Science.gov

Sample records for advanced packet vault

  1. Advances in integrated photonic circuits for packet-switched interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kevin A.; Stabile, Ripalta

    2014-03-01

    Sustained increases in capacity and connectivity are needed to overcome congestion in a range of broadband communication network nodes. Packet routing and switching in the electronic domain are leading to unsustainable energy- and bandwidth-densities, motivating research into hybrid solutions: optical switching engines are introduced for massive-bandwidth data transport while the electronic domain is clocked at more modest GHz rates to manage routing. Commercially-deployed optical switching engines using MEMS technologies are unwieldy and too slow to reconfigure for future packet-based networking. Optoelectronic packet-compliant switch technologies have been demonstrated as laboratory prototypes, but they have so far mostly used discretely pigtailed components, which are impractical for control plane development and product assembly. Integrated photonics has long held the promise of reduced hardware complexity and may be the critical step towards packet-compliant optical switching engines. Recently a number of laboratories world-wide have prototyped optical switching circuits using monolithic integration technology with up to several hundreds of integrated optical components per chip. Our own work has focused on multi-input to multi-output switching matrices. Recently we have demonstrated 8×8×8λ space and wavelength selective switches using gated cyclic routers and 16×16 broadband switching chips using monolithic multi-stage networks. We now operate these advanced circuits with custom control planes implemented with FPGAs to explore real time packet routing in multi-wavelength, multi-port test-beds. We review our contributions in the context of state of the art photonic integrated circuit technology and packet optical switching hardware demonstrations.

  2. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  3. Advanced driver assistance system for AHS over communication links with random packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Seshadhri; Ayyagari, Ramakalyan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced driver assist system (ADAS) for platoon based automated highway system (AHS) with packet loss in inter-vehicle communication. Using the concept of rigidity, we first show that vehicles in a platoon tend to fall apart in the event of a packet loss among vehicles. To overcome this, we propose an estimation based dynamic platooning algorithm which employs the state estimate to maintain the platoon. Communication among the vehicle is reduced by using minimum spanning tree (MST) in state estimation algorithm. Effectiveness of the proposed ADAS scheme is illustrated by simulation wherein, dynamic platoons of holonomic vehicles with integrator dynamics are considered. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm maintains the platoon up to a packet loss rate of 48%. State transmission scheme proposed in our algorithm has three significant advantages, they are: (1) it handles packet loss in inter-vehicle communication, (2) reduces the effect of error in measured output, and (3) reduces the inter-vehicle communication. These advantages significantly increase the reliability and safety of the AHS.

  4. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  5. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 3 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 3 showing inside surface of outer door - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. 7, looking up flue - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. 7, view west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. 1-9 - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 5, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 5, showing inner set of doors on vault - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Inside the Vault, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffitts, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    This "Inside the Vault" newsletter contains two issues. Issue 1 contains a lead article, "Reading the Fed's Playbook," a question-and-answer section, and a bulletin board. The Federal Reserve's primary mission is to ensure that enough money and credit are available to sustain economic growth without inflation. The article explains the Federal…

  11. GUIDANCE PACKET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    THIS PACKET PROVIDES VOCATIONAL AND ACADEMIC ADVICE TO THE LANGUAGE LEARNER AND USEFUL INFORMATION ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING TO TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS. THE DOCUMENTS, PUBLISHED FROM 1963 TO 1967, ARE--(1) "VOCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDENTS" BY GILBERT C. KETTELKAMP, (2) "ADVICE TO THE LANGUAGE LEARNER" BY…

  12. Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Documents included in the packet are Federal Communications Commission (FCC) releases dealing with cable television and similar notices from other organizations. Among these are an interpretation of the FCC local origination decision of Dec. 9, 1974, explaining the repeal of the requirement that small cable systems originate programing while…

  13. Radiological dose assessment for vault storage concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, R.F.

    1997-02-25

    This radiological dose assessment presents neutron and photon dose rates in support of project W-460. Dose rates are provided for a single 3013 container, the ``infloor`` storage vault concept, and the ``cubicle`` storage vault concept.

  14. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.70 Vault. A vault means an enclosure of space beneath the surface of the public space or sidewalk setback, except that the term vault shall not include public utility structures....

  15. Movement Regulation of Handsprings on Vault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Thomas; Vinken, Pia M.; Jeraj, Damian; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Visual information is utilized in gymnastics vaulting. The question remains as to which informational sources are used to regulate handspring performance. The purpose of this study was to examine springboard and vaulting table position as informational sources in gymnastics vaulting. The hypothesis tested was that the approach-run and…

  16. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-03-14

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal.

  17. Extensible packet processing architecture

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  18. Structural Dynamics of the Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casañas, Arnau; Querol, Jordi; Fita, Ignasi; Verdaguer, Núria

    Vaults are ubiquitous, highly conserved, 13 MDa ribonucleoprotein particles, involved in a diversity of cellular processes, including multidrug resistance, transport mechanisms and signal transmission. There are between 104 and 106 vault particles per mammalian cell and they do not trigger autoimmunity. The vault particle shows a hollow barrel-shaped structure organized in two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein (MVP). Other data indicated that vault halves can dissociate at acidic pH. The high resolution, crystal structure of the of the seven N-terminal domains (R1-R7) of MVP, forming the central vault barrel, together with that of the native vault particle (solved at 8 Å resolution), revealed the interactions governing vault association and suggested a pH-dependent mechanism for a reversible dissociation induced by low pH. Vault particles posses many features making them very promising vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic agents including self-assembly, 100 nm size range, emerging atomic-level structural information, natural presence in humans ensuring biocompability, recombinant production system, existing features for targeting species to the large lumen and a dynamic structure that may be controlled for manipulation of drug release kinetics. All these attributes provide vaults with enormous potential as a drug/gene delivery platform.

  19. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination.

  20. Derivation of the mammalian skull vault

    PubMed Central

    MORRISS-KAY, GILLIAN M.

    2001-01-01

    This review describes the evolutionary history of the mammalian skull vault as a basis for understanding its complex structure. Current information on the developmental tissue origins of the skull vault bones (mesoderm and neural crest) is assessed for mammals and other tetrapods. This information is discussed in the context of evolutionary changes in the proportions of the skull vault bones at the sarcopterygian-tetrapod transition. The dual tissue origin of the skull vault is considered in relation to the molecular mechanisms underlying osteogenic cell proliferation and differentiation in the sutural growth centres and in the proportionate contributions of different sutures to skull growth. PMID:11523816

  1. Vaults are dynamically unconstrained cytoplasmic nanoparticles capable of half vault exchange.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Ng, Benny C; Gopal, Ajaykumar; Bentolila, Laurent A; John, Scott; Tolbert, Sarah H; Rome, Leonard H

    2010-12-28

    Vaults are naturally occurring ribonucleoprotein particles with an enormous interior volume, large enough to encapsulate hundreds of proteins. They are highly conserved and are present in nearly all eukaryotic cells ranging from 10(4) to 10(7) particles per cell. Recombinant vaults can be produced in vitro and engineered to allow cell targeting and protein packaging. These nanometer-sized particles have many desirable characteristics that may give them advantages for use as drug delivery vehicles. Using photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP) labeled vaults, we demonstrate that the particles rapidly diffuse throughout the cytoplasm following single pixel photoactivation in live cells. Their in vivo movement remained relatively unchanged despite exposure to a variety of cellular stresses, suggesting that vaults are largely unconstrained in the cytoplasm. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was observed from polyethylene glycol (PEG) fused hybrid cells that expressed either CFP or YFP labeled vaults, indicating that vaults can exchange major vault protein (MVP) subunits in vivo. Investigation into the mechanism of this exchange in vitro using recombinant vaults demonstrated that they were capable of rapidly separating at the particle waist and reassembling back into whole vaults, supporting a half vault exchange mechanism. This data suggests a means whereby vaults can functionally interact with their cellular environment and deliver materials packaged within their interior.

  2. Security analysis for fingerprint fuzzy vaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartloff, Jesse; Bileschi, Maxwell; Tulyakov, Sergey; Dobler, Jimmy; Rudra, Atri; Govindaraju, Venu

    2013-05-01

    In this work we place some of the traditional biometrics work on fingerprint verification via the fuzzy vault scheme within a cryptographic framework. We show that the breaking of a fuzzy vault leads to decoding of Reed-Solomon codes from random errors, which has been proposed as a hard problem in the cryptography community. We provide a security parameter for the fuzzy vault in terms of the decoding problem, which gives context for the breaking of the fuzzy vault, whereas most of the existing literature measures the strength of the fuzzy vault in terms of its resistance to pre-defined attacks or by the entropy of the vault. We keep track of our security parameter, and provide it alongside ROC statistics. We also aim to be more aware of the nature of the fingerprints when placing them in the fuzzy vault, noting that the distribution of minutiae is far from uniformly random. The results we show provide additional support that the fuzzy vault can be a viable scheme for secure fingerprint verification.

  3. 49 CFR 192.749 - Vault maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vault maintenance. 192.749 Section 192.749 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.749 Vault maintenance. (a) Each...

  4. 49 CFR 192.749 - Vault maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vault maintenance. 192.749 Section 192.749 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.749 Vault maintenance. (a) Each...

