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Sample records for advanced optical devices

  1. Advanced Electro-Optic Surety Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Watterson, C.E.

    1997-05-01

    The Advanced Electro-Optic Surety Devices project was initiated in march 1991 to support design laboratory guidance on electro-optic device packaging and evaluation. Sandia National Laboratory requested AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), to prepare for future packaging efforts in electro-optic integrated circuits. Los Alamos National Laboratory requested the evaluation of electro-optic waveguide devices for nuclear surety applications. New packaging techniques involving multiple fiber optic alignment and attachment, binary lens array development, silicon V-groove etching, and flip chip bonding were requested. Hermetic sealing of the electro-optic hybrid and submicron alignment of optical components present new challenges to be resolved. A 10-channel electro-optic modulator and laser amplifier were evaluated for potential surety applications.

  2. Plasma etching for advanced polymer optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitting, Donald S.

    Plasma etching is a common microfabrication technique which can be applied to polymers as well as glasses, metals, and semiconductors. The fabrication of low loss and reliable polymer optical devices commonly makes use of advanced microfabrication processing techniques similar in nature to those utilized in standard semiconductor fabrication technology. Among these techniques, plasma/reactive ion etching is commonly used in the formation of waveguiding core structures. Plasma etching is a powerful processing technique with many potential applications in the emerging field of polymer optical device fabrication. One such promising application explored in this study is in the area of thin film-substrate adhesion enhancement. Two approaches involving plasma processing were evaluated to improve substrate-thin film adhesion in the production of polymer waveguide optical devices. Plasma treatment of polymer substrates such as polycarbonate has been studied to promote the adhesion of fluoropolymer thin film coatings for waveguide device fabrication. The effects of blanket oxygen plasma etchback on substrate, microstructural substrate feature formation, and the long term performance and reliability of these methods were investigated. Use of a blanket oxygen plasma to alter the polycarbonate surface prior to fluoropolymer casting was found to have positive but limited capability to improve the adhesive strength between these polymers. Experiments show a strong correlation between surface roughness and adhesion strength. The formation of small scale surface features using microlithography and plasma etching on the polycarbonate surface proved to provide outstanding adhesion strength when compared to any other known treatment methods. Long term environmental performance testing of these surface treatment methods provided validating data. Test results showed these process approaches to be effective solutions to the problem of adhesion between hydrocarbon based polymer

  3. Femtosecond Optics: Advanced Devices and Ultrafast Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-31

    periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), which already represents a significant advance . Gain is given by G=0.25(1+ exp(gl)), where for 7 t2 PPLN, g...H. Sotobayashi, J.T. Gopinath, and E.P. Ippen, ൟ cm long Bi20 3-based EDFA for picosecond pulse amplification with 80 nm gain bandwidth," IEEE...will be minimized by keeping the data in the optical domain. Such all- optical networks require advanced photonic technologies for a variety of

  4. Advanced silicon device technologies for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinski, Lech; Wang, Zhechao; Lou, Fei; Dai, Daoxin; Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Thylen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Silicon photonics is an emerging technology offering novel solutions in different areas requiring highly integrated communication systems for optical networking, sensing, bio-applications and computer interconnects. Silicon photonicsbased communication has many advantages over electric wires for multiprocessor and multicore macro-chip architectures including high bandwidth data transmission, high speed and low power consumption. Following the INTEL's concept to "siliconize" photonics, silicon device technologies should be able to solve the fabrication problems for six main building blocks for realization of optical interconnects: light generation, guiding of light including wavelength selectivity, light modulation for signal encoding, detection, low cost assembly including optical connecting of the devices to the real world and finally the electronic control systems.

  5. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  6. Recent Advances in Photonic Devices for Optical Computing and the Role of Nonlinear Optics-Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis E.; Paley, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The twentieth century has been the era of semiconductor materials and electronic technology while this millennium is expected to be the age of photonic materials and all-optical technology. Optical technology has led to countless optical devices that have become indispensable in our daily lives in storage area networks, parallel processing, optical switches, all-optical data networks, holographic storage devices, and biometric devices at airports. This chapters intends to bring some awareness to the state-of-the-art of optical technologies, which have potential for optical computing and demonstrate the role of nonlinear optics in many of these components. Our intent, in this Chapter, is to present an overview of the current status of optical computing, and a brief evaluation of the recent advances and performance of the following key components necessary to build an optical computing system: all-optical logic gates, adders, optical processors, optical storage, holographic storage, optical interconnects, spatial light modulators and optical materials.

  7. Advanced Organic Electro-Optic Materials for Integrated Device Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Electro - optic chromophores (FTC and CLD) were synthesized in bulk (kilogram) quantities and were distributed to the participants of this program...to stabilize electro - optic activity for operation at elevated temperatures and photon flux levels. Over 100 variants of these chromophores were...1.5-2.0 improvement over FTC and CLD chromophores in terms of electro - optic activity at telecommunication wavelengths. They also have proven more

  8. Recent Advances in Organic Photovoltaics: Device Structure and Optical Engineering Optimization on the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guoping; Ren, Xingang; Zhang, Su; Wu, Hongbin; Choy, Wallace C H; He, Zhicai; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-23

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, which can directly convert absorbed sunlight to electricity, are stacked thin films of tens to hundreds of nanometers. They have emerged as a promising candidate for affordable, clean, and renewable energy. In the past few years, a rapid increase has been seen in the power conversion efficiency of OPV devices toward 10% and above, through comprehensive optimizations via novel photoactive donor and acceptor materials, control of thin-film morphology on the nanoscale, device structure developments, and interfacial and optical engineering. The intrinsic problems of short exciton diffusion length and low carrier mobility in organic semiconductors creates a challenge for OPV designs for achieving optically thick and electrically thin device structures to achieve sufficient light absorption and efficient electron/hole extraction. Recent advances in the field of OPV devices are reviewed, with a focus on the progress in device architecture and optical engineering approaches that lead to improved electrical and optical characteristics in OPV devices. Successful strategies are highlighted for light wave distribution, modulation, and absorption promotion inside the active layer of OPV devices by incorporating periodic nanopatterns/nanostructures or incorporating metallic nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  9. Advanced Silicon Microring Resonator Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Ashok Prabhu

    Chip level optical interconnects has gained momentum with recent demonstrations of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based photonic modules such as lasers, modulators, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filters, etc. A fundamental building block that has enabled many of these silicon photonic modules is the compact, high Q factor microring resonator cavity. However, most of these demonstrations have WDM processing components based on simple add-drop filters that cannot realize the dense WDM systems required for the chip level interconnects. Dense WDM filters have stringent spectral shape requirements such as flat-top filter passband, steep band transition etc. Optical filters that can meet these specifications involve precise placement of the poles and zeros of the filter transfer function. Realization of such filters requires the use of multiple coupled microring resonators arranged in complex coupling topologies. In this thesis we have proposed and demonstrated new multiple coupled resonator topologies based on compact microring resonators in SOI material system. First we explored novel microring architectures which resulted in the proposal of two new coupled microring architectures, namely, the general 2D microring array topology and the general cascaded microring network topology. We also developed the synthesis procedures for these two microring architectures. The second part of this thesis focussed on the demonstration of the proposed architectures in the SOI material system. To accomplish this, a fabrication process for SOI was developed at the UofA Nanofab facility. Using this process, ultra-compact single microring filters with microring radii as small as 1mum were demonstrated. Higher order filter demonstration with multiple microrings necessitated post-fabrication microring resonance tuning. We developed additional fabrication steps to install micro heaters on top of the microrings to thermally tune its resonance. Subsequently, a thermally tuned fourth

  10. Research Studies on Advanced Optical Module/Head Designs for Optical Disk Recording Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1993-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Optical Data Storage Center of the University of Arizona is presented. Summary reports on continuing projects are presented. Research areas include: magneto-optic media, optical heads, and signal processing.

  11. Research studies on advanced optical module/head designs for optical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James J.

    1991-01-01

    A summary is presented of research in optical data storage materials and of research at the center. The first section contains summary reports under the general headings of: (1) Magnetooptic media: modeling, design, fabrication, characterization, and testing; (2) Optical heads: holographic optical elements; and (3) Optical heads: integrated optics. The second section consist of a proposal entitled, Signal Processing Techniques for Optical Data Storage. And section three presents various publications prepared by the center.

  12. Optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  13. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Samborsky, James K.

    1993-01-01

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  14. Advanced Silicon Photonic Device Architectures for Optical Communications: Proposals and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacher, Wesley David

    Photonic integrated circuits implemented on silicon (Si) hold the potential for densely integrated electro-optic and passive devices manufactured by the high-volume fabrication and sophisticated assembly processes used for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. However, high index contrast Si photonics has a number of functional limitations. In this thesis, several devices are proposed, designed, and experimentally demonstrated to overcome challenges in the areas of resonant modulation, waveguide loss, fiber-to-chip coupling, and polarization control. The devices were fabricated using foundry services at IBM and A*STAR Institute of Microelectronics (IME). First, we describe coupling modulated microrings, in which the coupler between a microring and the bus waveguide is modulated. The device circumvents the modulation bandwidth vs. resonator linewidth trade-off of conventional intracavity modulated microrings. We demonstrate a Si coupling modulated microring with a small-signal modulation response free of the parasitic resonator linewidth limitations at frequencies up to about 6x the linewidth. Comparisons of eye diagrams show that coupling modulation achieved data rates > 2x the rate attainable with intracavity modulation. Second, we demonstrate a silicon nitride (Si3N4)-on-Si photonic platform with independent Si3N4 and Si waveguides and taper transitions to couple light between the layers. The platform combines the excellent passive waveguide properties of Si3N4 and the compatibility of Si waveguides with electro-optic devices. Within the platform, we propose and demonstrate dual-level, Si3N 4-on-Si, fiber-to-chip grating couplers that simultaneously have wide bandwidths and high coupling efficiencies. Conventional Si and Si3N 4 grating couplers suffer from a trade-off between bandwidth and coupling efficiency. The dual-level grating coupler achieved a peak coupling efficiency of -1.3 dB and a 1-dB bandwidth of 80 nm, a record for the

  15. Optical devices: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Technological developments in the field of optics devices which have potential utility outside the aerospace community are described. Optical instrumentation, light generation and transmission, and laser techniques are among the topics covered. Patent information is given.

  16. The ion beam sputtering facility at KURRI: Coatings for advanced neutron optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Masahiro; Oda, Tatsuro; Kitaguchi, Masaaki; Yamada, Norifumi L.; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawabata, Yuji

    2015-10-01

    We describe a film coating facility for the development of multilayer mirrors for use in neutron optical devices that handle slow neutron beams. Recently, we succeeded in fabricating a large neutron supermirror with high reflectivity using an ion beam sputtering system (KUR-IBS), as well as all neutron supermirrors in two neutron guide tubes at BL06 at J-PARC/MLF. We also realized a large flexible self-standing m=5 NiC/Ti supermirror and very small d-spacing (d=1.65 nm) multilayer sheets. In this paper, we present an overview of the performance and utility of non-magnetic neutron multilayer mirrors fabricated with the KUR-IBS

  17. Advanced finite-difference time-domain techniques for simulation of optical devices with complex material properties and geometric configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dong

    2005-11-01

    Modeling and simulation play increasingly more important roles in the development and commercialization of optical devices and integrated circuits. The current trend in photonic technologies is to push the level of integration and to utilize materials and structures of increasing complexity. On the other hand, the superb characteristics of free-space and fiber-optics continue to hold strong position to serve a wide range of applications. All these constitute significant challenges for the computer-aided modeling, simulation, and design of such optical devices and systems. The research work in this thesis deals with investigation and development of advanced finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods with focus on emerging optical devices and integrated circuits with complex material and/or structural properties. On the material aspects, we consider in a systematic fashion the dispersive and anisotropic characteristics of different materials (i.e., insulators, semiconductors, and conductors) in a broad wavelength range. The Lorentz model is examined and adapted as a general model for treating the material dispersion in the context of FDTD solutions. A dispersive FDTD method based on the multi-term Lorentz dispersive model is developed and employed for the modeling and design of the optical devices. In the FDTD scheme, the perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition is extended to the dispersive medium with arbitrary high order Lorentz terms. Finally, a parameter extraction scheme that links the Lorentz model to the experimental results is established. Further, the dispersive FDTD method is then applied to modeling and simulation of magneto-optical (MO) disk system, in combination of the vector diffraction theory. While the former is used for analysis of the interaction of the focused optical field interacting with the conducting materials on the surface of disk, the latter is to simulate the beam propagation from the objective lens to the disk surface. The

  18. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Samborsky, J.K.

    1993-10-05

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information. 4 figures.

  19. Optical thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shuzheng

    1991-11-01

    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  20. Advanced Modeling of Micromirror Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalicek, M. Adrian; Sene, Darren E.; Bright, Victor M.

    1995-01-01

    The flexure-beam micromirror device (FBMD) is a phase only piston style spatial light modulator demonstrating properties which can be used for phase adaptive corrective optics. This paper presents a complete study of a square FBMD, from advanced model development through final device testing and model verification. The model relates the electrical and mechanical properties of the device by equating the electrostatic force of a parallel-plate capacitor with the counter-acting spring force of the device's support flexures. The capacitor solution is derived via the Schwartz-Christoffel transformation such that the final solution accounts for non-ideal electric fields. The complete model describes the behavior of any piston-style device, given its design geometry and material properties. It includes operational parameters such as drive frequency and temperature, as well as fringing effects, mirror surface deformations, and cross-talk from neighboring devices. The steps taken to develop this model can be applied to other micromirrors, such as the cantilever and torsion-beam designs, to produce an advanced model for any given device. The micromirror devices studied in this paper were commercially fabricated in a surface micromachining process. A microscope-based laser interferometer is used to test the device in which a beam reflected from the device modulates a fixed reference beam. The mirror displacement is determined from the relative phase which generates a continuous set of data for each selected position on the mirror surface. Plots of this data describe the localized deflection as a function of drive voltage.

  1. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  2. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1985-08-16

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outdoor sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optical elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  3. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1990-01-01

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outr sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optic elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  4. Superlattice optical device

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, R.M.; Fritz, I.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Osbourn, G.C.

    A semiconductor optical device which includes a superlattice having direct transitions between conduction band and valence band states with the same wave vector, the superlattice being formed from a plurality of alternating layers of two or more different materials, at least the material with the smallest bandgap being an indirect bandgap material.

  5. Superlattice optical device

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Fritz, Ian J.; Gourley, Paul L.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    1986-01-01

    A semiconductor optical device which includes a superlattice having direct transitions between conduction band and valence band states with the same wave vector, the superlattice being formed from a plurality of alternating layers of two or more different materials, at least the material with the smallest bandgap being an indirect bandgap material.

  6. Optical-to-optical interface device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A. D.; Bleha, W. P.; Miller, L.; Grinberg, J.; Fraas, L.; Margerum, D.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop an optical-to-optical interface device capable of performing real-time incoherent-to-incoherent optical image conversion. The photoactivated liquid crystal light valve developed earlier represented a prototype liquid crystal light valve device capable of performing these functions. A device was developed which had high performance and extended lifetime.

  7. Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael S.; Maki, Paul A.; Kolodzey, James

    2007-06-01

    I. Wide band gap devices. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor devices for automotive applications / M. Sugimoto ... [et al.]. A GaN on SiC HFET device technology for wireless infrastructure applications / B. Green ... [et al.]. Drift velocity limitation in GaN HEMT channels / A. Matulionis. Simulations of field-plated and recessed gate gallium nitride-based heterojunction field-effect transistors / V. O. Turin, M. S. Shur and D. B. Veksler. Low temperature electroluminescence of green and deep green GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / Y. Li ... [et al.]. Spatial spectral analysis in high brightness GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / T. Detchprohm ... [et al.]. Self-induced surface texturing of Al2O3 by means of inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in Cl2 chemistry / P. Batoni ... [et al.]. Field and termionic field transport in aluminium gallium arsenide heterojunction barriers / D. V. Morgan and A. Porch. Electrical characteristics and carrier lifetime measurements in high voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes / P. A. Losee ... [et al.]. Geometry and short channel effects on enhancement-mode n-Channel GaN MOSFETs on p and n- GaN/sapphire substrates / W. Huang, T. Khan and T. P. Chow. 4H-SiC Vertical RESURF Schottky Rectifiers and MOSFETs / Y. Wang, P. A. Losee and T. P. Chow. Present status and future Directions of SiGe HBT technology / M. H. Khater ... [et al.]Optical properties of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum Wells structure and light emitting diode grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy / J. Senawiratne ... [et al.]. Electrical comparison of Ta/Ti/Al/Mo/Au and Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contacts on undoped GaN HEMTs structure with AlN interlayer / Y. Sun and L. F. Eastman. Above 2 A/mm drain current density of GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire / F. Medjdoub ... [et al.]. Focused thermal beam direct patterning on InGaN during molecular beam epitaxy / X. Chen, W. J. Schaff and L. F. Eastman -- II. Terahertz and millimeter wave devices. Temperature-dependent microwave performance of

  8. Advanced in-line optical metrology of sub-10nm structures for gate all around devices (GAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthinti, Raja; Loubet, Nicolas; Chao, Robin; Ott, John; Guillorn, Michael; Felix, Nelson; Gaudiello, John; Lund, Parker; Cepler, Aron; Sendelbach, Matthew; Cohen, Oded; Wolfling, Shay; Bozdog, Cornel; Klare, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Gate-all-around (GAA) nanowire (NW) devices have long been acknowledged as the ultimate device from an electrostatic scaling point of view. The GAA architecture offers improved short channel effect (SCE) immunity compared to single and double gate planar, FinFET, and trigate structures. One attractive proposal for making GAA devices involves the use of a multilayer fin-like structure consisting of layers of Si and SiGe. However, such structures pose various metrology challenges, both geometrical and material. Optical Scatterometry, also called optical critical dimension (OCD) is a fast, accurate and non-destructive in-line metrology technique well suited for GAA integration challenges. In this work, OCD is used as an enabler for the process development of nanowire devices, extending its abilities to learn new material and process aspects specific to this novel device integration. The specific metrology challenges from multiple key steps in the process flow are detailed, along with the corresponding OCD solutions and results. In addition, Low Energy X-Ray Fluorescence (LE-XRF) is applied to process steps before and after the removal of the SiGe layers in order to quantify the amount of Ge present at each step. These results are correlated to OCD measurements of the Ge content, demonstrating that both OCD and LE-XRF are sensitive to Ge content for these applications.

  9. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  10. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  11. New optical coupler devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Tarek Abd-Elazim

    2000-06-01

    New optical coupler devices have been designed with both analytical and numerical simulation tools. Using these tools, design rules were derived for both 3dB and full adiabatic couplers. The design rules are in excellent agreement with numerical calculations using the beam propagation method (BPM). It is shown that the length scaling for the 3dB adiabatic couplers compared to full adiabatic couplers makes the former more difficult to design. The design in each case is optimized to obtain an upper limit of performance. A comparison is carried out between two different design geometries to select the optimum adiabatic coupler design which requires the shortest length for a given coupler performance. An improvement in, the fabrication tolerance of the optimum design has yielded a new more-tolerant 3dB adiabatic- coupler, which is distinguished by a coupler region where both waveguide width and separation are tapered. A novel 1 x 4 coupler-multiplexer permutation switch (CMPS) is proposed for applications in wavelength- division-multiplexing (WDM) networks. The CMPS integrates the functions of a 1 x 4 multiplexer followed by a 4 x 4 switch-array in a single compact device. It consists of a single-mode/multimode-waveguide grating-assisted backward-coupler multiplexer followed by a digital optical switch (DOS). Two different InP-based designs of the CMPS, which use InGaAsP/InP multiple-quantum well (MQW) output waveguides, are introduced. In both of these designs, the CMPS channels are unequally spaced which reduces unwanted four-wave mixing. Finally the electro-optic response is measured in single- crystal LiNbO 3 thin films obtained by crystal-ion-slicing (CIS). This technique uses ion implantation of singlecrystal bulk samples followed by selective etching. Post liftoff annealing (PLA) is shown to be a key step in improving the light transmission properties of these films for hybriddevice applications. It is shown that PLA must be used, as opposed to pre- liftoff

  12. Advanced optical instruments technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-01-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  13. Smart time-pulse coding photoconverters as basic components 2D-array logic devices for advanced neural networks and optical computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Michalnichenko, Nikolay N.

    2004-04-01

    The article deals with a conception of building arithmetic-logic devices (ALD) with a 2D-structure and optical 2D-array inputs-outputs as advanced high-productivity parallel basic operational training modules for realization of basic operation of continuous, neuro-fuzzy, multilevel, threshold and others logics and vector-matrix, vector-tensor procedures in neural networks, that consists in use of time-pulse coding (TPC) architecture and 2D-array smart optoelectronic pulse-width (or pulse-phase) modulators (PWM or PPM) for transformation of input pictures. The input grayscale image is transformed into a group of corresponding short optical pulses or time positions of optical two-level signal swing. We consider optoelectronic implementations of universal (quasi-universal) picture element of two-valued ALD, multi-valued ALD, analog-to-digital converters, multilevel threshold discriminators and we show that 2D-array time-pulse photoconverters are the base elements for these devices. We show simulation results of the time-pulse photoconverters as base components. Considered devices have technical parameters: input optical signals power is 200nW_200μW (if photodiode responsivity is 0.5A/W), conversion time is from tens of microseconds to a millisecond, supply voltage is 1.5_15V, consumption power is from tens of microwatts to a milliwatt, conversion nonlinearity is less than 1%. One cell consists of 2-3 photodiodes and about ten CMOS transistors. This simplicity of the cells allows to carry out their integration in arrays of 32x32, 64x64 elements and more.

  14. Advanced processing methods to introduce and preserve dipole orientation in organic electro-optic materials for next generation photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Su

    Organic electro-optic (E-O) materials have attracted considerable research attention in the past 20 years due to their rising potentials in a lot of novel photonic applications, such as high-speed telecommunication, terahertz generation and ultra-fast optical interconnections. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on a barrier layer approach to improve the poling efficiency of electro-optic polymers. First of all, high conduction current from excessive charge injection is identified as a fundamental challenge of effective poling. After analyzing the conduction mechanism, we introduce a sol-gel derived thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer that can significantly block excessive charge injection and reduce the leakage current during high field poling. Ultralarge E-O coefficients, up to 160-350 pm/V at 1310 nm have been achieved by poling with such a barrier, which are 26%-40% higher than the results poled without such a TiO2 layer. This enhancement is explained by the suppressed charge injection and space charge accumulation by the insertion of the high injection barrier from the TiO2 barrier layer. In Chapter 3, the impact of the inserted barrier layer on the temporal alignment stability of E-O polymers is discussed. Considerable stability enhancement is confirmed using both standard 500-hour temporal alignment stability test at 85 °C and thermally stimulated discharge method. We suggest that the enhancement comes from improved stability of the screening charge. During poling the additional barrier layer helps to lower the injection and thus the space charge accumulation. And this reduced space charge accumulation further helps to replace the space charge part in the total formulation of screening charge with more stable interface trapped charge. We thus expand this knowledge to a group of other materials that can also block excessive charge injection and suppressed space charge accumulation, including dielectric polymers polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(4-vinylphenol

  15. COHERENT OPTICAL SURVEILLANCE DEVICES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE, *INFRARED DETECTORS, *LASERS, *OPTICAL EQUIPMENT, *PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, DESIGN, HELIUM, INTERFEROMETERS , MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, NEON, PHASE DETECTORS, PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES, POWER DIVIDERS

  16. Studies of Bistable Optical Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-15

    a concept to simultaneously process over 2500 parallel bits in a nanosecond, in a linear array. 3. Studies of bistability in new materials and new...Bistable Optical Devices. 25 IV. Bistability in New Materials .... ............ .. 34 A. Saturable Absorber Dyes ... ........... .. 34 A-1. Experimental...large number of resolvable spots. We have investigated.both new materials and new geo- metries for use in bistable optical devices with a view toward

  17. Integrated optic waveguide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramer, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated optic waveguide circuits with a phase bias and modulator on the same chip were designed, fabricated, and tested for use in a fiber-optic rotation sensor (gyro) under development. Single mode fiber-optic pigtails were permanently coupled to the four ports of the chip. The switch format was based on coherent coupling between waveguides formed in Z-cut LiNbO3. The control of the coupling was achieved by electro-optically varying the phase propagation constants of each guide. Fiber-to-chip interfacing required the development of appropriate fixturing and manipulation techniques to achieve the close tolerance needed for high coupling efficiency between a fiber with an approximately 5 micron m core and a channel guide with a roughly 2 micron m by 5 micron m cross section. Switch and chip performance at 0.85 micron m is discussed as well as potential improvements related to insertion loss reduction, switching voltages, and suppression of Li2O out-diffusion.

  18. Advanced Optical Fiber Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Optical Network with Physical Star Topology," Advanced Fiber Communications Technologies , Leonid G. Kazovsky... advances in the performance and capabilities of optical fiber communication systems. While some of these technologies are interrelated (for example...multi gigabit per second hybrid circuit/packet switched lightwave network ," Proc. SPIE Advanced Fiber Communications Technologies , Boston 󈨟, Sept.

  19. The advanced LIGO input optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Chris L.; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan. T.; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V.; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J.; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z.; Martin, Rodica M.; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  20. The advanced LIGO input optics

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Chris L. Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; Feldbaum, David; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Martin, Rodica M.; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido; DeRosa, Ryan T.; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Frolov, Valery V.; Mullavey, Adam; Kawabe, Keita; Vorvick, Cheryl; King, Eleanor J.; and others

    2016-01-15

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  1. Optical storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.

    1991-01-01

    A new holographic image storage device which uses four-wave mixing in two photorefractive crystals is described. Photorefractive crystals promise information storage densities on the order of 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) bits per cubic centimeter at real-time rates. Several studies in recent years have investigated the use of photorefractive crystals for storing holographic image information. However, all of the previous studies have focused on techniques for storing information in a single crystal. The disadvantage of using a single crystal is that the read process is destructive. Researchers have developed techniques for fixing the information in a crystal so that it may be read many times. However, when fixed, the information cannot be readily erased and overwritten with new information. It two photorefractive crystals are used, holographic image information may be stored dynamically. That is, the stored image information may be read out more than once, and it may be easily erased and overwritten with new image information.

  2. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  3. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  4. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  5. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  6. Nonlinear Optical Acrylic Polymers and Use Thereof in Optical and Electro-Optic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-07

    COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nonlinear Optical Acrylic Polymers and Use Thereof in Optical and Electro - Optic Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...generators, computational devices and the like. 15. SUBJECT TERMS optical devices, electro - optical devices, optical signal processing...THEREOF IN OPTICAL AND ELECTRO - OPTIC DEVICES [75] Inventors: Le*lie H. Sperling, Bethlehem; Clarence J. Murphy, Stroudsburg; Warren A. Rosen

  7. Quantum functional devices for advanced electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, N.; Muto, S.; Imamura, K.; Takatsu, M.; Mori, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sakuma, Y.; Nakao, H.; Adachihara, T.

    Recent research in semiconductor device technology seems to be focused on reducing the cost and power dissipation of traditional Si CMOS integrated circuits, rather than developing new and advanced semiconductor devices. We believe however, that devices enter the nanometer-scale regime in the next century, where quantum mechanical effects play an important role in the device's function; therefore, it is important to continue basic research into the physics and technology of nanometer scale structures and device applications in order to cultivate "nanoelectronics". This paper reviews our research activities on quantum functional devices and discusses our future research direction.

  8. Thermoelectric Devices Advance Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices heat, cool, and generate electricity when a temperature differential is provided between the two module faces. In cooperation with NASA, Chico, California-based United States Thermoelectric Consortium Inc. (USTC) built a gas emissions analyzer (GEA) for combustion research. The GEA precipitated hydrocarbon particles, preventing contamination that would hinder precise rocket fuel analysis. The USTC research and design team uses patent-pending dimple, pin-fin, microchannel and microjet structures to develop and design heat dissipation devices on the mini-scale level, which not only guarantee high performance of products, but also scale device size from 1 centimeter to 10 centimeters. USTC continues to integrate the benefits of TE devices in its current line of thermal management solutions and has found the accessibility of NASA technical research to be a valuable, sustainable resource that has continued to positively influence its product design and manufacturing

  9. Advanced optical fuzing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Lippe, Christian M.; Liu, J. Jiang

    2005-09-01

    We are developing a robust and compact photonic proximity sensor for munition applications. Successful implementation of this sensor will provide a new capability for direct fire applications. The photonic component development exploits pioneering work and unique expertise at ARDEC, ARL, and Sandia National Laboratories by combining key optoelectronic technologies to design and demonstrate components for this fuzing application. The technologies employed in the optical fuze design are vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), the p-i-n or metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors, and miniature lenses optics. This work will culminate in a robust, fully integrated, g-hardened component design suitable for proximity fuzing applications. This compact sensor will replace costly assemblies that are based on discrete lasers, photodetectors, and bulk optics. It will be mass manufacturable and impart huge savings for such applications. The specific application under investigation is for gun-fired munitions. Nevertheless, numerous civilian uses exist for this proximity sensor in automotive, robotics and aerospace applications. This technology is also applicable to robotic ladar and short-range 3-D imaging.

  10. Center for advanced microstructures and devices (CAMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, B. C.; Feldman, M.; Morikawa, E.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Saile, V.; Scott, J. D.; Stockbauer, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    The new synchrotron-radiation facility, Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, at Louisiana State University is described with regard to the status of installation of the storage ring, implementation of the various programs, and construction of the first beamlines.

  11. Optical Structural Health Monitoring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; Markov, Vladimir; Earthman, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This non-destructive, optical fatigue detection and monitoring system relies on a small and unobtrusive light-scattering sensor that is installed on a component at the beginning of its life in order to periodically scan the component in situ. The method involves using a laser beam to scan the surface of the monitored component. The device scans a laser spot over a metal surface to which it is attached. As the laser beam scans the surface, disruptions in the surface cause increases in scattered light intensity. As the disruptions in the surface grow, they will cause the light to scatter more. Over time, the scattering intensities over the scanned line can be compared to detect changes in the metal surface to find cracks, crack precursors, or corrosion. This periodic monitoring of the surface can be used to indicate the degree of fatigue damage on a component and allow one to predict the remaining life and/or incipient mechanical failure of the monitored component. This wireless, compact device can operate for long periods under its own battery power and could one day use harvested power. The prototype device uses the popular open-source TinyOS operating system on an off-the-shelf Mica2 sensor mote, which allows wireless command and control through dynamically reconfigurable multi-node sensor networks. The small size and long life of this device could make it possible for the nodes to be installed and left in place over the course of years, and with wireless communication, data can be extracted from the nodes by operators without physical access to the devices. While a prototype has been demonstrated at the time of this reporting, further work is required in the system s development to take this technology into the field, especially to improve its power management and ruggedness. It should be possible to reduce the size and sensitivity as well. Establishment of better prognostic methods based on these data is also needed. The increase of surface roughness with

  12. Systems, Devices, and Materials for Digital Optical Processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, Mark Alan

    The massive parallelism and flexibility of three -dimensional optical communication may allow the development of new parallel computers free from the constraints of planar electronic technology. To bring the optical computer from possibility to reality, however, requires technological and scientific development in new optical systems, devices, and materials. We present here research results in each of these areas. First described is a prototype optical information processing system using CdS/liquid crystal spatial light modulators for optical logic and memory. This system has been developed as the first step in the implementation of a fine-grained, globally-interconnected optical processing element array. Notable system features include the implementation of programmable electronic control and the analysis of the optical power distribution within the processor, both directly applicable to the design of new and more advanced optical information processing systems. Next presented is the design and initial performance data for a new spatial light modulator combining an array of silicon phototransistors with the electro-optic material (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O _3, opening new possibilities for "intelligent" optical logic, memory, and switching devices. Important to the optimal performance of this Si/PLZT device is the fabrication of embedded electrodes in the electro-optic material, reducing the device operating voltage and switching energy while improving the uniformity of the optical modulation. An extensive computer model of embedded electrode performance and details of the electrode fabrication by reactive ion beam etching and electroless Ni deposition are presented. Finally, in the area of optical materials development we present initial results in the RF magnetron deposition of electro -optic PLZT on r-plane sapphire. This work is important to the fabrication of a monolithic, Si/PLZT-on-sapphire spatial light modulator, promising superior performance to devices using

  13. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-07-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics.

  14. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1994-09-13

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor of the transmission line has an aperture formed therein for receiving the device. The aperture splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material. One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the center conductor and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface. The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device. 10 figs.

  15. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device (50) in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor (52) of the transmission line has an aperture (58) formed therein for receiving the device (50). The aperture (58) splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface (54), which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material (56). One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device (50) is directly connected to the center conductor 52 and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface (54). The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage ( 60) formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device.

  16. Advanced optical condition monitoring. [of rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, G.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1991-01-01

    The application of Advanced Optical Condition Monitoring to optical leak detection and plume spectrometry is discussed. The development of these selected sensors for propulsion system monitoring is addressed.

  17. Optical processing for semiconductor device fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for semiconductor device processing is described that uses optical energy to produce local heating/melting in the vicinity of a preselected interface of the device. This process, called optical processing, invokes assistance of photons to enhance interface reactions such as diffusion and melting, as compared to the use of thermal heating alone. Optical processing is performed in a 'cold wall' furnace, and requires considerably lower energies than furnace or rapid thermal annealing. This technique can produce some device structures with unique properties that cannot be produced by conventional thermal processing. Some applications of optical processing involving semiconductor-metal interfaces are described.

  18. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-11

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  19. Stitching Techniques Advance Optics Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Because NASA depends on the fabrication and testing of large, high-quality aspheric (nonspherical) optics for applications like the James Webb Space Telescope, it sought an improved method for measuring large aspheres. Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Goddard Space Flight Center, QED Technologies, of Rochester, New York, upgraded and enhanced its stitching technology for aspheres. QED developed the SSI-A, which earned the company an R&D 100 award, and also developed a breakthrough machine tool called the aspheric stitching interferometer. The equipment is applied to advanced optics in telescopes, microscopes, cameras, medical scopes, binoculars, and photolithography."

  20. Pilot Project for Spaceborne Massive Optical Storage Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. J.

    1996-01-01

    A space bound storage device has many special requirements. In addition to large storage capacity, fas read/ write time, and high reliability, it also needs to have small volume, light weight, low power consumption, radiation hardening, ability to operate in extreme temperature ranges, etc. Holographic optical recording technology, which has been making major advancements in recent years, is an extremely promising candidate. The goal of this pilot project is to demonstrate a laboratory bench-top holographic optical recording storage system (HORSS) based on nonlinear polymer films 1 and/or other advanced photo-refractive materials. This system will be used as a research vehicle to study relevant optical properties of novel holographic optical materials, to explore massive optical storage technologies based on the photo-refractive effect and to evaluate the feasibility of developing a massive storage system, based on holographic optical recording technology, for a space bound experiment in the near future.

  1. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  2. Advanced optical disk storage technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haritatos, Fred N.

    1996-01-01

    There is a growing need within the Air Force for more and better data storage solutions. Rome Laboratory, the Air Force's Center of Excellence for C3I technology, has sponsored the development of a number of operational prototypes to deal with this growing problem. This paper will briefly summarize the various prototype developments with examples of full mil-spec and best commercial practice. These prototypes have successfully operated under severe space, airborne and tactical field environments. From a technical perspective these prototypes have included rewritable optical media ranging from a 5.25-inch diameter format up to the 14-inch diameter disk format. Implementations include an airborne sensor recorder, a deployable optical jukebox and a parallel array of optical disk drives. They include stand-alone peripheral devices to centralized, hierarchical storage management systems for distributed data processing applications.

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Nano-Optic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    FINAL 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO -OPTIC DEVICES 6. AUTHOR(S) PROFESSOR SCHERER 7. PERFORMING...has to be pumped to overcome lasing threshold. This compares to thousands of modes which have to be pumped in conventional semiconductor lasers in...lasers, advances in high speed lasers and detectors, low power micro -optical interconnects, and high efficiency LEDs for illumination and display

  4. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-10-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  5. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-11-22

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  6. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  7. Interferometric ring lasers and optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, J.P.; Craft, D.C.

    1995-03-14

    Two ring diode lasers are optically coupled together to produce tunable, stable output through a Y-junction output coupler which may also be a laser diode or can be an active waveguide. These devices demonstrate a sharp peak in light output with an excellent side-mode-rejection ratio. The rings can also be made of passive or active waveguide material. With additional rings the device is a tunable optical multiplexer/demultiplexer. 11 figs.

  8. Interferometric ring lasers and optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, John P.; Craft, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Two ring diode lasers are optically coupled together to produce tunable, stable output through a Y-junction output coupler which may also be a laser diode or can be an active waveguide. These devices demonstrate a sharp peak in light output with an excellent side-mode-rejection ratio. The rings can also be made of passive or active waveguide material. With additional rings the device is a tunable optical multiplexer/demultiplexer.

  9. Electro-optic KTN Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Shogo; Fujiura, Kazuo

    We have grown KTN crystals with optical quality, and developed high-speed beam deflectors and variable focal length lenses based on KTN's large electro-optic effect. Furthermore, by using the KTN beam deflectors, we have developed a swept light source for OCT operable at 200 kHz.

  10. Millimetre and FIR Broadband Quasi Optical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, V.; Maffei, B.; Melhuish, S. J.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Shakeshaft, D.

    2009-12-01

    We present a set of techniques and materials we are currently developing which enable very broadband and highly effective optical devices in the spectral region from 20 GHz to 20 THz. Many of these devices have already been employed in terrestrial, airborne and space based telescope systems.

  11. Device applications of cryogenic optical refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Seletskiy, Denis V.; Epstein, Richard I.; Alden, Jay V.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2014-02-01

    With the coldest solid-state temperatures (ΔT <185K from 300K) achievable by optical refrigeration, it is now timely to apply this technology to cryogenic devices. Along with thermal management and pump absorption, this work addresses the most key engineering challenge of transferring cooling power to the payload while efficiently rejecting optical waste-heat fluorescence. We discuss our optimized design of such a thermal link, which shows excellent performance in optical rejection and thermal properties.

  12. NITINOL Interconnect Device for Optical Fiber Waveguides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    LE EL,~NAVSEA REPORT NO. S27L~kV-NL 4P fNSWNC TR 81-129 1 JULY 1981 0 NITINOL INTERC&INECT DEVICE FOR OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES FINAL REPORT A...ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NSWC TR 81-129I 1-19 -A )ci , ’ 4 TI TL E (and Sbtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED NITINOL ... NITINOL Optical Fibers 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if neceeewy and identify by block number) Two different interconnect devices for optical

  13. Thin nearly wireless adaptive optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Gareth J. (Inventor); Hughes, Eli (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A thin nearly wireless adaptive optical device capable of dynamically modulating the shape of a mirror in real time to compensate for atmospheric distortions and/or variations along an optical material is provided. The device includes an optical layer, a substrate, at least one electronic circuit layer with nearly wireless architecture, an array of actuators, power electronic switches, a reactive force element, and a digital controller. Actuators are aligned so that each axis of expansion and contraction intersects both substrate and reactive force element. Electronics layer with nearly wireless architecture, power electronic switches, and digital controller are provided within a thin-film substrate. The size and weight of the adaptive optical device is solely dominated by the size of the actuator elements rather than by the power distribution system.

  14. Thin, nearly wireless adaptive optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Gareth (Inventor); Hughes, Eli (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A thin, nearly wireless adaptive optical device capable of dynamically modulating the shape of a mirror in real time to compensate for atmospheric distortions and/or variations along an optical material is provided. The device includes an optical layer, a substrate, at least one electronic circuit layer with nearly wireless architecture, an array of actuators, power electronic switches, a reactive force element, and a digital controller. Actuators are aligned so that each axis of expansion and contraction intersects both substrate and reactive force element. Electronics layer with nearly wireless architecture, power electronic switches, and digital controller are provided within a thin-film substrate. The size and weight of the adaptive optical device is solely dominated by the size of the actuator elements rather than by the power distribution system.

  15. Thin, nearly wireless adaptive optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Gareth (Inventor); Hughes, Eli (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thin, nearly wireless adaptive optical device capable of dynamically modulating the shape of a mirror in real time to compensate for atmospheric distortions and/or variations along an optical material is provided. The device includes an optical layer, a substrate, at least one electronic circuit layer with nearly wireless architecture, an array of actuators, power electronic switches, a reactive force element, and a digital controller. Actuators are aligned so that each axis of expansion and contraction intersects both substrate and reactive force element. Electronics layer with nearly wireless architecture, power electronic switches, and digital controller are provided within a thin-film substrate. The size and weight of the adaptive optical device is solely dominated by the size of the actuator elements rather than by the power distribution system.

  16. Guided-Wave Optic Devices for Integrated Optic Information Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-08

    integrating miniature optical components such as laser light sources, modulators, switches, deflectors , lenses, prisms, and detectors in a common substrate...ZnO composite waveguides, and 2 . Planar Guided-Wave Magneto- Optic Bragg Diffraction and Devices in YIG-GGG Waveguides. Some very significant progress... optical wavelength. We have recently obtained further theoretical results. ( 2 ) For example, as shown in Fig. l(a) and 1(b), the topographical

  17. Optically transduced MEMS gyro device

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Bogart, Gregory R; Langlois, Eric; Okandan, Murat

    2014-05-20

    A bulk micromachined vibratory gyro in which a proof mass has a bulk substrate thickness for a large mass and high inertial sensitivity. In embodiments, optical displacement transduction is with multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings for high sensitivity and low cross-talk with non-optical drive elements. In embodiments, the vibratory gyro includes a plurality of multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings and a plurality of drive electrodes to measure motion of the proof mass induced by drive forces and/or moments and induced by the Coriolis Effect when the gyro experiences a rotation. In embodiments, phase is varied across the plurality gratings and a multi-layer grating having the best performance is selected from the plurality.

  18. Session: CSP Advanced Systems: Optical Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.

    2008-04-01

    The Optical Materials project description is to characterize advanced reflector, perform accelerated and outdoor testing of commercial and experimental reflector materials, and provide industry support.

  19. Plasma channel optical pumping device and method

    DOEpatents

    Judd, O.P.

    1983-06-28

    A device and method are disclosed for optically pumping a gaseous laser using blackbody radiation produced by a plasma channel which is formed from an electrical discharge between two electrodes spaced at opposite longitudinal ends of the laser. A preionization device which can comprise a laser or electron beam accelerator produces a preionization beam which is sufficient to cause an electrical discharge between the electrodes to initiate the plasma channel along the preionization path. The optical pumping energy is supplied by a high voltage power supply rather than by the preionization beam. High output optical intensities are produced by the laser due to the high temperature blackbody radiation produced by the plasma channel, in the same manner as an exploding wire type laser. However, unlike the exploding wire type laser, the disclosed invention can be operated in a repetitive manner by utilizing a repetitive pulsed preionization device. 5 figs.

  20. Active Optical Devices and Applications. Volume 228

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    obscuration, 5-cm-thick solid, segmented (6 petals) Zerodur . Mirror A is near the limit of what can be fabricated with current technology. The honeycomb...DEW Descriptors, Keywords: Active Optical Device Application Large Optics Adaptive Technology Wavefront Sensor Deformable Mirror Performance...Cuneo, Jr., U.S. Air Force, NASA Headquarters 228-01 Wavefront sensors and deformable mirrors for visible wavelengths 4 Noah Bareket, Lockheed

  1. DIMENSION MEASURING OPTICAL SIGHTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Kerr, G.E.

    1959-08-01

    A sighting device to check the uniformity of thickness of a lining applied to a container is presented. The sighting devlce comprises two tubular members having their ends in threaded connection with one another and a lens lying within the outer end of one of the tubular members. A ground glass inscribed with two concentric circles is located at the outer end of the other tubular section so that the image of the circular junctures, with and without the lining at the closed end of the container, can be focused on the proper circle inscribed in the ground glass so as to determine whether the lining has uniformity and whether there are thin spots.

  2. Photonic crystal cavities and integrated optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lin; Li, ZhiYuan

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to our recent works on photonic crystal (PhC) cavities and related integrated optical structures and devices. Theoretical background and numerical methods for simulation of PhC cavities are first presented. Based on the theoretical basis, two relevant quantities, the cavity mode volume and the quality factor are discussed. Then the methods of fabrication and characterization of silicon PhC slab cavities are introduced. Several types of PhC cavities are presented, such as the usual L3 missing-hole cavity, the new concept waveguide-like parallel-hetero cavity, and the low-index nanobeam cavity. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of cavity are discussed. This will help the readers to decide which type of PhC cavities to use in particular applications. Furthermore, several integrated optical devices based on PhC cavities, such as optical filters, channel-drop filters, optical switches, and optical logic gates are described in both the working principle and operation characteristics. These devices designed and realized in our group demonstrate the wide range of applications of PhC cavities and offer possible solutions to some integrated optical problems.

  3. Two position optical element actuator device

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a two position optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to hold an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, in a first position. A non-powered means drives the actuation arm to a second position, when the powered means ceases to receive power. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive, reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm from the first to second position.

