Science.gov

Sample records for advanced packaging vol

  1. ADVANCED ELECTRONIC PACKAGING TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MICROMINIATURIZATION (ELECTRONICS), *PACKAGED CIRCUITS, CIRCUITS, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, MANUFACTURING, NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, RESISTANCE (ELECTRICAL), SEMICONDUCTORS, TESTS, THIN FILMS (STORAGE DEVICES), WELDING.

  2. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ryter, John Wesley; Romero, Christopher J.; Ramaiyan, Kannan; Brosha, Eric L.

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  3. ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

    The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of…

  4. Advanced packaging for Integrated Micro-Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyke, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between packaging, microelectronics, and micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an important one, particularly when the edges of performance boundaries are pressed, as in the case of miniaturized systems. Packaging is a sort of physical backbone that enables the maximum performance of these systems to be realized, and the penalties imposed by conventional packing approaches is particularly limiting for MEMS devices. As such, advanced packaging approaches, such as multi-chip modules (MCM's) have been touted as a true means of electronic 'enablement' for a variety of application domains. Realizing an optimum system of packaging, however, in not as simple as replacing a set of single chip packages with a substrate of interconnections. Research at Phillips Laboratory has turned up a number of integrating options in the two- and three-dimensional rending of miniature systems with physical interconnection structures with intrinsically high performance. Not only do these structures motivate the redesign of integrated circuits (IC's) for lower power, but they possess interesting features that provide a framework for the direct integration of MEMS devices. Cost remains a barrier to the application of MEMS devices, even in space systems. Several innovations are suggested that will result in lower cost and more rapid cycle time. First, the novelty of a 'constant floor plan' MCM which encapsulates a variety of commonly used components into a stockable, easily customized assembly is discussed. Next, the use of low-cost substrates is examined. The anticipated advent of ultra-high density interconnect (UHDI) is suggested as the limit argument of advanced packaging. Finally, the concept of a heterogeneous 3-D MCM system is outlined that allows for the combination of different compatible packaging approaches into a uniformly dense structure that could also include MEMS-based sensors.

  5. 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools': IDL VM Packages for Tomography Data Reconstruction, Processing, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, M. L.; Gualda, G. A.

    2009-05-01

    One of the challenges in tomography is the availability of suitable software for image processing and analysis in 3D. We present here 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools', two packages created in IDL that enable reconstruction, processing, and visualization of tomographic data. They complement in many ways the capabilities offered by Blob3D (Ketcham 2005 - Geosphere, 1: 32-41, DOI: 10.1130/GES00001.1) and, in combination, allow users without programming knowledge to perform all steps necessary to obtain qualitative and quantitative information using tomographic data. The package 'tomo_display' was created and is maintained by Mark Rivers. It allows the user to: (1) preprocess and reconstruct parallel beam tomographic data, including removal of anomalous pixels, ring artifact reduction, and automated determination of the rotation center, (2) visualization of both raw and reconstructed data, either as individual frames, or as a series of sequential frames. The package 'vol_tools' consists of a series of small programs created and maintained by Guilherme Gualda to perform specific tasks not included in other packages. Existing modules include simple tools for cropping volumes, generating histograms of intensity, sample volume measurement (useful for porous samples like pumice), and computation of volume differences (for differential absorption tomography). The module 'vol_animate' can be used to generate 3D animations using rendered isosurfaces around objects. Both packages use the same NetCDF format '.volume' files created using code written by Mark Rivers. Currently, only 16-bit integer volumes are created and read by the packages, but floating point and 8-bit data can easily be stored in the NetCDF format as well. A simple GUI to convert sequences of tiffs into '.volume' files is available within 'vol_tools'. Both 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools' include options to (1) generate onscreen output that allows for dynamic visualization in 3D, (2) save sequences of tiffs to disk

  6. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  7. Drug packaging in 2009: a few advances.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    Once again, in 2009, most of the packaging that Prescrire analysed did not meet our quality criteria. Labelling information was too often ambiguous or clumsily expressed. The quality of dosing devices and the safety of multidose bottles were not guaranteed. Patient information leaflets were more legible on the whole, but once again rather uninformative. All of these shortcomings put patients at risk. European measures concerning drug labelling have finally been transposed into French law, and have led to some improvements: the international nonproprietary name (INN) is more frequently displayed on primary packaging. The use of Braille on boxes and access to Braille package leaflets are increasing. The improved legibility of the labelling of ampoules containing certain dangerous injectable drugs, as recommended by the French drug regulatory agency (Afssaps), has become more widespread. In practice, healthcare professionals need to take action on packaging issues: by choosing the best packaging, reporting potential sources of confusion and error and informing patients.

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  9. Advanced packaging technology for high frequency photonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, M.G.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    An advanced packaging concept has been developed for optical devices. This concept allows multiple fibers to be coupled to photonic integrated circuits, with no fiber penetration of the package walls. The principles used to accomplish this concept involves a second-order grating to couple light in or out of the photonic circuit, and a binary optic lens which receives this light and focuses it into a single-mode optical fiber. Design, fabrication and electrical/optical measurements of this packaging concept are described.

  10. Laser applications in advanced chip packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dirk; Held, Andrew; Pätzel, Rainer; Clark, Dave; van Nunen, Joris

    2016-03-01

    While applications such as drilling μ-vias and laser direct imaging have been well established in the electronics industry, the mobile device industry's push for miniaturization is generating new demands for packaging technologies that allow for further reduction in feature size while reducing manufacturing cost. CO lasers have recently become available and their shorter wavelength allows for a smaller focus and drilling hole diameters down to 25μm whilst keeping the cost similar to CO2 lasers. Similarly, nanosecond UV lasers have gained significantly in power, become more reliable and lower in cost. On a separate front, the cost of ownership reduction for Excimer lasers has made this class of lasers attractive for structuring redistribution layers of IC substrates with feature sizes down to 2μm. Improvements in reliability and lower up-front cost for picosecond lasers is enabling applications that previously were only cost effective with mechanical means or long-pulsed lasers. We can now span the gamut from 100μm to 2μm for via drilling and can cost effectively structure redistribution layers with lasers instead of UV lamps or singulate packages with picosecond lasers.

  11. Advances in the REDCAT software package

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual Dipolar Couplings (RDCs) have emerged in the past two decades as an informative source of experimental restraints for the study of structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules and complexes. The REDCAT software package was previously introduced for the analysis of molecular structures using RDC data. Here we report additional features that have been included in this software package in order to expand the scope of its analyses. We first discuss the features that enhance REDCATs user-friendly nature, such as the integration of a number of analyses into one single operation and enabling convenient examination of a structural ensemble in order to identify the most suitable structure. We then describe the new features which expand the scope of RDC analyses, performing exercises that utilize both synthetic and experimental data to illustrate and evaluate different features with regard to structure refinement and structure validation. Results We establish the seamless interaction that takes place between REDCAT, VMD, and Xplor-NIH in demonstrations that utilize our newly developed REDCAT-VMD and XplorGUI interfaces. These modules enable visualization of RDC analysis results on the molecular structure displayed in VMD and refinement of structures with Xplor-NIH, respectively. We also highlight REDCAT’s Error-Analysis feature in reporting the localized fitness of a structure to RDC data, which provides a more effective means of recognizing local structural anomalies. This allows for structurally sound regions of a molecule to be identified, and for any refinement efforts to be focused solely on locally distorted regions. Conclusions The newly engineered REDCAT software package, which is available for download via the WWW from http://ifestos.cse.sc.edu, has been developed in the Object Oriented C++ environment. Our most recent enhancements to REDCAT serve to provide a more complete RDC analysis suite, while also accommodating a more user

  12. New Millennium DS2 electronic packaging an advanced electronic packaging "sandbox".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, G.; D'Agostino, S.

    New Millennium Deep Space 2 (DS2), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), consists of a pair of probes that will be carried to Mars by the Mars Polar Lander. After release from the Lander, both probes enter the atmosphere, impact and penetrate the Martian surface. After impact, a soil sample is taken and analyzed for the presence of water. Other scientific data is collected during descent and after impact. The proposed size and mass of the probes imposed enormous constraints on the packaging of the electronics. To fit the electronics within the probe envelope, the DS2 became a virtual advanced packaging experiment: Chip-on-Board (COB) technology, High Density Interconnect (HDI) technology, and novel flexible interconnects were used in a highly integrated package to meet the requirements. This paper describes the development and testing of the DS2 electronics package and possible follow-on developments at JPL.

  13. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  14. The Assurance Challenges of Advanced Packaging Technologies for Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in microelectronic parts performance are driving towards finer feature sizes, three-dimensional geometries and ever-increasing number of transistor equivalents that are resulting in increased die sizes and interconnection (I/O) counts. The resultant packaging necessary to provide assemble-ability, environmental protection, testability and interconnection to the circuit board for the active die creates major challenges, particularly for space applications, Traditionally, NASA has used hermetically packaged microcircuits whenever available but the new demands make hermetic packaging less and less practical at the same time as more and more expensive, Some part types of great interest to NASA designers are currently only available in non-hermetic packaging. It is a far more complex quality and reliability assurance challenge to gain confidence in the long-term survivability and effectiveness of nonhermetic packages than for hermetic ones. Although they may provide more rugged environmental protection than the familiar Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs), the non-hermetic Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) packages that are the focus of this presentation present a unique combination of challenges to assessing their suitability for spaceflight use. The presentation will discuss the bases for these challenges, some examples of the techniques proposed to mitigate them and a proposed approach to a US MIL specification Class for non-hermetic microcircuits suitable for space application, Class Y, to be incorporated into M. IL-PRF-38535. It has recently emerged that some major packaging suppliers are offering hermetic area array packages that may offer alternatives to the nonhermetic CCGA styles but have also got their own inspectability and testability issues which will be briefly discussed in the presentation,

  15. High resolution X-ray CT for advanced electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, M.; Zerna, T.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced electronics packaging is a challenge for non-destructive Testing (NDT). More, smaller and mostly hidden interconnects dominate modern electronics components and systems. To solve the demands of customers to get products with a high functionality by low volume, weight and price (e.g. mobile phones, personal medical monitoring systems) often the designers use System-in-Package solutions (SiP). The non-destructive testing of such devices is a big challenge. So our paper will impart fundamentals and applications for non-destructive evaluation of inner structures of electronics packaging for quality assurance and reliability investigations with a focus on X-ray methods, especially on high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  16. Language games: Advanced R & R packages: Book Review

    DOE PAGES

    Hraber, Peter Thomas

    2016-03-23

    Readers who wrangle answers from data by extended refinement of available computational tools have many options and resources available. Inevitably, they will develop their own methods tailored to the problem at hand.Two new books have recently been published, each of which is useful addition to the library for a scientist who programs with data. The two books reviewed are both written by H. Wickham. The titles are ''Advanced R'' and ''R Packages'', both published in 2015.

  17. Advances in LED packaging and thermal management materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses and cost are key light-emitting diode (LED) packaging issues. Heat dissipation limits power levels. Thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. An OIDA LED workshop cited a need for better thermal materials. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. Some of these materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required LEDs. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  18. Review of recent technological advances in high power LED packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, Allen S.

    2012-06-01

    High Power LED is poised to replace traditional lighting sources such as Fluorescent, HID, Halogen and conventional incandescent bulbs in many applications. Due to the solid state compact nature of the light source it is inherently rugged and reliable and has been the favored lighting source for most indoor and outdoor applications including many hazardous locations that impact, and safety environments including mining, bridge, Aerospace, Automotive . In order to accelerate this transition many enhancements and advances are taking place to improve on the reliability, and thermal performance of these devices. This paper explores the various improvements and advances made in the packaging of LEDs to enhance their performance

  19. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  20. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  1. Advanced Packaging and Integration Technologies for Microsensors. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-12

    CV VU CW %so - U Advanced Packaging & Integration Technologies for " icrosensors Final Report A.AUTN0I) i A. A. Ned and A. D. Kurtz 7. P.i-• N - 0-1O... N •AnMN NAME(SI AND .----- •S$() 6L P•,•E•_-_G •---•wWaOu Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. NPOW u•NeUMBE One Willow Tree Rd. Leonia, NJ 07605 I1...T I YaAU W 16UJNU S 17. S ý " cu. . t lmV IC .M N . I& . SO ,-,- C L, •.A T 1% ý, . . C L . ... ... L O • .A .. _ w un Unclassified Unclassified

  2. Advances in food packaging films from milk proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most commercial petroleum-based food packaging films are poor oxygen barriers, do not biodegrade, and some are suspected to even leach compounds into the food product. For instance, three-perfluorinated coatings were banned from convenience food packaging earlier this year. These shortcomings are a ...

  3. Survey of Advanced Technologies in Japan, Vol. 1: Executive Summary, Methodology and User’s Guide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    internal ( reaction wheel ) disturbance models Head of the Advanced Technology Section of the Control System Engineering Department. Responsible for...SENSOR - DIGITAL 1206060A01 - CONTROL MOMENT GYRO - SINGLE GIMBAL 1206060A02 - CONTROL MOMENT GYRO - DOUBLE GIMBAL 1206060A03 - REACTION WHEEL TECHNOLOGY... REACTION WHEEL * RING LASER GYRO * SHAPE CONTROL * STAR SENSOR -CCD * STAR TRACKER-IMAGE DISSECTOR * SUN SENSOR * THRUSTER * VIBRATION CONTROL

  4. A Review of Failure Analysis Methods for Advanced 3D Microelectronic Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Srinath, Purushotham Kaushik Muthur; Goyal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Advanced three dimensional (3D) packaging is a key enabler in driving form factor reduction, performance benefits, and package cost reduction, especially in the fast paced mobility and ultraportable consumer electronics segments. The high level of functional integration and the complex package architecture pose a significant challenge for conventional fault isolation (FI) and failure analysis (FA) methods. Innovative FI/FA tools and techniques are required to tackle the technical and throughput challenges. In this paper, the applications of FI and FA techniques such as Electro Optic Terahertz Pulse Reflectometry, 3D x-ray computed tomography, lock-in thermography, and novel physical sample preparation methods to 3D packages with package on package and stacked die with through silicon via configurations are reviewed, along with the key FI and FA challenges.

  5. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2012-10-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), evaluated a number of control strategies for packaged cooling equipment that can be implemented in an advanced controller, which can be retrofit into existing packaged heat pump units to improve their operational efficiency. This report documents the results of that analysis.

  6. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Advanced Framing Systems and Packages

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing advanced 2x6, 24-inch on-center framing, single top plates, open headers, and 2-stud corners reduced board feet of lumber by more than 1,000 feet, cut energy use by 13%, and cut material and labor costs by more than $1,000 on a typical home.

  7. Advanced parametrical modelling of 24 GHz radar sensor IC packaging components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh, R.; John, W.; Wellmann, J.; Bala, U. B.; Thiede, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with the development of an advanced parametrical modelling concept for packaging components of a 24 GHz radar sensor IC used in automotive driver assistance systems. For fast and efficient design of packages for system-in-package modules (SiP), a simplified model for the description of parasitic electromagnetic effects within the package is desirable, as 3-D field computation becomes inefficient due to the high density of conductive elements of the various signal paths in the package. By using lumped element models for the characterization of the conductive components, a fast indication of the design's signal-quality can be gained, but so far does not offer enough flexibility to cover the whole range of geometric arrangements of signal paths in a contemporary package. This work pursues to meet the challenge of developing a flexible and fast package modelling concept by defining parametric lumped-element models for all basic signal path components, e.g. bond wires, vias, strip lines, bumps and balls.

  8. Attic or Roof? An Evaluation of Two Advanced Weatherization Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2012-06-01

    This project examines implementation of advanced retrofit measures in the context of a large-scale weatherization program and the archetypal Chicago brick bungalow. One strategy applies best practice air sealing methods and a standard insulation method to the attic floor. The other strategy creates an unvented roof assembly using materials and methods typically available to weatherization contractors. Through implementations of the retrofit strategies in a total of eight (8) test homes, the research found that the two different strategies achieve similar reductions in air leakage measurement (55%) and predicted energy performance (18%) relative to the pre-retrofit conditions.

  9. The GEANT low energy Compton scattering (GLECS) package for use in simulating advanced Compton telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippen, R. Marc

    2004-02-01

    Compton γ-ray imaging is inherently based on the assumption of γ-rays scattering with free electrons. In reality, the non-zero momentum of target electrons bound in atoms blurs this ideal scattering response in a process known as Doppler broadening. The design and understanding of advanced Compton telescopes, thus, depends critically on the ability to accurately account for Doppler broadening effects. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo package that simulates detailed Doppler broadening has been developed for use with the powerful, general-purpose GEANT3 and GEANT4 radiation transport codes. This paper describes the design of this package, and illustrates results of comparison with selected experimental data.

  10. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  11. Measurement of die stress in advanced electronic packaging for space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhling, J. C.; Lin, S. T.; Moral, R. J.; Johnson, R. W.; Jaeger, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical stresses in advanced electronic packages for space and terrestrial applications can cause premature failures due to such causes as fracture of the die, severing of connections, die bond failure, solder fatigue, and encapsulant cracking. These stresses are often thermally-induced, and result from uneven expansions and contractions of the various assembly materials due to mismatches in the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE's). In this work, special (111) silicon test chips containing an array of piezoresistive stress sensor rosettes have been applied within several plastic encapsulated electronic packaging configurations. The test chips contain optimized eight element dual polarity rosettes which are capable of evaluating the complete stress state (6 stress components) at points on the surface of the die. Calibrated and characterized test chips were packaged in chip-on-board configurations using ``glob-top'' liquid encapsulants. The post packaging room temperature resistances of the sensors were then recorded. Using the measured resistance changes and appropriate theoretical equations, the stresses in the die have been calculated. Also, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulations of the chip-on-board packages were performed. The experimental results were in good agreement with the finite element predictions.

  12. Advances in methods and algorithms in a modern quantum chemistry program package.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yihan; Molnar, Laszlo Fusti; Jung, Yousung; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Brown, Shawn T; Gilbert, Andrew T B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Levchenko, Sergey V; O'Neill, Darragh P; DiStasio, Robert A; Lochan, Rohini C; Wang, Tao; Beran, Gregory J O; Besley, Nicholas A; Herbert, John M; Lin, Ching Yeh; Van Voorhis, Troy; Chien, Siu Hung; Sodt, Alex; Steele, Ryan P; Rassolov, Vitaly A; Maslen, Paul E; Korambath, Prakashan P; Adamson, Ross D; Austin, Brian; Baker, Jon; Byrd, Edward F C; Dachsel, Holger; Doerksen, Robert J; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D; Dutoi, Anthony D; Furlani, Thomas R; Gwaltney, Steven R; Heyden, Andreas; Hirata, So; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Kedziora, Gary; Khalliulin, Rustam Z; Klunzinger, Phil; Lee, Aaron M; Lee, Michael S; Liang, Wanzhen; Lotan, Itay; Nair, Nikhil; Peters, Baron; Proynov, Emil I; Pieniazek, Piotr A; Rhee, Young Min; Ritchie, Jim; Rosta, Edina; Sherrill, C David; Simmonett, Andrew C; Subotnik, Joseph E; Woodcock, H Lee; Zhang, Weimin; Bell, Alexis T; Chakraborty, Arup K; Chipman, Daniel M; Keil, Frerich J; Warshel, Arieh; Hehre, Warren J; Schaefer, Henry F; Kong, Jing; Krylov, Anna I; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2006-07-21

    Advances in theory and algorithms for electronic structure calculations must be incorporated into program packages to enable them to become routinely used by the broader chemical community. This work reviews advances made over the past five years or so that constitute the major improvements contained in a new release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry package, together with illustrative timings and applications. Specific developments discussed include fast methods for density functional theory calculations, linear scaling evaluation of energies, NMR chemical shifts and electric properties, fast auxiliary basis function methods for correlated energies and gradients, equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for ground and excited states, geminal wavefunctions, embedding methods and techniques for exploring potential energy surfaces.

  13. The 1984 IR and D (Independent Research and Development) advanced packaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clatterbaugh, G. V.; Charles, H. C., Jr.

    1986-06-01

    An advanced multiyear electronic packaging project has been started. The project is a comprehensive interactive one involving theory, modeling, structure fabrication, and reliability testing. Highlights of the first year's activities are presented in this report. Important results include: the creation of integrated thermal and thermomechanical models, the prediction of lifetimes under environmental and operational stress conditions, model verification and validation by carefully controlled experimentation, development of assembly techniques, and the invention of a new method for preparing controlled solder joint height and geometry.

  14. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  15. Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2013-03-01

    Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A

  16. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  17. ARPS: an Advanced Radio Isotope Power Subsystem for ExoMars Geophysical Package (GEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, D.; Biele, J.; Lenoir, B.; Dauscher, A.; Müller, E.

    2005-12-01

    Within the framework of the ESA Aurora initiative , IPGP, DLR and an international consortium of laboratories launched an initiative aiming at adding on board the ExoMars mission a long life geophysical observatory, called "GEP" (Geophysical package) or "Mars Long Lived Surface Package". The feasibility study of this "geophysical package", carried out with the CNES support, showed the need for studying an alternative source of power to solar panels. Developments related to RTG technologies have been restricted for a long time to the United States and Russian industries. However, the exploration of the remote solar system (in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision) as well as long duration planetary missions (such as ExoMars Geophysical Package GEP ) exclude de facto the use of solar panels. A possible solution would be to associate to a radioisotope heat source of Russian origin (of Angel type) a thermo-electrical conversion system of European design. A European consortium of laboratories, including LPM, IPG and DLR (WF and RS) was thus constituted, in order to validate by a study the assumptions on the electric subsystem for the preliminary sizing of the geophysical package. The power of this Advanced radio-isotopic power system (ARPS) should be between 3 and 4 W, and the proposed mass limited to about 3 to 4 kg. This study will be undertaken in collaboration between the LPM, IPGP, DLR-WF and DLR-RS. A preliminary iteration of the GEP power subsystem will be presented, and main trade-off will be considered.

  18. Stress-induced Effects Caused by 3D IC TSV Packaging in Advanced Semiconductor Device Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, V.; Kteyan, A.; Choy, J.-H.; Hovsepyan, H.; Markosian, A.; Zschech, E.; Huebner, R.