  5. Vault mobility depends in part on microtubules and vaults can be recruited to the nuclear envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Zon, Arend van; Mossink, Marieke H.; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A.C. . E-mail: e.wiemer@erasmusmc.nl

    2006-02-01

    Vaults are ribonucleoproteins that may function in intracellular transport processes. We investigated the intracellular distribution and dynamics of vaults in non-small cell lung cancer cells in which vaults are labeled with the green fluorescent protein. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that vaults are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm; a small fraction is found in close proximity to microtubules. Immunoprecipitation experiments corroborated these results showing co-precipitation of MVP and {beta}-tubulin. Using quantitative fluorescence-recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we demonstrated that vault mobility over longer distances in part depends on intact microtubules; vaults moving slower when microtubules are depolymerized by nocodazole. Biochemical fractionation indicated a small fraction of MVP associated with the nucleus, however, no GFP-tagged vaults could be observed inside the nucleus. We observed an accumulation of vaults at the nuclear envelope upon treatment of cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Analysis of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport using a fluorescent substrate containing a classical NLS and NES expressed in MVP {sup +/+} and MVP {sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated no differences in nuclear import/export kinetics, suggesting no role for vaults in these processes. We hypothesize that a subset of vaults moves directionally via microtubules, possibly towards the nucleus.

  6. Nonspreading Wave Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, M. V.; Balazs, N. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains properties of the Airy packet that show that quantum wave functions correspond to a family of orbits and not to a single particle. Introducing the Airy packet into elementary quantum mechanics courses is recommended. (HM)

  7. Pre-flight characteristics of Hecht vaults.

    PubMed

    Yeadon, M R; King, M A; Sprigings, E J

    1998-05-01

    This study reports the techniques used by gymnasts to perform the Hecht vault and compares them with techniques used for the handspring somersault vault (Takei and Kim, 1990). Our main aim was to establish how the pre-flight characteristics of the Hecht vault influence post-flight performance. Data were obtained on 27 elite gymnasts performing the Hecht vault at the 1993 Canadian National Championships using two-dimensional video analysis with the direct linear transformation (DLT) technique. The maximum height reached by the mass centre during post-flight was significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with the vertical velocity of the mass centre and the body angle at horse contact. The backwards rotation of the body was significantly correlated (P = 0.015) with the shoulder angle at horse contact. The competition score was significantly correlated (P = 0.043) with the body angle at horse contact and was also related to the maximum height of the mass centre during post-flight. For the Hecht vault, the gymnasts had longer, lower and faster pre-flights with slower rotation at horse contact compared with the handspring somersault vaults. PMID:9663959

  8. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis with Barrel Stave Osteotomy in the Treatment of Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    KOMURO, Yuzo; SHIMIZU, Azusa; SHIMOJI, Kazuaki; MIYAJIMA, Masakazu; ARAI, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since distraction osteogenesis was introduced into the field of craniomaxillofacial surgery, with distraction osteogenesis gradually consolidating its position for midface advancement in syndromic craniosynostosis. On the other hand, no consensus has been reached regarding its adaptation to calvarial bone. We reported that distraction osteogenesis was useful in posterior cranial vault expansion, and subsequently, similar reports have been successively observed worldwide. In posterior cranial vault distraction, intracranial capacity could be greatly expanded due to its simultaneous expansion with the scalp, with little risk of relapse because new bone is regenerated in the distraction gap. The possibility was suggested that the standard of first carrying out fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) for brachycephaly observed in syndromic craniosynostosis will greatly change posterior cranial vault distraction. PMID:26226978

  9. New Teachers Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism Education Association.

    This packet of information for new scholastic journalism teachers (or advisers) compiles information on professional associations in journalism education, offers curriculum guides and general help, and contains worksheets and handouts. Sections of the packet are: (1) Professional Help (Journalism Education Association Information, and Other…

  10. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    SciTech Connect

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-08-25

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities. A hazard evaluation for the Hanford Site 244-AR Vault Facility was performed. The process and results of the hazard evaluation are provided in this document. A previous hazard evaluation was performed for the 244-AR Vault Facility in 1996 in support of the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The results of that evaluation are provided in the BIO. Upon review of those results it was determined that hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the 244-AR vaults due to flooding was not addressed in the original hazards evaluation. This supplemental hazard evaluation addresses this oversight of the original hazard evaluation. The results of the hazard evaluation were compared to the current TWRS BIO to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting changes to the AB. It is only intended to provide information about hazardous conditions associated with the condition and configuration of the 244-AR vault facility. The AB Control Decision process could be used to determine the applicability and adequacy of existing AB controls as well as any new controls that may be needed for the identified hazardous conditions associated with 244-AR vault flooding. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  11. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintained. (c) Each pipe entering, or within, a regulator vault or pit must be steel for sizes 10 inch (254... vault or pit structure, provision must be made to prevent the passage of gases or liquids through...

  12. Detail of bricked up storage vault opening Central of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of bricked up storage vault opening - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. 27. RECORDS VAULT UNDER STAIRWAY IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. RECORDS VAULT UNDER STAIRWAY IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF MAIN MEETING ROOM. It is not known when this vault was built. It has cavity walls. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Palmprint based multidimensional fuzzy vault scheme.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hailun; Sun, Dongmei; Xiong, Ke; Qiu, Zhengding

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy vault scheme (FVS) is one of the most popular biometric cryptosystems for biometric template protection. However, error correcting code (ECC) proposed in FVS is not appropriate to deal with real-valued biometric intraclass variances. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional fuzzy vault scheme (MDFVS) in which a general subspace error-tolerant mechanism is designed and embedded into FVS to handle intraclass variances. Palmprint is one of the most important biometrics; to protect palmprint templates; a palmprint based MDFVS implementation is also presented. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only can deal with intraclass variances effectively but also could maintain the accuracy and meanwhile enhance security. PMID:24892094

  15. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189 Section 192.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to...

  16. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vaults: Structural design requirements. 192.183... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for...

  17. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... minimize the formation of combustible atmosphere in the vault or pit; and (3) The ducts must be high enough... explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before... of ignition from reaching the vault atmosphere; or (3) If the vault or pit is ventilated,...

  18. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minimize the formation of combustible atmosphere in the vault or pit; and (3) The ducts must be high enough... explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before... of ignition from reaching the vault atmosphere; or (3) If the vault or pit is ventilated,...

  19. 1. VIEW OF ONE OF THE INNER ROOMS WITHIN VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ONE OF THE INNER ROOMS WITHIN VAULT 996. THE UNDERGROUND VAULTS WERE USED TO STORE SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL AWAITING ON- AND OFF-SITE SHIPMENT. - Rocky Flats Plant, Storage Vault, Southeast corner of protected area, Northwest of Building 991, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-04

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

  1. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  2. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  3. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  4. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  5. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  6. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  7. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  8. All-optical buffering for DPSK packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guodong; Wu, Chongqing; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Fu; Mao, Yaya; Sun, Zhenchao

    2013-12-01

    Advanced modulation formats, such as DPSK, DQPSK, QAM, have become the mainstream technologies in the optical network over 40Gb/s, the DPSK format is the fundamental of all advanced modulation formats. Optical buffers, as a key element for temporarily storing packets in order to synchronization or contention resolution in optical nodes, must be adapted to this new requirement. Different from other current buffers to store the NRZ or RZ format, an all-optical buffer of storing DPSK packets based on nonlinear polarization rotation in SOA is proposed and demonstrated. In this buffer, a section of PMF is used as fiber delay line to maintain the polarization states unchanged, the driver current of SOA is optimized, and no amplifier is required in the fiber loop. A packet delay resolution of 400ns is obtained and storage for tens rounds is demonstrated without significant signal degradation. Using proposed the new tunable DPSK demodulator, bit error rate has been measured after buffering for tens rounds for 10Gb/s data payload. Configurations for First-in First-out (FIFO) buffer or First-in Last-out (FILO) buffer are proposed based on this buffer. The buffer is easy control and suitable for integration. The terminal contention caused by different clients can be mitigated by managing packets delays in future all-optical network, such as optical packet switching network and WDM switching network.

  9. Development of polymer concrete vaults for natural gas regulator stations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Miller, C.A.; Reams, W.; Elling, D.

    1990-08-01

    Vaults for natural gas regulator stations have traditionally been fabricated with steel-reinforced portland cement concrete. Since these vaults are installed below ground level, they are usually coated with a water-proofing material to prevent the ingress of moisture into the vault. In some cases, penetrations for piping that are normally cast into the vault do not line up with the gas lines in the streets. This necessitates off-setting the lines to line up with the penetrations in the vault or breaking out new penetrations which could weaken the structure and/or allow water ingress. By casting the vaults using a new material of construction such as polymer concrete, a longer maintenance free service life is possible because the physical and durability properties of polymer concrete composites are much superior to those of portland cement concrete. The higher strengths of polymer concrete allow the design engineer to reduce the wall, floor, and ceiling thicknesses making the vaults lighter for easier transportation and installation. Penetrations can be cut after casting to match existing street lines, thus making the vault more universal and reducing the number of vaults that are normally in stock. The authors developed a steel-fiber reinforced polymer concrete composite that could be used for regulator vaults. Based on the physical properties of his new composite, vaults were designed to replace the BUG PV-008 and Con Ed GR-6 regulator vaults made of reinforced portland cement concrete. Quarter-scale models of the polymer concrete vaults were tested and the results reaffirmed the reduced wall thickness design. Two sets of vaults, cast by Hardinge Bros., were inspected by representatives of the utilities and BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and were accepted for delivery. 6 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. 244-CR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    PARKMAN, D.B.