  4. Optical tracking using charge-coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Richard H.; Alexander, James W.; Dennison, Edwin W.; Glavich, Thomas A.; Hovland, Larry F.

    1987-01-01

    The extraction of precise positional information from CCD images of point-source and extended optical targets is considered, and three examples of CCD optical trackers for space-based operation are described. For ideal point sources, a centerfinding accuracy of 1/100 pixel and a measuremet jitter of less than 1/250 pixel have been obtained using thinned, backside-illuminated devices. Tracker accuracy is shown to be limited by small variation in the optical image shape. Techniques for tracking, and methods for searching the entire field for the desired targets, are also discussed.

  5. Bi-stable optical element actuator device

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a bistable optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to move an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, between two stable positions. A non-powered means holds the actuation arm in either of the two stable positions. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm between the two stable positions.

  6. Advanced Geothermal Optical Transducer (AGOT)

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    Today's geothermal pressure-temperature measuring tools are short endurance, high value instruments, used sparingly because their loss is a major expense. In this project LEL offered to build and test a rugged, affordable, downhole sensor capable ofretuming an uninterrupted data stream at pressures and of 10,000 psi and temperatures up to 250 C, thus permitting continuous deep-well logging. It was proposed to meet the need by specializing LEL's patented 'Twin Column Transducer' technology to satisfy the demands of geothermal pressure/temperature measurements. TCT transducers have very few parts, none of which are moving parts, and all of which can be fabricated from high-temperature super alloys or from ceramics; the result is an extremely rugged device, essentially impervious to chemical attack and readily modified to operate at high pressure and temperature. To measure pressure and temperature they capitalize on the relative expansion of optical elements subjected to thermal or mechanical stresses; if one element is maintained at a reference pressure while the other is opened to ambient, the differential displacement then serves as a measure of pressure. A transducer responding to temperature rather than pressure is neatly created by 'inverting' the pressure-measuring design so that both deflecting structures see identical temperatures and temperature gradients, but whose thermal expansion coefficients are deliberately mismatched to give differential expansion. The starting point for development of a PT Tool was the company's model DPT feedback-stabilized 5,000 psi sensor (U.S. Patent 5,311,014, 'Optical Transducer for Measuring Downhole Pressure', claiming a pressure transducer capable of measuring static, dynamic, and true bi-directional differential pressure at high temperatures), shown in the upper portion of Figure 1. The DPT occupies a 1 x 2 x 4-inch volume, weighs 14 ounces, and is accurate to 1 percent of full scale. Employing a pair of identical, low

  7. Poling of Microwave Electro-Optic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The desire to transmit high frequency, microwave RF signals over fiber optic cables has necessitated the need for electro-optic modulation devices. However, in order to reap these potential benefits, it is necessary to develop the devices and their associated fabrication processes, particularly those processes associated with the poling of the devices. To this end, we entered into a cooperative research agreement with Richard Kunath of NASA LeRC. A graduate student in my group, Tony Kowalczyk, worked closely with the group at NASA to develop processes for construction of a microwave frequency electro-optic modulator. Materials were commercially obtained from Amoco Chemical and in collaboration with Lockheed-Martin. The photolithography processes were developed at NASA LeRC and the electric-field poling process was carried out in our laboratory at CWRU. During the grant period, the poling process conditions were investigated for these multilayer devices. Samples were poled and the resulting nonlinear optical properties were evaluated in our laboratory. Following the grant period, Kowalczyk went to NASA under a NRC fellowship, and I continued to collaborate as a consultant. Publications listed at the end of this report came out of this work. Another manuscript is in preparation and will be submitted shortly.

  8. Integrated nanophotonic devices for optical interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yidong; Feng, Xue; Cui, Kaiyu; Li, Yongzhuo; Wang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructure is an effective solution for realizing optoelectronic devices with compact size and high performances simultaneously. This paper reports our research progress on integrated nanophotonic devices for optical interconnections. We proposed a parent-sub micro ring structure for optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) with compact footprint, large free spectral range, and uniform channel spacing. All eight channels can be multiplexed and de-multiplexed with 2.6 dB drop loss, 0.36 nm bandwidth (>40 GHz), -20 dB channel crosstalk, and high thermal tuning efficiency of 0.15 nm/mW. A novel principle of optical switch was proposed and demonstrated based on the coupling of the defect modes in photonic crystal waveguide. Switching functionality with bandwidth up to 24 nm and extinction ratio in excess of 15 dB over the entire bandwidth was achieved, while the footprint was only 8 μm×17.6 μm. We proposed an optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) coding and decoding method to increase the data-carrying capacity of wireless optical interconnect. An integrated OAM emitter, where the topological charge can be continuously varied from -4 to 4 was realized. Also we studied ultrafast modulated nLED as the integrated light source for optical interconnections using a nanobeam cavity with stagger holes.

  9. Advanced Adaptive Optics Control Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Optimal estimation and control methods for high energy laser adaptive optics systems are described. Three system types are examined: Active...the adaptive optics approaches and potential system implementations are recommended.

  10. Method of forming a sharp edge on an optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleetwood, C. M.; Rice, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp edge is formed on an optical device by placing the optical device in a holding mechanism; grinding one surface so that it and a surface of the holding mechanism are co-planar; and polishing both the surface of the optical device and the surface of the holding mechanism with felt until an edge on the surface of the optical device adjacent to the surface of the holding mechanism obtains a desired sharpness.

  11. Nanocoaxes for Optical and Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rizal, Binod; Merlo, Juan M.; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of micro/nanoelectronics technology, including the shrinking of devices and integrated circuit components, has included the miniaturization of linear and coaxial structures to micro/nanoscale dimensions. This reduction in the size of coaxial structures may offer advantages to existing technologies and benefit the exploration and development of new technologies. The reduction in the size of coaxial structures has been realized with various permutations between metals, semiconductors and dielectrics for the core, shield, and annulus. This review will focus on fabrication schemes of arrays of metal – nonmetal – metal nanocoax structures using non-template and template methods, followed by possible applications. The performance and scientific advantages associated with nanocoax-based optical devices including waveguides, negative refractive index materials, light emitting diodes, and photovoltaics are presented. In addition, benefits and challenges that accrue from the application of novel nanocoax structures in energy storage, electronic and sensing devices are summarized. PMID:25279400

  12. Advances in transmission x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in x-ray optics are reviewed. Specific advances in coded aperture imaging, zone plate lens fabrication, time and space resolved spectroscopy, and CCD x-ray detection are discussed.

  13. Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination

    DOEpatents

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2011-01-25

    A torus multipass optical device and method are described that provide for trace level determination of gases and gas-phase analytes. The torus device includes an optical cavity defined by at least one ring mirror. The mirror delivers optical power in at least a radial and axial direction and propagates light in a multipass optical path of a predefined path length.

  14. Optical links in handheld multimedia devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geffen, S.; Duis, J.; Miller, R.

    2008-04-01

    Ever emerging applications in handheld multimedia devices such as mobile phones, laptop computers, portable video games and digital cameras requiring increased screen resolutions are driving higher aggregate bitrates between host processor and display(s) enabling services such as mobile video conferencing, video on demand and TV broadcasting. Larger displays and smaller phones require complex mechanical 3D hinge configurations striving to combine maximum functionality with compact building volumes. Conventional galvanic interconnections such as Micro-Coax and FPC carrying parallel digital data between host processor and display module may produce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and bandwidth limitations caused by small cable size and tight cable bends. To reduce the number of signals through a hinge, the mobile phone industry, organized in the MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface) alliance, is currently defining an electrical interface transmitting serialized digital data at speeds >1Gbps. This interface allows for electrical or optical interconnects. Above 1Gbps optical links may offer a cost effective alternative because of their flexibility, increased bandwidth and immunity to EMI. This paper describes the development of optical links for handheld communication devices. A cable assembly based on a special Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) selected for its mechanical durability is terminated with a small form factor molded lens assembly which interfaces between an 850nm VCSEL transmitter and a receiving device on the printed circuit board of the display module. A statistical approach based on a Lean Design For Six Sigma (LDFSS) roadmap for new product development tries to find an optimum link definition which will be robust and low cost meeting the power consumption requirements appropriate for battery operated systems.

  15. Integrated optic polymer waveguide devices for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dilip K.

    1994-11-01

    Organic polymeric materials and devices have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Non-linear optical polymers have show promise of very high electro-optical coefficients and useful device characteristics with compatible device processing on semiconductor wafers leading to development of compact, high reliability OEICs. In this paper, the state-of-the-art technology and performance of polymeric integrated optical waveguide devices will be received and feasibility of using these devices as sensor elements (e.g., to measure temperature, pressure, displacement, vibration, chemical analysis, etc.) and also as components in optical sensor subsystems (e.g., optical gyro chip) explored.

  16. All optical logic operations using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang

    High-speed optical processing technologies are essential for the construction of all-optical networks in the information era. In this Ph. D. thesis dissertation, essential mechanisms related to the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based device such as the gain and phase dynamics when a short pulse in propagating inside SOA, and, all-optical Boolean function, XOR, AND and OR have been studied. In order to realize the all-optical logic using SOA, the nonlinear gain and phase dynamics in SOA need to be studied first. The experimental results of 10--90% gain recovery curve have been presented. The recovery time is related to the carrier lifetime of the SOA and it varies with gain compression and bias current. For pulse width of a few picosecond, intraband effects need to be considered. In the SOA, phase change is also induced when a short pulse is propagating inside SOA. Unlike the conventional way of estimating the phase shift using alpha factor, the maximum phase shift is obtained first, then the effective alpha factor is calculated. The experimental results of all optical Boolean function XOR and OR at 80 Gb/s are presented using SOA-MZI-DI and SOA-DI respectively. These are the highest operating speed that has been reported. The all optical AND operation at 40 Gb/s using SOA-MZI have also been reported here. The numerical simulation shows that the performance of these all-optical Boolean operations is limited by the carrier lifetime of the SOA. The Boolean functions are the first step towards all optical circuits. The designs of a parity checker and a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) generator are demonstrated. The error analysis using quality factor and eye-diagram is also presented.

  17. Virtual input device with diffractive optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ching Chin; Chu, Chang Sheng

    2005-02-01

    As a portable device, such as PDA and cell phone, a small size build in virtual input device is more convenient for complex input demand. A few years ago, a creative idea called 'virtual keyboard' is announced, but up to now there's still no mass production method for this idea. In this paper we'll show the whole procedure of making a virtual keyboard. First of all is the HOE (Holographic Optical Element) design of keyboard image which yields a fan angle about 30 degrees, and then use the electron forming method to copy this pattern in high precision. And finally we can product this element by inject molding. With an adaptive lens design we can get a well correct keyboard image in distortion and a wilder fan angle about 70 degrees. With a batter alignment of HOE pattern lithography, we"re sure to get higher diffraction efficiency.

  18. Delivering optical power to subcutaneous implanted devices.

    PubMed

    Ayazian, Sahar; Hassibi, Arjang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new, easy-to-implement, and MRI-compatible approach for delivering power to implantable devices is presented. The idea is to harvest the energy of light within the therapeutic window wavelengths, where the optical absorption is small, by using subcutaneous photovoltaic (PV) cells. Depending on the application, this energy can then be used to directly drive the embedded electronics of an implanted device or recharge its battery. To show the feasibility of this system, a CMOS chip based on this concept has been implemented and tested. The experimental results demonstrate that μW's of power in ambient light conditions can be harvested using mm(2)-size PV cells. This amount of power is sufficient to address the needs of many low-power applications.

  19. Advanced optical diagnostics in hypersonic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattolica, Robert J.

    1988-10-01

    The renewed emphasis on hypersonic research has stimulated a resurgence of interest in experimental methods for the study of high-speed flows. Improvement in the physical and chemical models used in computational fluid dynamic simulation of hypersonic flows requires a modern experimental data base. Optical diagnostics provide the capability to make nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, velocity, and species concentration in hypersonic flows. The short test time available in hypersonic wind tunnels or flight experiments necessitates spectroscopic methods capable of producing high signal levels. Fluorescence methods based on laser or electron-beam excitation satisfy this requirement. For flight experiments, electron-beam excitation offers a number of advantages over laser excitation that include small device size, high electrical efficiency, and multiple-state and species-selective excitation. Disadvantages of the electron beam fluorescence (EBF) technique included a complex excitation mechanism and some limitations in high-density applications. Laser fluorescence methods (LIF) have been developed extensively in recent years for combustion research, but need further advances in miniaturization of lasers for application to in-flight hypersonic combustion and aerodynamic experiments. Both techniques require a fundamental understanding of the complications introduced by physical effects such as energy transfer and quenching of the fluorescence signal. With modern electro-optic instrumentation it is now possible to examine in detail the influence of these phenomena on EBF and LIF fluorescence spectra in the laboratory and to extend these measurement techniques for use in flight research. To illustrate some of the research required to develop these methods to address issues relevent to hypersonic flight, examples of experiments on the use of EBF and LIF spectroscopy for the measurement of nitric oxide concentration are presented.

  20. Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Optical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, D.; Zangrando, M.

    This chapter will briefly describe the photon transport system, from the sources to the experimental stations, including an overview of the characteristics of the synchrotron radiation (SR). The target of this chapter is to give, to an occasional user of the SR source, a general overview on the possible different available sources and the different possible optical systems, with particular emphasis to the soft X-ray region, without entering too much into details. If one wish to have a deep knowledge on the subjects treated here, there are four books that can answer almost all the possible questions on SR sources and optical devices, and they are reported in the references [W.B. Peatman, Gratings, Mirrors, and Slits (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, 1997); D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999); H. Wiedemann, Synchrotron Radiation (Springer, Heidelberg, 2002); A. Erko, M. Idir, T. Krist, A.G. Michette, Modern Developments in X-ray and Neutron Optics, Springer Series in Optical Science, vol. 137 (Springer, Heidelberg, 2008)].

  1. Detectors, devices and electronics for optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajer, V.

    2007-06-01

    Objectives: The present course is devoted to engineers, physicists, and techniques which require basic tools for applying in experiments, measurements and research with optical instruments. Content: It is composed of the following topics: photodetectors, semiconductor devices, photomultiplier tubes, Faraday modulators, lock in amplifiers and automatic polarimeters. It begins with the definitions, classification and general characteristics of the photodetectors and its selection criteria for specific applications. There is included a section relative to different types of photodiodes and its differential characteristics, the photomultipliers are described showing its validity and application range. The different characteristics of Faraday cells which are widely employed as optical modulators are analyzed. Lock in amplifiers are shown and its applications in experimental arrangements. Content: It is composed of the following topics: photodetectors, semiconductor devices, photomultiplier tubes, Faraday modulators, lock in amplifiers and automatic polarimeters. It begins with the definitions, classification and general characteristics of the photodetectors and its selection criteria for specific applications. There is included a section relative to different types of photodiodes and its differential characteristics, the photomultipliers are described showing its validity and application range. The different characteristics of Faraday cells which are widely employed as optical modulators are analyzed. Lock in amplifiers are shown and its applications in experimental arrangements. Conclusion: this course could be given as a postgraduate course for Master in Science or Ph. D depending on the number and content of selected topics. It has been applied as an obligatory subject of the Optical Master in Science curriculum in the Superior Technical Institute (José Antonio Echeverría) of Havana, Cuba.

  2. Liquid lens: advances in adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Shawn Patrick

    2010-12-01

    'Liquid lens' technologies promise significant advancements in machine vision and optical communications systems. Adaptations for machine vision, human vision correction, and optical communications are used to exemplify the versatile nature of this technology. Utilization of liquid lens elements allows the cost effective implementation of optical velocity measurement. The project consists of a custom image processor, camera, and interface. The images are passed into customized pattern recognition and optical character recognition algorithms. A single camera would be used for both speed detection and object recognition.

  3. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Elson, Daniel S; Bigio, Irving J; Levenson, Richard M; So, Peter T C

    2012-03-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, "Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery," which includes 12 contributions from attendees of the 2011 conference Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XII.

  4. Optical imaging device of retinal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardon, Randy H.; Kwon, Young; Truitt, Paul; Nemeth, Sheila C.; T'so, Dan; Soliz, Peter

    2002-06-01

    An optical imaging device of retina function (OID-RF) has been constructed to record changes in reflected 700-nm light from the fundus caused by retinal activation in response to a visual 535-nm stimulus. The resulting images reveal areas of the retina activated by visual stimulation. This device is a modified fundus camera designed to provide a patterned, moving visual stimulus over a 45-degree field of view to the subject in the green wavelength portion of the visual spectrum while simultaneously imaging the fundus in another, longer wavelength range. Data was collected from 3 normal subjects and recorded for 13 seconds at 4 Hz; 3 seconds were recorded during pre-stimulus baseline, 5 seconds during the stimulus, and 5 seconds post-stimulus. This procedure was repeated several times and, after image registration, the images were averaged to improve signal to noise. The change in reflected intensity from the retina due to the stimulus was then calculated by comparison to the pre-stimulus state. Reflected intensity from areas of stimulated retina began to increase steadily within 1 second after stimulus onset and decayed after stimulus offset. These results indicated that a functional optical signal can be recorded from the human eye.

  5. Optical biosensors: a revolution towards quantum nanoscale electronics device fabrication.

    PubMed

    Dey, D; Goswami, T

    2011-01-01

    The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.

  6. Advanced Integrated Optical Signal Processing Components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastani, Kasra

    This research was aimed at the development of advanced integrated optical components suitable for devices capable of processing multi-dimensional inputs. In such processors, densely packed waveguide arrays with low crosstalk are needed to provide dissection of the information that has been partially processed. Waveguide arrays also expand the information in the plane of the processor while maintaining its coherence. Rib waveguide arrays with low loss, high mode confinement and highly uniform surface quality (660 elements, 8 μm wide, 1 μm high, and 1 cm long with 2 mu m separations) were fabricated on LiNbO _3 substrates through the ion beam milling technique. A novel feature of the multi-dimensional IO processor architecture proposed herein is the implementation of large area uniform outcoupling (with low to moderate outcoupling efficiencies) from rib waveguide arrays in order to access the third dimension of the processor structure. As a means of outcoupling, uniform surface gratings (2 μm and 4 μm grating periods, 0.05 μm high and 1 mm long) with low outcoupling efficiencies (of approximately 2-18%/mm) were fabricated on the nonuniform surface of the rib waveguide arrays. As a practical technique of modulating the low outcoupling efficiencies of the surface gratings, it was proposed to alter the period of the grating as a function of position along each waveguide. Large aperture (2.5 mm) integrated lenses with short positive focal lengths (1.2-2.5 cm) were developed through a modification of the titanium-indiffused proton exchanged (TIPE) technique. Such integrated lenses were fabricated by increasing the refractive index of the slab waveguides by the TIPE process while maintaining the refractive index of the lenses at the lower level of Ti:LiNbO _3 waveguide. By means of curvature reversal of the integrated lenses, positive focal length lenses have been fabricated while providing high mode confinement for the slab waveguide. The above elements performed as

  7. Power selective optical filter devices and optical systems using same

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2014-10-07

    In an embodiment, a power selective optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes at least one substantially zero-order, zero-wave plate. The zero-order, zero-wave plate is configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. The zero-order, zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  8. Insertion device operating experience at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmer, John; Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed in the 7 GeV electron storage ring; 28 of these devices, most of which are 3.3 cm period undulators, use two horizontal permanent magnet structures positioned over a straight vacuum chamber. A support and drive mechanism allows the vertical gap between the magnet structures to be varied, thus changing the x-ray energy produced by the ID [J. Viccaro, Proc. SPIE 1345, 28 (1990); E. Gluskin, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 189 (1998)]. Most of these IDs use a drive scheme with two stepper motors, one driving each end through a mechanism synchronizing the upper and lower magnet structures. Our experience in almost 5 yr of operating this system will be discussed. All of the IDs are in continuous operation for approximately 10 weeks at a time. Reliability of operation is of paramount importance, as access to the storage ring for servicing of a single ID inhibits operation for all users. Our experience in achieving highly reliable ID operation is reviewed. Accuracy of operation and repeatability over time are also vital. To this end, these devices use absolute optical linear encoders with submicron resolution for primary position feedback. Absolute rotary encoders are used as a backup to the linear encoders. The benefits and limitations of each type of encoder, and our experience dealing with radiation and electrical noise are reviewed. The insertion devices operate down to gaps as small as 8.5 mm, with clearance over the vacuum chamber as small as 200 μm. The vacuum chamber has a minimum wall thickness of only 1 mm. A number of levels of safeguards are used to prevent contact between the magnet structure and the vacuum chamber. These safeguards and their evolution after gaining operational experience are presented.

  9. Freeform and advanced optics for ELT instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyl, Roland

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we share some recent work performed at REOSC in the domain of advanced optics for space and that is also directly applicable to astronomical instrumentation, e.g. for the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT), the construction of which has already started. We present firstly the results of some design investigations performed on Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) imaging optics when using freeform optical surfaces clearly showing gain in performance (WFE, distortion, … ) or compactness of the optics. We separate smart freeform from more aggressive freeform offering increased level of gain in design performances. Secondly we present our development in freeform and direct off-axis high performance optical manufacturing capabilities and the industrialization efforts conducted in the frame of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) primary mirror segments. A third subject is the demonstration of an extreme freeform surface manufacturing with the prototyping of a huge 500 mm aperture, 90° deviation angle, F/2.5 high output NA Off Axis Parabola (OAP), a unique achievement aimed to confirm the viability of potential new design opportunities involving such type of extreme optics. Finally we present in this paper our technology development on polishing layer for SiC material, named R-SiC, a polishing layer that reduces costs, risks and schedule for advanced SiC optics manufacturing for Vis and IR applications.

  10. Optical fiber grating tuning device and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fei; Yeh, T.

    2008-12-01

    A new design for tuning optical fiber grating is proposed. The fiber grating is placed in the grooves between a pair of slides, in which one end of the fiber is bonded on the bottom slide, and the other end of the fiber is bonded on the top slide, the grating section of the fiber is confined in grooves, so that the fiber grating is remaining straight without buckling during axial compressive force applied to the fiber. An actuator is used for driving slide to apply force on fiber to axially compress or stretch the fiber grating. The wavelength of the fiber grating is tuned according to applied stress on the fiber. The applications of the device include tunable fiber laser, tunable fiber filter etc.

  11. Optically-gated Non-latched High Gain Power Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-21

    4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON OTPT AND OPTICAL INTENSITY MODULATION OF OTPT PARAMETERS 33 4.1 Optical source, driver, and fiber details 33 4.2...off dynamics characterizations 36 4.5. Optical intensity modulation of OTPT parameters 37 5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON HYBRID OTPT-PSD AND OPTICAL...device design and optimization was completed including epitaxial charge-balance mechanisms and robustness studies . Effect on device performance parameters

  12. Optical sensors and multisensor arrays containing thin film electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Aylott, Jonathan W.; Chen-Esterlit, Zoe; Friedl, Jon H.; Kopelman, Raoul; Savvateev, Vadim N.; Shinar, Joseph

    2001-12-18

    Optical sensor, probe and array devices for detecting chemical biological, and physical analytes. The devices include an analyte-sensitive layer optically coupled to a thin film electroluminescent layer which activates the analyte-sensitive layer to provide an optical response. The optical response varies depending upon the presence of an analyte and is detected by a photodetector and analyzed to determine the properties of the analyte.

  13. Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Dokos, Adam; Burns, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    The Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device (PHOWID) is a measurement system for imaging small defects (scratches, pits, micrometeor impacts, and the like) in the field. Designed primarily for window inspection, PHOWID attaches to a smooth surface with suction cups, and raster scans a small area with an optical pen in order to provide a three-dimensional image of the defect. PHOWID consists of a graphical user interface, motor control subsystem, scanning head, and interface electronics, as well as an integrated camera and user display that allows a user to locate minute defects before scanning. Noise levels are on the order of 60 in. (1.5 m). PHOWID allows field measurement of defects that are usually done in the lab. It is small, light, and attaches directly to the test article in any orientation up to vertical. An operator can scan a defect and get useful engineering data in a matter of minutes. There is no need to make a mold impression for later lab analysis.

  14. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, S.D.; Marshall, K.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1991-10-08

    Composite optical devices are disclosed using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T[sub g]) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device. 7 figures.

  15. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Stephen D.; Marshall, Kenneth L.; Cerqua, Kathleen A.

    1991-01-01

    Composite optical devices using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device.

  16. ARED (Advanced-Resistive Exercise Device) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes ARED which is a new hardware exercise device for use on the International Space Station. Astronaut physiological adaptations, muscle parameters, and cardiovascular parameters are also reviewed.

  17. Advanced optics in an interdisciplinary graduate program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nic Chormaic, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, established in November 2011, provides a 5- year interdisciplinary PhD program, through English, within Japan. International and Japanese students entering the program undertake coursework and laboratory rotations across a range of topics, including neuroscience, molecular science, physics, chemistry, marine science and mathematics, regardless of previous educational background. To facilitate interdisciplinarity, the university has no departments, ensuring seamless interactions between researchers from all sectors. As part of the PhD program a course in Advanced Optics has been developed to provide PhD students with the practical and theoretical skills to enable them to use optics tools in any research environment. The theoretical aspect of the course introduces students to procedures for complex beam generation (e.g. Laguerre-Gaussian), optical trapping, beam analysis and photon optics, and is supported through a practical program covering introductory interference/diffraction experiments through to more applied fiber optics. It is hoped that, through early exposure to optics handling and measurement techniques, students will be able to develop and utilize optics tools regardless of research field. In addition to the formal course in Advanced Optics, a selection of students also undertakes 13 week laboratory rotations in the Light-Matter Interactions research laboratory, where they work side-by-side with physicists in developing optics tools for laser cooling, photonics or bio-applications. While currently in the first year, conclusive results about the success of such an interdisciplinary PhD training are speculative. However, initial observations indicate a rich cross-fertilization of ideas stemming from the diverse backgrounds of all participants.

  18. Binary Arithmetic Using Optical Symbolic Substitution and Cascadable Surface-Emitting Laser Logic Devices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LOGIC DEVICES, *OPTICAL CIRCUITS, *OPTICAL SWITCHING, HETEROJUNCTIONS, PHOTOTRANSISTORS, ELECTROOPTICS, LASER CAVITIES, OPTICAL PROCESSING, PARALLEL PROCESSING, BISTABLE DEVICES, GATES(CIRCUITS), VOLTAGE, BINARY ARITHMETIC .

  19. Catheters: instrumental advancements in biomedical applications of optical fibers.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Carlos J; Moreira, Leonardo M; Lyon, Juliana P; Villaverde, Antonio B; Pacheco, Marcos T T

    2009-07-01

    This review is focused on the advancements in biomedical engineering regarding the elaboration of new prototypes of optical fiber catheters to be applied in spectroscopic analysis, such as Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Our group has contributed to the development of new prototypes with interesting properties, such as side-viewing signal excitation and collection, distal tip with bending control, and Raman scattering minimization from the optical fiber. In addition, several groups have contributed to other new catheter-improving properties of this spectroscopic device. However, a relatively small number of studies has been published in the literature, due to industrial interest in this interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary area. To our knowledge, no review that has focused on the applications of catheters to several modes of spectroscopy has been published. In this work we revised this topic, analyzing the advancements and limitations of the recent biomedical catheters.

  20. Method And Apparatus For Coupling Optical Elements To Optoelectronic Devices For Manufacturing Optical Transceiver Modules

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Giunta, Rachel Knudsen; Mitchell, Robert T.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Rising, Merideth A.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2005-06-14

    A process is provided for aligning and connecting at least one optical fiber to at least one optoelectronic device so as to couple light between at least one optical fiber and at least one optoelectronic device. One embodiment of this process comprises the following steps: (1) holding at least one optical element close to at least one optoelectronic device, at least one optical element having at least a first end; (2) aligning at least one optical element with at least one optoelectronic device; (3) depositing a first non-opaque material on a first end of at least one optoelectronic device; and (4) bringing the first end of at least one optical element proximate to the first end of at least one optoelectronic device in such a manner that the first non-opaque material contacts the first end of at least one optoelectronic device and the first end of at least one optical element. The optical element may be an optical fiber, and the optoelectronic device may be a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. The first non-opaque material may be a UV optical adhesive that provides an optical path and mechanical stability. In another embodiment of the alignment process, the first end of at least one optical element is brought proximate to the first end of at least one optoelectronic device in such a manner that an interstitial space exists between the first end of at least one optoelectronic device and the first end of at least one optical element.

  1. An advanced optical system for laser ablation propulsion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstue, Grant; Fork, Richard; Reardon, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel space-based ablation driven propulsion engine concept utilizing transmitted energy in the form of a series of ultra-short optical pulses. Key differences are generating the pulses at the transmitting spacecraft and the safe delivery of that energy to the receiving spacecraft for propulsion. By expanding the beam diameter during transmission in space, the energy can propagate at relatively low intensity and then be refocused and redistributed to create an array of ablation sites at the receiver. The ablation array strategy allows greater control over flight dynamics and eases thermal management. Research efforts for this transmission and reception of ultra-short optical pulses include: (1) optical system design; (2) electrical system requirements; (3) thermal management; (4) structured energy transmission safety. Research has also been focused on developing an optical switch concept for the multiplexing of the ultra-short pulses. This optical switch strategy implements multiple reflectors polished into a rotating momentum wheel device to combine the pulses from different laser sources. The optical system design must minimize the thermal load on any one optical element. Initial specifications and modeling for the optical system are being produced using geometrical ray-tracing software to give a better understanding of the optical requirements. In regards to safety, we have advanced the retro-reflective beam locking strategy to include look-ahead capabilities for long propagation distances. Additional applications and missions utilizing multiplexed pulse transmission are also presented. Because the research is in early development, it provides an opportunity for new and valuable advances in the area of transmitted energy for propulsion as well as encourages joint international efforts. Researchers from different countries can cooperate in order to find constructive and safe uses of ordered pulse transmission for propulsion in future space

  2. Advanced high-bandwidth optical fuzing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jony J.; von der Lippe, Christian M.

    2005-10-01

    A robust and compact photonic proximity sensor is developed for optical fuze in munitions applications. The design of the optical fuze employed advanced optoelectronic technologies including high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), the p-i-n or metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors, SiGe ASIC driver, and miniature optics. The development combines pioneering work and unique expertise at ARDEC, ARL, and Sandia National Laboratories and synergizes the key optoelectronic technologies in components and system designs. This compact sensor will replace conventional costly assemblies based on discrete lasers, photodetectors, and bulky optics and provide a new capability for direct fire applications. It will be mass manufacturable in low cost and simplicity. In addition to the specific applications for gun-fired munitions, numerous civilian uses can be realized by this proximity sensor in automotive, robotics, and aerospace applications. This technology is also applicable to robotic ladar and short-range 3-D imaging.

  3. A novel optic bistable device with very low threshold intensity using photorefractive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sean X.; Sun, Yuankun; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Li, Guifang

    1994-08-01

    Brimrose Corporation of America reports the successful completion of the SBIR Phase I research in low-threshold intensity optical bistable devices using photorefractive nonlinearity. A thin photorefractive film optical bistable device was proposed in the Phase I proposal. The feasibility of this device was theoretically investigated. The theoretical feasibility study formulates the materials requirements in such a kind of configuration for Phase II research. In addition, we have proposed and investigated another configuration of optical bistable devices that do not require advanced photorefractive materials, namely, the self-pumped phase conjugator. We have successfully demonstrated a low-threshold optical bistable operation in a KNSBN:CU crystal. To the best of our knowledge, the threshold of 650 mW/sq. cm is the lowest of its kind to be achieved so far.

  4. Guidewire-Controlled Advancement of the Amplatz Thrombectomy Device

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Schwarzenberg, Helmut; Heller, Martin

    1998-01-15

    The Amplatz Thrombectomy Device (ATD) is a percutaneous rotational catheter proven to homogenize thrombus. The catheter design allows neither application over a coaxial running guidewire nor the use of the device as a monorail system. We report a technical modification that provides guided advancement of the catheter over a wire in order to prevent failure of application and to facilitate the interventional procedure.

  5. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    DOEpatents

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.

    2011-05-10

    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  6. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  7. Advanced optics experiments using nonuniform aperture functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Lowell T.

    2013-05-01

    A method to create instructive, nonuniform aperture functions using spatial frequency filtering is described. The diffraction from a single slit in the Fresnel limit and the interference from a double slit in the Fraunhofer limit are spatially filtered to create electric field distributions across an aperture to produce apodization, inverse apodization or super-resolution, and apertures with phase shifts across their widths. The diffraction effects from these aperture functions are measured and calculated. The excellent agreement between the experimental results and the calculated results makes the experiment ideal for use in an advanced undergraduate or graduate optics laboratory to illustrate experimentally several effects in Fourier optics.

  8. Advanced Optical A/D Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    before the receiver and separately by reducing the gain in the EDFA . It is important to note that the optical power level was varied while all the...could not exceed roughly 50% of the maximum power available at full gain from the EDFA . 4.2 Baseband-Mode Testing The single-channel system was also...AD-A275 663 Advanced Optical A/D Convert M.C. Hamilton, J.A. Bell, D.A. Leep, J.P. Lin The Boeing Company Boeing Defense and Space Group P.O. Box

  9. Optical limiting device and method of preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Xu, Su; McBranch, Duncan W.

    2003-01-01

    Optical limiting device and method of preparation thereof. The optical limiting device includes a transparent substrate and at least one homogeneous layer of an RSA material in polyvinylbutyral attached to the substrate. The device may be produced by preparing a solution of an RSA material, preferably a metallophthalocyanine complex, and a solution of polyvinylbutyral, and then mixing the two solutions together to remove air bubbles. The resulting solution is layered onto the substrate and the solvent is evaporated. The method can be used to produce a dual tandem optical limiting device.

  10. Advanced Optical Technologies for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of photonic devices and systems for space exploration missions. Photonic technologies of particular interest are those that can be utilized for in-space communication, remote sensing, guidance navigation and control, lunar descent and landing, and rendezvous and docking. NASA Langley has recently established a class-100 clean-room which serves as a Photonics Fabrication Facility for development of prototype optoelectronic devices for aerospace applications. In this paper we discuss our design, fabrication, and testing of novel active pixels, deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Successful implementation of these intelligent optical devices and systems in space, requires careful consideration of temperature and space radiation effects in inorganic and electronic materials. Applications including high bandwidth inertial reference units, lightweight, high precision star trackers for guidance, navigation, and control, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensing, and beam steering technologies are discussed. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize their performance in space exploration systems.

  11. Advanced optical technologies for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2007-09-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of photonic devices and systems for space exploration missions. Photonic technologies of particular interest are those that can be utilized for in-space communication, remote sensing, guidance navigation and control, lunar descent and landing, and rendezvous and docking. NASA Langley has recently established a class-100 clean-room which serves as a Photonics Fabrication Facility for development of prototype optoelectronic devices for aerospace applications. In this paper we discuss our design, fabrication, and testing of novel active pixels, deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Successful implementation of these intelligent optical devices and systems in space, requires careful consideration of temperature and space radiation effects in inorganic and electronic materials. Applications including high bandwidth inertial reference units, lightweight, high precision star trackers for guidance, navigation, and control, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensing, and beam steering technologies are discussed. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize their performance in space exploration systems

  12. Engineering aperiodic nanostructured surfaces for scattering-based optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuk Kwan Sylvanus

    Pinwheel aperiodic arrays, angle-insensitive (i.e. isotropic) coloration from nanostructured metal surfaces can be designed and optimized without randomization. Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays on a gold thin film were fabricated for the first time and investigated using dark-field scattering and angle-resolved reflectivity measurements. In sharp contrast to the colorimetric responses of periodically nanopatterned surfaces, which strongly depend on the observation angle, spatially uniform and isotropic green coloration of gold films were demonstrated using these engineered metal surfaces. In addition, the intensity of the scattered light is enhanced by plasmonic resonance originated from gold nanoparticles deposited on the gold substrates. The development of the enhanced isotropic scattering devices could advance plasmonic applications to color display, optical tagging and colorimetric sensing technologies.

  13. Tapered rib fiber coupler for semiconductor optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A.; Smith, Robert Edward

    2001-01-01

    A monolithic tapered rib waveguide for transformation of the spot size of light between a semiconductor optical device and an optical fiber or from the fiber into the optical device. The tapered rib waveguide is integrated into the guiding rib atop a cutoff mesa type semiconductor device such as an expanded mode optical modulator or and expanded mode laser. The tapered rib acts to force the guided light down into the mesa structure of the semiconductor optical device instead of being bound to the interface between the bottom of the guiding rib and the top of the cutoff mesa. The single mode light leaving or entering the output face of the mesa structure then can couple to the optical fiber at coupling losses of 1.0 dB or less.

  14. Soliton molecules for advanced optical telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitschke, Fedor; Hause, Alexander; Mahnke, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in the technology of optical telecommunications are pushed forward by the rapidly growing demand for data-carrying capacity. Current approaches are discussed; most lines of investigation are limited to the linear (i.e. low power) regime. It is shown how this restriction poses a limit for further evolution. If, on the other hand, the nonlinear regime is entered, recent developments about soliton molecules offer a possibility to advance further.

  15. Time-domain diffuse optics: towards next generation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, Davide; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Arridge, Simon; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Farina, Andrea; Durduran, Turgut; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse optics is a powerful tool for clinical applications ranging from oncology to neurology, but also for molecular imaging, and quality assessment of food, wood and pharmaceuticals. We show that ideally time-domain diffuse optics can give higher contrast and a higher penetration depth with respect to standard technology. In order to completely exploit the advantages of a time-domain system a distribution of sources and detectors with fast gating capabilities covering all the sample surface is needed. Here, we present the building block to build up such system. This basic component is made of a miniaturised source-detector pair embedded into the probe based on pulsed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) as sources and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) or Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as detectors. The possibility to miniaturized and dramatically increase the number of source detectors pairs open the way to an advancement of diffuse optics in terms of improvement of performances and exploration of new applications. Furthermore, availability of compact devices with reduction in size and cost can boost the application of this technique.

  16. Photonic materials and devices for optical information processing and computing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, Armand R., Jr.

    1991-02-01

    The research program is focused on a critical evaluation of advanced photonic materials and device concepts for the implementation of optical information processing and computing systems. The effort ranges from a detailed investigation of the fundamental physical and technological limitations that impact the potential computational gain (e.g., increases in throughput, decreases in decision time subsequent to processing, or minimization of the energy expended during computation) of optical information processing and computing systems, through the invention and characterization of key enabling devices such as two dimensional spatial light modulators and volume holographic optical elements, to the development of advanced techniques for materials growth, deposition, and processing that have a critical impact on potential device performance. This multifaceted evaluation of novel materials, device, and system concepts has been directly responsible for the invention and characterization of a number of photonic devices and materials processing techniques that exhibit both high performance and capacity for practical manufacturing. The primary program thrusts can be organized into three principal categories: (1) fundamental and technological limitations of optical information processing and computing; (2) electrically and optically addressed spatial light modulators; and (3) volume holographic optical elements.

  17. Advanced Interconnect and Device-Field Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-15

    Essaaidi NATO Advanced Research Workshop : Bianisotropics 2002, 99th Conference on Electromagnetics of Complex Media 8-11May, 2002, Marrakech , Morocco...Bianisotropics 2002, 99th Conference on Electromagnetics of Complex Media 8-11May, 2002, Marrakech , Morocco. Study of Substrates Bi-anisotropy Effects on...Conference on Electromagnetics of Complex Media 8-11May, 2002, Marrakech , Morocco. Dielectric Substrates Anisotropic Effects on The Characteristics of

  18. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  19. Advanced colour processing for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Eugen; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are going to play an important role in professionally image processing tasks. However, mobile systems were not designed for such applications, especially in terms of image processing requirements like stability and robustness. One major drawback is the automatic white balance, which comes with the devices. It is necessary for many applications, but of no use when applied to shiny surfaces. Such an issue appears when image acquisition takes place in differently coloured illuminations caused by different environments. This results in inhomogeneous appearances of the same subject. In our paper we show a new approach for handling the complex task of generating a low-noise and sharp image without spatial filtering. Our method is based on the fact that we analyze the spectral and saturation distribution of the channels. Furthermore, the RGB space is transformed into a more convenient space, a particular HSI space. We generate the greyscale image by a control procedure that takes into account the colour channels. This leads in an adaptive colour mixing model with reduced noise. The results of the optimized images are used to show how, e. g., image classification benefits from our colour adaptation approach.

  20. Electro-optic device with gap-coupled electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, Robert J.; Rhodes, Mark A.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Caird, John A.; Henesian, Mark A.; Ebbers, Christopher A.

    2013-08-20

    An electro-optic device includes an electro-optic crystal having a predetermined thickness, a first face and a second face. The electro-optic device also includes a first electrode substrate disposed opposing the first face. The first electrode substrate includes a first substrate material having a first thickness and a first electrode coating coupled to the first substrate material. The electro-optic device further includes a second electrode substrate disposed opposing the second face. The second electrode substrate includes a second substrate material having a second thickness and a second electrode coating coupled to the second substrate material. The electro-optic device additionally includes a voltage source electrically coupled to the first electrode coating and the second electrode coating.

  1. Practical training: from ideas to optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoba, Nadezhda; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Orekhova, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Student Research Laboratory for Optical Engineering in the ITMO University is the space for self-education and skills improving in the field of optics, optical engineering, photonics, light engineering for all the people: for students, graduates and experts. It is the space for realization of project for the motivated groups of people.

  2. Advanced optical position sensors for magnetically suspended wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafleur, S.

    1985-01-01

    A major concern to aerodynamicists has been the corruption of wind tunnel test data by model support structures, such as stings or struts. A technique for magnetically suspending wind tunnel models was considered by Tournier and Laurenceau (1957) in order to overcome this problem. This technique is now implemented with the aid of a Large Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (LMSBS) and advanced position sensors for measuring model attitude and position within the test section. Two different optical position sensors are discussed, taking into account a device based on the use of linear CCD arrays, and a device utilizing area CID cameras. Current techniques in image processing have been employed to develop target tracking algorithms capable of subpixel resolution for the sensors. The algorithms are discussed in detail, and some preliminary test results are reported.

  3. Future opportunities for advancing glucose test device electronics.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano "ink" composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, "ink," and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers.

  4. Future Opportunities for Advancing Glucose Test Device Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano “ink” composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, “ink,” and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers. PMID:22027300

  5. Final report on LDRD project : advanced optical trigger systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Roose, Lars D.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Mar, Alan; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas M.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Montano, Victoria A.

    2008-09-01

    Advanced optically-activated solid-state electrical switch development at Sandia has demonstrated multi-kA/kV switching and the path for scalability to even higher current/power. Realization of this potential requires development of new optical sources/switches based on key Sandia photonic device technologies: vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices. The key to increasing the switching capacity of PCSS devices to 5kV/5kA and higher is to distribute the current in multiple parallel line filaments triggered by an array of high-brightness line-shaped illuminators. Commercial mechanically-stacked edge-emitting lasers have been used to trigger multiple filaments, but they are difficult to scale and manufacture with the required uniformity. In VCSEL arrays, adjacent lasers utilize identical semiconductor material and are lithographically patterned to the required dimensions. We have demonstrated multiple-line filament triggering using VCSEL arrays to approximate line generation. These arrays of uncoupled circular-aperture VCSELs have fill factors ranging from 2% to 30%. Using these arrays, we have developed a better understanding of the illumination requirements for stable triggering of multiple-filament PCSS devices. Photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices offer advantages of high voltage operation (multi-kV), optical isolation, triggering with laser pulses that cannot occur accidentally in nature, low cost, high speed, small size, and radiation hardness. PCSS devices are candidates for an assortment of potential applications that require multi-kA switching of current. The key to increasing the switching capacity of PCSS devices to 5kV/5kA and higher is to distribute the current in multiple parallel line filaments triggered by an array of high-brightness line-shaped illuminators. Commercial mechanically-stacked edge-emitting lasers have been demonstrated to trigger multiple filaments, but they

  6. 77 FR 65713 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... the United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications... importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and...

  7. Advanced fiber lasers and related all-fiber devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Balaji

    2000-11-01

    :ZBLAN. The demonstration of substantial second order nonlinearities (~1 pm/V) at UNM using thermal- assisted poling in normally symmetry forbidden silica glass has inspired worldwide research efforts aimed at achieving similar nonlinearities in fibers. All-fiber electro-optic devices based on such poled fibers are anticipated to enhance the performance of various lasers, including modelocked and tunable fiber lasers. This dissertation presents the first demonstration of stable, electro-optically tunable fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with a tuning range of 20 pm (2.5 GHz), which should enable applications such as reconfigurable add/drop filters and actively modelocked all-fiber lasers. Two key steps in the fabrication of the tunable FBGs viz. the fabrication of thermally stable FBGs, and a novel method for in-situ monitoring of fiber polishing are also demonstrated. Finally, this dissertation discusses issues related to the demonstration of all-fiber electro- optically tunable polarization rotators and their possible impact on future advanced fiber lasers.

