. Martin; Johnson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activating BRAF V600E mutations are found in approximately 1–2% of adenocarcinomas of the lung offering an opportunity to test targeted therapy for this disease. Dabrafenib is an oral selective inhibitor of the BRAF kinase. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity of dabrafenib in patients with advanced BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of previously treated and untreated patients with stage IV, metastatic NSCLC and BRAF V600E mutation, we evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR) in patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug. Safety analysis was performed on the all-treated population (all previously treated and untreated patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug). The study is ongoing but not enrolling participants in this cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Between August 2011 and February 2014 a total of 84 previously treated and untreated patients were enrolled. Investigator-assessed ORR for 78 pretreated patients was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23·1 to 44·9). Independent review committee assessment of ORR was consistent with investigator-based assessment. Four of the six previously untreated patients had an objective response. One patient died on study due to intracranial hemorrhage that was considered by the investigator to be due to study drug. Serious adverse events were reported in 35 (42%) of 84 patients. The most frequent grade 3 or higher adverse events were cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (10 [12%] of 84 patients), asthenia (4 [5%] of 84 patients), and basal cell carcinoma (4 [5%] of 84 patients). Interpretation This is, to our knowledge, the first prospective trial focusing on BRAF V600E-mutant NSCLC to show clinical activity of a BRAF inhibitor. The

  20. Network Meta-Analysis of Erlotinib, Gefitinib, Afatinib and Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Harboring EGFR Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yunpeng; Hu, Zhihuang; Xue, Cong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianwei; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhou, Ting; Yan, Yue; Hou, Xue; Qin, Tao; Dinglin, Xiaoxiao; Tian, Ying; Huang, Peiyu; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Several EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) including erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib and icotinib are currently available as treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who harbor EGFR mutations. However, no head to head trials between these TKIs in mutated populations have been reported, which provides room for indirect and integrated comparisons. Methods We searched electronic databases for eligible literatures. Pooled data on objective response rate (ORR), progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) were calculated. Appropriate networks for different outcomes were established to incorporate all evidences. Multiple-treatments comparisons (MTCs) based on Bayesian network integrated the efficacy and specific toxicities of all included treatments. Results Twelve phase III RCTs that investigated EGFR-TKIs involving 1821 participants with EGFR mutation were included. For mutant patients, the weighted pooled ORR and 1-year PFS of EGFR-TKIs were significant superior to that of standard chemotherapy (ORR: 66.6% vs. 30.9%, OR 5.46, 95%CI 3.59 to 8.30, P<0.00001; 1-year PFS: 42.9% vs. 9.7%, OR 7.83, 95%CI 4.50 to 13.61; P<0.00001) through direct meta-analysis. In the network meta-analyses, no statistically significant differences in efficacy were found between these four TKIs with respect to all outcome measures. Trend analyses of rank probabilities revealed that the cumulative probabilities of being the most efficacious treatments were (ORR, 1-year PFS, 1-year OS, 2-year OS): erlotinib (51%, 38%, 14%, 19%), gefitinib (1%, 6%, 5%, 16%), afatinib (29%, 27%, 30%, 27%) and icotinib (19%, 29%, NA, NA), respectively. However, afatinib and erlotinib showed significant severer rash and diarrhea compared with gefitinib and icotinib. Conclusions The current study indicated that erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib and icotinib shared equivalent efficacy but presented different efficacy-toxicity pattern for EGFR-mutated patients

  1. Simultaneously modulated accelerated radiation therapy reduces severe oesophageal toxicity in concomitant chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chajon, Enrique; Bellec, Julien; Castelli, Joël; Corre, Romain; Kerjouan, Mallorie; Le Prisé, Elisabeth; De Crevoisier, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of simultaneously modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) to reduce the incidence of severe acute oesophagitis in the treatment of unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LANSCLC). 21 patients were treated with SMART and concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy. The prescribed doses were limited to 54 Gy at 1.8 Gy per day to the zones of presumed microscopic extent while simultaneously maintaining doses of 66 Gy at 2.2 Gy per day to the macroscopic disease. The whole treatment was delivered over 30 fractions and 6 weeks. Dosimetric parameters of SMART and the standard technique of irradiation [intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)] were compared. Acute toxicity was prospectively recorded. The highest grade of oesophagitis was 62% (13 patients) grade 1, 33% (7 patients) grade 2 and 5% (1 patient) grade 3. Three (14%) patients experienced acute grade 2 pneumonitis. There was no grade 4 oesophageal or pulmonary toxicity. Doses to the organs at risk were significantly reduced in SMART compared with IMRT [oesophagus: V50Gy, 28.5 Gy vs 39.9 Gy (p = 0.003); V60Gy, 7.1 Gy vs 30.7 Gy (p = 0.003); lung: V20Gy, 27.4 Gy vs 30.1 Gy (p = 0,002); heart: V40Gy, 7.3 Gy vs 10.7 Gy (p = 0.006); spine: Dmax, 42.4 Gy vs 46.4 Gy (p = 0.003)]. With a median follow-up of 18 months (6-33 months), the 1-year local control rate was 70% and the disease-free survival rate was 47%. SMART reduces the incidence of severe oesophagitis and improves the whole dosimetric predictors of toxicity for the lung, heart and spine. Our study shows that SMART optimizes the therapeutic ratio in the treatment of LANSCLC, opening a window for dose intensification.

  2. A comparison of ARMS and mutation specific IHC for common activating EGFR mutations analysis in small biopsy and cytology specimens of advanced non small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Yueyue; Xu, Yinhong; Zhang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    We have compared mutation analysis by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant-specific antibodies for their ability to detect two common activating EGFR mutations in a cohort of 115 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including cytology material, core biopsy, and bronchoscopic biopsies. Assessment of EGFR mutation status was performed by using antibodies and ARMS assay specific to the two major forms of mutant EGFR, exon 19 deletion E746-A750 (c.2235_2249del15 or c.2236_2250del15, p. Glu746_Ala750 del) and exon 21 L858R point mutation (c.2573T>G, p.Leu858Arg). In this study the optimal buffer for antigen retrieval was sodium citrate (pH 6.0). Q score was used to evaluate the specific mutant EGFR proteins expression. Validation using clinical material showed deletions in exon 19 were detected in 19.1% and L858R mutation in 20% of all cases by ARMS assay. A cutoff value of score 1 was used as positive by IHC. No wild type cases were immuno-reactive. The antibodies performed well in cytology, core biopsies and bronchoscopic biopsies. There were only one false positive case using L858R IHC (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.5%, positive predictive value 96%, negative predictive value 100%). All 23 E746-A750 exon 19 deletions identified by mutation analysis were positive by IHC. The sensitivity of exon 19 IHC for E746-A750 was 100%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 100%. The result of the IHC stains was finely correlated with mutations status determined by ARMS assay. Although inferior to molecular genetic analysis of the EGFR gene, IHC is highly specific and sensitive for the targeted EGFR mutations. The antibodies are likely to be of clinical value in cases especially where limited tumor material is available, or in situations where molecular genetic analysis is not readily available.

  3. Prevalence and effectiveness of first-, second-, and third-line systemic therapy in a cohort of unselected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zietemann, V; Duell, T

    2011-07-01

    Systemic therapy is the most relevant option for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and many receive therapies beyond first-line. Little is known on response, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) and their prognostic factors after second- and third-line therapy in daily clinical practice. Between January 2003 and July 2007, 406 consecutive patients were included in this prospective observational study and followed up until August 2010. At each treatment line the timing and kind of therapy, best response achieved, sites and time of progression were documented. Multiple logistic and Cox-regression models were used to analyse prognostic factors for achieving disease control (DC: response or disease stabilization), PFS and OS after different therapy lines. DC rate and median PFS decreased from 64% and 146 days, to 41% and 49 days, and to 39% and 51 days in response to first-, second- and third-line, respectively. A strong predictor for a worse outcome after second-line was development of new metastases after first-line therapy (DC: OR=2.50; 95% CI: 1.30-4.83; p-value=0.006; PFS: HR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.13-2.06; p-value=0.005) or achieving no DC after first-line (OS: HR=1.41; 95% CI: 1.01-1.97; p-value=0.041). Achieving no DC after second-line was a strong negative predictor for all outcome measures after third-line therapy (DC: OR=5.10; 95% CI: 1.56-16.6; p-value=0.007; PFS: HR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.23-3.27; p-value=0.005; OS: HR=1.69; 95% CI: 1.02-2.79; p-value=0.042). In conclusion, response in previous line and no involvement of new metastases after progression were relevant positive prognostic factors. However, further research is necessary to identify optimal therapy sequences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nintedanib in combination with docetaxel for second-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer; GENESIS-SEFH drug evaluation report.

    PubMed

    Espinosa Bosch, María; Asensi Diez, Rocío; García Agudo, Sara; Clopes Estela, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Nintedanib is a triple angiokinase inhibitor that has been approved by the European Agency Medicines (EMA) in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced, metastatic or locally recurrent non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of adenocarcinoma tumour histology, after first-line chemotherapy. In LUME-Lung 1 clinical trial, the combination of nintedanib plus docetaxel vs. placebo plus docetaxel improved progression free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients, and improved overall survival in the population of adenocarcinoma patients, particularly in those with progression within 9 months after first line treatment initiation, median 10.9 months ( [95% CI 8.5-12.6] vs. 7.9 months [6.7-9.1]; HR 0.75 [95% CI 0.60-0.92], p=0.0073). The toxicity profile of the combination included a higher incidence of neutropenia, gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders, and liver enzyme elevations; however, this did not cause a detrimental effect on patient quality of life. According to data from the clinical trial mentioned, the addition of nintedanib to docetaxel would lead to an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per year of life with PFS in the overall population of 134,274.47 € (notified price). In the adenocarcinoma population per each life of year gained (LYG), the ICER of adding nintedanib to docetaxel would be 40,886.14 €; while by implementing a sensitivity analysis with a 25% discount in the drug price, the cost per LYG would be 32,364.05 €, and would place it close to the threshold of cost-effectiveness usually considered acceptable in our setting. In view of efficacy and safety results the proposed positioning is to recommend its inclusion in the Hospital Formulary only for adult patients with metastatic or locally recurrent NSCLC with adenocarcinoma histology after first line chemotherapy, with progression < 9 months from the initiation of first line treatment, taking into account the inclusion and exclusion criteria in the

  5. Erlotinib plus parenteral nutrition: an opportunity to get through the hardest days of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yuan-Sheng; Fang, Zheng; Li, Bing

    2013-03-01

    This case study details the poor performance status of a patient with non-small cell lung cancer and cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome got through the hardest days of high tumor burden and malnutrition, by using a combined therapy of lung cancer-targeted therapy drug and parenteral nutrition. The related literatures were reviewed.