    2011-11-01

    Potential challenges with managing mechanical stress and the consequent effects on device performance for advanced 3D through-silicon-via (TSV) based technologies are outlined. The paper addresses the growing need in a simulation-based design verification flow capable to analyze a design of 3D IC stacks and to determine across-die out-of-spec variations in device electrical characteristics caused by the layout and through-silicon-via (TSV)/package-induced mechanical stress. The limited characterization/measurement capabilities for 3D IC stacks and a strict "good die" requirement make this type of analysis critical for the achievement of an acceptable level of functional and parametric yield and reliability. The paper focuses on the development of a design-for-manufacturability (DFM) type of methodology for managing mechanical stresses during a sequence of designs of 3D TSV-based dies, stacks and packages. A set of physics-based compact models for a multi-scale simulation to assess the mechanical stress across the device layers in silicon chips stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology is proposed. A calibration technique based on fitting to measured stress components and electrical characteristics of the test-chip devices is presented. A strategy for generation of a simulation feeding data and respective materials characterization approach are proposed, with the goal to generate a database for multi-scale material parameters of wafer-level and package-level structures. For model validation, high-resolution strain measurements in Si channels of the test-chip devices are needed. At the nanoscale, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the only technique available for sub-10 nm strain measurements so far.

  19. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  20. More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

  1. I-SPINE: a software package for advances in image-guided and minimally invasive spine procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae Jeong; Cleary, Kevin R.; Zeng, Jianchao; Gary, Kevin A.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Watson, Vance; Lindisch, David; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-05-01

    While image guidance is now routinely used in the brain in the form of frameless stereotaxy, it is beginning to be more widely used in other clinical areas such as the spine. At Georgetown University Medical Center, we are developing a program to provide advanced visualization and image guidance for minimally invasive spine procedures. This is a collaboration between an engineering-based research group and physicians from the radiology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedics departments. A major component of this work is the ISIS Center Spine Procedures Imaging and Navigation Engine, which is a software package under development as the base platform for technical advances.

  2. Recent advances in biopolymers and biopolymer-based nanocomposites for food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Tang, X Z; Kumar, P; Alavi, S; Sandeep, K P

    2012-01-01

    Plastic packaging for food and non-food applications is non-biodegradable, and also uses up valuable and scarce non-renewable resources like petroleum. With the current focus on exploring alternatives to petroleum and emphasis on reduced environmental impact, research is increasingly being directed at development of biodegradable food packaging from biopolymer-based materials. The proposed paper will present a review of recent developments in biopolymer-based food packaging materials including natural biopolymers (such as starches and proteins), synthetic biopolymers (such as poly lactic acid), biopolymer blends, and nanocomposites based on natural and synthetic biopolymers. The paper will discuss the various techniques that have been used for developing cost-effective biodegradable packaging materials with optimum mechanical strength and oxygen and moisture barrier properties. This is a timely review as there has been a recent renewed interest in research studies, both in the industry and academia, towards development of a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in other areas.

  3. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  4. Reliability Assessment of Advanced Flip-clip Interconnect Electronic Package Assemblies under Extreme Cold Temperatures (-190 and -120 C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Shapiro, Andrew; Napala, Phil A.; Martin, Patrick A.

    2005-01-01

    Flip-chip interconnect electronic package boards have been assembled, underfilled, non-destructively evaluated and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess the reliability of this advanced packaging interconnect technology for future deep space, long-term, extreme temperature missions. In this very preliminary study, the employed temperature range covers military specifications (-55 C to 100 C), extreme cold Martian (-120 C to 115 C) and asteroid Nereus (-180 C to 25 C) environments. The resistance of daisy-chained, flip-chip interconnects were measured at room temperature and at various intervals as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. Electrical resistance measurements are reported and the tests to date have not shown significant change in resistance as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work has been carried out to understand the reliability of flip-chip interconnect packages under extreme temperature applications (-190 C to 85 C) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance. Adaptation of suitable diagnostic techniques to identify the failure mechanisms is in progress. This presentation will describe the experimental test results of flip-chip testing under extreme temperatures.

  5. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  6. Final Report for the Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Studies (CAPPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    assure food safety. The objectives of CAPPS are to enhance safety and quality of aseptic and extended shelf - life products, to characterize emerging ...aseptic and extended shelf - life processes, and to assure the integrity and functionality of aseptic and extended shelf - life packaging. Examples of new...and Nutritional Quality of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables : Desirable Levels, Instrumental and Sensory Measurement, and the Effects of Processing

  7. Microbiological and physicochemical properties of fresh retail cuts of beef packaged under an advanced vacuum skin system and stored at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Carreira, Luis; Franco, Carlos; Vázquez, Beatriz I; Fente, Cristina; Cepeda, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    The effect of an advanced vacuum skin packaging system on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of fresh retail cuts of beef (including meat portions from six different anatomical regions) stored at 4 degrees C was compared with the effect of traditional vacuum packaging. The vacuum skin packaging system whose effect on meat quality was evaluated in this work displayed two remarkable features: (i) the instantaneous heating of the lower surface of the upper film of the package before the film descended over the meat surface and (ii) the tight disposition of the plastic film on the meat surface, which avoided wrinkles and purges. Throughout storage at 4 degrees C, rates of bacterial growth were statistically significantly slower in beef portions processed with the vacuum skin packaging system than in those processed with traditional vacuum packaging, with average differences of 2.07, 1.60, and 1.25 log CFU/g in counts of aerobic mesophiles, anaerobes, and lactic acid bacteria, respectively. pH values were statistically significantly lower for beef portions packaged with the vacuum skin system than for those that were vacuum packaged in the traditional manner, probably because of the relative predominance of lactic acid bacteria observed in such samples, which coincided with both higher meat firmness values and a slower meat tenderization process. The vacuum skin system prevented the appearance of undesirable coloration on the meat surface and also significantly improved the commercial color of the meat as determined on the basis of luminosity (L*) and the redness (a*). Overall, the quality (as determined by microbiological and physicochemical analyses and by visual examination) of fresh retail cuts of beef packaged with the vacuum skin system and stored at 4 degrees C was higher than that of meat samples processed with the traditional vacuum-packaging system.

  8. Spirituality in men with advanced prostate cancer: "it's a holistic thing . . . it's a package".

    PubMed

    Lepherd, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    Spirituality is often regarded as being helpful during an unwell person's journey but definitions of the concept can be confusing, and its use synonymously with religion can be misleading. This research sought to answer the question, "What is the nature of spirituality in men with advanced prostate cancer," and to discover the role spirituality may have in these men as they face the challenges of living with their disease. A qualitative approach and narrative method was used to explore the spirituality of nine men with advanced prostate cancer who volunteered to participate and to tell the story of their cancer journey with particular focus on their spirituality. The study found that spirituality for these men, who were all Caucasians, was a "holistic thing" that involved physical, psychosocial, and spiritual matters that enabled them to transcend the everyday difficulties of their journey. Through their spirituality they obtained greater comfort and peace of mind during what was for many of them a very traumatic time. The central theme in the men's stories was that of connectedness-to themselves, to their partners, sometimes to a higher being, to other people such as their family and friends, and to other aspects of their lives.

  9. Advances in molecular quantum chemistry contained in the Q-Chem 4 program package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yihan; Gan, Zhengting; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Gilbert, Andrew T. B.; Wormit, Michael; Kussmann, Joerg; Lange, Adrian W.; Behn, Andrew; Deng, Jia; Feng, Xintian; Ghosh, Debashree; Goldey, Matthew; Horn, Paul R.; Jacobson, Leif D.; Kaliman, Ilya; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kuś, Tomasz; Landau, Arie; Liu, Jie; Proynov, Emil I.; Rhee, Young Min; Richard, Ryan M.; Rohrdanz, Mary A.; Steele, Ryan P.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Woodcock, H. Lee, III; Zimmerman, Paul M.; Zuev, Dmitry; Albrecht, Ben; Alguire, Ethan; Austin, Brian; Beran, Gregory J. O.; Bernard, Yves A.; Berquist, Eric; Brandhorst, Kai; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Brown, Shawn T.; Casanova, David; Chang, Chun-Min; Chen, Yunqing; Chien, Siu Hung; Closser, Kristina D.; Crittenden, Deborah L.; Diedenhofen, Michael; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Do, Hainam; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Edgar, Richard G.; Fatehi, Shervin; Fusti-Molnar, Laszlo; Ghysels, An; Golubeva-Zadorozhnaya, Anna; Gomes, Joseph; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; Harbach, Philipp H. P.; Hauser, Andreas W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Holden, Zachary C.; Jagau, Thomas-C.; Ji, Hyunjun; Kaduk, Benjamin; Khistyaev, Kirill; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihan; King, Rollin A.; Klunzinger, Phil; Kosenkov, Dmytro; Kowalczyk, Tim; Krauter, Caroline M.; Lao, Ka Un; Laurent, Adèle D.; Lawler, Keith V.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Lin, Ching Yeh; Liu, Fenglai; Livshits, Ester; Lochan, Rohini C.; Luenser, Arne; Manohar, Prashant; Manzer, Samuel F.; Mao, Shan-Ping; Mardirossian, Narbe; Marenich, Aleksandr V.; Maurer, Simon A.; Mayhall, Nicholas J.; Neuscamman, Eric; Oana, C. Melania; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; O'Neill, Darragh P.; Parkhill, John A.; Perrine, Trilisa M.; Peverati, Roberto; Prociuk, Alexander; Rehn, Dirk R.; Rosta, Edina; Russ, Nicholas J.; Sharada, Shaama M.; Sharma, Sandeep; Small, David W.; Sodt, Alexander; Stein, Tamar; Stück, David; Su, Yu-Chuan; Thom, Alex J. W.; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Vanovschi, Vitalii; Vogt, Leslie; Vydrov, Oleg; Wang, Tao; Watson, Mark A.; Wenzel, Jan; White, Alec; Williams, Christopher F.; Yang, Jun; Yeganeh, Sina; Yost, Shane R.; You, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Igor Ying; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Yan; Brooks, Bernard R.; Chan, Garnet K. L.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Goddard, William A., III; Gordon, Mark S.; Hehre, Warren J.; Klamt, Andreas; Schaefer, Henry F., III; Schmidt, Michael W.; Sherrill, C. David; Truhlar, Donald G.; Warshel, Arieh; Xu, Xin; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Baer, Roi; Bell, Alexis T.; Besley, Nicholas A.; Chai, Jeng-Da; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D.; Furlani, Thomas R.; Gwaltney, Steven R.; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Jung, Yousung; Kong, Jing; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Liang, WanZhen; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Rassolov, Vitaly A.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Herbert, John M.; Krylov, Anna I.; Gill, Peter M. W.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr2 dimer, exploring zeolite-catalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.

  10. Recent advances in modified atmosphere packaging and edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ghidelli, Christian; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2016-07-28

    Processing of fruits and vegetables generates physiological stresses in the still living cut tissue, leading to quality deterioration and shorter shelf-life as compared with fresh intact produces. Several strategies can be implemented with the aim to reduce the rate of deterioration of fresh-cut commodities. Such strategies include low temperature maintenance from harvest to retail and the application of physical and chemical treatments such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low O2 and high CO2 levels and antioxidant dips. Other technologies such as edible coatings with natural additives, new generation of coatings using nanotechnological solutions such as nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation, and multilayered systems, and non-conventional atmospheres such as the use of pressurized inert/noble gases and high levels of O2 have gained a lot of interest as a possibility to extend the shelf life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. However, the high perishability of these products challenges in many cases their marketability by not achieving sufficient shelf life to survive the distribution system, requiring the combination of treatments to assure safety and quality. This review reports the recent advances in the use of MAP, edible coatings, and the combined effect of both technologies to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  11. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  12. Proceedings of the International Electronic Circuit Packaging Symposium (3rd) on Advances in Electronic Circuit Packaging Held at Boulder, Colorado on 15-17 August 1962. Volume 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-01-01

    end, and finish it off with wood , we can give this console that distinctive custom look that we are striving for. Perhaps, this time, instead of formica...does the use of ply- wood with formica covering lend itself to RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) shielding capa- bility? A. I am not packaging in that... insulating board’(black XP phenolic))is used as in printed or etched wiring. Boards are sheared or aBnf-i4e, pifhched or drilled, and designations are

  13. OSA Proceedings on Advanced Solid-State Lasers. Vol. 10 - Proceedings of the Topical Meeting, Hilton Head, SC, Mar. 18-20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dube, G.; Chase, L. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA )

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on advanced solid-state lasers discusses Cr(3+), Cr(4+), short-pulse, titanium, F-center, mid-IR, and diode-pumped lasers, and nonlinear optics. Attention is given to the stabilization and a spectral characterization of an alexandrite laser for water vapor lidar measurements, crystal growth and spectroscopy of Cr:LiBaAlF6, a Q-switched tunable forsterite laser, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of chromium-doped forsterite. Topics addressed include efficient frequency doubling of a self-starting additive-pulse mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, recent advances in Ti:Al2O3 unstable-resonator lasers, all-solid-state operation of a CW Ti:Al2O3 laser, and upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr,T,Ho:YAG. Also discussed are the top output parameters of an Ho-laser, spectroscopy and the 3-micron laser potential of Er crystals, the pulsed operation of microchip lasers, and blue optical parametric generation in LiB3O5.

  14. Advances in powder metallurgy - 1991. Vol. 5 - P/M materials; Proceedings of the Powder Metallurgy Conference and Exhibition, Chicago, IL, June 9-12, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, L.F. III; Sansoucy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The present volume powder metallurgy materials discusses the state of the PM industry, a metallurgical evaluation of new steel powders, design criteria for the manufacturing of low-alloy steel powders, and homogenization processing of a PM maraging steel. Attention is given to the corrosion resistance of full density sintered 316 SS, the performance characteristics of a new sinter-hardening low-alloy steel, wear performance of compositions made by low alloy iron/high alloy powder mixtures, and the strengthening of an AISI 1020 steel by aluminum-microalloying during liquid dynamic compaction. Topics addressed include the influence of alloying on the properties of water-atomized copper powders, fundamentals of high pressure gas atomization process control, advanced sensors and process control of gas atomization, and bimetallic tubulars via spray forming. Also discussed are factors affecting the delamination of PM molybdenum during stamping, applications of powder metallurgy molybdenum in the 1990s, and powder processing of high-temperature oxides.

  15. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

    2002-01-31

    The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events

  16. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  17. Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost...high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging requirements. The program balanced the need for...near term component and wafer-level vacuum packaging with the development of advanced high density wafer-level packaging solutions. Three vacuum

  18. Forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials. Part III - Biodegradation of thermoformed rigid PLA packaging under industrial composting conditions.

    PubMed

    Musioł, Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Adamus, Grazyna; Janeczek, Henryk; Richert, Jozef; Malinowski, Rafal; Jiang, Guozhan; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a forensic engineering study on the biodegradation behaviour of prototype packaging thermoformed from PLA-extruded film and plain PLA film under industrial composting conditions. Hydrolytic degradation in water was conducted for reference. The effects of composting duration on changes in molar mass, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity of the polymeric material were monitored using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The chemical structure of water soluble degradation products of the polymeric material was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results show that the biodegradation process is less dependent on the thermoforming process of PLA and more dependent on the composting/degradation conditions that are applied. The increase in the dispersity index, leading to the bimodal molar mass distribution profile, suggests an autocatalytic hydrolysis effect at the early stage of the composting process, during which the bulk hydrolysis mechanism dominantly operates. Both the prototype PLA-packaging and PLA rigid film samples were shown to have a gradual increase in opacity due to an increase in the degree of crystallinity.

  19. Thin film CIGS photovoltaic modules: monolithic integration and advanced packaging for high performance, high reliability and low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, thin-film photovoltaic companies started realizing their low manufacturing cost potential, and have been grabbing an increasingly larger market share. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is the most promising thin-film PV material, having demonstrated the highest energy conversion efficiency in both cells and modules. However, most CIGS manufacturers still face the challenge of delivering a reliable and rapid manufacturing process that can scale effectively and deliver on the promise of this material system. HelioVolt has developed a reactive transfer process for CIGS absorber formation that has the benefits of good compositional control, and a fast high-quality CIGS reaction. The reactive transfer process is a two stage CIGS fabrication method. Precursor films are deposited onto substrates and reusable cover plates in the first stage, while in the second stage the CIGS layer is formed by rapid heating with Se confinement. HelioVolt also developed best-in-class packaging technologies that provide unparalleled environmental stability. High quality CIGS films with large grains were fabricated on the production line, and high-performance highreliability monolithic modules with a form factor of 120 cm × 60 cm are being produced at high yield and low cost. With conversion efficiency levels around 14% for cells and 12% for modules, HelioVolt is commercializing the process on its first production line with 20 MW capacity, and is planning its next GW-scale factory.

  20. Environmental Loss Characterization of an Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Insulation Package Using a Mock Heater Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schifer, Nicholas A.; Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two highefficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. While electrical power output can be precisely quantified, thermal power input to the Stirling cycle cannot be directly measured. In an effort to improve net heat input predictions, the Mock Heater Head was developed with the same relative thermal paths as a convertor using a conducting rod to represent the Stirling cycle and tested to provide a direct comparison to numerical and empirical models used to predict convertor net heat input. The Mock Heater Head also served as the pathfinder for a higher fidelity version of validation test hardware, known as the Thermal Standard. This paper describes how the Mock Heater Head was tested and utilized to validate a process for the Thermal Standard.

  1. Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

  2. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  3. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  4. Summary Describing Integration of ERM Methodology into Supervisory Control Framework with Software Package Documentation; Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M4AT-16PN2301052

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Dib, Gerges; Veeramany, Arun; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Roy, Surajit

    2016-09-20

    This project involved the development of enhanced risk monitors (ERMs) for active components in Advanced Reactor (AdvRx) designs by integrating real-time information about equipment condition with risk monitors. Health monitoring techniques in combination with predictive estimates of component failure based on condition and risk monitors can serve to indicate the risk posed by continued operation in the presence of detected degradation. This combination of predictive health monitoring based on equipment condition assessment and risk monitors can also enable optimization of maintenance scheduling with respect to the economics of plant operation. This report summarizes PNNL’s multi-year project on the development and evaluation of an ERM concept for active components while highlighting FY2016 accomplishments. Specifically, this report provides a status summary of the integration and demonstration of the prototypic ERM framework with the plant supervisory control algorithms being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and describes additional case studies conducted to assess sensitivity of the technology to different quantities. Supporting documentation on the software package to be provided to ONRL is incorporated in this report.

  5. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  6. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  7. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in an Average Power Position (I-24) in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. M . Ryskamp; R. C. Howard; R. C. Pedersen; S. T. Khericha

    1998-10-01

    The Fissile Material Disposition Program Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan details a series of test irradiations designed to investigate the use of weapons-grade plutonium in MOX fuel for light water reactors (LWR) (Cowell 1996a, Cowell 1997a, Thoms 1997a). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons-derived test fuel contains small amounts of gallium (about 2 parts per million). A concern exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel and into the clad, inducing embrittlement. For preliminary out-of-pile experiments, Wilson (1997) states that intermetallic compound formation is the principal interaction mechanism between zircaloy cladding and gallium. This interaction is very limited by the low mass of gallium, so problems are not expected with the zircaloy cladding, but an in-pile experiment is needed to confirm the out-of-pile experiments. Ryskamp (1998) provides an overview of this experiment and its documentation. The purpose of this Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP) is to demonstrate the safe irradiation and handling of the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide (MOX) Fuel Average Power Test (APT) experiment as required by Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) 3.9.1 (LMITCO 1998). This ESAP addresses the specific operation of the MOX Fuel APT experiment with respect to the operating envelope for irradiation established by the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO 1997a). Experiment handling activities are discussed herein.

  8. Advancing Reflectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-21

    transmissions, was first demonstrated using Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS ) reflections. Recently, reflectometry has been extended to digital... GNSS +R workshop provided an opportunity for engineers and Earth scientists to assess the state of the art, demonstrate new applications, and discuss...18 Eos, Vol. 94, No. 21, 21 May 2013 MEETING -.~ Advancing Reflectometry Workshop on Renectometry Using GNSS and Other Signals of Opportunity

  9. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  10. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  11. Advanced Packaging for VLSI/VHSIC (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits/Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) Applications: Electrical, Thermal, and Mechanical Considerations - An IR&D Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    GHz. The 36% ed "for-" everal"packagestyles ",Onc" we-have chracteri.ed the transmission"line paraetes fo eah oftheindiidul semens , atouh- 68-P...include polyimlide, level or two-tiered package lead configuration. The polyester polyethersulfane, and polyparabanic acid. problem can occur when fatigued

  12. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  13. New advancements in 793 nm fiber-coupled modules for Th fiber laser pumping, including packages optimized for low SWaP applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Chris; Guiney, Tina; Irwin, David; Patterson, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Targeted at the 793nm absorption band, DILAS Diode Laser, Inc. offers a range of products specifically designed for Thulium fiber laser pumping, spanning from 12 W to <300W of pump power and coupled into fiber sizes starting at 105um and upwards. A variety of different diode architectures are utilized, ranging from single-emitters, conduction-cooled bars, and DILAS's T-bar structure extended to the 793nm range, resulting in a wide variety of power levels and packaging options to support different applications. As IRCM for airborne platforms is a major application for Tm fiber lasers, packages optimized for low SWaP will be presented, which utilize a combination of the T-bar structure and macrochannel coolers specifically designed for compact, lightweight applications. Examples and results of Tm fiber lasers pumped using DILAS diodes will also be presented and discussed.