  8. Photonic variable delay devices based on optical birefringence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Optical variable delay devices for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. A ladder-structured variable delay device comprises multiple basic building blocks stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic building block has two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array arranged to form a trihedron; Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes a beam passing through the array element either going up to a basic building block above it or reflect back towards a block below it. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. An index-switched optical variable delay device comprises of many birefringent crystal segments connected with one another, with a polarization rotator array sandwiched between any two adjacent crystal segments. An array element in the polarization rotator array controls the polarization state of a beam passing through the element, causing the beam experience different refractive indices or path delays in the following crystal segment. By independently control each element in each polarization rotator array, variable optical path delays of each beam can be achieved. Finally, an index-switched variable delay device and a ladder-structured variable device are cascaded to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. The device is inherently two dimensional and has a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm2. The delay resolution of the device is on the order of a femtosecond (one micron in space) and the total delay exceeds 10 nanosecond. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

  9. Optical distance measurement device and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2003-05-27

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target. A modulated optical beam may be used to determine the distance to the target. A first beam splitter may be used to split the optical beam and a second beam splitter may be used to recombine a reference beam with a return ranging beam. An optical mixing detector may be used in a receiver to efficiently detect distance measurement information.

  10. Optical Distance Measurement Device And Method Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2004-06-15

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target by scanning the target. An optical beam is provided by a light source and modulated by a frequency source. The modulated optical beam is transmitted to an acousto-optical deflector capable of changing the angle of the optical beam in a predetermined manner to produce an output for scanning the target. In operation, reflected or diffused light from the target may be received by a detector and transmitted to a controller configured to calculate the distance to the target as well as the measurement uncertainty in calculating the distance to the target.

  11. Quantum reading of unitary optical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2014-12-04

    We address the problem of quantum reading of optical memories, namely the retrieving of classical information stored in the optical properties of a media with minimum energy. We present optimal strategies for ambiguous and unambiguous quantum reading of unitary optical memories, namely when one's task is to minimize the probability of errors in the retrieved information and when perfect retrieving of information is achieved probabilistically, respectively. A comparison of the optimal strategy with coherent probes and homodyne detection shows that the former saves orders of magnitude of energy when achieving the same performances. Experimental proposals for quantum reading which are feasible with present quantum optical technology are reported.

  12. Device having two optical ports for switching applications

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Ayre; Stabile, Paul J.

    1991-09-24

    A two-sided light-activatable semiconductor switch device having an optical port on each side thereof. The semiconductor device may be a p-i-n diode or of bulk intrinsic material. A two ported p-i-n diode, reverse-biased to "off" by a 1.3 kV dc power supply, conducted 192 A when activated by two 1 kW laser diode arrays, one for each optical port.

  13. Characterization of ultrafast devices using novel optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Md Ershad

    Optical techniques have been extensively used to examine the high frequency performance of a number of devices including High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), Heterojunction Bipolar Phototransistors (HPTs) and Low Temperature GaAs (LT-GaAs) Photoconductive Switches. To characterize devices, frequency and time domain techniques, namely optical heterodyning and electro-optic sampling, having measurement bandwidths in excess of 200 GHz, were employed. Optical mixing in three-terminal devices has been extended for the first time to submillimeter wave frequencies. Using a new generation of 50-nm gate pseudomorphic InP-based HEMTs, optically mixed signals were detected to 552 GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 5 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest frequency optical mixing obtained in three- terminal devices to date. A novel harmonic three-wave detection scheme was used for the detection of the optically generated signals. The technique involved downconversion of the signal in the device by the second harmonic of a gate-injected millimeter wave local oscillator. Measurements were also conducted up to 212 GHz using direct optical mixing and up to 382 GHz using a fundamental three-wave detection scheme. New interesting features in the bias dependence of the optically mixed signals have been reported. An exciting novel development from this work is the successful integration of near-field optics with optical heterodyning. The technique, called near-field optical heterodyning (NFOH), allows for extremely localized injection of high-frequency stimulus to any arbitrary point of an ultrafast device or circuit. Scanning the point of injection across the sample provides details of the high frequency operation of the device with high spatial resolution. For the implementation of the technique, fiber-optic probes with 100 nm apertures were fabricated. A feedback controlled positioning system was built for accurate placement and scanning of the

  14. Optical Element, Device, Method, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-14

    optical element is a phase-only element; and h) repeating steps ( c -f). 28. The method of claim 26, further comprising: c1) in step (c), setting...jl(l;, 11) to 0, wherein the optical element is an amplitude-only element; and h) repeating steps ( c -f). * * * * *

  15. Optical system designs based on bi-directional sensor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Constanze; Gawronski, Ute; Perske, Franziska; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Small and compact optical system designs are needed in nearly all application scenarios of optical projection and imaging systems, e.g. automotive, metrology, medical or multimedia. Most active optical systems are based on separated imaging (e.g. camera unit) and image generating units (e.g. projection unit). This fact limits the geometrical miniaturization of the system. We present compact optical system designs using the new technology of bi-directional sensor devices. These devices combine light emitting and light detecting elements on one single chip. The application of such innovative opto-electronic devices - so-called bi-directional OLED microdisplays (BiMiDs) - offer a huge potential for miniaturization with a simultaneous increase of performance due to a new integration step. For these new bi-directional sensor devices new optical design concepts for simultaneous and sequential emission and detection are necessary. Because the simultaneous emission and detection can disturb the functionality of the optical system. New concepts has to be applied. A first concept is an exemplary 3-D metrology system applying fringe projection. A second concept is a pico-projection system with an integrated camera function. For both concepts the system configurations and the optical design are discussed. Due to the application of the bi-directional sensor device ultra-compact systems are presented.

  16. Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-02-01

    Silicon waveguide optical non-reciprocal devices based on the magneto-optical effect are reviewed. The non-reciprocal phase shift caused by the first-order magneto-optical effect is effective in realizing optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon waveguide platforms. In a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer enhances the magneto-optical phase shift, which reduces the device footprints. A surface activated direct bonding technique was developed to integrate a magneto-optical garnet crystal on the silicon waveguides. A silicon waveguide optical isolator based on the magneto-optical phase shift was demonstrated with an optical isolation of 30 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB at a wavelength of 1548 nm. Furthermore, a four port optical circulator was demonstrated with maximum isolations of 15.3 and 9.3 dB in cross and bar ports, respectively, at a wavelength of 1531 nm.

  17. Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Silicon waveguide optical non-reciprocal devices based on the magneto-optical effect are reviewed. The non-reciprocal phase shift caused by the first-order magneto-optical effect is effective in realizing optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon waveguide platforms. In a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer enhances the magneto-optical phase shift, which reduces the device footprints. A surface activated direct bonding technique was developed to integrate a magneto-optical garnet crystal on the silicon waveguides. A silicon waveguide optical isolator based on the magneto-optical phase shift was demonstrated with an optical isolation of 30 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB at a wavelength of 1548 nm. Furthermore, a four port optical circulator was demonstrated with maximum isolations of 15.3 and 9.3 dB in cross and bar ports, respectively, at a wavelength of 1531 nm. PMID:27877640

  18. Optical bistable device with one sinusoidal amplitude grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shenping; Orriols, G.

    1994-07-01

    A novel type of optical bistable device (OBD) based the Abble theory is proposed, in which the modulation is realized by moving one sinusoidal amplitude grating. When the parameters of this system are chosen properly this system can be a one-channel or two-channel optical bistable device. The mathematical models which describe the optically bistability are obtained. Numerical simulations on the optical bistabilities and the stability analysis on this system for two cases are given. The two-channel OBD may work as a 1 × 2 optical switch or a stable filter for wavelength division multiplexing, and may be applied in code-division multiple access networks and optical recovery circuit.

  19. Recent Advances in Miniaturized Optical Gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Olio, F.; Tatoli, T.; Ciminelli, C.; Armenise, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    Low-cost chip-scale optoelectronic gyroscopes having a resolution ≤ 10 °/h and a good reliability also in harsh environments could have a strong impact on the medium/high performance gyro market, which is currently dominated by well-established bulk optical angular velocity sensors. The R&D activity aiming at the demonstration of those miniaturized sensors is crucial for aerospace/defense industry, and thus it is attracting an increasing research effort and notably funds. In this paper the recent technological advances on the compact optoelectronic gyroscopes with low weight and high energy saving are reviewed. Attention is paid to both the so-called gyroscope-on-a-chip, which is a novel sensor, at the infantile stage, whose optical components are monolithically integrated on a single indium phosphide chip, and to a new ultra-high Q ring resonator for gyro applications with a configuration including a 1D photonic crystal in the resonant path. The emerging field of the gyros based on passive ring cavities, which have already shown performance comparable with that of optical fiber gyros, is also discussed.

  20. Dynamic Optical Grating Device and Associated Method for Modulating Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic optical grating device and associated method for modulating light is provided that is capable of controlling the spectral properties and propagation of light without moving mechanical components by the use of a dynamic electric and/or magnetic field. By changing the electric field and/or magnetic field, the index of refraction, the extinction coefficient, the transmittivity, and the reflectivity fo the optical grating device may be controlled in order to control the spectral properties of the light reflected or transmitted by the device.

  1. Rays inserting method (RIM) to design dielectric optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskhiri, Mohammad Mahdi; Khalaj Amirhosseini, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a novel approach, called Rays Inserted Method (RIM), is introduced to design dielectric optical devices. In this approach, some rays are inserted between two ends of desired device and then the refractive index of the points along the route of rays are obtained. The validity of the introduced approach is verified by designing three types of optical devices, i.e. power splitter, bend, and flat lens. The results are confirmed with numerical simulations by the means of FDTD scheme at the frequency of 100 GHz.

  2. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1996-01-01

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

  3. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance Bragg reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1996-10-22

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method are disclosed. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors. 16 figs.

  4. Silicon nanophotonic integrated devices enabling multiplexed on-chip optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Daoxin; Wang, Jian; Chen, Sitao

    2015-05-01

    Advanced multiplexing technologies including wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM), polarization-division multiplexing (PDM), and mode-division multiplexing (MDM) have been utilized as a cost-effective solution to enhance the capacity of an optical-interconnect link. The on-chip (de)multiplexers, including WDM filters, PDM devices, and MDM devices, are the most important key components in a multi-channel multiplexed optical interconnect system. Hybrid (de)multiplexer to enable various multiplexing technologies simultaneously are becoming more and more important to achieve many channels. In this paper we give a review for our recent work on silicon photonic integrated devices for realizing multi-channel multiplexed on-chip optical interconnects.

  5. A quantum optical firewall based on simple quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amellal, H.; Meslouhi, A.; Hassouni, Y.; El Baz, M.

    2015-07-01

    In order to enhance the transmission security in quantum communications via coherent states, we propose a quantum optical firewall device to protect a quantum cryptosystem against eavesdropping through optical attack strategies. Similar to the classical model of the firewall, the proposed device gives legitimate users the possibility of filtering, controlling (input/output states) and making a decision (access or deny) concerning the traveling states. To prove the security and efficiency of the suggested optical firewall, we analyze its performances against the family of intercept and resend attacks, especially against one of the most prominent attack schemes known as "Faked State Attack."

  6. Fiber-based devices for DWDM optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Claire; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Yisi; Pan, Jing-Jong; Zhou, Fengqing; Dong, Liang; He, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Photonic devices with low insertion loss are important in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. Currently most of these devices, such as variable optical attenuators (VOA), switches, filters, and dispersion compensators, etc., involve bulk (or micro-optic) components that require conversions between fibers and free-space optical elements leading to high insertion loss. Recently, we have proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated several fiber based devices for DWDM optical communication systems. Here we present an in-line fiber VOA, a 2x2 switchable wavelength add/drop filter, and high performance dispersion compensators. The VOA is built with a side-polished fiber covered with a liquid crystal overlay. By varying the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules using an applied electric field, the loss of the device can be controlled. The 2x2 wavelength switch is designed by recording electrically switchable holographic gratings in a layer of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) sandwiched between two side-polished fibers. The dispersion compensators are based on high precision fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). A unique method for writing FBGs with arbitrary phase and amplitude distributions is demonstrated. All of these devices are analyzed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Both theoretical and experimental results will be presented and discussed. These devices are suitable for DWDM optical information transmission and network management.

  7. Variable optical attenuator made by using new electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergaz, Ricardo; Barrios, David; Sanchez-Pena, Jose M.; Vazquez, Carmen; Pozo-Gonzalo, Cristina; Mecerreyes, David; Pomposo, Jose

    2005-07-01

    Electrochromic (EC) materials are used mainly for domotic applications, such as transparency controlled windows or rear-view mirrors in cars. The device construction is a sandwich of electrochemical compounds, which change their optical properties when applying voltage. Although the changes that are used in the applications take place in the visible, there are also changes in the near infrared region. In the last years, some works have proposed their use in fiber optic applications, mainly as optical modulators or VOAs (Variable Optical Attenuator). EC devices have usually slow responses (several seconds) and low transmittance range, specially the organic ones. The slow response is the major drawback for their use as modulators. But in NIR transmittance ranges, there are promising results in materials like ruthenium or PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)). In this work, we will study the possible use in VOAs of new EC devices developed with the minimum number of layers, by their response in telecommunications wavelengths. These devices are manufactured in such a way that the integration in fiber optic devices is an easy task. The minimum number of layers and the easy construction are improvements over the existing possibilities. PEDOT is the EC material on these devices, and different manufacturing ways are compared in order to detect the best possible candidate to use.

  8. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Tunnell, James W.; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    The guest editors introduce a Biomedical Optics Express feature issue that includes contributions from participants at the 2013 conference on Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XIII. PMID:24575348

  9. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery.

    PubMed

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W; Tearney, Guillermo J; Tunnell, James W; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-02-01

    The guest editors introduce a Biomedical Optics Express feature issue that includes contributions from participants at the 2013 conference on Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XIII.

  10. Space Qualification Issues in Acousto-optic and Electro-optic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Taylor, Edward W.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Sue; Soos, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    Satellite and space-based applications of photonic devices and systems require operational reliability in the harsh environment of space for extended periods of time. This in turn requires every component of the systems and their packaging to meet space qualifications. Acousto- and electro-optical devices form the major components of many current space based optical systems, which is the focus of this paper. The major space qualification issues are related to: mechanical stability, thermal effects and operation of the devices in the naturally occurring space radiation environment. This paper will discuss acousto- and electro-optic materials and devices with respect to their stability against mechanical vibrations, thermal cycling in operating and non-operating conditions and device responses to space ionizing and displacement radiation effects. Selection of suitable materials and packaging to meet space qualification criteria will also be discussed. Finally, a general roadmap for production and testing of acousto- and electro-optic devices will be discussed.

  11. Fabrication of micro-optical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Marley, J.; Gal, George; Purdy, Don

    1993-01-01

    We have fabricated a variety of micro-optic components including Fresnel and non-Frensel lenses, off-axis and dispersive lenses with binary stepped contours, and analog contours. Process details for all lens designs fabricated are given including multistep photolithography for binary fabrication and grayscale mask photolithography for analog fabrication. Reactive ion etching and ion beam milling are described for the binary fabrication process, while ion beam milling was used for the analog fabrication process. Examples of micro-optic components fabricated in both Si and CdTe substrates are given.

  12. Optical sensing: recognition elements and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauglitz, Guenter G.

    2012-09-01

    The requirements in chemical and biochemical sensing with respect to recognition elements, avoiding non-specific interactions, and high loading of the surface for detection of low concentrations as well as optimized detection systems are discussed. Among the many detection principles the optical techniques are classified. Methods using labeled compounds like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) and direct optical methods like micro reflectometry or refractometry are discussed in comparison. Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS) is presented as a robust simple method for biosensing. As applications, trace analysis of endocrine disruptors in water, hormones in food, detection of viruses and bacteria in food and clinical diagnostics are discussed.

  13. Optical-Microwave Interactions in Semiconductor Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    frequency response, Liquid phase epitaxial crystal growth, Optical waveguide, Photoconductivity, Traps. 1ABSTRACT (Contirniv an, reverse side If neceaa..3...of the sensitivity for a photoconductor has been 2 given by DiDomenico and Svelto. The change in photocurrent due to optical illumination is qq AT AI...at dc ( 0 tr where 0A is the number of photons /sec (uniform illumination is assumed). The sensitivity can be written as AI oAh = o S° ~ L~ (2) 0oA

  14. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Fruk, Ljiljana; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2015-12-21

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices.

  15. Optoelectronic device simulation: Optical modeling for semiconductor optical amplifiers and solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Xue (Michael)

    2006-07-01

    Recent advances in optoelectronic devices require sophisticated optical simulation and modeling. These tiny semiconductor device structures, such as semiconductor lasers and light emitting diodes (LED), not only need detailed electrical computation, such as band structure, carrier transportation, and electron-hole recombination under different external voltages, but also require comprehensive optical modeling, such as photon generation and propagation. Optical modeling also includes waveguide structure calculations, guided mode and leakage mode identification, as well far-field pattern prediction using optical ray tracing. In modeling semiconductor lasers, light emission and propagation can be treated using the single mode of wave optics, the so-called photon propagation equation coupled with carrier transport equations. These differential equations can be numerically solved using the Finite Difference Method (FDM). In the LED modeling, the main tools are based on optical ray tracing, and photons are treated as light emissions with random directions and polarizations. Optical waveguide theory is used to qualitatively analyze photon emissions inside a LED chip, and helps to design the LED device structure. One important area of semiconductor laser modeling is the optical simulation of the wavelength converter based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA). This wavelength converter is a critical device in optical communication, and it can copy information from one wavelength to anther through cross-gain modulation. Some numerical methods have been developed to model the wavelength conversion. In these methods, solutions are found by solving differential equations in the time domain using FDM. In all previous models, the waveguide internal loss is assumed uniform across the cavity of the SOA, or the gain coefficient is based on the polynomial approximation method, i.e., the gain coefficient is assumed proportional to the difference between the carrier and

  16. Fiber-Optics -- A Sensing Device.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    perturbations in sound, displacement, temperature, pressure, magnetic fields, electric fields, rotation rate, strain, liquid level, and flow. The light...ReflectionllquId crystal ) hi Temperature Phololumutescence (phospher, semiconductor) intensy Spectrum Block body radiation M Polarization Birefringence...29]. The tranduction element consists of a thermochromic solution of a Cobalt salt that varies its optical absorption spectrum with temperature. A

  17. Electro-optic studies of novel organic materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianjun

    1997-11-01

    Specific single crystal organic materials have high potential for use in high speed optical signal processing and various other electro-optic applications. In this project some of the most important organic crystal materials were studied regarding their detailed electro- optic properties and potential device applications. In particular, the electro-optic properties of N-(4- Nitrophenyl)-L-Prolinol (NPP) and 4'-N,N- dimethylamino-4-methylstilbazolium tosylate (DAST) both of which have extremely large second order susceptibilites were studied. The orientation of the thin film crystal with respect to the substrate surface was determined using-X-ray diffraction. The principal axes of the single crystal thin film were determined by polarization transmission microscopy. The elements of the electro-optic coefficient tensor were measured by field induced birefringence measurements. Detailed measurements for NPP thin films with different orientations of the external electric field with respect to the charge transfer axis were carried out at a wavelength of 1064nm. The wavelength dependence of the electro-optic effect for DAST single crystal thin films was measured using a Ti:Sapphire laser. Several device geometries involving organic single crystal thin film materials were studied. A new method for the fabrication of channel waveguides for organic materials was initiated. Channel waveguides for NPP and ABP were obtained using this methods. Optical modulation due to the electro-optic effect based on the organic channel waveguide for NPP single crystal was demonstrated. The electro-optic modulation using NPP single crystals thin film in a Fabry-Perot cavity was measured. A device using a optical fiber half coupler and organic electro-optic thin film material was constructed, and it has potential applications in optical signal processing.

  18. Are bioresorbable polylactate devices comparable to titanium devices for stabilizing Le Fort I advancement?

    PubMed

    Blakey, G H; Rossouw, E; Turvey, T A; Phillips, C; Proffit, W R; White, R P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether skeletal and dental outcomes following Le Fort I surgery differed when stabilization was performed with polylactate bioresorbable devices or titanium devices. Fifty-seven patients with preoperative records and at least 1 year postoperative records were identified and grouped according to the stabilization method. All cephalometric X-rays were traced and digitized by a single operator. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the postsurgical change between the two stabilization methods. Twenty-seven patients received bioresorbable devices (group R), while 30 received titanium devices (group M). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to gender, race/ethnicity, age, or dental and skeletal movements during surgery. Subtle postsurgical differences were noted, but were not statistically significant. Stabilization of Le Fort I advancement with polylactate bioresorbable and titanium devices produced similar clinical outcomes at 1 year following surgery.

  19. Exploring Novel Crystals and Designs for Acousto-Optic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Jonathan B.

    Acousto-optic devices are a versatile technology that are driven electronically to precisely and rapidly control the intensity, frequency, and propagation direction of a laser beam. Applications include acousto-optic scanners, filters, mode lockers, and modulators. Despite the popularity of acousto-optic devices, there currently is no UV transparent device that can satisfy the requirements of the atomic clock and quantum computing communities. In this thesis, I describe my experimental efforts for discovering a new UV transparent, acousto-optic crystal that can meet the experimental requirements. I also present my graphical representations for locating practical and efficient acousto-optic designs in a given medium. The first part of this thesis describes how to measure the elastic-stiffness and photoelastic coefficients of a given crystal. The elastic-stiffness coefficients are essential for designing acousto-optic devices because they determine the velocity, diffraction, and polarization of acoustic waves in a given medium. I used both resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and a modified version of Schaefer-Bergman diffraction to measure elastic coefficients. I discuss in detail the strengths, differences, and similarities of the two experiments. The photoelastic coefficients are necessary for determining the diffraction efficiency of a given acousto-optic geometry. Similar to the elastic coefficients, I employ a modified version of the Schaefer-Bergmann experiment to measure the photoelastic coefficients. I corroborate the measured results with the well established Dixon experiment. The second part of this thesis describes four different graphical representations that help locate practical and efficient acousto-optic designs. I describe in detail each algorithm and how to interpret the calculated results. Several examples are provided for commonly used acosuto-optic materials. The thesis concludes by describing the design and performance of an acousto-optic frequency

  20. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hartog, P.D.; Grimmer, J.; Xu, S.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Wiemerslage, G.

    1997-08-01

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured.

  1. Advanced Sensor Fish Device for ImprovedTurbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    2009-09-14

    Juvenile salmon (smolts) passing through hydroelectric turbines are subjected to environmental conditions that can potentially kill or injure them. Many turbines are reaching the end of their operational life expectancies and will be replaced with new turbines that incorporate advanced “fish friendly” designs devised to prevent injury and death to fish. To design a fish friendly turbine, it is first necessary to define the current conditions fish encounter. One such device used by biologists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was the sensor fish device to collect data that measures the forces fish experience during passage through hydroelectric projects.

  2. Progress towards interaction-free all-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Kowligy, Abijith S.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2014-06-01

    We present an all-optical control device in which coupling a weak control optical field into a high-Q lithium niobate whispering-gallery-mode microcavity decouples it from a signal field due to nonlinear optical interactions. This results in switching and modulation of the signal with low-power control pulses. In the quantum limit, the underlying nonlinear-optical process corresponds to the quantum Zeno blockade. Its "interaction-free" nature effectively alleviates loss and decoherence for the signal waves. This work therefore presents experimental progress towards acquiring large phase shifts with few photons or even at the single-photon level.

  3. Photonic materials, structures and devices for Reststrahlen optics.

    PubMed

    Feng, K; Streyer, W; Zhong, Y; Hoffman, A J; Wasserman, D

    2015-11-30

    We present a review of existing and potential next-generation far-infrared (20-60 μm) optical materials and devices. The far-infrared is currently one of the few remaining frontiers on the optical spectrum, a space underdeveloped and lacking in many of the optical and optoelectronic materials and devices taken for granted in other, more technologically mature wavelength ranges. The challenges associated with developing optical materials, structures, and devices at these wavelengths are in part a result of the strong phonon absorption in the Reststrahlen bands of III-V semiconductors that collectively span the far-infrared. More than just an underexplored spectral band, the far-IR may also be of potential importance for a range of sensing applications in astrochemistry, biology, and industrial and geological processes. Additionally, with a suitable far-IR optical infrastructure, it is conceivable that even more applications could emerge. In this review, we will present recent progress on far-infrared materials and phenomena such as phononic surface modes, engineered composite materials, and optoelectronic devices that have the potential to serve as the next generation of components in a far-infrared optical tool-kit.

  4. Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

    2013-11-26

    A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

  5. Design, fabrication and analysis of integrated optical waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Yuri

    Throughout the present dissertation, the main effort has been to develop the set of design rules for optical integrated circuits (OIC). At the present time, when planar optical integrated circuits seem to be the leading technology, and industry is heading towards much higher levels of integration, such design rules become necessary. It is known that analysis of light propagation in rectangular waveguides can not be carried out exactly. Various approximations become necessary, and their validity is discussed in this text. Various methods are used in the text for calculating the same problems, and results are compared. A few new concepts have been suggested to avoid approximations used elsewhere. The second part of this dissertation is directed to the development of a new technique for the fabrication of optical integrated circuits inside optical glass. This technique is based on the use of ultrafast laser pulses to alter the properties of glasses. Using this method we demonstrated the possibility of changing the refractive index of various passive and active optical glasses as well as ablating the material on the surface in a controlled fashion. A number of optical waveguide devices (e.g. waveguides, directional couplers, diffraction gratings, fiber Bragg gratings, V-grooves in dual-clad optical fibers, optical waveguide amplifiers) were fabricated and tested. Testing included measurements of loss/throughput, near-field mode profiles, efficiency and thermal stability. All of the experimental setup and test results are reported in the dissertation. We also demonstrated the possibility of using this technique to fabricate future bio-optical devices that will incorporate an OIC and a microfluidic circuit on a single substrate. Our results are expected to serve as a guide for the design and fabrication of a new generation of integrated optical and bio-optical devices.

  6. Mandibular Advancing Positive Pressure Apnea Remediation Device (MAPPARD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    wiki/Starling_resistor Lankford, D. A., Proctor, C. D., & Richard, R. (2005). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) changes in bariatric surgery ...Mandibular Advancing Device (after Schlaflabor-Saletu, n.d.). ............ 8  Figure 4.  Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (before and after surgery ) (from...Lastly, when behavioral and medical techniques have been exhausted the last OSA reduction technique is surgery . Within the last 25 years, the

  7. Design and Performance Evaluation of Sensors and Actuators for Advanced Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art commercial sensors and actuators do not meet many of NASA s next generation spacecraft and instrument needs. Nor do they satisfy the DoD needs for satellite missions, especially micro/nano satellite missions. In an effort to develop advanced optical devices and instruments that meet mission requirements, NASA Langley recently completed construction of a new cleanroom housing equipment capable of fabricating high performance active optic and adaptive optic technologies including deformable mirrors, reconfigurable lenses (both refractive and diffractive), spectrometers, spectro-polarimeters, tunable filters and many other active optic devices. In addition to performance, these advanced optic technologies offer advantages in speed, size, weight, power consumption, and radiation tolerance. The active optic devices described in this paper rely on birefringent liquid crystal materials to alter either the phase or the polarization of the incoming light. Design considerations and performance evaluation results for various NASA applications are presented. Applications presented will include large space telescopes, optical communications, spacecraft windows, coronagraphs, and star trackers. Keywords: Photonics, Adaptive Optics, Tunable Filters, MEMs., MOEMs, Coronagraph, Star Tracker

  8. Plasma channel optical-pumping device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, O.P.

    1981-07-17

    A device and method are described for optically pumping a gaseous laser using blackbody radiation produced by a plasma channel which is formed from an electrical discharge between two electrodes spaced at opposite longitudinal ends of the laser. A preionization device which can comprise a laser or electron beam accelerator produces a preionization beam which is sufficient to cause an elctrical discharge between the electrodes to initiate the plasma channel along the preionization path. The optical pumping energy is supplied by a high voltage power supply rather than by the preionization beam. High output optical intensities are produced by the laser due to the high temperature black-body radiation produced by the plasma channel, in the same manner as an exploding wire type laser. However, unlike the exploding wire type laser, the disclosed invention can be operated in a repetitive manner by utilizing a repetitive pulsed preionization device.

  9. Performance capabilities of fiber optic components and photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Asu R.

    2001-09-01

    This paper reveals performance capabilities of critical fiber optic components and photonic devices, which have potential applications in industrial, commercial and military systems and equipment. These devices are widely used in battlefield, space surveillance, medical diagnosis, crime fighting, and detection of terrorist activities. Performance capabilities of fiber optic components for possible applications in WDM and DWDM systems are summarized. Photonic devices and sensor for forward battlefield applications are identified with emphasis on performance and reliability. Performance parameters of Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, Erbium doped waveguide amplifiers, and optical hybrid amplifiers comprising of EDFAs and Raman amplifiers are discussed withe emphasis on bandwidth, gain-flatness, data handling capability, channel capacity and cost-effectiveness.

  10. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Savoy, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  12. Nanophotonic Devices in Silicon for Nonlinear Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-15

    Leuthold, W. Freude , J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology...2010. [24] L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li,R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos,W. Freude , J. Leuthold, A. Barklund, R...T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude , and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides

  13. Implantable optical-electrode device for stimulation of spinal motoneurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, M. V.; Erofeev, A. I.; Zakharova, O. A.; Pyatyshev, E. N.; Kazakin, A. N.; Vlasova, O. L.

    2016-08-01

    Recent years, optogenetic method of scientific research has proved its effectiveness in the nerve cell stimulation tasks. In our article we demonstrate an implanted device for the spinal optogenetic motoneurons activation. This work is carried out in the Laboratory of Molecular Neurodegeneration of the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, together with Nano and Microsystem Technology Laboratory. The work of the developed device is based on the principle of combining fiber optic light stimulation of genetically modified cells with the microelectrode multichannel recording of neurons biopotentials. The paper presents a part of the electrode implant manufacturing technique, combined with the optical waveguide of ThorLabs (USA).

  14. New materials technology for latching electro-optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Patrick J.; Mastrangelo, John C.; Chen, Shaw H.

    1999-04-01

    This paper presents the current status of a new class of liquid crystal material being developed for latching electrooptic applications. This new material has the unique property of being electrooptic and fully latching. That is, in one state, the material has the properties of a conventional liquid crystal, capable of being aligned with either an electric or magnetic field; in its other state, it is an optical quality solid that maintains the molecular alignment set while in the fluid state. Experiments have shown that current materials can be switched on the order of milliseconds, as is the case with conventional nematic liquid crystals. In the solid state, the electric field can be removed with no change to the previously set optical properties because the molecular alignment is frozen in place, which should last for an extended period of time. In addition, the material exhibits broad temperature stability in the solid state, enabling devices to be developed that operate from cryogenic temperatures to 80 degrees C without the use of a temperature controller. This new material is ideally suited for applications where the size and mechanical robustness of an electrooptic device is desired, along with the latching capability of optomechanical devices. This materials technology alone will currently not meet high-speed switch requirements. However, this technology can be integrated with other state-of-the-art high-speed materials to provide a high-speed latching device. Devices currently under investigation using this materials include optical switches, optical attenuators and tunable filters.

  15. Recent developments in optical detection technologies in lab-on-a-chip devices for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos; Dong, Tao; Hanke, Ulrik; Hoivik, Nils

    2014-08-21

    The field of microfluidics has yet to develop practical devices that provide real clinical value. One of the main reasons for this is the difficulty in realizing low-cost, sensitive, reproducible, and portable analyte detection microfluidic systems. Previous research has addressed two main approaches for the detection technologies in lab-on-a-chip devices: (a) study of the compatibility of conventional instrumentation with microfluidic structures, and (b) integration of innovative sensors contained within the microfluidic system. Despite the recent advances in electrochemical and mechanical based sensors, their drawbacks pose important challenges to their application in disposable microfluidic devices. Instead, optical detection remains an attractive solution for lab-on-a-chip devices, because of the ubiquity of the optical methods in the laboratory. Besides, robust and cost-effective devices for use in the field can be realized by integrating proper optical detection technologies on chips. This review examines the recent developments in detection technologies applied to microfluidic biosensors, especially addressing several optical methods, including fluorescence, chemiluminescence, absorbance and surface plasmon resonance.

  16. Recent Developments in Optical Detection Technologies in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices for Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos; Dong, Tao; Hanke, Ulrik; Hoivik, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The field of microfluidics has yet to develop practical devices that provide real clinical value. One of the main reasons for this is the difficulty in realizing low-cost, sensitive, reproducible, and portable analyte detection microfluidic systems. Previous research has addressed two main approaches for the detection technologies in lab-on-a-chip devices: (a) study of the compatibility of conventional instrumentation with microfluidic structures, and (b) integration of innovative sensors contained within the microfluidic system. Despite the recent advances in electrochemical and mechanical based sensors, their drawbacks pose important challenges to their application in disposable microfluidic devices. Instead, optical detection remains an attractive solution for lab-on-a-chip devices, because of the ubiquity of the optical methods in the laboratory. Besides, robust and cost-effective devices for use in the field can be realized by integrating proper optical detection technologies on chips. This review examines the recent developments in detection technologies applied to microfluidic biosensors, especially addressing several optical methods, including fluorescence, chemiluminescence, absorbance and surface plasmon resonance. PMID:25196161

  17. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P.; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes. PMID:26217054

  18. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-08-28

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes.

  19. Compressive Optical Imaging Systems - Theory, Devices and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Pitsianis, J. R Guo, A. Portnoy, and M. Fiddy, "Compressive optical montage photography ," in SPIE: Photonic Devices and Algorithms for Computing VII, vol...Susstrunk, "Virtual sensor design," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, vol. 5301, pp. 408...pp. 10-12, 1996. (57] D. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics. Academic Press, 1987. [58] S. S. Chen, D. L. Donoho, and M. A. Saunders, "Atomic

  20. Visual fatigue induced by optical misalignment in binocular devices: application to night vision binocular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Battista, Josephine; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Gibbs, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The additional and perhaps unnatural eye-movements required to fuse misaligned binocular images can lead to visual fatigue and decreased task performance. The eyes have some tolerance to optical misalignment. However, a survey of the scientific literature reveals a wide range of recommended tolerances but offers little supporting experimental evidence. Most experimental studies are based on small numbers of participants exposed to brief periods of optical misalignment. Therefore, these published tolerance limits might have limited relevance for long-duration exposure to misaligned binocular devices. Prolonged use of binocular devices may cause visual fatigue irrespective of binocular alignment especially for complex tasks such as night vision flying. This study attempts to identify measures most sensitive to misalignment in order to establish relevant tolerance limits for in-service binocular night vision devices. Firstly, we developed a rugged and deployable test bench that can measure binocular alignment with a reproducibility error of less than 1 arcmin. The bench was used to identify and investigate major factors affecting the stability of the optical misalignment over time. Our results indicated that the optical misalignment of a given device changed over time as a function of the in-service usage and thermal history of the device. Secondly, participants were exposed to experimentally controlled levels of optical misalignment typical of those measured on in-service binocular night vision devices. The visual fatigue of each participant was assessed via a set of oculomotor parameters. The oculomotor parameters showing high sensitivity to optical misalignment were compared for subjects exposed to extended periods of misalignment in a baseline reading task and a task using an actual night vision device.

  1. Impact of optical antennas on active optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2014-10-07

    Remarkable progress has been made in the fabrication and characterization of optical antennas that are integrated with optoelectronic devices. Herein, we describe the fundamental reasons for and experimental evidence of the dramatic improvements that can be achieved by enhancing the light-matter interaction via an optical antenna in both photon-emitting and -detecting devices. In addition, integration of optical antennas with optoelectronic devices can lead to the realization of highly compact multifunctional platforms for future integrated photonics, such as low-cost lab-on-chip systems. In this review paper, we further focus on the effect of optical antennas on the detectivity of infrared photodetectors. One particular finding is that the antenna can have a dual effect on the specific detectivity, while it can elevate light absorption efficiency of sub-wavelength detectors, it can potentially increase the noise of the detectors due to the enhanced spontaneous emission rate. In particular, we predict that the detectivity of interband photon detectors can be negatively affected by the presence of optical antennas across a wide wavelength region covering visible to long wavelength infrared bands. In contrast, the detectivity of intersubband detectors could be generally improved with a properly designed optical antenna.

  2. Integration of isothermal amplification methods in microfluidic devices: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2017-04-15

    The integration of nucleic acids detection assays in microfluidic devices represents a highly promising approach for the development of convenient, cheap and efficient diagnostic tools for clinical, food safety and environmental monitoring applications. Such tools are expected to operate at the point-of-care and in resource-limited settings. The amplification of the target nucleic acid sequence represents a key step for the development of sensitive detection protocols. The integration in microfluidic devices of the most popular technology for nucleic acids amplifications, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is significantly limited by the thermal cycling needed to obtain the target sequence amplification. This review provides an overview of recent advances in integration of isothermal amplification methods in microfluidic devices. Isothermal methods, that operate at constant temperature, have emerged as promising alternative to PCR and greatly simplify the implementation of amplification methods in point-of-care diagnostic devices and devices to be used in resource-limited settings. Possibilities offered by isothermal methods for digital droplet amplification are discussed.

  3. Fabrication of optically reflecting ohmic contacts for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of time. This method produces a thin epitaxial alloy layer between the semiconductor substrate and the metal layer when a crystalline substrate is used. The alloy layer provides both a low-resistivity ohmic contact and high optical reflectance.

  4. Fabrication of optically reflecting ohmic contacts for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-07-04

    A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of time. This method produces a thin epitaxial alloy layer between the semiconductor substrate and the metal layer when a crystalline substrate is used. The alloy layer provides both a low-resistivity ohmic contact and high optical reflectance. 5 figs.

  5. Optical device with conical input and output prism faces

    DOEpatents

    Brunsden, Barry S.

    1981-01-01

    A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

  6. Absorbance Based Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensors and Sensing Devices

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Martina; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for in situ monitoring of health, environment and security has created a need for reliable, miniaturised sensing devices. To achieve this, appropriate analytical devices are required that possess operating characteristics of reliability, low power consumption, low cost, autonomous operation capability and compatibility with wireless communications systems. The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources is one strategy, which has been successfully applied in chemical sensing. This paper summarises the development and advancement of LED based chemical sensors and sensing devices in terms of their configuration and application, with the focus on transmittance and reflectance absorptiometric measurements. PMID:27879829

  7. Compensated vibrating optical fiber pressure measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Goff, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A microbending optical fiber is attached under tension to a diaphragm to se a differential pressure applied across the diaphragm which it causes it to deflect. The fiber is attached to the diaphragm so that one portion of the fiber, attached to a central portion of the diaphragm, undergoes a change in tension; proportional to the differential pressure applied to the diaphragm while a second portion attached at the periphery of the diaphragm remains at a reference tension. Both portions of the fiber are caused to vibrate at their natural frequencies. Light transmitted through the fiber is attenuated by both portions of the tensioned sections of the fiber by an amount which increases with the curvature of fiber bending so that the light signal is modulated by both portions of the fiber at separate frequencies. The modulated light signal is transduced into a electrical signal. The separate modulation signals are detected to generate separate signals having frequencies corresponding to the reference and measuring vibrating sections of the continuous fiber, respectively. A signal proportional to the difference between these signals is generated which is indicative of the measured pressure differential across the diaphragm. The reference portion of the fiber is used to compensate the pressure signal for zero and span changes resulting from ambient temperature and humidity effects upon the fiber and the transducer fixture.

  8. Silicon high speed modulator for advanced modulation: device structures and exemplary modulator performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milivojevic, Biljana; Wiese, Stefan; Whiteaway, James; Raabe, Christian; Shastri, Anujit; Webster, Mark; Metz, Peter; Sunder, Sanjay; Chattin, Bill; Anderson, Sean P.; Dama, Bipin; Shastri, Kal

    2014-03-01

    Fiber optics is well established today due to the high capacity and speed, unrivaled flexibility and quality of service. However, state of the art optical elements and components are hardly scalable in terms of cost and size required to achieve competitive port density and cost per bit. Next-generation high-speed coherent optical communication systems targeting a data rate of 100-Gb/s and beyond goes along with innovations in component and subsystem areas. Consequently, by leveraging the advanced silicon micro and nano-fabrication technologies, significant progress in developing CMOS platform-based silicon photonic devices has been made all over the world. These achievements include the demonstration of high-speed IQ modulators, which are important building blocks in coherent optical communication systems. In this paper, we demonstrate silicon photonic QPSK modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor structure, address different modulator configuration structures and report our progress and research associated with highspeed advanced optical modulation in silicon photonics

  9. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Recent advances in X-ray refractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, V. V.; Shabel'nikov, L. G.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray refractive optics has made rapid strides to a large degree due to the work of Russian scientists, and has now become one of the most rapidly advancing areas in modern physical optics. This review outlines the results of investigation of refractive devices and analysis of their properties. The conception of planar lenses made of silicon and other materials is set forth. We discuss the applications of refractive lenses to the transformation of X-ray images, photonic crystal research, and the development of focusing devices in high-energy X-ray telescopes.

  10. Safety analysis of optically ignited explosive and pyrotechnic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Holswade, S.

    1994-05-01

    The future of optical ordnance depends on the acceptance, validation and verification of the stated safety enhancement claims of optical ordnance over existing electrical explosive devices (EED`s). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance, with the primary motivation of this effort being the enhancement of explosive safety by specifically reducing the potential of premature detonation that can occur with low energy electrically ignited explosive devices. By using semiconductor laser diodes for igniting these devices, safety improvements can be made without being detrimental to current system concerns since the inputs required for these devices are similar to electrical systems. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) of the energetic material provides the opportunity to remove the bridgewire and electrically conductive pins from the charge cavity, creating a Faraday cage and thus isolating the explosive or pyrotechnic materials from stray electrical ignition sources. Recent results from our continued study of safety enhancements are presented. The areas of investigation which are presented include: (1) unintended optical source analysis, specifically lightning insensitivity, (2) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and electrostatic discharge (ESD) insensitivity analysis, and (3) powder safety.

  11. Device For Trapping Laser Pulses In An Optical Delay Line

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U. L.; Bullock, Donald L.

    1997-12-23

    A device for maintaining a high-energy laser pulse within a recirculating optical delay line for a period time to optimize the interaction of the pulse with an electron beam pulse train comprising closely spaced electron micropulses. The delay line allows a single optical pulse to interact with many of the electron micropulses in a single electron beam macropulse in sequence and for the introduction of additional optical pulses to interact with the micropulses of additional electron beam macropulses. The device comprises a polarization-sensitive beam splitter for admitting an optical pulse to and ejecting it from the delay line according to its polarization state, a Pockels cell to control the polarization of the pulse within the delay line for the purpose of maintaining it within the delay line or ejecting it from the delay line, a pair of focusing mirrors positioned so that a collimated incoming optical pulse is focused by one of them to a focal point where the pulse interacts with the electron beam and then afterwards the pulse is recollimated by the second focusing mirror, and a timing device which synchronizes the introduction of the laser pulse into the optical delay line with the arrival of the electron macropulse at the delay line to ensure the interaction of the laser pulse with a prescribed number of electron micropulses in sequence. In a first embodiment of the invention, the principal optical elements are mounted with their axes collinear. In a second embodiment, all principal optical elements are mounted in the configuration of a ring.

  12. Enhanced photocoagulation with catheter-based diffusing optical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Jungwhan

    2012-11-01

    A novel balloon catheter-based diffusing optical device was designed and evaluated to assist in treating excessive menstrual bleeding. A synthetic fused-silica fiber was micro-machined precisely to create scattering segments on a 25 mm long fiber tip for uniform light distribution. A visible wavelength (λ=532 nm) was used to specifically target the endometrium due to the high vascularity of the uterine wall. Optical simulation presented 30% wider distribution of photons along with approximately 40% higher irradiance induced by addition of a glass cap to the diffuser tip. Incorporation of the optical diffuser with a polyurethane balloon catheter considerably enhanced coagulation depth and area (i.e., 3.5 mm and 18.9 cm2 at 1 min irradiation) in tissue in vitro. The prototype device demonstrated the coagulation necrosis of 2.8±1.2 mm (n=18) and no thermal damage to myometrium in in vivo caprine models. A prototype 5 cm long balloon catheter-assisted optical diffuser was also evaluated with a cadaveric human uterus to confirm the coagulative response of the uterine tissue as well as to identify the further design improvement and clinical applicability. The proposed catheter-based diffusing optical device can be a feasible therapeutic tool to photocoagulate endometrial cell layers in an efficient and safe manner.

  13. Lithographically defined tapered waveguides for transformation optics device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Todd; Ermer, Kurt; Piazza, Alex; Schaefer, Dave; Smolyaninova, Vera; Smolyaninov, Igor

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in metamaterials and transformation optics (TO) give rise to such fascinating devices as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaks, etc., which are typically achieved with metamaterials. Realization of these devices using electromagnetic metamaterials would require sophisticated nanofabrication techniques. Recently we have demonstrated that the same effect may be achieved by much simpler means. By tapering a waveguide, one can literally ``bend'' optical space and achieve the same result. Our approach leads to much simpler designs, which require conventional lithographic techniques and readily available dielectric materials. Here we report fabrication of low cost TO devices, such as analogues of metamaterial lenses and invisibility cloaks. Their broadband properties will be demonstrated and performance for light of different polarization will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF grants DMR-0348939 and DMR-110476.