  6. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  7. Treatment Patterns and Overall Survival Associated with First-Line Systemic Therapy for Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Spence, Michele M; Hui, Rita L; Chang, Jennifer T; Schottinger, Joanne E; Millares, Mirta; Rashid, Nazia

    2017-02-01

    A variety of regimens are used as first-line treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which may include combination regimens and single agents, depending on histology, molecular profile, and performance status. To describe the types of first-line therapies and compare overall survival between therapies used for patients with advanced NSCLC in an integrated health care system. This retrospective cohort study included patients aged 18 years or older from Kaiser Permanente California with a diagnosis of stage IIIB/IV NSCLC. First systemic treatment date occurred from January 1, 2008, through September 30, 2013. Overall survival was measured as the number of months from initial treatment until death, end of enrollment, or September 30, 2014. Treatment regimens were categorized into 6 mutually exclusive groups: platinum doublets; pemetrexed-based, bevacizumab-based, and pemetrexed + bevacizumab-based combinations; singlets; and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Subgroup analyses were performed by age group and by nonsquamous histology. Of 2,081 patients, approximately half (52.3%) received platinum doublets, followed by TKIs (19.0%), pemetrexed-based regimens (13.4%), bevacizumab-regimens (8.0%), singlets (5.5%), and pemetrexed + bevacizumab-based combinations (1.8%). Median survival was longest for pemetrexed + bevacizumab-based combinations (18.5 months), followed by bevacizumab-based regimens (14.5), TKIs (12.7), pemetrexed-based regimens (10.4), doublets (9.2), and singlets (5.3). There was a significantly reduced risk of mortality for pemetrexed + bevacizumab-based combinations (HR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.42-0.94) and TKIs (HR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.73-0.94) compared with doublets. Singlets were associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.22-1.84). Subgroup analysis among patients aged 65 years and over found no significant

  8. [Efficacy analysis of third-generation plus platinum doublets in the first-line chemotherapy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling-di; Zhang, Xiang-ru; Li, Jun-ling; Wang, Zi-ping; Wang, Yan; Hao, Xue-zhi; Hu, Xing-sheng; Zhou, Sheng-yu; Sun, Yan; Shi, Yuan-kai

    2012-06-12

    To compare the chemotherapeutic efficacies of third-generation plus platinum doublets in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 1112 patients were diagnosed as advanced NSCLC at Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Cancer Hospital from January 2005 to August 2009. Their clinical efficacies and regimen compositions were retrospectively analyzed. All calculations were performed by SPSS 17.0. Differences in objective response rate (ORR) existed among four third-generation agents (paclitaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine and docetaxel) plus platinum doublets. Their ORRs were 35.6%, 35.4%, 25.9% and 37.4% respectively (χ(2) = 16.331, P = 0.001). And vinorelbine doublets had the lowest ORR (all P < 0.01). The ORRs of cisplatin and carboplatin doublets were 35.2% and 33.5% respectively. There was no difference in ORR among them (χ(2) = 0.352, P = 0.569). Subgroup analysis showed that the ORRs of four third generation plus platinum doublets were 34.8%, 35.3%, 23.2% and 37.1% in non-agers. And the vinorelbine doublets performed the worst. In the patients with squamous-cell lung cancer, the ORRs of paclitaxel and gemcitabine doublets were 45.5% and 28.4% respectively. And the paclitaxel doublets had the better performance (χ(2) = 5.250, P = 0.026). When combined with carboplatin, the ORRs of four doublets were 36.2%, 16.7%, 15.4% and 32.0% respectively. And the paclitaxel regimen was more effective than the gemcitabine and vinorelbine regimens (P = 0.018 and P = 0.034). The influences of subsequent therapy were nullified when the progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed. The PFSs of these doublets were (3.67 ± 0.19), (2.95 ± 0.18), (3.05 ± 0.36) and (3.40 ± 0.37) months respectively. There was no difference among them. Pairwise comparisons showed that the mean PFS of patients on paclitaxel doublets was longer than those on gemcitabine doublets. And their PFSs were (3.67 ± 0.19) and (2.95 ± 0.18) months respectively (χ(2) = 7.037, P = 0

  9. Routine molecular profiling of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results of a 1-year nationwide programme of the French Cooperative Thoracic Intergroup (IFCT).

    PubMed

    Barlesi, Fabrice; Mazieres, Julien; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Debieuvre, Didier; Mosser, Jean; Lena, Hervé; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Besse, Benjamin; Rouquette, Isabelle; Westeel, Virginie; Escande, Fabienne; Monnet, Isabelle; Lemoine, Antoinette; Veillon, Rémi; Blons, Hélène; Audigier-Valette, Clarisse; Bringuier, Pierre-Paul; Lamy, Régine; Beau-Faller, Michèle; Pujol, Jean-Louis; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Denis, Marc G; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Morin, Franck; Tran, Quân; Missy, Pascale; Langlais, Alexandra; Milleron, Bernard; Cadranel, Jacques; Soria, Jean-Charles; Zalcman, Gérard

    2016-04-02

    The molecular profiling of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for known oncogenic drivers is recommended during routine care. Nationally, however, the feasibility and effects on outcomes of this policy are unknown. We aimed to assess the characteristics, molecular profiles, and clinical outcomes of patients who were screened during a 1-year period by a nationwide programme funded by the French National Cancer Institute. This study included patients with advanced NSCLC, who were routinely screened for EGFR mutations, ALK rearrangements, as well as HER2 (ERBB2), KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations by 28 certified regional genetics centres in France. Patients were assessed consecutively during a 1-year period from April, 2012, to April, 2013. We measured the frequency of molecular alterations in the six routinely screened genes, the turnaround time in obtaining molecular results, and patients' clinical outcomes. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01700582. 18,679 molecular analyses of 17,664 patients with NSCLC were done (of patients with known data, median age was 64·5 years [range 18-98], 65% were men, 81% were smokers or former smokers, and 76% had adenocarcinoma). The median interval between the initiation of analysis and provision of the written report was 11 days (IQR 7-16). A genetic alteration was recorded in about 50% of the analyses; EGFR mutations were reported in 1947 (11%) of 17,706 analyses for which data were available, HER2 mutations in 98 (1%) of 11,723, KRAS mutations in 4894 (29%) of 17,001, BRAF mutations in 262 (2%) of 13,906, and PIK3CA mutations in 252 (2%) of 10,678; ALK rearrangements were reported in 388 (5%) of 8134 analyses. The median duration of follow-up at the time of analysis was 24·9 months (95% CI 24·8-25·0). The presence of a genetic alteration affected first-line treatment for 4176 (51%) of 8147 patients and was associated with a significant improvement in the proportion of patients

  10. The first liquid biopsy test approved. Is it a new era of mutation testing for non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Specific mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are predictive for response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC). According to international guidelines, the molecular testing in patients with advanced NSCLC of a non-squamous subtype is recommended. However, obtain a tissue sample could be challenging. Liquid biopsy allows to determine patients suitable for EGFR-targeted therapy by analysis of circulating-free tumor DNA (cfDNA) in peripheral blood samples and might replace tissue biopsy. It allows to acquire a material in convenient minimally invasive manner, is easily repeatable, could be used for molecular identification and molecular changes monitoring. Many studies show a high concordance rate between tissue and plasma samples testing. When U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first liquid biopsy test, analysis of driver gene mutation from cfDNA becomes a reality in clinical practice for patients with NSCLC. PMID:28251125

  11. The first liquid biopsy test approved. Is it a new era of mutation testing for non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Kwapisz, Dorota

    2017-02-01

    Specific mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are predictive for response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC). According to international guidelines, the molecular testing in patients with advanced NSCLC of a non-squamous subtype is recommended. However, obtain a tissue sample could be challenging. Liquid biopsy allows to determine patients suitable for EGFR-targeted therapy by analysis of circulating-free tumor DNA (cfDNA) in peripheral blood samples and might replace tissue biopsy. It allows to acquire a material in convenient minimally invasive manner, is easily repeatable, could be used for molecular identification and molecular changes monitoring. Many studies show a high concordance rate between tissue and plasma samples testing. When U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first liquid biopsy test, analysis of driver gene mutation from cfDNA becomes a reality in clinical practice for patients with NSCLC.

  12. State of the art of chemotherapy for the treatment of central nervous system metastases from non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di Noia, Vincenzo; D’Argento, Ettore; Modena, Alessandra; Gori, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without molecular drivers. Despite a low penetration of central nervous system (CNS), chemotherapy drugs demonstrated encouraging activity against CNS metastases from NSCLC. Based on the available data, chemotherapy should be considered as an important part of the multidisciplinary treatment of CNS metastases. Particularly, platinum-based regimens represent the most active combinations and pemetrexed is associated with a meaningful clinical benefit for patients with non-squamous histology. How to integrate chemotherapy and radiotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases (BMs) is still debated. Although flawed by some limitations, the available evidence suggests a role for upfront chemotherapy for the treatment of NSCLC patients with synchronous, asymptomatic BMs, thus allowing a delay of radiotherapy. Despite the introduction of modern and more effective chemotherapy, however, the prognosis of NSCLC patients with CNS metastases remains poor, especially for those with progressive BMs or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC). PMID:28149755

  13. Comparison between concurrent and sequential chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Seo-Young; DAS, Amit K; Minna, John D

    2014-02-01

    Current practice guidelines recommend the combination of chemotherapy and thoracic radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous meta-analyses have shown that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) may be superior to sequential chemoradiation (SCRT). However, few previous in vitro studies have analyzed these two treatment schedules. In the current study, four lung cancer cell lines harboring wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor, comprising two squamous and two non-squamous cell lines, were used. The IC10 concentrations of three platinum-based regimens were combined with radiation treatment. Cells were irradiated at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy using a (137)Cs irradiator concurrently or sequentially. Surviving fractions (SFs) were plotted as a function of the radiation dose. In A549 cells, only the docetaxel (Doc) and carboplatin (Carbo) combination showed a significant radiosensitizing effect with CCRT treatment. For the other three cell lines, no difference was identified in the SFs between CCRT and SCRT. An in vitro method of comparing CCRT with SCRT was established using lung cancer cell lines. Overall, no significant difference was detected in the radiosensitizing effect of the two treatment schedules, with the exception of the A549 cell lines treated with Doc/Carbo.

  14. Immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: the clinical impact of immune response and targeting

    PubMed Central

    Linardou, Helena; Kosmidis, Paris

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In recent years, through a better understanding of the interactions between the immune system and tumor cells (TC), immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. Chemotherapy has long been reported to interfere with the immune response to the tumor and conversely, anti-tumor immunity may add to those effects. Anti-tumor vaccines, such as MAGE-A3, Tecetomide, TG4010, CIMAvax, tumor cell vaccines and dendritic cell (DC) vaccines emerged as potent inducers of the immune response against the tumor. More recently the approval of the anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab for previously treated advanced squamous and non-squamous NSCLC, as well as other immune checkpoint inhibitors delivering promising results, has radically transformed the therapeutic landscape of NSCLC. Combination strategies now appear as the next step. Notwithstanding these successes, immunotherapy still holds significant drawbacks and currently several improvements are needed before routine use in clinical practice, including identification of robust biomarkers for optimal patient selection, as well as defining the best way to evaluate response. PMID:27563655

  15. Erlotinib and bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and activating EGFR mutations (BELIEF): an international, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Rafael; Dafni, Urania; Felip, Enriqueta; Curioni-Fontecedro, Alessandra; Gautschi, Oliver; Peters, Solange; Massutí, Bartomeu; Palmero, Ramon; Aix, Santiago Ponce; Carcereny, Enric; Früh, Martin; Pless, Miklos; Popat, Sanjay; Kotsakis, Athanasios; Cuffe, Sinead; Bidoli, Paolo; Favaretto, Adolfo; Froesch, Patrizia; Reguart, Noemí; Puente, Javier; Coate, Linda; Barlesi, Fabrice; Rauch, Daniel; Thomas, Michael; Camps, Carlos; Gómez-Codina, Jose; Majem, Margarita; Porta, Rut; Shah, Riyaz; Hanrahan, Emer; Kammler, Roswitha; Ruepp, Barbara; Rabaglio, Manuela; Kassapian, Marie; Karachaliou, Niki; Tam, Rachel; Shames, David S; Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Stahel, Rolf A

    2017-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib improves the outcomes of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The coexistence of the T790M resistance mutation with another EGFR mutation in treatment-naive patients has been associated with a shorter progression-free survival to EGFR inhibition than in the absence of the T790M mutation. To test this hypothesis clinically, we developed a proof-of-concept study, in which patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC were treated with the combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab, stratified by the presence of the pretreatment T790M mutation. BELIEF was an international, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial done at 29 centres in eight European countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had treatment-naive, pathologically confirmed stage IIIB or stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with a confirmed, activating EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion or L858R mutation). Patients received oral erlotinib 150 mg per day and intravenous bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 21 days and were tested centrally for the pretreatment T790M resistance mutation with a peptide nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The primary efficacy analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and was stratified into two parallel substudies according to the centrally confirmed pretreatment T790M mutation status of enrolled patients (T790M positive or negative). The safety analysis was done in all patients that have received at least one dose of trial treatment. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01562028. Between June 11, 2012, and Oct 28, 2014, 109 patients were enrolled and included in the efficacy analysis. 37 patients were T790M mutation positive and 72 negative. The overall median progression-free survival was 13·2 months (95% CI 10·3-15·5), with a 12 month progression-free survival of 55% (95% CI

  16. [Relationship between the genetic polymorphisms of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, as well as the outcome of chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Weiying; Yue, Wentao; Yang, Xuehui; Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Yue

    2011-11-01

    Currently available studies on the polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and their chemotherapeutic effects in non-small cell lung cancer are not consistent. In the present study, the relationship of the gene polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) enzymes with chemotherapeutic effects were investigated. The effects of these relationships on the survival of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients were also examined. Four drug metabolism enzymes were genotyped in lung cancer patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. These patients were followed for five years. The chemotherapeutic effect on patients carrying B-type CYP1A1 and null-type GSTM1 was better than on those carrying other types (P<0.001). The chemotherapeutic effect on patients carrying A-type CYP1A1 was better than on those carrying the B and C types when non-platinum drugs were administered (P=0.041). The chemotherapeutic effect on patients carrying null-type GSTM1 was better than on those carrying the functional type when platinum drugs were administered (P=0.011). The four enzymes did not affect the overall survival (OS) of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients (P>0.05). The chemotherapeutic effect on patients carrying A-type CYP1A1 was better than on those carrying the B and C types when non-platinum drugs were administered. The chemotherapeutic effect on patients carrying null-type GSTM1 was better than on those carrying the functional type when platinum drugs were administered. The four enzymes did not affect the OS of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients.