    2000-04-25

    The 244-CR Vault is a two-level, multi-cell structure of reinforced concrete constructed below grade. The lower cell contains four individual compartments, each containing a steel process storage tank and equipped with a concrete sump. The upper cell contains the piping and support equipment, and has two compartments for each of the tanks. The ''pump pit'' is accessed by the removal of concrete cover blocks, while the smaller ''riser pit'' is accessed by steel cover plates. The facility most recently was used as a double-contained receiver tank (DCRT). A DCRT is a type of waste transfer tank that together with its related equipment constitutes a short-term storage area for liquid waste and has a pump pit for waste transfer operations. This vault most recently was used for short-term storage and waste routing for saltwell liquid pumped from the 241-C Tank Farm in the 200 East Area. Waste transfer lines are connected inside the pump pit by a jumper installed between connecting nozzles. An active ventilation system is in operation at the 244-CR vault. Ventilation supply air enters the upper vault section through an inlet header with some leakage through the spaces between the cell cover blocks. The upper and lower vaults are connected by exhauster ports, which allow airflow between the two sections. Normal flow moves air from the upper cell to the lower cell where it is removed and routed into a filter plenum; there the air is treated by a bank of four prefilters and two banks of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters (each containing four HEPAs). The air is exhausted to the atmosphere through the 296-C-05 Stack. The stack is equipped with a record sampler and continuous air monitor. Two fans (each rated at 4,200 cubic feet per minute) installed downstream of the filtration system provide the motive force for exhausting the vaults and the tanks. As an active system, it is operated continuously with only one of the two fans required to operate at a time. A

  11. Quantum wave packet revivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinett, R. W.

    2004-03-01

    The numerical prediction, theoretical analysis, and experimental verification of the phenomenon of wave packet revivals in quantum systems has flourished over the last decade and a half. Quantum revivals are characterized by initially localized quantum states which have a short-term, quasi-classical time evolution, which then can spread significantly over several orbits, only to reform later in the form of a quantum revival in which the spreading reverses itself, the wave packet relocalizes, and the semi-classical periodicity is once again evident. Relocalization of the initial wave packet into a number of smaller copies of the initial packet (‘minipackets’ or ‘clones’) is also possible, giving rise to fractional revivals. Systems exhibiting such behavior are a fundamental realization of time-dependent interference phenomena for bound states with quantized energies in quantum mechanics and are therefore of wide interest in the physics and chemistry communities. We review the theoretical machinery of quantum wave packet construction leading to the existence of revivals and fractional revivals, in systems with one (or more) quantum number(s), as well as discussing how information on the classical period and revival time is encoded in the energy eigenvalue spectrum. We discuss a number of one-dimensional model systems which exhibit revival behavior, including the infinite well, the quantum bouncer, and others, as well as several two-dimensional integrable quantum billiard systems. Finally, we briefly review the experimental evidence for wave packet revivals in atomic, molecular, and other systems, and related revival phenomena in condensed matter and optical systems.

  12. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    PubMed

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo. PMID:26767964

  13. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    PubMed

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo.

  14. 15. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT UNDERGROUND VAULT, BUILDING 997, UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT UNDERGROUND VAULT, BUILDING 997, UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE VAULTS WERE USED TO STORE TRIGGERS AWAITING OFF-SITE SHIPMENT, OR RETURNED TRIGGERS AWAITING TO BE TRANSPORTED TO A BUILDING FOR RECOVERY OF THE PLUTONIUM. THE VAULT WALLS WERE CONSTRUCTED 14.5 FEET THICK. BUILDING 991, IN THE BACKGROUND, WAS THE FIRST OPERATIONAL BUILDING ON SITE (2/1/52). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium storage vault

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, T.; Cucchiara, A.L.

    1999-03-01

    The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results.

  16. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  17. PROGRAMMED LEARNING PACKET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    MATERIALS CONCERNING PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES, PUBLISHED FROM 1960 TO 1967, ARE COLLECTED IN THIS PACKET FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS AND PERSONS INTERESTED IN THE FUTURE USES OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "PROGRAMED LEARNING OF A SECOND LANGUAGE" BY HARLAN LANE, (2) "A PRIMER OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE…

  18. Amelia Earhart Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Air Patrol, Maxwell AFB, AL.

    The feats of individuals who have made history in the aerospace world are often misunderstood and soon ignored or forgotten after the first notoriety has been achieved. Amelia Earhart was selected as the subject for this learning packet because of her brilliant accomplishments on the world of flight, a persistent desire to determine what really…

  19. Concept study: Use of grout vaults for disposal of long-length contaminated equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, D.K.

    1994-09-21

    Study considers the potential for use of grout vaults for disposal of untreated long length equipment removed from waste tanks. Looks at ways to access vaults, material handling, regulatory aspects, and advantages and disadvantages of vault disposal.

  20. A prediction of an optimal performance of the handspring 1 1/2 front salto longhorse vault.

    PubMed

    Gervais, P

    1994-01-01

    The handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault in the tucked position is deemed to be an important high-level vault. It was the compulsory vault of the 1988 Olympics and is a building block for more advanced skills in the handspring family. The purpose of this study was to predict an individual's optimal performance of a handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault. An assessment of the athlete's present performance ability was determined using cinematographical analysis of three trials. These trials were judged as being typical high-level performances of the vault. Secondly, an objective function was identified based on the performance result of points awarded. The objective function was composed of those performance variables that, if maximized, would result in minimal deductions. Postflight height and distance were identified as those variables. Angular momentum was included in a penalty function form to ensure that sufficient angular momentum was present for successful completion of the skill. A Lagrangian approach was used to derive the equations of motion and a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure, using fifth-degree polynomials, was used to represent and discretize the state variables. The predicted optimal performance of the skill displayed greater virtuosity in postflight height, distance and angular momentum when compared to the individual's best trial performance. The results of this study generally fall within the limits observed for elite vaulters. PMID:8106537

  1. A prediction of an optimal performance of the handspring 1 1/2 front salto longhorse vault.

    PubMed

    Gervais, P

    1994-01-01

    The handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault in the tucked position is deemed to be an important high-level vault. It was the compulsory vault of the 1988 Olympics and is a building block for more advanced skills in the handspring family. The purpose of this study was to predict an individual's optimal performance of a handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault. An assessment of the athlete's present performance ability was determined using cinematographical analysis of three trials. These trials were judged as being typical high-level performances of the vault. Secondly, an objective function was identified based on the performance result of points awarded. The objective function was composed of those performance variables that, if maximized, would result in minimal deductions. Postflight height and distance were identified as those variables. Angular momentum was included in a penalty function form to ensure that sufficient angular momentum was present for successful completion of the skill. A Lagrangian approach was used to derive the equations of motion and a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure, using fifth-degree polynomials, was used to represent and discretize the state variables. The predicted optimal performance of the skill displayed greater virtuosity in postflight height, distance and angular momentum when compared to the individual's best trial performance. The results of this study generally fall within the limits observed for elite vaulters.

  2. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops of individual vaults and vent housings - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LANEY, T.

    2000-03-24

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated.

  4. Mechanical Stability and Reversible Fracture of Vault Particles

    PubMed Central

    Llauró, Aida; Guerra, Pablo; Irigoyen, Nerea; Rodríguez, José F.; Verdaguer, Núria; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    Vaults are the largest ribonucleoprotein particles found in eukaryotic cells, with an unclear cellular function and promising applications as vehicles for drug delivery. In this article, we examine the local stiffness of individual vaults and probe their structural stability with atomic force microscopy under physiological conditions. Our data show that the barrel, the central part of the vault, governs both the stiffness and mechanical strength of these particles. In addition, we induce single-protein fractures in the barrel shell and monitor their temporal evolution. Our high-resolution atomic force microscopy topographies show that these fractures occur along the contacts between two major vault proteins and disappear over time. This unprecedented systematic self-healing mechanism, which enables these particles to reversibly adapt to certain geometric constraints, might help vaults safely pass through the nuclear pore complex and potentiate their role as self-reparable nanocontainers. PMID:24507609

  5. Packet Daemon Version 12(SOPHIA)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-09

    Packet Daemon Version 12 is the code exclusively used by the ‘packetd’ executable. It provides packet data to the OglNet Version 12 visualization tool. It reads PCAP data and sends an abstraction of the packets to the ‘oglnet’ executable for display. ‘packetd’will run as a service on a Linux host thereby capturing data continuously and make that data available for ‘oglnet’ whenever it connects to the service.

  6. Controlled Quantum Packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMartino, Salvatore; DeSiena, Silvio

    1996-01-01

    We look at time evolution of a physical system from the point of view of dynamical control theory. Normally we solve motion equation with a given external potential and we obtain time evolution. Standard examples are the trajectories in classical mechanics or the wave functions in Quantum Mechanics. In the control theory, we have the configurational variables of a physical system, we choose a velocity field and with a suited strategy we force the physical system to have a well defined evolution. The evolution of the system is the 'premium' that the controller receives if he has adopted the right strategy. The strategy is given by well suited laboratory devices. The control mechanisms are in many cases non linear; it is necessary, namely, a feedback mechanism to retain in time the selected evolution. Our aim is to introduce a scheme to obtain Quantum wave packets by control theory. The program is to choose the characteristics of a packet, that is, the equation of evolution for its centre and a controlled dispersion, and to give a building scheme from some initial state (for example a solution of stationary Schroedinger equation). It seems natural in this view to use stochastic approach to Quantum Mechanics, that is, Stochastic Mechanics [S.M.]. It is a quantization scheme different from ordinary ones only formally. This approach introduces in quantum theory the whole mathematical apparatus of stochastic control theory. Stochastic Mechanics, in our view, is more intuitive when we want to study all the classical-like problems. We apply our scheme to build two classes of quantum packets both derived generalizing some properties of coherent states.