  14. Nanopatterning by laser interference lithography: applications to optical devices.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Seong-Il; Park, Bang Ju; Ma, Zhenqiang; Choi, Jinnil; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2014-02-01

    A systematic review, covering fabrication of nanoscale patterns by laser interference lithography (LIL) and their applications for optical devices is provided. LIL is a patterning method. It is a simple, quick process over a large area without using a mask. LIL is a powerful technique for the definition of large-area, nanometer-scale, periodically patterned structures. Patterns are recorded in a light-sensitive medium that responds nonlinearly to the intensity distribution associated with the interference of two or more coherent beams of light. The photoresist patterns produced with LIL are the platform for further fabrication of nanostructures and growth of functional materials used as the building blocks for devices. Demonstration of optical and photonic devices by LIL is reviewed such as directed nanophotonics and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or large area membrane reflectors and anti-reflectors. Perspective on future directions for LIL and emerging applications in other fields are presented.

  15. TID Simulation of Advanced CMOS Devices for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects caused by accumulation of charges at silicon dioxide, substrate/silicon dioxide interface, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) for scaled CMOS bulk devices as well as at Buried Oxide (BOX) layer in devices based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology to be operated in space radiation environment. The radiation induced leakage current and corresponding density/concentration electrons in leakage current path was presented/depicted for 180nm, 130nm and 65nm NMOS, PMOS transistors based on CMOS bulk as well as SOI process technologies on-board LEO and GEO satellites. On the basis of simulation results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to 500 Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.

  16. Advanced Measurement Devices for the Microgravity Electromagnetic Levitation Facility EML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillo, Jurgen; Fritze, Holger; Lohofer, Georg; Schulz, Michal; Stenzel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on two advanced measurement devices for the microgravity electromagnetic levitation facility (EML), which is currently under construction for the use onboard the "International Space Station (ISS)": the "Sample Coupling Electronics (SCE)" and the "Oxygen Sensing and Control Unit (OSC)". The SCE measures by a contactless, inductive method the electrical resistivity and the diameter of a spherical levitated metallic droplet by evaluating the voltage and electrical current applied to the levitation coil. The necessity of the OSC comes from the insight that properties like surface tension or, eventually, viscosity cannot seriously be determined by the oscillating drop method in the EML facility without knowing the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere. In the following both measurement devices are explained and laboratory test results are presented.

  17. Tunable Optical True-Time Delay Devices Would Exploit EIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; DiDomenico, Leo; Lee, Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Tunable optical true-time delay devices that would exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been proposed. Relative to prior true-time delay devices (for example, devices based on ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials) and electronically controlled phase shifters, the proposed devices would offer much greater bandwidths. In a typical envisioned application, an optical pulse would be modulated with an ultra-wideband radio-frequency (RF) signal that would convey the information that one seeks to communicate, and it would be required to couple differently delayed replicas of the RF signal to the radiating elements of a phased-array antenna. One or more of the proposed devices would be used to impose the delays and/or generate the delayed replicas of the RF-modulated optical pulse. The beam radiated or received by the antenna would be steered by use of a microprocessor-based control system that would adjust operational parameters of the devices to tune the delays to the required values. EIT is a nonlinear quantum optical interference effect that enables the propagation of light through an initially opaque medium. A suitable medium must have, among other properties, three quantum states (see Figure 1): an excited state (state 3), an upper ground state (state 2), and a lower ground state (state 1). These three states must form a closed system that exhibits no decays to other states in the presence of either or both of two laser beams: (1) a probe beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 1; and (2) a coupling beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 2. The probe beam is the one that is pulsed and modulated with an RF signal.

  18. Laser chemical etching of waveguides and quasi-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet D'Aubigny, Christian Yann Pierre

    2003-11-01

    The terahertz (THz) frequency domain, located at the frontier of radio and light, is the last unexplored region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As technology becomes available, THz systems are finding applications to fields ranging all the way from astronomical and atmospheric remote sensing to space telecommunications, medical imaging, and security. In Astronomy the THz and far infrared (IR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (λ = 300 to 10 μm) may hold the answers to countless questions regarding the origin and evolution of the Universe, galaxy, star and planet formation. Over the past decade, advances in telescope and detector technology have for the first time made this regime available to astronomers. Near THz frequencies, metallic hollow waveguide structures become so small, (typically much less than a millimeter), that conventional machining becomes extremely difficult, and in many cases, nearly impossible. Laser induced, micro-chemical etching is a promising new technology that can be used to fabricate three dimensional structures many millimeters across with micrometer accuracy. Laser micromachining of silicon possesses a significant edge over more conventional techniques. It does not require the use of masks and is not confined to crystal planes. A non-contact process, it eliminates tool wear and vibration problems associated with classical milling machines. At the University of Arizona we have constructed the first such laser micromachining system optimized for the fabrication of THz and far IR waveguide and quasi-optical components. The system can machine structures up to 50 mm in diameter, down to a few microns accuracy in a few minutes and with a remarkable surface finish. A variety of THz devices have been fabricated using this technique, their design, fabrication, assembly and theoretical performance is described in the chapters that follow.

  19. 1-D ELECTRO-OPTIC BEAM STEERING DEVICE.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi Leung

    2011-06-05

    In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of a 1D beam steering device based on planar electro-optic thermal-plastic prisms and a collimator lens array. With the elimination of moving parts, the proposed device is able to overcome the mechanical limitations of present scanning devices, such as fatigue and low operating frequency, while maintaining a small system footprint (~0.5mm×0.5mm). From experimental data, our prototype device is able to achieve a maximum deflection angle of 5.6° for a single stage prism design and 29.2° for a cascaded three prisms stage design. The lens array shows a 4µm collimated beam diameter.

  20. 1-D ELECTRO-OPTIC BEAM STEERING DEVICE

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi Leung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of a 1D beam steering device based on planar electro-optic thermal-plastic prisms and a collimator lens array. With the elimination of moving parts, the proposed device is able to overcome the mechanical limitations of present scanning devices, such as fatigue and low operating frequency, while maintaining a small system footprint (~0.5mm×0.5mm). From experimental data, our prototype device is able to achieve a maximum deflection angle of 5.6° for a single stage prism design and 29.2° for a cascaded three prisms stage design. The lens array shows a 4µm collimated beam diameter. PMID:22199458

  1. Nanoscale Copper and Copper Compounds for Advanced Device Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lih-Juann

    2016-12-01

    Copper has been in use for at least 10,000 years. Copper alloys, such as bronze and brass, have played important roles in advancing civilization in human history. Bronze artifacts date at least 6500 years. On the other hand, discovery of intriguing properties and new applications in contemporary technology for copper and its compounds, particularly on nanoscale, have continued. In this paper, examples for the applications of Cu and Cu alloys for advanced device applications will be given on Cu metallization in microelectronics devices, Cu nanobats as field emitters, Cu2S nanowire array as high-rate capability and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, Cu-Te nanostructures for field-effect transistor, Cu3Si nanowires as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers, single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high-efficiency solar cell, multilevel Cu2S resistive memory, superlattice Cu2S-Ag2S heterojunction diodes, and facet-dependent Cu2O diode.

  2. [Device-aided therapies in advanced Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, A A

    2016-01-01

    Advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a consequence of the severe neurodegenerative process and are characterized by the development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, aggravation of non-motor symptoms. Treatment with peroral and transdermal drugs can't provide an adequate control of PD symptoms and quality-of-life of the patients at this stage of disease. Currently, three device-aided therapies: deep brain stimulation (DBS), intrajejunal infusion of duodopa, subcutaneous infusion of apomorphine can be used in treatment of patients with advanced stages of PD. Timely administration of device-aided therapies and right choice of the method determine, to a large extent, the efficacy and safety of their use. Despite the high efficacy of all three methods with respect to the fluctuation of separate symptoms, each method has its own peculiarities. The authors reviewed the data on the expediency of using each method according to the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms, patient's age, PD duration, concomitant pathology and social support of the patients.

  3. Fiber optic device for sensing the presence of a gas

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Bechinger, C.S.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-01-13

    A fiber-optic device for sensing the presence of a gas in an environment is provided. The device comprises a light source for directing a light beam to a layer system having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface. The first surface is exposable to the light beam and the second surface is exposable to the environment. A first light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence free from optical wave guide resonance phenomenon and the second light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence enabling an optical wave guide resonance phenomenon. The layer system is selected to reversibly react with the gas to be detected. The reaction between the gas and the material changes the material`s optical properties and the wavelength at which the optical wave guide resonance occurs. Furthermore, a mechanism for measuring the intensity of the reflected first light portion relative to the reflected second light portion is provided with the ratio of the first and second light portions indicating the concentration of the gas presence in the environment. 5 figs.

  4. Fiber optic device for sensing the presence of a gas

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Bechinger, Clemens S.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    A fiber-optic device for sensing the presence of a gas in an environment is provided. The device comprises a light source for directing a light beam to a layer system having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface. The first surface is exposable to the light beam and the second surface is exposable to the environment. A first light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence free from optical wave guide resonance phenomenon and the second light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence enabling an optical wave guide resonance phenomenon. The layer system is selected to reversibly react with the gas to be detected. The reaction between the gas and the material changes the material's optical properties and the wavelength at which the optical wave guide resonance occurs. Furthermore, a mechanism for measuring the intensity of the reflected first light portion relative to the reflected second light portion is provided with the ratio of the first and second light portions indicating the concentration of the gas presence in the environment.

  5. Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymers for Light Emitting Devices

    PubMed Central

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Alam, Javed; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy; Raja, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review. PMID:21673938

  6. Fiber-Optic Photoelastic Device Senses Pressure Of Hot Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redner, Alex S.; Wesson, L. N.

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-optic/photoelastic device measures gas pressures up to 600 psi at operating temperatures as high as 1,100 degrees C. Pressure on fused-silica sensing element gives rise to birefringence via photoelastic effect. Polarization of light changed by birefringence; change in polarization measured and used to infer pressure causing it. Device prototype of gas-pressure sensor for aircraft engine. Mounted in engine at or near desired measurement point, where it responds to both time-varying and steady components of pressure.

  7. Digital polarization holography advancing geometrical phase optics.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Luciano; Roberts, David E; Liao, Zhi; Nersisyan, Sarik; Uskova, Olena; Wickboldt, Lloyd; Tabiryan, Nelson; Steeves, Diane M; Kimball, Brian R

    2016-08-08

    Geometrical phase or the fourth generation (4G) optics enables realization of optical components (lenses, prisms, gratings, spiral phase plates, etc.) by patterning the optical axis orientation in the plane of thin anisotropic films. Such components exhibit near 100% diffraction efficiency over a broadband of wavelengths. The films are obtained by coating liquid crystalline (LC) materials over substrates with patterned alignment conditions. Photo-anisotropic materials are used for producing desired alignment conditions at the substrate surface. We present and discuss here an opportunity of producing the widest variety of "free-form" 4G optical components with arbitrary spatial patterns of the optical anisotropy axis orientation with the aid of a digital spatial light polarization converter (DSLPC). The DSLPC is based on a reflective, high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) combined with an "ad hoc" optical setup. The most attractive feature of the use of a DSLPC for photoalignment of nanometer thin photo-anisotropic coatings is that the orientation of the alignment layer, and therefore of the fabricated LC or LC polymer (LCP) components can be specified on a pixel-by-pixel basis with high spatial resolution. By varying the optical magnification or de-magnification the spatial resolution of the photoaligned layer can be adjusted to an optimum for each application. With a simple "click" it is possible to record different optical components as well as arbitrary patterns ranging from lenses to invisible labels and other transparent labels that reveal different images depending on the side from which they are viewed.

  8. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  9. Characterization of organic and inorganic optoelectronic semiconductor devices using advanced spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Raoul

    In this thesis, advanced spectroscopy methods are discussed and applied to gain understanding of the physical properties of organic conjugated molecules, II-VI thin film semiconductors, and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL). Experiments include single photon and two-photon excitation with lasers, with subsequent measurements of the absorption and photoluminescence, as well as photocurrent measurements using tungsten and xenon lamps, measuring the direct current and the alternating current of the devices. The materials are investigated in dissolved form (conjugated polymers), thin films (polymers, II-VI semiconductors), and complex layer structures (hybrid device, VCSEL). The experiments are analyzed and interpreted by newly developed or applied theories for two-photon saturation processes in semiconductors, bandgap shrinkage due to optically induced electron hole pairs, and the principle of detailed balance to describe the photoluminescence in thin film cadmium sulfide.

  10. Modeling of Optical Aberration Correction using a Liquid Crystal Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xinghua, Wang; Bin, Wang; McManamon, Paul F.; Pouch, John J.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    Gruneisen (sup 1-3), has shown that small, light weight, liquid crystal based devices can correct for the optical distortion caused by an imperfect primary mirror in a telescope and has discussed the efficiency of this correction. In this paper we expand on that work and propose a semi-analytical approach for quantifying the efficiency of a liquid crystal based wavefront corrector for this application.

  11. Evaluation of embolic deflection device using optical particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-29

    Trans-aortic valve replacement is a new endovascular procedure which has started to be used routinely in cardiac interventional suites. During such procedures a stent-like device containing new aortic valves is placed over the damaged ones, possibly causing calcifications to be dislodged and released in arteries leading to stroke. To prevent such events, new devices are being developed to provide distal protection to the brain supplying arteries. Currently there is a need to evaluate such device efficacy in a repeatable manner. We are proposing and investigating such a method based on particle optical tracking. We simulated such protective devices using two porous screens (150 and 200 μm pore size) which were placed in an arterial bifurcation phantom connected to a clinically relevant flow loop. A mask was acquired and gold embolic particles (100-300μm) were injected at a steady rate using a motorized injector. Optical images with 2 ms exposure were acquired at 30 fps. Images were subtracted, thresholded and filtered using a 5×5 median filter. ROI's were drawn over the main and bifurcating arteries and a particle counting algorithm was used to estimate particle flow rates in each artery for each run. The unprotected and the two protected cases were evaluated. Before filter placement, the particle flow rate was 60 and 40 %, respectively, of the main artery. After the filter placement, the particle flow rate in the protected branch was 4% and 8% of the particle flow rate in the main artery. We present a method to assess the efficacy of such devices using an optical particle tracking and counting technique.

  12. Advances in telecom and datacom optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.

    2001-07-01

    We review and contrast key technologies developed to address the optical components market for telecom and datacom applications. We first look at different material systems, compare their properties, and describe the functions achieved to date in each of them. The material systems reviewed include glass fiber, silica on silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon oxynitride, sol-gels, polymers, thin film dielectrics, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, magneto-optic materials, and birefringent crystals. We then look at the most commonly used classes of technology and present their pros and cons as well as the functions achieved to date in each. The technologies reviewed include passive, actuation, and active technologies. The passive technologies described include fused fibers, dispersion-compensating fiber, beam steering (e.g., AWG), Bragg gratings, diffraction gratings, holographic elements, thin film filters, photonic crystals, microrings, and birefringent elements. The actuation technologies include thermo-optics, electro-optics, acousto- optics, magneto-optics, liquid crystals, total internal reflection technologies (e.g., bubble technology), and mechanical actuation (e.g., moving fibers and MEMS). We finally describe active technologies including heterostructures, quantum wells, rare earth doping, and semiconductor optical amplifiers. We also investigate the use of different material systems and technologies to achieve building block functions including lasers, amplifiers, detectors, modulators, polarization controllers, couplers, filters, switches, attenuators, nonreciprocal elements (Faraday rotators or nonreciprocal phase shifters) for isolators and circulators, wavelength converters, and dispersion compensators.

  13. A simple approach for an optically transparent nanochannel device prototype.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fupeng; Ju, An; Qiao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Feng, Haiqing; Li, Junji; Lu, Na; Tu, Jing; Lu, Zuhong

    2016-03-21

    Compared with microfluidic devices, the fabrication of structure-controllable and designable nanochannel devices has been considered to have high costs and complex procedures, which require expensive equipment and high-quality raw materials. Exploring fast, simple and inexpensive approaches in nanochannel fabrication will be greatly helpful to speed up laboratory studies of nanofluidics. Here we developed a simple and inexpensive approach to fabricate a nanochannel device with a glass/epoxy resin/glass structure. The grooves were engraved using a UV laser on an aluminum sacrificial layer on the substrate glass, and epoxy resin was coated on the substrate and stuffed fully into the grooves. Another glass plate with holes for fluidic inlets and outlets was bonded on the top of the resin layer. The nanochannels were formed by etching thin sacrificial layers electrochemically. Meanwhile, the microstructures of the fluidic outlets and inlets could be fabricated simultaneously to the nanochannel formation. The total processing time for the simple nanochannel device took less than 10 hours. Optically transparent nanochannels with a depth of up to 20 nm were achieved. Nanofluidic behaviors in the nanochannels were observed under both optical and fluorescence microscopes.

  14. In plane optical sensor based on organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetse, Marc; Rensing, Peter; van Heck, Gert; Sharpe, Ruben; Allard, Bart; Wieringa, Fokko; Kruijt, Peter; Meulendijks, Nicole; Jansen, Henk; Schoo, Herman

    2008-08-01

    Sensors based on organic electronic devices are emerging in a wide range of application areas. Here we present a sensor platform using organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) as active components. By means of lamination and interconnection technology the functional foils with OLED and OPD arrays form an in-plane optical sensor platform (IPOS). This platform can be extended with a wireless data and signal processing unit yielding a sensor node. The focus of our research is to engage the node in a healthcare application, in which a bandage is able to monitor the vital signs of a person, a so-called Smart Bandage. One of the principles that is described here is based on measuring the absorption modulation of blood volume induced by the pulse (photoplethysmography). The information from such a bandage could be used to monitor wound healing by measuring the perfusion in the skin. The OLED and OPD devices are manufactured on separate foils and glass substrates by means of printing and coating technologies. Furthermore, the modular approach allows for the application of the optical sensing unit in a variety of other fields including chemical sensing. This, ultimately enables the measurement of a large variety of physiological parameters using the same bandage and the same basic sensor architecture. Here we discuss the build-up of our device in general terms. Specific characteristics of the used OLEDs and OPDs are shown and finally we demonstrate the functionality by simultaneously recorded photoplethysmograms of our device and a clinical pulseoximeter.

  15. Graphene-Boron Nitride Heterostructure Based Optoelectronic Devices for On-Chip Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuanda

    Graphene has emerged as an appealing material for a variety of optoelectronic applications due to its unique electrical and optical characteristics. In this thesis, I will present recent advances in integrating graphene and graphene-boron nitride (BN) heterostructures with confined optical architectures, e.g. planar photonic crystal (PPC) nanocavities and silicon channel waveguides, to make this otherwise weakly absorbing material optically opaque. Based on these integrations, I will further demonstrate the resulting chip-integrated optoelectronic devices for optical interconnects. After transferring a layer of graphene onto PPC nanocavities, spectral selectivity at the resonance frequency and orders-of-magnitude enhancement of optical coupling with graphene have been observed in infrared spectrum. By applying electrostatic potential to graphene, electro-optic modulation of the cavity reflection is possible with contrast in excess of 10 dB. And furthermore, a novel and complex modulator device structure based on the cavity-coupled and BN-encapsulated dual-layer graphene capacitor is demonstrated to operate at a speed of 1.2 GHz. On the other hand, an enhanced broad-spectrum light-graphene interaction coupled with silicon channel waveguides is also demonstrated with ?0.1 dB/?m transmission attenuation due to graphene absorption. A waveguide-integrated graphene photodetector is fabricated and shown 0.1 A/W photoresponsivity and 20 GHz operation speed. An improved version of a similar photodetector using graphene-BN heterostructure exhibits 0.36 A/W photoresponsivity and 42 GHz response speed. The integration of graphene and graphene-BN heterostructures with nanophotonic architectures promises a new generation of compact, energy-efficient, high-speed optoelectronic device concepts for on-chip optical communications that are not yet feasible or very difficult to realize using traditional bulk semiconductors.

  16. Radiation doses to insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Semones, E.J.; Job, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    Dose measurements made on and around the insertion devices (IDs) at the Advanced Photon Source are reported. Attempts are made to compare these dose rates to dose rates that have been reported to cause radiation-induced demagnetization, but comparisons are complicated by such factors as the particular magnet material and the techniques used in its manufacture, the spectrum and type of radiation, and the demagnetizing field seen by the magnet. The spectrum of radiation at the IDs. It has almost no effect on the dose to the downstream ends of the IDs, however, since much of the radiation travels through the ID vacuum chamber and cannot be readily shielded. Opening the gaps of the IDs during injection and at other times also helps decrease the radiation exposure.

  17. Analysis of advanced optical glass and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Feng, Chen

    1991-01-01

    Optical lens systems performance utilizing optical materials comprising reluctant glass forming compositions was studied. Such special glasses are being explored by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) researchers utilizing techniques such as containerless processing in space on the MSFC Acoustic Levitation Furnace and on the High Temperature Acoustic Levitation Furnace in the conceptual design phase for the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) series of shuttle flights. The application of high refractive index and low dispersive power glasses in optical lens design was investigated. The potential benefits and the impacts to the optical lens design performance were evaluated. The results of the studies revealed that the use of these extraordinary glasses can result in significant optical performance improvements. Recommendations of proposed optical properties for potential new glasses were also made. Applications of these new glasses are discussed, including the impact of high refractive index and low dispersive power, improvements of the system performance by using glasses which are located outside of traditional glass map, and considerations in establishing glass properties beyond conventional glass map limits.

  18. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam Research Corporation, SK hynix Semiconductor (China) Ltd... Advanced Micro Devices China Inc.'s (AMD China) current list of eligible destinations. BIS also amends the...-User Authorizations in the PRC Revisions to the List of Eligible Destinations for Advanced...

  19. Advanced semiconductor quantum well devices for infrared applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir V.

    High performance mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are needed for chemical sensing, analysis and medical imaging. Efficient long wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetectors are highly desirable for remote sensing and space exploration. The goal of this work is to investigate new mid-infrared LEDs and to optimize existing LWIR quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). Type-II "W" InAs/InGaSb/AlGaAsSb quantum wells were incorporated as optically active layers in MWIR LEDs. Influence of MBE crystal growth conditions on the density of Shockley-Read-Hall centers in the "W" quantum wells was studied and the optimal growth conditions were identified. A qualitative physical model was developed to describe relative importance of the radiative and non-radiative processes for various temperature ranges. MWIR LED structures lattice-matched to InAs and GaSb substrates were grown. Devices on InAs substrates were found to be at least twice as efficient as devices grown on GaSb. LEDs on InAs had 4.5 mum emission wavelength and 26.5 muW/A external efficiency. Possibility to operate GaAs/AIGaAs QWIP under normal-to-surface light incidence was studied. Metal nano-particle surface coating was developed and processes responsible for, light coupling into the QWIP were investigated. QWIP structure itself was optimized to eliminate Si-diffusion-assisted dark current enhancement by employing a new doping profile in the quantum wells. Devices with the new doping profile had an order of magnitude lower dark current and 20% higher photoresponse than commercially available QWIPs.

  20. Thermo-optic silica PLC devices for applications in high speed optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchetiere, Chantal; Callender, Claire L.; Jacob, Sarkis; Ledderhof, Christopher J.; Dumais, Patrick; Celo, Dritan; Chen, Lawrence R.; Samadi, Payman

    2011-08-01

    The optimization of a 2×2 silica-on-silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) thermo-optic switch is presented. The device consists of 2 multimode interference (MMI) couplers as splitter and combiner with metal heater strips for phase control. The switching characteristics of the devices have been examined in detail as a function of several parameters. The electrical power consumption of the switch has been reduced by a factor of 2 by etching trenches alongside the waveguide heaters located on the arms of the MZI, and the polarization dependent loss has been controlled and reduced through adjustment of top cladding properties. The effect on the response time of the switch of these design changes has been investigated. Detailed characterization of the devices will be presented, and trade-offs in optimization discussed. Incorporation of these device elements into increasingly complex components for new applications in optical signal processing will be demonstrated.

  1. Computational chemistry modeling and design of photoswitchable alignment materials for optically addressable liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, K. L.; Sekera, E. R.; Xiao, K.

    2015-09-01

    Photoalignment technology based on optically switchable "command surfaces" has been receiving increasing interest for liquid crystal optics and photonics device applications. Azobenzene compounds in the form of low-molar-mass, watersoluble salts deposited either directly on the substrate surface or after dispersion in a polymer binder have been almost exclusively employed for these applications, and ongoing research in the area follows a largely empirical materials design and development approach. Recent computational chemistry advances now afford unprecedented opportunities to develop predictive capabilities that will lead to new photoswitchable alignment layer materials with low switching energies, enhanced bistability, write/erase fatigue resistance, and high laser-damage thresholds. In the work described here, computational methods based on the density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory were employed to study the impact of molecular structure on optical switching properties in photoswitchable methacrylate and acrylamide polymers functionalized with azobenzene and spiropyran pendants.

  2. Optical and Acoustic Device Applications of Ferroelastic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Steven Wayne

    This dissertation presents the discovery of a means of creating uniformly periodic domain gratings in a ferroelastic crystal of neodymium pentaphosphate (NPP). The uniform and non-uniform domain structures which can be created in NPP have the potential applications as tunable active gratings for lasers, tunable diffraction gratings, tunable Bragg reflection gratings, tunable acoustic filters, optical modulators, and optical domain wall memories. The interaction of optical and acoustic waves with ferroelastic domain walls in NPP is presented in detail. Acoustic amplitude reflection coefficients from a single domain wall in NPP are much larger than other ferroelastic-ferroelectrics such as gadolinium molybdate (GMO). Domain walls of NPP are used to make two demonstration acoustic devices: a tunable comb filter and a tunable delay line. The tuning process is accomplished by moving the position of the reflecting surface (the domain wall). A theory of the reflection of optical waves from NPP domain walls is discussed. The optical reflection is due to a change in the polarization of the wave, and not a change in the index, as the wave crosses the domain wall. Theoretical optical power reflection coefficients show good agreement with the experimentally measured values. The largest optical reflection coefficient of a single domain wall is at a critical angle and is 2.2% per domain wall. Techniques of injecting periodic and aperiodic domain walls into NPP are presented. The nucleation process of the uniformly periodic domain gratings in NPP is described in terms of a newly-discovered domain structure, namely the ferroelastic bubble. A ferroelastic bubble is the elastic analogue to the well-known magnetic bubble. The period of the uniformly periodic domain grating is tunable from 100 to 0.5 microns and the grating period may be tuned relatively rapidly. The Bragg efficiency of these tunable gratings is 77% for an uncoated crystal. Several demonstration devices which use

  3. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    SciTech Connect

    Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  4. Active mode-locked lasers and other photonic devices using electro-optic whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Techniques and devices using whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators, where the optical materials of the WGM resonators exhibit an electro-optical effect to perform optical modulation. Examples of actively mode-locked lasers and other devices are described.

  5. Recent advancements in optical microstructure fabrication through glass molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianfeng; Liu, Xiaohua; Liang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jiaqing; Wang, Xibin

    2017-02-01

    Optical microstructures are increasingly applied in several fields, such as optical systems, precision measurement, and microfluid chips. Microstructures include microgrooves, microprisms, and microlenses. This paper presents an overview of optical microstructure fabrication through glass molding and highlights the applications of optical microstructures in mold fabrication and glass molding. The glass-mold interface friction and adhesion are also discussed. Moreover, the latest advancements in glass molding technologies are detailed, including new mold materials and their fabrication methods, viscoelastic constitutive modeling of glass, and microstructure molding process, as well as ultrasonic vibrationassisted molding technology.

  6. Micro-optics metrology using advanced interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichelt, Stephan; Bieber, Alexander; Aatz, Bernd; Zappe, Hans

    2005-06-01

    Interferometric testing of micro-optical components involves some challenges due to problems such as Fresnel diffraction artefacts, the non-common path interferometer configuration, coherent noise as well disturbing interferences, and uncertainties in distance measurements. Recently we have developed a versatile Mach-Zehnder / Twyman-Green hybride interferometer for micro-optics testing. The system combines the advantages of both interferometer types and allows full characterization of lens and surface figure errors as well as radius of curvature and focal length measurements. The interferometer system is explained and measurement results of micro-lenses are presented. Furthermore, this paper is concerned with the metrology challenges of interferometric testing on microscopic scales.

  7. Advances in Optical Adjunctive Aids for Visualisation and Detection of Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Nirav; Lalla, Yastira; Vu, An N.; Farah, Camile S.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies involve a conventional oral examination with digital palpation. Evidence indicates that conventional examination is a poor discriminator of oral mucosal lesions. A number of optical aids have been developed to assist the clinician to detect oral mucosal abnormalities and to differentiate benign lesions from sinister pathology. This paper discusses advances in optical technologies designed for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. The literature regarding such devices, VELscope and Identafi, is critically analysed, and the novel use of Narrow Band Imaging within the oral cavity is also discussed. Optical aids are effective in assisting with the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further research is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant and malignant lesions. PMID:24078812

  8. Nanomaterials for LightManagement in Electro-Optical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, Vo-Van; Singh, Jai; Tanemura, Sakae; Hu, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, nanostructured materials and nanoparticles have emerged as the necessary ingredients for electrooptical applications and enhancement of device performance, in particular by making use of the light management aspects of the nanomaterials. The application areas that are being transformed profoundly include smart coating devices (e.g., electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic devices), solar energy, and sensing. Despite the large volume of work in the past on smart coating devices, and in particular on electrochromic devices and thermochromic fenestrations, for optical transmission or reflection control, applications remain limited because of slow response time and nonuniformity in the case of large surfaces. Recent works in the field indicate that nanostructured electrochromic coatings would be an integral part of the solution to the above problem. One aspect that can thus be focused on would be the fabrication and characterization of the nanostructured smart coating materials and their compatibility with other layers in the overall smart coating device. In the area of solar photovoltaics, nanomaterials have been used in designing light-trapping schemes for inorganic as well as organic solar cells. One particular category of solar cells that has attracted much interest is the plasmonic solar cells in which metallic nanoparticles are incorporated, helping in enhancing their energy conversion efficiency. Nanostructured solar cells would eventually develop into a 'game changing' technology for making solar cells that are affordable and highly efficient, providing a sizeable alternative energy source for our ever-increasing energy needs. Sensors based on the optical properties of constituting nanostructures and nanoparticles also form a most interesting class of bio- and electrochemical sensing devices. The possibility of synthetizing nanoparticles and structures of specifically desired sizes and shapes has indeed opened a whole new range of

  9. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  10. Optics for Advanced Neutron Imaging and Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Moncton, David E.; Khaykovich, Boris

    2016-03-30

    During the report period, we continued the work as outlined in the original proposal. We have analyzed potential optical designs of Wolter mirrors for the neutron-imaging instrument VENUS, which is under construction at SNS. In parallel, we have conducted the initial polarized imaging experiment at Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, one of very few of currently available polarized-imaging facilities worldwide.

  11. Advanced lightweight optics development for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbro, James W.

    1998-01-15

    A considerable amount of effort over the past year has been devoted to exploring ultra-lightweight optics for two specific NASA programs, the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the High Throughput X-ray Spectrometer (HTXS). Experimental investigations have been undertaken in a variety of materials including glass, composites, nickel, beryllium, Carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide (CSiC), Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide, Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide, and Silicon. Overall results of these investigations will be summarized, and specific details will be provided concerning the in-house development of ultra-lightweight nickel replication for both grazing incidence and normal incidence optics. This will include x-ray test results of the grazing incidence optic and cryogenic test results of the normal incidence optic. The status of two 1.5 meter diameter demonstration mirrors for NGST will also be presented. These two demonstrations are aimed at establishing the capability to manufacture and test mirrors that have an areal density of 15 kilograms per square meter. Efforts in thin membrane mirrors and Fresnel lenses will also be briefly discussed.

  12. Advances in superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI)

    PubMed Central

    Dertinger, Thomas; Pallaoro, Alessia; Braun, Gary; Ly, Sonny; Laurence, Ted A.; Weiss, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    We review the concept of superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI), discuss its attributes and trade-offs (in comparison with other superresolution methods), and present superresolved images taken on samples stained with quantum dots, organic dyes, and plasmonic metal nanoparticles. We also discuss the prospects of SOFI for live cell superresolution imaging and for imaging with other (non-fluorescent) contrasts. PMID:23672771

  13. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven Reitzenstein, Stephan; Strittmatter, André

    2015-07-15

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  14. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  15. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for electron field emission (FE) cathodes in integrated FE devices. These nanostructured carbon materials possess exceptional properties and their synthesis can be thoroughly controlled. Their integration into advanced electronic devices, including not only FE cathodes, but sensors, energy storage devices, and circuit components, has seen rapid growth in recent years. The results of the studies presented here demonstrate that the CNT field emitter is an excellent candidate for next generation vacuum microelectronics and related electron emission devices in several advanced applications. The work presented in this study addresses determining factors that currently confine the performance and application of CNT-FE devices. Characterization studies and improvements to the FE properties of CNTs, along with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) design and fabrication, were utilized in achieving these goals. Important performance limiting parameters, including emitter lifetime and failure from poor substrate adhesion, are examined. The compatibility and integration of CNT emitters with the governing MEMS substrate (i.e., polycrystalline silicon), and its impact on these performance limiting parameters, are reported. CNT growth mechanisms and kinetics were investigated and compared to silicon (100) to improve the design of CNT emitter integrated MEMS based electronic devices, specifically in vacuum microelectronic device (VMD) applications. Improved growth allowed for design and development of novel cold-cathode FE devices utilizing CNT field emitters. A chemical ionization (CI) source based on a CNT-FE electron source was developed and evaluated in a commercial desktop mass spectrometer for explosives trace detection. This work demonstrated the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. The CNT-FE source demonstrated low power requirements, pulsing

  16. Simultaneous topographical, electrical and optical microscopy of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Zoladek-Lemanczyk, Alina; Guilbert, Anne A Y; Su, Weitao; Tuladhar, Sachetan M; Kirchartz, Thomas; Schroeder, Bob C; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny; Roy, Debdulal; Castro, Fernando A

    2017-02-23

    Novel optoelectronic devices rely on complex nanomaterial systems where the nanoscale morphology and local chemical composition are critical to performance. However, the lack of analytical techniques that can directly probe these structure-property relationships at the nanoscale presents a major obstacle to device development. In this work, we present a novel method for non-destructive, simultaneous mapping of the morphology, chemical composition and photoelectrical properties with <20 nm spatial resolution by combining plasmonic optical signal enhancement with electrical-mode scanning probe microscopy. We demonstrate that this combined approach offers subsurface sensitivity that can be exploited to provide molecular information with a nanoscale resolution in all three spatial dimensions. By applying the technique to an organic solar cell device, we show that the inferred surface and subsurface composition distribution correlates strongly with the local photocurrent generation and explains macroscopic device performance. For instance, the direct measurement of fullerene phase purity can distinguish between high purity aggregates that lead to poor performance and lower purity aggregates (fullerene intercalated with polymer) that result in strong photocurrent generation and collection. We show that the reliable determination of the structure-property relationship at the nanoscale can remove ambiguity from macroscopic device data and support the identification of the best routes for device optimisation. The multi-parameter measurement approach demonstrated herein is expected to play a significant role in guiding the rational design of nanomaterial-based optoelectronic devices, by opening a new realm of possibilities for advanced investigation via the combination of nanoscale optical spectroscopy with a whole range of scanning probe microscopy modes.

  17. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-02-24

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  18. Optical and electrical properties of bi-layers organic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trad, Hager; Rouis, Ahlem; Davenas, Jöel; Majdoub, Mustapha

    2014-10-01

    The influence of interfacial charges on the device characteristics of bi-layers structure LEDs with poly[5-methoxy-2-octyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MO-PPV) as active polymer layer is investigated. The concept to improve device performance is presented using: a diacetate cellulose (DAC) and a new synthetized 5-{2-(2-chloroethoxy)ethoxy}-2-{(E)-(2-pyridyl)azo}phenol (PDEG) components. The DAC and mixed (DAC+PDEG) layers were inserted between indium tin oxide (ITO) and MO-PPV polymer. The optical properties (UV-Vis) of MO-PPV, PDEG and mixed (DAC+PDEG) in solutions were studied and compared to those on thin films. Detailed current-voltage measurements of the bi-layers devices showed improvements of the threshold voltage (Vth) of the ITO/(DAC+PDEG)/MO-PPV/Al device attributed to the enhancement of carriers injection and transport resulted from the modified electrode structures. Conduction mechanisms of structure LEDs were matched with space-charge-limited current (SCLC) one. The impedance spectra for all devices can be discussed in terms of an equivalent circuit model designed as a parallel resistor Rp and capacitor Cp network in series with resistor Rs. The ITO/(DAC+PDEG)/MO-PPV/Al device showed the lowest impedance attributed to the removal of contaminants and to changes in the work function of ITO. The frequency-dependent electrical properties of the ITO/(DAC+PDEG)/MO-PPV/Al structure is analyzed by impedance spectroscopy as function of bias. We have extracted numerical values of the equivalent circuit model parameters by fitting experimental data. Their evolution with bias voltages has shown that the SCLC mechanism is characterized by an exponential trap distribution.

  19. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  20. Recent Advances in Fiber Optic Coupler Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corke, Michael; Sweeney, Kevin L.; Schmidt, Kevin M.

    1987-01-01

    The performance requirements and device specifications of single mode couplers have been changing rapidly in recent years. This paper reviews the present state of the art in this technology and introduces new device concepts which rely on the fuse-taper technology in their fabrication process. Details will be given of the fabrication and application of single mode wavelength division multiplexers which have an insertion loss below 0.5 dB and have a 20 dB isolation over a 30 nm operating wavelength range. Wavelength division multiplexers with a narrow wavelength separation, <5 nm, will also be described in terms of their fabrication and application. Details of the utilization and performance of concatenated wavelength division multiplexers as filters for uni- and bi-directional communication will also be presented. Finally, techniques for reducing the wavelength sensitivity of the coupling ratio in single mode couplers will be discussed which result in the development of a broad band coupler, BBC.

  1. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotheim, T. A.; Ogrady, W. E.; Linkous, C. A.

    1983-12-01

    An electro-optical display device is described having a housing including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  2. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.; O'Grady, William E.; Linkous, Clovis A.

    1986-01-01

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuit means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  3. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.; O'Grady, W.E.; Linkous, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  4. Fracture Probability of MEMS Optical Devices for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fettig, Rainer K.; Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Orloff, Jon

    1999-01-01

    A bending fracture test specimen design is presented for thin elements used in optical devices for space flight applications. The specimen design is insensitive to load position, avoids end effect complications, and can be used to measure strength of membranes less than 2 microns thick. The theoretical equations predicting stress at failure are presented, and a detailed finite element model is developed to validate the equations for this application. An experimental procedure using a focused ion beam machine is outlined, and results from preliminary tests of 1.9 microns thick single crystal silicon are presented. These tests are placed in the context of a methodology for the design and evaluation of mission critical devices comprised of large arrays of cells.

  5. Multimodal optical device for early childhood caries: a clinical prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

    There is currently a need for a safe and effective way to detect and diagnose early childhood caries. We have developed a multimodal optical clinical prototype for testing in vivo. The device can be used to quickly image and screen for any signs of demineralized enamel by obtaining high-resolution and highcontrast surface images using a 405-nm laser as the illumination source, as well as obtaining autofluorescence and bacterial fluorescence images. Then, when a suspicious region is located, the device can perform dual laser fluorescence spectroscopy using 405-nm and 532-nm laser excitation which is used to compute an autofluorescence ratio. This ratio can be used to quantitatively diagnose enamel health. The device is tested on four in vivo test subjects as well as 17 extracted teeth with clinically diagnosed carious lesions. The device was able to provide detailed images which served to screen for suspected early caries. The autofluorescence ratios obtained from the extracted teeth were able to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy enamel. Therefore, the clinical prototype demonstrates feasibility in screening for and in quantitatively diagnosing healthy from demineralized enamel.

  6. Simple technique for integrating compact silicon devices within optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Micco, A; Ricciardi, A; Quero, G; Crescitelli, A; Bock, W J; Cusano, A

    2014-02-15

    In this work, we present a simple fabrication process enabling the integration of a subwavelength amorphous silicon layer inside optical fibers by means of the arc discharge technique. To assess our method, we have fabricated a compact in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer consisting of a thin (<1  μm) a-Si:H layer completely embedded within a standard single-mode optical fiber. The device exhibits low loss (1.3 dB) and high interference fringe visibility (~80%) both in reflection and transmission, due to the high refractive index contrast between silica and a-Si:H. A high linear temperature sensitivity up to 106  pm/°C is demonstrated in the range 120°C-400°C. The proposed interferometer is attractive for point monitoring applications as well as for ultrahigh-temperature sensing in harsh environments.

  7. Semiconductor optoelectronic devices for free-space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of individual injection lasers are reviewed, and devices of greater complexity are described. These either include or are relevant to monolithic integration configurations of the lasers with their electronic driving circuitry, power combining methods of semiconductor lasers, and electronic methods of steering the radiation patterns of semiconductor lasers and laser arrays. The potential of AlGaAs laser technology for free-space optical communications systems is demonstrated. These solid-state components, which can generate and modulate light, combine the power of a number of sources and perform at least part of the beam pointing functions. Methods are proposed for overcoming the main drawback of semiconductor lasers, that is, their inability to emit the needed amount of optical power in a single-mode operation.

  8. Diffractive optical variable image devices generated by maskless interferometric lithography for optical security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre; Rebordão, José M.

    2011-05-01

    In optical security (protection against forgery and counterfeit of products and documents) the problem is not exact reproduction but the production of something sufficiently similar to the original. Currently, Diffractive Optically Variable Image Devices (DOVID), that create dynamic chromatic effects which may be easily recognized but are difficult to reproduce, are often used to protect important products and documents. Well known examples of DOVID for security are 3D or 2D/3D holograms in identity documents and credit cards. Others are composed of shapes with different types of microstructures yielding by diffraction to chromatic dynamic effects. A maskless interferometric lithography technique to generate DOVIDs for optical security is presented and compared to traditional techniques. The approach can be considered as a self-masking focused holography on planes tilted with respect to the reference optical axes of the system, and is based on the Scheimpflug and Hinge rules. No physical masks are needed to ensure optimum exposure of the photosensitive film. The system built to demonstrate the technique relies on the digital mirrors device MOEMS technology from Texas Instruments' Digital Light Processing. The technique is linear on the number of specified colors and does not depend either on the area of the device or the number of pixels, factors that drive the complexity of dot-matrix based systems. The results confirmed the technique innovation and capabilities in the creation of diffractive optical elements for security against counterfeiting and forgery.

  9. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1992-01-01

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x (0.33.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.0 and x.ltoreq.2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li.sup.+ ion conductors.

  10. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1992-01-14

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] (0.33[le]y[le]2.0 and x[le]2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li[sup +] ion conductors. 12 figs.

  11. Digital Fluoroscopy with AN Optically Coupled Charge-Coupled Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    1992-01-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the potential of developing an optically coupled charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging system for some digital fluoroscopic applications. The viability of this concept for fluoroscopic imaging was studied with respect to image intensifier-television (II -TV) techniques. The anticipated advantages of the optically coupled CCD, compared with II-TV, include higher contrast sensitivity, larger dynamic range, moderate spatial resolution and clinically acceptable dose. Following an investigation of some theoretical and practical issues concerning the optical coupling efficiency between the intensifying screen and the CCD imager, mathematical methods were developed to relate the signal, signal-to -noise ratio, and x-ray quantum efficiency of the optically coupled CCD imaging chain. The spatial resolution of the system was also analyzed. Using an ultra-sensitive CCD, as well as improved scintillating and optical coupling techniques, we built a laboratory system for experiments. We conducted measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF), contrast sensitivity, contrast-detail detectability and detector contrast. The results suggest that the lesion detectability of our sub-optimal system was comparable to that of a screen-film technique under the same radiation dose, and was significantly better than II-TV fluoroscopy. Potential clinical applications of our system include mammography, pre-operational localization, pediatric chest radiography, and single tracer autoradiography. Images of selected phantoms, pathological specimens and small animals were acquired to demonstrate the radiologic quality attainable for such procedures. We conclude that developing an x-ray quantum limited, pseudo-real time, digital fluoroscopic imaging system (for some applications) without an II appears to be theoretically and technically feasible. The successful development of optically coupled CCD fluoroscopy has the potential for improving the

  12. Optical Measurements On Advanced Performance Domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, P. C.; Burge, D. K.

    1984-12-01

    Sapphire, spinel, and ALON (aluminum oxynitride) have been identified as candidate dome materials for ultraviolet through 5 μm wavelength applications. They possess optical, mechanical, and thermal properties that are superior to those of currently used Irtran-1 domes. Optical performance of these materials in the visible wavelength region far exceeds that of Irtran-1, while infrared properties reported here vary from worse than to better than Irtran-1 domes. Reported in this paper are measurements of optical scatter and transmittance at 0.4762, 0.6471, and 3.39 μm, which represent a large range of values obtained on these materials in dome form. Processing changes over the last few years have produced improvements in both scatter and transmittance, provided that a good surface finish is maintained. Higher index of refraction will, of course, limit the ultimate transmittance for uncoated domes of these materials to slightly less than that of Irtran-1, which has also improved in the same time period. Calculations indicate maximum transmittance at 3.39 pm to be 0.95 to 0.96 for Irtran-1 and 0.87 to 0.88 for spinel, a difference of 0.08. Current measurements at the Naval Weapons Center confirm values of 0.88 for spinel, while the best Irtran-1 dome gave a value of less than 0.92.