  17. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancers: an update for recent advances in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Clement

    2016-06-01

    The presence of activating gene mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor of non-small cell lung cancer patients is predictive (improved progression-free survival and improved response rate) when treated with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. The two most common mutations that account for greater than 85% of all EGFR gene mutations are in-frame deletions in exon 19 (LREA deletions) and substitution in exon 21 (L858R). Exon 18 mutations occur much less frequently at about 4% of all EGFR gene mutations. Together, exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R gene substitution are present in about 10% of Caucasian patients and 20-40% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. T790M gene mutation at exon 20 is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early studies showed that activating EGFR gene mutations are most common in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, women, never smokers and those of Asian ethnicity. A recent multi-center phase III trial suggested that frontline epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with afatinib is associated with improved progression-free survival compared to chemotherapy regardless of race. Moreover, guidelines now suggest EGFR gene mutation testing should be conducted in all patients with lung adenocarcinoma or mixed lung cancers with an adenocarcinoma component, regardless of characteristics such as smoking status, gender or race. The success of targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer patients has changed the treatment paradigm in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, despite a durable response of greater than a year, resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors inevitably occurs. This mini-review describes the clinically relevant EGFR gene mutations and the efficacy/toxicity of small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

  18. Low-dose gefitinib treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hironori; Inoue, Akira; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Maemondo, Makoto; Oizumi, Satoshi; Isobe, Hiroshi; Gemma, Akihiko; Saijo, Yasuo; Yoshizawa, Hirohisa; Hagiwara, Koichi; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2011-08-01

    Although standard schedule of gefitinib was the administration of 250 mg tablet every day, many patients need dose reduction because of toxicities. However, the efficacy of such low-dose gefitinib for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated non-small cell lung cancer has rarely been evaluated. A post hoc comparison of the efficacy (response rate and survival) in patients treated with gefitinib with or without any dose reduction in NEJ002 study was performed. Among 114 patients treated with first-line gefitinib in NEJ002, 61 (54%) continued gefitinib without any dose reduction until their diseases progressed, and 53 (46%) reduced their dose of gefitinib because of some toxicities. There was no significant difference of patient characteristics between the two groups. The progression-free survival of low-dose group tended to be better than that of standard-dose group (median progression-free survival, 11.8 versus 9.9 months; p = 0.144), and the overall survival of low-dose group was also better than that of standard-dose group (median survival time, 32.7 versus 25.3 months; p = 0.049). The results suggest that low-dose gefitinib may be clinically not inferior to standard-dose gefitinib for non-small cell lung cancer with sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. Prospective study of low-dose gefitinib is warranted especially for frail patients who need less toxic treatment.

  19. Comparison of cisplatin- and carboplatin-based third-generation chemotherapy in 1,014 Chinese patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Leaw, Shiang J; Xu, Ying; Zheng, Di

    2011-12-01

    The outcome of patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer treated with platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line therapy was investigated to determine if cisplatin- or carboplatin-based combination therapy have similar efficacy by comparing the overall survival and safety profile for each combination regimen. A total of 1,014 patients, treated for stage IIIB and IV NSCLC between January 2002 and December 2008, with initial ECOG performance status of 0 and 1, adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal function, who received at least two cycles of third-generation platinum-based chemotherapy, survived greater than 90 days, and experienced death were included for survival and safety analysis. Of them, 788 patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy and 226 carboplatin-based. Cisplatin-based regimen yield significant better overall survival with a median survival time of 324 days compared to that of the carboplatin-based regimen of 286 days, attributable to the survival benefit of patients with stage III B (379 days vs. 283 days, Log-rank P=0.003), or with histology of squamous (308 days vs. 262 days, Log-rank P=0.01). Patients of the carboplatin-based arm were more likely to experience thrombocytopenia (OR=0.560, 95% CI=0.332-0.944, P=0.028), while cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with more nausea and vomiting (OR=3.720, 95% CI=1.971-7.021, P<0.0001). Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with stage IIIB disease and good performance status have a better survival advantage when treated with third-generation cisplatin-based chemotherapy compared to carboplatin-based regimen, and patients with squamous histology type may have experienced greater survival benefit than those with adenocarcinoma.

  20. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study.

    PubMed

    Babu, K Govind; Prabhash, Kumar; Vaid, Ashok K; Sirohi, Bhawna; Diwakar, Ravi B; Rao, Raghunadha; Kar, Madhuchanda; Malhotra, Hemant; Nag, Shona; Goswami, Chanchal; Raina, Vinod; Mohan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy (docetaxel and carboplatin) versus chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer. This multicenter, open-label, Phase II study randomized 110 patients to receive nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy (nimotuzumab group) or chemotherapy alone (control group), and comprised concomitant, maintenance, and follow-up phases. Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administered once weekly for 13 weeks during the first two phases with four cycles of chemotherapy and docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and carboplatin (area under the curve 5 mg/mL*min) every 3 weeks for a maximum of four cycles during the concomitant phase. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (sum of complete response and partial response). Secondary endpoints, ie, overall survival and progression-free survival, were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Efficacy was evaluated on the intent-to-treat and efficacy-evaluable sets. Safety was assessed from adverse event and serious adverse event data. The objective response rate was significantly higher in the nimotuzumab group than in the control group in the intent-to-treat population (54% versus 34.5%; P=0.04). A complete response and partial response were achieved in 3.6% and 50% of patients, respectively, in the nimotuzumab group, and in 4% and 30.9% of patients, respectively, in the control group. No significant differences in median progression-free survival and overall survival were observed. Safety profiles were comparable between the two groups. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved the objective response rate as compared with chemotherapy alone. The combination was safe and well tolerated in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer.

  1. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Babu, K Govind; Prabhash, Kumar; Vaid, Ashok K; Sirohi, Bhawna; Diwakar, Ravi B; Rao, Raghunadha; Kar, Madhuchanda; Malhotra, Hemant; Nag, Shona; Goswami, Chanchal; Raina, Vinod; Mohan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy (docetaxel and carboplatin) versus chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods This multicenter, open-label, Phase II study randomized 110 patients to receive nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy (nimotuzumab group) or chemotherapy alone (control group), and comprised concomitant, maintenance, and follow-up phases. Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administered once weekly for 13 weeks during the first two phases with four cycles of chemotherapy and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and carboplatin (area under the curve 5 mg/mL*min) every 3 weeks for a maximum of four cycles during the concomitant phase. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (sum of complete response and partial response). Secondary endpoints, ie, overall survival and progression-free survival, were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Efficacy was evaluated on the intent-to-treat and efficacy-evaluable sets. Safety was assessed from adverse event and serious adverse event data. Results The objective response rate was significantly higher in the nimotuzumab group than in the control group in the intent-to-treat population (54% versus 34.5%; P=0.04). A complete response and partial response were achieved in 3.6% and 50% of patients, respectively, in the nimotuzumab group, and in 4% and 30.9% of patients, respectively, in the control group. No significant differences in median progression-free survival and overall survival were observed. Safety profiles were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved the objective response rate as compared with chemotherapy alone. The combination was safe and well tolerated in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:24966687

  2. Efficacy of fourth-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis of published studies.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Fausto; Coinu, Andrea; Cabiddu, Mary; Borgonovo, Karen; Ghilardi, Mara; Lonati, Veronica; Barni, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    There are no agents labelled for use as fourth-line therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer, even though it is currently prescribed in about 5-10% of patients. Here, we provide a pooled analysis of published studies on the efficacy of treatments in patients who have had at least three unsuccessful lines of therapy. The literature search was performed on Pubmed, EMBASE, the Web of Science, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library using the terms 'lung cancer' OR NSCLC AND 'fourth line'. The response rates and disease control rates were pooled using a random-effect or a fixed-effect model according to heterogeneity. Median progression-free survival and overall survival data were also collected and aggregated to obtain pooled median values of the included studies. Overall, 14 studies (673 patients), which were almost entirely published by Asian institutions, were eligible for this pooled analysis. Among these were two phase II trials and 12 retrospective cohort series. In general, the pooled overall response rate was 13.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10-18.3] and the pooled overall disease control rate was 47.3% (95% CI 38-56.9). The pooled median progression-free survival for these studies was 3.34 months (95% CI 2.42-4.27). The pooled median overall survival for these studies was 10.5 months (95% CI 9.57-11.52). In conclusion, for non-small-cell lung cancer patients who have undergone three or more unsuccessful lines of therapy, fourth-line treatment could be offered in select cases to those with a good performance status.

  3. Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Analyzed for EGFR: Adherence to Guidelines, Prevalence and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Sandelin, Martin; Berglund, Anders; Sundström, Magnus; Micke, Patrick; Ekman, Simon; Bergqvist, Michael; Bergström, Stefan; Koyi, Hirsh; Brandén, Eva; Janson, Christer; Botling, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) analysis is the first molecular test introduced in the routine care of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we describe the prevalence of EGFR mutations and the adherence to testing and treatment guidelines in a population-based Swedish NSCLC cohort. Patients with NSCLC analyzed for EGFR mutations were identified and their characteristics and survival data were retrieved. We compared the study cohort to a matched lung cancer population. The EGFR mutation frequency was 10%. Mutations were enriched in women and in adenocarcinoma cases. Out of patients with advanced-stage NSCLC with non-squamous histology, only 49% were referred for EGFR analysis. Out of the patients with EGFR mutation and advanced disease, only 38% received EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in first-line therapy. The EGFR-mutated NSCLC population studied is similar to other Western populations. Surprisingly, a large proportion of patients were not referred for EGFR analysis. Out of the patients with EGFR mutation, fewer than 40% received EGFR-TKI as first-line treatment. Our results highlight the need for follow-up of treatment and diagnostic algorithms in routine healthcare. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. [Trans-Arterial Chemoembolization Therapy for Refractory Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Spherical Embolic Material--A Single Case Report].

    PubMed

    Kennoki, Norifumi; Hori, Shinichi; Yuki, Takeo; Sueyoshi, Satoshi; Hori, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report the use of trans-arterial chemoembolization for primary lung cancer. The patient was a 56-year-old woman with refractory Stage Ⅳ non-small cell lung cancer who had been treated with repeated systemic chemotherapy. The primary lesion in the right lower lobe was 75 mm in size, with multiple lung metastases. It invaded the right main bronchus and caused severe cough. Radiotherapy was not indicated because of the size and extent of the lesion. During a period of 6 months, chemoembolization of the bilateral bronchial arteries using cisplatin 20 mg, docetaxel 20 mg, and 5-FU 250 mg with HepaSphere (super-absorbent polymer microspheres) was performed 5 times. Twenty mg of docetaxel was loaded onto 25 mg of HepaSphere. The microspheres were between 50 and 100 microns in the dry state. The endpoint of embolization was not stasis but the reduction of arterial flow. There were no serious complications during or after the procedure. Immediately after the first session, the patient's cough was significantly improved. After 5 sessions of the same treatment, the primary lesion was reduced to 48 mm and the level of CEA was reduced from 9.8 to 4.3 ng/mL. The invasion to the right main bronchus was reduced. The patient has been well without any symptoms for 9 months after initiation of trans-arterial chemoembolization.