  7. Charles A. Lindbergh Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Charley

    This aerospace education learning packet contains information about the famous pilot, Charles A. Lindbergh. Posters, recommended teaching methods, tests with keys, and task cards are also included. (KHR)

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Saltstone Vault 4 Vapor Sapce

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Si Young

    2005-06-27

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used to estimate the flow patterns for vapor space inside the Saltstone Vault No.4 under different operating scenarios. The purpose of this work is to examine the gas motions inside the vapor space under the current vault configurations. A CFD model took three-dimensional transient momentum-energy coupled approach for the vapor space domain of the vault. The modeling calculations were based on prototypic vault geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Waste Solidification Engineering. The modeling analysis was focused on the air flow patterns near the ventilated corner zones of the vapor space inside the Saltstone vault. The turbulence behavior and natural convection mechanism used in the present model were benchmarked against the literature information and theoretical results. The verified model was applied to the Saltstone vault geometry for the transient assessment of the air flow patterns inside the vapor space of the vault region using the boundary conditions as provided by the customer. The present model considered two cases for the estimations of the flow patterns within the vapor space. One is the reference baseline case. The other is for the negative temperature gradient between the roof inner and top grout surface temperatures intended for the potential bounding condition. The flow patterns of the vapor space calculated by the CFD model demonstrate that the ambient air comes into the vapor space of the vault through the lower-end ventilation hole, and it gets heated up by the Benard-cell type circulation before leaving the vault via the higher-end ventilation hole. The calculated results are consistent with the literature information.

  9. Posthole Broadband Sensor Emplacement vs. Surface Vaults: Observations of Comparative Noise Performance and Trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, J. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Barstow, N.; Pfeifer, M.; Anderson, K. R.; Frassetto, A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in seismometer design have diversified the range of instruments available for use in temporary field installations. IRIS programs, primarily PASSCAL and the Transportable Array (TA), have helped steer development of these new instruments to meet these evolving needs. PASSCAL operates a small pool of posthole broadband sensors, purpose built for direct burial. Near surface posthole installations are a new, cost effective, and logistically simple technique for broadband emplacement that is an alternative to the vault installations used in portable broadband seismic experiments for nearly 30 years. Direct burial installation is limited to the time and effort required to dig the borehole and emplace the sensor, thus reducing both material costs and time to install. Also, in Alaska, extreme environments and difficult logistics make standard TA tank vaults inappropriate for most sites. TA has developed improved deployment strategies for these environments. There, holes for posthole sensors are hammer- drilled or augered to several meters depth in soil, permafrost, or bedrock and then cased. These emplacement costs are generally less than standard TA vaults. We compare various installation techniques for test cases as well as general deployments of PASSCAL and TA stations. Automated noise performance analyses have been part of the TA throughout its operation, but until recently vault performance for portable installations supported by the PASSCAL program was sparse. In this study, we select a suite of co-located direct burial and surface vault installations and compare their noise performance using probability density functions. Our initial analyses suggest that direct burial sensors have lower noise levels than vault installations on both horizontal and vertical channels across a range of periods spanning <1 s to 100 s. However, most of these initial experiments for PASSCAL were with sensors not purpose built for direct burial and it became obvious that a sensor

  10. Encapsulation of Semiconducting Polymers in Vault Protein Cages

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B.C.; Yu, M.; Gopal, A.; Rome, L.H.; Monbouquette, H.G.; Tolbert, S.H.

    2009-05-22

    We demonstrate that a semiconducting polymer [poly(2-methoxy-5-propyloxy sulfonate phenylene vinylene), MPS-PPV] can be encapsulated inside recombinant, self-assembling protein nanocapsules called 'vaults'. Polymer incorporation into these nanosized protein cages, found naturally at {approx}10,000 copies per human cell, was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Although vault cellular functions and gating mechanisms remain unknown, their large internal volume and natural prevalence within the human body suggests they could be used as carriers for therapeutics and medical imaging reagents. This study provides the groundwork for the use of vaults in encapsulation and delivery applications.

  11. Separated Fringe Packet Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnuolo, W. G.; Taylor, S. F.; McAlister, H. A.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Sturmann, L.; Sturmann, J.; Turner, N. H.; Berger, D.; Ridgway, S. T.; CenterHigh Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA)

    2004-12-01

    Individually resolved packets are produced by scans from the CHARA Interferometer Array for binary stars with separations from 10 to 100 milli-arcsec (mas) in the K' band. We have used this data for astrometry of the binary with the goal of improving the visual orbits for these systems. About 12 data sets of 400 scans each can be collected for a star within an hour. The intrinsic accuracy with simple linear/quadratic fits to the time-separation curve yields accuracies of 0.15 mas. But, for systems with separations less than 80 mas, the measured separation is modulated periodically by the secondary star's packet riding over the sidelobes of the primary which provides a phase reference. This "sidelobe verniering" can improve the precision to better than 50 micro-arcsec. These techniques, represents 1-2 orders of magnitude improvement in astrometic accuracy over speckle interferometry techniques. Visual orbits can then be refined via a maximum liklihood technique, which leads to revisions in the stellar masses. We present the results for several binaries that have been observed at the CHARA Array, starting in 2001.

  12. On quantization of nondispersive wave packets

    SciTech Connect

    Altaisky, M. V.

    2013-10-15

    Nondispersive wave packets are widely used in optics and acoustics. We found it interesting that such packets could be also a subject of quantum field theory. Canonical commutation relations for the nondispersive wave packets are constructed.

  13. Vocational and Industrial Arts Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth.

    This book is a teacher's guide to energy alternatives. It is divided into seven informational packets on the following topics: parabolic solar concentrators, solar flat plate collectors, wood as fuel, heat loss, bio-gas, wind, and water. Each packet contains background information for the teachers and learning activities for the students. The…

  14. USDA's Great Nutrition Adventure [Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This nutrition education packet provides information to schools setting up healthy school meal programs and nutrition education programs. Team Nutrition schools will involve students, teachers, families, food service personnel, and community organizations in nutrition education activities. The packet contains fact sheets that focus on: the Great…

  15. Tropical Animal Tour Packet. Metro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro Washington Park Zoo, Portland, OR. Educational Services Div.

    This packet is designed to assist teachers in creating a tropical animals lesson plan that centers around a visit to the zoo. A teacher packet is divided into eight parts: (1) goals and objectives; (2) what to expect at the zoo; (3) student activities (preparatory activities, on-site activities, and follow-up activities); (4) background…

  16. Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south side of the ground floors central east-west passage (PA-1622-A-51) looking northeast. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  19. View of a subsurface Concrete Vault (Feature 9), looking westsouthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of a subsurface Concrete Vault (Feature 9), looking west-southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  20. 4. View from chief clerk's office into clerk room. Vault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View from chief clerk's office into clerk room. Vault at center in background. View to south. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Office, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  1. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 33. July 1958 PARABOLIC BRICK VAULT IN SERVICE MAGAZINE UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. July 1958 PARABOLIC BRICK VAULT IN SERVICE MAGAZINE UNDER RAVELIN (CIVIL WAR PERIOD) - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ghost of former stair arch below stepped rail, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER field team measuring (Michael Lee and Dominic Duran foreground, Christopher Marston rear). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  5. Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic Duran, Christopher Marston, and Michael Lee (l to r). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  6. COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT MOTOR ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  7. Seismic review of vault for MFTF upgrade project

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, H.A.

    1983-09-29

    This letter report was prepared in accordance with the scope of work for the preconceptual seismic evaluation of the (..cap alpha.. + T) Tandem Mirror Fusion Machine concrete vault. The scope of the work was developed with the assistance of the Bechtel site representative Dr. Sunil Ghose. The report contains comments and preconceptual recommendations on wall upgrading for an 150-ton crane installation, concrete vault seismic capability for (..cap alpha.. + T) conditions, and recommendations for future work.

  8. 14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE REMOTE CONTROL STATION. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER, A REMOTELY-OPERATED, MECHANIZED TRANSPORT SYSTEM, RETRIEVES CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM FROM SAFE GEOMETRY PALLETS STORED ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE VAULT. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER RUNS ALONG THE AISLE BETWEEN THE PALLETS OF THE STORAGE CHAMBER. (3/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. MTR BASEMENT. DOORWAY TO SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IS AT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. DOORWAY TO SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IS AT CENTER OF VIEW; TO DECONTAMINATION ROOM, AT RIGHT. PART OF MAZE ENTRY IS VISIBLE INSIDE VAULT DOORWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. 7763. Unknown Photographer, photo was dated as 3/30/1953, but this was probably an error. The more likely date is 3/30/1952. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Reversible PH Lability of Cross-Linked Vault Nanocapsules

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.; Ng, B.C.; Rome, L.H.; Tolbert, S.H.; Monbouquette, H.G.

    2009-05-28

    Vaults are ubiquitous, self-assembled protein nanocapsules with dimension in the sub-100 nm range that are conserved across diverse phyla from worms to humans. Their normal presence in humans at a copy number of over 10 000/cell makes them attractive as potential drug delivery vehicles. Toward this goal, bifunctional amine-reactive reagents are shown to be useful for the reversible cross-linking of recombinant vaults such that they may be closed and opened in a controllable manner.