  13. Novel microfluidic devices for Raman spectroscopy and optical trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottevaere, Heidi; Liu, Qing; de Coster, Diane; Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, Raman spectroscopy is done in a specialized lab, with considerable requirements in terms of equipment, time and manual sampling of substances of interest. We present the modeling, the design and the fabrication process of a microfluidic device incorporation Raman spectroscopy, from which one enables confocal Raman measurements on-chip. The latter is fabricated using ultra precision diamond tooling and is tested in a proof-of-concept setup, by for example measuring Raman spectra of urea solutions with various concentrations. If one wants to analyze single cells instead of a sample solution, precautions need to be taken. Since Raman scattering is a weak process, the molecular fingerprint of flowing particles would be hard to measure. One method is to stably position the cell under test in the detection area during acquisition of the Raman scattering such that the acquisition time can be increased. Positioning of cells can be done through optical trapping and leads to an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and thus a more reliable cell identification. Like Raman spectroscopy, optical trapping can also be miniaturized. We present the modeling, design process and fabrication of a mass-manufacturable polymer microfluidic device for dual fiber optical trapping using two counterpropagating singlemode beams. We use a novel fabrication process that consists of a premilling step and ultraprecision diamond tooling for the manufacturing of the molds and double-sided hot embossing for replication, resulting in a robust microfluidic chip for optical trapping. In a proof-of-concept demonstration, we characterize the trapping capabilities of the hot embossed chip.

  14. Advanced biosensing methodologies developed for evaluating performance quality and safety of emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilev, Ilko K.; Walker, Bennett; Calhoun, William; Hassan, Moinuddin

    2016-03-01

    Biophotonics is an emerging field in modern biomedical technology that has opened up new horizons for transfer of state-of-the-art techniques from the areas of lasers, fiber optics and biomedical optics to the life sciences and medicine. This field continues to vastly expand with advanced developments across the entire spectrum of biomedical applications ranging from fundamental "bench" laboratory studies to clinical patient "bedside" diagnostics and therapeutics. However, in order to translate these technologies to clinical device applications, the scientific and industrial community, and FDA are facing the requirement for a thorough evaluation and review of laser radiation safety and efficacy concerns. In many cases, however, the review process is complicated due the lack of effective means and standard test methods to precisely analyze safety and effectiveness of some of the newly developed biophotonics techniques and devices. There is, therefore, an immediate public health need for new test protocols, guidance documents and standard test methods to precisely evaluate fundamental characteristics, performance quality and safety of these technologies and devices. Here, we will overview our recent developments of novel test methodologies for safety and efficacy evaluation of some emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices. These methodologies are based on integrating the advanced features of state-of-the-art optical sensor technologies and approaches such as high-resolution fiber-optic sensing, confocal and optical coherence tomography imaging, and infrared spectroscopy. The presentation will also illustrate some methodologies developed and implemented for testing intraocular lens implants, biochemical contaminations of medical devices, ultrahigh-resolution nanoscopy, and femtosecond laser therapeutics.

  15. Near net shape forming of advanced structural ceramic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Chih

    This research applied a combination of rapid prototyping techniques and ceramic gelcasting processes in the design and manufacturing of advanced structural ceramic components that cannot be fabricated by other shape-forming processes. An Assembly Mold SDM process, a derivative process of Shape Deposition Manufacturing, was adopted along with modified gelcasting with great success. The fabricated gas turbine rotors, inlet nozzles, and mesoscale burner arrays have demonstrated superior shape accuracy, mechanical strength, and surface smoothness with a feature size of 200 mum. The design concepts and functionalities of the ceramic devices were verified with performance tests. The shape complexity and surface quality of ceramic parts have been further improved by the use of a mold assembly made of a low melting temperature metal alloy. The introduction of metal alloy required modifications in the mold design, machining procedure, and ceramic processing. A complete shape forming process (from slurry to final parts) was developed for the low melting temperature metal alloy. In addition, the choice of ceramic material now includes SiC, which is critical to the development of micro heat exchangers. Forty-channel, high-aspect-ratio structured SiC heat exchangers were fabricated, and the thermal conductivity value of SiC was found to be comparable to that of steel. The catalyst deposition and ceramic precursor impregnation processes were proposed to enable use of the SiC heat exchangers as micro reactors. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)-related techniques such as SU-8 deep photolithography and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography were combined with gelcasting to make micro patterns on structural ceramics. A feature size of 125 mum and aspect ratio of 8 have been achieved in the preliminary experiments. Based on the fabricated ceramic devices, a graphical method to characterize the shape attributes of complex-shaped components was proposed and used to compare

  16. Pixelized Device Control Actuators for Large Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Gareth J.; Bird, Ross W.; Shea, Brian; Chen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A fully integrated, compact, adaptive space optic mirror assembly has been developed, incorporating new advances in ultralight, high-performance composite mirrors. The composite mirrors use Q-switch matrix architecture-based pixelized control (PMN-PT) actuators, which achieve high-performance, large adaptive optic capability, while reducing the weight of present adaptive optic systems. The self-contained, fully assembled, 11x11x4-in. (approx.= 28x28x10-cm) unit integrates a very-high-performance 8-in. (approx.=20-cm) optic, and has 8-kHz true bandwidth. The assembled unit weighs less than 15 pounds (=6.8 kg), including all mechanical assemblies, power electronics, control electronics, drive electronics, face sheet, wiring, and cabling. It requires just three wires to be attached (power, ground, and signal) for full-function systems integration, and uses a steel-frame and epoxied electronics. The three main innovations are: 1. Ultralightweight composite optics: A new replication method for fabrication of very thin composite 20-cm-diameter laminate face sheets with good as-fabricated optical figure was developed. The approach is a new mandrel resin surface deposition onto previously fabricated thin composite laminates. 2. Matrix (regenerative) power topology: Waveform correction can be achieved across an entire face sheet at 6 kHz, even for large actuator counts. In practice, it was found to be better to develop a quadrant drive, that is, four quadrants of 169 actuators behind the face sheet. Each quadrant has a single, small, regenerative power supply driving all 169 actuators at 8 kHz in effective parallel. 3. Q-switch drive architecture: The Q-switch innovation is at the heart of the matrix architecture, and allows for a very fast current draw into a desired actuator element in 120 counts of a MHz clock without any actuator coupling.

  17. Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology" project will investigate newly developed optic gas sensors delivered from a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase II effort. A ventilation test rig will be designed and fabricated to test the sensors while integrated with a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA). Once the sensors are integrated, a series of test points will be completed to verify that the sensors can withstand Advanced Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) environments and associated human metabolic profiles for changes in pressure and levels of Oxygen (ppO2), carbon dioxide (ppCO2), and humidity (ppH2O).

  18. Linear semiconductor optical amplifiers for amplification of advanced modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Bonk, R; Huber, G; Vallaitis, T; Koenig, S; Schmogrow, R; Hillerkuss, D; Brenot, R; Lelarge, F; Duan, G-H; Sygletos, S; Koos, C; Freude, W; Leuthold, J

    2012-04-23

    The capability of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) to amplify advanced optical modulation format signals is investigated. The input power dynamic range is studied and especially the impact of the SOA alpha factor is addressed. Our results show that the advantage of a lower alpha-factor SOA decreases for higher-order modulation formats. Experiments at 20 GBd BPSK, QPSK and 16QAM with two SOAs with different alpha factors are performed. Simulations for various modulation formats support the experimental findings.

  19. Recent advancement in optical fiber sensing for aerospace composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Takeda, Nobuo

    2013-12-01

    Optical fiber sensors have attracted considerable attention in health monitoring of aerospace composite structures. This paper briefly reviews our recent advancement mainly in Brillouin-based distributed sensing. Damage detection, life cycle monitoring and shape reconstruction systems applicable to large-scale composite structures are presented, and new technical concepts, "smart crack arrester" and "hierarchical sensing system", are described as well, highlighting the great potential of optical fiber sensors for the structural health monitoring (SHM) field.

  20. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  1. Charge-coupled device/fiber optic taper array x-ray detector for protein crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Naday, I.; Ross, S.; Westbrook, E.M.; Zentai, G.

    1998-04-01

    A large area charge-coupled device (CCD) based fiber optic taper array detector (APS-1) is installed at the insertion-device beamline of the Structural Biology Center at the Argonne Advanced Photon Source x-ray synchrotron. The detector is used in protein crystallography diffraction experiments, where the objective is to measure the position and intensity of x-ray Bragg peaks in diffraction images. Large imaging area, very high spatial resolution, high x-ray sensitivity, good detective quantum efficiency, low noise, wide dynamic range, excellent stability and short readout time are all fundamental requirements in this application. The APS-1 detector converts the 2-D x-ray patterns to visible light images by a thin layer of x-ray sensitive phosphor. The phosphor coating is directly deposited on the large ends of nine fiber optic tapers arranged in a 3{times}3 array. Nine, thermoelectrically cooled 1024{times}1024pixel CCDs image the patterns, demagnified by the tapers. After geometrical and uniformity corrections, the nine areas give a continuous image of the detector face with virtually no gaps between the individual tapers. The 18 parallel analog signal-processing channels and analog-to-digital converters ensure short readout time and low readout noise. We discuss the design and measured performance of the detector. {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}{ital Key words:} charge-coupled device; fiber optic taper; x-ray diffraction; crystallography; imaging detector. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers}

  2. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, Mike; Dufera, Hiz; Montagna, Deb

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  3. Recent Advances in Optical Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring and Early Warning

    PubMed Central

    Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Shi, Hanchang

    2013-01-01

    The growing number of pollutants requires the development of innovative analytical devices that are precise, sensitive, specific, rapid, and easy-to-use to meet the increasing demand for legislative actions on environmental pollution control and early warning. Optical biosensors, as a powerful alternative to conventional analytical techniques, enable the highly sensitive, real-time, and high-frequency monitoring of pollutants without extensive sample preparation. This article reviews important advances in functional biorecognition materials (e.g., enzymes, aptamers, DNAzymes, antibodies and whole cells) that facilitate the increasing application of optical biosensors. This work further examines the significant improvements in optical biosensor instrumentation and their environmental applications. Innovative developments of optical biosensors for environmental pollution control and early warning are also discussed. PMID:24132229

  4. Advanced Sensors Boost Optical Communication, Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Brooklyn, New York-based Amplification Technologies Inc. (ATI), employed Phase I and II SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to forward the company's solid-state photomultiplier technology. Under the SBIR, ATI developed a small, energy-efficient, extremely high-gain sensor capable of detecting light down to single photons in the near infrared wavelength range. The company has commercialized this technology in the form of its NIRDAPD photomultiplier, ideal for use in free space optical communications, lidar and ladar, night vision goggles, and other light sensing applications.

  5. Recent advances in ALON optical ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Joseph M.; Hartnett, Thomas M.; Goldman, Lee M.; Twedt, Richard; Warner, Charles

    2005-05-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALONTM Optical Ceramic) is a transparent ceramic material which combines transparency from the UV to the MWIR with excellent mechanical properties. ALON"s optical and mechanical properties are isotropic by virtue of its cubic crystalline structure. Consequently, ALON is transparent in its polycrystalline form and can be made by conventional powder processing techniques. This combination of properties and manufacturability make ALON suitable for a range of applications from IR windows, domes and lenses to transparent armor. The technology for producing transparent ALON was developed at Raytheon and has been transferred to Surmet Corporation where it is currently in production. Surmet is currently selling ALON into a number of military (e.g., windows and domes) and commercial (e.g., supermarket scanner windows) applications. The capability to manufacture large ALON windows for both sensor window and armor applications is in place. ALON windows up to 20x30 inches have been fabricated. In addition, the capability to shape and polish these large and curved windows is being developed and demonstrated at Surmet. Complex shapes, both hyper-hemispherical and conformal, are also under development and will be described.

  6. Integrated modeling of advanced optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Needels, Laura; Levine, B. Martin

    1993-01-01

    This poster session paper describes an integrated modeling and analysis capability being developed at JPL under funding provided by the JPL Director's Discretionary Fund and the JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program (CSI). The posters briefly summarize the program capabilities and illustrate them with an example problem. The computer programs developed under this effort will provide an unprecedented capability for integrated modeling and design of high performance optical spacecraft. The engineering disciplines supported include structural dynamics, controls, optics and thermodynamics. Such tools are needed in order to evaluate the end-to-end system performance of spacecraft such as OSI, POINTS, and SMMM. This paper illustrates the proof-of-concept tools that have been developed to establish the technology requirements and demonstrate the new features of integrated modeling and design. The current program also includes implementation of a prototype tool based upon the CAESY environment being developed under the NASA Guidance and Control Research and Technology Computational Controls Program. This prototype will be available late in FY-92. The development plan proposes a major software production effort to fabricate, deliver, support and maintain a national-class tool from FY-93 through FY-95.

  7. Printed polymer photonic devices for optical interconnect systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Pan, Zeyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L. J.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer photonic device fabrication usually relies on the utilization of clean-room processes, including photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which are expensive and are limited to areas as large as a wafer. Utilizing a novel and a scalable printing process involving ink-jet printing and imprinting, we have fabricated polymer based photonic interconnect components, such as electro-optic polymer based modulators and ring resonator switches, and thermo-optic polymer switch based delay networks and demonstrated their operation. Specifically, a modulator operating at 15MHz and a 2-bit delay network providing up to 35.4ps are presented. In this paper, we also discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to make roll-to-roll manufacturing practically viable. We discuss a few manufacturing challenges, such as inspection and quality control, registration, and web control, that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. We have overcome these challenges, and currently utilizing our inhouse developed hardware and software tools, <10μm alignment accuracy at a 5m/min is demonstrated. Such a scalable roll-to-roll manufacturing scheme will enable the development of unique optoelectronic devices which can be used in a myriad of different applications, including communication, sensing, medicine, security, imaging, energy, lighting etc.

  8. Screening far red probes for use on optical biochip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Kerenza L.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Pors, Klaus; Zloh, Mire; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Summers, Huw; Matthews, Daniel; Errington, Rachel J.; Smith, Paul J.

    2006-02-01

    In situ spectral analysis can be used to understand the targeting and interaction of agents in cellular compartments. A range of novel red excitable fluorescent probes, related to the anthraquinone family of anti-cancer agents, were designed for their DNA affinic properties and their ability to enter and penetrate living cells. We report on the spectral features of these probes, both in solution and bound within intact cells, to identify unique fluorescent signatures that exploit their use in bioassays on optical biochip devices. The probes demonstrated red shifted emission spectra and increased 2 photon lifetime, with minimal fluorescent enhancement, upon binding to DNA. Spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed complex emission profiles representing the bound (nuclear) and unbound (cytoplasmic) fractions of the DNA probes within live interphase, mitotic and apoptotic cells. Analysis of the emission peaks encoded the spectra to provide cell compartment recognition and profiles for cells in different cell states. Sampling the entire emission spectra of these probes for cell locating, even in the presence of unbound molecules, provides good signal-to-noise in biochip devices. Furthermore, by sampling the fluorescence output at specific spectral windows we can obtain high spatial information without imaging. The technological challenge is to integrate these fluorophores and appropriate detection capacity onto an optical biochip platform with microfluidic systems for cell handling.

  9. Self-organized optical device driven by motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Susumu; Shimoike, Masahiko; Hiratsuka, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Protein molecules produce diverse functions according to their combination and arrangement as is evident in a living cell. Therefore, they have a great potential for application in future devices. However, it is currently very difficult to construct systems in which a large number of different protein molecules work cooperatively. As an approach to this challenge, we arranged protein molecules in artificial microstructures and assembled an optical device inspired by a molecular system of a fish melanophore. We prepared arrays of cell-like microchambers, each of which contained a scaffold of microtubule seeds at the center. By polymerizing tubulin from the fixed microtubule seeds, we obtained radially arranged microtubules in the chambers. We subsequently prepared pigment granules associated with dynein motors and attached them to the radial microtubule arrays, which made a melanophore-like system. When ATP was added to the system, the color patterns of the chamber successfully changed, due to active transportation of pigments. Furthermore, as an application of the system, image formation on the array of the optical units was performed. This study demonstrates that a properly designed microstructure facilitates arrangement and self-organization of molecules and enables assembly of functional molecular systems. PMID:24065817

  10. Towards next generation time-domain diffuse optics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Mora, Alberto; Contini, Davide; Arridge, Simon R.; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Farina, Andrea; Durduran, Turgut; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse Optics is growing in terms of applications ranging from e.g. oximetry, to mammography, molecular imaging, quality assessment of food and pharmaceuticals, wood optics, physics of random media. Time-domain (TD) approaches, although appealing in terms of quantitation and depth sensibility, are presently limited to large fiber-based systems, with limited number of source-detector pairs. We present a miniaturized TD source-detector probe embedding integrated laser sources and single-photon detectors. Some electronics are still external (e.g. power supply, pulse generators, timing electronics), yet full integration on-board using already proven technologies is feasible. The novel devices were successfully validated on heterogeneous phantoms showing performances comparable to large state-of-the-art TD rack-based systems. With an investigation based on simulations we provide numerical evidence that the possibility to stack many TD compact source-detector pairs in a dense, null source-detector distance arrangement could yield on the brain cortex about 1 decade higher contrast as compared to a continuous wave (CW) approach. Further, a 3-fold increase in the maximum depth (down to 6 cm) is estimated, opening accessibility to new organs such as the lung or the heart. Finally, these new technologies show the way towards compact and wearable TD probes with orders of magnitude reduction in size and cost, for a widespread use of TD devices in real life.

  11. All-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices using telecom-band femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect

    He, Li; Chen, Jun-Yang; Wang, Jian-Ping E-mail: moli@umn.edu; Li, Mo E-mail: moli@umn.edu

    2015-09-07

    Ultrafast all-optical switching of the magnetization of various magnetic systems is an intriguing phenomenon that can have tremendous impact on information storage and processing. Here, we demonstrate all-optical switching of GdFeCo alloy films using a telecom-band femtosecond fiber laser. We further fabricate Hall cross devices and electrically readout all-optical switching by measuring anomalous Hall voltage changes. The use of a telecom laser and the demonstrated all-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices represent the first step toward integration of opto-magnetic devices with mainstream photonic devices to enable novel optical and spintronic functionalities.

  12. All-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices using telecom-band femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li; Chen, Jun-Yang; Wang, Jian-Ping; Li, Mo

    2015-09-01

    Ultrafast all-optical switching of the magnetization of various magnetic systems is an intriguing phenomenon that can have tremendous impact on information storage and processing. Here, we demonstrate all-optical switching of GdFeCo alloy films using a telecom-band femtosecond fiber laser. We further fabricate Hall cross devices and electrically readout all-optical switching by measuring anomalous Hall voltage changes. The use of a telecom laser and the demonstrated all-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices represent the first step toward integration of opto-magnetic devices with mainstream photonic devices to enable novel optical and spintronic functionalities.

  13. Advanced NDE research in electromagnetic, thermal, and coherent optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1992-09-01

    A new inspection technology called magneto-optic/eddy current imaging was investigated. The magneto-optic imager makes readily visible irregularities and inconsistencies in airframe components. Other research observed in electromagnetics included (1) disbond detection via resonant modal analysis; (2) AC magnetic field frequency dependence of magnetoacoustic emission; and (3) multi-view magneto-optic imaging. Research observed in the thermal group included (1) thermographic detection and characterization of corrosion in aircraft aluminum; (2) a multipurpose infrared imaging system for thermoelastic stress detection; (3) thermal diffusivity imaging of stress induced damage in composites; and (4) detection and measurement of ice formation on the space shuttle main fuel tank. Research observed in the optics group included advancements in optical nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

  14. Recent advancements towards green optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Alan; Glesk, Ivan; Buis, Adrianus; Wang, Junjia; Chen, Lawrence

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth in demand for ultra high speed data transmission with end users expecting fast, high bandwidth network access. With this rapid growth in demand, data centres are under pressure to provide ever increasing data rates through their networks and at the same time improve the quality of data handling in terms of reduced latency, increased scalability and improved channel speed for users. However as data rates increase, present technology based on well-established CMOS technology is becoming increasingly difficult to scale and consequently data networks are struggling to satisfy current network demand. In this paper the interrelated issues of electronic scalability, power consumption, limited copper interconnect bandwidth and the limited speed of CMOS electronics will be explored alongside the tremendous bandwidth potential of optical fibre based photonic networks. Some applications of photonics to help alleviate the speed and latency in data networks will be discussed.

  15. Advanced Heat Pipes For Optical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaubach, Robert M.; Eastman, G. Yale

    1984-12-01

    Heat pipes offer the potential of vibrationless cooling of optical surfaces while maintaining a high degree of temperature uniformity on the cooled surface. The objective of the present program is to develop and demonstrate prototype heat pipes for this application. The material of construction is silicon; the pqwer density range is 5 to 50 Watts/per square centimeter with a nominal objective of 30 W/cm2. This paper describes the first eighteen months of work, during which the contract goals were met. The program was carried out by Thermacore on Contract F33615-82-C-5127 for the Department of the Air Force, Aeronautical Systems Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Dr. Alan K. Hopkins of the Materials Laboratory supplied technical supervision of the program for the Air Force.

  16. Micro-Fresnel Zone Plate Optical Devices Using Densely Accumulated Ray Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An embodiment generally relates to an optical device suitable for use with an optical medium for the storage and retrieval of data. The optical device includes an illumination means for providing a beam of optical radiation of wavelength .lamda. and an optical path that the beam of optical radiation follows. The optical device also includes a diffractive optical element defined by a plurality of annular sections. The plurality of annular sections having a first material alternately disposed with a plurality of annular sections comprising a second material. The diffractive optical element generates a plurality of focal points and densely accumulated ray points with phase contrast phenomena and the optical medium is positioned at a selected focal point or ray point of the diffractive optical element.

  17. Stretchable optical device with electrically tunable absorbance and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Cormac A.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.; Frediani, Gabriele; Carpi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    We report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of a quantum dot (QD) doped dielectric elastomer actuator as a new stretchable optical device with electrically tunable optical absorbance and fluorescence. A polyacrylate dielectric elastomer film with carbon grease electrodes was loaded with organic-phase CdSe/CdS luminescent QDs. This study moved from the working hypothesis that electrical actuation of the QD doped elastomer varies the distances among each QD and its neighbours in the structure, modifying the volume and/or surface density of QDs, and thus leading to variable interactions among them, therefore changing the optical spectral properties of the QDs in the elastomer matrix. Experiments revealed that applied voltages increased the UV-vis absorbance, and decreased the photoluminescence (fluorescence) intensity and lifetimes. The former effect proved the working hypothesis, while the latter was not expected. The drop in photoluminescence intensity was found to be caused by the high fringe electric field generated by the actuator. The paper presents characterizations and discusses results, highlighting potentials and challenges of such systems.

  18. Advance ultra sensitive multi-layered nano plasmonic devices for label free biosensing targeting immunodiagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Divya; Dwivedi, R. P.

    2016-09-01

    The rapid advancement in technology has envisaged and drafted the use of optical bio-sensing units into label free and multiplexed bio-sensing, exploring the surface plasmon polaritons, which has turned into a gold standard on the commercial basis, but they are bulky and find difficulty in scaling up for the throughput detection. The integration of plasmonic crystals with microfluidics on the bio-sensing frontier offers a multi-level validation of results with the ease of real-time detection and imaging and holds a great promise to develop ultra-sensitive, fast, portable device for the point-of-care diagnostics. The paper describes the fast, low cost approach of designing and simulating label free biosensor using open source MEEP and other software tools targeting Immunodiagnostics.

  19. Optically controlled microwave devices and circuits: Emerging applications in space communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1987-01-01

    Optical control of microwave devices and circuits by an optical fiber has the potential to simplify signal distribution networks in high frequency communications systems. The optical response of two terminal and three terminal (GaAs MESFET, HEMT, PBT) microwave devices are compared and several schemes for controlling such devices by modulated optical signals examined. Monolithic integration of optical and microwave functions on a single semiconductor substrate is considered to provide low power, low loss, and reliable digital and analog optical links for signal distribution.

  20. Advanced optical interference filters based on metal and dielectric layers.

    PubMed

    Begou, Thomas; Lemarchand, Fabien; Lumeau, Julien

    2016-09-05

    In this paper, we investigate the design and the fabrication of an advanced optical interference filter based on metal and dielectric layers. This filter respects the specifications of the 2016 OIC manufacturing problem contest. We study and present all the challenges and solutions that allowed achieving a low deviation between the fabricated prototype and the target.

  1. Optical diagnosis of mammary ductal carcinoma using advanced optical technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-02-01

    Clinical imaging techniques for diagnosing breast cancer mainly include X-ray mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have respective drawbacks. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become a potentially attractive optical technique to bridge the current gap in clinical utility. In this paper, MPM was used to image normal and ductal cancerous breast tissues, based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Our results showed that MPM has the ability to exhibit the microstructure of normal breast tissue, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) lesions at the molecular level comparable to histopathology. These findings indicate that, with integration of MPM into currently accepted clinical imaging system, it has the potential to make a real-time histological diagnosis of mammary ductal carcinoma in vivo.

  2. Using advanced mobile devices in nursing practice--the views of nurses and nursing students.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Pauline; Petersson, Göran; Saveman, Britt-Inger; Nilsson, Gunilla

    2014-09-01

    Advanced mobile devices allow registered nurses and nursing students to keep up-to-date with expanding health-related knowledge but are rarely used in nursing in Sweden. This study aims at describing registered nurses' and nursing students' views regarding the use of advanced mobile devices in nursing practice. A cross-sectional study was completed in 2012; a total of 398 participants replied to a questionnaire, and descriptive statistics were applied. Results showed that the majority of the participants regarded an advanced mobile device to be useful, giving access to necessary information and also being useful in making notes, planning their work and saving time. Furthermore, the advanced mobile device was regarded to improve patient safety and the quality of care and to increase confidence. In order to continuously improve the safety and quality of health care, advanced mobile devices adjusted for nursing practice should be further developed, implemented and evaluated in research.

  3. Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Jarlath; Polagye, Brian; Fabien, Brian; Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Marnagh, Cian; Donegan, James

    2016-03-31

    The Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices (Project) investigated, analyzed and modeled advanced turbine control schemes with the objective of increasing the energy harvested by hydrokinetic turbines in turbulent flow. Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) implemented and validated a feedforward controller to increase power capture; and applied and tested the controls on ORPC’s RivGen® Power Systems in Igiugig, Alaska. Assessments of performance improvements were made for the RivGen® in the Igiugig environment and for ORPC’s TidGen® Power System in a reference tidal environment. Annualized Energy Production (AEP) and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) improvements associated with implementation of the recommended control methodology were made for the TidGen® Power System in the DOE reference tidal environment. System Performance Advancement (SPA) goals were selected for the project. SPA targets were to improve Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) and system Availability, with the intention of reducing Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). This project focused primarily reducing in PWR. Reductions in PWR of 25.5% were achieved. Reductions of 20.3% in LCOE were achieved. This project evaluated four types of controllers which were tested in simulation, emulation, a laboratory flume, and the field. The adaptive Kω2 controller performs similarly to the non-adaptive version of the same controller and may be useful in tidal channels where the mean velocity is continually evolving. Trends in simulation were largely verified through experiments, which also provided the opportunity to test assumptions about turbine responsiveness and control resilience to varying scales of turbulence. Laboratory experiments provided an essential stepping stone between simulation and implementation on a field-scale turbine. Experiments also demonstrated that using “energy loss” as a metric to differentiate between well-designed controllers operating at

  4. Point-of-Care (POC) Devices by Means of Advanced MEMS

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Stanislav L.; Tarhan, Mehmet C.; Kudo, Lili C.; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have become an invaluable technology to advance the development of point-of-care (POC) devices for diagnostics and sample analyses. MEMS can transform sophisticated methods into compact and cost-effective microdevices that offer numerous advantages at many levels. Such devices include microchannels, microsensors, etc., that have been applied to various miniaturized POC products. Here we discuss some of the recent advances made in the use of MEMS devices for POC applications. PMID:26459443

  5. Durable left ventricular assist device therapy in advanced heart failure: Patient selection and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sachin P.; Mehra, Mandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) into clinical practice is related to a combination of engineering advances in pump technology and improvements in understanding the appropriate clinical use of these devices in the management of patients with advanced heart failure. This review intends to assist the clinician in identifying candidates for LVAD implantation, to examine long-term outcomes and provide an overview of the common complications related to use of these devices. PMID:27056652

  6. All-optical compact surface plasmonic two-mode interference device for optical logic gate operation.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Nilima; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2015-02-10

    In this paper, we have proposed an ultra-compact surface plasmonic two-mode interference (SPTMI) coupler having a silicon core, silver upper and lower cladding, and GaAsInP left and right cladding for basic logic gate operations. By modulating the refractive index of the GaAsInP cladding with incidence of optical pulse energy, we have shown coupling characteristics depending on additional phase change ΔΦ(E) between the excited surface plasmon polariton modes propagating through the silicon core. By using applied optical pulse dependent coupling behavior of the proposed SPTMI device, the operations of NOT, AND, and OR logic gates are shown. It is also seen that the coupling length of the proposed device is 32.3 times more compact than that of a multimode interference-directional coupler.

  7. Digital polarization holography advancing 4G optics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sio, Luciano; Roberts, David E.; Tabiryan, Nelson V.; Steeves, Diane M.; Kimball, Brian R.

    2016-09-01

    The fourth generation optics (4G optics) enables the realization of novel optical components (lenses, gratings, vector vortices, etc.) by patterning the optical axis orientation in the plane of an anisotropic film. Such components exhibit near 100% diffraction efficiency for wavelengths meeting half-wave retardation condition. In this framework, we have advanced a step-forward by realizing different diffractive waveplates (DWs) with arbitrary spatial patterns of the optical axis orientation by exploiting the capability of a Digital Spatial Light Polarization Converter (DSLPC). The DSLPC is based on a reflective, high resolution Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) combined with an "ad hoc" optical setup. The most attractive feature of the use of a DSLPC for photoalignment is that the orientation of the alignment layer, and therefore of the fabricated liquid crystal (LC) or liquid crystal polymer (LCP) DWs, can be specified on a pixel-by-pixel basis. By varying the optical magnification or de-magnification between the SLM and the alignment layer, the spatial resolution of the photoaligned layer can be adjusted to be optimal for each application. We show that with a simple "click" it is possible to record different high resolution optical components as well as arbitrary patterns ranging from lenses to invisible and even dual labels.

  8. Advanced Optical Burst Switched Network Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejabati, Reza; Aracil, Javier; Castoldi, Piero; de Leenheer, Marc; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Valcarenghi, Luca; Zervas, Georgios; Wu, Jian

    In recent years, as the bandwidth and the speed of networks have increased significantly, a new generation of network-based applications using the concept of distributed computing and collaborative services is emerging (e.g., Grid computing applications). The use of the available fiber and DWDM infrastructure for these applications is a logical choice offering huge amounts of cheap bandwidth and ensuring global reach of computing resources [230]. Currently, there is a great deal of interest in deploying optical circuit (wavelength) switched network infrastructure for distributed computing applications that require long-lived wavelength paths and address the specific needs of a small number of well-known users. Typical users are particle physicists who, due to their international collaborations and experiments, generate enormous amounts of data (Petabytes per year). These users require a network infrastructures that can support processing and analysis of large datasets through globally distributed computing resources [230]. However, providing wavelength granularity bandwidth services is not an efficient and scalable solution for applications and services that address a wider base of user communities with different traffic profiles and connectivity requirements. Examples of such applications may be: scientific collaboration in smaller scale (e.g., bioinformatics, environmental research), distributed virtual laboratories (e.g., remote instrumentation), e-health, national security and defense, personalized learning environments and digital libraries, evolving broadband user services (i.e., high resolution home video editing, real-time rendering, high definition interactive TV). As a specific example, in e-health services and in particular mammography applications due to the size and quantity of images produced by remote mammography, stringent network requirements are necessary. Initial calculations have shown that for 100 patients to be screened remotely, the network

  9. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, R.

    1994-08-09

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.

  10. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1994-01-11

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

  11. Microring and microdisk resonator-based devices for on-chip optical interconnects, particle manipulation, and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Andrew W.; Feng, Shaoqi; Cai, Hong; Lei, Ting; Chen, Hui; Luo, Xianshu

    2011-03-01

    Silicon photonics using microdisk and microring resonators are finding technologically important applications from telecommunications and on-chip optical interconnects to optofluidics and biosensing. Silicon-based microresonators that partially confine light by total internal reflection are versatile device structures which are highly wavelength-selective, reconfigurable via various refractive index tuning mechanisms, micrometer-scale footprint, and readily in/out-coupled with integrated waveguides. In this paper, we will highlight our latest progress in silicon photonics using microdisk and microring resonators for on-chip optical interconnects, optofluidics and biosensing applications including the experimental demonstrations of: (i) optical time delay and advance using silicon microring resonators integrated with pi- n diodes; (ii) photocurrent spectroscopy of microdisk resonators using two-photon-absorption induced photocarriers; (iii) optical trapping and transporting of microparticles using a water-clad silicon nitride microring resonator; and (iv) coupled microdisk resonator optical waveguide-based refractive index sensors.

  12. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... optic communications, components thereof, and products containing the same by reason of infringement...

  13. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  14. A new repeatable, optical writing and electrical erasing device based on photochromism and electrochromism of viologen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li-ping; Wei, Jian; Wang, Yue-chuan; Ding, Guo-jing; Yang, Yu-lin

    2012-08-01

    New optical writing and electrical erasing devices have been successfully fabricated that exploit the photochromism and electrochromism of viologen. In a preliminary study, both the structures of viologen and device were investigated in detail by UV-vis spectra in order to confirm their effects on the optical writing and electrical erasing performances of corresponding devices. For sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on benzyl viologen (BV 2+), only optical writing can be performed, not electrical erasing operations, which indicated these devices cannot realize optical information rewriting. For single and complementary devices based on styrene-functional viologen (V BV 2+) and acrylic-functional viologen (ACV 2+), optical writing and electrical erasing operations can be reversibly performed and optical information rewriting realized. It is clear that single devices based on V BV2+ and ACV2+ possess better performance accompanied with contrast without significant degradation and bleaching times and without significant deterioration over 10 repeated writing/erasing cycles. Furthermore, we put forward possible mechanisms for sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on V BV2+ and ACV2+ for the optical writing and electrical erasing operations. This study provides a new strategy to design optical writing and electrical erasing devices to realize optical information rewriting.

  15. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C.; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies. PMID:26927105

  16. Detection of radio-frequency modulated optical signals by two and three terminal microwave devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Simons, R. N.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1987-01-01

    An interdigitated photoconductor (two terminal device) on GaAlAs/GaAs heterostructure was fabricated and tested by an electro-optical sampling technique. Further, the photoresponse of GaAlAs/GaAs HEMT (three terminal device) was obtained by illuminating the device with an optical signal modulated up to 8 GHz. Gain-bandwidth product, response time, and noise properties of photoconductor and HEMT devices were obtained. Monolithic integration of these photodetectors with GaAs microwave devices for optically controlled phased array antenna applications is discussed.

  17. Analysis on optical bistability parameters in photonic switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafraz, Hossein; Sayeh, Mohammad R.

    2016-06-01

    An investigation has been done on the parameters of a hysteretic bistable optical Schmitt trigger device. From a design point of view, it is important to know the regions where this bistability occurs and is fully functional with respect to its subsystem parameters. Otherwise experimentally reaching such behavior will be very time-consuming and frustrating, especially with multiple devices employed in a single photonic circuit. A photonic Schmitt trigger consisting of two feedbacked inverting amplifiers, each characterized by -m (slope), A (y-intercept), and B (constant base) parameters is considered. This system is investigated dynamically with a varying input to find its stable and unstable states both mathematically and with simulation. In addition to a complete mathematical analysis of the system, we also describe how m, A, and B can be properly chosen in order to satisfy certain system conditions that result in bistability. More restrictions are also imposed to these absolute conditions by the system conditions as will be discussed. Finally, all results are verified in a more realistic photonic simulation.

  18. Active fiber optic technologies used as tamper-indicating devices

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-11-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Safeguards and Seals Evaluation Program is evaluating new fiber optic active seal technologies for use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal of the program is to investigate active seal technologies that can monitor secured containers storing special nuclear materials (SNM) within DOE vaults. Specifically investigated were active seal technologies that can be used as tamper-indicating devices to monitor secured containers within vaults while personnel remain outside the vault area. Such a system would allow minimal access into vaults while ensuring container content accountability. The purpose of this report is to discuss tamper-indicating devices that were evaluated for possible DOE use. While previous seal evaluations (Phase I and II) considered overall facility applications, this discussion focuses specifically on their use in vault storage situations. The report will highlight general background information, specifications and requirements, and test procedures. Also discussed are the systems available from four manufacturers: Interactive Technologies, Inc., Fiber SenSys, Inc., Inovonics, Inc., and Valve Security Systems.

  19. Optical spatial solitons: historical overview and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhigang; Segev, Mordechai; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2012-08-01

    Solitons, nonlinear self-trapped wavepackets, have been extensively studied in many and diverse branches of physics such as optics, plasmas, condensed matter physics, fluid mechanics, particle physics and even astrophysics. Interestingly, over the past two decades, the field of solitons and related nonlinear phenomena has been substantially advanced and enriched by research and discoveries in nonlinear optics. While optical solitons have been vigorously investigated in both spatial and temporal domains, it is now fair to say that much soliton research has been mainly driven by the work on optical spatial solitons. This is partly due to the fact that although temporal solitons as realized in fiber optic systems are fundamentally one-dimensional entities, the high dimensionality associated with their spatial counterparts has opened up altogether new scientific possibilities in soliton research. Another reason is related to the response time of the nonlinearity. Unlike temporal optical solitons, spatial solitons have been realized by employing a variety of noninstantaneous nonlinearities, ranging from the nonlinearities in photorefractive materials and liquid crystals to the nonlinearities mediated by the thermal effect, thermophoresis and the gradient force in colloidal suspensions. Such a diversity of nonlinear effects has given rise to numerous soliton phenomena that could otherwise not be envisioned, because for decades scientists were of the mindset that solitons must strictly be the exact solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation as established for ideal Kerr nonlinear media. As such, the discoveries of optical spatial solitons in different systems and associated new phenomena have stimulated broad interest in soliton research. In particular, the study of incoherent solitons and discrete spatial solitons in optical periodic media not only led to advances in our understanding of fundamental processes in nonlinear optics and photonics, but also had a

  20. Digital micro-mirror devices in digital optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyemi, Adekunle Adesanya

    In this thesis, studies on the applications of digital micro-mirror devices (DMD) to enhancement of digital optical microscope images are presented. This involves adaptation of the fast switching capability and high optical efficiency of DMD to control the spatial illumination of the specimen. The first study focuses on a method of using DMD to enhance the dynamic range of a digital optical microscope. Our adaptive feedback illumination control method generates a high dynamic range image through an algorithm that combines the DMD-to-camera pixel geometrical mapping and a feedback operation. The feedback process automatically generates an illumination pattern in an iterative fashion that spatially modulates the DMD array elements on a pixel-by-pixel level. Via experiment, we demonstrate a transmitted-light microscope system that uses precise DMD control of a DMD-based projector to enhance the dynamic range ideally by a factor of 573. Results are presented showing approximately 5 times the camera dynamic range, enabling visualization over a wide range of specimen characteristics. The second study presents a technique for programming the source of the spherical reference illumination in a digital in-line holographic microscope using DMD. The programmable point source is achieved by individually addressing the elements of a DMD to spatially control the illumination of the object located at some distance from the source of the spherical reference field. Translation of the ON-state DMD mirror element changes the spatial location of the point source and consequently generates a sequence of translated holograms of the object. The experimental results obtained through numerical reconstruction of translated holograms of Latex microspheres shows the possibility of expanding the field of view by about 263% and also extracting depth information between features in an object volume. The common challenges associated with the use of DMD in coherent and broadband illumination

  1. Advanced Materials for Use in Soft Self-Healing Devices.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tan-Phat; Sonar, Prashant; Haick, Hossam

    2017-02-23

    Devices integrated with self-healing ability can benefit from long-term use as well as enhanced reliability, maintenance and durability. This progress report reviews the developments in the field of self-healing polymers/composites and wearable devices thereof. One part of the progress report presents and discusses several aspects of the self-healing materials chemistry (from non-covalent to reversible covalent-based mechanisms), as well as the required main approaches used for functionalizing the composites to enhance their electrical conductivity, magnetic, dielectric, electroactive and/or photoactive properties. The second and complementary part of the progress report links the self-healing materials with partially or fully self-healing device technologies, including wearable sensors, supercapacitors, solar cells and fabrics. Some of the strong and weak points in the development of each self-healing device are clearly highlighted and criticized, respectively. Several ideas regarding further improvement of soft self-healing devices are proposed.

  2. Advances in DOE modeling and optical performance for SMO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriere, James; Stack, Jared; Childers, John; Welch, Kevin; Himel, Marc D.

    2010-04-01

    The introduction of source mask optimization (SMO) to the design process addresses an urgent need for the 32nm node and beyond as alternative lithography approaches continue to push out. To take full advantage of SMO routines, an understanding of the characteristic properties of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) is required. Greater flexibility in the DOE output is needed to optimize lithographic process windows. In addition, new and tighter constraints on the DOEs used for off-axis illumination (OAI) are being introduced to precisely predict, control and reduce the effects of pole imbalance and stray light on the CD budget. We present recent advancements in the modeling and optical performance of these DOEs.

  3. A novel fluorinated Eu(III) β-diketone complex as thin film for optical device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sá, Gilberto F.; Alves, Severino, Jr.; da Silva, Blenio J. P.; da Silva, Eronides F., Jr.

    1998-11-01

    We discuss the synthesis and spectroscopic characteristics of a thin film (˜30-90 nm) based on lanthanide europium (III) complexes as the emitter layers, to shift the UV portion of light spectrum into the visible region. The complex presents high quantum efficiency (˜65%), is highly volatile and thermodynamically stable. In addition, the thin film is used as an alternative antireflection coating on a silicon solar cell, allowing for an improvement of about 21% on cell efficiency. The high absorption and luminescence properties in the UV-visible region and its compatibility with device fabrication processes make this material of great potential for use in advanced optical device technologies.

  4. Design of 3D isotropic metamaterial device using smart transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Kim, Junhyun; Yoo, Do-Sik; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2015-08-24

    We report here a design method for a 3 dimensional (3D) isotropic transformation optical device using smart transformation optics. Inspired by solid mechanics, smart transformation optics regards a transformation optical medium as an elastic solid and deformations as coordinate transformations. Further developing from our previous work on 2D smart transformation optics, we introduce a method of 3D smart transformation optics to design 3D transformation optical devices by maintaining isotropic materials properties for all types of polarizations imposing free or nearly free boundary conditions. Due to the material isotropy, it is possible to fabricate such devices with structural metamaterials made purely of common dielectric materials. In conclusion, the practical importance of the method reported here lies in the fact that it enables us to fabricate, without difficulty, arbitrarily shaped 3D devices with existing 3D printing technology.

  5. Tunable and reconfigurable THz devices for advanced imaging and adaptive wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Shams, M. I. B.; Jiang, Z.; Rahman, S.; Hesler, J. L.; Cheng, L.-J.; Fay, P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report on two different approaches that have been explored to realize tunable and reconfigurable THz devices for advanced imaging and adaptive wireless communication. The first approach makes use of electronically tunable varactor diodes. Frequency tunable THz antennas based on this approach have been successfully demonstrated for the first time in G-band, enabling the development of spectroscopic THz detectors and focal-plane imaging arrays. The second approach takes advantages of optical THz spatial modulation based on photo-induced free carriers in semiconductors. Using this approach, high-performance tunable THz modulators/attenuators, reconfigurable masks for THz coded aperture imaging, and photo-induced Fresnel-zone-plate antennas for dynamic THz beam steering and forming have been successfully demonstrated. Our recent study also shows that by employing the so-called mesa array technique, sub-wavelength spatial resolution and higher than 100 dB modulation depth can be achieved, making it possible to develop tunable THz devices (e.g., tunable filters) with performance and versatility far beyond those realized by conventional approaches. On the basis of the above investigation, the prospects of high-speed near-field THz imaging, real-time ultra-sensitive heterodyne imaging and prototype adaptive THz wireless communication links will be discussed.