  5. Baseline neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is associated with baseline and subsequent presence of brain metastases in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Young Wha; Choi, Jin-Hyuk; Ahn, Mi Sun; Choi, Yong Won; Lee, Hyun Woo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the predictive value of neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) by examining their association with the baseline presence and subsequent development of brain metastases in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined the predictive value of NLR for brain metastasis in 260 stage IV NSCLC. Logistic regression models and competing risk analysis were used to determine the association of NLR with baseline and subsequent presence of brain metastases. Multivariate analysis reveals that patients with high NLR (≥4.95) had significantly more brain metastases at diagnosis than those with low NLR (Odds Ratio = 2.59, P = 0.01). In patients who had no baseline brain metastasis, competing risks analysis revealed that patients with high NLR showed higher cumulative incidence of subsequent brain metastases, compared to those with low NLR (P = 0.017). A high NLR was associated with the baseline presence or the subsequent development of brain metastases, particularly in the group with adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.044, respectively). Furthermore, an increase in NLR during treatment was associated with subsequent brain metastases (P = 0.004). The NLR is an independent predictive factor for the baseline presence of brain metastases and subsequent brain metastases in stage IV NSCLC. PMID:27924837

  6. [Advances of PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway in immune escape and treatment for 
non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng; Chen, Xiong; Liu, Jingnan; Huang, Yufang; Ou-Yang, Xuenong

    2014-10-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despiting the great progress on target agents, majority of people who do not harbor a mutation could not get benefit from them. Immunotherapy, through stimulating the body's immune system to improve the antitumor immunity effect, has been a new therapeutic method for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Study had been reported that immune checkpoint molecules, including programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand (L) 1 axis, are closedly related with cancer generation and development, and play a key role on clinical significance of NSCLC. Activation of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway contributes to tumor immune escape, and block PD-1/PD-L1 pathway can enhance endogenous antimuor immunity. Currently increasing clinical trials suggested that immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies turned out to be beneficial and safe in NSCLC. Here, we provide a review on the progress of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and immune checkpoint inhibitors in NSCLC.

  7. High prevalence of malnutrition and deranged relationship between energy demands and food intake in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohan, A; Poulose, R; Kulshreshtha, I; Chautani, A M; Madan, K; Hadda, V; Guleria, R

    2017-07-01

    The relation between dietary intake and metabolic profile in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated. Patients with NSCLC were recruited and their caloric requirement and resting energy expenditure (REE) were calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation and Katch-McArdle formula respectively. Hypermetabolic state was defined as REE more than 10% above the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Body composition parameters were calculated by bioelectric impedance method. The 24-h dietary intake method and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool assessed nutritional intake. One hundred and forty-eight subjects were included (87% males). Of these, 46.6% subjects were hypermetabolic and 31% cachexic, with lower calorie and protein intakes than recommended, although per cent of total energy derived from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar. Hypermetabolic patients had lower BMI, though the per cent deficit in energy and protein consumption was similar. Cachexia was associated with lower BMR but not with deficit in energy or protein consumption. No correlation was seen between dietary intake and body composition parameters. The calorie and protein intake of NSCLC patients is lower than recommended. The discordance between elevated REE and dietary intake implies that the relationship between increased energy demands and food intake may be altered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Clinically Meaningful Differences in Patient-Reported Outcomes With Amifostine in Combination With Chemoradiation for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 9801

    SciTech Connect

    Sarna, Linda Swann, Suzanne; Langer, Corey; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Nicolaou, Nicos; Komaki, Ritsuko; Machtay, Mitchell; Byhardt, Roger; Wasserman, Todd; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in quality of life (QOL) and symptoms from pretreatment to 6 weeks posttreatment in a Phase III randomized study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9801) of amifostine (AM) vs. no AM in patients with Stages II-III non-small-cell lung cancer receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin as induction and then concurrently with hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: One hundred thirty-eight patients with baseline and 6-week posttreatment QOL data were analyzed. There were no significant differences in baseline demographics between those who did and did not have QOL data. The QOL and symptoms were assessed by using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Global QOL and Pain subscales and the EORTC-Lung Cancer-13 symptom tool. Clinically relevant changes in QOL were characterized by 10-point differences in individual scores pre/post treatment. A daily diary of patient-rated difficulty swallowing and a weekly physician-rated dysphagia log (using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) were completed during treatment. Weight loss was monitored. Differences in outcomes were examined according to smoking status, alcohol use, and sex. Results: Patients receiving AM reported significantly greater pain reduction after chemoradiation (34% vs. no AM, 21%), less difficulty swallowing during chemoradiation, and less weight loss than patients not receiving AM. However, physician-rated assessments of dysphagia were not significantly different by treatment arm. There were no other significant changes in QOL or symptoms according to treatment arm, smoking status, alcohol use, or sex. Conclusions: Patient evaluations of difficulty swallowing and pain suggest benefits from AM use that are distinct from clinician-rated assessments.

  9. XPG genetic polymorphisms and clinical outcome of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer under platinum-based treatment: a meta-analysis of 12 studies.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tianxin; Kang, Xiuhua; Gong, Zhenghua; Bai, Wei; Chen, Chuanhui; Zhang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    A number of studies on the relationship between xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) have led to inconclusive results. This meta-analysis evaluates the predictive value of XPG polymorphisms on the treatment response rate and overall survival of patients with NSCLC. To measure the correlative strength of the relationship between XPG polymorphisms and outcomes of patients with NSCLC, we searched electronic databases, including PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to retrieve studies up to August 2016. We also employed pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) corresponding to 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Twelve studies involving 2877 patients with NSCLC were included: 8 studies involving 1473 patients examined the correlation between XPG polymorphisms and tumor response rate and 7 studies involving 2329 patients reported on the correlation of XPG polymorphisms with overall survival. None of the XPG His1104Asp(C>G)/His46His(C>T) polymorphisms exhibited a correlation with treatment response rate or overall survival. However, in a further stratified analysis by ethnicity, carriers of the 1104G allele were associated with good response among Asians in the homozygote model (GG vs. CC: OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.34, P = 0.027). Meanwhile, further stratified by ethnicity, His46His polymorphism was not associated with RR and OS in any genetic models. No strong evidence was found to support the use of XPG polymorphisms as tumor response and prognostic factors of patients with NSCLC receiving a platinum-based treatment regimen, which is attributed to marginal association. Studies with large-scale and multiple ethnicities need to be conducted to verify the conclusion.

  10. Poster - Thur Eve - 33: A comprehensive analysis of the effect of respiratory motion on the delivery of IMRT to advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, G; Goosheh, S; Gaede, S

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this work was to quantify the interplay effect of various IMRT delivery techniques in the treatment of Stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Five patients with significant tumour motion were retrospectively planned on the average 4D-CT dataset with eight different IMRT techniques: three Tomotherapy techniques with different beam-widths, two step-and-shoot (SS-IMRT) with different complexity, one sliding-window (SW-IMRT), and two VMAT techniques (RapidArc and SmartArc). Each plan was calculated on a delivery verification phantom that was mounted on a programmable respiratory motion platform and delivered under the following motion conditions: 1) Static; 2) sinusoidal with 4 different amplitudes; 3) Real Patient Breathing. A standard 3%/3mm gamma analysis compared the sum of all 30 fractions to their corresponding 60Gy/30fx plan. One-way ANOVA was conducted for respiratory motion amplitude and IMRT modality, separately. There were no significant differences amongst the modalities at any amplitude level. However, for individual modalities, there were significant differences amongst different amplitudes except for Tomo-2.5cm (p=0.260). Post-hoc Tukey tests determined that detectable significant differences amongst any motion level, including real-patient breathing, were observed when compared to the 20mm amplitude for all modalities except Tomo-2.5cm and SmartArc. SW-IMRT showed significant differences at 15mm when compared to both static (p=0.033) and 5mm (p=0.008). All methods except for RapidArc averaged out to clinically acceptable gamma pass rates up to 15mm. In conclusion, for motion levels above 15mm, the interplay effect can be clinically unacceptable. However, the interplay effect at these motion levels does not appear to be modality dependent. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Pralatrexate with vitamin supplementation in patients with previously treated, advanced non-small cell lung cancer: safety and efficacy in a phase 1 trial.

    PubMed

    Azzoli, Christopher G; Patel, Jyoti D; Krug, Lee M; Miller, Vincent; James, Leonard; Kris, Mark G; Ginsberg, Michelle; Subzwari, Sara; Tyson, Leslie; Dunne, Megan; May, Jennifer; Huntington, Martha; Saunders, Michael; Sirotnak, F M

    2011-11-01

    Pralatrexate is an antifolate designed for preferential tumor cell uptake and accumulation and received accelerated Food and Drug Administration approval in relapsed/refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Pralatrexate 135 to 150 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks without vitamin supplementation was active in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) although mucositis was dose limiting. This phase 1 study evaluated the safety of higher pralatrexate doses with vitamin supplementation to minimize toxicities. Patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC received pralatrexate 150 to 325 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation. Outcomes measured included adverse events (AEs), pharmacokinetics, and radiologic response. Thirty-nine patients were treated for a median of two cycles (range 1-16+). Common treatment-related grade 3 and 4 AEs by dose (≤190 mg/m(2) and >190 mg/m(2)) included mucositis (33 and 40%) and fatigue (11 and 17%). Treatment-related serious AE (SAE) rates for doses ≤190 and >190 mg/m(2) were 0 and 20%, respectively. The response rate was 10% (95% confidence interval: 1-20%), including two patients with complete response (26+ and 32+ months) and two with partial response. Serum pralatrexate concentrations increased dose dependently up to 230 mg/m(2). Pralatrexate with vitamin supplementation was safely administered to patients with previously treated NSCLC, and durable responses were observed. The recommended starting dose for phase 2 is 190 mg/m(2). A similar safety profile was observed in patients treated at 230 mg/m(2), although a higher serious AE rate was evident. Mucositis remains the dose-limiting toxicity of pralatrexate, and this study failed to demonstrate that vitamin supplementation prevents mucositis and failed to identify clinical predictors of mucositis. Individualized dose-modification strategies and prospective mucositis management will be necessary in future trials.

  12. A phase II study of sorafenib in patients with platinum-pretreated, advanced (Stage IIIb or IV) non-small cell lung cancer with a KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Mellema, Wouter W; Groen, Harry J M; van Wijk, Atie; Burgers, Sjaak A; Kunst, Peter W A; Thunnissen, Erik; Heideman, Danielle A M; Smit, Egbert F

    2013-02-01

    Sorafenib inhibits the Ras/Raf pathway, which is overactive in cancer patients with a KRAS mutation. We hypothesized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with KRAS mutation will benefit from treatment with sorafenib. In this phase II study, patients with KRAS-mutated, stage IIIb or IV NSCLC that progressed after at least one platinum-containing regimen were treated with sorafenib. Treatment consisted of sorafenib 400 mg twice daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Pretreatment serum from each patient was obtained to predict outcome using a proteomic assay (VeriStrat). Primary endpoint was disease control rate (DCR) at 6 weeks. Fifty-nine patients were entered between May 2010 and February 2011. Fifty-seven patients started sorafenib. Mean age was 58.5 (SD = ±8.1) years, 16 male/41 female, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) 0/1/2 24/30/3. At 6 weeks, 5 partial response, 25 stable disease, and 27 progressive disease were observed; DCR was 52.6%. Median duration of treatment was 9 weeks. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2.3 months and median overall survival (OS) was 5.3 months. Patients with a prediction of good prognosis according to VeriStrat serum proteomics assay showed a significantly superior PFS [HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-1.9] but not OS (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.7). Sorafenib-related grade III/IV toxicity was reported in 10 patients (17.5%); all but one patient experienced grade III skin toxicity (14.0%) or grade III gastrointestinal toxicity (8.8%). Treatment with sorafenib has relevant clinical activity in patients with NSCLC harboring KRAS mutations. Further randomized study with this agent is warranted as single-agent or combination therapy.