  11. Optimal technique for maximal forward rotating vaults in men's gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Michael J; Jackson, Monique I; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2015-08-01

    In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a handspring double somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to maximize post-flight rotation potential (the product of angular momentum and flight time) for a forwards rotating vault. It was found that the maximized rotation potential was sufficient to produce a handspring double piked somersault vault. The corresponding optimal touchdown configuration exhibited hip flexion in contrast to the hyperextended configuration required for maximal height. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight rotation potential. By increasing the horizontal velocity at table touchdown, within limits obtained from recorded performances, the handspring double somersault tucked with one and a half twists, and the handspring triple somersault tucked became theoretically possible.

  12. Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault

    PubMed Central

    Penitente, Gabriella; Sands, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force < 0.8 × body weight) and high (peak force > 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56). Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault. PMID:26240649

  13. Optimal technique for maximal forward rotating vaults in men's gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Michael J; Jackson, Monique I; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2015-08-01

    In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a handspring double somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to maximize post-flight rotation potential (the product of angular momentum and flight time) for a forwards rotating vault. It was found that the maximized rotation potential was sufficient to produce a handspring double piked somersault vault. The corresponding optimal touchdown configuration exhibited hip flexion in contrast to the hyperextended configuration required for maximal height. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight rotation potential. By increasing the horizontal velocity at table touchdown, within limits obtained from recorded performances, the handspring double somersault tucked with one and a half twists, and the handspring triple somersault tucked became theoretically possible. PMID:26026290

  14. Experience with the EURECA Packet Telemetry and Packet Telecommand system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Erik Mose; Ferri, Paolo

    1994-01-01

    The European Retrieval Carrier (EURECA) was launched on its first flight on the 31st of July 1992 and retrieved on the 29th of June 1993. EURECA is characterized by several new on-board features, most notably Packet telemetry, and a partial implementation of packet telecommanding, the first ESA packetised spacecraft. Today more than one year after the retrieval the data from the EURECA mission has to a large extent been analysed and we can present some of the interesting results. This paper concentrates on the implementation and operational experience with the EURECA Packet Telemetry and Packet Telecommanding. We already discovered during the design of the ground system that the use of packet telemetry has major impact on the overall design and that processing of packet telemetry may have significant effect on the computer loading and sizing. During the mission a number of problems were identified with the on-board implementation resulting in very strange anomalous behaviors. Many of these problems directly violated basic assumptions for the design of the ground segment adding to the strange behavior. The paper shows that the design of a telemetry packet system should be flexible enough to allow a rapid configuration of the telemetry processing in order to adapt it to the new situation in case of an on-board failure. The experience gained with the EURECA mission control should be used to improve ground systems for future missions.

  15. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  16. High speed packet switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final report prepared by Proteon, Inc. of Westborough, Massachusetts under contract NAS 5-30629 entitled High-Speed Packet Switching (SBIR 87-1, Phase 2) prepared for NASA-Greenbelt, Maryland. The primary goal of this research project is to use the results of the SBIR Phase 1 effort to develop a sound, expandable hardware and software router architecture capable of forwarding 25,000 packets per second through the router and passing 300 megabits per second on the router's internal busses. The work being delivered under this contract received its funding from three different sources: the SNIPE/RIG contract (Contract Number F30602-89-C-0014, CDRL Sequence Number A002), the SBIR contract, and Proteon. The SNIPE/RIG and SBIR contracts had many overlapping requirements, which allowed the research done under SNIPE/RIG to be applied to SBIR. Proteon funded all of the work to develop new router interfaces other than FDDI, in addition to funding the productization of the router itself. The router being delivered under SBIR will be a fully product-quality machine. The work done during this contract produced many significant findings and results, summarized here and explained in detail in later sections of this report. The SNIPE/RIG contract was completed. That contract had many overlapping requirements with the SBIR contract, and resulted in the successful demonstration and delivery of a high speed router. The development that took place during the SNIPE/RIG contract produced findings that included the choice of processor and an understanding of the issues surrounding inter processor communications in a multiprocessor environment. Many significant speed enhancements to the router software were made during that time. Under the SBIR contract (and with help from Proteon-funded work), it was found that a single processor router achieved a throughput significantly higher than originally anticipated. For this reason, a single processor router was

  17. EVALUATION OF SULFATE ATTACK ON SALTSTONE VAULT CONCRETE AND SALTSTONESIMCO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. PART1 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2008-08-19

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a durability analysis performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. to assess the effects of contacting saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes with highly alkaline solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfate. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code and data from two surrogate concretes which are similar to the Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes were used in the preliminary durability analysis. Simulation results for these surrogate concrete mixes are provided in this report. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code will be re-run using transport properties measured for the SRS Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concrete samples after SIMCO personnel complete characterization testing on samples of these materials. Simulation results which utilize properties measured for samples of Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes will be provided in Revision 1 of this report after property data become available. The modeling performed to date provided the following information on two concrete mixes that will be used to support the Saltstone PA: (1) Relationship between the rate of advancement of the sulfate front (depth of sulfate ion penetration into the concrete) and the rate of change of the concrete permeability and diffusivity. (2) Relationship between the sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate and the rate of the sulfate front progression. (3) Equation describing the change in hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity) as a function of sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate. These results have been incorporated into the current Saltstone PA analysis by G. Flach (Flach, 2008). In addition, samples of the Saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes have been prepared by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. Transport and physical properties for these materials are currently being measured and sulfate exposure testing to three high alkaline, high sulfate leachates provided by SRNL is

  18. Hand placement techniques in long horse vaulting.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, D G; Harwood, M J; Yeadon, M R

    1993-08-01

    In this study, the effects of two different hand placement techniques used by gymnasts to perform Tsukahara and Kasamatsu long horse vaults were examined. Selected linear and angular flight descriptors were calculated to determine whether those gymnasts making initial hand contact on the end of the horse gained additional lift, range or rotation when compared to those gymnasts making the more traditional initial hand contact on top of the horse. Three-dimensional cine-film analysis using the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) was used to obtain data on 17 elite gymnasts competing in the 1991 World Student Games at Sheffield, UK. The gymnasts were divided into two groups according to the techniques used: group E in which the first hand contact was made on the vertical surface of the near end and the second on the top of the horse, and group T in which both hands were placed on top of the horse. The vertical and horizontal motion of each gymnast's mass centre and the somersault rotation during pre-flight (board take-off to horse contact) and post-flight (horse take-off to ground landing) were determined. The projections of linear displacements of each gymnast's mass centre onto a vertical plane were determined from the three-dimensional mass centre co-ordinates, and somersault angles were calculated using the line joining the midpoints of each gymnast's shoulders and knees. Whole body mass centre linear velocity and somersault angular velocity were determined using quintic splines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8230392

  19. Threatened and Endangered Species: Tour Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Victoria; Samia, Cory

    This resource unit contains a teacher information packet and a middle school student activity packet to be used in creating a threatened and endangered species unit. The packet of student activities is designed to help maximize a field trip to the zoo and build on students' zoo experience in the classroom. The teacher information packet covers the…

  20. Overview of wideband packet protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, M. H.

    1992-10-01

    Wideband packet networks operate at rates equal to, or higher than, 64 kb/s, but lower than the basic broadband rate of 150 Mb/s, on cables or satellite links. Wideband packet protocols are the transmission protocols for these networks. They define open interfaces that can be used for public and private ISDNs. The protocols are defined in CCITT Recommendations G.764 and G.765. This paper describes the objectives of the wideband protocols, and how the objectives were achieved.

  1. Packet flow monitoring tool and method

    DOEpatents

    Thiede, David R [Richland, WA

    2009-07-14

    A system and method for converting packet streams into session summaries. Session summaries are a group of packets each having a common source and destination internet protocol (IP) address, and, if present in the packets, common ports. The system first captures packets from a transport layer of a network of computer systems, then decodes the packets captured to determine the destination IP address and the source IP address. The system then identifies packets having common destination IP addresses and source IP addresses, then writes the decoded packets to an allocated memory structure as session summaries in a queue.

  2. Neutron monitoring of plutonium at the ZPPR storage vault

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Bieri, J.M.; France, S.W.; Goin, R.W.; Hastings, R.D.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-12-01

    We investigated a method for monitoring a typical large storage vault for unauthorized removal of plutonium. The method is based on the assumption that the neutron field in a vault produced by a particular geometric configuration of bulk plutonium remains constant in time and space as long as the configuration is undisturbed. To observe such a neutron field, we installed an array of 25 neutron detectors in the ceiling of a plutonium storage vault at Argonne National Laboratory West. Each neutron detector provided an independent spatial measurement of the vault neutron field. Data collected by each detector were processed to determine whether statistically significant changes had occurred in the neutron field. Continuous observation experiments measured the long-term stability of the system. Removal experiments were performed in which known quantities of plutonium were removed from the vault. Both types of experiments demonstrated that the neutron monitoring system can detect removal or addition of bulk plutonium (11% /sup 240/Pu) whose mass is as small as 0.04% of the total inventory.