  6. All-optical devices realized by the post-growth processing of multiquantum-well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LiKamWa, Patrick; Kan'an, Ayman M.; Dutta, Mitra; Pamulapati, Jagadeesh

    1997-01-01

    An inexpensive and reliable process for the area-selective disordering of MQW structures is reported. The method relies on the diffusion, by rapid thermal annealing, of surface vacancies into the quantum wells thereby intermixing the Ga and Al atoms between the wells and barriers. A silicon oxide cap that is formed by curing a spun-on solution of glass forming compound acts as porous layer that enhances the formation of surface vacancies by allowing out-diffusion of Ga and Al atoms. This technique has been applied to the fabrication of two integrated optical devices. One is the nonlinear zero-gap directional coupler with disordered input and output branching waveguides, and the other is the symmetric nonlinear integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with one arm containing a non-intermixed MQW section. In both devices, the mechanism for the switching is the nonlinear refractive index that is caused by photo-generated carriers. Since this mechanism entails absorption of some of the pump beam, it is hence very important that the optical absorption be confined to the active sections only. Selective area disordering is shown to be very effective at defining regions of different bandgap energies. Hence it can be ensured that the energy of the pump laser beam is too low in comparison to the bandgap energy of the passive regions to be absorbed and the free carriers are only created in the non-intermixed active sections. The devices investigated using a pump-probe setup, exhibited strong all-optical switching behavior with a contrast ratio of better than 7:1. The controlled selective area intermixing of MQW structures will potentially play a significant role in the advancement of photonic integrated circuits.

  7. Fabrication and performance of contamination free individual single-walled carbon nanotube optical devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuxiu; Cheng, Rong; Liu, Jianqiang; Li, Tie

    2014-06-01

    Contamination free individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) optical devices are fabricated using a hybrid method in the purpose of increase sensitivity as well as further understanding the sensing mechanism. The devices were tested in vacuum to avoid contamination. Three typical devices are discussed comparatively. Under infrared lamp illumination, photovoltaic and photoconductive properties are revealed in device A and B respectively, while device C shows no detectable signal. The photoresponse of device B reaches 108% at 78 K, much larger than that of horizontally aligned or network carbon nanotube devices, indicating priority of the individual nanotube device structure. Interestingly, the temperature characteristics of device A and B are just the opposite. The individual SWCNT devices hold promise in high performance and low cost optical sensors as well as nano-scale solar cells.

  8. Advanced integrated safeguards using front-end-triggering devices

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Whitty, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report addresses potential uses of front-end-triggering devices for enhanced safeguards. Such systems incorporate video surveillance as well as radiation and other sensors. Also covered in the report are integration issues and analysis techniques.

  9. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Philip R.

    2011-09-27

    This presentation from the Water Peer Review highlights one of the program's marine and hyrokinetics device design projects to scale up the current Ocean Power Technology PowerBuoy from 150kW to 500kW.

  10. Advanced Laser Chemical Processing For Microelectronics and Integrated Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-15

    Barbara, CA (June 25-27, 1990). 15. R.M. Osgood, Jr., " Laser - Fabrication for Integrated Electronics and Optics," OITDA Conference, Tokyo, Japan, (July 5...Society Meeting, Boston, MA, November 26 - December 3, 1990. 20. R.M. Osgood, Jr., "Advances in Laser Fabrication for Solid-State Electronics and...Thin, Excimer Laser-Deposited Cd Interlayers," J. Elec. Mat. 12, 1239 (July, 1990). 14. R.M. Osgood, Jr., " Laser - Fabrication for Solid State

  11. 76 FR 12144 - Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 2, 2011. It appears to the... securities of Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the... of investors require a suspension of trading in Advanced Optics Electronics, Inc. Therefore, it...

  12. Large-scale photonic integration for advanced all-optical routing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholes, Steven C.

    Advanced InP-based photonic integrated circuits are a critical technology to manage the increasing bandwidth demands of next-generation all-optical networks. Integrating many of the discrete functions required in optical networks into a single device provides a reduction in system footprint and optical losses by eliminating the fiber coupling junctions between components. This translates directly into increased system reliability and cost savings. Although many key network components have been realized via InP-based monolithic integration over the years, truly large-scale photonic ICs have only recently emerged in the marketplace. This lag-time has been mostly due to historically low device yields. In all-optical routing applications, large-scale photonic ICs may be able to address two of the key roadblocks associated with scaling modern electronic routers to higher capacities---namely, power and size. If the functions of dynamic wavelength conversion and routing are moved to the optical layer, we can eliminate the need for power-hungry optical-to-electrical (O/E) and electrical-to-optical (E/O) data conversions at each router node. Additionally, large-scale photonic ICs could reduce the footprint of such a system by combining the similar functions of each port onto a single chip. However, robust design and manufacturing techniques that will enable high-yield production of these chips must be developed. In this work, we demonstrate a monolithic tunable optical router (MOTOR) chip consisting of an array of eight 40-Gbps wavelength converters and a passive arrayed-waveguide grating router that functions as the packet-forwarding switch fabric of an all-optical router. The device represents one of the most complex InP photonic ICs ever reported, with more than 200 integrated functional elements in a single chip. Single-channel 40 Gbps wavelength conversion and channel switching using 231-1 PRBS data showed a power penalty as low as 4.5 dB with less than 2 W drive power

  13. Selective Processing Techniques for Electronics and Opto-Electronic Applications: Quantum-Well Devices and Integrated Optic Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-10

    new technology is to have sufficient control of processing to *- describable by an appropriate elecromagnetic model . build useful devices. For example...3. W aveguide Modulators .................................. 7 B. Integrated Optical Device and Circuit Modeling ... ................... .. 10 C...following categories: A. Integrated Optical Devices and Technology B. Integrated Optical Device and Circuit Modeling C. Cryogenic Etching for Low

  14. A new generation of IC based beam steering devices for free-space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedi, Vijit

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has tremendously advanced within the last decade to meet the ever increasing demand for higher communication bandwidth. Advancement in laser technology since its invention in the 1960's [1] attracted them to be the dominant source in FSO communication modules. The future of FSO systems lay in implementing semiconductor lasers due to their small size, power efficiency and mass fabrication abilities. In the near future, these systems are very likely to be used in space and ground based applications and revolutionary beam steering technologies will be required for distant communications in free-space. The highly directional characteristic inherent to a laser beam challenges and calls for new beam pointing and steering technologies for such type of communication. In this dissertation, research is done on a novel FSO communication device based on semiconductor lasers for high bandwidth communication. The "Fly eye transceiver" is an extremely wide steering bandwidth, completely non-mechanical FSO laser communication device primarily designed to replace traditional mechanical beam steering optical systems. This non-mechanical FSO device possesses a full spherical steering range and a very high tracking bandwidth. Inspired by the evolutionary model of a fly's eye, the full spherical steering range is assured by electronically controlled switching of its sub-eyes. Non mechanical technologies used in the past for beam steering such as acousto-optic Bragg cells, liquid crystal arrays or piezoelectric elements offer the wide steering bandwidth and fast response time, but are limited in their angular steering range. Mechanical gimbals offer a much greater steering range but face a much slower response time or steering bandwidth problem and often require intelligent adaptive controls with bulky driver amplifiers to feed their actuators. As a solution to feed both the fast and full spherical steering, the Fly-eye transceiver is studied as

  15. Athermalization of resonant optical devices via thermo-mechanical feedback

    DOEpatents

    Rakich, Peter; Nielson, Gregory N.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2016-01-19

    A passively athermal photonic system including a photonic circuit having a substrate and an optical cavity defined on the substrate, and passive temperature-responsive provisions for inducing strain in the optical cavity of the photonic circuit to compensate for a thermo-optic effect resulting from a temperature change in the optical cavity of the photonic circuit. Also disclosed is a method of passively compensating for a temperature dependent thermo-optic effect resulting on an optical cavity of a photonic circuit including the step of passively inducing strain in the optical cavity as a function of a temperature change of the optical cavity thereby producing an elasto-optic effect in the optical cavity to compensate for the thermo-optic effect resulting on an optical cavity due to the temperature change.

  16. Photoelectric Hybrid Optical Bistable Device Using Fibre Bragg Gratings with Two Feed Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hong-An; Zhang, Xin-Ming; Zhu, Yong

    2004-05-01

    A photoelectric hybrid optical bistable device (OBD) is investigated by using fibre Bragg gratings as a light-intensity modulator. A new operation with two feed signals is proposed, and with this method the output characteristic of the OBD is remarkably improved. The potential application of such a device in optic stabilizer for fibre laser is also briefly discussed.

  17. To ventricular assist devices or not: When is implantation of a ventricular assist device appropriate in advanced ambulatory heart failure?

    PubMed Central

    Cerier, Emily; Lampert, Brent C; Kilic, Arman; McDavid, Asia; Deo, Salil V; Kilic, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Advanced heart failure has been traditionally treated via either heart transplantation, continuous inotropes, consideration for hospice and more recently via left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). Heart transplantation has been limited by organ availability and the futility of other options has thrust LVAD therapy into the mainstream of therapy for end stage heart failure. Improvements in technology and survival combined with improvements in the quality of life have made LVADs a viable option for many patients suffering from heart failure. The question of when to implant these devices in those patients with advanced, yet still ambulatory heart failure remains a controversial topic. We discuss the current state of LVAD therapy and the risk vs benefit of these devices in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:28070237

  18. Determining electro-optic coefficients for lithium tantalate using an electro-optic scanning device

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, J. L.; Gahagan, K. T.; Robinson, J. M.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Jain, R.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate a ferroelectric optical device based on single crystal LiTaO{sub 3} that can scan a laser beam from the visible to the infrared. It utilizes the electro-optic effect in the ferroelectric that has potentially high intrinsic response times of GHz. There are many applications to such scanning devices in the infrared such as optical switching, spectrometry, microscopy, and sensing. Lithium tantalate has two ferroelectric polarization states that are antiparallel (180{sup o}) to each other. The domain states can be reversed by applying an electric field of {approx}21 kV/mm at room temperature. By reversing the domain structure in the crystal, we can create domains in the crystal of almost any desired shape. By creating prism-shaped domain, we can create a ferroelectric deflector or scanner by applying either static or sweeping voltages across the crystal. This scanner is capable of scanning wavelengths from 0.4-5 {micro}m. The scanning performance varied from a total deflection angle of 13.38{sup o} at 1558 nm to 16.18{sup o} at 632.8 nm. Since the amount of deflection of the incoming light is determined by the applied voltage, the electro-optic coefficient and other fixed quantities, by measuring the deflection angle as a function of wavelength, the dispersion of the electro-optic coefficient in lithium tantalate can be determined. In these experiments, the scanner was characterized from the visible (632.8 nm) to midinfrared (1558 nm). Both extraordinary and the ordinary polarizations of light were used, in order to determine the electro-optic coefficients, r{sup 33} and r{sup 31}. Except for the values at 632.8 nm, these values of the electro-optic coefficients have not been previously reported. For lithium tantalate, r{sup 33} at 632.8 nm is reported in the literature as 30.2 pm/V. We found that this decreases to 27.1 pm/V at 1558 nm. For the extraordinary polarization, r{sup 13} varied from 7.55 pm/V (632.8 nm) to 6.84 pm/V (1558 nm).

  19. Wave-plate structures, power selective optical filter devices, and optical systems using same

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2012-07-03

    In an embodiment, an optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes first and second substantially zero-order, zero-wave plates arranged in series with and oriented at an angle relative to each other. The first and second zero-wave plates are configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. Each zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  20. Devices in the management of advanced, chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, William T.; Smith, Sakima A.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a global phenomenon, and the overall incidence and prevalence of the condition are steadily increasing. Medical therapies have proven efficacious, but only a small number of pharmacological options are in development. When patients cease to respond adequately to optimal medical therapy, cardiac resynchronization therapy has been shown to improve symptoms, reduce hospitalizations, promote reverse remodelling, and decrease mortality. However, challenges remain in identifying the ideal recipients for this therapy. The field of mechanical circulatory support has seen immense growth since the early 2000s, and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have transitioned over the past decade from large, pulsatile devices to smaller, more-compact, continuous-flow devices. Infections and haematological issues are still important areas that need to be addressed. Whereas LVADs were once approved only for ‘bridge to transplantation’, these devices are now used as destination therapy for critically ill patients with HF, allowing these individuals to return to the community. A host of novel strategies, including cardiac contractility modulation, implantable haemodynamic-monitoring devices, and phrenic and vagus nerve stimulation, are under investigation and might have an impact on the future care of patients with chronic HF. PMID:23229137

  1. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase 4. Summary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    the automated instructional system on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams AF8, Arizona (Faconti & Epps, 1975; Faconti...Nortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980; Knoop, 1973). The ASPT is a sophisticated research device that incorporates advanced visual and...potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found that SIs tended to use the device in a fairly conventional manner. with few

  2. Ferrite-superconductor devices for advanced microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, G.F.; Oates, D.E.; Temme, D.H.; Weiss, J.A.

    1996-07-01

    Microwave devices comprising magnetized ferrite in contact with superconductor circuits designed to eliminate magnetic field penetration of the superconductor have demonstrated phase shift without significant conduction losses. The device structures are adaptable to low- or high-{Tc} superconductors. A nonoptimized design of a ferrite phase shifter that employs niobium or YBCO meanderlines has produced over 1,000 degrees of differential phase shift with a figure of merit exceeding 1,000 degrees/dB at X band. By combining superconductor meanderline sections with alternating T junctions on a ferrite substrate in a configuration with three-fold symmetry, a low-loss three-port switching circulator has been demonstrated.

  3. Chiral multichromic single crystals for optical devices (LDRD 99406).

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Richard Alan; Felix, Ana M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes our findings during the study of a novel system that yields multi-colored materials as products. This system is quite unusual as it leads to multi-chromic behavior in single crystals, where one would expect that only a single color would exist. We have speculated that these novel solids might play a role in materials applications such as non-linear optics, liquid crystal displays, piezoelectric devices, and other similar applications. The system examined consisted of a main-group alkyl compound (a p block element such as gallium or aluminum) complexed with various organic di-imines. The di-imines had substituents of two types--either alkyl or aromatic groups attached to the nitrogen atoms. We observed that single crystals, characterized by X-ray crystallography, were obtained in most cases. Our research during January-July, 2006, was geared towards understanding the factors leading to the multi-chromic nature of the complexes. The main possibilities put forth initially considered (a) the chiral nature of the main group metal, (b) possible reduction of the metal to a lower-valent, radical state, (c) the nature of the ligand(s) attached to the main group metal, and (d) possible degradation products of the ligand leading to highly-colored products. The work carried out indicates that the most likely explanation considered involves degradation of the aromatic ligands (a combination of (c) and (d)), as the experiments performed can clearly rule out (a) and (b).

  4. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-08-01

    a single spine, with two-photon uncaging) and in rapid, flexible spatial-temporal patterns [10-14]. Nevertheless, current technology generally requires damaging doses of UV or violet illumination and the continuous re-introduction of the caged compound, which, despite interest, makes for a difficult transition beyond in vitro preparations. Thus, the tremendous progress in the in vivo application of photo-stimulation tools over the past five years has been largely facilitated by two 'exciting' new photo-stimulation technologies: photo-biological stimulation of a rapidly increasing arsenal of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps ('optogenetic' probes[15-18]) and direct photo-thermal stimulation of neural tissue with an IR laser [19-21]. The Journal of Neural Engineering has dedicated a special section in this issue to highlight advances in optical stimulation technology, which includes original peer-reviewed contributions dealing with the design of modern optical systems for spatial-temporal control of optical excitation patterns and with the biophysics of neural-thermal interaction mediated by electromagnetic waves. The paper by Nikolenko, Peterka and Yuste [22] presents a compact design of a microscope-photo-stimulator based on a transmissive phase-modulating spatial-light modulator (SLM). Computer-generated holographic photo-stimulation using SLMs [12-14, 23] allows the efficient parallel projection of intense sparse patterns of light, and the welcome development of compact, user-friendly systems will likely reduce the barrier to its widespread adoption. The paper by Losavio et al [24] presents the design and functional characteristics of their acousto-optical deflector (AOD) systems for studying spatial-temporal dendritic integration in single neurons in vitro. Both single-photon (UV) and two-photon (femtosecond pulsed IR) AOD uncaging systems are described in detail. The paper presents an excellent overview of the current state of the art and limitations of

  5. A wearable optical device for continuous monitoring during neoadjuvant chemotherapy infusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Fei; Cormier, Timothy; Sauer-Budge, Alexis; Roblyer, Darren M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new continuous-wave (CW) wearable diffuse optical device aimed at investigating the hemodynamic response of locally advanced breast cancer patients during a patient's first neoadjuvant chemotherapy infusion. The system consists of a flexible substrate that supports an array of surface-mount LED and photodiode pairs (i.e. optodes). Probe performance was evaluated using solid tissue-simulating phantoms. Measurements revealed high SNR (65dB), low source-detector crosstalk (-59 dB), high measurement precision (0.17%), and good thermal stability (0.2% Vrms/°C). A cuff occlusion experiment was performed on the forearm of a healthy volunteer to demonstrate the ability to track rapid hemodynamic changes.

  6. Beginning-to-end wafer bonding for advanced optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrens, Shari N.; Lindner, Paul; Dwyer, Steven; Wimplinger, Markus

    2003-11-01

    The old adage "Work Smarter, Not Harder" is certainly applicable in today's competitive marketplace for Optical MEMS. In order to survive the current economic conditions, high volume manufacturers must get optimum performance and yield from each design and manufactured component. Wafer bonding, and its numerous variants, is entering mainstream production environments by providing solutions throughout the production flow. For example, SOI (silicon on insulator) and other laminated materials such as GaAs/Si are used as cost effective alternatives to molecular epitaxy methods for Bragg mirrors, rf resonators, and hybrid device fabrication. Temporary wafer bonding is used extensively to allow fragile compound semiconductors to be attached to rigid support wafers. This allows for front side and backside processing with a reduction in wafer breakage and increases in thickness uniformity results after backgrind operations. Permanent wafer bonding is used to attach compound semiconductors to each other or silicon to completely integrate optical components and logic or MEMS components. Permanent hermetic sealing is used for waveguide formation and, when combined with vacuum sealing, higher performance is achieved for RF resonators. Finally, many of the low temperature solders and eutectic alloys are finding application in low temperature wafer-to-wafer level packaging of optical devices to ceramic packages. Through clever application of these bonding methods, throughput increases and reduction in fabrication complexity givs a clear edge in the market place. This presentation will provide guidelines and process overviews needed to adopt wafer-to-wafer bonding technologies into the high volume-manufacturing environment.

  7. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  8. Guided-Wave TeO2 Acousto-Optic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-12

    In this research program, Guided-wave TeO2 Acousto - Optic Devices, the properties of surface acoustic waves on tellurium dioxide single crystal...surfaces has been studied for its potential applications as acousto - optic signal processing devices. Personal computer based numerical method has been...interaction with laser beams. Use of the acousto - optic probe, the surface acoustic wave velocity and field distribution have been obtained and compared

  9. Optical testing and metrology III: Recent advances in industrial optical inspection; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 8-13, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on recent advances in industrial optical inspection are presented. Individual topics addressed include: high-precision interferometric testing of spherical mirrors with long radius of curvature, aspheric surface testing techniques, apsheric testing using null mirrors, TV holography and image processing in practical use, holographic instrumentation for monitoring crystal growth in space, holography with a single picosecond pulse, phase-conjugate interferometry using dye-doped polymer films, phase-conjugate Twyman-Green interferometer for testing conicoidal surfaces. Also discussed are: new stereo laser triangulation device for specular surface inspection, fiber optical smart structures, near real-time operation of a centimeter-scale distributed fiber sensing sytem, interferometric fiber optic sensors for use with composite materials, fiber optic damage detection for an aircraft leading edge, low-cost fiber optic sensing systems using spatial division multiplexing, laser ultrasonics generation and detection considerations for improved SNR.

  10. Review—hexagonal boron nitride epilayers: Growth, optical properties and device applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, H. X.; Lin, Jing Yu

    2016-09-07

    This paper provides a brief overview on recent advances made in authors’ laboratory in epitaxial growth and optical studies of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) epilayers and heterostructures. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been employed to probe the optical properties of h-BN. It was observed that the near band edge emission of h-BN is unusually high and is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of high quality AlN epilayers. It was shown that the unique quasi-2D nature induced by the layered structure of h-BN results in high optical absorption and emission. The impurity related and near band-edge transitions in h-BN epilayers were probed for materials synthesized under varying ammonia flow rates. Our results have identified that the most dominant impurities and deep level defects in h-BN epilayers are related to nitrogen vacancies. By growing h-BN under high ammonia flow rates, nitrogen vacancy related defects can be eliminated and epilayers exhibiting pure free exciton emission have been obtained. Deep UV and thermal neutron detectors based on h-BN epilayers were shown to possess unique features. Lastly, it is our belief that h-BN will lead to many potential applications from deep UV emitters and detectors, radiation detectors, to novel 2D photonic and electronic devices.

  11. Review—hexagonal boron nitride epilayers: Growth, optical properties and device applications

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, H. X.; Lin, Jing Yu

    2016-09-07

    This paper provides a brief overview on recent advances made in authors’ laboratory in epitaxial growth and optical studies of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) epilayers and heterostructures. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been employed to probe the optical properties of h-BN. It was observed that the near band edge emission of h-BN is unusually high and is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of high quality AlN epilayers. It was shown that the unique quasi-2D nature induced by the layered structure of h-BN results in high optical absorption and emission. The impurity related and near band-edge transitions in h-BNmore » epilayers were probed for materials synthesized under varying ammonia flow rates. Our results have identified that the most dominant impurities and deep level defects in h-BN epilayers are related to nitrogen vacancies. By growing h-BN under high ammonia flow rates, nitrogen vacancy related defects can be eliminated and epilayers exhibiting pure free exciton emission have been obtained. Deep UV and thermal neutron detectors based on h-BN epilayers were shown to possess unique features. Lastly, it is our belief that h-BN will lead to many potential applications from deep UV emitters and detectors, radiation detectors, to novel 2D photonic and electronic devices.« less

  12. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Nanowire based Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayvazian, Talin

    This research project is focused on a new strategy for the creation of nanowire based semiconductor devices. The main goal is to understand and optimize the electrical and optical properties of two types of nanoscale devices; in first type lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) method has been utilized to fabricate nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET) and second type involved the development of light emitting semiconductor nanowire arrays (NWLED). Field effect transistors (NWFETs) have been prepared from arrays of polycrystalline cadmium selenide (pc-CdSe) nanowires using a back gate configuration. pc-CdSe nanowires were fabricated using the lithographically patterned nanowire electrode- position (LPNE) process on SiO2 /Si substrates. After electrodeposition, pc-CdSe nanowires were thermally annealed at 300 °C x 4 h either with or without exposure to CdCl 2 in methanol a grain growth promoter. The influence of CdCl2 treatment was to increase the mean grain diameter as determined by X-ray diffraction pattern and to convert the crystal structure from cubic to wurtzite. Transfer characteristics showed an increase of the field effect mobility (mu eff) by an order of magnitude and increase of the Ion/I off ratio by a factor of 3-4. Light emitting devices (NW-LED) based on lithographically patterned pc-CdSe nanowire arrays have been investigated. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of CdSe nanowires under various biases exhibited broad emission spectra centered at 750 nm close to the band gap of CdSe (1.7eV). To enhance the intensity of the emitted light and the external quantum efficiency (EQE), the distance between the contacts were reduced from 5 mum to less than 1 mum which increased the efficiency by an order of magnitude. Also, increasing the annealing temperature of nanowires from 300 °C x4 h to 450 This research project is focused on a new strategy for the creation of nanowire based semiconductor devices. The main goal is to understand

  13. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  14. Integration of nanoporous zeolite with optical fiber devices for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xinwei

    Label-free optical fiber chemical sensors have provoked significant research interest in recent years due to their unique advantages of small size, low cost, potential for distributed sensing, capability of in situ and remote operation, and tolerance to harsh environments. However, existing optical fiber chemical sensors lack the desired sensitivity and specificity for many applications such as chemical and biological analysis, industrial process control, environmental monitoring, and national security. The dissertation summarizes our research efforts and results in functional integration of nanoporous zeolites with optical fiber devices for development of label-free optical fiber chemical sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. Fundamental research has been conducted in nano-materials, micro-devices and the material-device integrations. The material research has been focused on synthesis and characterization of nanoporous zeolites for optical chemical sensing. The research in devices has led to the successful design, fabrication and demonstration of a number of fiber sensor platforms including the turn-around-point long period fiber gratings (TAP-LPFG), the singlemode-multimode- singlemode (SMS) fiber interferometers, the long period fiber grating (LPFG) assisted Michelson interferometers, and nanostructured fiber optic surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes. Optical fiber chemical sensors have been successfully fabricated by growing zeolite thin films on the fiber devices, and evaluated for their sensitivity, detection limit and selectivity/specificity. The encouraging results reveal that integration of nanoporous zeolite with optical fiber devices presents a promising solution for development of high performance optical chemical sensors.

  15. Micro-Laser-Based Devices Allowing Optical Wavelength-Packing Densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Jones, Darryl K.; Fork, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    We examine theoretically and experimentally the space-time domain properties of high-speed electro-optically switched microlaser devices susceptible of construction at optical wavelength-packing densities. We address adjustable phase and group delays with wide dynamic range, coherent logic, temporal storage and reconfiguration of pulse arrays and applications to optical phased arrays.

  16. BORON NITRIDE CAPACITORS FOR ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    N. Badi; D. Starikov; C. Boney; A. Bensaoula; D. Johnstone

    2010-11-01

    This project fabricates long-life boron nitride/boron oxynitride thin film -based capacitors for advanced SiC power electronics with a broad operating temperature range using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The use of vapor deposition provides for precise control and quality material formation.

  17. A band-modulation device in advanced FDSOI technology: Sharp switching characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Dirani, Hassan; Solaro, Yohann; Fonteneau, Pascal; Legrand, Charles-Alex; Marin-Cudraz, David; Golanski, Dominique; Ferrari, Philippe; Cristoloveanu, Sorin

    2016-11-01

    A band-modulation device is demonstrated experimentally in advanced FDSOI (Fully Depleted SOI). The Z2-FET (Zero Impact Ionization and Zero Subthreshold Slope FET) is a very recent sharp switching device which achieves remarkable performance in terms of leakage current and triggering control. The device is fabricated with Ultra-Thin Body and Buried Oxide (UTBB) Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology, features an extremely sharp on-switch, low leakage and an adjustable triggering voltage (VON). The Z2-FET operation relies on the modulation of electrons and holes injection barriers. In this paper, we show, for the first time, experimental data obtained with the most advanced FDSOI node.

  18. Depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulator in zero-change advanced CMOS.

    PubMed

    Shainline, Jeffrey M; Orcutt, Jason S; Wade, Mark T; Nammari, Kareem; Moss, Benjamin; Georgas, Michael; Sun, Chen; Ram, Rajeev J; Stojanović, Vladimir; Popović, Miloš A

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate the first (to the best of our knowledge) depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulator fabricated in a standard advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic process (45 nm node SOI CMOS) with no process modifications. The zero-change CMOS photonics approach enables this device to be monolithically integrated into state-of-the-art microprocessors and advanced electronics. Because these processes support lateral p-n junctions but not efficient ridge waveguides, we accommodate these constraints with a new type of resonant modulator. It is based on a hybrid microring/disk cavity formed entirely in the sub-90 nm thick monocrystalline silicon transistor body layer. Electrical contact of both polarities is made along the inner radius of the multimode ring cavity via an array of silicon spokes. The spokes connect to p and n regions formed using transistor well implants, which form radially extending lateral junctions that provide index modulation. We show 5 Gbps data modulation at 1265 nm wavelength with 5.2 dB extinction ratio and an estimated 40 fJ/bit energy consumption. Broad thermal tuning is demonstrated across 3.2 THz (18 nm) with an efficiency of 291 GHz/mW. A single postprocessing step to remove the silicon handle wafer was necessary to support low-loss optical confinement in the device layer. This modulator is an important step toward monolithically integrated CMOS photonic interconnects.

  19. Optical polarizing neutron devices designed for pulsed neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, M.; Kurahashi, K.; Endoh, Y.; Itoh, S.

    1997-09-01

    We have designed two polarizing neutron devices for pulsed cold neutrons. The devices have been tested at the pulsed neutron source at the Booster Synchrotron Utilization Facility of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. These two devices proved to have a practical use for experiments to investigate condensed matter physics using pulsed cold polarized neutrons.

  20. Femtosecond Laser Microfabrication of an Integrated Device for Optical Release and Sensing of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Diego; Vazquez, Rebeca Martinez; Osellame, Roberto; Valtorta, Flavia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Valle, Giuseppe Della; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Cerullo, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    Flash photolysis of caged compounds is one of the most powerful approaches to investigate the dynamic response of living cells. Monolithically integrated devices suitable for optical uncaging are in great demand since they greatly simplify the experiments and allow their automation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of an integrated bio-photonic device for the optical release of caged compounds. Such a device is fabricated using femtosecond laser micromachining of a glass substrate. More in detail, femtosecond lasers are used both to cut the substrate in order to create a pit for cell growth and to inscribe optical waveguides for spatially selective uncaging of the compounds present in the culture medium. The operation of this monolithic bio-photonic device is tested using both free and caged fluorescent compounds to probe its capability of multipoint release and optical sensing. Application of this device to the study of neuronal network activity can be envisaged. PMID:27873888

  1. Development of an optical parallel logic device and a half-adder circuit for digital optical processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athale, R. A.; Lee, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and operation of an optical parallel logic (OPAL) device which performs Boolean algebraic operations on binary images. Several logic operations on two input binary images were demonstrated using an 8 x 8 device with a CdS photoconductor and a twisted nematic liquid crystal. Two such OPAL devices can be interconnected to form a half-adder circuit which is one of the essential components of a CPU in a digital signal processor.

  2. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-10-28

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, A. P.; Hebden, J. C.; Arridge, S. R.

    2005-02-01

    We review the current state-of-the-art of diffuse optical imaging, which is an emerging technique for functional imaging of biological tissue. It involves generating images using measurements of visible or near-infrared light scattered across large (greater than several centimetres) thicknesses of tissue. We discuss recent advances in experimental methods and instrumentation, and examine new theoretical techniques applied to modelling and image reconstruction. We review recent work on in vivo applications including imaging the breast and brain, and examine future challenges.

  4. Advances in nanoimprint lithography and applications in nanofluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaogan

    The research work presented in this thesis focuses on three topics: (1) studies of several critical aspects of nanoimprint lithography (NIL), including methods of mold pressing, air bubble defects, and dynamic behaviors of liquid resist flow; (2) applications of NIL to the fabrication of novel nanofluidic devices, which can be used for real-time DNA detection; and (3) additional applications of structured stamps or templates in the direct engineering of functional materials. Based upon these topics, the thesis is divided into three parts. The first part describes recent studies of critical techniques of NIL. First, a novel imprint approach using electrostatic force was developed to pattern spin-on resists in ambient environment. Using this Electrostatic Force-Assisted NIL (EFAN) approach, highly uniform imprints over a 4" diameter wafer area and sub-0.5 mum overlay precision were obtained using very simple equipment. Second, another important method for performing step-and-repeat imprint in the atmosphere, dispensing-based NIL, still suffers from air bubble defects formed by feature pinning and the circling of residual air by the merge of multiple resist droplets. However, it was found that the tiny bubbles can be completely absorbed by the liquid resist. The effects of several key parameters, such as bubble size, imprinting pressure, resist viscosity and solubility, and residual layer thickness, on the air dissolution rate were studied experimentally and theoretically. Their impact to the yield and throughput of NIL was also analyzed. Third, a novel method was developed for filling liquid resists into the air gap between the structured mold and the substrate. The method is assisted by dielectrophoresis, caused by electrohydrodynamic force. The second part describes the applications of NIL to making nanofluidic channel devices and device integration. First, a novel imprint-based method was developed to fabricate precisely positioned single nanofluidic channels of

  5. Limitations of Segmented Wavefront Control Devices in Emulating Optical Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    for Adaptive Optics in Vision Science”. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 10(3):629–635, May/Jun 2004. 11. Fernandez , Enrique J...and Pablo Artal. “Membrane Deformable Mirror for Adap- tive Optics: Performance Limits in Visual Optics”. Optics Express, 11(9):1056– 1069, May 2003

  6. Integrated Semiconductor/Optical Information Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen

    1989-01-01

    Optical information processors made of integrated three-dimensional devices which include optical, electro-optical, and electronic devices. Integration achieved by combination and extension of advanced semiconductor (integrated-circuit) and integrated-optics technology. In integrated device, spatial light modulator fabricated on surface of chip. Leads to miniaturization of sophisticated optical information-processing systems.

  7. Recent progress on practical PLC devices for optical access systems and dense WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takato, Norio

    1997-12-01

    Silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) devices are starting to be introduced into commercial optical communication systems. PLC devices such as optical splitters, wavelength-insensitive coupler (WINC) arrays, and hybrid- integrated wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transceivers are used to construct cost effective optical access systems. In trunk lines, on the other hand, arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWG) are employed for dense WDM systems to increase the transmission capacity. This paper reviews the current status and recent progress on these practical PLC devices.

  8. River Devices to Recover Energy with Advanced Materials (River DREAM)

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Daniel P.

    2013-07-03

    The purpose of this project is to develop a generator called a Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED). It uses a galloping prism to convert water flow into linear motion. This motion is converted into electricity via a dielectric elastomer generator (DEG). The galloping mechanism and the DEG are combined to create a system to effectively generate electricity. This project has three research objectives: 1. Oscillator development and design a. Characterize galloping behavior, evaluate control surface shape change on oscillator performance and demonstrate shape change with water flow change. 2. Dielectric Energy Generator (DEG) characterization and modeling a. Characterize and model the performance of the DEG based on oscillator design 3. Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED) system modeling and integration a. Create numerical models for construction of a system performance model and define operating capabilities for this approach Accomplishing these three objectives will result in the creation of a model that can be used to fully define the operating parameters and performance capabilities of a generator based on the GHEED design. This information will be used in the next phase of product development, the creation of an integrated laboratory scale generator to confirm model predictions.

  9. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-02-06

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as {approx} 16 We/kg and {approx} 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is {approx} 640 m2 and {approx} 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is {approx} 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is {approx} 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems.

  10. Advances in graphene-related technologies: synthesis, devices and outlook.

    PubMed

    Frazier, R M; Hough, W L; Chopra, N; Hathcock, K W

    2012-06-01

    Graphene has been the subject of many scientific investigations since exfoliation methods facilitated isolation of the two-dimensional material. During this time, new synthesis methods have been developed which have opened technological opportunities previously hindered by synthetic constraints. An update on the recent advances in graphene-based technologies, including synthesis and applications into electrical, mechanical and thermal uses will be covered. A special focus on the patent space and commercial landscape will be given in an effort to identify current trends and future commercialization of graphene-related technologies.

  11. Analysis of spectral response of optical switching devices based on chalcogenide bistable fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, Lubomír.; Müllerová, Jarmila

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are novel and promising devices for all-optical switching, ADD/DROP multiplexers, AND gates, switches, all-optical memory elements. Optical switching based on optical Kerr effects induced with high pump laser light incident on the FBGs cause the change of spectral characteristics of grating depending on the incident power. In this paper numerical studies of the nonlinear FBGs are presented. Optical switching based on the optical bistability in nonlinear chalcogenide FBGs is investigated. The spectral response of nonlinear FBGs is discussed from theoretical viewpoint. The simulations are based on the nonlinear coupled mode theory.

  12. Monitoring critical facilities by using advanced RF devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Hanchung; Liu, Yung Y.; Shuler, James

    2013-07-01

    The ability to monitor critical environment parameters of nuclear plants at all times, particularly during and after a disruptive accident, is vital for the safety of plant personnel, rescue and recovery crews, and the surrounding communities. Conventional hard-wired assets that depend on supplied power may be decimated as a result of such events, as witnessed in the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011. Self-powered monitoring devices operating on a wireless platform, on the other hand, may survive such calamity and remain functional. The devices would be pre-positioned at strategic locations, particularly where the dangerous build-up of contamination and radiation may preclude subsequent manned entrance and surveillance. Equipped with sensors for β-γ radiation, neutrons, hydrogen gas, temperature, humidity, pressure, and water level, as well as with criticality alarms and imaging equipment for heat, video, and other capabilities, these devices can provide vital surveillance information for assessing the extent of plant damage, mandating responses (e.g., evacuation before impending hydrogen explosion), and enabling overall safe and efficient recovery in a disaster. A radio frequency identification (RFID)-based system - called ARG-US - may be modified and adapted for this task. Developed by Argonne for DOE, ARG-US (meaning 'watchful guardian') has been used successfully to monitor and track sensitive nuclear materials packages at DOE sites. It utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users when any of the preset sensor thresholds is violated. By adding plant-specific monitoring sensors to the already strong sensor suite and adopting modular hardware, firmware, and software subsystems that are tailored for specific subsystems of a plant, a Remote Area Modular Monitoring (RAMM) system, built on a wireless sensor network (WSN) platform, is being developed

  13. Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry

  14. Instrumentation for synchrotron based micromachining at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigeldinger, G.; Goettert, J.; Desta, Y.; Ling, Z. L.; Rupp, L.

    2002-03-01

    The J. Bennett Johnston Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) is a synchrotron radiation facility owned by Louisiana State University and operated with financial support from the State of Louisiana (for information how to submit a project proposal go to: http://www.camd.lsu.edu). The centerpiece of CAMD is a 1.3-1.5 GeV electron storage ring. CAMD supports a strong program in x-ray lithography micromachining (XRLM) or LIGA. A total of four beamlines equipped with different scanners is available for exposures. A 2.500 sq. ft class 100 clean room provides basic processing capability for MEMS including optical lithography, thin film deposition, electroplating, and metrology. Three micromachining beamlines are connected to bending magnets. All beamlines are "white light" beamlines, terminated with a beryllium window. The typical source point to scanner distance is 10 m and the horizontal acceptance ranges from 6.5 to 10 mrad. A number of low Z filters can be inserted into the beam adapting the exposure spectrum to the resist thickness. Two beamlines are equipped with commercial scanners from Jenoptik GmbH (for details see Jenoptik's webpage at www.jo-mikrotechnik.com/) and one beamline with a "vacuum" scanner designed in house. The latest model of Jenoptik's DEX02 scanner has been installed at CAMD's XRLM1 beamline in December 2000 and allows advanced exposures using overlay as well as tilt and rotate functions. In addition to these beamlines CAMD has installed a "white light" beamline at its 7 T wiggler source. Preliminary exposure tests in ultrathick samples (1 mm and thicker) have been conducted using an "air scanner." Currently this beamline is dismantled and will be reinstalled together with a PX beamline. In the article further details of the beamlines and scanners as well as some examples of applications of LIGA microstructures fabricated at CAMD will be discussed.

  15. Optical Device, System, and Method of Generating High Angular Momentum Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Grudinin, Ivan S. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical device, optical system, and method of generating optical beams having high angular momenta are provided. The optical device includes a whispering gallery mode resonator defining a resonator radius and an elongated wavegWde having a length defined between a first end and a second end of the waveguide. The waveguide defines a waveguide radius which increases at least along a portion of the length of the waveguide in a direction from the first end to the second end. The waveguide radius at the first end of the waveguide is smaller than the resonator radius and the resonator is integrally formed with the first end of the waveguide.

  16. Advances in optics in the medieval Islamic world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge in the field of optics, mainly in catoptrics and dioptrics, before the birth of modern science and the well-documented contributions of men such as Kepler and Newton. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of the subject such as one might find in history of science journals; instead, it is aimed at the curious physicist who has probably been taught that nothing much of note was understood about the behaviour of light, beyond outdated philosophical musings, prior to the seventeenth century. The paper will focus on advances during the medieval period between the ninth and fourteenth centuries, in both the east and the west, when the theories of the Ancient Greeks were tested, advanced, corrected and mathematised. In particular, it concentrates on a multivolume treatise on optics written one thousand years ago by the Arab scholar, Ibn al-Haytham, and examines how it influenced our understanding of the nature of reflection and refraction of light. Even the well-informed physicist should find a few surprises here, which will alter his or her view of the debt we owe to these forgotten scholars.

  17. 9 CFR 381.131 - Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval prohibited; exceptions. 381.131 Section... Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval prohibited... otherwise make any marking device containing any official mark or simulation thereof, or any label...

  18. 9 CFR 381.131 - Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval prohibited; exceptions. 381.131 Section... Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval prohibited... otherwise make any marking device containing any official mark or simulation thereof, or any label...

  19. Case studies in advanced monitoring with the Chronicle device.

    PubMed

    Bourge, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate the utility of advanced implantable hemodynamic monitors (IHMs). The cases include a 70-year-old with ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic kidney disease, and recurrent volume overload; a 53-year-old with ischemic heart disease, mild effort-related angina, and New York Heart Association class III chronic heart failure; and a 21-year-old with severe dilated cardiomyopathy, all 3 patients having an IHM. The outcomes in these cases illustrate the capability of the IHM system for monitoring and detecting early changes in hemodynamic data and the use of these data to adjust medical therapies and reduce morbidity and risk of hospitalization. When pathologic hemodynamic changes are observed, this alerts the cardiologist to search for underlying causes, even when a patient on initial questioning denies any change in compliance or symptoms.

  20. Applications of all optical signal processing for advanced optical modulation formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuccio, Scott R.

    Increased data traffic demands, along with a continual push to minimize cost per bit, have recently motivated a paradigm shift away from traditional on-off keying (OOK) fiber transmission links towards systems utilizing more advanced modulation formats. In particular, modulation formats that utilize the phase of the optical signal, including differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) along with polarization multiplexing (Pol-MUX), have recently emerged as the most popular means for transmitting information over long-haul and ultra-long haul fiber transmission systems. DPSK is motivated by an increase in receiver sensitivity compared to traditional OOK. DQPSK is motivated by a doubling of the spectral efficiency, along with increased tolerance to dispersion and nonlinear distortions. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency (bits/sec/Hz) of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Polarization multiplexing of channels is a straight forward method to allow two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX (D)QPSK has grown in interest as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters may be possible. In addition to advanced modulation formats, it is expected that optical

  1. Dynamic response tests of inertial and optical wind-tunnel model attitude measurement devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, R. D.; Young, C. P., Jr.; Burner, A. W.; Tripp, J. S.; Tcheng, P.; Finley, T. D.; Popernack, T. G., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study of the response of inertial and optical wind-tunnel model attitude measurement systems in a wind-off simulated dynamic environment. This study is part of an ongoing activity at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop high accuracy, advanced model attitude measurement systems that can be used in a dynamic wind-tunnel environment. This activity was prompted by the inertial model attitude sensor response observed during high levels of model vibration which results in a model attitude measurement bias error. Significant bias errors in model attitude measurement were found for the measurement using the inertial device during wind-off dynamic testing of a model system. The amount of bias present during wind-tunnel tests will depend on the amplitudes of the model dynamic response and the modal characteristics of the model system. Correction models are presented that predict the vibration-induced bias errors to a high degree of accuracy for the vibration modes characterized in the simulated dynamic environment. The optical system results were uncorrupted by model vibration in the laboratory setup.

  2. Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ustun, Teoman; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Gabriele, Michelle L.; Dilworth, William D.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    An upgraded optical coherence tomography system with integrated retinal tracker (TOCT) was developed. The upgraded system uses improved components to extend the tracking bandwidth, fully integrates the tracking hardware into the optical head of the clinical OCT system, and operates from a single software platform. The system was able to achieve transverse scan registration with sub-pixel accuracy (~10 μm). We demonstrate several advanced scan sequences with the TOCT, including composite scans averaged (co-added) from multiple B-scans taken consecutively and several hours apart, en face images collected by summing the A-scans of circular, line, and raster scans, and three-dimensional (3D) retinal maps of the fovea and optic disc. The new system achieves highly accurate OCT scan registration yielding composite images with significantly improved spatial resolution, increased signal-to-noise ratio, and reduced speckle while maintaining well-defined boundaries and sharp fine structure compared to single scans. Precise re-registration of multiple scans over separate imaging sessions demonstrates TOCT utility for longitudinal studies. En face images and 3D data cubes generated from these data reveal high fidelity image registration with tracking, despite scan durations of more than one minute. PMID:19498823

  3. Advances in lasers and optical micro-nano-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurell, F.; Fazio, E.

    2010-09-01

    manipulation of the writing-reading optical beam can push holography toward storages at higher data densities, as presented by Norihiko Ishii et al (Wavefront compensation method using novel index in holographic data storage). Along a similar direction Furlan et al describe a very innovative technique for producing optical traps using novel Devil micro-lenses (Volumetric multiple optical traps produced by Devil's lenses). Vynnyk et al presented an interesting application of electron microscopy for monitoring sub-micrometric structures in 3D configurations (3D-measurement with the stereo scanning electron microscope on sub-micrometer structure). Finally, S. Rao et al present two interesting papers on integrated structures compatible with silicon technology: one describes the realisation of low-loss waveguides using amorphous silicon, a relatively novel material with many applications in very different domains (Low-loss amorphous silicon waveguid! es grown by PECVD on indium tin oxide), and one on the realisation of a electrically drivable device with affective compatibility with CMOS technology (Electro-optical modulating multistack device based on the CMOS-compatible technology of amorphous silicon). We hope that this special issue of the Journal of the European Optical Society will reflect the interest of the European Scientific Community toward these fundamental and applied topics and will demonstrate to readers some of the actual directions of research. We express our full appreciation to the authors that participated to this initiative which acts only as a primer for the vast amount of work now being undertaken in laser physics and applications in micro- and nano-systems. We would like to give a special thank to the paper reviewers for their important role in the paper selection process and all the journal staff for their very professional support, dedication and energy, which made this special issue feasible.