  13. A multi-institutional phase II trial of consolidation S-1 after concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Takada, Minoru; Ando, Masahiko; Okishio, Kyoichi; Atagi, Shinji; Fujita, Yuka; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Hayashihara, Kenji; Okano, Yoshio; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Saito, Ryusei; Matsumura, Akihide; Tamura, Atsuhisa

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the consolidation therapy of the oral fluoropyrimidine agent S-1 after concurrent chemoradiotherapy for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eligible patients had unresectable stage III NSCLC with performance status of 0 or 1. Chemoradiotherapy at a total dose of 60 Gy consisted of cisplatin (80 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 29, vinorelbine (20 mg/m(2)) on days 1, 8, 29 and 36. Sequential consolidation S-1 therapy was commenced at a dose of 80-120 mg twice daily on day 57 with two cycles of 4 weeks administration and 2 weeks withdrawal. Of the 66 patients, 65 were evaluated. Chemoradiotherapy was completed in 57 (87.7%) patients, and S-1 consolidation therapy was administered in 45 (69.2%) and completed in 31 (47.6%). Grade 3 pneumonitis developed in three patients with one dying of it. The response rate was 61.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48.6-73.3%). The median progression-free survival was 10.2 (95%CI, 8.6-13.7) months and median survival time 21.8 (95%CI, 15.6-27.6) months. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 73.9% and 34.0%, respectively. Chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine followed by S-1 consolidation demonstrated a reasonable overall survival in patients with stage III NSCLC. However, less than half of the patients completed this regimen, and the additional effect of S-1 was marginal compared with historical control. We concluded that chemoradiotherapy alone is still the recommended standard treatment for patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma epidermal growth factor receptor mutation testing with a chip-based digital PCR system in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Norimitsu; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Serizawa, Masakuni; Umehara, Rina; Ono, Akira; Hisamatsu, Yasushi; Wakuda, Kazushige; Omori, Shota; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Taira, Tetsuhiko; Naito, Tateaki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Koh, Yasuhiro; Mori, Keita; Endo, Masahiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Yamada, Masanobu; Kusuhara, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing is a companion diagnostic to determine eligibility for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, plasma-based EGFR testing by digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR), which enables accurate quantification of target DNA, has shown promise as a minimally invasive diagnostic. Here, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a plasma-based EGFR mutation test developed using chip-based dPCR-based detection of 3 EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletions, L858R in exon 21, and T790M in exon 20). Forty-nine patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR-activating mutations were enrolled, and circulating free DNAs (cfDNAs) were extracted from the plasma of 21 and 28 patients before treatment and after progression following EGFR-TKI treatment, respectively. Using reference genomic DNA containing each mutation, the detection limit of each assay was determined to be 0.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting exon 19 deletions and L858R mutations, calculated by comparing the mutation status in the corresponding tumors, were 70.6% and 93.3%, and 66.7% and 100%, respectively, showing similar results compared with previous studies. T790M was detected in 43% of 28 cfDNAs after progression with EGFR-TKI treatment, but in no cfDNAs before the start of the treatment. This chip-based dPCR assay can facilitate detection of EGFR mutations in cfDNA as a minimally invasive method in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase I Study of Oral S-1 Plus Cisplatin With Concurrent Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kaira, Kyoichi Sunaga, Noriaki; Yanagitani, Noriko; Kawata, Tadayoshi; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Ebara, Takeshi; Kawamura, Hidemasa; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Suga, Tatsuo; Hara, Kenichiro; Hisada, Takeshi; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Nakano, Takashi; Mori, Masatomo

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended dose (RD) of S-1 in combination with cisplatin and thoracic radiotherapy in patients with unresectable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: S-1 was administered orally twice daily for 14 days and cisplatin on Days 1 and 8 of each cycle; this was repeated every 3 weeks. Doses of each drug were planned as follows: level 0, 50/40; level 1, 60/40; level 2, 70/40; level 3, 80/40 (S-1 [mg/m{sup -2}/day{sup -1}]/cisplatin [mg/m{sup -2}/day{sup -1}]). Thoracic radiation therapy was administered in 2 Gy fractions five times weekly to a total dose of 60 Gy. Results: Ten patients were enrolled in this study. All patients received 60 Gy of thoracic radiotherapy and 7 (70%) patients received four cycles of chemotherapy. At level 1, 2 of 3 patients experienced a delay exceeding 10 days in the cisplatin administration of Day 29. Grade 4 neutropenia and Grade 3 fever occurred in 1 and 1 patients, respectively. Nonhematologic toxicities were mild. None developed {>=}Grade 3 esophagitis or lung toxicity. At level 0, 2 of 7 patients developed dose-limiting toxicity. Thus, level 1 was considered the MTD and Level 0 was selected as the RD. Objective responses were seen in all patients. Conclusions: The RD is the level 0 dose, and this regimen is a feasible and well-tolerated regimen for the treatment of patients with Stage III NSCLC.

  16. Concurrent Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced (Stage III) Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Single Institution Experience With 600 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremic, Branislav; Milicic, Biljana; Milisavljevic, Slobodan

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Our institutional experience with the use of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrently with chemotherapy (RT-CHT) in Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer was reviewed. Methods and Materials: Three phase III and two phase II studies included a total of 600 patients. Hyperfractionated RT alone was given to 127 patients, and hyperfractionated RT-CHT was given to 473 patients. RT doses were 64.8 Gy and 69.6 Gy (using 1.2 Gy twice daily) and 67.6 Gy (using 1.3 Gy twice daily). CHT consisted of concurrent administration of carboplatin and etoposide to 409 patients and concurrent administration of carboplatin and paclitaxel to 64 patients. Results: The median survival times were 19 months, 21 months, and 12 months for all, RT-CHT, and RT-only patients, respectively. The survival difference between the RT-CHT and RT group was significant (p < 0.0001). Four-year rates of local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were 29% and 35%, respectively, for the entire group. The RT-CHT group had significantly better LPFS rates than the RT group (31% for the RT-CHT group vs. 16% for the RT group; p = 0.0015) but not DMFS rates (36% for the RT-CHT group vs. 36% for the RT group, p = 0.0571). Acute high-grade esophagitis, pneumonitis, and hematological toxicities were seen most frequently and in 11%, 9%, and 12% of patients, respectively. Late high-grade esophageal and bronchopulmonary toxicity were each seen in 6% of patients. Conclusions: Compared to the majority of existing phase II and III studies, this study reconfirmed the excellent results achieved with concurrent RT-CHT, including low toxicity. Concurrent RT-CHT results in survival benefit primarily by increasing LPFS, not DMFS.

  17. Phase II Study of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 plus Erlotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer who Previously Progressed on Erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Primo N.; Longmate, Jeff; Mack, Philip C.; Kelly, Karen; Socinski, Mark A.; Salgia, Ravi; Gitlitz, Barbara; Li, Tianhong; Koczywas, Mariana; Reckamp, Karen L.; Gandara, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Preclinical modeling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) showed that stimulation with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the ligand for MET, could reverse the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of the epidermal-growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib in erlotinib-sensitive cell lines. Inhibitors of AKT signaling mitigated this HGF-mediated resistance, partially restoring erlotinib activity. We conducted a phase II trial of erlotinib plus MK2206, a highly selective inhibitor of AKT, in NSCLC patients. Experimental Design Eligible patients must have progressed following prior benefit from erlotinib, defined as response or stable disease > 12 weeks. Treatment consisted of erlotinib 150 mg po QD + MK-2206 45 mg po QOD on a 28 day cycle. Primary endpoints were RECIST response rate > 30% (stratum 1: EGFR mutant) and disease control rate (DCR) > 20% at 12 weeks (stratum 2: EGFR wild type). Results Eighty patients were enrolled, 45 and 35 in stratum 1 and 2, respectively. Most common attributable adverse events (all grade 3) were rash, diarrhea, fatigue, and mucositis. Response and DCR were respectively 9% and 40% in stratum 1; 3% and 47% in stratum 2. Median progression free survival was 4.4 months in stratum 1 and 4.6 months in stratum 2. Conclusions Combination MK2206 and erlotinib met its primary endpoint in erlotinib-pretreated patients with EGFR wild type NSCLC. While activity was seen in EGFR mutated NSCLC, this did not exceed a priori estimates. AKT pathway inhibition merits further clinical evaluation in EGFR wild type NSCLC. PMID:26106072

  18. Biological and clinical results of a neuroimmunotherapy with interleukin-2 and the pineal hormone melatonin as a first line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Lissoni, P.; Tisi, E.; Barni, S.; Ardizzoia, A.; Rovelli, F.; Rescaldani, R.; Ballabio, D.; Benenti, C.; Angeli, M.; Tancini, G.

    1992-01-01

    The metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) still remains an untreatable disease, and the role played by chemotherapy has yet to be defined. The new immunotherapeutic strategies, such as interferon and IL-2, seem to be also less effective, since they generally determine only a stabilisation of disease. On the basis of previous experimental results suggesting a synergistic action between IL-2 and the pineal neurohormone melatonin (MLT), a study was started to evaluate the clinical efficacy and toxicity of a neuroimmunotherapeutic combination consisting of IL-2 plus MLT as a first line therapy in metastatic NSCLC. The study included 20 patients (adenocarcinoma: 10; epidermoid cell carcinoma: 7; large cell carcinoma: 3). MLT was given orally at a dose of 10 mg day-1 at 8.00 pm every day, starting 7 days before the onset of IL-2 administration. IL-2 was given subcutaneously at a dose of 3 x 10(6) IU m-2 every 12 h for 5 days/week for 4 weeks, corresponding to one cycle of immunotherapy. In responder patients or in those with stable disease, a second cycle was given after a rest-period of 21 days. A partial response was achieved in 4/20 (20%) patients. Ten other patients had a stable disease (50%), whereas the last six patients progressed. Toxicity was low in all cases. This study shows that the neuroimmunotherapeutic therapy with IL-2 and the pineal hormone MLT may represent a new effective and well tolerated treatment in metastatic NSCLC, with results comparable to those obtained with chemotherapy, but with an apparent lower biological toxicity. PMID:1322155

  19. Low-dose weekly paclitaxel as second-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Juan, Oscar; Albert, Ana; Ordoño, Fermín; Casany, Rosa; Carañana, Vicente; Campos, Juan M; Alberola, Vicente

    2002-11-01

    To assess the activity and toxicity of low-dose weekly paclitaxel in patients with non-resectable or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and who had disease recurrence or failure with previous chemotherapy. Forty patients with NSCLC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy received weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) as a 1 h infusion. The median age was 63 years (range 42-77 years); 25 patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) 1 and 15 had PS 2. Thirty-one patients had stage IV disease and nine stage III (eight stage IIIB and one stage IIIA). A total of 364 weeks of treatment were administered (median 8 weeks, range 2-17 weeks). There were no episodes of grade 3 or 4 haematological toxicities. Severe non-haematological toxicity was uncommon: grade 1-2 asthenia in 50%; grade 1-2 motor neuropathy in 45% and grade 3 in 10%; grade 1-2 sensory neuropathy in 62% of patients. Alopecia was mild. The overall response rate was 37.5% (95% CI, 23.9-55): 2 CR, 13 PR, 15 SD, 8 PD, 2 NE. Median overall survival was 9.7 months (95% CI, 6.5-12.8). Median time to progression was 5.4 months (95% CI, 1.8-8.9). A low-dose weekly paclitaxel regimen had good clinical efficacy with low toxicity in this group of patients with poor prognosis. This regimen increases the therapeutic options available for second-line therapy in NSCLC patients.

  20. Phase II study of a novel taxane (Cabazitaxel-XRP 6258) in previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.

    PubMed

    Madan, Ankit; Jones, Benjamin S; Bordoni, Rodolfo; Saleh, Mansoor N; Jerome, Mary S; Miley, Deborah K; Jackson, Bradford E; Robert, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Given the success of cabazitaxel in patients with prostate cancer who progressed after receiving prior chemotherapy, its preclinical efficacy in various cell lines and possible ability to cross blood-brain barrier, cabazitaxel was hypothesized to increase objective response rate (ORR) in second-line setting in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This was a phase II 2-stage trial in 28 patients using two different treatment schedules (A: 20 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks intravenously and B: 8.4 mg/m(2) intravenously weekly) to determine the ORR of cabazitaxel with secondary end points including progression-free survival (PFS), safety, and overall survival (OS). There was one objective response in schedule B. PFS and OS of schedule A was 3 and 6 months, respectively. PFS and OS of schedule B was 3 and 13 months, respectively. The stable disease rate was higher in schedule A (SD = 69.23 %; 95 % CL 38.57, 90.90) as compared to schedule B (SD = 38.46 %; 95 % CL 13.86, 68.42), but this difference was not statistically significant (P value = 0.1156). There were two grade 5 toxicities from sepsis. Hematuria of any grade developed in greater percentage of patients (35%) as compared to previous cabazitaxel phase 3 trial and led to change in our protocol. Response to cabazitaxel in NSCLC was not as robust as seen in prostate cancer and not superior to currently used agents such as docetaxel, pemetrexed, and erlotinib. In absence of significant objective responses, the second stage of the study was not undertaken.