  14. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  15. CIRF Publications, Vol. 12, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    CIRF Publications, Vol. 12, No. 5 is a collection of 80 abstracts giving particular attention to education, training, and economic growth in developing countries, Iran, Japan, Kenya, the Solomon Islands, and Sri Lanka; vocational rehabilitation in Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the U. S. A.; agriculture in Chad, developing countries, and…

  16. Molecular genetic medicine. Vol. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, T.

    1992-01-01

    Theodore Friedmann has put together an interesting spectrum of articles for volume 2 of Molecular Genetic Medicine. Perhaps related to his own interest in the X chromosome, three articles deal with X-chromosomal topics, while two deal with autosomal disorders and two treat viral disorders. The fragile-X syndrome is thoroughly covered by Brown and Jenkins with an article that is heavily weighted to clinical aspects and now out-of-date RFLP approaches. The timeliness of the volume is insured by the coverage (albeit brief) that they give to the cloning of FMR-1. Gartler et al. present a balanced review of X inactivation - the oft-surveyed subject was comprehensively covered in a manner that provided new perspectives. Lambert et al. provide an exhaustive review of natural and induced mutation of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. For autosomal disorders, an excellent review of the molecular genetics of hemoglobin syntheses and their alterations in disease is provided by Berg and Schecter. The level of detail presented seemed just right to this reviewer. A concise review of recent advances in the study of Down syndrome and its animal model, trisomy 16 mice, is provided by Holtzman and Epstein. With regard to viral topics, Chisari thoughtfully reviews hepatitis B virus structure and function and the possible pathogenic mechanisms involved in its induction of hepatocellular carcinoma. Wong-Staal and Haseltine's up-to-date review of the increasingly complex regulatory genes of HIV is marred by a mix-up in figure legends - an exception to an otherwise well-proofread book. In summary, this is a good volume of its type and is recommended for those who might benefit from reading such review articles.

  17. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Gruber Cosmology Prize Lecture; Part II. Invited Discourses; Part III. Joint Discussions: 1. Dark matter in early-type galaxies Léon V. E. Koopmans and Tommaso Treu; 2. Diffuse light in galaxy clusters Magda Arnaboldi and Ortwin Gerhard; 3. Neutron stars - timing in extreme environments Tomaso Belloni, Mariano Méndez and Chengmin Zhang; 4. Progress in understanding the physics of Ap and related stars Margarida Cunha; 5. Modelling the Milky Way in the age of Gaia Annie C. Robin; 6. Time and astronomy Pascale Defraigne; 7. Astrophysical outflows and associated accretion phenomena Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex C. Raga; 8. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies Dong-Woo Kim and Silvia Pellegrini; 9. Are the fundamental constants varying with time? Paolo Molaro and Elisabeth Vangioni; 10. 3D views on cool stellar atmospheres - theory meets observation K. N. Nagendra, P. Bonifacio and H. G. Ludwig; 11. New advances in helio- and astero-seismology; 12. The first galaxies - theoretical predictions and observational clues; 13. Eta Carinae in the context of the most massive stars Theodore R. Gull and Augusto Damineli; 14. The ISM of galaxies in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre; 15. Magnetic fields in diffuse media Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex Lazarian; 16. IHY global campaign - whole heliosphere interval; Part IV. Special Sessions: SpS 1. IR and sub-mm spectroscopy - a new tool for studying stellar evolution Glenn Wahlgren, Hans Käufl and Florian Kerber; SpS 2. The international year of astronomy Pedro Russo, Catherine Cesarsky and Lars Lindberg Christensen; SpS 3. Astronomy in Antarctica in 2009 Michael G. Burton; SpS 4. Astronomy education between past and future J. P. De Greve; SpS 5. Accelerating the rate of astronomical discovery Ray P. Norris; SpS 6. Planetary systems as potential sites for life Régis Courtin, Alan Boss and Michel Mayor; SpS 7. Young stars, brown dwarfs, and protoplanetary disks Jane Gregorio

  18. Hermetic Packages For Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Martin I.; Lee, Karen A.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Carpenter, Alain; Wamhof, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Advanced hermetic packages developed to house electronic circuits operating at frequencies from 1 to 100 gigahertz and beyond. Signals coupled into and out of packages electromagnetically. Provides circuit packages small, lightweight, rugged, and inexpensive in mass production. Packages embedded in planar microstrip and coplanar waveguide circuits, in waveguide-to-planar and planar-to-waveguide circuitry, in waveguide-to-waveguide circuitry, between radiating (antenna) elements, and between planar transmission lines and radiating elements. Other applications in automotive, communication, radar, remote sensing, and biomedical electronic systems foreseen.

  19. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  20. Survey of Advanced Technologies in Japan, Vol. 3: Database Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    mirrors for all three orthogonal axis rings . The glass ceramic most widely used to machine the basic RLG housing is Zerodur made in Germany. This...modulating the "Q" or by lechanicaily rotating one mirror of the Fabry-Perot resonator. Cavity dumping, the other means of modulation, is the...layers and the active layer, and propagates within both the active and the cladding layers. Crystal facets at each end of the diode act as mirrors

  1. Advances in space biology and medicine. Vol. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Topics discussed include the effects of prolonged spaceflights on the human body; skeletal responses to spaceflight; gravity effects on reproduction, development, and aging; neurovestibular physiology in fish; and gravity perception and circumnutation in plants. Attention is also given to the development of higher plants under altered gravitational conditions; the techniques, findings, and theory concerning gravity effects on single cells; protein crystal growth in space; and facilities for animal research in space.

  2. 1973 Advances in Socio-Dental Research. Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, John B., Ed.

    This publication is a collection of abstracts from volumes 6 and 7 (1971 and 1972) of "Oral Research Abstracts," selected because the abstracts contain information relating one of the social sciences with dentistry. The compilation is intended to be useful to epidemiologists, public health workers, and all those who have an interest in…

  3. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  4. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System.

    PubMed

    Manjón, José V; Coupé, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es), which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results.

  5. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    The amount of medical image data produced in clinical and research settings is rapidly growing resulting in vast amount of data to analyze. Automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tools, including segmentation, allow to analyze brain development and to understand specific patterns of many neurological diseases. This field has recently experienced many advances with successful techniques based on non-linear warping and label fusion. In this work we present a novel and fully automatic pipeline for volumetric brain analysis based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that is able to provide accurate volumetric information at different levels of detail in a short time. This method is available through the volBrain online web interface (http://volbrain.upv.es), which is publically and freely accessible to the scientific community. Our new framework has been compared with current state-of-the-art methods showing very competitive results. PMID:27512372

  6. Evaluation of Five Microcomputer CAD Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities, differences, advanced features, applications and number of users of five microcomputer computer-aided design (CAD) packages. Included are: "AutoCAD (V.2.17)"; "CADKEY (V.2.0)"; "CADVANCE (V.1.0)"; "Super MicroCAD"; and "VersaCAD Advanced (V.4.00)." Describes the…

  7. El espectro de K2 Vol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    Se han obtenido espectros de alta dispersión para la estrella K2 Vol con el espectrógrafo REOSC del CASLEO en un rango de longitudes de ondas comprendido entre 3500 y 5050 Å. El espectro muestra evidencias de que la estrella es binaria. Se determinan las abundancias de los componentes químicos presentes en su atmósfera, como así también algunas características de su compañera.

  8. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  9. Packaging of MEMS microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiertag, Gregor; Winter, Matthias; Leidl, Anton

    2009-05-01

    To miniaturize MEMS microphones we have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding. In this new packaging technology MEMS and ASIC are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate. The package is sealed by a laminated polymer foil and by a metal layer. The sound port is on the bottom side in the ceramic substrate. In this paper the packaging technology is explained in detail and results of electro-acoustic characterization and reliability testing are presented. We will also explain the way which has led us from the packaging of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) components to the packaging of MEMS microphones.

  10. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  11. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  12. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  13. Transformation of food packaging from passive to innovative via nanotechnology: concepts and critiques.

    PubMed

    Mlalila, Nichrous; Kadam, Dattatreya M; Swai, Hulda; Hilonga, Askwar

    2016-09-01

    In recent decades, there is a global advancement in manufacturing industry due to increased applications of nanotechnology. Food industry also has been tremendously changing from passive packaging to innovative packaging, to cope with global trends, technological advancements, and consumer preferences. Active research is taking place in food industry and other scientific fields to develop innovative packages including smart, intelligent and active food packaging for more effective and efficient packaging materials with balanced environmental issues. However, in food industry the features behind smart packaging are narrowly defined to be distinguished from intelligent packaging as in other scientific fields, where smart materials are under critical investigations. This review presents some scientific concepts and features pertaining innovative food packaging. The review opens new research window in innovative food packaging to cover the existing disparities for further precise research and development of food packaging industry.

  14. Extreme temperature packaging: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Consumer electronics account for the majority of electronics manufactured today. Given the temperature limits of humans, consumer electronics are typically rated for operation from -40°C to +85°C. Military applications extend the range to -65°C to +125°C while underhood automotive electronics may see +150°C. With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), the goal of instrumenting (sensing, computation, transmission) to improve safety and performance in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells, nuclear reactors, combustion chambers, industrial processes, etc. requires sensors, electronics and packaging compatible with these environments. Advances in wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN) allow the fabrication of high temperature compatible sensors and electronics. Integration and packaging of these devices is required for implementation into actual applications. The basic elements of packaging are die attach, electrical interconnection and the package or housing. Consumer electronics typically use conductive adhesives or low melting point solders for die attach, wire bonds or low melting solder for electrical interconnection and epoxy for the package. These materials melt or decompose in high temperature environments. This paper examines materials and processes for high temperature packaging including liquid transient phase and sintered nanoparticle die attach, high melting point wires for wire bonding and metal and ceramic packages. The limitations of currently available solutions will also be discussed.

  15. Impact of external influences on food packaging.

    PubMed

    Brody, A L

    1977-09-01

    Since the food supply is dependent upon an effective packaging system, threats to packaging represent implied threats to food processing and distribution. Enacted and potential legislation and regulation are retarding technological and commercial progress in food packaging and have already restricted some food packaging/processins systems. The results of these external influences is not simply the sum of the individual acts, but is a cascading self-imposed arresting of food packaging/processing advancement. The technological bases for the enacted and proposed legislation and regulation are presented in the enumeration of the external influences on food packaging. Economic and sociological arguments and facts surrounding the issues are also presented. Among the external influences on food packaging detailed are indirect additives, nutritional labeling, benefit:risk, solid waste and litter, environmental pollution, universal product code, and food industry productivity. The magnitude of the total impact of these external influences upon the food supply is so large that assertive action must be taken to channel these influences into more productive awareness. An objective and comprehensive public communications program supported by the technological community appears mandatory.

  16. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  17. A microelectronics approach for the ROSETTA surface science package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandau, Rainer (Editor); Alkalaj, Leon

    1996-01-01

    In relation to the Rosetta surface science package, the benefits of the application of advanced microelectronics packaging technologies and other output from the Mars environmental survey (MESUR) integrated microelectronics study are reported on. The surface science package will be designed to operate for tens of hours. Its limited mass and power consumption make necessary a highly integrated design with all the instruments and subunits operated from a centralized control and information management subsystem.

  18. GENERAL PURPOSE ADA PACKAGES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Ten families of subprograms are bundled together for the General-Purpose Ada Packages. The families bring to Ada many features from HAL/S, PL/I, FORTRAN, and other languages. These families are: string subprograms (INDEX, TRIM, LOAD, etc.); scalar subprograms (MAX, MIN, REM, etc.); array subprograms (MAX, MIN, PROD, SUM, GET, and PUT); numerical subprograms (EXP, CUBIC, etc.); service subprograms (DATE_TIME function, etc.); Linear Algebra II; Runge-Kutta integrators; and three text I/O families of packages. In two cases, a family consists of a single non-generic package. In all other cases, a family comprises a generic package and its instances for a selected group of scalar types. All generic packages are designed to be easily instantiated for the types declared in the user facility. The linear algebra package is LINRAG2. This package includes subprograms supplementing those in NPO-17985, An Ada Linear Algebra Package Modeled After HAL/S (LINRAG). Please note that LINRAG2 cannot be compiled without LINRAG. Most packages have widespread applicability, although some are oriented for avionics applications. All are designed to facilitate writing new software in Ada. Several of the packages use conventions introduced by other programming languages. A package of string subprograms is based on HAL/S (a language designed for the avionics software in the Space Shuttle) and PL/I. Packages of scalar and array subprograms are taken from HAL/S or generalized current Ada subprograms. A package of Runge-Kutta integrators is patterned after a built-in MAC (MIT Algebraic Compiler) integrator. Those packages modeled after HAL/S make it easy to translate existing HAL/S software to Ada. The General-Purpose Ada Packages program source code is available on two 360K 5.25" MS-DOS format diskettes. The software was developed using VAX Ada v1.5 under DEC VMS v4.5. It should be portable to any validated Ada compiler and it should execute either interactively or in batch. The largest package

  19. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  20. 75 FR 56922 - Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... 111 Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Advance... Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) for the optional use of Intelligent Mail package barcodes (IMpb), no later than January of 2011; and expects to require the...

  1. A Review of Chip Scale Package Assembled Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1997-01-01

    NASA Headquarters, code Q, has established the Advanced Interconnect Program (AIP) to address the NASA's Common needs in electronic packaging for microspacecraft applications. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory was funded to address the quality and reliability of several high denstiy electronic packaging technologies.

  2. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  3. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  4. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  5. Working with Consortia - Advanced Packaging Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanche, Jim; Strickland, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Description: Support the responsible NASA official for lead-free solder evaluation. Serve as the NASA technical liaison to the NASA/DoD Pb-free Project. Assure NASA areas of interest are included in JG-PP follow-on work. Support NASA/DoD telcons and face-to-face meetings. Update MSFC lead-free solder lessons learned report. FY10 plans: - Reliability data on lead-free solder applications for various part lead finishes and board finishes. - Update lead-free solder risks and risk mitigation strategies for NASA. - Evaluate lead-free alloy/lead-free finish reliability in design application. - Status CAVE project on Pb-free solder aging effects. - Compile the LTESE flight and bench data.

  6. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  7. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  8. Project Information Packages: Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    This brochure describes a new series of Project Information Packages, a U.S. Office of Education response to the need for a systematic approach to disseminating exemplary projects. The packages describe procedures for developing the necessary administrative support and management framework, as well as instructional methods and techniques. The six…

  9. Packaging issues: avoiding delamination.

    PubMed

    Hall, R

    2005-10-01

    Manufacturers can minimise delamination occurrence by applying the appropriate packaging design and process features. The end user can minimise the impact of fibre tear and reduce subsequent delamination by careful package opening. The occasional inconvenient delamination is a small price to pay for the high level of sterility assurance that comes with the use of Tyvek.

  10. Small Cold Temperature Instrument Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Feng, S.; Brigham, D.; Beaman, B.

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system with ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a 'cold temperature surface operational' version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower temperature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package. We build on our previous work to develop strategies for incorporating Ultra Low Temperature/Ultra Low Power (ULT/ULP) electronics, lower voltage power supplies, as well as innovative thermal design concepts for instrument packages. Cryotesting has indicated that our small Si RHBD CMOS chips can deliver >80% of room temperature performance at 40K (nominal minimum lunar surface temperature). We leverage collaborations, past and current, with the JPL battery development program to increase power system efficiency in extreme environments. We harness advances in MOSFET technology that provide lower voltage thresholds for power switching circuits incorporated into our low voltage power supply concept. Conventional power conversion has a lower efficiency. Our low power circuit concept based on 'synchronous rectification' could produce stable voltages as low as 0.6 V with 85% efficiency. Our distributed micro-battery-based power supply concept incorporates cold temperature power supplies operating with a 4 V or 8 V battery. This work will allow us to provide guidelines for applying the low temperature, low power system approaches generically to the widest range of surface instruments.

  11. Isothermal reduction kinetics of Panzhihua ilmenite concentrate under 30vol% CO-70vol% N2 atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-yi; Lü, Wei; Lü, Xue-wei; Li, Sheng-ping; Bai, Chen-guang; Song, Bing; Han, Ke-xi

    2017-03-01

    The reduction of ilmenite concentrate in 30vol% CO-70vol% N2 atmosphere was characterized by thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric (TG-DTG) analysis methods at temperatures from 1073 to 1223 K. The isothermal reduction results show that the reduction process comprised two stages; the corresponding apparent activation energy was obtained by the iso-conversional and model-fitting methods. For the first stage, the effect of temperature on the conversion degree was not obvious, the phase boundary chemical reaction was the controlling step, with an apparent activation energy of 15.55-40.71 kJ·mol-1. For the second stage, when the temperatures was greater than 1123 K, the reaction rate and the conversion degree increased sharply with increasing temperature, and random nucleation and subsequent growth were the controlling steps, with an apparent activation energy ranging from 182.33 to 195.95 kJ·mol-1. For the whole reduction process, the average activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 98.94-118.33 kJ·mol-1 and 1.820-1.816 min-1, respectively.

  12. Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, 1873 (PL XXI); illustration of turbine and belt system. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  13. Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 2), Manchester, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 2), Manchester, 1873 (PL XXIX top); illustration of full milll, as enlarged to south. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  14. 1. Photocopy of delineation, American Architect and Building News, Vol ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of delineation, American Architect and Building News, Vol VI, No. 146, (September 27, 1879). SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN - G. B. P. Carpenter House, 100 Block of Polk Streets (Prospect Point), Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  15. Photocopy of a photograph (original from Kansas City Spirit, Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of a photograph (original from Kansas City Spirit, Vol. III, no. 5, April 1910) View to the west toward front arcade entrance - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  16. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  17. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  18. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  19. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  20. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  1. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  2. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-24

    Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  3. Science Books, Vol. 9, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Kathryn, Ed.

    This quarterly publication contains reviews of trade books, textbooks, and reference works in the pure and applied sciences which are intended for students in the elementary and secondary schools and in the first two years of college. In addition, books on scientific topics intended for the general reader are reviewed, as are selected advanced and…

  4. Science Books, Vol. 9, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Kathryn, Ed.

    This quarterly publication contains reviews of trade books, textbooks, and reference works in the pure and applied sciences which are intended for students in the elementary and secondary schools and in the first two years of college. In addition, books on scientific topics intended for the general reader are reviewed, as are selected advanced and…

  5. Science Books, Vol. 10 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Kathryn, Ed.

    This quarterly journal reviews trade books, textbooks, and reference works in the pure and applied sciences for students in elementary and secondary schools and in the first two years of college. Included are selected advanced and professional books useful for reference to students and teachers. Each book is reviewed and annotated by a qualified…

  6. STRUMPACK -- STRUctured Matrices PACKage

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    STRUMPACK - STRUctured Matrices PACKage - is a package for computations with sparse and dense structured matrix, i.e., matrices that exhibit some kind of low-rank property, in particular Hierarchically Semi Separable structure (HSS). Such matrices appear in many applications, e.g., FEM, BEM, Integral equations. etc. Exploiting this structure using certain compression algorithms allow for fast solution of linear systems and/or fast computation of matrix-vector products, which are the two main building blocks of matrix computations. STRUMPACK has presently two main components: a distributed-memory dense matrix computations package and a shared-memory sparse direct solver.

  7. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology.

    PubMed

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-04-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  8. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    PubMed Central

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future. PMID:23833515

  9. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  10. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  11. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  12. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  13. MEMS performance challenges: packaging and shock tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Liwei

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes recent advances in the MEMS performance challenges with emphases on packaging and shock tests. In the packaging area, metal to metal bonding processes have been developed to overcome limitations of the glass frit bonding by means of two specific methods: (1) pre-reflow of solder for enhanced bonding adhesion, and (2) the insertion of thin metal layer between parent metal bonding materials. In the shock test area, multiscale analysis for a MEMS package system has been developed with experimental verifications to investigate dynamic responses under drop-shock tests. Structural deformation and stress distribution data are extracted and predicted for device fracture and in-operation stiction analyses for micro mechanical components in various MEMS sensors, including accelerometers and gyroscopes.

  14. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  18. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  19. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  20. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.; Cadieux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  1. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  3. Vol(2)velle: Printable Interactive Volume Visualization.

    PubMed

    Stoppel, Sergej; Bruckner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Interaction is an indispensable aspect of data visualization. The presentation of volumetric data, in particular, often significantly benefits from interactive manipulation of parameters such as transfer functions, rendering styles, or clipping planes. However, when we want to create hardcopies of such visualizations, this essential aspect is lost. In this paper, we present a novel approach for creating hardcopies of volume visualizations which preserves a certain degree of interactivity. We present a method for automatically generating Volvelles, printable tangible wheel charts that can be manipulated to explore different parameter settings. Our interactive system allows the flexible mapping of arbitrary visualization parameters and supports advanced features such as linked views. The resulting designs can be easily reproduced using a standard printer and assembled within a few minutes.

  4. MMIC packaging with Waffleline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. W.; Ellis, T. T.; Schineller, E. R.

    1990-06-01

    The design principle of Waffleline, a patented MMIC packaging technology, is discussed, and several recent applications are described and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and photographs. Standard Waffleline is a foil-covered waffle-iron-like grid with dielectric-coated signal and power wires running in the channels and foil-removed holes for mounting prepackaged chips or chip carriers. With spacing of 50 mils between center conductors, this material is applicable at frequencies up to 40 GHz; EHF devices require Waffleline with 25-mil spacing. Applications characterized include a subassembly for a man-transportable SHF satellite-communication terminal, a transmitter driver for a high-power TWT, and a 60-GHz receiver front end (including an integrated monolithic microstrip antenna, a low-noise amplifier, a mixer, and an IF amplifier in a 0.25-inch-thick 1.6-inch-diameter package). The high package density and relatively low cost of Waffleline are emphasized.

  5. Ada Namelist Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  6. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  7. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  8. Spooled packaging of shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, John A.