  4. Large-area nanofabrication and applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei

    The research work presented in this dissertation includes novel large area nanofabrication techniques and their applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. The fabrications and applications include: 1) high performance transparent electrodes, 2) a novel plasmonic nanocavity and its applications in organic solar cells and light emitting diodes, and 3) a bipolar plasmonic nonlinear optical device to enhance and tune second harmonic generation. Based upon these topics, the thesis is divided into the following parts. First, a novel transparent electrode (TE), metallic deep subwavelength mesh electrode is developed and fabricated, showing better transmittance and conductance than previous TEs. Its performance dependence on nanostructure geometries and materials are investigated. The deep-subwavelength mesh electrode also has excellent antiglare properties. Such electrodes are fabricated on 4" wafer by nanoimprint, scalable to meter sizes. Second, a novel plasmonic nanocavity from the MESH is developed, named "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH)", consisting of a thin MESH as a transparent front electrode, a thin metal back electrode, and in-between layer of active material. This structure is used to create high performance solar cells and LEDs. PlaCSH solar cell gives a solution to three central challenges in organic solar cells (light coupling into solar cell, light trapping in a sub-absorption-length-thick layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide). Experimentally, the PlaCSH polymer SCs achieve high light coupling-efficiency/absorptance/power conversion efficiency, along with broad-band, Omni angle/polarization acceptance. In OLEDs, PlaCSH shows numerous benefits with both the small- molecule and polymer active materials. Enhanced light extraction, internal quantum efficiency, ambient light absorption, contrast, viewing angle, brightness, and decreased glare are all observed. The above experiments -- along with

  5. Advance in novel boron nitride nanosheets to nanoelectronic device applications.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Morell, Gerardo; Feng, Peter

    2013-06-12

    We report low-temperature synthesis of large-scale boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and their applications for high-performance Schottky diode and gas sensor. Ten minutes of synthesis with a short-pulse-laser-produced plasma deposition technique yields a large amount of highly flat, transparent BNNSs. A basic reason for using short-pulse plasma beams is to avoid nanosheet thermal ablation or have low heat generated. Consequently, it greatly reduces the stress and yield large, flat BNNSs. The average size of obtained BNNS is around 10 μm and thickness is around 1.7 nm. Carbon element has been used for doping BNNSs and achieving BNNSs-based Schottky diode and gas sensing device. Typical current versus voltage characteristics of diode are examined. The breakdown reverse voltage is around -70 V. This probably indicates that the breakdown electric field of BNNSs-based diode is up to 1 × 10(8) V/cm. Sensing behavior of BNNSs-based gas sensor toward methane diluted with dry air is also characterized. The response time and recovery time are around 3 and 5 s at the operating temperature of 150 °C. Relatively, the sensor has poor sensitivity to oxygen gas.

  6. Advanced numerical methods and software approaches for semiconductor device simulation

    SciTech Connect

    CAREY,GRAHAM F.; PARDHANANI,A.L.; BOVA,STEVEN W.

    2000-03-23

    In this article the authors concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to drift-dominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the drift-diffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of upwind and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter-Gummel approach, Petrov-Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), entropy variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of the methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. They have included numerical examples from the recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and they emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, they briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.

  7. Advanced Numerical Methods and Software Approaches for Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Carey, Graham F.; Pardhanani, A. L.; Bova, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to driftdominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the driftdiffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of “upwind” and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter – Gummel approach, Petrov – Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), “entropy” variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of themore » methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. We have included numerical examples from our recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and we emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, we briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.« less

  8. Optical properties of inorganic electroluminescent devices with nanostripe electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the luminescence (emission) characteristics of a laminated dispersion-type inorganic electroluminescent (EL) device with a nanostripe electrode made of thin Al film, instead of a conventional indium-tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode, on the emission side of the device. The transmittance of the Al nanostripe electrode, with 60-nm line-and-space widths, was 45%. We compared an inorganic EL device positioned between two thin films of Al and the inorganic EL device with the Al nanostripe electrode using electric field simulations and actual experiments. We were able to apply the same electric field intensity to the phosphor layer in the conventional structure and to the new structure. Therefore, with an Al nanostripe electrode on one side of the EL device, it is possible to fabricate an ITO-free display.

  9. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOEpatents

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  10. Advanced optical sensing and processing technologies for the distributed control of large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G. M.; Fraser, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to examine state-of-the-art optical sensing and processing technology applied to control the motion of flexible spacecraft. Proposed large flexible space systems, such an optical telescopes and antennas, will require control over vast surfaces. Most likely distributed control will be necessary involving many sensors to accurately measure the surface. A similarly large number of actuators must act upon the system. The used technical approach included reviewing proposed NASA missions to assess system needs and requirements. A candidate mission was chosen as a baseline study spacecraft for comparison of conventional and optical control components. Control system requirements of the baseline system were used for designing both a control system containing current off-the-shelf components and a system utilizing electro-optical devices for sensing and processing. State-of-the-art surveys of conventional sensor, actuator, and processor technologies were performed. A technology development plan is presented that presents a logical, effective way to develop and integrate advancing technologies.

  11. Ferroelectric Tungsten Bronze Bulk Crystals and Epitaxial Thin Films for Electro-Optic Device Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    23 FERROELECTRIC TUNGSTEN BRONZE BULK CRYSTALS AND EPITAXIAL THIN FILMS FOR ELECTRO-OPTIC DEVICE APPLICATIONS 10 CO O Semi-Annual Technical... THIN FILMS FOR ELECTRO-OPTIC DEVICE APPLICATIONS s TV^C or REPORT * pcmoo COVCHCO Semi-Annual Tec1! Rpt #1 for period 09/30/82-03/31/83...months, considerable progress has been made in several areas, including single crystal and thin film growth and characteriza- tion. The new

  12. Error analysis and algorithm implementation for an improved optical-electric tracking device based on MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Wu, Qian-zhong

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve the precision of optical-electric tracking device, proposing a kind of improved optical-electric tracking device based on MEMS, in allusion to the tracking error of gyroscope senor and the random drift, According to the principles of time series analysis of random sequence, establish AR model of gyro random error based on Kalman filter algorithm, then the output signals of gyro are multiple filtered with Kalman filter. And use ARM as micro controller servo motor is controlled by fuzzy PID full closed loop control algorithm, and add advanced correction and feed-forward links to improve response lag of angle input, Free-forward can make output perfectly follow input. The function of lead compensation link is to shorten the response of input signals, so as to reduce errors. Use the wireless video monitor module and remote monitoring software (Visual Basic 6.0) to monitor servo motor state in real time, the video monitor module gathers video signals, and the wireless video module will sent these signals to upper computer, so that show the motor running state in the window of Visual Basic 6.0. At the same time, take a detailed analysis to the main error source. Through the quantitative analysis of the errors from bandwidth and gyro sensor, it makes the proportion of each error in the whole error more intuitive, consequently, decrease the error of the system. Through the simulation and experiment results shows the system has good following characteristic, and it is very valuable for engineering application.

  13. Advanced Controls for the Multi-pod Centipod WEC device

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, Alan; Fleming, Alex

    2016-02-15

    Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) has developed a Wave Energy Converter (WEC), Centipod, which is a multiple point absorber, extracting wave energy primarily in the heave direction through a plurality of point absorber floats sharing a common stable reference structure. The objective of this project was to develop advanced control algorithms that will be used to reduce Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). This project investigated the use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) to improve the power capture of the WEC. The MPC controller developed in this work is a state-space, “look ahead” controller approach using knowledge of past and current states to predict future states to take action with the PTO to maximize power capture while still respecting system constraints. In order to maximize power, which is the product of force and velocity, the controller must aim to create phase alignment between excitation force and velocity. This project showed a 161% improvement in the Annual Energy Production (AEP) for the Centipod WEC when utilizing MPC, compared to a baseline, fixed passive damping control strategy. This improvement in AEP was shown to provide a substantial benefit to the WEC’s overall Cost of Energy, reducing LCOE by 50% from baseline. The results of this work proved great potential for the adoption of Model Predictive Controls in Wave Energy Converters.

  14. Smart image sensors: an emerging key technology for advanced optical measurement and microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Peter

    1996-08-01

    Optical microsystems typically include photosensitive devices, analog preprocessing circuitry and digital signal processing electronics. The advances in semiconductor technology have made it possible today to integrate all photosensitive and electronical devices on one 'smart image sensor' or photo-ASIC (application-specific integrated circuits containing photosensitive elements). It is even possible to provide each 'smart pixel' with additional photoelectronic functionality, without compromising the fill factor substantially. This technological capability is the basis for advanced cameras and optical microsystems showing novel on-chip functionality: Single-chip cameras with on- chip analog-to-digital converters for less than $10 are advertised; image sensors have been developed including novel functionality such as real-time selectable pixel size and shape, the capability of performing arbitrary convolutions simultaneously with the exposure, as well as variable, programmable offset and sensitivity of the pixels leading to image sensors with a dynamic range exceeding 150 dB. Smart image sensors have been demonstrated offering synchronous detection and demodulation capabilities in each pixel (lock-in CCD), and conventional image sensors are combined with an on-chip digital processor for complete, single-chip image acquisition and processing systems. Technological problems of the monolithic integration of smart image sensors include offset non-uniformities, temperature variations of electronic properties, imperfect matching of circuit parameters, etc. These problems can often be overcome either by designing additional compensation circuitry or by providing digital correction routines. Where necessary for technological or economic reasons, smart image sensors can also be combined with or realized as hybrids, making use of commercially available electronic components. It is concluded that the possibilities offered by custom smart image sensors will influence the design

  15. Advanced Simulation Technology to Design Etching Process on CMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Prediction and control of plasma-induced damage is needed to mass-produce high performance CMOS devices. In particular, side-wall (SW) etching with low damage is a key process for the next generation of MOSFETs and FinFETs. To predict and control the damage, we have developed a SiN etching simulation technique for CHxFy/Ar/O2 plasma processes using a three-dimensional (3D) voxel model. This model includes new concepts for the gas transportation in the pattern, detailed surface reactions on the SiN reactive layer divided into several thin slabs and C-F polymer layer dependent on the H/N ratio, and use of ``smart voxels''. We successfully predicted the etching properties such as the etch rate, polymer layer thickness, and selectivity for Si, SiO2, and SiN films along with process variations and demonstrated the 3D damage distribution time-dependently during SW etching on MOSFETs and FinFETs. We confirmed that a large amount of Si damage was caused in the source/drain region with the passage of time in spite of the existing SiO2 layer of 15 nm in the over etch step and the Si fin having been directly damaged by a large amount of high energy H during the removal step of the parasitic fin spacer leading to Si fin damage to a depth of 14 to 18 nm. By analyzing the results of these simulations and our previous simulations, we found that it is important to carefully control the dose of high energy H, incident energy of H, polymer layer thickness, and over-etch time considering the effects of the pattern structure, chamber-wall condition, and wafer open area ratio. In collaboration with Masanaga Fukasawa and Tetsuya Tatsumi, Sony Corporation. We thank Mr. T. Shigetoshi and Mr. T. Kinoshita of Sony Corporation for their assistance with the experiments.

  16. Verification, Validation and Credibility Assessment of a Computational Model of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, C. R.; Humphreys, B. T.; Mulugeta, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the resistive exercise device used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to mitigate bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to microgravity (micro g). The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a multi-body dynamics model of biomechanics models for use in spaceflight exercise physiology research and operations. In an effort to advance model maturity and credibility of the ARED model, the DAP performed verification, validation and credibility (VV and C) assessment of the analyses of the model in accordance to NASA-STD-7009 'Standards for Models and Simulations'.

  17. Design of optical cloaks and illusion devices along a circumferential direction in curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tungyang; Yu, Shang-Ru

    2010-11-01

    We propose a cloaking and illusion device of circumferential topology based on the concept of transformation optics. The device is capable to cloak an object and/or simultaneously generate illusion images along a circumferential direction in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. This feature allows us to construct multiple illusions in different ways, irrespective of the profile and direction of incident wave. Particularly when the device is served as a building brick of a larger device, one can generate a circumferential array of illusions in a periodic or any preferred pattern. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed illusion devices by carrying out full wave simulations based on finite element calculations.

  18. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-09-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon's polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry.

  19. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon’s polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry. PMID:27626072

  20. Long-Term Optical Device Use by Young Adults with Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachofer, Cynthia Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term use of optical devices by individuals who participated in a school-based comprehensive low vision program focusing on use of devices, both near and distance. Thirty-seven participants (five non-users), ages 18-28, completed phone interviews giving information on their personal…

  1. Shaping perfect optical vortex with amplitude modulated using a digital micro-mirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chonglei; Min, Changjun; Yuan, X.-C.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a technique to generate of perfect optical vortex (POV) via Fourier transformation of Bessel-Gauss (BG) beams through encoding of the amplitude of the optical field with binary amplitude digital micro-mirrors device (DMD). Furthermore, we confirm the correct phase patterns of the POV with the method of Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our approach to generate the POV has the advantages that rapidly switch among the different modes, wide spectral regions and high energy tolerance. Since the POV possess propagation properties that not shape-invariant, we therefore suppose that our proposed approach will find potential applications in optical microscopy, optical fabrication, and optical communication.

  2. Co-Extrusion: Advanced Manufacturing for Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, Corie Lynn

    2016-11-18

    The development of mass markets for large-format batteries, including electric vehicles (EVs) and grid support, depends on both cost reductions and performance enhancements to improve their economic viability. Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) has developed a multi-material, advanced manufacturing process called co-extrusion (CoEx) to remove multiple steps in a conventional battery coating process with the potential to simultaneously increase battery energy and power density. CoEx can revolutionize battery manufacturing across most chemistries, significantly lowering end-product cost and shifting the underlying economics to make EVs and other battery applications a reality. PARC’s scale-up of CoEx for electric vehicle (EV) batteries builds on a solid base of experience in applying CoEx to solar cell manufacturing, deposition of viscous ceramic pastes, and Li-ion battery chemistries. In the solar application, CoEx has been deployed commercially at production scale where multi-channel CoEx printheads are used to print viscous silver gridline pastes at full production speeds (>40 ft/min). This operational scale-up provided invaluable experience with the nuances of speed, yield, and maintenance inherent in taking a new technology to the factory floor. PARC has leveraged this experience, adapting the CoEx process for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery manufacturing. To date, PARC has worked with Li-ion battery materials and structured cathodes with high-density Li-ion regions and low-density conduction regions, documenting both energy and power performance. Modeling results for a CoEx cathode show a path towards a 10-20% improvement in capacity for an EV pouch cell. Experimentally, we have realized a co-extruded battery structure with a Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) cathode at print speeds equivalent to conventional roll coating processes. The heterogeneous CoEx cathode enables improved capacity in thick electrodes at higher C-rates. The proof-of-principle coin cells

  3. Characterization of Amorphous Silicon Advanced Materials and PV Devices: Final Technical Report, 15 December 2001--31 January 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P. C.

    2005-11-01

    The major objectives of this subcontract have been: (1) understand the microscopic properties of the defects that contribute to the Staebler-Wronski effect to eliminate this effect, (2) perform correlated studies on films and devices made by novel techniques, especially those with promise to improve stability or deposition rates, (3) understand the structural, electronic, and optical properties of films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) made on the boundary between the amorphous and microcrystalline phases, (4) search for more stable intrinsic layers of a-Si:H, (5) characterize the important defects, impurities, and metastabilities in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces in a-Si:H films and devices and in important alloy systems, and (6) make state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) devices out of new, advanced materials, when appropriate. All of these goals are highly relevant to improving photovoltaic devices based on a-Si:H and related alloys. With regard to the first objective, we have identified a paired hydrogen site that may be the defect that stabilizes the silicon dangling bonds formed in the Staebler-Wronski effect.

  4. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Nystrom, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or cyrstalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  5. Introduction: feature issue on phantoms for the performance evaluation and validation of optical medical imaging devices.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeeseong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Nordstrom, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue on "Phantoms for the Performance Evaluation and Validation of Optical Medical Imaging Devices." This topic was the focus of a technical workshop that was held on November 7-8, 2011, in Washington, D.C. The feature issue includes 13 contributions from workshop attendees.

  6. Growth of bulk single crystals of organic materials for nonlinear optical devices - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, Benjamin G.; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Moore, Craig E.; Shields, Angela W.; Frazier, D. O.

    1991-01-01

    Highly perfect single crystals of nonlinear optical organic materials are required for use in optical devices. An overview of the bulk crystal growth of these materials by melt, vapor, and solution processes is presented. Additionally, methods that may be used to purify starting materials, detect impurities at low levels, screen materials for crystal growth, and process grown crystals are discussed.

  7. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation.

  8. Passive device based on plastic optical fibers to determine the indices of refraction of liquids.

    PubMed

    Zubia, J; Garitaonaindía, G; Arrúe, J

    2000-02-20

    We have designed and measured a passive device based on plastic optical fibers (POF's) that one can use to determine the indices of refraction of liquids. A complementary software has also been designed to simulate the behavior of the device. We report on the theoretical model developed for the device, its implementation in a simulation software program, and the results of the simulation. A comparison of the experimental and calculated results is also shown and discussed.

  9. Lithographically-Scribed Planar Holographic Optical CDMA Devices and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-15

    the model reasonably predicts the width and flatness. From the pertbrmance depicted in Figure 14 (a first prototype device), we can conclude that HBR...LightSmyth written software that simulates, via numerical diffractive scattering calculations, the actual behavior expected from fabricated devices. The HBR...between the channels). Second, there are ripples on the passband. The out-of-band crosstalk has been identified by modeling to result from a spatial

  10. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-03

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  11. The theoretical study of passive and active optical devices via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method and other approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuo, Ye

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we theoretically study the electromagnetic wave propagation in several passive and active optical components and devices including 2-D photonic crystals, straight and curved waveguides, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and etc. Several optical designs are also presented like organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells and solar concentrators. The first part of the thesis focuses on theoretical investigation. First, the plane-wave-based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is briefly described with a short review of photonic crystals and other numerical methods to study them (Chapter 1 and 2). Next TMM, the numerical method itself is investigated in details and developed in advance to deal with more complex optical systems. In chapter 3, TMM is extended in curvilinear coordinates to study curved nanoribbon waveguides. The problem of a curved structure is transformed into an equivalent one of a straight structure with spatially dependent tensors of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In chapter 4, a new set of localized basis orbitals are introduced to locally represent electromagnetic field in photonic crystals as alternative to planewave basis. The second part of the thesis focuses on the design of optical devices. First, two examples of TMM applications are given. The first example is the design of metal grating structures as replacements of ITO to enhance the optical absorption in OPV cells (chapter 6). The second one is the design of the same structure as above to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 7). Next, two design examples by ray tracing method are given, including applying a microlens array to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 5) and an all-angle wide-wavelength design of solar concentrator (chapter 8). In summary, this dissertation has extended TMM which makes it capable of treating complex optical systems. Several optical designs by TMM and ray tracing method are also given as a full complement of this

  12. Compressive Optical Imaging Systems -- Theory, Devices and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-15

    1758, 2000. [10] D. J. Brady, M. Feldman, N. Pitsianis, J. P. Guo, A. Portnoy, and M. Fiddy, “Compressive optical montage photography ,” in SPIE...Constantini and S. Susstrunk, “Virtual sensor design,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, vol...Schroeder, Astronomical Optics. Academic Press, 1987. [58] S. S. Chen, D. L. Donoho, and M. A. Saunders, “Atomic decomposition by basis pursuit

  13. Study of 3D printing method for GRIN micro-optics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. J.; Yeh, J. A.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Lee, W.; Wu, N. H.; Wu, C. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional optical elements are based on either refractive or reflective optics theory to fulfill the design specifications via optics performance data. In refractive optical lenses, the refractive index of materials and radius of curvature of element surfaces determine the optical power and wavefront aberrations so that optical performance can be further optimized iteratively. Although gradient index (GRIN) phenomenon in optical materials is well studied for more than a half century, the optics theory in lens design via GRIN materials is still yet to be comprehensively investigated before realistic GRIN lenses are manufactured. In this paper, 3D printing method for manufacture of micro-optics devices with special features has been studied based on methods reported in the literatures. Due to the additive nature of the method, GRIN lenses in micro-optics devices seem to be readily achievable if a design methodology is available. First, derivation of ray-tracing formulae is introduced for all possible structures in GRIN lenses. Optics simulation program is employed for characterization of GRIN lenses with performance data given by aberration coefficients in Zernike polynomial. Finally, a proposed structure of 3D printing machine is described with conceptual illustration.

  14. Micropatterned photoalignment for wavefront controlled switchable optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazar, Nikolaus

    Photoalignment is a well-established technique for surface alignment of the liquid crystal director. Previously, chrome masks were necessary for patterned photoalignment but were difficult to use, costly, and inflexible. To extend the capabilities of photoalignment we built an automated maskless multi-domain photoalignment device based on a DMD (digital multimirror device) projection system. The device is capable of creating arbitrary photoalignment patterns with micron-sized features. Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PB-phase) is a geometric phase that arises from cyclic change of polarization state. By varying the azimuthal anchoring angle in a hybrid-aligned liquid crystal cell we can control the spatial variation of the PB-phase shift. Using our automated photoalignment device to align the liquid crystal arbitrary wave front manipulations are possible. The PB-phase shift effect is maximized when the cell is tuned to have a half-wave retardation and disappears at full-wave retardation, so the cell can be switched on and off by applying a voltage. Two wavefront controlled devices developed using this technique will be discussed: A switchable liquid crystal phase shift mask for creating sub-diffraction sized photolithographic features, and a transparent diffractive display that utilizes a switchable liquid crystal diffraction grating.

  15. Investigation of Surface Breakdown on Semiconductor Devices Using Optical Probing Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    18] L. Bovino , T. Burke, R. Youmans, M. Weiner, and J. Car, r, "Recent Advances in Optically C’ntrolled Bulk Semiconductor Switches," Digest of...Comp. Simul. 5 (3), 175 (1988). [321 M. Weiner, L. Bovino , R. Youmans, and T. Burke, "Modeling of the Optically Conrolled Semiconductor Switch," J

  16. Microelectromechanical system assembled ion optics: An advance to miniaturization and assembly of electron and ion optics

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.; Verbeck, G.; Saini, R.; Tsui, K.

    2009-09-15

    Deep-reactive ion etching of n-doped silicon-on-insulator is utilized to make ion optical components to aid in the miniaturization of mass analyzers. The microelectromechanical system components are bound to aluminum nitride substrates and employed three-dimensional assembly. The assembly methods are tested for breakdown (V{sub b}), durability, and alignment. Demonstration of ion manipulation is shown with a 1 mm Bradbury-Nielsen gate, 500 {mu}m Einzel lens, 500 {mu}m coaxial ring ion trap, and reflectron optics. Data are presented showing the resolution, attenuation, and performance of each of these devices. We demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of this technology and its applications to mass analysis.

  17. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase IV--Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; And Others

    Modern aircrew training devices (ATDs) are equipped with sophisticated hardware and software capabilities, known as advanced instructional features (AIFs), that permit a simulator instructor to prepare briefings, manage training, vary task difficulty/fidelity, monitor performance, and provide feedback for flight simulation training missions. The…

  18. Numerical investigation of a multi-functional optical device based on graphene-silica metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaiqing; Ren, Guobin; Gao, Yixiao; Zhu, Bofeng; Li, Haisu; Wu, Beilei; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-06-01

    We propose a permittivity-tunable metamaterial channel, which is composed of alternative layers of graphene and silica. Optical waves can pass through the metamaterial channel only if its permittivity is tuned to zero. Taking advantage of the permittivity tunable property of the metamaterial, a multi-functional optical device, which can act as a wavelength demultiplexer, switch, and optical splitter without changing the geometric parameters has been proposed and numerically investigated by using the Finite Element Method. Owing to the permittivity tunable property of graphene, the working wavelength of the multi-functional device can be flexibly controlled by tuning the gate voltage applied on the metamaterial. This tunable ultracompact multi-functional optical device may find potential applications in highly integrated photonic circuits.

  19. Optical interconnection for a polymeric PLC device using simple positional alignment.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jin Hwa; Kim, Po Jin; Cho, Cheon Soo; Lee, El-Hang; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung

    2011-04-25

    This study proposes a simple cost-effective method of optical interconnection between a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device chip and an optical fiber. It was conducted to minimize and overcome the coupling loss caused by lateral offset which is due to the process tolerance and the dimensional limitation existing between PLC device chips and fiber array blocks with groove structures. A PLC device chip and a fiber array block were simultaneously fabricated in a series of polymer replication processes using the original master. The dimensions (i.e., width and thickness) of the under-clad of the PLC device chip were identical to those of the fiber array block. The PLC device chip and optical fiber were aligned by simple positional control for the vertical direction of the PLC device chip under a particular condition. The insertion loss of the proposed 1 x 2 multimode optical splitter device interconnection was 4.0 dB at 850 nm and the coupling loss was below 0.1 dB compared with single-fiber based active alignment.

  20. Non-CPAP therapies in obstructive sleep apnoea: mandibular advancement device therapy.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Marie; Verbraecken, Johan; Randerath, Winfried

    2012-05-01

    Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) represent the main non-continuous positive airway pressure (non-CPAP) therapy for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The aim of the European Respiratory Society Task Force was to review the evidence in favour of MAD therapy. Effects of tongue-retaining devices are not included in this report. Custom-made MADs reduce apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and daytime sleepiness compared with placebo devices. CPAP more effectively diminishes AHI, while increasing data suggest fairly similar outcomes in relation to symptoms and cardiovascular health from these treatments. Patients often prefer MADs to CPAP. Milder cases and patients with a proven increase in upper airway size as a result of mandibular advancement are most likely to experience treatment success with MADs. A custom-made device titrated from an initial 50% of maximum mandibular advancement has been recommended. More research is needed to define the patients who will benefit from MAD treatment compared with CPAP, in terms of the effects on sleep-disordered breathing and on other diseases related to OSA. In conclusion, MADs are recommended for patients with mild to moderate OSA (Recommendation Level A) and for those who do not tolerate CPAP. The treatment must be followed up and the device adjusted or exchanged in relation to the outcome.

  1. Tunable optical limiting optofluidic device filled with graphene oxide dispersion in ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chaolong; Dai, Bo; Hong, Ruijin; Tao, Chunxian; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    An optofluidic device with tunable optical limiting property is proposed and demonstrated. The optofluidic device is designed for adjusting the concentration of graphene oxide (GO) in the ethanol solution and fabricated by photolithography technique. By controlling the flow rate ratio of the injection, the concentration of GO can be precisely adjusted so that the optical nonlinearity can be changed. The nonlinear optical properties and dynamic excitation relaxation of the GO/ethanol solution are investigated by using Z-scan and pump-probe measurements in the femtosecond regime within the 1.5 μm telecom band. The GO/ethanol solution presents ultrafast recovery time. Besides, the optical limiting property is in proportion to the concentration of the solution. Thus, the threshold power and the saturated power of the optical limiting property can be simply and efficiently manipulated by controlling the flow rate ratio of the injection. Furthermore, the amplitude regeneration is demonstrated by employing the proposed optofluidic device. The signal quality of intensity-impaired femtosecond pulse is significantly improved. The optofluidic device is compact and has long interaction length of optical field and nonlinear material. Heat can be dissipated in the solution and nonlinear material is isolated from other optical components, efficiently avoiding thermal damage and mechanical damage. PMID:26477662

  2. Deep ultraviolet laser micromachining of novel fibre optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Dou, J.; Herman, P. R.; Fricke-Begemann, T.; Ihlemann, J.; Marowsky, G.

    2007-04-01

    A deep ultraviolet F2 laser, with output at 157-nm wavelength, has been adopted for micro-shaping the end facets of single and multi-mode silica optical fibres. The high energy 7.9-eV photons drive strong interactions in the wide-bandgap silica fibres to enable the fabrication of surface-relief microstructures with high spatial resolution and smooth surface morphology. Diffraction gratings, focusing lenses, and Mach-Zehnder interferometric structures have been micromachined onto the cleaved-fibre facets and optically characterized. F2-laser micromachining is shown to be a rapid and facile means for direct-writing of novel infibre photonic components.

  3. Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

  4. Electro-optical device for monitoring wire size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcher, E. E.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1973-01-01

    Device recognizes variations in wire size and is being used during computer memory-plane fabrication. Decrease in wire diameter, due to stretching, permits removal of wire from memory-plant mold. Monitoring provides means of detecting imperfect wire and permits fabrication of computer memory plane to be stopped prior to its insertion into mold.

  5. Experimental characterization, evaluation, and diagnosis of advanced hybrid infrared focal plane array electro-optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomheim, Terrence S.; Schumann, Lee W.; Kohn, Stanley E.

    1998-07-01

    High performance scanning time-delay-and-integration and staring hybrid focal plane devices with very large formats, small pixel sizes, formidable frame and line rates, on-chip digital programmability, and high dynamic ranges, are being developed for a myriad of defense, civil, and commercial applications that span the spectral range from shortwave infrared (SWIR) to longwave infrared (LWIR). An essential part in the development of such new advanced hybrid infrared focal planes is empirical validation of their electro-optical (EO) performance. Many high-reliability, high-performance applications demand stringent and near flawless EO performance over a wide variety of operating conditions and environments. Verification of focal plane performance compliance over this wide range of parametric conditions requires the development and use of accurate, flexible, and statistically complete test methods and associated equipment. In this paper we review typical focal plane requirements, the ensuing measurement requirements (quantity, accuracy, repeatability, etc.), test methodologies, test equipment requirements, electronics and computer-based data acquisition requirements, statistical data analysis and display requirements, and associated issues. We also discuss special test requirements for verifying the performance of panchromatic thermal and multispectral imaging focal planes where characterization of dynamic modulation transfer function (MTF), and point-image response and optical overload is generally required. We briefly overview focal plane radiation testing. We conclude with a discussion of the technical challenges of characterizing future advanced hybrid focal plane testing where it is anticipated that analog-to- digital conversion will be included directly on focal plane devices, thus creating the scenario of 'photons-in-to-bits- out' within the focal plane itself.

  6. Optic Nerve Head Measurements With Optical Coherence Tomography: A Phantom-Based Study Reveals Differences Among Clinical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anant; Baxi, Jigesh; Calhoun, William; Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Schuman, Joel S.; Wollstein, Gadi; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can monitor for glaucoma by measuring dimensions of the optic nerve head (ONH) cup and disc. Multiple clinical studies have shown that different OCT devices yield different estimates of retinal dimensions. We developed phantoms mimicking ONH morphology as a new way to compare ONH measurements from different clinical OCT devices. Methods Three phantoms were fabricated to model the ONH: One normal and two with glaucomatous anatomies. Phantoms were scanned with Stratus, RTVue, and Cirrus clinical devices, and with a laboratory OCT system as a reference. We analyzed device-reported ONH measurements of cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) and cup volume and compared them with offline measurements done manually and with a custom software algorithm, respectively. Results The mean absolute difference between clinical devices with device-reported measurements versus offline measurements was 0.082 vs. 0.013 for CDR and 0.044 mm3 vs. 0.019 mm3 for cup volume. Statistically significant differences between devices were present for 16 of 18 comparisons of device-reported measurements from the phantoms. Offline Cirrus measurements tended to be significantly different from those from Stratus and RTVue. Conclusions The interdevice differences in CDR and cup volume are primarily caused by the devices' proprietary ONH analysis algorithms. The three devices yield more similar ONH measurements when a consistent offline analysis technique is applied. Scan pattern on the ONH also may be a factor in the measurement differences. This phantom-based study has provided unique insights into characteristics of OCT measurements of the ONH. PMID:27409500

  7. Thermo-optic coefficient of polyisobutylene ultrathin films measured with integrated photonic devices.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Seok; Neiroukh, Dania; Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

    2012-01-10

    The optical properties of polymeric materials, such as transmission loss and the thermo-optic coefficient, determine their utility in numerous applications, ranging from nanotechnology to the automotive and aerospace industries. However, because of the wide variation in the physical properties of polymers, many are unsuited for characterization using conventional techniques; consequently, their optical properties are unknown. One such polymer is polyisobutylene, which is viscous at room temperature and therefore is not compatible with conventional transmission loss and the thermo-optic coefficient characterization techniques because they rely on contact measurements. To overcome this, we have developed an integrated, microscale optical sensor that relies on an evanescent wave to study the material's optical behavior. Using this device, we successfully determined the refractive index, the transmission loss, and the thermo-optic coefficient of ultrathin films of polyisobutylene. The films are deposited on the sensor's silica surface using either spin coating or surface-initiated cationic polymerization, demonstrating the flexibility of this approach.

  8. Infrared Optical Properties of β-Spodumene Solid Solution Glass-Ceramic for Fiber-Optic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2006-09-01

    The IR optical properties of an opaque β-spodumene solid solution (s.s.) glass-ceramic for fiber-optic devices were studied in relation to its refractive indices in both crystalline and glass phases. We investigated the refractive indices of both phases on the basis of IR transmittance change due to the structural relaxation of the glass phase. The refractive indices of this β-spodumene s.s. glass-ceramic at a wavelength of 1550 nm in the crystalline and glass phases were first determined to be 1.530 and 1.495, respectively. It was found from the refractive index data that the optical scattering intensity of this glass-ceramic approximately follows the Rayleigh-Gans model. We also demonstrated that the inner diameter of an opaque glass-ceramic capillary used in optical fiber connectors can be optically measured with a sub-micrometer accuracy using an IR laser.

  9. A novel precision face grinder for advanced optic manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Peng, Y.; Wang, Z.; Yang, W.; Bi, G.; Ke, X.; Lin, X.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a large-scale NC precision face grinding machine is developed. This grinding machine can be used to the precision machining of brittle materials. The base and the machine body are independent and the whole structure is configured as a "T" type. The vertical column is seat onto the machine body at the middle center part through a double of precision lead rails. The grinding wheel is driven with a hydraulic dynamic and static spindle. The worktable is supported with a novel split thin film throttle hydrostatic lead rails. Each of motion-axis of the grinding machine is equipped with a Heidenhain absolute linear encoder, and then a closed feedback control system is formed with the adopted Fanuc 0i-MD NC system. The machine is capable of machining extremely flat surfaces on workpiece up to 800mmx600mm. The maximums load bearing of the work table is 620Kg. Furthermore, the roughness of the machined surfaces should be smooth (Ra<50nm-100nm), and the form accuracy less than 2μm (+/-1μm)/200x200mm. After the assembly and debugging of the surface grinding machine, the worktable surface has been self-ground with 60# grinding wheel and the form accuracy is 3μm/600mm×800mm. Then the grinding experiment was conduct on a BK7 flat optic glass element (400mmx250mm) and a ceramic disc (Φ100mm) with 60# grinding wheel, and the measuring results show the surface roughness and the form accuracy of the optic glass device are 0.07μm and 1.56μm/200x200mm, and these of the ceramic disc are 0.52μm and 1.28μm respectively.

  10. Optical 1's and 2's complement devices using lithium-niobate-based waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep

    2016-12-01

    Optical 1's and 2's complement devices are proposed with the help of lithium-niobate-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a powerful capability of switching an optical signal from one port to the other port with the help of an electrical control signal. The paper includes the optical conversion scheme using sets of optical switches. 2's complement is common in computer systems and is used in binary subtraction and logical manipulation. The operation of the circuits is studied theoretically and analyzed through numerical simulations. The truth table of these complement methods is verified with the beam propagation method and MATLAB® simulation results.

  11. Metrology solutions using optical scatterometry for advanced CMOS: III-V and Germanium multi-gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Hock-Chun; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Xingui; Ling, Moh-Lung; Yip, Chan-Hoe; Liu, Yongdong; Hu, Jiangtao; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we report metrology solutions using scatterometry Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) characterization on two advanced CMOS devices: novel n-channel gate-last In0.53Ga0.47As FinFET with self-aligned Molybdenum (Mo) contacts and p-channel Ge FinFET formed on Germanium-on-Insulator (GOI) substrate. Key critical process steps during the fabrication of these advanced transistors were identified for process monitor using scatterometry OCD measurement to improve final yield. Excellent correlation with reference metrology and high measurement precision were achieved by using OCD characterization, confirming scatterometry OCD as a promising metrology technique for next generation device applications. In addition, we also further explore OCD characterization using normal incidence spectroscopic reflectometry (SR), oblique incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and combined SR+SE technologies. The combined SR+SE approach was found to provide better precision.

  12. Stereotaxic Device for Optical Imaging of Mice Hind Feet

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard; Hoffman, Timothy; Smith, Jason; Herron, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Imaging of in vivo model systems, especially mouse models, has revolutionized our understanding of normal and pathological developments. However, mice present several challenges for imaging. They are living and therefore breathing organisms with a fast heart rate (>500 beat/min), which necessitates the need for restraints and positioning controls that do not compromise their normal physiology. We present here a device that immobilizes the rear legs of a mouse while retaining the ability to position both the hind feet and legs for reproducible imaging deep below the skin's surface. The device is highly adjustable to accommodate mice, 5 weeks of age and older. The function of this device is demonstrated by imaging the vasculature ∼250 μm beneath the skin in the hind leg. Whereas the overall dimensions are for a motorized stage (Märzhäuser Wetzlar GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany), minor modifications would allow it to be customized for use with most commercially available stages that accept an insert. PMID:23997660

  13. Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Devices Using Artificial Slow-Light Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-19

    nature is our study of the limitations on the performance of slow light waveguides, both in the linear and nonlinear regimes. This work is based upon...interaction, and others (e.g. resonant-enhanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers, or REMZI) do not. We have also performed studies in the linear regime...optical filter configurations, primarily in terms of their linear response. One of the limitations of this approach is that designs cannot always be

  14. Charged-coupled device (CCD) detectors for Lab-on-a Chip (LOC) optical analysis.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Avraham; Kostov, Yordan; Bruck, Hugh A

    2013-01-01

    A critical element of any Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) is a detector; among the many detection approaches, optical detection is very widely used for biodetection. One challenge for advancing the development of LOC for biodetection has been to enhance the portability and lower the cost for Point-of-Care diagnostics, which has the potential to enhance the quality of healthcare delivery for underserved populations and for global health. We describe a simple and relatively low cost charged-coupled device (CCD)-based detector that can be integrated with a conventional microtiter plate or a portable LOC assay for various optical detection modalities including fluorescence, chemiluminescence, densitometry, and colorimetric assays. In general, the portable battery-operated CCD-based detection system consists of four modules: (1) a cooled CCD digital camera to monitor light emission, (2) a LOC or microtiter plate to perform assays, (3) a light source to illuminate the assay (such as electroluminescence (EL) or light emitting diode (LED)), and (4) a portable computer to acquire and analyze images. The configuration of the fluorescence detector presented here was designed to measure fluorogenic excitation at 490 nm and to monitor emission at 523 nm used for FITC detection.The LOC used for this detection system was fabricated with laminated object manufacturing (LOM) technology, and was designed to detection activity of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT-A) using a fluorogenic peptide substrate (SNAP-25) for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT-A) labeled with FITC. The limit of detection (LOD) for the CCD detector is 0.5 nM (25 ng/ml). The portable system is small and is powered by a 12 V source. The modular detector was designed with easily interchangeable LEDs, ELs, filters, lenses, and LOC, and can be used and adapted for a wide variety of densitometry, florescence and colorimetric assays.

  15. Integrated acoustooptic device modules for optical information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chen S.

    1988-07-01

    The objectives of this program year are focused on design, fabrication, and testing of wideband guided wave AO Bragg diffraction from surface acoustic waves in Gallium arsenide optical waveguides and conception/realization of multichannel integrated acousto-optics and electrooptics Bragg modulator modules in TIPE microlenses-based lithium niobates and GaAs channel-planar composite waveguides with applications to signal processing and computing. Wideband GaAs waveguide AO Bragg cells that operate in the acoustic frequency range from 300 to 1200 MHz have been realized. This represents realization of GHz GaAs waveguide AO Bragg cells shows that monolithically integrated optic signal processors such as radiofrequency spectrum analyzers may be fabricated in a common GaAs chip. Multichannel single-mode electrooptic cutoff modulator arrays and Bragg diffraction modulator arrays have been successfully realized in GaAs. One of the vital and remaining components toward monolithic (total) integration in GaAs is the waveguide microlens and linear lens array. Fabrication of negative index-change planar waveguide microlenses in both LiNbO3 and GaAs using ion milling. The waveguide lenses that have been fabricated and tested include single lenses and lens arrays of analog Fresnel, chirp grating, and hybrid analog Fresnel chirp grating types. We have obtained near diffraction-limited spot sizes and good efficiencies in such preliminary components.

  16. Integration of waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated analytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutter, Joerg P.; Mogensen, Klaus B.; Friis, Peter; Jorgensen, Anders M.; Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Telleman, Pieter; Huebner, Joerg

    2000-08-01

    Buried optical channel waveguides integrated with a fluidic channel network on a planar microdevice are presented. The waveguides were fabricated using silica-on-silicon technology with the goal to replace bulk optical elements and facilitate various optical detection techniques for miniaturized total analysis systems or lab-on-a-chip systems. Waveguide structures with core layers doped with germanium were employed for fluorescence measurements, while waveguides with nitrogen- only doped core layers were used for absorbance measurements. By the elimination of germanium oxygen deficiency centers transmission of light down to 210nm was possible, allowing absorance measurements in the mid and far UV region (210 to 280nm), which is the region where a large number of different molecules absorb light. Robust, alignment-free microdevices, which can easily be hooked up to a number of light sources and detectors were used for fluorescence measurements of two dyes, fluorescein and Bodipy, and absorbance measurements of a stres-reducing drug, propranolol. The lowest detected concentrations were 250pM for fluorescein, 100nM for Bodipy and 12(mu) M for propranolol.

  17. Stand-alone scattering optical device using holographic photopolymer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongchan; Lee, KyeoReh; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    When a light propagates through highly disordered medium, its optical parameters such as amplitude, phase and polarization states are completely scrambled because of multiple scattering events. Since the multiple scattering is a fundamental optical process that contains extremely high degrees of freedom, optical information of a transmitted light is totally mingled. Until recently, the presence of multiple scattering in an inhomogeneous medium is considered as a major obstacle when manipulating a light transmitting through the medium. However, a recent development of wavefront shaping techniques enable us to control the propagation of light through turbid media; a light transmitting through a turbid medium can be effectively controlled by modulating the spatial profile of the incident light using spatial light modulator. In this work, stand-alone scattering optical device is proposed; a holographic photopolymer film, which is much economic compared to the other digital spatial light modulators, is used to record and reconstruct permanent wavefront to generate optical field behind a scattering medium. By employing our method, arbitrary optical field can be generated since the scattering medium completely mixes all the optical parameters which allow us to access all the optical information only by modulating spatial phase profile of the impinging wavefront. The method is experimentally demonstrated in both the far-field and near-field regime where it shows promising fidelity and stability. The proposed stand-alone scattering optical device will opens up new avenues for exploiting the randomness inherent in disordered medium.

  18. Advances in Measuring the Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs) of Optically Complex Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, John H.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Booth, Charles R.; Bernhard, Germar; Lind, Randall N.; Brown, James W.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents new technology used to measure the apparent optical properties (AOPs) of optically complex waters. The principal objective is to be prepared for the launch of next-generation ocean color satellites with the most capable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) instrumentation. An enhanced COTS radiometer was the starting point for designing and testing the new sensors. The follow-on steps were to apply the lessons learned towards a new in-water profiler based on a kite-shaped backplane for mounting the light sensors. The next level of sophistication involved evaluating new radiometers emerging from a development activity based on so-called microradiometers. The exploitation of microradiometers resulted in an in-water profiling system, which includes a sensor networking capability to control ancillary sensors like a shadowband or global positioning system (GPS) device. A principal advantage of microradiometers is their flexibility in producing, interconnecting, and maintaining instruments. The full problem set for collecting sea-truth data--whether in coastal waters or the open ocean-- involves other aspects of data collection that were improved for instruments measuring both AOPs and inherent optical properties (IOPs), if the uncertainty budget is to be minimized. New capabilities associated with deploying solar references were developed as well as a compact solution for recovering in-water instrument systems from small boats.