  1. Induction Chemotherapy and Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (CHART) for Patients With Locally Advanced Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The MRC INCH Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, Matthew; Nankivell, Matthew; Lyn, Ethan; Falk, Stephen; Pugh, Cheryl; Navani, Neal; Stephens, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that both CHART (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy) and induction chemotherapy offer a survival advantage over conventional radical radiotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC). This multicenter randomized controlled trial (INCH) was set up to assess the value of giving induction chemotherapy before CHART. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed, inoperable, Stage I-III NSCLC were randomized to induction chemotherapy (ICT) (three cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by CHART) or CHART alone. Results: Forty-six patients were randomized (23 in each treatment arm) from 9 UK centers. As a result of poor accrual, the trial was closed in December 2007. Twenty-eight patients were male, 28 had squamous cell histology, 34 were Stage IIIA or IIIB, and all baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. Seventeen (74%) of the 23 ICT patients completed the three cycles of chemotherapy. All 42 (22 CHART + 20 ICT) patients who received CHART completed the prescribed treatment. Median survival was 17 months in the CHART arm and 25 months in the ICT arm (hazard ratio of 0.60 [95% CI 0.31-1.16], p = 0.127). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (mainly fatigue, dysphagia, breathlessness, and anorexia) were reported for 13 (57%) CHART and 13 (65%) ICT patients. Conclusions: This small randomized trial indicates that ICT followed by CHART is feasible and well tolerated. Despite closing early because of poor accrual, and so failing to show clear evidence of a survival benefit for the additional chemotherapy, the results suggest that CHART, and ICT before CHART, remain important options for the treatment of inoperable NSCLC and deserve further study.

  2. Single-agent maintenance therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis of 26 randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaoning; Ma, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefit of maintenance therapy has been confirmed in patients with non-progressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after first-line therapy by many trials and meta-analyses. However, since few head-to-head trials between different regimens have been reported, clinicians still have little guidance on how to select the most efficacious single-agent regimen. Hence, we present a network meta-analysis to assess the comparative treatment efficacy of several single-agent maintenance therapy regimens for stage III/IV NSCLC. Methods A comprehensive literature search of public databases and conference proceedings was performed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) meeting the eligible criteria were integrated into a Bayesian network meta-analysis. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) and the secondary outcome was progression free survival (PFS). Results A total of 26 trials covering 7,839 patients were identified, of which 24 trials were included in the OS analysis, while 23 trials were included in the PFS analysis. Switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine and switch-pemetrexed were identified as the most efficacious regimens based on OS (HR, 0.64; 95% CrI, 0.45–0.92) and PFS (HR, 0.54; 95% CrI, 0.26–1.04) separately. According to the rank order based on OS, switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine had the highest probability as the most effective regimen (52%), while switch-pemetrexed ranked first (34%) based on PFS. Conclusions Several single-agent maintenance therapy regimens can prolong OS and PFS for stage III/IV NSCLC. Switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine maintenance therapy may be the most optimal regimen, but should be confirmed by additional evidence. PMID:27781159

  3. A randomized Phase II trial of the tumor vascular disrupting agent CA4P (fosbretabulin tromethamine) with carboplatin, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garon, Edward B; Neidhart, Jeffrey D; Gabrail, Nashat Y; de Oliveira, Moacyr R; Balkissoon, Jai; Kabbinavar, Fairooz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Combretastatin A4-phosphate, fosbretabulin tromethamine (CA4P) is a vascular disrupting agent that targets tumor vasculature. This study evaluated the safety of CA4P when combined with carboplatin, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab in chemotherapy-naïve subjects with advanced nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods Adult subjects with confirmed American Joint Committee on Cancer six stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0 or 1 were randomized to receive six cycles (treatment phase) of paclitaxel (200 mg/m2), carboplatin (area under the concentration versus time curve 6), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) on day 1 and repeated every 21 days, or this regimen plus CA4P (60 mg/m2) on days 7, 14, and 21 of each cycle. Subjects could then receive additional maintenance treatment (excluding carboplatin and paclitaxel) for up to 1 year. Results Sixty-three subjects were randomized, 31 to control and 32 to CA4P, and 19 (61.3%) and 17 (53.1%), respectively, completed the treatment phase. Exposure to study treatment and dose modifications were comparable between the randomized groups. The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between groups, with increased neutropenia, leukopenia, and hypertension in the CA4P group. Deaths, serious adverse events, and early discontinuations from treatment were comparable between the randomized treatment groups. The overall tumor response rate with CA4P was 50% versus 32% in controls. Overall and progression-free survival rates were comparable between the groups. Conclusion CA4P plus carboplatin, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab appears to be a tolerable regimen with an acceptable toxicity profile in subjects with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:27942221

  4. Systemic treatment of non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Cedrych, Ida; Walasek, Tomasz; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Blecharz, Paweł; Reinfuss, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In the systemic treatment of brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (BMF-NSCLC) chemo- and targeted therapy are used. Response rates after platinum-based chemotherapy, range from 23% to 45%. Development of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs): gefitinib or erlotinib, was an improvement in treatment of advanced NSCLC patients. EGFR mutations are present in 10–25% of NSCLC (mostly adenocarcinoma), and up to 55% in never-smoking women of East Asian descent. In the non-selected group of patients with BMF-NSCLC, the overall response rates after gefitinib or erlotinib treatment range from 10% to 38%, and the duration of response ranges from 9 to 13.5 months. In the case of present activating EGFR mutation, the response rate after EGRF-TKIs is greater than 50%, and in selected groups (adenocarcinoma, patients of Asian descent, never-smokers, asymptomatic BMF-NSCLC) even 70%. Gefitinib or erlotinib treatment improves survival of BMF-NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation in comparison to cases without the presence of this mutation. There is no data on the activity of the anti-EML4-ALK agent crizotinib. Bevacizumab, recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody anti-VEGF, in the treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients is a subject of intense research. Data from a clinical trial enrolling patients with pretreated or occult BMF-NSCLC proved that the addition of bevacizumab to various chemotherapy agents or erlotinib is a safe and efficient treatment, associated with a low incidence of CSN haemorrhages. However, the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab used for therapeutic intent, regarding active brain metastases is unknown. PMID:28373815

  5. Phase 2 trial of erlotinib with or without PF-3512676 (CPG 7909, a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist) in patients with advanced recurrent EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belani, Chandra P; Nemunaitis, John J; Chachoua, Abraham; Eisenberg, Peter D; Raez, Luiz E; Cuevas, J Daniel; Mather, Cecile B; Benner, Rebecca J; Meech, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    This phase 2 study assessed PF-3512676 plus erlotinib in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer after prior chemotherapy failure. Patients were randomized 1:1 to PF-3512676 (0.20 mg/kg injected subcutaneously once weekly) plus erlotinib (150 mg daily) or erlotinib alone. The primary objective was to estimate progression-free survival (PFS). Patients received PF-3512676 plus erlotinib (n = 18) or erlotinib alone (n = 21). The study was halted because an unplanned interim analysis indicated that large improvement in PFS with addition of PF-3512676 would be unlikely. In the PF-3512676-plus-erlotinib and erlotinib-alone arms, median PFS was 1.6 and 1.7 mo (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.5–2.0; P = 0.9335), respectively. Salient grade ≥ 3 adverse events in PF-3512676-plus-erlotinib and erlotinib-alone arms were diarrhea (5/0), dyspnea (5/6), fatigue (4/1), other flu-like symptoms (2/0), anemia (2/1), and lymphocytopenia (based on laboratory values, 1/4). Adding PF-3512676 to erlotinib did not show potential for increased progression-free survival over erlotinib alone in patients with advanced recurrent epidermal growth factor receptor-positive non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:23792641

  6. Phase 2 trial of erlotinib with or without PF-3512676 (CPG 7909, a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist) in patients with advanced recurrent EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Belani, Chandra P; Nemunaitis, John J; Chachoua, Abraham; Eisenberg, Peter D; Raez, Luiz E; Cuevas, J Daniel; Mather, Cecile B; Benner, Rebecca J; Meech, Sandra J

    2013-07-01

    This phase 2 study assessed PF-3512676 plus erlotinib in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer after prior chemotherapy failure. Patients were randomized 1:1 to PF-3512676 (0.20 mg/kg injected subcutaneously once weekly) plus erlotinib (150 mg daily) or erlotinib alone. The primary objective was to estimate progression-free survival (PFS). Patients received PF-3512676 plus erlotinib (n = 18) or erlotinib alone (n = 21). The study was halted because an unplanned interim analysis indicated that large improvement in PFS with addition of PF-3512676 would be unlikely. In the PF-3512676-plus-erlotinib and erlotinib-alone arms, median PFS was 1.6 and 1.7 mo (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-2.0; P = 0.9335), respectively. Salient grade ≥ 3 adverse events in PF-3512676-plus-erlotinib and erlotinib-alone arms were diarrhea (5/0), dyspnea (5/6), fatigue (4/1), other flu-like symptoms (2/0), anemia (2/1), and lymphocytopenia (based on laboratory values, 1/4). Adding PF-3512676 to erlotinib did not show potential for increased progression-free survival over erlotinib alone in patients with advanced recurrent epidermal growth factor receptor-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

  7. A phase I pilot study of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor pathway modulator AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin in previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Georg; Bergström, Stefan; Harmenberg, Johan; Ringbom, Magnus; Klockare, Maria; Jerling, Markus; Ekman, Simon; Lundström, Kristina Lamberg; Koyi, Hirsh; Brandén, Eva; Larsson, Olle; Bergqvist, Michael

    2015-04-01

    AXL1717 is an orally bioavailable IGF-1R pathway modulator that has been shown to have anti-tumoral effects. The objectives of the present study were to define maximum tolerated dose and the recommended phase II dose (RPTD) of AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic NSCLC (squamous cell cancer or adenocarcinoma) in good performance status and with preserved major organ functions were enrolled in the study. The study was an open-label phase I study with planned cohorts of three patients per dose level of AXL1717 (215, 290, and 390 mg BID). In total, 12 patients were enrolled in the study, and of these, two were prematurely excluded. AXL1717 was administered at one dose level, 215 mg BID. A total number of 81 unique adverse events were reported. Bone marrow toxicity was reported in 10 out of 12 patients, and this organ class showed the largest number of related events. AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin is a possible treatment approach in previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, due to the bone marrow toxicity profile shown in the present study, further dose increases of AXL1717 above 215 mg BID will probably not be feasible. Therefore, 215 mg BID constitutes maximum tolerated dose and RPTD.

  8. Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal combinations for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of 65 clinical trials enrolling 4751 patients

    PubMed Central

    Dugoua, Jean Jacques; Wu, Ping; Seely, Dugald; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Mills, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of death. Interventions to reduce mortality in patients with NSCLC represent a patient-important field of research. Little is known about interventions used outside the Western world for NSCLC. One intervention widely used in Asia is astragalus-based herbal preparations. Methods We conducted a comprehensive systematic review of all published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating astragalus-based herbal preparations in NSCLC patients. We searched independently, in duplicate, 6 English language electronic databases and 2 Chinese-language databases. We abstracted data independently, in duplicate on studies reporting of methods, survival outcomes, tumor responses, and performance score responses. We applied a random-effects meta-analysis and report outcomes as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We included 65 RCTs enrolling 4751 patients. All trials included the herbal preparations plus platinum-based chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone. We pooled 7 studies (n = 529) reporting on survival at 6 months and found a pooled RR of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.65, P ≤ 0.0001). We included 20 trials (n = 1520) on survival at 12 months and found a pooled RR of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.79, P ≤ 0.0001). This effect was consistent at 24 and 36 months. When we applied a composite endpoint of any tumor treatment response, we pooled data from 57 trials and found a pooled RR of 1.35 in favor of herbal treatment (95% CI, 1.26 to 1.44, P ≤ 0.0001). Statistical heterogeneity was low across trials. Limitations The quality of reporting the RCTs was generally poor. There is also reason to believe that studies reported as randomized may not be. Conclusions We found a large treatment effect of adding astragalus-based herbal treatment to standard chemotherapy regimens. There is a pressing need for validation of these findings in well-conducted RCTs in a Western setting. PMID:28210109

  9. Up-Regulation of miR-21 Expression Predicate Advanced Clinicopathological Features and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Shan, Weiyu; Zhang, Yufei; Zhnag, Yufei; Lv, Xuejun; Li, Xuehua; Wei, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small (19-24 nt long) noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a sequence specific manner. An increasing association between miRNA and cancer has been recently reported. Lung cancer is globally responsible for 1.4 million deaths annually and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both women and men. In this study, we investigated the miR-21 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to evaluate their value in prognosis of this tumor. Here, we assess miR-21 expression in NSCLC and its clinical significance including survival analysis. The expression of miR-21 in matched normal and tumor tissues of NSCLC was evaluated using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was generated following a logrank test. It was observed that miR-21 expression was up-regulated in NSCLC tissues compared with noncancerous lung tissues (mean ± SD: 6.7 ± 2.3 vs. 3.7 ± 1.5, P < 0.001). The up-regulation of miR-21 in NSCLC cancer tissues was also significantly correlated with aggressive clinicopathological features. We found that the patients with high miR-21 expression have a higher tumor grade (P = 0.027) and are in higher risk of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021). Moreover, the results of Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that NSCLC patients with the high miR-21 expression tend to have shorter overall survival and progression free survival (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis clearly indicated that the high miR-21 expression in biopsy samples may be considered as an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC for decreased survival (RR 3.88; 95%CI, 2.47-6.11). Our data indicate the potential of miR-21 as a novel prognostic biomarker for NSCLC. Large well-designed studies with diverse populations and functional evaluations are warranted to confirm and extend our findings.