  3. Bohmian trajectories of Airy packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Antonio B.; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of Berry and Balazs in 1979 that the free-particle Schrödinger equation allows a non-dispersive and accelerating Airy-packet solution has taken the folklore of quantum mechanics by surprise. Over the years, this intriguing class of wave packets has sparked enormous theoretical and experimental activities in related areas of optics and atom physics. Within the Bohmian mechanics framework, we present new features of Airy wave packet solutions to Schrödinger equation with time-dependent quadratic potentials. In particular, we provide some insights to the problem by calculating the corresponding Bohmian trajectories. It is shown that by using general space-time transformations, these trajectories can display a unique variety of cases depending upon the initial position of the individual particle in the Airy wave packet. Further, we report here a myriad of nontrivial Bohmian trajectories associated to the Airy wave packet. These new features are worth introducing to the subject's theoretical folklore in light of the fact that the evolution of a quantum mechanical Airy wave packet governed by the Schrödinger equation is analogous to the propagation of a finite energy Airy beam satisfying the paraxial equation. Numerous experimental configurations of optics and atom physics have shown that the dynamics of Airy beams depends significantly on initial parameters and configurations of the experimental set-up.

  4. Bohmian trajectories of Airy packets

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Antonio B.; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2014-09-15

    The discovery of Berry and Balazs in 1979 that the free-particle Schrödinger equation allows a non-dispersive and accelerating Airy-packet solution has taken the folklore of quantum mechanics by surprise. Over the years, this intriguing class of wave packets has sparked enormous theoretical and experimental activities in related areas of optics and atom physics. Within the Bohmian mechanics framework, we present new features of Airy wave packet solutions to Schrödinger equation with time-dependent quadratic potentials. In particular, we provide some insights to the problem by calculating the corresponding Bohmian trajectories. It is shown that by using general space–time transformations, these trajectories can display a unique variety of cases depending upon the initial position of the individual particle in the Airy wave packet. Further, we report here a myriad of nontrivial Bohmian trajectories associated to the Airy wave packet. These new features are worth introducing to the subject’s theoretical folklore in light of the fact that the evolution of a quantum mechanical Airy wave packet governed by the Schrödinger equation is analogous to the propagation of a finite energy Airy beam satisfying the paraxial equation. Numerous experimental configurations of optics and atom physics have shown that the dynamics of Airy beams depends significantly on initial parameters and configurations of the experimental set-up.

  5. Business Education: Learning Activities Packet for Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    These seventeen individualized learning activities packets (LAPs) are intended to relate essential competencies needed for entry or advancement in office occupations to the secondary level office education program and to assist students in achieving occupational proficiency in business careers. Each LAP contains some or all of the following…

  6. Inner and outer waste storage vaults with leak-testing accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Splinter, B.C.

    1985-04-23

    A storage arrangement for waste materials of the type which tend to pollute the environment consists of a waterproof reinforced concrete vault, preferably located underground, and a permanent reinforced concrete storage vault within the underground vault and spaced from the walls thereof by a water lock. Sealed containers filled with chemical or nuclear waste are deposited in the permanent storage vault and sealed therein with bitumen. The underground vault is provided with an access opening to the water lock to enable testing of the water periodically for contamination due to leakage from the permanent storage vault. If no leakage is evident after a predetermined time period has elapsed, the permanent storage vault is removed from the underground vault and shipped to a permanent storage site.

  7. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K; John Harbour, J; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-11-25

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  8. Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Vault-Slab Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chesi, Claudio; Butti, Ferdinando; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-07-08

    Spandrel walls typically play a structural role in masonry buildings, transferring load from a slab to the supporting vault. Some indications are given in the literature on the behaviour of spandrels under the effect of vertical loads, but little attention is given to the effect coming from lateral forces acting on the building. An opportunity to investigate this problem has come from the need of analyzing a monumental building which was damaged by the Nov. 24, 2004 Val Sabbia earthquake in the north of Italy. The finite element model set up for the analysis of the vault-spandrel-slab system is presented and the structural role resulting for the spandrels is discussed.

  9. 1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ICON AND SANCTUARY. IN ARCH ABOVE THE SANCTUARY IS THE TABLE OF ABRAHAM. THE ICONOSTAS INCLUDES ICONS OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL, THE HOLY TRINITY, MOTHER OF GOD HOLDING THE CHRIST CHILD, JESUS. - Holy Trinity-Holy Cross Greek Orthodox Church, 200 Nineteenth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2010-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb 3O 4), hematite (Fe 2O 3), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO 3) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place.

  11. BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  12. 2. EAST FACADE, ENTRANCE TO CATWALK OVER CONCRETE TANK VAULT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST FACADE, ENTRANCE TO CATWALK OVER CONCRETE TANK VAULT. BUILDING 742 TO RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Tank House, Quadrant 1, approximately 1000 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, Drawing C13-J2-342-D1, Sheet 3, 13 March 1939) - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. Storage Area (1942 section), looking east, showing all of Vault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Storage Area (1942 section), looking east, showing all of Vault No. 1 door behind wall opening and sprinkler system - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis: Evolution of Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Juling; Harshbarger, Raymond J.; Kelley, Patrick; George, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the brain in the first few years of life drives the expansion of the cranial vault. This expansion occurs primarily at the cranial sutures; premature fusion of these results in growth restriction perpendicular to the axis of the suture. The result of this is physical deformation of the cranial and facial skeleton, as well as the distortion of the underling brain and its physiology. These patients can present with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as the morphological features of craniosynostosis. Acquired conditions such as the slit ventricle syndrome may also result in cephalocranial disproportion with these clinical features. Traditional vault remodeling surgery is able to correct the physical abnormalities as well as correcting cephalocranial disproportion. Its limitations include the degree of scalp expansion achievable as well as resulting defects in the bone. The use of distraction osteogenesis of the cranial vault permits a controlled expansion in a predetermined vector in a gradual manner. When used in the calvarium, this combines the benefits of tissue expansion on the scalp, as well as stimulating the production of new bone, reducing the defects resulting from expansion. In this review, the authors describe some of the surgical considerations important to the use of this technique. This includes the relevant anatomy and technical aspects illustrated with the use of clinical cases. Finally, they present a summary of their experience and discuss the complications associated with cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. PMID:25383052

  16. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline..., pressure relieving, pressure limiting, or pressure regulating stations, must be able to meet the loads... vault or pit structure, provision must be made to prevent the passage of gases or liquids through...

  17. DRIVE TERMINAL WITH VAULT MOTOR ROOM IN BASEMENT. SINGLE CHAIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRIVE TERMINAL WITH VAULT MOTOR ROOM IN BASEMENT. SINGLE CHAIR SKI LIFT (1947) ON LEFT, DOUBLE CHAIR SKI LIFT (1962) ON RIGHT. LOOKING SOUTHWEST WITH GENERAL STARK MOUNTAIN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  18. 3. View, piping and stack associated with the oxidizer vault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View, piping and stack associated with the oxidizer vault storage area in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) in background, looking northwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Self-Interfering Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, David; Laussy, Fabrice P.

    2016-01-01

    We study the propagation of noninteracting polariton wave packets. We show how two qualitatively different concepts of mass that arise from the peculiar polariton dispersion lead to a new type of particlelike object from noninteracting fields—much like self-accelerating beams—shaped by the Rabi coupling out of Gaussian initial states. A divergence and change of sign of the diffusive mass results in a "mass wall" on which polariton wave packets bounce back. Together with the Rabi dynamics, this yields propagation of ultrafast subpackets and ordering of a spacetime crystal.

  20. Self-Interfering Wave Packets.

    PubMed

    Colas, David; Laussy, Fabrice P

    2016-01-15

    We study the propagation of noninteracting polariton wave packets. We show how two qualitatively different concepts of mass that arise from the peculiar polariton dispersion lead to a new type of particlelike object from noninteracting fields-much like self-accelerating beams-shaped by the Rabi coupling out of Gaussian initial states. A divergence and change of sign of the diffusive mass results in a "mass wall" on which polariton wave packets bounce back. Together with the Rabi dynamics, this yields propagation of ultrafast subpackets and ordering of a spacetime crystal. PMID:26824554

  1. Sports Medicine. Clinical Rotation. Instructor's Packet and Student Study Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    The materials in this packet are for a course designed to provide individualized classroom study for a specific area of clinical rotation--sports medicine. The instructor's manual describes the learning objectives together with a list of reference materials that should be provided for completion of the student worksheets, and lists suggested…

  2. Environment Resource Packets Get Wide Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the availability of the resource packet entitled "Noise Pollution," the third in the series prepared by the University of Maryland, and the main topics which will be covered in the remaining three packets. (CC)

  3. A robust coding scheme for packet video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Sayood, Khalid; Nelson, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    We present a layered packet video coding algorithm based on a progressive transmission scheme. The algorithm provides good compression and can handle significant packet loss with graceful degradation in the reconstruction sequence. Simulation results for various conditions are presented.

  4. A robust coding scheme for packet video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yun-Chung; Sayood, Khalid; Nelson, Don J.

    1992-01-01

    A layered packet video coding algorithm based on a progressive transmission scheme is presented. The algorithm provides good compression and can handle significant packet loss with graceful degradation in the reconstruction sequence. Simulation results for various conditions are presented.

  5. Homelessness: A General Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homelessness Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains documents that provide general information about homelessness and the need for both Federal and local action to help the homeless people in America. Sections 1 and 2 contain the following articles released by the Homelessness Information Exchange: (1) "The Problem of Homelessness Nationwide"; and "Alternative Family Housing…

  6. Dynamics of quantum wave packets

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, T.R.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Clement, T.S.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop ultrafast laser techniques for the creation and measurement of quantum vibrational wave packets in gas phase diatomic molecules. Moreover, the authors sought to manipulate the constitution of these wave packets in terms of harmonic-oscillator basis wavefunctions by manipulating the time-dependent amplitude and phase of the incident ultrashort laser pulse. They specifically investigated gaseous diatomic potassium (K{sub 2}), and discovered variations in the shape of the wave packets as a result of changing the linear chirp in the ultrashort preparation pulse. In particular, they found evidence for wave-packet compression for a specific degree of chirp. Important ancillary results include development of new techniques for denoising and deconvolution of femtosecond time traces and techniques for diagnosing the phase and amplitude of the electric field of femtosecond laser pulses.