    A vast cross-section of transportation, manufacturing, consumer product, and medical technologies rely heavily on actuation. Accordingly, progress in these industries is often strongly coupled to the advancement of actuation technologies. As the field of actuation continues to evolve, smart materials show significant promise for satisfying the growing needs of industry. In particular, shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators present an opportunity for low-cost, high performance actuation, but until now, they have been limited or restricted from use in many otherwise suitable applications by the difficulty in packaging the SMA wires within tight or unusually shaped form constraints. To address this packaging problem, SMA wires can be spool-packaged by wrapping around mandrels to make the actuator more compact or by redirecting around multiple mandrels to customize SMA wire pathways to unusual form factors. The goal of this dissertation is to develop the scientific knowledge base for spooled packaging of low-cost SMA wire actuators that enables high, predictable performance within compact, customizable form factors. In developing the scientific knowledge base, this dissertation defines a systematic general representation of single and multiple mandrel spool-packaged SMA actuators and provides tools for their analysis, understanding, and synthesis. A quasi-static analytical model distills the underlying mechanics down to the three effects of friction, bending, and binding, which enables prediction of the behavior of generic spool-packaged SMA actuators with specifiable geometric, loading, frictional, and SMA material parameters. An extensive experimental and simulation-based parameter study establishes the necessary understanding of how primary design tradeoffs between performance, packaging, and cost are governed by the underlying mechanics of spooled actuators. A design methodology outlines a systematic approach to synthesizing high performance SMA wire actuators

  9. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  12. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  13. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  14. YWCA Vocational Readiness Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jeanne

    This document outlines, in detail, the Vocational Readiness Package for young girls, which is a week-long program utilizing simulation games and role-playing, while employing peer group counseling techniques to dramatize the realities concerning women in marriage and careers today. After three years of using this program, the authors have compiled…

  15. Radiographic film package

    SciTech Connect

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  16. Project Information Packages Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    Presented are an overview booklet, a project selection guide, and six Project Information Packages (PIPs) for six exemplary projects serving underachieving students in grades k through 9. The overview booklet outlines the PIP projects and includes a chart of major project features. A project selection guide reviews the PIP history, PIP contents,…

  17. Packaging, transportation of LLW

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, P.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation is an overview of the regulations and requirements for the packaging and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes. United States Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations governing the classification of wastes and the transport documentation are also described.

  18. Nutrition Learning Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

  19. Jpetra Kernel Package

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael A.

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, written in Java. Jpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vector operations for Java developers. Jpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface. The most common implementation of this interface will be Java sockets.

  20. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  1. 3. Photocopy form Western Architect, Vol, 19, No. 8, August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy form Western Architect, Vol, 19, No. 8, August 1913, following page 80. 'TOWN AND COMMUNITY PLANNING, WALTER BURLEY GRIFFEN.' ORIGINAL PRESENTATION DRAWING AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, ART DEPARTMENT. - Joshua G. Melson House, 56 River Heights Drive, Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, IA

  2. 14. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. 2, by L.E. Preston & Company, Philadelphia, 1886 ALEXANDER SMITH AND SONS CARPET COMPANY, DETAIL, SPINNING AND PRINT MILLS, - Moquette Row Housing, Moquette Row North & Moquette Row South, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  3. 13. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of engraving from History of Westchester County, Vol. 2, by J. Thomas Scharf, published by L.E. Preston & Company, Philadelphia, 1886 ALEXANDER SMITH AND SONS CARPET COMPANY, MOQUETTE MILLS, WEAVING MILLS, SPINNING AND PRINT MILLS - Moquette Row Housing, Moquette Row North & Moquette Row South, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  4. Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, 1873 (PL XX); illustration used by eminent British textile engineer to exemplify the ultimate development in American cotton mill technology. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  5. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  6. Directions in General Relativity, Vol. 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. L.; Ryan, M. P., Jr.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2005-10-01

    1. Remarks concerning the geometrics of gravity, gauge fields and quantum theory J. S. Anandan; 2. Gravity and the unification of fundamental interactions R. L. Arnowitt and P. Nath; 3. Minisuperspaces: symmetrics and quantization A. Ashtekar, R. S. Tate and C. Uggla; 4. Quantum cosmology B. K. Berger; 5. A pictorial history of some gravitational instanton D. Brill and K.- T. Pirk; 6. No time machines from lightlike sources in 2+1 gravity S. Deser and A. R. Steif; 7. Inhomogeneity and anisotropy genertation in FRW cosmologies G. F. R. Ellis and D. R. Matravers; 8. Misner, kinks and Black Holes D. Finkelstein; 9. The quantum mechanics of closed systems J. B. Hartle; 10. Cosmological vacuum open system W. A. Hiscock and D. A. Samuel; 11. Minisuperspace as a quantum open system B. L. Hu, J. P. Paz and S. Sinha; 12. Ricci flow on minisuperspaces and the geometry-topology problem J. Isenberg and M. Jackson; 13. Classical and quantum dynamics of Black Hole interiors W. Israel; 14. Matter time in canonical quantum gravity K. V. Kuchar; 15. The isotropy and homogeneity of the universe R. A. Matzner; 16. Recent advances in ADM reduction V. Moncrief; 17. Some progress in classical canonical gravity J. M. Nester; 18. Harmonic map formulation of colliding electrovac place waves Y. Nutku; 19. Geometry, the renormalization groups and gravity D. J. O'Connor and C. R. Stephens; 20. An example of the indeterminacy of the already-unified theory R. Penrose; 21. Nonstatic metric of Hiscock-Gott type A. K. Raychaudhuri; 22. Non-standard phase space variables, quantization and path-integrals, or little ado about much M. P. Ryan, Jr. and Sergio Hojmann; 23. The present status of the decaying neutrino theory D. W. Sciama; 24. Exploiting the computer to investigate Black Holes and cosmic censorship S. L. Shapiro and S. A. Teukolsky; 25. Misner space as a prototype for almost any pathology K. S. Thorne; 26. Relativity and rotation C. V. Vishveshwara; 27. The first law of Black Hole

  7. Food packaging history and innovations.

    PubMed

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  8. Packaging legislation. Objectives and consequences.

    PubMed

    Christmann, H

    1995-05-01

    The recently published Directive on packaging and packaging waste makes new demands on the industry. This article highlights the key areas and raises some of the issues that must be confronted in the future.

  9. MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskooi, Ardavan F.; Roundy, David; Ibanescu, Mihai; Bermel, Peter; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes Meep, a popular free implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for simulating electromagnetism. In particular, we focus on aspects of implementing a full-featured FDTD package that go beyond standard textbook descriptions of the algorithm, or ways in which Meep differs from typical FDTD implementations. These include pervasive interpolation and accurate modeling of subpixel features, advanced signal processing, support for nonlinear materials via Padé approximants, and flexible scripting capabilities. Program summaryProgram title: Meep Catalogue identifier: AEFU_v1_0 Program summary URL::http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 821 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 925 774 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any computer with a Unix-like system and a C++ compiler; optionally exploits additional free software packages: GNU Guile [1], libctl interface library [2], HDF5 [3], MPI message-passing interface [4], and Harminv filter-diagonalization [5]. Developed on 2.8 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo. Operating system: Any Unix-like system; developed under Debian GNU/Linux 5.0.2. RAM: Problem dependent (roughly 100 bytes per pixel/voxel) Classification: 10 External routines: Optionally exploits additional free software packages: GNU Guile [1], libctl interface library [2], HDF5 [3], MPI message-passing interface [4], and Harminv filter-diagonalization [5] (which requires LAPACK and BLAS linear-algebra software [6]). Nature of problem: Classical electrodynamics Solution method: Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method Running time: Problem dependent (typically about 10 ns per pixel per timestep) References:[1] GNU Guile, http://www.gnu.org/software/guile[2] Libctl, http

  10. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  11. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  12. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  13. TIDEV: Tidal Evolution package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Melita, M.; Zuluaga, J.; Portilla, B.; Sucerquia, M.; Miloni, O.

    2016-09-01

    TIDEV (Tidal Evolution package) calculates the evolution of rotation for tidally interacting bodies using Efroimsky-Makarov-Williams (EMW) formalism. The package integrates tidal evolution equations and computes the rotational and dynamical evolution of a planet under tidal and triaxial torques. TIDEV accounts for the perturbative effects due to the presence of the other planets in the system, especially the secular variations of the eccentricity. Bulk parameters include the mass and radius of the planet (and those of the other planets involved in the integration), the size and mass of the host star, the Maxwell time and Andrade's parameter. TIDEV also calculates the time scale that a planet takes to be tidally locked as well as the periods of rotation reached at the end of the spin-orbit evolution.

  14. Fair Package Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  15. Software packager user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  16. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  17. Trilinos Web Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jonathan; Phenow, Michael N.; Sala, Marzio; Tuminaro, Ray S.

    2006-09-01

    WebTrilinos is a scientific portal, a web-based environment to use several Trilinos packages through the web. If you are a teaching sparse linear algebra, you can use WebTrilinos to present code snippets and simple scripts, and let the students execute them from their browsers. If you want to test linear algebra solvers, you can use the MatrixPortal module, and you just have to select problems and options, then plot the results in nice graphs.

  18. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  19. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof.... 1337, on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC of Longview, Texas. An amended complaint was filed... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof...

  20. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  1. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  2. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  3. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  4. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Meservey, Richard H.; Landon, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  5. [Reliability of % vol. declarations on labels of wine bottles].

    PubMed

    Schütz, Harald; Erdmann, Freidoon; Verhoff, Marcel A; Weiler, Günter

    2005-01-01

    The Council Regulation (EC) no. 1493/1999 of 17 May 1999 on the common organisation of the market in wine (Abl. L 179 dated 14/7/1999) and the GMO Wine 2000 (Annex VII A) stipulates that the labels of wine bottles have to indicate, among others, information on the sales designation of the product, the nominal volume and the alcoholic strength. The latter must not differ by more than 0.5% vol. from the alcoholic strength as established by analysis. Only when quality wines are stored in bottles for more than three years, the accepted tolerance limits are +/- 0.8% vol. The presented investigation results show that deviations have to be taken into account which may be highly relevant for forensic practice.

  6. (abstract) Electronic Packaging for Microspacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasler, David

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this presentation is to give a brief look into the future of electronic packaging for microspacecraft applications. Advancements in electronic packaging technology areas have developed to the point where a system engineer's visions, concepts, and requirements for a microspacecraft can now be a reality. These new developments are ideal candidates for microspacecraft applications. These technologies are capable of bringing about major changes in how we design future spacecraft while taking advantage of the benefits due to size, weight, power, performance, reliability , and cost. This presentation will also cover some advantages and limitations of surface mount technology (SMT), multichip modules (MCM), and wafer scale integration (WSI), and what is needed to implement these technologies into microspacecraft.

  7. Miniaturization of dielectric liquid microlens in package

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, C. Gary; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study presents packaged microscale liquid lenses actuated with liquid droplets of 300–700 μm in diameter using the dielectric force manipulation. The liquid microlens demonstrated function focal length tunability in a plastic package. The focal length of the liquid lens with a lens droplet of 500 μm in diameter is shortened from 4.4 to 2.2 mm when voltages applied change from 0 to 79 Vrms. Dynamic responses that are analyzed using 2000 frames∕s high speed motion cameras show that the advancing and receding times are measured to be 90 and 60 ms, respectively. The size effect of dielectric liquid microlens is characterized for a lens droplet of 300–700 μm in diameter in an aspect of focal length. PMID:21267438

  8. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  9. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  10. Aristos Optimization Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ridzal, Danis

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the area of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.

  11. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  12. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for the 40- to 52-GWd/MT Burnup Phase of Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in Small I-hole Positions in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. T. Khericha; R. C. Pedersen

    2003-09-01

    This experiment safety assurance package (ESAP) is a revision of the last mixed uranium and plutonium oxide (MOX) ESAP issued in June 2002). The purpose of this revision is to provide a basis to continue irradiation up to 52 GWd/MT burnup [as predicted by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) transport code The last ESAP provided basis for irradiation, at a linear heat generation rate (LHGR) no greater than 9 kW/ft, of the highest burnup capsule assembly to 50 GWd/MT. This ESAP extends the basis for irradiation, at a LHGR no greater than 5 kW/ft, of the highest burnup capsule assembly from 50 to 52 GWd/MT.

  13. Active and Intelligent Packaging: The Indication of Quality and Safety.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2016-09-19

    The food industry has been under growing pressure to feed an exponentially increasing world population and challenged to meet rigorous food safety law and regulation. The plethora of media consumption has provoked consumer demand for safe, sustainable, organic, and wholesome products with "clean" labels. The application of active and intelligent packaging has been commercially adopted by food and pharmaceutical industries as a solution for the future for extending shelf life and simplifying production processes; facilitating complex distribution logistics; reducing, if not eliminating the need for preservatives in food formulations; enabling restricted food packaging applications; providing convenience, improving quality, variety and marketing features; as well as providing essential information to ensure consumer safety. This chapter reviews innovations of active and intelligent packaging which advance packaging technology through both scavenging and releasing systems for shelf life extension, and through diagnostic and identification systems for communicating quality, tracking and brand protection.

  14. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  15. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  16. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  17. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  18. Signal processor packaging design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Phipps, Mickie A.

    1993-10-01

    The Signal Processor Packaging Design (SPPD) program was a technology development effort to demonstrate that a miniaturized, high throughput programmable processor could be fabricated to meet the stringent environment imposed by high speed kinetic energy guided interceptor and missile applications. This successful program culminated with the delivery of two very small processors, each about the size of a large pin grid array package. Rockwell International's Tactical Systems Division in Anaheim, California developed one of the processors, and the other was developed by Texas Instruments' (TI) Defense Systems and Electronics Group (DSEG) of Dallas, Texas. The SPPD program was sponsored by the Guided Interceptor Technology Branch of the Air Force Wright Laboratory's Armament Directorate (WL/MNSI) at Eglin AFB, Florida and funded by SDIO's Interceptor Technology Directorate (SDIO/TNC). These prototype processors were subjected to rigorous tests of their image processing capabilities, and both successfully demonstrated the ability to process 128 X 128 infrared images at a frame rate of over 100 Hz.

  19. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  20. IIP Update: A Packaged Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver. Doppler Aerosol WiNd Lidar (DAWN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar breadboard at NASA/LaRC will be engineered and compactly packaged consistent with future aircraft flights. The packaged transceiver will be integrated into a coherent Doppler wind lidar system test bed at LaRC. Atmospheric wind measurements will be made to validate the packaged technology. This will greatly advance the coherent part of the hybrid Doppler wind lidar solution to the need for global tropospheric wind measurements.

  1. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  2. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  3. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  4. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  5. Package Up Your Troubles--An Introduction to Package Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Colin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a "package deal" library--a prefabricated building including interior furnishing--in terms of costs, fitness for purpose, and interior design, i.e., shelving, flooring, heating, lighting, and humidity. Advantages and disadvantages of the package library are also considered. (Author/MBR)

  6. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents.

  7. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  8. Combined chitosan-thyme treatments with modified atmosphere packaging on a ready-to-cook poultry product.

    PubMed

    Giatrakou, V; Ntzimani, A; Savvaidis, I N

    2010-04-01

    In the present study, natural antimicrobials chitosan and thyme, and their combination, were evaluated for their effect on the shelf life of a ready-to-cook (RTC) chicken-pepper kebab (skewer) stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions at 4 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 14 days. The following treatments were examined: control samples stored under aerobic packaging (A), samples stored under MAP (M), samples treated with 1.5% chitosan (vol/wt) and stored under MAP (M-CH), samples treated with 0.2% thyme essential oil (vol/wt) (M-T), and samples treated with 1.5% chitosan (vol/wt) and 0.2% thyme essential oil (vol/wt) and stored under MAP (M-CH-T). Treatment M-CH-T significantly affected aerobic plate counts and counts of lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeasts and molds during the entire storage period. Similarly, lipid oxidation of the RTC product was retarded (M-CH-T treatment) during storage, whereas redness was maintained in M-T, M-CH, and M-CH-T samples. Based primarily on sensory data (taste attribute), M-CH and M-T treatments extended RTC product shelf life by 6 days, whereas M-CH-T treatment resulted in a product with a shelf life of 14 days that maintained acceptable sensory characteristics (shelf life of the control was 6 days).

  9. QD : A Double-Double/ Quad-Double Package

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Li, Xiaoye S.; Hida, Yozo

    2003-06-04

    This package permits a scientist to perform computations using a precision level of either 32 or 64 decimal digits, by making only minor changes to conventional C++ or Fortran-90 source code. This software takes advantage of certain properties of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, together with advanced numeric algorithms, custom datatypes and operator overloading.

  10. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 124, LAPs 46-55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of 10 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, these units cover absolute value, inequalities, exponents, radicals, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric functions; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  11. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  12. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  13. The LISA Technology Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The UP is in the late stages of development -- all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the UP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaign, and outline the future milestones leading to the UP delivery.

  14. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-10-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  15. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

    2002-06-01

    Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

  16. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  17. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for the 40- to 50-GWd/MT Burnup Phase of Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in Small I-Hole Positions in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Khericha, Soli T

    2002-06-01

    This experiment safety assurance package (ESAP) is a revision of the last MOX ESAP issued in February 2001(Khericha 2001). The purpose of this revision is to identify the changes in the loading pattern and to provide a basis to continue irradiation up to ~42 GWd/MT burnup (+ 2.5% as predicted by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) transport code before the preliminary postirradiation examination (PIE) results for 40 GWd/MT burnup are available. Note that the safety analysis performed for the last ESAP is still applicable and no additional analysis is required (Khericha 2001). In July 2001, it was decided to reconfigure the test assembly using the loading pattern for Phase IV, Part 3, at the end of Phase IV, Part 1, as the loading pattern for Phase IV, Parts 2 and 3. Three capsule assemblies will be irradiated until the highest burnup capsule assembly accumulates: ~50 GWd/MT burnup, based on the MCNP code predictions. The last ESAP suggests that at the end of Phase IV, Part 1, we remove the two highest burnup capsule assemblies (@ ~40 GWd/MT burnup) and send them to ORNL for PIE. Then, irradiate the test assembly using the loading pattern for Phase IV, Part 2, until the highest burnup capsule reaches ~40 GWd/MT burnup per MCNP-predicted values.

  18. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for the 40- to 50-GWd/MT Burnup Phase of Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in Small I-Hole Positions in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Khericha, S.T.

    2002-06-30

    This experiment safety assurance package (ESAP) is a revision of the last MOX ESAP issued in February 2001(Khericha 2001). The purpose of this revision is to identify the changes in the loading pattern and to provide a basis to continue irradiation up to {approx}42 GWd/MT burnup (+ 2.5%) as predicted by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) transport code before the preliminary postirradiation examination (PIE) results for 40 GWd/MT burnup are available. Note that the safety analysis performed for the last ESAP is still applicable and no additional analysis is required (Khericha 2001). In July 2001, it was decided to reconfigure the test assembly using the loading pattern for Phase IV, Part 3, at the end of Phase IV, Part 1, as the loading pattern for Phase IV, Parts 2 and 3. Three capsule assemblies will be irradiated until the highest burnup capsule assembly accumulates: {approx}50 GWd/MT burnup, based on the MCNP code predictions. The last ESAP suggests that at the end of Phase IV, Part 1, we remove the two highest burnup capsule assemblies ({at} {approx}40 GWd/MT burnup) and send them to ORNL for PIE. Then, irradiate the test assembly using the loading pattern for Phase IV, Part 2, until the highest burnup capsule reaches {approx}40 GWd/MT burnup per MCNP-predicted values.

  19. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  20. Individualized Learning Package about Etching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael J.

    An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

  1. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  2. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  3. Microelectronics/electronic packaging potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandeau, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The trend toward smaller and lighter electronic packages was examined. It is suggested that electronic packaging engineers and microelectronic designers closely associate and give full attention to optimization of both disciplines on all product lines. Extensive research and development work underway to explore innovative ideas and make new inroads into the technology base, is expected to satisfy the demands of the 1980's.

  4. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  5. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging exceptions. 173.63 Section 173.63... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions... which are used to project fastening devices. (2) Packaging for cartridges, small arms, and...

  6. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... record retention applicable to Industrial Packaging Type 1 (IP-1), Industrial Packaging Type 2 (IP-2), and Industrial Packaging Type 3 (IP-3). (b) Industrial packaging certification and tests. (1) Each IP... specified in § 173.412(a) through (j). (4) Tank containers may be used as Industrial package Types 2 or...

  7. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  8. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  9. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  10. Nanocomposite Sensors for Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Gentile, Gennaro; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    Nowadays nanotechnologies applied to the food packaging sector find always more applications due to a wide range of benefits that they can offer, such as improved barrier properties, improved mechanical performance, antimicrobial properties and so on. Recently many researches are addressed to the set up of new food packaging materials, in which polymer nanocomposites incorporate nanosensors, developing the so-called "smart" packaging. Some examples of nanocomposite sensors specifically realised for the food packaging industry are reported. The second part of this work deals with the preparation and characterisation of two new polymer-based nanocomposite systems that can be used as food packaging materials. Particularly the results concerning the following systems are illustrated: isotactic polypropylene (iPP) filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with SiO2 nanoparticles.

  11. Drug packaging in 2015: risky industry choices and lax regulation.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Prescrire examined the packaging quality of 240 drugs in 2015. No new advances were identified, but drug packaging continues to expose patients to a variety of dangers. Some past advances persist: for example, INNs are often more legible, and recent patient leaflets tend to be clearer and more informative. But these measures are not applied to all drugs, and are rarely applied retroactively to older drugs. The overall picture in 2015 is that many drugs are difficult to identify, risky or downright dangerous to prepare, or supplied with patient leaflets that fail to correctly inform patients about their medication. And measures to prevent drug poisoning in children need to be completely rethought. It is high time for regulators and policy makers to take the issue of drug packaging seriously, so blatant are the signs of their failure to do so: the increasing use of bulk bottles for new drugs; failure to implement guidelines on safe drug packaging (unit-dose presentations, appropriate dosing devices, etc.); and expanding umbrella brands which, given the dangers they pose to patients, should be banned instead. All things considered, healthcare professionals and patients must remain vigilant and report any dangers they identify. A major European initiative on drug packaging is becoming increasingly necessary.