  19. Fabrication Techniques for Micro-Optical Device Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    lasers , the first to be commercialized and most common semiconductor laser in use today, can be found in bar code scanners, laser pointers , advanced...such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers . Using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) foundry process, I design a test chip that consists of...2.2 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)...................................... 6 2.2.1 DBRs

  20. 3D printing of tissue-simulating phantoms for calibration of biomedical optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuhua; Zhou, Ximing; Shen, Shuwei; Liu, Guangli; Yuan, Li; Meng, Yuquan; Lv, Xiang; Shao, Pengfei; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-10-01

    Clinical utility of many biomedical optical devices is limited by the lack of effective and traceable calibration methods. Optical phantoms that simulate biological tissues used for optical device calibration have been explored. However, these phantoms can hardly simulate both structural and optical properties of multi-layered biological tissue. To address this limitation, we develop a 3D printing production line that integrates spin coating, light-cured 3D printing and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) for freeform fabrication of optical phantoms with mechanical and optical heterogeneities. With the gel wax Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and colorless light-curable ink as matrix materials, titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder as the scattering ingredient, graphite powder and black carbon as the absorption ingredient, a multilayer phantom with high-precision is fabricated. The absorption and scattering coefficients of each layer are measured by a double integrating sphere system. The results demonstrate that the system has the potential to fabricate reliable tissue-simulating phantoms to calibrate optical imaging devices.

  1. A new electro-optic waveguide architecture and the unprecedented devices it enables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Farca, George; Anderson, Michael H.

    2008-04-01

    A new electro-optic waveguide platform, which provides unprecedented electro-optical phase delays (> 1mm), with very low loss (< 0.5 dB/cm) and rapid response time (sub millisecond), is presented. This technology, developed by Vescent Photonics, is based upon a unique liquid-crystal waveguide geometry, which exploits the tremendous electro-optic response of liquid crystals while circumventing historic limitations of liquid crystals. The exceedingly large optical phase delays accessible with this technology enable the design and construction of a new class of previously unrealizable photonic devices. Examples include: a 1-D non-mechanical, analog beamsteerer with an 80° field of regard, a chip-scale widely tunable laser, a chip-scale Fourier transform spectrometer (< 5 nm resolution demonstrated), widely tunable micro-ring resonators, tunable lenses, ultra-low power (< 5 microWatts) optical switches, true optical time delay (up to 10 ns), and many more. All of these devices may benefit from established manufacturing technologies and ultimately may be as inexpensive as a calculator display. Furthermore, this new integrated photonic architecture has applications in a wide array of commercial and defense markets including: remote sensing, micro-LADAR, OCT, laser illumination, phased array radar, optical communications, etc. Performance attributes of several example devices are presented.

  2. AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    William H. Morrison; Jon P. Christophersen; Patrick Bald; John L. Morrison

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. The concern for the availability of critical systems in turn drives the availability of battery systems and thus the need for accurate battery health monitoring has become paramount. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of an accurate, simple, robust calibration process. This paper discusses the successful realization of this process.

  3. Novel fiber optic tip designs and devices for laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchens, Thomas Clifton

    Fiber optic delivery of laser energy has been used for years in various types of surgical procedures in the human body. Optical energy provides several benefits over electrical or mechanical surgery, including the ability to selectively target specific tissue types while preserving others. Specialty fiber optic tips have also been introduced to further customize delivery of laser energy to the tissue. Recent evolution in lasers and miniaturization has opened up opportunities for many novel surgical techniques. Currently, ophthalmic surgeons use relatively invasive mechanical tools to dissect retinal deposits which occur in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. By using the tight focusing properties of microspheres combined with the short optical penetration depth of the Erbium:YAG laser and mid-IR fiber delivery, a precise laser scalpel can be constructed as an alternative, less invasive and more precise approach to this surgery. Chains of microspheres may allow for a self limiting ablation depth of approximately 10 microm based on the defocusing of paraxial rays. The microsphere laser scalpel may also be integrated with other surgical instruments to reduce the total number of handpieces for the surgeon. In current clinical laser lithotripsy procedures, poor input coupling of the Holmium:YAG laser energy frequently damages and requires discarding of the optical fiber. However, recent stone ablation studies with the Thulium fiber laser have provided comparable results to the Ho:YAG laser. The improved spatial beam profile of the Thulium fiber laser can also be efficiently coupled into a fiber approximately one third the diameter and reduces the risk of damaging the fiber input. For this reason, the trunk optical fiber minus the distal fiber tip can be preserved between procedures. The distal fiber tip, which degrades during stone ablation, could be made detachable and disposable. A novel, low-profile, twist-locking, detachable distal fiber tip interface was designed

  4. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  5. Advanced Electrical, Optical and Data Communication Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Cobb

    2011-04-30

    The implementation of electrical and IT infrastructure systems at the North Carolina Center for Automotive Research , Inc. (NCCAR) has achieved several key objectives in terms of system functionality, operational safety and potential for ongoing research and development. Key conclusions include: (1) The proven ability to operate a high speed wireless data network over a large 155 acre area; (2) Node to node wireless transfers from access points are possible at speeds of more than 50 mph while maintaining high volume bandwidth; (3) Triangulation of electronic devices/users is possible in areas with overlapping multiple access points, outdoor areas with reduced overlap of access point coverage considerably reduces triangulation accuracy; (4) Wireless networks can be adversely affected by tree foliage, pine needles are a particular challenge due to the needle length relative to the transmission frequency/wavelength; and (5) Future research will use the project video surveillance and wireless systems to further develop automated image tracking functionality for the benefit of advanced vehicle safety monitoring and autonomous vehicle control through 'vehicle-to-vehicle' and 'vehicle-to-infrastructure' communications. A specific advantage realized from this IT implementation at NCCAR is that NC State University is implementing a similar wireless network across Centennial Campus, Raleigh, NC in 2011 and has benefited from lessons learned during this project. Consequently, students, researchers and members of the public will be able to benefit from a large scale IT implementation with features and improvements derived from this NCCAR project.

  6. Advanced Technology for Improved Quantum Device Properties Using Highly Strained Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Improved Quantum PE 61153N Device Properties Using Highly Strained Materials PE 1401N~R&T 414s 001-02 IN G. AUTHOR(S) (William J. Schaff , S.D. Offsey and...DECEMBER 15, 1989 CORNELL UNIVERSITY.......................... ITHACA, NY 14853-5401 PREPARED BY: WJ. Schaff ........ S.D. Offsey I - L.F. Eastman D ’’. i...Mandeville, R. Saito, P.J. Tasker, W.J. Schaff and L.F. Eastman, 12th IEEE/Comell Conference on’Advanced Concepts in High Speed Semiconductor Devices

  7. Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2013-06-01

    The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries.

  8. Porous graphene materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng; Wu, Dongqing; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-02-12

    Combining the advantages from both porous materials and graphene, porous graphene materials have attracted vast interests due to their large surface areas, unique porous structures, diversified compositions and excellent electronic conductivity. These unordinary features enable porous graphene materials to serve as key components in high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. This progress report summarizes the typical fabrication methods for porous graphene materials with micro-, meso-, and macro-porous structures. The structure-property relationships of these materials and their application in advanced electrochemical devices are also discussed.

  9. Inside Single Cells: Quantitative Analysis with Advanced Optics and Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Single cell explorations offer a unique window to inspect molecules and events relevant to mechanisms and heterogeneity constituting the central dogma of biology. A large number of nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites and small molecules are involved in determining and fine-tuning the state and function of a single cell at a given time point. Advanced optical platforms and nanotools provide tremendous opportunities to probe intracellular components with single-molecule accuracy, as well as promising tools to adjust single cell activity. In order to obtain quantitative information (e.g. molecular quantity, kinetics and stoichiometry) within an intact cell, achieving the observation with comparable spatiotemporal resolution is a challenge. For single cell studies both the method of detection and the biocompatibility are critical factors as they determine the feasibility, especially when considering live cell analysis. Although a considerable proportion of single cell methodologies depend on specialized expertise and expensive instruments, it is our expectation that the information content and implication will outweigh the costs given the impact on life science enabled by single cell analysis. PMID:25430077

  10. Optical logic and signal processing using a semiconductor laser diode-based optical bistability device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuancheng; Song, Qian; He, Shaowei

    1995-02-01

    Using an optical fibre-coupled semiconductor laser diode OBD with output feedback pumping operation in 5 modes (differential gain, bistability, zero-bias, inverted differential gain, and inverted bistability) has been realized respectively, and 5 elementary optical logic functions (AND, OR, NOT, NAND, and NOR) and some optical signal processing such as limiting, reshaping, and triggering have been implemented.

  11. High-speed optical processing using digital micromirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Walker, Brian; Reyes, George

    2014-04-01

    We have designed optical processing architecture and algorithms utilizing the DMD as the input and filter Spatial Light Modulators (SLM). Detailed system analysis will be depicted. Experimental demonstration, for the first time, showing that a complex-valued spatial filtered can be successfully written on the DMDSLM using a Computer Generated Hologram (CGH) [1] encoding technique will also be provided. The high-resolution, high-bandwidth provided by the DMD and its potential low cost due to mass production will enable its vast defense and civil application.

  12. Reduction of surface roughness for optical quality microfluidic devices in PMMA and COC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, I. R. G.; Sieben, V. J.; Floquet, C. F. A.; Zmijan, R.; Mowlem, M. C.; Morgan, H.

    2010-06-01

    A rapid and low-cost technique is presented for the fabrication of optical quality microfluidic devices in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). When polymer microfluidic devices are manufactured by rapid prototyping techniques, such as micromilling, the surface roughness is typically in the region of hundreds of nanometres reducing the overall optical efficiency of many microfluidic-based systems. Here we demonstrate a novel solvent vapour treatment that is used to irreversibly bond microfluidic chips while simultaneously reducing the channel surface roughness, yielding optical grade (less than 15 nm surface roughness) channel walls. We characterize this vapour bonding method and optimize the process parameters to avoid channel collapse, while achieving reflow of polymer and uniformity of bonding. The reflow of polymer is the key to enabling a fabrication process that takes less than a day and produces optical quality surfaces with low-cost rapid prototyping tools.

  13. Design of illumination and projection optics for projectors with single digital micromirror devices.

    PubMed

    Chang, C M; Shieh, H P

    2000-07-01

    We present a new optical system design for a projector with a single digital micromirror device (Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device) that improves on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency, uniformity, and contrast while yielding a low-profile and compact system. A rod integrator is incorporated with a compact relay system to maximize light efficiency and to increase illumination uniformity. The uniformity achieved by the optimized optical system was calculated to be 94%. In addition, this unique light-separator design has dual output channels to increase the image contrast by steering the off-state light away from the projection lens. This projector design provides very efficient light utilization, and we discuss how the geometrical optical efficiency of the system can be boosted to approach the theoretical maximum.

  14. Accurate analysis of planar optical waveguide devices using higher-order FDTD scheme.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanmin; Li, Kang; Liu, Xin

    2006-11-27

    A higher-order finite-difference time-domain (HO-FDTD) numerical method is proposed for the time-domain analysis of planar optical waveguide devices. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer (APML) absorbing boundary condition for the HO-FDTD scheme is implemented and the numerical dispersion of this scheme is studied. The numerical simulations for the parallel-slab directional coupler are presented and the computing results using this scheme are in highly accordance with analytical solutions. Compared with conventional FDTD method, this scheme can save considerable computational resource without sacrificing solution accuracy and especially could be applied in the accurate analysis of optical devices.

  15. Combined Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography device for tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chetan A.; Bosschaart, Nienke; Keller, Matthew D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2009-01-01

    We report a dual-modal device capable of sequential acquisition of Raman spectroscopy (RS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) along a common optical axis. The device enhances application of both RS and OCT by precisely guiding RS acquisition with OCT images while also compensating for the lack of molecular specificity in OCT with the biochemical specificity of RS. We characterize the system performance and demonstrate the capability to identify structurally ambiguous features within an OCT image with RS in a scattering phantom, guide acquisition of RS from a localized malignancy in ex vivo breast tissue, and perform in vivo tissue analysis of a scab. PMID:18483537

  16. Generating optical superimposed vortex beam with tunable orbital angular momentum using integrated devices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Dengke; Zhao, Peng; Li, Xiangdong; Cui, Kaiyu; Liu, Fang; Huang, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    An integrated device, which consists of a variable amplitude splitter and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) emitter, is proposed for the superposition of optical vortex beams. With fixed wavelength and power of incident beam, the OAM of the radiated optical superimposed vortex beam can be dynamically tuned. To verify the operating principle, the proposed device has been fabricated on the SOI substrate and experimentally measured. The experimental results confirm the tunability of superimposed vortex beams. Moreover, the ability of independently varying the OAM flux and the geometric distribution of intensity is illustrated and discussed with numerical simulation. We believe that this work would be promising in various applications. PMID:26190669

  17. Information measurement system based on the device for evaluation of optical surface quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, Pavel Y.

    2016-03-01

    The work describes steps taken in order to create the information-measurement system based on the device for evaluation of surface cleanliness and smoothness of optical substrates. The approach used leads to the improvement the stability and accuracy of measurements. Structural changes applied to both the software and hardware of the device which allowed retrieval of better quality images during the course of measurements are designated. Problems emerged during the implementation of the system and their solutions are described.

  18. Gas sensor technology at Sandia National Laboratories: Catalytic gate, Surface Acoustic Wave and Fiber Optic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.; Moreno, D.J.; Jenkins, M.W.; Rodriguez, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Sandia`s gas sensor program encompasses three separate electronic platforms: Acoustic Wave Devices, Fiber Optic Sensors and sensors based on silicon microelectronic devices. A review of most of these activities was presented recently in a article in Science under the title ``Chemical Microsensors.`` The focus of the program has been on understanding and developing the chemical sensor coatings that are necessary for using these electronic platforms as effective chemical sensors.

  19. Photonics and application of dipyrrinates in the optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenova, Iu; Bashkirtsev, D.; Prokopenko, A.; Kuznetsova, R.; Dudina, N.; Berezin, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper spectral-luminescent, lasing, photochemical, and sensory characteristics of a number of Zn(II) and B(III) coordination complexes with dipyrrinates with different structures are presented. We have discussed relations of the structure of investigated compounds and formed solvates with their optical characteristics. The results showed that alkyl substituted dipyrrinates derivatives have excellent luminescent characteristics and demonstrated effective lasing upon excitation of Nd:YAG-laser. They can be used as active media for liquid tunable lasers. Zinc and boron fluoride complexes of dipyrrinates with heavy atoms in structure don't have fluorescence but have long-lived emission due to increased nonradiative intersystem processes in the excited state by the mechanism of a heavy atom. For solid samples based on halogenated complexes was found dependency of the long-lived emission intensity of the oxygen concentration in gas flow. The presence of line segment indicates the possibility of the use of these complexes as a basis for creation of optical sensors for oxygen. Moreover, results of a study of halogen-substituted aza-complexes under irradiation are presented. Such complexes are promising for the creating media for generation of singlet oxygen (1O2), which is important for photodynamic therapy in medicine and photocatalytic reactions in the industry.

  20. Multiscale modeling and computation of optically manipulated nano devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Gang; Liu, Di; Luo, Songting

    2016-07-01

    We present a multiscale modeling and computational scheme for optical-mechanical responses of nanostructures. The multi-physical nature of the problem is a result of the interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) field, the molecular motion, and the electronic excitation. To balance accuracy and complexity, we adopt the semi-classical approach that the EM field is described classically by the Maxwell equations, and the charged particles follow the Schrödinger equations quantum mechanically. To overcome the numerical challenge of solving the high dimensional multi-component many-body Schrödinger equations, we further simplify the model with the Ehrenfest molecular dynamics to determine the motion of the nuclei, and use the Time-Dependent Current Density Functional Theory (TD-CDFT) to calculate the excitation of the electrons. This leads to a system of coupled equations that computes the electromagnetic field, the nuclear positions, and the electronic current and charge densities simultaneously. In the regime of linear responses, the resonant frequencies initiating the out-of-equilibrium optical-mechanical responses can be formulated as an eigenvalue problem. A self-consistent multiscale method is designed to deal with the well separated space scales. The isomerization of azobenzene is presented as a numerical example.

  1. Fabrication and Optical Recombination in III-Nitride Microstructures and Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Fabrication and optical investigations of III-nitride microstructures Our group has pioneered the fabrication of micro - and nano -size photonic... pumped individual III-nitride micro -size LEDs and micro -LED arrays and observed enhanced quantum efficiencies. The micro -size LEDs were fabricated...quality III-nitride QWs, heterostructures, microstructures, and micro -devices and to study their optical and optoeletronic properties. By optimizing

  2. Comparative measurements of the level of turbulence atmosphere by optical and acoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botugina, N. N.; Gladkih, V. A.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Odintsov, S. L.; Torgaev, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    The complex measurements of level of atmospheric turbulence are conducted by the differential measurement device of turbulence (DMT), wave-front sensor (WFS), and also by ultrasonic weather-stations. Daytime measurements of structure parameters of refractive index of atmospheric turbulence carried out on horizontal optical paths on the Base Experimental Complex (BEC) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS (IOA). A comparative analysis over of the got results is brought.

  3. Standard source for certification of optical-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastova, Natalia I.; Maraev, Anton A.; Ishanin, Gennady G.

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the error at the certification of optoelectronic devices, sources and detectors of the standard sources and its diaphragm must be thermally stabilized in order to create a uniform background. We developed an uncooled model blackbody TCID-100 with working temperature up to 100°C with a thermally stabilized transmitter and the diaphragm set. The developed model is a cylinder made of red copper with a conical cavity. Cone length was chosen empirically to provide uniform heating over the entire length of the blackbody cavity. With the developed model, we conducted cavity temperature measurement transmitter, which enabled to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the blackbody design. In this article we examined models of blackbodies, the most popular types of cavities and the calculation of the thermal emissivity for them. We have designed blackbody and measured the cavity temperature change over the time.

  4. Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

    1995-10-03

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

  5. Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Gruzalski, Greg R.; Luck, Christopher F.

    1995-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  6. Optical joint correlation using the deformable mirror device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopp, Jerome

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the Deformable Mirror Device (DMD) developed by Texas Instruments at Dallas for use in object identification was completed. The DMD was tested as a joint correlator. The DMD was used as a spatial light modulator on which the squared modulus of the Fourier transform of test object pairs was written. The squared modulus was phase encoded on the DMD after it had been thresholded and rewritten as a binary phase function. The thresholding was found to produce a sharp peak in the autocorrelation when the test objects were matched and no significant peak in the case of distinct objects. It was concluded that the use of the DMD as a joint correlator looks promising and further studies should be carried out.

  7. Effect of Mandibular Advancement Device Therapy on the Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raunio, Antti; Sipilä, Kirsi; Raustia, Aune

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Mandibular advancement device therapy is effectively used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, but also several side effects in the masticatory system have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders connected to mandibular advancement device therapy. Material and Methods The material consisted of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women, mean age 51.1 years, range 21 to 70 years) diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Subjective symptoms and clinical temporomandibular disorders (TMD) signs were recorded at the beginning of the treatment (baseline) and at 1-month, 3-month, 6-month and 24-month follow-ups. The degree of TMD was assessed using the anamnestic (Ai) and the clinical dysfunction index (Di) of Helkimo. For assessing the effect of TMD the patients were divided in discontinuing and continuing groups. Results According to Ai and Di, the severity of TMD remained unchanged during the follow-up in most of the patients. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) crepitation was found more frequently in discontinuing patients at all follow-ups. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) at the six-month follow-up. Masticatory muscle pain during palpation was a frequent clinical sign at the baseline and during the follow-up period but the difference between discontinuing and continuing patients was not significant. Conclusions It seems that signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders do not necessarily increase during long-term mandibular advancement device therapy. However, it seems that patients with clinically assessed temporomandibular joint crepitation may discontinue their mandibular advancement device therapy due to temporomandibular disorders. PMID:24422023

  8. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase III. Electronic Warfare Trainers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase III- Electronic Warfare Trainers) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Polzella . Donald J...Features, addressed a portion of this subthrust. Dr. Wayne Waag (AFHRL/OTU) was the Contract Monitor and Dr. Donald J. Polzella and Dr. David C. Hubbard...training is practicable (see Polzella , 1983, p.8). However, instructional features are expensive to implement, especially those features that require the

  9. Optical fiber loops and helices: tools for integrated photonic device characterization and microfluidic trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Ti, Chaoyang; Liu, Yuxiang

    2016-09-01

    Tapered optical fibers can deliver guided light into and carry light out of micro/nanoscale systems with low loss and high spatial resolution, which makes them ideal tools in integrated photonics and microfluidics. Special geometries of tapered fibers are desired for probing monolithic devices in plane as well as optical manipulation of micro particles in fluids. However, for many specially shaped tapered fibers, it remains a challenge to fabricate them in a straightforward, controllable, and repeatable way. In this work, we fabricated and characterized two special geometries of tapered optical fibers, namely fiber loops and helices, that could be switched between one and the other. The fiber loops in this work are distinct from previous ones in terms of their superior mechanical stability and high optical quality factors in air, thanks to a post-annealing process. We experimentally measured an intrinsic optical quality factor of 32,500 and a finesse of 137 from a fiber loop. A fiber helix was used to characterize a monolithic cavity optomechanical device. Moreover, a microfluidic "roller coaster" was demonstrated, where microscale particles in water were optically trapped and transported by a fiber helix. Tapered fiber loops and helices can find various applications ranging from on-the-fly characterization of integrated photonic devices to particle manipulation and sorting in microfluidics.

  10. Ultra-compact silicon photonic devices reconfigured by an optically induced semiconductor-to-metal transition.

    PubMed

    Ryckman, Judson D; Hallman, Kent A; Marvel, Robert E; Haglund, Richard F; Weiss, Sharon M

    2013-05-06

    Vanadium dioxide (VO(2)) is a promising reconfigurable optical material and has long been a focus of condensed matter research owing to its distinctive semiconductor-to-metal phase transition (SMT), a feature that has stimulated recent development of thermally reconfigurable photonic, plasmonic, and metamaterial structures. Here, we integrate VO(2) onto silicon photonic devices and demonstrate all-optical switching and reconfiguration of ultra-compact broadband Si-VO(2) absorption modulators (L < 1 μm) and ring-resonators (R ~ λ(0)). Optically inducing the SMT in a small, ~0.275 μm(2), active area of polycrystalline VO(2) enables Si-VO(2) structures to achieve record values of absorption modulation, ~4 dB μm(-1), and intracavity phase modulation, ~π/5 rad μm(-1). This in turn yields large, tunable changes to resonant wavelength, |Δλ(SMT)| ~ 3 nm, approximately 60 times larger than Si-only control devices, and enables reconfigurable filtering and optical modulation in excess of 7 dB from modest Q-factor (~10(3)), high-bandwidth ring resonators (>100 GHz). All-optical integrated Si-VO(2) devices thus constitute platforms for reconfigurable photonics, bringing new opportunities to realize dynamic on-chip networks and ultrafast optical shutters and modulators.

  11. Topics in Optical Materials and Device Research - II. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    O & K1 v~~ o I T (, d T o -) a ( ,28L) 00t f jv C’i 6 a. a a.( yo V-1 r I 41rc (cra𔃻A eI- TI Il(v \\J) T21f TV */ o ,)vL Tc& 2~ IP LO/ Y.& ( Cr ...Region" Electron Lett. 14, pp 345-347 (1978). 4. K. Aoyama and J. Minowa "Low-Loss Optical Demultiplexer for WDM Systems in the O .8-pm Wavelength...rsnlzoeplt 41 TRASPAENTPHASE~r SHIFTING ZONES 00r Fig. 2 Phase reversal Fresnel zone plate d zn is the refractive index. 42 Fig. 3 Blazed Fresnel

  12. Eat-by-light fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food quality and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Grimaldi, M. F.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-06-01

    A selection is presented of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices that have been designed and tested for guaranteeing the quality and safety of typical foods, such as extra virgin olive oil, beer, and milk. Scattered colorimetry is used to authenticate various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids, which are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma that is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil is also presented. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk, is experimented.

  13. Eat-by-light: fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food safety and quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-07-01

    A selection of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices is presented designed and tested for monitoring the quality and safety of typical foods, namely the extra virgin olive oil, the beer, and the milk. Scattered colorimetry is used for the authentication of various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids that are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma is presented. It is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer is experimented for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk.

  14. Electrode with transparent series resistance for uniform switching of optical modulation devices

    DOEpatents

    Tench, D. Morgan; Cunningham, Michael A.; Kobrin, Paul H.

    2008-01-08

    Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.

  15. Practical coupling device based on a two-core optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Vallée, R; Drolet, D

    1994-08-20

    A practical coupling device that relies on a dual-core fiber in a loop configuration is presented. Its coupling properties are analyzed in terms of the optical path difference between the cores, which is controlled by the rotation of the fiber about its axis and by a small twist applied to it along the loop. The device actually acts as an anisotropic coupler, and the coupled power can be perfectly controlled from 0-100% by proper adjustment of the loop. A simple implementation of the device was used in the fabrication of a compact single-fiber Michelson interferometer.

  16. Polarization and intensity correlations in stochastic electromagnetic beams upon interaction with devices of polarization optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacks, H. C.; Korotkova, O.

    2011-05-01

    Based on the recently formulated unified theory of coherence and polarization of light, we explore the behavior of the intensity-intensity correlations and the auxiliary quantity called the degree of cross-polarization in stochastic electromagnetic beams upon their passage through the devices of polarization optics. In particular, the effects of deterministic devices (such as polarizers, absorbers, compensators, and rotators) as well as of random devices (such as spatial light modulators) on passing beams are investigated. Our results may find applications in polarimetric communications, imaging and sensing.

  17. Coherent Terahertz Wireless Signal Transmission Using Advanced Optical Fiber Communication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Atsushi; Kuri, Toshiaki; Morohashi, Isao; Hosako, Iwao; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2015-02-01

    Coherent terahertz signal transmission with multilevel modulation and demodulation is demonstrated using an optical sub-harmonic IQ mixer (SHIQM), which consists of optical components in advanced optical fiber communication technologies. An optical-frequency-comb-employed signal generator is capable of vector modulation as well as frequency tunability. Digital signal processing (DSP) adopted from the recently developed optical digital coherent communication can easily demodulate multi-level modulated terahertz signals by using electrical heterodyning for intermediate-frequency (IF) down conversion. This technique is applicable for mobile backhauling in the next-generation mobile communication technology directly connected to an optical fiber network as a high-speed wireless transmission link.

  18. A versatile smart transformation optics device with auxetic elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dongheok; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Lim, Donghwan; Kim, Kyoungsik; Smith, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic integration of electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical properties of metamaterials, a concept known as smart metamaterials, promises new applications across the spectrum, from flexible waveguides to shape-conforming cloaks. These applications became possible thanks to smart transformation optics (STO), a design methodology that utilizes coordinate transformations to control both EM wave propagation and mechanical deformation of the device. Here, we demonstrate several STO devices based on extremely auxetic (Poisson ratio −1) elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials, both of which exhibit enormous flexibility and sustain efficient operation upon a wide range of deformations. Spatial maps of microwave electric fields across these devices confirm our ability to deform carpet cloaks, bent waveguides, and potentially other quasi-conformal TO-based devices operating at 7 ~ 8 GHz. These devices are each fabricated from a single sheet of initially uniform (double-periodic) square-lattice metamaterial, which acquires the necessary distribution of effective permittivity entirely from the mechanical deformation of its boundary. By integrating transformation optics and continuum mechanics theory, we provide analytical derivations for the design of STO devices. Additionally, we clarify an important point relating to two-dimensional STO devices: the difference between plane stress and plane strain assumptions, which lead to elastic metamaterials with Poisson ratio −1 and −∞, respectively. PMID:24522287

  19. A versatile smart transformation optics device with auxetic elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Lim, Donghwan; Kim, Kyoungsik; Smith, David R

    2014-02-13

    Synergistic integration of electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical properties of metamaterials, a concept known as smart metamaterials, promises new applications across the spectrum, from flexible waveguides to shape-conforming cloaks. These applications became possible thanks to smart transformation optics (STO), a design methodology that utilizes coordinate transformations to control both EM wave propagation and mechanical deformation of the device. Here, we demonstrate several STO devices based on extremely auxetic (Poisson ratio -1) elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials, both of which exhibit enormous flexibility and sustain efficient operation upon a wide range of deformations. Spatial maps of microwave electric fields across these devices confirm our ability to deform carpet cloaks, bent waveguides, and potentially other quasi-conformal TO-based devices operating at 7 ~ 8 GHz. These devices are each fabricated from a single sheet of initially uniform (double-periodic) square-lattice metamaterial, which acquires the necessary distribution of effective permittivity entirely from the mechanical deformation of its boundary. By integrating transformation optics and continuum mechanics theory, we provide analytical derivations for the design of STO devices. Additionally, we clarify an important point relating to two-dimensional STO devices: the difference between plane stress and plane strain assumptions, which lead to elastic metamaterials with Poisson ratio -1 and -∞, respectively.

  20. Analysis of Electro-Optic Materials Properties on Guided Wave Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-16

    AD-A262 787 APPLIED RESEARCH, INC, ANALYSIS OF ELECTRO - OPTIC MATERIALS PROPERTIES ON GUIDED WAVE DEVICES FINAL REPORT DTI 6700 ODYSSEY DR HUNTSVILLE...ALABAMA 35814-1220 s IMAR1893 APPROVED FOR PUKIC RE’.EASE DISTRIBUTION UNLIMlITED Applied Research Inc. ARI/92iR-048Z ANALYSIS OF ELECTRO - OPTIC MATERIALS...uNiT ATTN: Dr. 2aul Ashley-AMSMI-RD-~WS--CM ELEMENT NO 4 NO IAr SSiON No t1I TI TLE iciup SeawIfy 0Mft*G’I Analysis of Electro - optic Materials

  1. Directly laser-written integrated photonics devices including diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiyeon; Ramme, Mark; Richardson, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Femtosecond laser-written integrated devices involving Fresnel Zone Plates (FZPs) and waveguide arrays are demonstrated as built-in optical couplers. These structures were fabricated in borosilicate glass using a direct laser writing technique. The optical properties of these integrated photonic structures were investigated using CW lasers and high-resolution CCDs. For a single FZP coupled to a single waveguide, the overall coupling efficiency was 9%. A multiplexed optical coupler composed of three FZP layers was demonstrated to couple three waveguides simultaneously in a waveguide array. Structures of this type can be used as platforms for multichannel waveguide coupling elements or as microfluidic sensors that require higher light collecting efficiency.

  2. Optical matrix for clock distribution and synchronous operation in two-dimensional array devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Shu, C.

    1996-06-01

    A scheme to generate an optical matrix from a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser has been theoretically explored and experimentally demonstrated. The matrix consists of highly synchronized and sequentially delayed optical pulses suitable for use with two-dimensional array optoelectronic devices and clock distribution system. The output pulses have the same state of polarization and no timing jitter is produced among the elements. Encoded outputs have been generated from the matrix using a set of photomasks. This technique can be applied to high-speed optical parallel processing.

  3. Correction of magnetooptic device phase errors in optical correlators through filter design modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Reid, Max B.; Hine, Butler P.

    1991-01-01

    We address the problem of optical phase errors in an optical correlator introduced by the input and filter plane spatial light modulators. Specifically, we study a laboratory correlator with magnetooptic spatial light modulator (MOSLM) devices. We measure and characterize the phase errors, analyze their effects on the correlation process, and discuss a means of correction through a design modification of the binary phase-only optical filter function. The phase correction technique is found to produce correlation results close to those of an error-free correlator.

  4. Imaging photorefractive optical vibration measurement method and device

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Deason, Vance A.; Hale, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for characterizing a vibrating image of an object of interest. The method includes providing a sensing media having a detection resolution within a limited bandwidth and providing an object of interest having a vibrating medium. Two or more wavefronts are provided, with at least one of the wavefronts being modulated by interacting the one wavefront with the vibrating medium of the object of interest. The another wavefront is modulated such that the difference frequency between the one wavefront and the another wavefront is within a response range of the sensing media. The modulated one wavefront and another wavefront are combined in association with the sensing media to interfere and produce simultaneous vibration measurements that are distributed over the object so as to provide an image of the vibrating medium. The image has an output intensity that is substantially linear with small physical variations within the vibrating medium. Furthermore, the method includes detecting the image. In one implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration spectrum analyzer having an emitter, a modulator, sensing media and a detector configured so as to realize such method. According to another implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration imaging device.

  5. An Optical Pen Tracking System as Alternative Pointing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeliger, Ingmar; Schwanecke, Ulrich; Barth, Peter

    A webcam together with a pen can replace a mouse as pointing device for many common user interaction tasks. We have implemented an image-processing component integrated in a tool that acts as mouse alternative. The image-processing component tracks the head of a pen based on shape and colour information retrieved in a quick, integrated initial pen-calibration phase using Hough transform triggered by a motion detection cycle. The tracked 2D position of the pen-head seen by the webcam is used to smoothly position the mouse cursor. Combined with auto-clicking we can replace mouse-based user interaction. The system tolerates changing lighting conditions, does not need time-consuming camera calibration and works with off-the-shelf webcams. First user experiences show that this technology can partially replace mouse interaction for Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) patients as well as completely replace mouse interaction within dedicated environments such as presentation booths or simple games.

  6. The optical wing aligning device of the Langley Field tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H; Bacon, D L

    1921-01-01

    Described here is a convenient and accurate method of aligning the wing chord with the airflow. The device was developed to permit rapid and accurate alignment of airfoils and models with the airstream passing through the tunnel. It consists of three main parts: a projector, a reflector, and a target. The arrangement, which is shown in a figure, has proven satisfactory in operation. It is far better than the old method of sighting across a long batten, as the operator of a balance may see the target and correctly judge the accuracy of his alignment. Whereas the old method required two operators and several minutes time to align to within 1/10 degree, this method enables one operator to align a wing to within 1/100 of a degree in a few seconds. This method also has the advantage of being able to measure the angle of the wing while the tunnel is running. Thus, the true angle of incidence is shown.

  7. Research progress in the key device and technology for fiber optic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Deming; Sun, Qizhen; Lu, Ping; Xia, Li; Sima, Chaotan

    2016-03-01

    The recent research progress in the key device and technology of the fiber optic sensor network (FOSN) is introduced in this paper. An architecture of the sensor optical passive network (SPON), by employing hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) techniques similar to the fiber communication passive optical network (PON), is proposed. The network topology scheme of a hybrid TDM/WDM/FDM (frequency division multiplexing) three-dimension fiber optic sensing system for achieving ultra-large capacity, long distance, and high resolution sensing performance is performed and analyzed. As the most important device of the FOSN, several kinds of light source are developed, including the wideband multi-wavelength fiber laser operating at C band, switchable and tunable 2 μm multi-wavelength fiber lasers, ultra-fast mode-locked fiber laser, as well as the optical wideband chaos source, which have very good application prospects in the FOSN. Meanwhile, intelligent management techniques for the FOSN including wideband spectrum demodulation of the sensing signals and real-time fault monitoring of fiber links are presented. Moreover, several typical applications of the FOSN are also discussed, such as the fiber optic gas sensing network, fiber optic acoustic sensing network, and strain/dynamic strain sensing network.

  8. Novel optical interconnect devices applying mask-transfer self-written method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Nobuhiko; Matsuzawa, Yusuke; Tokiwa, Yu; Nakama, Kenichi; Mikami, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of optical interconnect technology is expected to solve problems of conventional electric wiring. One of the promising technologies realizing optical interconnect is the self-written waveguide (SWW) technology with lightcurable resin. We have developed a new technology of the "Mask-Transfer Self-Written (MTSW)" method. This new method enables fabrication of arrayed M x N optical channels at one shot of UV-light. Using this technology, several new optical interconnect devices and connection technologies have been proposed and investigated. In this paper, first, we introduce MTSW method briefly. Next, we show plug-in alignment approach using optical waveguide plugs (OWP) and a micro-hole array (MHA) which are made of the light-curable resin. Easy and high efficiency plug-in alignment between fibers and an optoelectronic-printed wiring board (OE-PWB), between a fiber and a VCSEL, so on will be feasible. Then, we propose a new three-dimensional (3D) branch waveguide. By controlling the irradiating angle through the photomask aperture, it will be possible to fabricate 2-branch and 4-branch waveguides with a certain branch angle. The 3D branch waveguide will be very promising in the future optical interconnects and coupler devices of the multicore optical fiber.

  9. Advances in optical fiber sensors for vehicle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, Scott A.; de Vries, Marten J.; Arya, Vivek; Claus, Richard O.; Zabaronick, Noel

    1998-01-01

    THe primary objective for this project is the design of optical fiber-based sensor instrumentation for specific ITS applications. Specifically, this paper discusses research on optical fiber sensors that can be used for traffic monitoring and vehicle classification. This paper also discusses developments on the application of optical fiber sensor that can be used for monitoring visibility. This research is directly beneficial to the implementation of driver advisory and safety systems, traffic control system, and other ITS applications. This paper summarizes research performed on optical fiber sensors used for measuring traffic flow on highways and discusses progress on optical fiber sensors used for monitoring visibility.

  10. MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Najar, Adel; Nambiar, Siddharth; Grosse, Philippe; Augendre, Emmanuel; Leroux, Charles; de Salvo, Barbara; de Lamaestre, Roch Espiau

    2012-06-18

    We study the electro optical properties of a Metal-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (MNOS) stack for a use in CMOS compatible plasmonic active devices. We show that the insertion of an ultrathin stoichiometric Si(3)N(4) layer in a MOS stack lead to an increase in the electrical reliability of a copper gate MNOS capacitance from 50 to 95% thanks to a diffusion barrier effect, while preserving the low optical losses brought by the use of copper as the plasmon supporting metal. An experimental investigation is undertaken at a wafer scale using some CMOS standard processes of the LETI foundry. Optical transmission measurments conducted in a MNOS channel waveguide configuration coupled to standard silicon photonics circuitry confirms the very low optical losses (0.39 dB.μm(-1)), in good agreement with predictions using ellipsometric optical constants of Cu.

  11. Approaches to optical neuromodulation from rodents to non-human primates by integrated optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ozden, Ilker; Diagne, Mohamed; Wagner, Fabien; Borton, David; Brush, Benjamin; Agha, Naubahar; Burwell, Rebecca; Sheinberg, David; Diester, Ilka; Deisseroth, Karl; Nurmikko, Arto

    2011-01-01

    Methods on rendering neurons in the central nervous system to be light responsive has led to a boom in using optical neuromodulation as a new approach for controlling brain states and understanding neural circuits. In addition to the developing versatility to "optogenetically" labeling of neural cells and their subtypes by microbiological methods, parallel efforts are under way to design and implement optoelectronic devices to achieve simultaneous optical neuromodulation and electrophysiological recording with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such new device-based technologies need to be developed for full exploitation of the promise of optogenetics. In this paper we present single- and multi-element optoelectronic devices developed in our laboratories. The single-unit element, namely the coaxial optrode, was utilized to characterize the neural responses in optogenetically modified rodent and primate models. Furthermore, the multi-element device, integrating the optrode with a 6×6 microelectrode array, was used to characterize the spatiotemporal spread of neural activity in response to single-site optical stimulation in freely moving rats. We suggest that the particular approaches we employed can lead to the emergence of methods where spatio-temporal optical modulation is integrated with real-time read out from neural populations.

  12. 78 FR 77166 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International...

  13. Low-temperature PECVD optical waveguide and device development in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, John D.; Ladouceur, Francois J.; Durandet, Antoine; Boswell, Rod W.; Charles, Christine

    1996-09-01

    Existing optical fiber and fiber-device fabrication techniques have been complemented recently by the development of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) processes for the fabrication of buried channel waveguides and associated devices. These processes rely on new forms of plasma reactors and diagnostic systems, which allow in-situ control of optical parameters such as refractive index, and are also being complemented by the direct writing of waveguides into photosensitive PECVD materials. Both the plasma and direct-write processes allow the fabrication of optical devices which are not readily feasible in fiber technology. The low-temperature PECVD process reported here offers the potential to integrate photonic devices with semiconductor sources and detectors to realize a compact, hybrid photonic-optoelectronic chip, complete with fiber pig-tailing. Because of their compactness and potential low cost, these types of photonic chips are attractive components for future high-capacity optical telecommunications and other networks now being planned as part of the information superhighway.

  14. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) Microgel-Based Optical Devices for Sensing and Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Molla R.; Ahiabu, Andrews; Li, Xue; Serpe, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive polymer-based materials have found numerous applications due to their ease of synthesis and the variety of stimuli that they can be made responsive to. In this review, we highlight the group's efforts utilizing thermoresponsive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) microgel-based optical devices for various sensing and biosensing applications. PMID:24854361

  15. A guiding light: spectroscopy on digital microfluidic devices using in-plane optical fibre waveguides.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kihwan; Mudrik, Jared M; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel method for in-plane digital microfluidic spectroscopy. In this technique, a custom manifold (.stl file available online as ESM) aligns optical fibres with a digital microfluidic device, allowing optical measurements to be made in the plane of the device. Because of the greater width vs thickness of a droplet on-device, the in-plane alignment of this technique allows it to outperform the sensitivity of vertical absorbance measurements on digital microfluidic (DMF) devices by ∼14×. The new system also has greater calibration sensitivity for thymol blue measurements than the popular NanoDrop system by ∼2.5×. The improvements in absorbance sensitivity result from increased path length, as well as from additional effects likely caused by liquid lensing, in which the presence of a water droplet between optical fibres increases fibre-to-fibre transmission of light by ∼2× through refraction and internal reflection. For interrogation of dilute samples, stretching of droplets using digital microfluidic electrodes and adjustment of fibre-to-fibre gap width allows absorbance path length to be changed on-demand. We anticipate this new digital microfluidic optical fibre absorbance and fluorescence measurement system will be useful for a wide variety of analytical applications involving microvolume samples with digital microfluidics.

  16. Nanowires and nanoribbons as subwavelength optical waveguides and their use as components in photonic circuits and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Law, Matt; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Johnson, Justin C.; Saykally, Richard; Fan, Rong; Tao, Andrea

    2012-10-02

    Nanoribbons and nanowires having diameters less than the wavelength of light are used in the formation and operation of optical circuits and devices. Such nanostructures function as subwavelength optical waveguides which form a fundamental building block for optical integration. The extraordinary length, flexibility and strength of these structures enable their manipulation on surfaces, including the precise positioning and optical linking of nanoribbon/wire waveguides and other nanoribbon/wire elements to form optical networks and devices. In addition, such structures provide for waveguiding in liquids, enabling them to further be used in other applications such as optical probes and sensors.

  17. Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

  18. Note: Optical trigger device with sub-picosecond timing jitter and stability.

    PubMed

    Kodet, Jan; Prochazka, Ivan

    2012-03-01

    We are presenting the design, construction, and overall performance of the optical trigger device. This device generates an electrical signal synchronously to the detected ultra-short optical pulse. The device was designed for application in satellite laser ranging and laser time transfer experiments, time correlated photon counting and similar experiments, where picosecond timing resolution and detection delay stability are required. It consists of the ultrafast optical detector, signal discriminator, output pulse forming circuit, and output driver circuits. It was constructed as a single compact device to optimize their matching and maintain stability. The detector consists of an avalanche photodiode--both silicon and germanium types may be used to cover the wavelength range of 350-1550 nm. The analogue signal of this photodiode is sensed by the ultrafast comparator with 8 GHz bandwidth. The ps clock distribution circuit is used to generate the fast rise/fall time output pulses of pre-set length. The trigger device timing performance is excellent: the random component of the timing jitter is typically 880 fs, the temperature dependence of the detection delay was measured to be 370 fs/K. The systematic error contribution depends on the laser used and its stability. The sub-ps values have been obtained for various laser sources.

  19. Note: Optical trigger device with sub-picosecond timing jitter and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodet, Jan; Prochazka, Ivan

    2012-03-01

    We are presenting the design, construction, and overall performance of the optical trigger device. This device generates an electrical signal synchronously to the detected ultra-short optical pulse. The device was designed for application in satellite laser ranging and laser time transfer experiments, time correlated photon counting and similar experiments, where picosecond timing resolution and detection delay stability are required. It consists of the ultrafast optical detector, signal discriminator, output pulse forming circuit, and output driver circuits. It was constructed as a single compact device to optimize their matching and maintain stability. The detector consists of an avalanche photodiode--both silicon and germanium types may be used to cover the wavelength range of 350-1550 nm. The analogue signal of this photodiode is sensed by the ultrafast comparator with 8 GHz bandwidth. The ps clock distribution circuit is used to generate the fast rise/fall time output pulses of pre-set length. The trigger device timing performance is excellent: the random component of the timing jitter is typically 880 fs, the temperature dependence of the detection delay was measured to be 370 fs/K. The systematic error contribution depends on the laser used and its stability. The sub-ps values have been obtained for various laser sources.

  20. Noise tolerance in wavelength-selective switching of optical differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying pulse train by collinear acousto-optic devices.

    PubMed

    Goto, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Optical switching of high-bit-rate quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) pulse trains using collinear acousto-optic (AO) devices is theoretically discussed. Since the collinear AO devices have wavelength selectivity, the switched optical pulse trains suffer from distortion when the bandwidth of the pulse train is comparable to the pass bandwidth of the AO device. As the AO device, a sidelobe-suppressed device with a tapered surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) waveguide and a Butterworth-type filter device with a lossy SAW directional coupler are considered. Phase distortion of optical pulse trains at 40 to 100  Gsymbols/s in QPSK format is numerically analyzed. Bit-error-rate performance with additive Gaussian noise is also evaluated by the Monte Carlo method.