  7. Population and Development [Issue Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on population and development. The materials have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of the world's population and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the population issue.…

  8. Dissection & Science Fairs. [Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of pamphlets and articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to address the issues of classroom laboratory dissection and the use of animals in science fair projects. Three of the pamphlets contained in this packet are student handbooks designed to help students of elementary,…

  9. Hunger and Development [Issue Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on hunger and development. They have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of world hunger and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the hunger issue. Items include: (1) a fact and…

  10. Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19 activities…

  11. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in…

  12. Direct visualization of vaults within intact cells by electron cryo-tomography

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Cora L.; Mendonça, Luiza M.

    2016-01-01

    The vault complex is the largest cellular ribonucleoprotein complex ever characterized and is present across diverse Eukarya. Despite significant information regarding the structure, composition and evolutionary conservation of the vault, little is know about the complex’s actual biological function. To determine if intracellular vaults are morphologically similar to previously studied purified and recombinant vaults, we have used electron cryo-tomography to characterize the vault complexes found in the thin edges of primary human cells growing in tissue culture. Our studies confirm that intracellular vaults are similar in overall size and shape to purified and recombinant vaults previously analyzed. Results from subtomogram averaging indicate that densities within the vault lumen are not ordered, but randomly distributed. We also observe that vaults located in the extreme periphery of the cytoplasm predominately associate with granule-like structures and actin. Our ultrastructure studies augment existing biochemical, structural and genetic information on the vault, and provide important intracellular context for the ongoing efforts to understand the biological function of the native cytoplasmic vault. PMID:25864047

  13. Draft crystal structure of the vault shell at 9-A resolution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daniel H; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Sievers, Stuart A; Rome, Leonard H; Eisenberg, David

    2007-11-01

    Vaults are the largest known cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein structures and may function in innate immunity. The vault shell self-assembles from 96 copies of major vault protein and encapsulates two other proteins and a small RNA. We crystallized rat liver vaults and several recombinant vaults, all among the largest non-icosahedral particles to have been crystallized. The best crystals thus far were formed from empty vaults built from a cysteine-tag construct of major vault protein (termed cpMVP vaults), diffracting to about 9-A resolution. The asymmetric unit contains a half vault of molecular mass 4.65 MDa. X-ray phasing was initiated by molecular replacement, using density from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Phases were improved by density modification, including concentric 24- and 48-fold rotational symmetry averaging. From this, the continuous cryo-EM electron density separated into domain-like blocks. A draft atomic model of cpMVP was fit to this improved density from 15 domain models. Three domains were adapted from a nuclear magnetic resonance substructure. Nine domain models originated in ab initio tertiary structure prediction. Three C-terminal domains were built by fitting poly-alanine to the electron density. Locations of loops in this model provide sites to test vault functions and to exploit vaults as nanocapsules.

  14. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents...) has determined that Potassium Citrate, 10 milliequivalents/packet (mEq/packet) and 20 mEq/ packet, was... approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for Potassium Citrate, 10 mEq/packet and 20...

  15. Structural and seismic analyses of waste facility reinforced concrete storage vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1995-07-01

    Facility 317 of Argonne National Laboratory consists of several reinforced concrete waste storage vaults designed and constructed in the late 1940`s through the early 1960`s. In this paper, structural analyses of these concrete vaults subjected to various natural hazards are described, emphasizing the northwest shallow vault. The natural phenomenon hazards considered include both earthquakes and tornados. Because these vaults are deeply embedded in the soil, the SASSI (System Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction) code was utilized for the seismic calculations. The ultimate strength method was used to analyze the reinforced concrete structures. In all studies, moment and shear strengths at critical locations of the storage vaults were evaluated. Results of the structural analyses show that almost all the waste storage vaults meet the code requirements according to ACI 349--85. These vaults also satisfy the performance goal such that confinement of hazardous materials is maintained and functioning of the facility is not interrupted.

  16. Packet Radio: An Alternative Way to Connect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Larry W.

    1995-01-01

    Explains packet radio as a form of telecomputing in which digital data is transported via radio waves instead of telephone lines or other cabling, and describes how it can be used by students to access the Internet. Highlights include packet bulletin board systems and equipment needed for a packet radio station. (LRW)

  17. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Junior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the junior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense) Teacher."…

  18. Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

    Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

  19. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Senior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the senior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense) Teacher."…

  20. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  1. Factors Influencing Selection of Vaginal, Open Abdominal, or Robotic Surgery to Treat Apical Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Mallika; Weaver, Amy L.; Fruth, Kristin M.; Gebhart, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors influencing selection of Mayo-McCall culdoplasty (MMC), open abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC), or robotic sacrocolpopexy (RSC) for posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse. Methods We retrospectively searched for the records of patients undergoing posthysterectomy apical vaginal prolapse surgery between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2012, at our institution. Baseline characteristics and explicit selection factors were abstracted from the electronic medical records. Factors were compared between groups using χ2 tests for categorical variables, ANOVA for continuous variables, and Kruskal-Wallis tests for ordinal variables. Results Among the 512 patients identified who met inclusion criteria, the MMC group (n=174) had more patients who were older, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3+ or greater, had anterior vaginal prolapse grade 3+, desired to avoid abdominal surgery, and did not desire a functional vagina. Patients in the ASC (n=237) and RSC (n=101) groups had more failed prolapse surgeries, suspected abdominopelvic pathologic processes, and chronic pain. Advanced prolapse was more frequently cited as an explicit selection factor for ASC than for either MMC or RSC. Conclusions The most common factors that influenced the type of apical vaginal vault prolapse surgery overlapped with characteristics that differed at baseline. In general, MMC was chosen for advanced anterior vaginal prolapse and baseline characteristics that increased surgical risks, ASC for advanced apical prolapse, and ASC or RSC for recurrent prolapse, suspected abdominal pathology, and patients with chronic pain or lifestyles including heavy lifting. Thus, efforts should be made to attempt to control for selection bias when comparing these procedures. PMID:26945273

  2. Encapsulation of Semiconducting Polymers in Vault Protein Cages

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Benny C.; Yu, Marcella; Gopal, Ajaykumar; Rome, Leonard H.; Monbouquette, Harold G.; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a semiconducting polymer [poly(2-methoxy-5-propyloxy sulfonate phenylene vinylene), MPS-PPV] can be encapsulated inside recombinant, self-assembling protein nanocapsules called “vaults”. Polymer incorporation into these nano-sized protein cages, found naturally at ~10,000 copies per human cell, was confirmed by fluorescent spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Although vault cellular functions and gating mechanism remain unknown, their large internal volume and natural prevalence within the human body suggests they could be used as carriers for therapeutics and medical imaging reagents. This study provides the groundwork for the use of vaults in encapsulation and delivery applications. PMID:18803422

  3. Targeted vault nanoparticles engineered with an endosomolytic peptide deliver biomolecules to the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Han, Muri; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Nemerow, Glen R; Rome, Leonard H

    2011-08-23

    Vault nanoparticles were engineered to enhance their escape from the endosomal compartment by fusing a membrane lytic peptide derived from adenovirus protein VI (pVI) to the N-terminus of the major vault protein to form pVI-vaults. We demonstrate that these pVI-vaults disrupt the endosomal membrane using three different experimental protocols including (1) enhancement of DNA transfection, (2) co-delivery of a cytosolic ribotoxin, and (3) direct visualization by fluorescence. Furthermore, direct targeting of vaults to specific cell surface epidermal growth factor receptors led to enhanced cellular uptake and efficient delivery of vaults to the cytoplasm. This process was monitored with fluorescent vaults, and morphological changes in the endosomal compartment were observed. By combining targeting and endosomal escape into a single recombinant vault, high levels of transfection efficiency were achieved using low numbers of vault particles. These results demonstrate that engineered vaults are effective, efficient, and nontoxic nanoparticles for targeted delivery of biomaterials to the cell cytoplasm.

  4. 60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER WAS USED TO SENSE HIGH CURRENT BEING GENERATED ON GENERATOR NUMBER 3 AND REDUCE IT TO A LOWER, EXACT ANALOG VALUE THAT COULD BE SAFELY HANDLED AND MONITORED WITH THE CONTROL CIRCUITRY. THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER IS LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CONNECTING BUS ABOVE THE TRANSFORMER WAS REMOVED FOR SALVAGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  7. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  8. An Efficient Conflict Detection Algorithm for Packet Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chun-Liang; Lin, Guan-Yu; Chen, Yaw-Chung

    Packet classification is essential for supporting advanced network services such as firewalls, quality-of-service (QoS), virtual private networks (VPN), and policy-based routing. The rules that routers use to classify packets are called packet filters. If two or more filters overlap, a conflict occurs and leads to ambiguity in packet classification. This study proposes an algorithm that can efficiently detect and resolve filter conflicts using tuple based search. The time complexity of the proposed algorithm is O(nW+s), and the space complexity is O(nW), where n is the number of filters, W is the number of bits in a header field, and s is the number of conflicts. This study uses the synthetic filter databases generated by ClassBench to evaluate the proposed algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better performance than existing conflict detection algorithms both in time and space, particularly for databases with large numbers of conflicts.