  12. Application of silicon piezoresistive stress test chips in electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yida

    In this work, both special (100) and (111) silicon test chips containing an array of optimized piezoresistive stress sensor rosettes have been successfully applied within several electronic packaging configurations. Unlike (100) silicon test chips, (111) silicon test chips are able to measure the complete stress state on the die surface. After calibration and characterization of the test chips, they were packaged into various assemblies. The post packaging resistances of the sensors were then recorded at room temperature, as a function of temperature excursion, and during long term packaging reliability qualification tests (thermal cycling and thermal aging). The stresses on the die surface were calculated using the measured resistance changes and the appropriate theoretical equations. For comparison purposes, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulations of the packaging processes were also performed, and the stress predictions were correlated with the experimental test chip data. AAA2 (100) silicon test chips containing optimized four element dual polarity rosettes have been applied within 44 pin Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) packages and 240 pin Quad Flat Packs (QFP's). In these plastic package experiments, comparison of the stress levels induced by various molding compounds was emphasized. Advanced (111) silicon test chips (BMW-1 or BMW-2) comprising an array of optimized eight-element dual polarity piezoresistive sensor rosettes were encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's, 160 pin QFP's, Chip on Board (COB) packages, and 281 pin ceramic Pin Grid Array (PGA) packages. In addition to molding compound evaluations, BMW-1 test chips encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's were used to detect the presence of delaminations between the die surface and the encapsulant. In the wire bonded COB package studies, die surface stress evaluations were conducted after die attachment, and throughout the cure cycle of the liquid encapsulant. The stresses were also studied as a

  13. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing at periodic intervals only (i.e., other than initial design qualification testing), at ambient... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparation of packagings and packages for testing...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.602 Preparation of packagings...

  14. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... testing at periodic intervals only (i.e., other than initial design qualification testing), at ambient... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation of packagings and packages for testing...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.602 Preparation of packagings...

  15. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing at periodic intervals only (i.e., other than initial design qualification testing), at ambient... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparation of packagings and packages for testing...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.602 Preparation of packagings...

  16. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  17. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  18. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  19. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  20. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  1. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  2. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  3. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Meservey, R.H.; Landon, M.D.

    1999-08-10

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D and D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded. 3 figs.

  4. New material options for light-emitting diode packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl H.

    2004-06-01

    As light-emitting diode (LED) power levels and chip sizes increase, thermal management and thermal stresses, which affect performance, power conversion efficiency nad lifetime, are becoming increasingly serious problems. Traditional materials have serious deficiencies in meeting requirements for thermal management and minimization of thermal stresses in high-brightness (HB) LED packaging. Copper, the standard material for applications requiring high thermal conductivity, has a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is much larger than those of ceramics and semiconductor materials, giving rise to thermal stresses when packages are subjected to thermal excursions. Aluminum has a larger CTE than copper. Traditional materials with low CTEs have thermal conductivites that are little or no better than that of aluminum. There are an increasing number of new packaging materials with low, tailorable CTEs and thermal conductivities up to four times those of copper that overcome thise limitations. The ability to tailor material CTE has been used to solve critical warping problems in manufacturing, increasing yield from 5% to over 99%. Advanced materials fall into six categories: monolithic carbonaceous materials, metal matrix compsites, carbon/carbon composites, ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, and advanced metallic alloys. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of advanced packaging materials, including their key properties, state of maturity, cost and applications.

  5. New material options for high-power diode laser packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl H.

    2004-06-01

    Traditional materials have serious deficiencies in meeting requirements for thermal management and minimization of thermal stresses in high-power laser diode packaging. Copper, the standard material for applications requiring high thermal conductivity, has a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is much larger than those of ceramics and laser diodes, giving rise to thermal stresses when packages are subjected to thermal excursions. Traditional materials with low CTEs have thermal conductivities that are little or no better than that of aluminum. There are an increasing number of new packaging materials with low, tailorable CTEs and thermal conductivities up to four times those of copper that overcome these limitations. The ability to tailor material CTE has been used to solve critical warping problems in manufacturing, increasing yield from 5% to over 99%. Advanced materials fall into six categories: monolithic carbonaceous materials, metal matrix composites, carbon/carbon composites, ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, and advanced metallic alloys. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of advanced packaging materials, including their key properties, state of maturity, using composites to fix manufacturing problems, cost and applications.

  6. Qualification and Reliability for MEMS and IC Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2004-01-01

    Advanced IC electronic packages are moving toward miniaturization from two key different approaches, front and back-end processes, each with their own challenges. Successful use of more of the back-end process front-end, e.g. microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Wafer Level Package (WLP), enable reducing size and cost. Use of direct flip chip die is the most efficient approach if and when the issues of know good die and board/assembly are resolved. Wafer level package solve the issue of known good die by enabling package test, but it has its own limitation, e.g., the I/O limitation, additional cost, and reliability. From the back-end approach, system-in-a-package (SIAP/SIP) development is a response to an increasing demand for package and die integration of different functions into one unit to reduce size and cost and improve functionality. MEMS add another challenging dimension to electronic packaging since they include moving mechanical elements. Conventional qualification and reliability need to be modified and expanded in most cases in order to detect new unknown failures. This paper will review four standards that already released or being developed that specifically address the issues on qualification and reliability of assembled packages. Exposures to thermal cycles, monotonic bend test, mechanical shock and drop are covered in these specifications. Finally, mechanical and thermal cycle qualification data generated for MEMS accelerometer will be presented. The MEMS was an element of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) qualified for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Spirit and Opportunity that successfully is currently roaring the Martian surface

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  8. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  9. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  10. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production.

  11. Reliability of high I/O high density CCGA interconnect electronic packages under extreme thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-03-01

    Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surfacemount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions.

  12. Large area LED package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  13. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.; Thorsness, C.; Suratwala, T.; Steele, R.; Rogowski, G.

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  14. Spack: the Supercomputing Package Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Gamblin, T.

    2013-11-09

    The HPC software ecosystem is growing larger and more complex, but software distribution mechanisms have not kept up with this trend. Tools, Libraries, and applications need to run on multiple platforms and build with multiple compliers. Increasingly, packages leverage common software components, and building any one component requires building all of its dependencies. In HPC environments, ABI-incompatible interfaces (likeMPI), binary-incompatible compilers, and cross-compiled environments converge to make the build process a combinatoric nightmare. This obstacle deters many users from adopting useful tools, and others waste countless hours building and rebuilding tools. Many package managers exist to solve these problems for typical desktop environments, but none suits the unique needs of supercomputing facilities or users. To address these problems, we have Spack, a package manager that eases the task of managing software for end-users, across multiple platforms, package versions, compilers, and ABI incompatibilities.

  15. Handling difficult materials: Aseptic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lieb, K.

    1994-03-01

    Since aseptic packages, or drink boxes, were introduced in the US in the early 1980s, they have been praised for their convenience and berated for their lack of recyclability. As a result, aseptic packaging collection has been linked with that of milk cartons to increase the volume. The intervening years since the introduction of aseptic packaging have seen the drink box industry aggressively trying to create a recycling market for the boxes. Communities and schools have initiated programs, and recycling firms have allocated resources to see whether recycling aseptic packaging can work. Drink boxes are now recycled in 2.3 million homes in 15 states, and in 1,655 schools in 17 states. They are typically collected in school and curbside programs with other polyethylene coated (laminated) paperboard products such a milk cartons, and then baled and shipped to five major paper companies for recycling at eight facilities.

  16. Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2010-02-01

    Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

  17. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  18. High-performance packaging for monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Li, K.; Shih, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    Packaging schemes were developed that provide low-loss, hermetic enclosure for advanced monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs). The package designs are based on a fused quartz substrate material that offers improved radio frequency (RF) performance through 44 gigahertz (GHz). The small size and weight of the packages make them appropriate for a variety of applications, including phased array antenna systems. Packages were designed in two forms; one for housing a single MMIC chip, the second in the form of a multi-chip phased array module. The single chip array module was developed in three separate sizes, for chips of different geometry and frequency requirements. The phased array module was developed to address packaging directly for antenna applications, and includes transmission line and interconnect structures to support multi-element operation. All packages are fabricated using fused quartz substrate materials. As part of the packaging effort, a test fixture was developed to interface the single chip packages to conventional laboratory instrumentation for characterization of the packaged devices. The package and test fixture designs were both developed in a generic sense, optimizing performance for a wide range of possible applications and devices.

  19. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  20. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    FINAL REPORT Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials SERDP Project WP-1478 MAY 2010 Dr.Chris Schwier Metabolix... Bioplastic Packaging Materials 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER SI 1478 Dr. Chris Schwier 5e. TASK...polymers were produced using blends of branched, long chain-length PHA polymers with linear PHA polymers.      15. SUBJECT TERMS Bioplastic

  1. Preparation and Properties of New Polyphenylene Sulfide/AlN Composites for Electronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, R. K.; Jadhav, P.; Tiwari, A. N.

    2011-06-01

    The thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of new high-performance polyphenylene sulfide/aluminum nitride (AlN) composites prepared by hot pressing were investigated for use in electronic packaging. The coefficient of thermal expansion was decreased by 41%. The glass-transition temperature and Vickers microhardness were increased by 13°C and 46%, respectively, for the 15.1 vol.% AlN composite. A modified rule of mixtures with β of 0.065 fits the data. The dielectric constant and loss factor of the composites are within the range of requirements for commercial use.

  2. Packaging food for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolprasert, Vanee

    2016-12-01

    Irradiation can play an important role in reducing pathogens that cause food borne illness. Food processors and food safety experts prefer that food be irradiated after packaging to prevent post-irradiation contamination. Food irradiation has been studied for the last century. However, the implementation of irradiation on prepackaged food still faces challenges on how to assess the suitability and safety of these packaging materials used during irradiation. Irradiation is known to induce chemical changes to the food packaging materials resulting in the formation of breakdown products, so called radiolysis products (RP), which may migrate into foods and affect the safety of the irradiated foods. Therefore, the safety of the food packaging material (both polymers and adjuvants) must be determined to ensure safety of irradiated packaged food. Evaluating the safety of food packaging materials presents technical challenges because of the range of possible chemicals generated by ionizing radiation. These challenges and the U.S. regulations on food irradiation are discussed in this article.

  3. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  4. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  5. Advances in enzymology and related areas of molecular biology, Vol. 61

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, A.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: A Unifying Model of the Thermodynamics of Formation of Dehydrogenase-Ligand Complexes; Sorbitol Dehydrogenase; Molecular Size Determination of Enzymes by Radiation Inactivation; Calcineurin; The Behavior and Significance of Slow-Binding Enzyme Inhibitors; ADP-Ribosylation of Guanyl Nucleotide-Binding Regulatory Proteins by Bacterial Toxins; Kinetics of Substrate Reaction During Irreversible Modification of Enzyme Activity; The Dynamics of DNA Polymerace-Catalyzed Reactions; and Author Index.

  6. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 5 of 6: Phase Measurement of Galvanneal

    SciTech Connect

    Cristopher Burnett; Ronald Guel; James R. Philips; L. Lowry; Beverly Tai

    1999-05-31

    Augmentation of the internal software of a commercial X-ray fluorescence gauge is shown to enable the instrument to extend its continuous on-line real-time measurements of a galvanneal coating's total elemental content to encompass similar measurements of the relative thickness of the coating's three principal metallurgical phases. The mathematical structure of this software augmentation is derived from the theory of neural networks. The performance of the augmented gauge is validated by comparing the gauge implied real-time phase distribution with the phase distribution independently measured off-line on between the gauge and laboratory measurements and to suggest preferred approaches to be followed in future application of the augmented gauge.

  7. New Directions in Discourse Processing. Advances in Discourse Processes, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedle, Roy O., Ed.

    Two theoretical orientations-schema theory and cultural norms for the use of language unify this multidisciplinary collection of papers examining discourse. Chapters by Adams and Collins; Warren; Nicholas and Trabasso; Stein and Glenn; and Freedle and Hale highlight the application of schema theory to the study of story recall, reading, and the…

  8. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  9. Think INSIDE the Box: Package Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark; Painter, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Most products people purchase, keep in their homes, and often discard, are typically packaged in some way. Packaging is so prevalent in daily lives that many of take it for granted. That is by design-the expectation of good packaging is that it exists for the sake of the product. The primary purposes of any package (to contain, inform, display,…

  10. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  11. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  12. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  13. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  14. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  15. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  16. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  17. Solidification of Magnesium (AM50A) / vol%. SiCp composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Hu, H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium matrix composite is one of the advanced lightweight materials with high potential to be used in automotive and aircraft industries due to its low density and high specific mechanical properties. The magnesium composites can be fabricated by adding the reinforcements of fibers or/and particles. In the previous literature, extensive studies have been performed on the development of matrix grain structure of aluminum-based metal matrix composites. However, there is limited information available on the development of grain structure during the solidification of particulate-reinforced magnesium. In this work, a 5 vol.% SiCp particulate-reinforced magnesium (AM50A) matrix composite (AM50A/SiCp) was prepared by stir casting. The solidification behavior of the cast AM50A/SiCp composite was investigated by computer-based thermal analysis. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to examine the occurrence of nucleation and grain refinement involved. The results indicate that the addition of SiCp particulates leads to a finer grain structure in the composite compared with the matrix alloy. The refinement of grain structure should be attributed to both the heterogeneous nucleation and the restricted primary crystal growth.

  18. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    PubMed

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems.

  19. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  20. 75 FR 60333 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... materials packages may be considered a bulk packaging. The September 1, 2006 NPRM definition for ``bulk... erroneously stated Large Packagings would contain hazardous materials without an intermediate packaging,...

  1. BOK-Underfill Optimization for FPGA Package/Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Commercial-off-the-shelf area array package technologies in high-reliability versions are being considered for NASA electronic systems. These packages are prone to early failure due to the severe mechanical shock and vibration of launch, as well as other less severe conditions, such as mechanical loading during descent, rough terrain mobility, handling, and ground tests. As the density of these packages increases and the size of ball interconnections decrease, susceptibility to mechanical loading and cycling fatigue grows. This report presents a summary of the body of knowledge developed for the evaluation of area array packages and is based on surveys of literature from industry and academia. For high-reliability applications, the limited data that exists will be presented. Most data from industry deals with mechanical fatigue caused by four-point bend tests, as well as from drop tests for hand-held electronics; the most recent data will be presented, along with a brief background of prior literature. Understanding the key design guidelines and failure mechanisms from past tests is critical to developing an approach that will minimize future failures. Additional specific testing enables low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages.

  2. 49 CFR 173.24a - Additional general requirements for non-bulk packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subchapter. (b) Non-bulk packaging filling limits. (1) A single or composite non-bulk packaging may be filled... gross mass marked on the packaging. (3) A single or composite non-bulk packaging which is tested and... marked on the packaging, or 1.2 if not marked. In addition: (i) A single or composite non-bulk...

  3. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.602 Preparation of packagings and... which they may be used. The material to be transported in the packagings may be replaced by a non... the tests. (c) If the material to be transported is replaced for test purposes by a...

  4. Powerful scriptable ray tracing package xrt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementiev, Konstantin; Chernikov, Roman

    2014-09-01

    We present an open source python based ray tracing tool that offers several useful features in graphical presentation, material properties, advanced calculations of synchrotron sources, implementation of diffractive and refractive elements, complex (also closed) surfaces and multiprocessing. The package has many usage examples which are supplied together with the code and visualized on its web page. We exemplify the present version by modeling (i) a curved crystal analyzer, (ii) a quarter wave plate, (iii) Bragg-Fresnel optics and (iv) multiple reflective and non-sequential optics (polycapillary). The present version implements the use of OpenCL framework that executes calculations on both CPUs and GPUs. Currently, the calculations of an undulator source on a GPU show a gain of about two orders of magnitude in computing time. The development version is successful in modelling the wavefront propagation. Two examples of diffraction on a plane mirror and a plane blazed grating are given for a beam with a finite energy band.

  5. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  6. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W.

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  7. HALT to qualify electronic packages: a proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2014-03-01

    A proof of concept of the Highly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT) technique was explored to assess and optimize electronic packaging designs for long duration deep space missions in a wide temperature range (-150°C to +125°C). HALT is a custom hybrid package suite of testing techniques using environments such as extreme temperatures and dynamic shock step processing from 0g up to 50g of acceleration. HALT testing used in this study implemented repetitive shock on the test vehicle components at various temperatures to precipitate workmanship and/or manufacturing defects to show the weak links of the designs. The purpose is to reduce the product development cycle time for improvements to the packaging design qualification. A test article was built using advanced electronic package designs and surface mount technology processes, which are considered useful for a variety of JPL and NASA projects, i.e. (surface mount packages such as ball grid arrays (BGA), plastic ball grid arrays (PBGA), very thin chip array ball grid array (CVBGA), quad flat-pack (QFP), micro-lead-frame (MLF) packages, several passive components, etc.). These packages were daisy-chained and independently monitored during the HALT test. The HALT technique was then implemented to predict reliability and assess survivability of these advanced packaging techniques for long duration deep space missions in much shorter test durations. Test articles were built using advanced electronic package designs that are considered useful in various NASA projects. All the advanced electronic packages were daisychained independently to monitor the continuity of the individual electronic packages. Continuity of the daisy chain packages was monitored during the HALT testing using a data logging system. We were able to test the boards up to 40g to 50g shock levels at temperatures ranging from +125°C to -150°C. The HALT system can deliver 50g shock levels at room temperature. Several tests were performed by subjecting

  8. Packaging of complete indium-free high reliable and high power diode laser array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingwei; Li, Xiaoning; Feng, Feifei; Liu, Yalong; Hou, Dong; Liu, Xingsheng

    2015-02-01

    High power diode lasers have been widely used in many fields. For many applications, a diode laser needs to be robust under on-off power-cycling as well as environmental thermal cycling conditions. To meet the requirements, the conduction cooled single bar CS-packaged diode laser arrays must have high durability to withstand thermal fatigue and long lifetime. In this paper, a complete indium-free bonding technology is presented for packaging high power diode laser arrays. Numerical simulations on the thermal behavior of CS-packaged diode laser array with different packaging structure were conducted and analyzed. Based on the simulation results, the device structure and packaging process of complete indium-free CS-packaged diode laser array were optimized. A series of high power hard solder CS (HCS) diode laser arrays were fabricated and characterized. Under the harsh working condition of 90s on and 30s off, good lifetime was demonstrated on 825nm 60W single bar CS-packaged diode laser with a lifetime test of more than 6100hours achieved so far with less 5% power degradation and less 1.5nm wavelength shift. Additionally, the measurement results indicated that the lower smile of complete indium-free CS-packaged diode laser arrays were achieved by advanced packaging process.

  9. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  10. Truss Performance and Packaging Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M.; Collins, Timothy J.; Doggett, William; Dorsey, John; Watson, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper a set of performance metrics are derived from first principals to assess the efficiency of competing space truss structural concepts in terms of mass, stiffness, and strength, for designs that are constrained by packaging. The use of these performance metrics provides unique insight into the primary drivers for lowering structural mass and packaging volume as well as enabling quantitative concept performance evaluation and comparison. To demonstrate the use of these performance metrics, data for existing structural concepts are plotted and discussed. Structural performance data is presented for various mechanical deployable concepts, for erectable structures, and for rigidizable structures.

  11. The role of packaging film permselectivity in modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Al-Ati, Tareq; Hotchkiss, Joseph H

    2003-07-02

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is commercially used to increase the shelf life of packaged produce by reducing the produce respiration rate, delaying senescence, and inhibiting the growth of many spoilage organisms, ultimately increasing product shelf life. MAP systems typically optimize O(2) levels to achieve these effects while preventing anaerobic fermentation but fail to optimize CO(2) concentrations. Altering film permselectivity (i.e., beta, which is the ratio of CO(2)/O(2) permeation coefficients) could be utilized to concurrently optimize levels of both CO(2) and O(2) in MAP systems. We investigated the effect of modifying film permselectivity on the equilibrium gas composition of a model MAP produce system packaged in containers incorporating modified poly(ethylene) ionomer films with CO(2)/O(2) permselectivites between 4-5 and 0.8-1.3. To compare empirical to calculated data of the effect of permselectivity on the equilibrium gas composition of the MAP produce system, a mathematical model commonly used to optimize MAP of respiring produce was applied. The calculated gas composition agreed with observed values, using empirical respiration data from fresh cut apples as a test system and permeability data from tested and theoretical films. The results suggest that packaging films with CO(2)/O(2) permselectivities lower than those commercially available (<3) would further optimize O(2) and CO(2) concentration in MAP of respiring produce, particularly highly respiring and minimally processed produce.

  12. Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Tokuda, Takayuki; Tsutinaga, Akinobu; Kimata, Masafumi; Abe, Hideyuki; Tokashiki, Naotaka

    We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps/ceramic-packages and caps/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses the principle of thermal conduction of gases. We use a multi-ceramic package that consists of six packages fabricated on a ceramic sheet, and confirm that the pressure in the processed packages is sufficiently low for high-performance IRFPA.

  13. Package for integrated optic circuit and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, S.H.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.; Carson, R.F.; Armendariz, M.G.

    1998-08-04

    A structure and method are disclosed for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package. 6 figs.

  14. Package for integrated optic circuit and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Warren, Mial E.; Carson, Richard F.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.

    1998-01-01

    A structure and method for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package.

  15. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 1, May 2012 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  16. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 2013 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Sutor, J.; Tucker, E.; Thomas, J.

    2013-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  17. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall 2012 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  18. Advances in high power semiconductor diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhong, Li

    2008-03-01

    High power semiconductor lasers have broad applications in the fields of military and industry. Recent advances in high power semiconductor lasers are reviewed mainly in two aspects: improvements of diode lasers performance and optimization of packaging architectures of diode laser bars. Factors which determine the performance of diode lasers, such as power conversion efficiency, temperature of operation, reliability, wavelength stabilization etc., result from a combination of new semiconductor materials, new diode structures, careful material processing of bars. The latest progress of today's high-power diode lasers at home and abroad is briefly discussed and typical data are presented. The packaging process is of decisive importance for the applicability of high-power diode laser bars, not only technically but also economically. The packaging techniques include the material choosing and the structure optimizing of heat-sinks, the bonding between the array and the heat-sink, the cooling and the fiber coupling, etc. The status of packaging techniques is stressed. There are basically three different diode package architectural options according to the integration grade. Since the package design is dominated by the cooling aspect, different effective cooling techniques are promoted by different package architectures and specific demands. The benefit and utility of each package are strongly dependent upon the fundamental optoelectronic properties of the individual diode laser bars. Factors which influence these properties are outlined and comparisons of packaging approaches for these materials are made. Modularity of package for special application requirements is an important developing tendency for high power diode lasers.

  19. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  20. ULFEM time series analysis package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Klemperer, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    This manual describes how to use the Ultra-Low-Frequency ElectroMagnetic (ULFEM) software package. Casual users can read the quick-start guide and will probably not need any more information than this. For users who may wish to modify the code, we provide further description of the routines.