  10. Comparison of plasma and tissue samples in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation by ARMS in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, MeiLi; Shi, ChunLei; Qian, JiaLin; Teng, JiaJun; Zhong, Hua; Han, BaoHui

    2016-10-10

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and accuracy of blood-based circulating-free tumor DNA on testing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations. In total, 219 non-small cell lung cancer patients in stages III-IV were enrolled into this study. All patients had tissue samples and matched plasma DNA samples. EGFR gene mutations were detected by the Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS). We compared the mutations in tumor tissue samples with matched plasma samples and determined the correlation between EGFR mutation status and clinical pathologic characteristics. The overall concordance rate of EGFR mutation status between the 219 matched plasma and tissue samples was 82% (179/219). The sensitivity and specificity for the ARMS EGFR mutation test in the plasma compared with tumor tissue were 60% (54/90) and 97% (125/129), respectively. The positive predictive value was 93% (54/58) and the negative predictive value was 78% (125/161). The median overall survival was longer for those with EGFR mutations than for those without EGFR mutations both in tissue samples (23.98 vs. 12.16months; P<0.001) and in plasma (19.96 vs. 13.63months; P=0.009). For the 68 patients treated with EGFR- tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly prolonged in the EGFR mutant group compared to the non-mutation group in tumor tissue samples (12.26months vs. 2.40months, P<0.001). In plasma samples, the PFS of the mutant group was longer than that of the non-mutant group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (10.88months vs. 9.89months, P=0.411). The detection of EGFR mutations in plasma using ARMS is relatively sensitive and highly specific. However, EGFR mutation status tested by ARMS in plasma cannot replace a tumor tissue biopsy. Positive EGFR mutation results detected in plasma are fairly reliable, but negative results are hampered by a high rate of false negatives

  11. Efficacy and safety of pemetrexed/cisplatin versus gemcitabine/cisplatin as first-line treatment in Chinese patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Long; Lu, Shun; Cheng, Ying; Zhou, Caicun; Wang, Mengzhao; Qin, Shukui; Lu, You; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Yunzhong; Song, Xiangqun; Wang, Xin; Barraclough, Helen; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Chi, Haidong; Orlando, Mauro

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective subgroup analysis in JMDB study indicates that the between-arm differences in overall survival (OS) in the East Asian subgroup were consistent with those observed in the entire JMDB study population. This bridging study (JMIL) further evaluated the efficacy and safety of first-line pemetrexed/cisplatin (PC) versus gemcitabine/cisplatin (GC) in Chinese patients with nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The primary endpoint of this local registration trial was designed to compare OS in the combined dataset, consisting of Chinese patients in JMIL and 1252 nonsquamous patients in JMDB. Chinese patients with stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC were randomly assigned (1:1) to 6 cycles maximum (21 days/cycle) of pemetrexed 500mg/m(2)+cisplatin 75mg/m(2) (day 1), or gemcitabine 1250mg/m(2) (days 1 and 8)+cisplatin 75mg/m(2) (day 1). In JMIL, 256 Chinese patients were randomized (PC, n=126; GC, n=130). Patient baseline characteristics were balanced between treatment arms. In the combined dataset, PC was superior to GC in prolonging OS, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.77-0.98, p=0.023) and median OS of 11.76 versus 10.94 months. In the JMIL-only population, no significant OS difference observed between treatment arms (adjusted HR=1.03 [95% CI: 0.77-1.39, p=0.822]; unadjusted HR=0.996 [95% CI: 0.74-1.33, p=0.980]), nor for other secondary efficacy endpoints. Significantly fewer patients in the PC arm experienced drug-related grade 3/4 toxicities, 54 (43.2%) versus 71 (55.9%) for GC (p=0.045), with significantly lower rates of leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and fatigue. This study showed that in the combined population, OS of PC was superior to GC, while in the Chinese-only population, no significant difference was observed; a better safety and risk/benefit profile was found in the PC arm. A PC regimen should be considered as a standard of care in Chinese nonsquamous NSCLC patients in a first-line setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  12. Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model.

    PubMed

    Tibaldi, C; Vasile, E; Bernardini, I; Orlandini, C; Andreuccetti, M; Falcone, A

    2008-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of several baseline variables in stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer to create a model based on independent prognostic factors. A total of 320 patients were treated with last generation chemotherapy regimens. The majority of patients received treatment with cisplatin + gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone if older than 70 years or with an ECOG performance status (PS) = 2. Performance status of 2, squamous histology, number of metastatic sites >2, presence of bone, brain, liver and contralateral lung metastases and elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood were all statistically significant prognostic factors in univariate analyses whereas the other tested variables (sex, stage, age, presence of adrenal gland and skin metastases) were not. Subsequently, a multivariate Cox's regression analysis identified PS 2 (P < 0.001, hazard ratio 2.57), elevated leukocyte count (P < 0.001, hazard ratio 1.79), squamous histology (P = 0.005, hazard ratio 1.45) and presence of brain metastases (P = 0.035, hazard ratio 1.5) as independent prognostic factors for poor survival. Patients were assigned to one of three risk groups according to the cumulative risk defined as the sum of simplified risk scores of the four independent prognostic factors. Low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients achieved a median survival of 10.2 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9-11.6), 5.1 months (95% CI 4.0-6.2) and 2.8 months (95% CI 0.5-5.2), respectively. The high-risk group encompassed PS 2 patients with two or three adjunctive unfavourable independent prognostic factors. Performance status, white blood cells count, histology and brain metastases resulted in our series prognostic factors of survival in NSCLC patients treated with chemotherapy at a multivariate analysis. Leukocyte count resulted the stronger factor after performance status. If prospectly validated, the proposed prognostic model could be useful to stratify performance status

  13. Proactive management strategies for potential gastrointestinal adverse reactions with ceritinib in patients with advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Eric S; Baik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusions occur in 3%–7% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Ceritinib, a once-daily, oral ALK inhibitor, has activity against crizotinib-resistant and crizotinib-naïve NSCLC, including brain metastases. Ceritinib (Zykadia™) was granted accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for treating crizotinib-resistant ALK-positive NSCLC. Adverse events (AEs), particularly gastrointestinal (GI) AEs, are commonly experienced at the recommended dose of 750 mg/d and ∼38% of patients require dose interruption or reduction for GI AEs. This case study details our experience with the use of proactive GI AE management regimens in patients treated with ceritinib (750 mg/d) across two study sites. Proactive Regimens A and B were implemented in patients with metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC treated with ceritinib to manage drug-related GI AEs. Regimen A comprised ondansetron and diphenoxylate/atropine or loperamide, taken 30 minutes prior to ceritinib dose. Regimen B included dicyclomine (taken with the first ceritinib dose), ondansetron (taken 30 minutes prior to ceritinib dose for the first seven doses), and loperamide (taken as needed with the onset of diarrhea). The proactive medications were tapered off depending on patient tolerability to ceritinib. Nine patient cases are presented. Starting Regimens A or B before the first dose of ceritinib, or as soon as GI symptoms were encountered, prevented the need for dose reduction due to GI toxicity in eight of the nine patients. Using these regimens, 78% of patients were able to remain on 750 mg/d fasting. Two patients received 23 months and 16 months of therapy and remain on ceritinib 750 mg/d and 600 mg/d, respectively. Although not currently recommended or implemented in clinical studies, based on the patients evaluated here, upfront or proactive treatment plans that address AEs early on can allow the majority of patients to remain on the approved 750 mg

  14. Ethnic differences in survival outcome in patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer: results of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Soo, Ross A; Loh, Marie; Mok, Tony S; Ou, Sai-Hong I; Cho, Byoung-Chul; Yeo, Wee-Lee; Tenen, Dan G; Soong, Richie

    2011-06-01

    Although interethnic differences in survival to cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer exist, an analysis of survival outcomes based on ethnicity has not yet been fully evaluated systematically using large patient cohorts. Furthermore, recent trial results may be confounded by the use of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). A meta-analysis was performed using trials identified through MEDLINE. Summary data on median overall survival (OS), time to progression, progression-free survival, and overall response rate (ORR) were collected from randomized controlled trials. Outcomes were compared between Asian and Caucasian studies. Of the 1182 citations identified, 391 treatment arms (Asian 90 and Caucasian 301) were analyzed. The median OS and ORR in Asian and Caucasian studies for all chemotherapy regimens was 10.1 and 8.0 months (p < 0.001) and 32.2 and 25.9% (p < 0.001), respectively. The median OS in Asian and Caucasian studies for monotherapy, platinum doublets, and three drugs or more combination was 9.9 and 6.8 months, 10.4 and 8.6 months, and 9.4 and 8.0 months, respectively (all p < 0.001). In studies published pre-EGFR TKI, the median OS and ORR in Asian and Caucasian studies for all chemotherapy regimens was 9.1 versus 7.3 months (p < 0.001), respectively, and 29.0 and 23.0% (p < 0.006), respectively. The median OS in Asian and Caucasian studies for monotherapy, platinum doublets, and three drugs or more combination pre-EGFR TKI was 8.9 and 6.5 months (p < 0.005), 9.1 and 7.5 months (p < 0.001), and 9.3 and 7.6 months (p < 0.003), respectively. In third-generation platinum doublets, the median OS in Asian and Caucasian studies was 11.3 and 9.5 months (p < 0.001), respectively, and ORR was 35.0 and 29.8% (p < 0.001), respectively. Ethnic differences in survival and response rate to chemotherapy exist and should be considered in clinical trial designs especially in the global context.

  15. Review of the treatment of metastatic non small cell lung carcinoma: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Vera

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, as we have a better knowledge and understanding of the biology of non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), which leads us to targeting biomarkers driving the NSCLC carcinogenesis and metastatic potential, we now have an increased number of options to offer our patients with NSCLC. We also realize the importance of distinguishing squamous and non squamous histology to guide our treatment decisions of NSCLC. The palliative care concomitant with therapies from the very start of the treatment also showed an impact on survival. This review examines the treatment options in all lines of therapy for metastatic NSCLC that have been approved in Canada, the United States, or Europe. PMID:21773076

  16. Erlotinib, cabozantinib, or erlotinib plus cabozantinib as second-line or third-line treatment of patients with EGFR wild-type advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (ECOG-ACRIN 1512): a randomised, controlled, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Neal, Joel W; Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Wakelee, Heather A; Aisner, Seena C; Bowden, Michaela; Huang, Ying; Carbone, David P; Gerstner, Gregory J; Lerner, Rachel E; Rubin, Jerome L; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Stella, Philip J; Steen, Preston D; Khalid, Ahmed Ali; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2016-12-01

    Erlotinib is approved for the treatment of all patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but is most active in the treatment of EGFR mutant NSCLC. Cabozantinib, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, targets MET, VEGFR, RET, ROS1, and AXL, which are implicated in lung cancer tumorigenesis. We compared the efficacy of cabozantinib alone or in combination with erlotinib versus erlotinib alone in patients with EGFR wild-type NSCLC. This three group, randomised, controlled, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial was done in 37 academic and community oncology practices in the USA. Patients were eligible if they had received one or two previous treatments for advanced non-squamous, EGFR wild-type, NSCLC. Patients were stratified by performance status and line of therapy, and randomly assigned using permuted blocks within strata to receive open-label oral daily dosing of erlotinib (150 mg), cabozantinib (60 mg), or erlotinib (150 mg) and cabozantinib (40 mg). Imaging was done every 8 weeks. At the time of radiographic progression, there was optional crossover for patients in either single-drug group to receive combination treatment. The primary endpoint was to compare progression-free survival in patients given erlotinib alone versus cabozantinib alone, and in patients given erlotinib alone versus the combination of erlotinib plus cabozantinib. We assessed the primary endpoint in the per-protocol population, which was defined as all patients who were eligible, randomly assigned, and received at least one dose of treatment. The safety analysis population included all patients who received study treatment irrespective of eligibility. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01708954. Between Feb 7, 2013, and July 1, 2014, we enrolled and randomly assigned 42 patients to erlotinib treatment, 40 patients to cabozantinib treatment, and 43 patients to erlotinib plus cabozantinib treatment, of whom 111 (89%) in total were included in the

  17. The relevance of external quality assessment for molecular testing for ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer: results from two pilot rounds show room for optimization.