  1. The Macro - Games Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    Part of an Economic Education Series, the course package is designed to teach basic concepts and fundamental principles of macroeconomics and how they can be applied to various world problems. For use with college students, learning is gained through lectures, discussion, simulation games, programmed learning, and text. Time allotment is a 15-week…

  2. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  3. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  4. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  5. COLDMON -- Cold File Analysis Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlinson, D. J.

    The COLDMON package has been written to allow system managers to identify those items of software that are not used (or used infrequently) on their systems. It consists of a few command procedures and a Fortran program to analyze the results. It makes use of the AUDIT facility and security ACLs in VMS.

  6. Enhanced thermaly managed packaging for III-nitride light emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudsieh, Nicolas

    In this Dissertation our work on `enhanced thermally managed packaging of high power semiconductor light sources for solid state lighting (SSL)' is presented. The motivation of this research and development is to design thermally high stable cost-efficient packaging of single and multi-chip arrays of III-nitrides wide bandgap semiconductor light sources through mathematical modeling and simulations. Major issues linked with this technology are device overheating which causes serious degradation in their illumination intensity and decrease in the lifetime. In the introduction the basics of III-nitrides WBG semiconductor light emitters are presented along with necessary thermal management of high power cingulated and multi-chip LEDs and laser diodes. This work starts at chip level followed by its extension to fully packaged lighting modules and devices. Different III-nitride structures of multi-quantum well InGaN/GaN and AlGaN/GaN based LEDs and LDs were analyzed using advanced modeling and simulation for different packaging designs and high thermal conductivity materials. Study started with basic surface mounted devices using conventional packaging strategies and was concluded with the latest thermal management of chip-on-plate (COP) method. Newly discovered high thermal conductivity materials have also been incorporated for this work. Our study also presents the new approach of 2D heat spreaders using such materials for SSL and micro LED array packaging. Most of the work has been presented in international conferences proceedings and peer review journals. Some of the latest work has also been submitted to well reputed international journals which are currently been reviewed for publication. .

  7. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  8. Automated packaging employing real-time vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Chia-Hung

    2016-07-01

    Existing packaging systems rely on human operation to position a box in the packaging device perform do the packaging task. Current facilities are not capable of handling boxes with different sizes in a flexible way. In order to improve the above-mentioned problems, an eye-to-hand visual servo automated packaging approach is proposed in this paper. The system employs two cameras to observe the box and the gripper mounted on the robotic manipulator to precisely control the manipulator to complete the packaging task. The system first employs two-camera vision to determine the box pose. With appropriate task encoding, a closed-loop visual servoing controller is designed to drive a manipulator to accomplish packaging tasks. The proposed approach can be used to complete automated packaging tasks in the case of uncertain location and size of the box. The system has been successfully validated by experimenting with an industrial robotic manipulator for postal box packaging.

  9. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  10. Participation in the Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-24

    water bath (4°C) up to 2 h before thermal 137 treatments. 138 Combined pressure-thermal treatment 139 Combined pressure-thermal experiments were...come- up time 143 of the PT-1 unit was 0.67±0.08 min. The sample pouch was placed inside a 10-ml 144 polypropylene syringe (model 309604, Becton...conducted at 600 MPa-154 105°C up to 8 min pressure holding times. Additional experiments were conducted to 155 compare the microbial efficacy of single

  11. Reliability of CCGA 1152 and CCGA 1272 Interconnect Packages for Extreme Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages of high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performance, and compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logics and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, flight avionics, and payload electronics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short- and long-term space missions. Certain planetary satellites require operations of thermally uncontrolled hardware under extremely cold and hot temperatures with large diurnal temperature change from day to night. The planetary protection requires the hardware to be baked at +125 C for 72 hours to kill microbugs to avoid any biological contamination, especially for sample return missions. Therefore, the present CCGA package reliability research study has encompassed the temperature range of 185 to +125 C to cover various NASA deep space missions. Advanced 1152 and 1272 CCGA packaging interconnects technology test hardware objects have been subjected to ex treme temperature thermal cycles from 185 to +125 C. X-ray inspections of CCGA packages have been made before thermal cycling. No anomalous behavior and process problems were observed in the x-ray images. The change in resistance of the daisy-chained CCGA interconnects was measured as a function of increasing number of thermal cycles. Electrical continuity measurements of daisy chains have shown no anomalies, even until 596 thermal cycles. Optical inspections of hardware have shown a significant fatigue for CCGA 1152 packages over CCGA 1272 packages. No catastrophic failures have been observed yet in the results. Process qualification and assembly are required to optimize the CCGA assembly processes. Optical inspections of CCGA boards have been made after 258 and 596 thermal

  12. Machine learning: An artificial intelligence approach. Vol. II

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, R.S.; Carbonell, J.G.; Mitchell, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book reflects the expansion of machine learning research through presentation of recent advances in the field. The book provides an account of current research directions. Major topics covered include the following: learning concepts and rules from examples; cognitive aspects of learning; learning by analogy; learning by observation and discovery; and an exploration of general aspects of learning.

  13. A Reader of Classical Urdu Poetry, Vol. Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Muhammad Abd-Al-Rahman; And Others

    This is the third of three volumes intended to be used as pedagogical materials in advanced Urdu courses at Western colleges and universities. An optional set of tape recordings and an optional set of 35mm slides accompany the three-volume work. Volume III first includes an appendix describing the phonemic alphabet (with rough correspondences to…

  14. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 2014 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    Spring 2014 edition of the biannual newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Each issue contains program news, success stories, and information about tools and resources to assist in the deployment of alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, idle reduction, fuel efficiency improvements, and other measures to cut petroleum use in transportation.

  15. Investigations in Mathematics Education, Vol. 14, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Ed.; Kasten, Margaret L., Ed.

    Twelve research reports related to mathematics education are abstracted and analyzed. Three of the reports deal with aspects of learning theory, three with topics in mathematics instruction (fractions, problem solving, and application orientation), two with aspects of computer assisted instruction, and one each with advanced placement,…

  16. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each...

  17. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  18. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  19. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  20. 27 CFR 19.276 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package scales. 19.276... Package scales. Proprietors shall ensure the accuracy of scales used for weighing packages of spirits through tests conducted at intervals of not more than 6 months or whenever scales are adjusted or...

  1. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  2. 27 CFR 6.93 - Combination packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combination packaging. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.93 Combination packaging. The act by an industry member of packaging and distributing distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages in...

  3. 9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 354.72 Section 354.72... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.72 Packaging. No container which bears or may bear any official identification or any...

  4. 7 CFR 58.640 - Packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 58.640 Section 58.640 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.640 Packaging. The packaging of the semifrozen product shall be done by means which will...

  5. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging conditions. 355.20 Section 355.20 Food... HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 355.20 Packaging... accord with § 355.60. (b) Tight container packaging. To minimize moisture contamination, all...

  6. 49 CFR 172.514 - Bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings. 172.514 Section 172.514... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.514 Bulk packagings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, each person who offers for transportation a bulk packaging which contains a hazardous...

  7. 76 FR 30551 - Specifications for Packagings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 178 Specifications for Packagings CFR... on a packaging, a test report must be prepared. The test report must be maintained at each location where the packaging is manufactured and each location where the design qualification tests are...

  8. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  9. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging specifications. 1702.12 Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION...

  10. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaging specifications. 1702.12 Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION...

  11. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging specifications. 1702.12 Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION...

  12. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging specifications. 1702.12 Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION...

  13. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging specifications. 1702.12 Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION...

  14. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supplier under whose brand name and firm name the material is marketed to the official establishment. The... packaging materials must be traceable to the applicable guaranty. (c) The guaranty by the packaging supplier.... Official establishments and packaging suppliers providing written guaranties to those...

  15. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., from the packaging supplier under whose brand name and firm name the material is marketed to the... packaging supplier will be accepted by Program inspectors to establish that the use of material complies.... Official establishments and packaging suppliers providing written guaranties to those...

  16. 7 CFR 993.22 - Consumer package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer package. 993.22 Section 993.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.22 Consumer package. Consumer package means: (a)...

  17. 7 CFR 65.130 - Consumer package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer package. 65.130 Section 65.130 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.130 Consumer package. Consumer package means...

  18. 10 CFR 71.35 - Package evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for... fissile material package, the allowable number of packages that may be transported in the same vehicle in accordance with § 71.59; and (c) For a fissile material shipment, any proposed special controls...

  19. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each...

  20. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  1. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  2. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  3. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  4. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  5. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions...-shore supply vessel; (3) Cargo compartment of a cargo vessel; or (4) Passenger-carrying aircraft used to...) criteria for reclassification as limited quantity material for transportation by highway, rail or...

  6. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... waste, marine pollutant, or is offered for transportation and transported byaircraft or vessel... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions...-shore supply vessel; (3) Cargo compartment of a cargo vessel; or (4) Passenger-carrying aircraft used...

  7. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions...-shore supply vessel; (3) Cargo compartment of a cargo vessel; or (4) Passenger-carrying aircraft used to... hazardous substance, hazardous waste, marine pollutant, or is offered for transportation and transported...

  8. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions...-shore supply vessel; (3) Cargo compartment of a cargo vessel; or (4) Passenger-carrying aircraft used...

  9. EDExpress Packaging Training, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    Packaging is the process of finding the best combination of aid to meet a student's financial need for college, given limited resources and the institutional constraints that vary from school to school. This guide to packaging under the EDExpress software system outlines three steps to packaging. The first is determining the student's need for…

  10. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the...

  11. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the...

  12. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the...

  13. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the...

  14. 7 CFR 993.22 - Consumer package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer package. 993.22 Section 993.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.22 Consumer package. Consumer package means: (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 65.130 - Consumer package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer package. 65.130 Section 65.130 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.130 Consumer package. Consumer package means...

  16. The Feat of Packaging Eight Unique Genome Segments

    PubMed Central

    Giese, Sebastian; Bolte, Hardin; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) harbor a segmented RNA genome that is organized into eight distinct viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. Although a segmented genome may be a major advantage to adapt to new host environments, it comes at the cost of a highly sophisticated genome packaging mechanism. Newly synthesized vRNPs conquer the cellular endosomal recycling machinery to access the viral budding site at the plasma membrane. Genome packaging sequences unique to each RNA genome segment are thought to be key determinants ensuring the assembly and incorporation of eight distinct vRNPs into progeny viral particles. Recent studies using advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques suggest the formation of vRNP sub-bundles (comprising less than eight vRNPs) during their transport on recycling endosomes. The formation of such sub-bundles might be required for efficient packaging of a bundle of eight different genomes segments at the budding site, further highlighting the complexity of IAV genome packaging. PMID:27322310

  17. Chip Scale Package Implementation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    The JPL-led MicrotypeBGA Consortium of enterprises representing government agencies and private companies have jointed together to pool in-kind resources for developing the quality and reliability of chip scale packages (CSPs) for a variety of projects. In the process of building the Consortium CSP test vehicles, many challenges were identified regarding various aspects of technology implementation. This paper will present our experience in the areas of technology implementation challenges, including design and building both standard and microvia boards, and assembly of two types of test vehicles. We also discuss the most current package isothermal aging to 2,000 hours at 100 C and 125 C and thermal cycling test results to 1,700 cycles in the range of -30 to 100 C.

  18. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  19. Microwave thawing package and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.

    2004-03-16

    A package for containing frozen liquids during an electromagnetic thawing process includes: a first section adapted for containing a frozen material and exposing the frozen material to electromagnetic energy; a second section adapted for receiving thawed liquid material and shielding the thawed liquid material from further exposure to electromagnetic energy; and a fluid communication means for allowing fluid flow between the first section and the second section.

  20. Superfund overview: Fact sheet package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The package consists of a series of one-page, concise, public-oriented discussions of the various Superfund issues. They are: The Challenge of Superfund, History of Superfund, The Superfund Cleanup Process, Superfund: Fact vs. Fiction, Progress in Cleanup: FY 1980 - FY 1990, FY '90 Superfund Successes, Who Pays for Superfund, Superfund Enforcement - Making Polluters Pay, Superfund Blueprint, Superfund Contracts, Superfund Technology, and Superfund: Future Strategy and Directions.

  1. Hydraulics Graphics Package. Users Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    Engineering Center, Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, as the origin of the program(s). IT, i HGP -3!OO Ju ’ ŕ Dlst! 3pbo.i:, HYDRAULICS GRAPHICS...Davis, California 95616 (916) 551-1748 (FTS) 460-1748 HGP Hydraulics Graphics Package Users Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Subject Page 1 Introduction...5 2.4 Use of Disk Files ........ ................ 6 3 HGP Free Format User Input 3.1 Command Language Syntax ...... ............. 8 3.2

  2. Generalized waste package containment model

    SciTech Connect

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a performance assessment strategy to demonstrate compliance with standards and technical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. One aspect of this strategy is the development of a unified performance model of the entire geologic repository system. Details of a generalized waste package containment (WPC) model and its relationship with other components of an overall repository model are presented in this paper. The WPC model provides stochastically determined estimates of the distributions of times-to-failure of the barriers of a waste package by various corrosion mechanisms and degradation processes. The model consists of a series of modules which employ various combinations of stochastic (probabilistic) and mechanistic process models, and which are individually designed to reflect the current state of knowledge. The WPC model is designed not only to take account of various site-specific conditions and processes, but also to deal with a wide range of site, repository, and waste package configurations. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-02

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  4. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  5. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, Philip A.

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  6. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. ARPREC: An arbitrary precision computation package

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Yozo, Hida; Li, Xiaoye S.; Thompson, Brandon

    2002-09-01

    This paper describes a new software package for performing arithmetic with an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision. It is based on the earlier MPFUN package, enhanced with special IEEE floating-point numerical techniques and several new functions. This package is written in C++ code for high performance and broad portability and includes both C++ and Fortran-90 translation modules, so that conventional C++ and Fortran-90 programs can utilize the package with only very minor changes. This paper includes a survey of some of the interesting applications of this package and its predecessors.

  8. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  9. Examination of SR101 shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-03-01

    Four SR101 shipping packages were removed from service and provided for disassembly and examination of the internal fiberboard assemblies. These packages were 20 years old, and had experienced varying levels of degradation. Two of the packages were successfully disassembled and fiberboard samples were removed from these packages and tested. Mechanical and thermal property values are generally comparable to or higher than baseline values measured on fiberboard from 9975 packages, which differs primarily in the specified density range. While baseline data for the SR101 material is not available, this comparison with 9975 material suggests that the material properties of the SR101 fiberboard have not significantly degraded.

  10. UWV (Unmanned Water Vehicle) - Umbra Package v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Oppel, SNL 06134

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model the mobility of systems moving in the water. This package currently models first order physics -basically a velocity integrator. This package depends on interface classes (typically base classes) that reside in the Mobility package.

  11. 49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Large Packaging. (d) A Large Packaging consisting of packagings within a framework must be so constructed that the packaging is not damaged by the framework and is retained within the framework at...

  12. 1995 Edward Teller Lecture Patience and Optimism (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.

    2016-10-01

    Remarks made in the author's acceptance lecture for the 1995 Edward Teller Medal are presented and expanded. Topics covered include research on nuclear-pumped lasers, the first direct e-beam-pumped laser, direct energy conversion and advanced fuel fusion, plus recent work on inertial electrostatic confinement. "Patience" and "optimism" are viewed as essential elements needed by scientists following the "zig-zag" path to fusion energy production.

  13. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  14. EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-05050

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-06

    Shipping package 9975-05050 was examined in K-Area following its identification as a high wattage package. Elevated temperature and fiberboard moisture content are key parameters that impact the degradation rate of fiberboard within 9975 packages in a storage environment. The high wattage of this package contributes significantly to component temperatures. After examination in K-Area, the package was provided to SRNL for further examination of the fiberboard assembly. The moisture content of the fiberboard was relatively low (compared to packages examined previously), but the moisture gradient (between fiberboard ID and OD surfaces) was relatively high, as would be expected for the high heat load. The cane fiberboard appeared intact and displayed no apparent change in integrity relative to a new package.

  15. Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1μm resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical

  16. Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenninger, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    Explores whether or not colleges and universities accurately present themselves to potential applicants and whether or not students honestly portray themselves to the schools to which they apply. Examines issues involved in recruiting and applying to college. Concludes that the issues of the college admission process are very complex, and that…

  17. Performance characterization of the MiniVol PM{sub 2.5} sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.S.; Patel, P.D.; Turner, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    Measurements were conducted to assess the MiniVol PM{sub 2.5} sampler performance for various particle preseparator configurations including flat and cup impaction stages. Laboratory measurements were conducted to determine the impactor collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Impactor cut points--the aerodynamic particle diameter exhibiting 50% collection efficiency--were 2.5 mm ({approximately} 10%) for the flat stage and 3.0 mm for the cup stage. Collection efficiency curves for cascade (tandem) impactor configurations (PM{sub 10} followed by PM{sub 2.5}) generally agreed with the single stage results. In all cases the collection efficiency curves exhibited the classical sigmoidal shape, albeit less steep than required for PM{sub 2.5} Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers. Field data were collected at urban sites in St. Louis using MiniVol samplers collocated with a PM{sub 2.5} FRM sampler to quantify the MiniVol sampler precision and accuracy. Collocated sampler precision was 6% and 10% for MiniVol cascade impactors with flat PM{sub 2.5} stages and cup PM{sub 2.5} stages, respectively (N = 31). Both of these MiniVol configurations were deemed statistically equivalent to the FRM when the reported ambient mass concentrations were corrected for field blank values (N = 15).

  18. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  19. MMIC Package for Millimeter Wave Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharj, Sarjit Singh; Yuan, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Princeton Microwave Technology has successfully demonstrated the transfer of technology for the MMIC package. During this contract the package design was licensed from Hughes Aircraft Company for manufacture within the U.S. A major effort was directed towards characterization of the ceramic material for its dielectric constant and loss tangent properties. After selection of a ceramic tape, the high temperature co-fired ceramic package was manufactured in the U.S. by Microcircuit Packaging of America, Inc. Microwave measurements of the MMIC package were conducted by an intercontinental microwave test fixture. The package demonstrated a typical insertion loss of 0.5 dB per transition up to 32 Ghz and a return loss of better than 15 db. The performance of the package has been demonstrated from 2 to 30 Ghz by assembling three different MMIC amplifiers. Two of the MMIC amplifiers were designed for the 26 Ghz to 30 Ghz operation while the third MMIC was a distributed amplifier from 2 to 26.5 Ghz. The measured gain of the amplifier is consistent with the device data. The package costs are substantially lower than comparable packages available commercially. Typically the price difference is greater than a factor of three. The package cost is well under $5.00 for a quantity of 10,000 pieces.

  20. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O'NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

    1999-09-24

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

  1. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  2. Imagecube: an astropy affiliated package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lianou, S.; Barmby, P.; Taylor, J.

    2013-09-01

    Astropy is a community python library for astronomy. Imagecube has been developed as an astropy affiliated package for processing multiwavelength (spectro)-imaging. This module automates tedious steps of image processing and analysis and delivers a science-ready image datacube. The included steps involve converting to common flux units, image registration to a common WCS, and convolution to a common resolution. Individual steps can be performed separately. We test the module using the dwarf galaxy NGC1569 by producing its observed spectral energy distribution on a pixel-by-pixel basis.

  3. PIV Data Validation Software Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A PIV data validation and post-processing software package was developed to provide semi-automated data validation and data reduction capabilities for Particle Image Velocimetry data sets. The software provides three primary capabilities including (1) removal of spurious vector data, (2) filtering, smoothing, and interpolating of PIV data, and (3) calculations of out-of-plane vorticity, ensemble statistics, and turbulence statistics information. The software runs on an IBM PC/AT host computer working either under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 operating systems.

  4. APIRP: The Automated Photometric Data Reduction Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Ian; Ziffer, J.; Walker, M.

    2009-09-01

    For decades the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) has been the standard for processing CCD-based image datasets. During that time, technology has advanced and the astronomical record greatly expanded. However, the discovery process is often bogged down by the time consuming procedures of image reduction. To keep up with demand and shorten reduction steps programmers have developed a series of command languages (CL) for IRAF and most recently, within only the past five years, the Python-based language, Pyraf. Python is a robust and powerful language that combines syntactical simplicity with versatile and dynamic file management, database access and software development capabilities, to name just a few features. Pyraf, by extension, incorporates all of the qualities of IRAF CL, with all of the power and flexibility provided by Python. Pyraf scripts may be written to automate file processing at the same time that reduction tasks are called from IRAF. Thus, the potential to write fully automated reduction procedures is here; tightening the gaps of scientific advancement. We have created such a tool for CCD Photometry. Our Automated Photometric Image Reduction Package (APIRP) uses a range of graphical user interfaces (GUI's) to form an interactive yet non-overbearing user environment. A combination of built-in file management and procedural variability makes APIRP a perfect choice for both amateur and professional astronomers. Due to the programs design, it can be run from anywhere on your computer and users can specify exactly what steps of reduction they wish to execute. Thus, setup is easy with no need for cumbersome documentation and tasks may be preformed piecewise or in blocks, depending on the users needs.

  5. Laser-assisted ultrathin bare die packaging: a route to a new class of microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Val R.; Swenson, Orven; Atanasov, Yuriy; Schneck, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Ultrathin flip-chip semiconductor die packaging on paper substrates is an enabling technology for a variety of extremely low-cost electronic devices with huge market potential such as RFID smart forms, smart labels, smart tickets, banknotes, security documents, etc. Highly flexible and imperceptible dice are possible only at a thickness of less than 50 μm, preferably down to 10-20 μm or less. Several cents per die cost is achievable only if the die size is <= 500 μm/side. Such ultrathin, ultra-small dice provide the flexibility and low cost required, but no conventional technology today can package such die onto a flexible substrate at low cost and high rate. The laser-enabled advanced packaging (LEAP) technology has been developed at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dakota, to accomplish this objective. Presented are results using LEAP to assemble dice with various thicknesses, including 350 μm/side dice as thin as 20 μm and less. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using a laser to package conventional silicon dice with such small size and thickness. LEAP-packaged RFID-enabled paper for financial and security applications is also demonstrated. The cost of packaging using LEAP is lower compared to the conventional pick-and-place methods while the rate of packaging is much higher and independent of the die size.

  6. Public acceptance of nanotechnology foods and food packaging: the influence of affect and trust.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Kastenholz, Hans; Wiek, Arnim

    2007-09-01

    Nanotechnology is increasingly being employed in the areas of food production and packaging. Public perception will be crucial to the realization of these technological advances. We examined how lay people (N=153) perceive nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging, and we examined the factors that influence willingness to buy these products. Participants received some general information about nanotechnology, and specific information about four nanotechnology applications. Overall, participants were hesitant to buy nanotechnology foods or food with nanotechnology packaging. Results suggest, however, that nanotechnology packaging is perceived as being more beneficial than nanotechnology foods. Results further suggest that social trust in the food industry is an important factor directly influencing the affect evoked by these new products. As suggested by the affect heuristic, affect had an impact on perceived benefits and perceived risks. Perceived benefit seems to be the most important predictor for willingness to buy.

  7. VariantAnnotation: a Bioconductor package for exploration and annotation of genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Obenchain, Valerie; Lawrence, Michael; Carey, Vincent; Gogarten, Stephanie; Shannon, Paul; Morgan, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Summary: VariantAnnotation is an R / Bioconductor package for the exploration and annotation of genetic variants. Capabilities exist for reading, writing and filtering variant call format (VCF) files. VariantAnnotation allows ready access to additional R / Bioconductor facilities for advanced statistical analysis, data transformation, visualization and integration with diverse genomic resources. Availability and implementation: This package is implemented in R and available for download at the Bioconductor Web site (http://bioconductor.org/packages/2.13/bioc/html/VariantAnnotation.html). The package contains extensive help pages for individual functions and a ‘vignette’ outlining typical work flows; it is made available under the open source ‘Artistic-2.0’ license. Version 1.9.38 was used in this article. Contact: vobencha@fhcrc.org PMID:24681907

  8. WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN SENSITIVITY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    P. Mecharet

    2001-03-09

    The purpose of this technical report is to present the current designs for waste packages and determine which designs will be evaluated for the Site Recommendation (SR) or Licence Application (LA), to demonstrate how the design will be shown to comply with the applicable design criteria. The evaluations to support SR or LA are based on system description document criteria. The objective is to determine those system description document criteria for which compliance is to be demonstrated for SR; and, having identified the criteria, to refer to the documents that show compliance. In addition, those system description document criteria for which compliance will be addressed for LA are identified, with a distinction made between two steps of the LA process: the LA-Construction Authorization (LA-CA) phase on one hand, and the LA-Receive and Possess (LA-R&P) phase on the other hand. The scope of this work encompasses the Waste Package Project disciplines for criticality, shielding, structural, and thermal analysis.

  9. Stress among package truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Orris, P; Hartman, D E; Strauss, P; Anderson, R J; Collins, J; Knopp, C; Xu, Y; Melius, J

    1997-02-01

    In 1992, a cross-sectional questionnaire study of package truck drivers in one company was conducted at four widely scattered sites throughout the US; 317 drivers participated, representing 82% of those eligible. The package truck drivers scored significantly above the US working population comparison norm on all summary and individual scales derived from the SCL 90-R, indicating a substantial increase in psychologic distress for this group. The Global Severity Index, the best single summary measure of psychological distress in the SCL 90-R, revealed a mean T score for the drivers of 64.20, 91st percentile of the normative population. The group perceived significantly more daily stressful events than the average working adult, and their sensitivity to these events was also increased. Role overload, a component of the Occupational Stress Inventory, was the most consistent factor associated with symptoms of psychological distress on multiple regression analysis. This study suggests that job stress is a psychological health hazard for these drivers.

  10. Apparatus and method for skin packaging articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, B.; Pozsony, E. R.; Collin, E. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system for skin packaging articles including a loading zone for positioning articles to be packaged upon a substrate, a thermoplastic film heating and vacuum operated skin packaging zone for covering the articles with film laminated to the substrate and a slitting zone for separating and trimming the individual skin packaged articles. The articles are passed to the successive zones. The loading zone may be adapted for conveyorized instead of hand loading. In some cases, where only transverse cutting of the film web is necessary, it may be desirable to eliminate the slitting zone and remove the skin packaged article or articles directly from the packaging zone. A conveniently located operating panel contains controls for effecting automatic, semiautomatic or manual operation of the entire system of any portions in any manner desired.

  11. Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Emerson, John A.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Giunta, Rachel K.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

  12. Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Emerson, John A.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Giunta, Rachel K.; Zamora, David Lee; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-04-15

    A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

  13. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.H.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes.

  14. Type A radioactive liquid sample packaging family

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed two packagings that can be used to ship Type A quantities of radioactive liquids. WHC designed these packagings to take advantage of commercially available items where feasible to reduce the overall packaging cost. The Hedgehog packaging can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid with no shielding and 15 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior, or 30 ml of liquid with 3.8 cm of stainless steel shielding and 19 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior. The One Liter Shipper can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid that does not require shielding.

  15. Stationary table CT dosimetry and anomalous scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Anomalous, scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} for stationary phantom/table protocols (having elevated values of CTDI{sub vol} over 300% higher than the actual dose to the phantom) have been observed; which are well-beyond the typical accuracy expected of CTDI{sub vol} as a phantom dose. Recognition of these outliers as “bad data” is important to users of CT dose index tracking systems (e.g., ACR DIR), and a method for recognition and correction is provided. Methods: Rigorous methods and equations are presented which describe the dose distributions for stationary-table CT. A comparison with formulae for scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} clearly identifies the source of these anomalies. Results: For the stationary table, use of the CTDI{sub 100} formula (applicable to a moving phantom only) overestimates the dose due to extra scatter and also includes an overbeaming correction, both of which are nonexistent when the phantom (or patient) is held stationary. The reported DLP remains robust for the stationary phantom. Conclusions: The CTDI-paradigm does not apply in the case of a stationary phantom and simpler nonintegral equations suffice. A method of correction of the currently reported CTDI{sub vol} using the approach-to-equilibrium formula H(a) and an overbeaming correction factor serves to scale the reported CTDI{sub vol} values to more accurate levels for stationary-table CT, as well as serving as an indicator in the detection of “bad data.”.

  16. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Governing the Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of Equipment Used in the Slaughter, Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1016 Advance information concerning...

  17. Light Barrier for Non-Foil Packaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-16

    contain more oxidizable substrate (Hong et al 1995ab). Shredded and sliced cheese products have a larger surface area available for light exposure, and...exposing olive oil and yoghurt packaged in them to light abuse and measuring photodegradation products . 5. To produce the optimum material from No 2...accelerated shelf life testing and taste panel evaluations will compare the food products packaged in No. 5 to identical products packaged in control

  18. The challenges of packaging combination devices.

    PubMed

    Mankel, George

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of a packaging format for drug eluting stents where the package not only has to meet the needs of the stent, but also the needs of the drug incorporated into its polymer coating. The package has to allow the transfer of ethylene oxide gas for sterilisation, but when in storage, must provide a barrier to keep out moisture and oxygen. A pouch and commercial scale manufacturing process were developed to incorporate this dual function into one item.

  19. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  20. Design considerations for automated packaging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

  1. Materials in electronic packaging at APL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Harry K., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The use of modern electronic packaging materials is examined with reference to general classes of materials, such as epoxies, silicones, metals, alloys, and ceramics. Specific examples are presented to illustrate how the proper choice of materials has enhanced circuit performance and long-term reliability. Applications discussed include single-chip and multichip packaging, board and substrate structures, die (substrate) attachment and electrical interconnection, circuit and board passivation, and encapsulation or package sealing.

  2. Microbial control by packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2002-03-01

    Since early man first used a variety of natural containers to store and eat foods, significant developments in food packaging materials have provided the means to suppress microbial growth as well as protect foods from external microbial contamination. Throughout this progression, packaging materials have been developed specifically to prevent the deterioration of foods resulting from exposure to air, moisture, or pH changes associated with the food or the surrounding atmosphere. Both flexible and rigid packaging materials, alone or in combination with other preservation methods, have been developed to offer the necessary barrier, inactivation, and containment properties required for successful food packaging. Examples of flexible packaging used to inactivate microorganisms associated with foods include controlled atmosphere, vacuum, modified atmosphere, active, and edible packaging. Additionally, the combination of rigid packaging materials made from metal, glass, or plastic with heat provides the most effective and widely used method for inactivating microorganisms. As with all food products, it is necessary to integrate a HACCP-based program to assure quality throughout the packaging operation. In addition to packaging improvements, other novel technologies include the development of detectors for oxygen levels, bacterial toxins, and microbial growth, or the integration of time-temperature indicators for detection of improper handling or storage.

  3. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  4. Hermetic packaging for microwave modules. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Microwave assemblies, such as radar modules, require hermetically sealed packaging. Since most of these assemblies are used for airborne applications, the packages must be lightweight. The aluminum alloy A-40 provides the needed characteristics of these applications. This project developed packaging techniques using the A-40 alloy as a housing material and laser welding processes to install connectors, purge tube, and covers on the housings. The completed package successfully passed the hermetic leak requirements and environmental testing. Optimum laser welding parameters were established in addition to all of the related tooling for assembly.

  5. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  6. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  7. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  8. 78 FR 48903 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof... & Spirits Group of Cognac, France (``Camus''). Camus, Sidney Frank, and L'Oreal have since been...

  9. 49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for.... (b) Each package used for the shipment of hazardous materials under this subchapter shall be...

  10. 49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for.... (b) Each package used for the shipment of hazardous materials under this subchapter shall be...

  11. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  12. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  13. Packaging performance evaluation and performance oriented packaging standards for large packages for poison inhalation hazard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, N.R.; Mills, G.S.; McClure, J.D.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) has sponsored a project at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the protection provided by current packagings used for truck and rail transport of materials that have been classified as Poison Inhalation Hazards (PIH) and to recommend performance standards for these PIH packagings. Hazardous materials span a wide range of toxicity and there are many parameters used to characterize toxicity; for any given hazardous material, data are not available for all of the possible toxicity parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to select a toxicity criterion to characterize all of the PIH compounds (a value of the criterion was derived from other parameters in many cases) and to calculate their dispersion in the event of a release resulting from a transportation accident. Methodologies which account for material toxicity and dispersal characteristics were developed as a major portion of this project and applied to 72 PIH materials. This report presents details of the PIH material toxicity comparisons, calculation of their dispersion, and their classification into five severity categories. 16 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Preface to Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 86, No. 24

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, R. E.; Morris, James R

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of understanding the complex dynamics of crystal-melt interfaces and associated structural evolution, investigators in the field of Solidification Science are presented with the substantial problem of discerning the various relaxation processes that occur on multiple length and time scales, elucidating the fundamental physical mechanisms that permit them, quantifying the relevant energetic and kinetic contributors, and, ultimately, developing various analytical and numerical models for prediction and control of these phenomena. In recent years, the field of Solidification Science, a mature research area with its roots firmly established in physical metallurgy, has experienced a renaissance of sorts, marked by a great influx of researchers from physics, chemistry and mathematics. Whilst there has always been a clear connection between Solidification Science and the pure sciences, recent developments in theoretical approaches, experimental techniques and computational capabilities have contributed towards a renewed and widespread interest in the fundamentals of solidification phenomena, and to the emergence of new and promising avenues of investigation. Most notably, the continued development of phase-field methods and the emergence of powerful atomistic modelling strategies have given rise to an increased level of understanding and a new set of questions to be addressed regarding the stability and dynamics of crystal-melt interfaces. As new and more fundamental questions are posed, it becomes increasingly clear that continued advancement in this field will require a higher level of interaction between researchers conducting theoretical and experimental investigations, and that the barriers presented by such distinctions must be overcome. In the spirit of this multidisciplinary multi-approach outlook, a symposium, titled Frontiers in Solidification Science, was held on February 14 and 15, 2005, in San Francisco, California. The motivation for this

  15. A Packaged Self-Powered System with Universal Connectors Based on Hybridized Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bojing; Zheng, Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Hong; Yao, Yan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-03

    A packaged self-powered system by hybridizing nanogenerators (PSNGS) is demonstrated. The performance of the PSNGS is tested in a biofluid and used for powering an electronic thermometer. Select waterproof universal connectors are designed and fabricated for energy and signal transmission. This PSNGS and the connectors can significantly advance the development of self-powered implanted medical devices and wearable/portable electronics.

  16. Genetics of Interstitial Lung Disease: Vol de Nuit (Night Flight)

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Shomi; Shimada, Kota; Tsuchiya, Naoyuki; Tohma, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a chronic, progressive fibrotic lung disease with a dismal prognosis. ILD of unknown etiology is referred to as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), which is sporadic in the majority of cases. ILD is frequently accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and other autoimmune diseases, and is referred to as collagen vascular disease-associated ILD (CVD-ILD). Susceptibility to ILD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent advances in radiographic imaging techniques such as high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning as well as high-throughput genomic analyses have provided insights into the genetics of ILD. These studies have repeatedly revealed an association between IIP (sporadic and familial) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of the mucin 5B (MUC5B). HLA-DRB1*11 alleles have been reported to correlate with ILD in European patients with SSc, whereas in Japanese patients with RA, the HLA-DR2 serological group was identified. The aim of this review is to describe the genetic background of sporadic IIP, CVD-ILD, drug-induced-ILD (DI-ILD), pneumoconiosis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The genetics of ILD is still in progress. However, this information will enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis of ILD and aid the identification of novel therapeutic targets for personalized medicine in future. PMID:26056507

  17. Effectiveness of some recent antimicrobial packaging concepts.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, L; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J

    2002-01-01

    A new type of active packaging is the combination of food-packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods. For both migrating and non-migrating antimicrobial materials, intensive contact between the food product and packaging material is required and therefore potential food applications include especially vacuum or skin-packaged products, e.g. vacuum-packaged meat, fish, poultry or cheese. Several antimicrobial compounds have been combined with different types of carriers (plastic and rubber articles, paper-based materials, textile fibrils and food-packaging materials). Until now, however, few antimicrobial concepts have found applications as a food-packaging material. Antimicrobial packaging materials cannot legally be used in the EU at the moment. The potential use would require amendments of several different legal texts involving areas such as food additives, food packaging, hygiene, etc. The main objective of this paper is to provide a state of the art about the different types of antimicrobial concepts, their experimental development and commercialization, and to present a case study summarizing the results of investigations on the feasibility of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-film containing triclosan to inhibit microbial growth on food surfaces and consequently prolong shelf-life or improve microbial food safety. In contrast with the strong antimicrobial effect in in-vitro simulated vacuum-packaged conditions against the psychrotrophic food pathogen L. monocytogenes, the 1000 mg kg(-1) containing triclosan film did not effectively reduce spoilage bacteria and growth of L. monocytogenes on refrigerated vacuum-packaged chicken breasts stored at 7 degrees C.

  18. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article.

  19. Space Shuttle power extension package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, J. P., Jr.; Craig, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A modification kit for the Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter is proposed to provide more power and mission duration for payloads. The power extension package (PEP), a flexible-substrate solar array deployed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter remote manipulator system, can provide as much as 29 kW total power for durations of 10 to 48 days. The kit is installed only for those flights which require enhanced power or duration. The PEP is made possible by development of the flexible-substrate array technology and, in itself, contributes to the technology base for the use of large area solar cells. Modifications to the Orbiter thermal control and life support systems to improve heat balance and to reduce consumables are proposed. The changes consist of repositioning the Orbiter forward radiators and replacing the lithium hydroxide scrubber with a regenerable solid amine.

  20. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  1. Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP): User`s guide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Willing, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    A microcomputer program called the Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP) has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in determining the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or deratings of one or more nuclear reactors. The calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1993--1996 previously published in NRC Report NUREG/CR--4012, Vol. 3 (1992), for all 112 US reactors. Because the RECAP program is menu-driven, the user can define specific case studies in terms of such parameters as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or derating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through the use of a present-worth calculation option.

  2. Combined effect of active coating and modified atmosphere packaging on prolonging the shelf life of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Conte, Amalia; Faccia, Michele; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Zambrini, Angelo Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the effect of active coating on the shelf life of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese packaged in air and modified atmosphere (MAP) was studied. The active coating was based on sodium alginate (2%, wt/vol) and potassium sorbate (1%, wt/vol). The MAP was made up of 75% CO₂ and 25% N₂ (MAP1), 25% CO₂ and 75% N₂ (MAP2), or 50% CO₂ and 50% N₂ (MAP3). The product quality decay was assessed by monitoring microbiological and sensory changes during storage at 4, 8, and 14°C. Results showed that the combination of active coating and MAP was able to improve the preservation of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese. Specifically, the shelf life increased up to 160 d for samples stored at 4°C, and 40 and 11 d for those at 8 and 14°C, respectively. A faster quality decay for untreated samples packaged in air was observed. In particular, the Pseudomonas spp. growth and the appearance of molds were responsible for product unacceptability. The combination of active coating and MAP represents a strategic solution to prolong the shelf life of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese and to ensure the safety of the product under thermal abuse conditions.

  3. A comparison of InVivoStat with other statistical software packages for analysis of data generated from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robin A; Shoaib, Mohammed; Hewitt, Katherine N; Stanford, S Clare; Bate, Simon T

    2012-08-01

    InVivoStat is a free-to-use statistical software package for analysis of data generated from animal experiments. The package is designed specifically for researchers in the behavioural sciences, where exploiting the experimental design is crucial for reliable statistical analyses. This paper compares the analysis of three experiments conducted using InVivoStat with other widely used statistical packages: SPSS (V19), PRISM (V5), UniStat (V5.6) and Statistica (V9). We show that InVivoStat provides results that are similar to those from the other packages and, in some cases, are more advanced. This investigation provides evidence of further validation of InVivoStat and should strengthen users' confidence in this new software package.

  4. 10. Fifth floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Fifth floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April 1912,p. 356 (?),courtesy of Art Institute of Chicago, permission to duplicate courtesy of 'Architectural Record' - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 9. First floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. First floor plan,published in 'Architectural Record',Vol 31,No. 4, April 1912,p 356,courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago,permission to duplicate courtesy of'Architectural Record' - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht. (A Bibliography of Modern Foreign Language Instruction.) Vol. 4, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informationszentrum fuer Fremdsprachenforschung, Marburg (West Germany).

    This document is part of a West German information dissemination system that is similar to ERIC. This annotated bibliography, published quarterly by the IFS, lists items compiled in conjunction with the ERIC/CLL as well as with a number of institutions in other countries. Most of the 251 items listed in Vol. 4, No. 3 appeared in 1973 and deal…

  7. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. I, Jervis Library. ELEVATION OF SING SING KILL BRIDGE, SHOWING ORIGINAL PLAN FOR AN 80-FOOT ARCH. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  8. VolSurf: a new tool for the pharmacokinetic optimization of lead compounds.

    PubMed

    Cruciani, G; Pastor, M; Guba, W

    2000-10-01

    A method for the modeling and prediction of pharmacokinetic properties based on computed molecular interaction fields and multivariate statistics has been investigated in different experimental datasets. The program VolSurf was used to correlate 3D molecular structures with physico-chemical and pharmacokinetic properties. In membrane partitioning, VolSurf produced a two-component model explaining 94% of the total variation with a predictive q(2) of 0.90. This result was achieved without conformational sampling and without any quantum-chemical calculation. For the prediction of blood-brain barrier penetration the VolSurf model was able to predict the BBB profile for most of the drugs in the external prediction set. In Caco-2 and MDCK permeation experiments, VolSurf was used with success to establish statistical models and to predict the behaviour of new compounds. The method thus appears as a valuable new property filter in virtual screening and as a novel tool in optimizing the pharmacokinetic profile of pharmaceutically relevant compounds.

  9. Frontiers in Relativistic Celestial Mechanics, Vol. 2, Applications and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    2014-08-01

    Relativistic celestial mechanics - investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity - is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics - starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area. This second volume of a two-volume series covers applications of the theory as well as experimental verifications. From tools to determine light travel times in curved space-time to laser ranging between earth and moon and between satellites, and impacts on the definition of time scales and clock comparison techniques, a variety of effects is discussed. On the occasion of his 80-th birthday, these two volumes honor V. A. Brumberg - one of the pioneers in modern relativistic celestial mechanics. Contributions include: J. Simon, A. Fienga: Victor Brumberg and the French school of analytical celestial mechanics T. Fukushima: Elliptic functions and elliptic integrals for celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy P. Teyssandier: New tools for determining the light travel time in static, spherically symmetric spacetimes beyond the order G2 J. Müller, L. Biskupek, F. Hofmann and E. Mai: Lunar laser ranging and relativity N. Wex: Testing relativistic celestial mechanics with radio pulsars I. Ciufolini et al.: Dragging of inertial frames, fundamental physics, and satellite laser ranging G. Petit, P. Wolf, P. Delva: Atomic time, clocks, and clock comparisons in relativistic spacetime: a review

  10. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be... transportation, there will be no release of oil to the environment....

  11. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be... transportation, there will be no release of oil to the environment....

  12. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be... transportation, there will be no release of oil to the environment....

  13. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be... transportation, there will be no release of oil to the environment....

  14. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be... transportation, there will be no release of oil to the environment....

  15. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  16. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  17. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  18. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  19. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  20. Introduction to Software Packages. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Sheila, Ed.; And Others

    This document provides an introduction to applications computer software packages that support functional managers in government and encourages the use of such packages as an alternative to in-house development. A review of current application areas includes budget/project management, financial management/accounting, payroll, personnel,…

  1. System for inspection of package seal integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Terry G.

    1995-10-01

    There is an increasing acceptance of reduced waste packaging methods for pharmaceutical and medical products. The high level of product integrity must be maintained, while manufacturing lines are required to increase production rates. To ensure their confidence in these packaging methods, manufacturers have turned to process validation as one method of check. In addition to that effort, automated on-line inspection has become increasingly important. Automated inspection can be used to augment manual inspection techniques that are viable at slower production rates. In this paper we explore the elements of a systematic approach that can provide 100% automatic inspection of product seals at full production rates. The various materials used to seal packages effect the system configuration. One such package sealing material is highly specular (mirror-like) laminated foil. A characteristic of this packaging method is its ability to reflect nearly all of the light from the surface. However, the heat process required to bond the seal to the package creates a coining effect where a uniform, low to medium intensity light source, transmitted at a low incident angle, can be used to identify seal defects. It is equally difficult to inspect package seals that are opaque, translucent, or transparent. Each seal material requires a specific lighting solution. When using reflective material, great care must be taken to develop and integrate the lighting method to an automated package seal inspection system.