    PubMed

    Tembuyser, Lien; Tack, Véronique; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Pauwels, Patrick; Miller, Keith; Bubendorf, Lukas; Kerr, Keith; Schuuring, Ed; Thunnissen, Erik; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C

    2014-01-01

    Molecular profiling should be performed on all advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology to allow treatment selection. Currently, this should include EGFR mutation testing and testing for ALK rearrangements. ROS1 is another emerging target. ALK rearrangement status is a critical biomarker to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib. To promote high quality testing in non-small cell lung cancer, the European Society of Pathology has introduced an external quality assessment scheme. This article summarizes the results of the first two pilot rounds organized in 2012-2013. Tissue microarray slides consisting of cell-lines and resection specimens were distributed with the request for routine ALK testing using IHC or FISH. Participation in ALK FISH testing included the interpretation of four digital FISH images. Data from 173 different laboratories was obtained. Results demonstrate decreased error rates in the second round for both ALK FISH and ALK IHC, although the error rates were still high and the need for external quality assessment in laboratories performing ALK testing is evident. Error rates obtained by FISH were lower than by IHC. The lowest error rates were observed for the interpretation of digital FISH images. There was a large variety in FISH enumeration practices. Based on the results from this study, recommendations for the methodology, analysis, interpretation and result reporting were issued. External quality assessment is a crucial element to improve the quality of molecular testing.

  18. [Combined Chemotherapy with Vinorelbine and Ifosfamide as Third-line Treatment and Beyond of Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Xu, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Mengzhao

    2015-06-01

    背景与目的 晚期非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)患者根据指南应接受一线和二线的标准治疗,但出现疾病进展后的三线及三线以上治疗没有推荐,医师根据自己的经验给予治疗。本研究观察了长春瑞滨联合异环磷酰胺在晚期NSCLC三线及三线以上治疗的疗效和不良反应。方法 回顾近4年北京协和医院住院使用长春瑞滨联合异环磷酰胺治疗的患者,满足以下条件:经细胞学或组织病理学证实的NSCLC,既往至少2个化疗或分子靶向治疗后进展,临床上有可测量病灶,美国东部肿瘤协作组(Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, ECOG)体能状态评分(performance status, PS)0分-2分,无血液系统、肝肾功能异常。按照世界卫生组织(World Health Organization, WHO)标准评价患者近期疗效,根据不良事件分级标准(Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, CTCAE )V4.03标准评价不良事件,随访无疾病进展时间及生存期。结果 符合条件患者41例,共进行150周期化疗,其中23周期(15.3%)出现用药推迟或剂量调整。部分缓解3例(7.3%),病情稳定25例(61.0%)。中位无进展生存时间5.5个月,中位生存期为10.5个月。血液学异常是最常见的不良反应,3度/4度中性粒细胞下降10.7%,白细胞下降8.7%,血红蛋白下降8.7%。3度/4度非血液学不良反应少见。所有不良反应可以控制,无相关死亡事件。结论 长春瑞滨联合和异环磷酰胺方案在晚期NSCLC三线及三线以上治疗中安全性较好,同时多数患者可获得一定疗效,但需要进一步大样本的临床试验来证实可否延长总生存期。.

  19. [A meta-analysis of platinum plus docetaxel or vinorelbine in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Taisheng; Wu, Hua; Zhuang, Xianmian; Lu, Di; Cai, Ruijun; Wang, Wujun

    2014-04-01

    背景与目的 以铂类为基础联合第三代药物的双药化疗方案是治疗晚期非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)的标准一线治疗方案。本研究采用meta分析的方法评价多西他赛联合铂类(docetaxel plus platinum, DP)方案对比长春瑞滨联合铂类(vinorelbine plus platinum, VP)方案治疗晚期NSCLC的疗效和安全性。方法 计算机检索Pubmed、EMBASE、Cochrane Library、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)、中文科技期刊全文数据(VIP)库及万方数据库关于DP方案与VP方案治疗晚期NSCLC的随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial, RCT)。根据Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0的质量评价标准,用Stata 12.0软件进行统计学分析。结果 研究共纳入7项RCTs,包括晚期NSCLC患者2,381例。DP方案的2年生存率(HR=0.887, 95%CI: 0.810-0.972, P=0.010)、有效率(RR=1.276, 95%CI: 1.107-1.450, P=0.001)和腹泻发生率(RR=3.134, 95%CI: 1.918-5.121, P<0.001)较VP方案高;DP方案减少了贫血的发生率(RR=0.386, 95%CI: 0.311-0.478, P<0.001);DP方案与VP方案在1年生存率、白细胞减少、中性粒细胞减少、血小板减少、厌食、恶心、呕吐方面的差异无统计学意义。结论 DP方案虽然增加了腹泻发生率,但却减少了贫血的发生率,同时提高了2年生存率和有效率。相比VP方案,DP方案可能更适合一线治疗晚期NSCLC。

  20. Identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene: prognostic and therapeutic implications in non-small cell lung cancer *

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Gabriel Lima; Vattimo, Edoardo Filippo de Queiroz; de Castro, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Promising new therapies have recently emerged from the development of molecular targeted drugs; particularly promising are those blocking the signal transduction machinery of cancer cells. One of the most widely studied cell signaling pathways is that of EGFR, which leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation, increased cell angiogenesis, and greater cell invasiveness. Activating mutations in the EGFR gene (deletions in exon 19 and mutation L858R in exon 21), first described in 2004, have been detected in approximately 10% of all non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Western countries and are the most important predictors of a response to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Studies of the EGFR-TKIs gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, in comparison with platinum-based regimens, as first-line treatments in chemotherapy-naïve patients have shown that the EGFR-TKIs produce gains in progression-free survival and overall response rates, although only in patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGFR gene. Clinical trials have also shown EGFR-TKIs to be effective as second- and third-line therapies in advanced NSCLC. Here, we review the main aspects of EGFR pathway activation in NSCLC, underscore the importance of correctly identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene, and discuss the main outcomes of EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC. PMID:26398757

  1. Obesity is associated with long-term improved survival in definitively treated locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Lam, Vincent K; Bentzen, Søren M; Mohindra, Pranshu; Nichols, Elizabeth M; Bhooshan, Neha; Vyfhuis, Melissa; Scilla, Katherine A; Feigenberg, Steven J; Edelman, Martin J; Feliciano, Josephine L

    2017-02-01

    To determine the prognostic effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) in definitively treated locally advanced NSCLC patients. In this single institution retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 291 patients who were treated for locally advanced NSCLC from 2000 to 2010. They were stratified into four BMI groups based on World Health Organization criteria: underweight (<18.5kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 to <25kg/m2), overweight (25 to <30kg/m2), and obese (≧30kg/m2). Overall survival was analyzed by BMI group. Baseline patient characteristics and treatment parameters were similar between obese and normal weight patients. Increasing BMI was associated with improved overall survival (P=0.011), even when underweight cases were excluded. There was a sustained 31%-58% reduction in mortality of obese relative to normal weight patients (HR 0.68±0.21, 0.61±0.19, and 0.42±0.19, for each year post-treatment respectively). Statin use after diagnosis was highly associated with increasing BMI (P<0.001) and predicted improved survival in a multivariate analysis (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.89, P=0.011). Obese patients in this retrospective study had significantly improved survival relative to normal weight patients. Our data suggest that the protective effect of obesity in locally advanced NSCLC is not solely due to short-term treatment effects, decreased smoking exposure, or poor prognostic factors from underweight patients. Notably, statin use was also associated with improved survival. Additional studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms and possible concomitant factors underlying the obesity paradox in NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain metastasis development and poor survival associated with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Central nervous system is a common site of metastasis in NSCLC and confers worse prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical-pathological factors (CPF), serum CEA levels, and EGFR and HER2 tissue-expression in brain metastasis (BM) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced NSCLC. Methods In a prospective manner, we studied 293 patients with NSCLC in IIIB-IV clinical stage. They received standard chemotherapy. CEA was measured prior to treatment; EGFR and HER2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. BM development was confirmed by MRI in symptomatic patients. Results BM developed in 27, and 32% of patients at 1 and 2 years of diagnosis with adenocarcinoma (RR 5.2; 95% CI, 1.002–29; p = 0.05) and CEA ≥ 40 ng/mL (RR 11.4; 95% CI, 1.7–74; p < 0.01) as independent associated factors. EGFR and HER2 were not statistically significant. Masculine gender (RR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.002–1.9; p = 0.048), poor performance status (RR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5–2.3; p = 0.002), advanced clinical stage (RR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02–2; p = 0.04), CEA ≥ 40 ng/mL (RR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09–2.2; p = 0.014) and EGFR expression (RR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4–1.9; p = 0.012) were independent associated factors to worse OS. Conclusion High CEA serum level is a risk factor for BM development and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC. Surface expression of CEA in tumor cells could be the physiopathological mechanism for invasion to CNS. PMID:19386089

  3. Impact of TG4010 Vaccine on Health-Related Quality of Life in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a Phase IIB Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rotonda, Christine; Anota, Amélie; Mercier, Mariette; Bastien, Bérangère; Lacoste, Gisèle; Limacher, Jean-Marc; Quoix, Elisabeth; Bonnetain, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Background This study describes the effect of TG4010 vaccine on Health related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in patients with stage IIIb and IV non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods 148 patients with advanced NSCLC expressing MUC1 were randomly assigned to receive TG4010 plus chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone. HRQOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) at baseline and every 6 weeks until disease progression. Time until definitive deterioration (TUDD) of the four well-being dimensions of the FACT-L physical (PWB), functional (FWB), emotional (EWB) and social well-being (SWB) and the Lung Cancer Subscale (LCS) domains were analyzed for a 5-point minimal clinically important difference. Results No difference of TUDD of HRQOL has been found between treatment arms. No prognostic factors have been found to have a significant impact on the TUDD of PWB, SWB and LCS domains. The gender, the performance status and the smoking habits seemed to be associated with a shorter TUDD of EWB domain. The smokers and the former smokers seemed to present a shorter TUDD of FWB domain. Conclusion This study suggests that adding therapeutic vaccination with TG4010 to standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC is associated with a similar evolution in HRQOL compared to chemotherapy alone. PMID:26207902

  4. Genetically Modified T Cells in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer or Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-22

    Advanced Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; HLA-A*0201 Positive Cells Present; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pleural Mesothelioma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pleural Mesothelioma

  5. Cost-Effectiveness and Value of Information of Erlotinib, Afatinib, and Cisplatin-Pemetrexed for First-Line Treatment of Advanced EGFR Mutation-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ting, Jie; Tien Ho, PharmD; Xiang, Pin; Sugay, Amanda; Abdel-Sattar, Maher; Wilson, Leslie

    2015-09-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib or afatinib, or chemotherapy cisplatin-pemetrexed, for first-line treatment of advanced epithelial growth factor receptor mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer in the United States. We also assessed the expected benefit of further research to reduce uncertainty regarding which treatment is optimal. We developed a Markov model to compare the cost-effectiveness of erlotinib, afatinib, and cisplatin-pemetrexed. Model transition and adverse-effect probabilities were from two published phase III trials: EURTAC (Erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer) and LUX-Lung (Afatinib versus cisplatin-based chemotherapy for EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma) 3. EURTAC survival estimates were corrected for patients entering the trial with more severe disease, compared with LUX-Lung 3. Health utilities and costs were from national estimates or the published literature. Inputs were modeled as distributions for probabilistic sensitivity analysis and expected value of perfect information (EVPI) analysis to estimate the expected benefit of reducing uncertainty regarding the decision of optimal treatment. In the base case, both tyrosine kinase inhibitors were more cost-effective than cisplatin-pemetrexed. Erlotinib had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $61,809/quality-adj