  2. 39 CFR 3055.23 - Package Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Package Services. 3055.23 Section 3055.23 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.23 Package Services. For each product...

  3. Shock & Anaphylactic Shock. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  4. 7 CFR 29.30 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 29.30 Section 29.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.30 Package. A hogshead, tierce, case, bale, or other...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6030 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package. 29.6030 Section 29.6030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6030 Package. A hogshead, tierce, case, bale, or other...

  6. Packaging Materials Outgassing Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. A.

    2006-09-26

    An outgassing study was conducted on two polyurethane packaging foams, two polymer bottles (polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene), and two polymer lids. The purpose was to measure the volume of gases that diffuse from these packaging materials at a maximum of 400-degrees F when stored in ambient air within sealed containers.

  7. Browndye: A Software Package for Brownian Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A new software package, Browndye, is presented for simulating the diffusional encounter of two large biological molecules. It can be used to estimate second-order rate constants and encounter probabilities, and to explore reaction trajectories. Browndye builds upon previous knowledge and algorithms from software packages such as UHBD, SDA, and Macrodox, while implementing algorithms that scale to larger systems. PMID:21132109

  8. General-Purpose Ada Software Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Collection of subprograms brings to Ada many features from other programming languages. All generic packages designed to be easily instantiated for types declared in user's facility. Most packages have widespread applicability, although some oriented for avionics applications. All designed to facilitate writing new software in Ada. Written on IBM/AT personal computer running under PC DOS, v.3.1.

  9. Gary M. Klingler Algebra Teacher Assistance Packages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingler, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Several packages designed by Elizabeth Marquez for mathematics teachers of grades 6-12, officially entitled the Teacher Assistance Package in Support of Better Algebra Assessment, is a series of resources developed to accompany ET's End-of-Course Algebra Assessment. It is designed to enhance teachers classroom assessment by providing examples of…

  10. 19 CFR 134.53 - Examination packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination packages. 134.53 Section 134.53 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.53 Examination packages....

  11. 19 CFR 134.53 - Examination packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Examination packages. 134.53 Section 134.53 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.53 Examination packages....

  12. 7 CFR 60.104 - Consumer package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer package. 60.104 Section 60.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.104 Consumer package. Consumer...

  13. Performing Remarkable Feats with Presentation Graphics Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1994-01-01

    Describes easy-to-use, easy-to-learn dedicated graphics packages for developing slide presentations shown directly from computers. A general description of the features of five packages and suggestions for software selection are provided. A sidebar provides graphics tips, such as the use of color, typefaces, and formatting, for developing…

  14. Statistical Software Packages for the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Sevilla, Comp.

    The nine microcomputer statistical software packages that are described comprise the statistical software collection at the Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL). The packages are compatible with AEL's Apple II microcomputer, though many are also available with other microcomputers. References to software reviews are included for some programs.…

  15. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  16. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  17. A Thermodynamics Course Package in Onenote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.; Medlin, J. Will; deGrazia, Janet; McDanel, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    A ready-to-use package of active-learning materials for a semester-long chemical engineering thermodynamics course was prepared for instructors, and similar materials are being prepared for a material and energy balance course. The course package includes ConcepTests, explanations of the ConcepTests for instructors, links to screencasts, chapter…

  18. 7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Organisms § 322.17 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a restricted organism through the mail or through... authorized the shipment. (b) You must address the package containing the restricted organism to the... restricted organism arrives in the mail without the mailing label described in paragraph (a) of this...

  19. 7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Organisms § 322.17 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a restricted organism through the mail or through... authorized the shipment. (b) You must address the package containing the restricted organism to the... restricted organism arrives in the mail without the mailing label described in paragraph (a) of this...

  20. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  1. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  2. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  3. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  4. Plastic-Sealed Hybrid Power Circuit Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed design for hybrid high-voltage power-circuit package uses molded plastic for hermetic sealing instead of glass-to-metal seal. New package used to house high-voltage regulators and solid-state switches for applications in aircraft, electric automobiles, industrial equipment, satellites, solarcell arrays, and other equipment in extreme environments.

  5. PyTrilinos Rapid Prototyping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.

    2005-03-01

    PyTrilinos provides access to selected Trilinos packages from the python scripting language. This allows interactive and dynamic creation of Trilinos objects, rapid prototyping that does not require compilation, and "gluing" Trilinos scripts to other python modules, such as plotting, etc. The currently supported packages are Epetra, EpetraExt, and NOX.

  6. Packaging Your Educational Program. Draft Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenau, Fred S.; McIntyre, Diane H.

    This handbook for educators focuses on the packaging of validated educational products or processes as one part of the total diffusion process. Included are the planning, preparation, production, and putting together of all the parts of an effective program so that it will then be transportable to other sites: the package itself focuses…

  7. Teaching Old Packaging New Tricks - 12593

    SciTech Connect

    England, Jeffery L.; Shuler, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Waste disposition campaigns have been an industry and government focus area since the mid- 1970's. With increased focus on this issue, and a lot of hard work, most waste packaging and transportation issues have been addressed. The material has been successfully shipped and dis-positioned. DOE has successfully de-inventoried materials from multiple sites to meet material consolidation, footprint reduction, nonproliferation, and regulatory obligations with cost savings from reduced maintenance and regulatory compliance. There has been a wide range of certified shipping packagings for the transportation of hazardous materials to meet most of the waste needs. The remaining materials are problematic, generally low volume, and do not meet the certified content of the existing inventory of packaging. Designing, testing and certifying new packaging designs can be a long and expensive process and for small volumes of material it is cost prohibitive. One very cost effective option is to lease and use a certified packaging to overpack waste containers. There are many robust certified packagings available with the capability to envelope the waste content. The capability to use inner containers, inside the current fleet of certified casks or packaging, to address specific content problems of additional shielding (e.g., U-233) or containment (e.g., sodium bonded nuclear material) has successfully expanded the capability for timely cost effective shipment of unique contents. This option has been used successfully in the NAC-LWT, T-3 and other packagings. (authors)

  8. Ceramic packaging for MEMS-based microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, Jonathan Sloane

    2003-02-01

    Ceramic packaging is crucial to the development of MEMS-based microsystems. It is an enabling technology, giving the ability to build complex packages that combine MEMS, electronics, optics, and sensors in a compact volume. In addition, ceramic hermetic packaging has a long history of providing protection to the enclosed devices, even under harsh conditions. These capabilities are being used at Sandia to package complex, MEMS-based microsystems. Looking ahead, ceramic packaging is developing new capabilities important to microsystems, such as the addition of fluidic channels. These developments will make ceramic packaging a viable option for a wide variety of compact, highly integrated microsystems. However, MEMS, particularly surface micromachines, have new reliability concerns that ceramic packaging needs to address. One example is stiction, where small amounts of water can generate surface forces large enough to cause parts to stick together. This demonstrates the need to measure and control the internal environment with greater precision than has been required in the past. Despite these challenges, it is clear that ceramic packaging will be a key technology for complex microsystems in the future.

  9. Survivability of MEMS Packages at High-G Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    2014-10-01

    Advances in emerging technology of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are one of the most challenging tasks in today's experimental mechanics. More specifically, development of these miniature devices requires sophisticated design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and characterization tools that have multiphysics and multiscale capabilities, especially as MEMS are being developed for use at harsh conditions. In harsh-environment and high-performance (e.g., military) guidance applications inertial sensors must be sensitive to low rates of rotation yet survive the high blast loads associated with the initial launch. In this multi-year study, a set of tuning fork gyroscopes were subjected to a series of increasing g-loads (culminating at approximately 60,000 g's) with measurements of shape made after each test. A custom set of test sample packages (aka articles) were hermetically sealed with glass lids to allow optical inspection of components while preserving the operating environment (i.e., vacuum). Initial test measurements were made upon fabrication of the articles. Optical and interferometric measurements have been made prior to and after each shock g-loading. The shape of the tuning fork gyroscope (TFG) test articles was measured using a phase shifting Michelson interferometer with compensation for package cover glass. Full field shape was determined and traces of pertinent structures were extracted for comparison. Failure of the die was observed in the form of fractures below the chip surface as well as fractures in the glass lid sealing the package. Potential causes of the failure are discussed as well as a recommendation for modified packaging techniques to mitigate future component failures.

  10. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  11. Massively Parallel Post-Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    MEMS, Microelectromechanical Systems, Vacuum Packaging , Localized Heating, Localized Bonding, Packaging, Trimming, Resonator, Encapsulation...II: Selective Encapsulation for MEMS Post-Packaging ................................ 19 4.2.1 Vacuum Packaging Technology Using Localized Aluminum...32 4.2.5 Vacuum Packaging Using Localized CVD Deposition

  12. 7 CFR 58.151 - Packaging and repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Identification § 58.151 Packaging and repackaging. (a) Packaging dairy products or cutting and repackaging all... packaging rooms, the equipment and packaging materials shall be practically free from mold and bacterial... other official identification, a supervisor of packaging shall be required, see subpart A of this...

  13. 49 CFR 178.910 - Marking of Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of Large Packagings. 178.910 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.910 Marking of Large Packagings. (a) The manufacturer must: (1) Mark every Large Packaging in a durable and clearly visible manner. The marking may be applied in...

  14. 49 CFR 173.61 - Mixed packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mixed packaging requirements. 173.61 Section 173... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.61 Mixed packaging requirements. (a) An explosive may not be packed in the same outside packaging with any...

  15. 49 CFR 173.415 - Authorized Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evaluation or comparative data showing that the construction methods, packaging design, and materials of... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.415 Authorized Type A packages... packaging. Each offeror of a Specification 7A package must maintain on file for at least one year after...

  16. 49 CFR 178.502 - Identification codes for packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification codes for packagings. 178.502... FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.502 Identification codes for packagings. (a) Identification codes for designating kinds of packagings consist of the following: (1)...

  17. 49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Large Packaging identification codes. 178.905... FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.905 Large Packaging identification codes. Large packaging code designations consist of: two numerals specified in paragraph (a) of this section; followed...

  18. 10 CFR 71.19 - Previously approved package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General... fissile material package, previously approved by the NRC but without the designation “-85” in the.... (c) A Type B(U) package, a Type B(M) package, or a fissile material package previously approved...

  19. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.465 Type A packaging tests. (a) The packaging... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type A packaging tests. 173.465 Section 173.465...) For packages containing fissile material, the free drop test specified in paragraph (c)(1) of...

  20. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.465 Type A packaging tests. (a) The packaging... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type A packaging tests. 173.465 Section 173.465...) For packages containing fissile material, the free drop test specified in paragraph (c)(1) of...

  1. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.465 Type A packaging tests. (a) The packaging... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type A packaging tests. 173.465 Section 173.465...) For packages containing fissile material, the free drop test specified in paragraph (c)(1) of...

  2. 49 CFR 178.920 - Standards for metal Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for metal Large Packagings. 178.920... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.920 Standards for metal Large Packagings. (a) The provisions in this section apply to metal Large Packagings intended to contain liquids and solids. Metal...

  3. 49 CFR 178.920 - Standards for metal Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for metal Large Packagings. 178.920... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.920 Standards for metal Large Packagings. (a) The provisions in this section apply to metal Large Packagings intended to contain liquids and solids. Metal...

  4. 49 CFR 178.920 - Standards for metal Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for metal Large Packagings. 178.920... FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.920 Standards for metal Large Packagings. (a) The provisions in this section apply to metal Large Packagings intended to contain liquids and solids....

  5. 49 CFR 178.920 - Standards for metal Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for metal Large Packagings. 178.920... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.920 Standards for metal Large Packagings. (a) The provisions in this section apply to metal Large Packagings intended to contain liquids and solids. Metal...

  6. 49 CFR 178.920 - Standards for metal Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for metal Large Packagings. 178.920... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.920 Standards for metal Large Packagings. (a) The provisions in this section apply to metal Large Packagings intended to contain liquids and solids. Metal...

  7. AGC-2 Graphite Pre-irradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  8. European packaging laws: Can it happen here?

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.

    1996-06-01

    European packaging recycling and reduction efforts helped reshape recycling efforts and thinking. This article provides an update on what is happening with packaging recycling in Europe and how it affects the rest of the world, especially the US. World recycling markets were shaken by the enactment of the German Packaging Recycling ordinance of 1991. While the initial market shock waves may have subsided, the effects are still being felt. The ordinance has changed the way European countries think about packaging waste, and that way of thinking has spread, in various forms, around the world, affecting US manufacturers and causing US lawmakers to at least consider similar legislation here. The German Packaging Ordinance, its counterparts in other countries, and the European Union (EU) Directive have, themselves, been evolutionary as well as revolutionary--reacting and changing over the past five years. US reaction to the European laws has also evolved, moving from horror and annoyance to a reasoned analysis and evaluation.

  9. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  10. Where is MAP Going? A review and future potential of modified atmosphere packaging for meat.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2008-09-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is the removal and/or replacement of the atmosphere surrounding the product before sealing in vapor-barrier materials. While technically different, many forms of MAP are also case-ready packaging, where meat is cut and packaged at a centralized location for transport to and display at a retail store. Most of the shelf life properties of meat are extended by use of MAP, but anoxic forms of MAP without carbon monoxide (CO) do not provide bloomed red meat color and MAP with oxygen (O(2)) may promote oxidation of lipids and pigments. Advances in plastic materials and equipment have propelled advances in MAP, but other technological and logistical considerations are needed for successful MAP systems for raw chilled fresh meat. Current MAP options of air-permeable overwrapped trays in master packs, low O(2) formats of shrunk film vacuum packaging (VP) or MAP with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrogen (N(2)) and their peelable barrier film derivatives, and high O(2) MAP each have advantages and disadvantages. Packaging technology innovations and ingenuity will continue to provide MAP that is consumer oriented, product enhancing, environmentally responsive, and cost effective, but continued research and development by the scientific and industry sectors will be needed.

  11. Interconnect mechanisms in microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roma, Maria Penafrancia C.

    alloy showed differences in adhesion strength and IMC formation. Bond strength by wire pull testing showed the 95Ag alloy with higher values while shear bond testing showed the 88Ag higher bond strength. Use of Cu pillars in flip chips and eutectic bonding in wafer level chip scale packages are direct consequences of diminishing interconnect dimension as a result of the drive for miniaturization. The combination of Cu-Sn interdiffusion, Kirkendall mechanism and heterogeneous vacancy precipitation are the main causes of IMC and void formation in Cu pillar - Sn solder - Cu lead frame sandwich structure. However, adding a Ni barrier agent showed less porous IMC layer as well as void formation as a result of the modified Cu and Sn movement well as the void formation. Direct die to die bonding using Al-Ge eutectic bonds is necessary when 3D integration is needed to reduce the footprint of a package. Hermeticity and adhesion strength are a function of the Al/Ge thickness ratio, bonding pressure, temperature and time. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) allowed imaging of interfacial microstructures, porosity, grain morphology while Scanning Transmission Electron microscope (STEM) provided diffusion profile and confirmed interdiffusion. Ion polishing technique provided information on porosity and when imaged using backscattered mode, grain structure confirmed mechanical deformation of the bonds. Measurements of the interfacial bond strength are made by wire pull tests and ball shear tests based on existing industry standard tests. However, for the Al-Ge eutectic bonds, no standard strength is available so a test is developed using the stud pull test method using the Dage 4000 Plus to yield consistent results. Adhesion strengths of 30-40 MPa are found for eutectic bonded packages however, as low as 20MPa was measured in low temperature bonded areas.

  12. Drug packaging in 2014: authorities should direct more efforts towards medication safety.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    In 2014, Prescrire examined the packaging quality of about 250 drugs. A few advances stand out, mainly involving recent drugs, but on the whole, the situation is worrisome in terms of medication safety. Although pharmaceutical companies and drug regulatory agencies seem to be taking more account of the risk of accidental poisoning in children, the level of protection remains low overall in the absence of stringent measures on the part of the authorities. New drugs too often have poor-quality or even dangerous packaging at the time of their market introduction. And the packaging quality of older drugs is disturbing. Pharmaceutical companies no longer invest in the packaging of these products, and agencies often fail to take advantage of the opportunities provided by their reassessment to improve the situation. The inappropriate labelling of certain injectable drugs remains a source of medication errors, sometimes resulting in very serious consequences. In 2014, signs of progress in the packaging of several drugs show that its role in medication safety is better appreciated. But the persistence of dangers in the pharmaceuticals market, created by "unfinished", overly complex or poor-quality packaging, raises the question of the responsibility of pharmaceutical companies and agencies for past and present accidents.

  13. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature.

  14. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  15. Working with Design: A Package for Sheet Metal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiebich, Paul D.

    1974-01-01

    The author describes a design approach used to study sheet metal layout in junior high and high school mechanical drafting courses. Students observe packaging in stores, study package construction, and design and produce their own packages. (EA)

  16. Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight. Packages include beef and gravy, peaches, strawberry cereal cubes and beef sandwiches. Water gun is used to reconstitute dehydrated food. Scissors are used to open the packages.

  17. SNAP: Spreadsheet Nebular Analysis Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komljenovic, M.; Krawchuk, C.; McCall, M.; Kingsburgh, R.; Richer, Michael; Stevenson, C.

    1996-12-01

    A flexible and extensible software package for two dimensional nebular analyses has been implemented using Visual Basic within Microsoft Excel (version 5). From a calibrated list of fluxes and errors for each spectral row (or object), the program first identifies the lines by their source ions by referring to wavelengths generated from atomic data. The atomic data used in all the calculations is easily updated or augmented by the user. Colour excesses can be computed from a reddening law and ratio of total to selective extinction of a user's choice. For each spectral row, line fluxes can be corrected for stellar absorption and reddening and reported in a format suitable for publication. Temperatures, densities, emission coefficients, and ionic abundances are computed using an adaptation of the FIVEL five-level atom routine. The user has complete control over which spectral lines are used in an analysis -- there are no pre-ordained methods. Abundance analyses can be performed using physical conditions either measured or specified for each spectrum. Since the software is embedded in Microsoft Excel, graphical representations of the data are easily created, and extended analyses using the full functionality of the spreadsheet are easily implemented.

  18. Air-depolyable geophysics package

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    We are using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) diverse expertise to develop a geophysical monitoring system that can survive being dropped into place by a helicopter or airplane. Such an air-deployable system could significantly decrease the time and effort needed to set up such instruments in remote locations following a major earthquake or volcanic eruption. Most currently available geophysical monitoring and survey systems, such as seismic monitoring stations, use sensitive, fragile instrumentation that requires personnel trained and experienced in data acquisition and field setup. Rapid deployment of such equipment can be difficult or impossible. Recent developments in low-power electronics, new materials, and sensors that are resistant to severe impacts have made it possible to develop low-cost geophysical monitoring packages for rapid deployment missions. Our strategy was to focus on low-cost battery-powered systems that would have a relatively long (several months) operational lifetime. We concentrated on the conceptual design and engineering of a single-component seismic system that could survive an air-deployment into an earth material, such as alluvium. Actual implementation of such a system is a goal of future work on this concept. For this project, we drew on LLNL`s Earth Sciences Department, Radio Shop, Plastics Shop, and Weapons Program. The military has had several programs to develop air-deployed and cannon-deployed seismometers. Recently, a sonobuoy manufacturer has offered an air-deployable geophone designed to make relatively soft landings.

  19. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-07-20

    The Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) has been designed to record and monitor the acoustic signal in natural gas transmission lines. In particular the three acoustic signals associated with a line leak. The system is portable ({approx}30 lbs) and is designed for line pressures up to 1000 psi. It has become apparent that cataloging of the various background acoustic signals in natural gas transmission line is very important if a system to identify leak signals is to be developed. The low-pressure (0-200 psig) laboratory test phase has been completed and a number of field trials have been conducted. Before the cataloging phase could begin, a few problems identified in field trials identified had to be corrected such as: (1) Decreased microphone sensitivity at line pressures above 250 psig. (2) The inability to deal with large data sets collected when cataloging the variety of signals in a transmission line. (3) The lack of an available online acoustic calibration system. These problems have been solved and the WVU PAMP is now fully functional over the entire pressure range found in the Natural Gas transmission lines in this region. Field portability and reliability have been greatly improved. Data collection and storage have also improved to the point were the full acoustic spectrum of acoustic signals can be accurately cataloged, recorded and described.

  20. ISAP: ISO Spectral Analysis Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Babar; Bauer, Otto; Brauher, Jim; Buckley, Mark; Harwood, Andrew; Hur, Min; Khan, Iffat; Li, Jing; Lord, Steve; Lutz, Dieter; Mazzarella, Joe; Molinari, Sergio; Morris, Pat; Narron, Bob; Seidenschwang, Karla; Sidher, Sunil; Sturm, Eckhard; Swinyard, Bruce; Unger, Sarah; Verstraete, Laurent; Vivares, Florence; Wieprecht, Ecki

    2014-03-01

    ISAP, written in IDL, simplifies the process of visualizing, subsetting, shifting, rebinning, masking, combining scans with weighted means or medians, filtering, and smoothing Auto Analysis Results (AARs) from post-pipeline processing of the Infrared Space Observatory's (ISO) Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) data. It can also be applied to PHOT-S and CAM-CVF data, and data from practically any spectrometer. The result of a typical ISAP session is expected to be a "simple spectrum" (single-valued spectrum which may be resampled to a uniform wavelength separation if desired) that can be further analyzed and measured either with other ISAP functions, native IDL functions, or exported to other analysis package (e.g., IRAF, MIDAS) if desired. ISAP provides many tools for further analysis, line-fitting, and continuum measurements, such as routines for unit conversions, conversions from wavelength space to frequency space, line and continuum fitting, flux measurement, synthetic photometry and models such as a zodiacal light model to predict and subtract the dominant foreground at some wavelengths.