  9. Interaction of Vault Particles with Estrogen Receptor in the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Abbondanza, Ciro; Rossi, Valentina; Roscigno, Annarita; Gallo, Luigi; Belsito, Angela; Piluso, Giulio; Medici, Nicola; Nigro, Vincenzo; Molinari, Anna Maria; Moncharmont, Bruno; Puca, Giovanni A.

    1998-01-01

    A 104-kD protein was coimmunoprecipitated with the estrogen receptor from the flowtrough of a phosphocellulose chromatography of MCF-7 cell nuclear extract. mAbs to this protein identified several cDNA clones coding for the human 104-kD major vault protein. Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles of unknown function present in all eukaryotic cells. They have a complex morphology, including several small molecules of RNA, but a single protein species, the major vault protein, accounts for >70% of their mass. Their shape is reminiscent of the nucleopore central plug, but no proteins of known function have been described to interact with them. Western blot analysis of vaults purified on sucrose gradient showed the presence of estrogen receptor co-migrating with the vault peak. The AER317 antibody to estrogen receptor coimmunoprecipitated the major vault protein and the vault RNA also in the 20,000 g supernatant fraction. Reconstitution experiments of estrogen receptor fragments with the major vault protein mapped the site of the interaction between amino acids 241 and 280 of human estrogen receptor, where the nuclear localization signal sequences are located. Estradiol treatment of cells increased the amount of major vault protein present in the nuclear extract and coimmunoprecipitated with estrogen receptor, whereas the anti-estrogen ICI182,780 had no effect. The hormone-dependent interaction of vaults with estrogen receptor was reproducible in vitro and was prevented by sodium molybdate. Antibodies to progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were able to coimmunoprecipitate the major vault protein. The association of nuclear receptors with vaults could be related to their intracellular traffic. PMID:9628887

  10. Group-normalized wavelet packet signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhuoer; Bao, Zheng

    1997-04-01

    Since the traditional wavelet and wavelet packet coefficients do not exactly represent the strength of signal components at the very time(space)-frequency tilling, group- normalized wavelet packet transform (GNWPT), is presented for nonlinear signal filtering and extraction from the clutter or noise, together with the space(time)-frequency masking technique. The extended F-entropy improves the performance of GNWPT. For perception-based image, soft-logic masking is emphasized to remove the aliasing with edge preserved. Lawton's method for complex valued wavelets construction is extended to generate the complex valued compactly supported wavelet packets for radar signal extraction. This kind of wavelet packets are symmetry and unitary orthogonal. Well-defined wavelet packets are chosen by the analysis remarks on their time-frequency characteristics. For real valued signal processing, such as images and ECG signal, the compactly supported spline or bi- orthogonal wavelet packets are preferred for perfect de- noising and filtering qualities.

  11. Ingestion of Laundry Detergent Packets in Children.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lindsey Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of laundry detergent packets is an important threat to young children. Because of their developmental stage, toddlers are prone to place these small, colorful packets in their mouths. The packets can easily burst, sending a large volume of viscous, alkaline liquid throughout the oropharynx. Ingestion causes major toxic effects, including depression of the central nervous system, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, and dysphagia. Critical care nurses should anticipate these clinical effects and facilitate prompt intervention. Increased understanding of the risks and clinical effects of ingestion of laundry detergent packets will better prepare critical care nurses to provide care for these children. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:70-75).

  12. Ingestion of Laundry Detergent Packets in Children.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lindsey Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of laundry detergent packets is an important threat to young children. Because of their developmental stage, toddlers are prone to place these small, colorful packets in their mouths. The packets can easily burst, sending a large volume of viscous, alkaline liquid throughout the oropharynx. Ingestion causes major toxic effects, including depression of the central nervous system, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, and dysphagia. Critical care nurses should anticipate these clinical effects and facilitate prompt intervention. Increased understanding of the risks and clinical effects of ingestion of laundry detergent packets will better prepare critical care nurses to provide care for these children. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:70-75). PMID:27481804

  13. Exploring multiple degrees of freedom in Rydberg wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haidan

    2006-12-01

    Recent advances in the study of Rydberg atoms have focused on the control, manipulation and detection of Rydberg wave packets using novel external fields such as half-cycle pulses. The radial degree of freedom has been controlled and used to process information encoded in Rydberg states. However, these previous experiments make use of only a single degree of freedom, restricting the potential of other degrees of freedom for quantum computing in Rydberg atoms. In this dissertation, we explore the control and detection of other degrees of freedom in an electron wave packet, such as the angular momentum quantum number ℓ, the magnetic quantum number m and the electron spin; so that the full range of quantum numbers can participate in information processing. We first propose an interferometric control of the population of angular momentum states using two time-delayed phase-locked ultrafast laser pulses. The population of arbitrary angular momentum states can be greatly enhanced by optimizing the time delay and the relative phases between two laser pulses. We then qualitatively measure the evolution of angular momentum components in Stark wave packets by a weak half-cycle pulse (HCP). This measurement utilizes a time-delayed HCP and is proved to be effective for detecting various aspects of wave packet dynamics, particularly, the evolution of non-stationary states. The technique relies on the fact that the HCP redistributes the eigenstate populations and induced the population variation which reflects the evolution of eigenstate phases. Finally, we find that the dynamics of m-states could be highly correlated with the internal degree of freedom of the electron, the spin. We study the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the wave packet dynamics and observe the angular precession of a Rydberg wave packet. The population redistribution from p to s states is highly sensitive to the polarization of the HCP and changes with the precession of the electron orbit. We obtain the

  14. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  15. Grooming. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…

  16. Handwashing Technique. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on handwashing. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to…

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  18. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  19. Effect of Materials and Manufacturing on the Bending Stiffness of Vaulting Poles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)…

  20. 105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC-3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT AND SLC-3E CABLE TUNNEL. NOTE WOODEN PLANKING ON FLOOR OF TUNNEL AND CABLE TRAYS LINING TUNNEL WALLS. STAIRS ON EAST WALL OF CABLE VAULT LEAD INTO LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Catapult effect in pole vaulting: is muscle coordination determinant?

    PubMed

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Hug, François; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the phase between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height (HP) of vaulter and aimed at determining the catapult effect in pole vaulting on HP. Seven experienced vaulters performed 5-10 vaults recorded by two video cameras, while the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of 10 upper limbs muscles was recorded. HP was compared with an estimated maximum height (HP(est)) allowing the computation of a push-off index. Muscle synergies were extracted from the sEMG activity profiles using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. No significant difference (p>0.47) was found between HP(est) (4.64±0.21m) and HP (4.69±0.23m). Despite a high inter-individual variability in sEMG profiles, two muscle synergies were extracted for all the subjects which accounted for 96.1±2.9% of the total variance. While, the synergy activation coefficients were very similar across subjects, a higher variability was found in the muscle synergy vectors. Consequently, whatever the push-off index among the pole vaulters, the athletes used different muscle groupings (i.e., muscle synergy vectors) which were activated in a similar fashion (i.e., synergy activation coefficients). Overall, these results suggested that muscle coordination adopted between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height does not have a major influence on HP.

  2. Bad data packet capture device

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-04-20

    An apparatus and method for capturing data packets for analysis on a network computing system includes a sending node and a receiving node connected by a bi-directional communication link. The sending node sends a data transmission to the receiving node on the bi-directional communication link, and the receiving node receives the data transmission and verifies the data transmission to determine valid data and invalid data and verify retransmissions of invalid data as corresponding valid data. A memory device communicates with the receiving node for storing the invalid data and the corresponding valid data. A computing node communicates with the memory device and receives and performs an analysis of the invalid data and the corresponding valid data received from the memory device.

  3. Vault Nanoparticles Packaged with Enzymes as an Efficient Pollutant Biodegradation Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Abad, Danny; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Mahendra, Shaily

    2015-11-24

    Vault nanoparticles packaged with enzymes were synthesized as agents for efficiently degrading environmental contaminants. Enzymatic biodegradation is an attractive technology for in situ cleanup of contaminated environments because enzyme-catalyzed reactions are not constrained by nutrient requirements for microbial growth and often have higher biodegradation rates. However, the limited stability of extracellular enzymes remains a major challenge for practical applications. Encapsulation is a recognized method to enhance enzymatic stability, but it can increase substrate diffusion resistance, lower catalytic rates, and increase the apparent half-saturation constants. Here, we report an effective approach for boosting enzymatic stability by single-step packaging into vault nanoparticles. With hollow core structures, assembled vault nanoparticles can simultaneously contain multiple enzymes. Manganese peroxidase (MnP), which is widely used in biodegradation of organic contaminants, was chosen as a model enzyme in the present study. MnP was incorporated into vaults via fusion to a packaging domain called INT, which strongly interacts with vaults' interior surface. MnP fused to INT and vaults packaged with the MnP-INT fusion protein maintained peroxidase activity. Furthermore, MnP-INT packaged in vaults displayed stability significantly higher than that of free MnP-INT, with slightly increased Km value. Additionally, vault-packaged MnP-INT exhibited 3 times higher phenol biodegradation in 24 h than did unpackaged MnP-INT. These results indicate that the packaging of MnP enzymes in vault nanoparticles extends their stability without compromising catalytic activity. This research will serve as the foundation for the development of efficient and sustainable vault-based bioremediation approaches for removing multiple contaminants from drinking water and groundwater.

  4. Vault Nanoparticles Packaged with Enzymes as an Efficient Pollutant Biodegradation Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Abad, Danny; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Mahendra, Shaily

    2015-11-24

    Vault nanoparticles packaged with enzymes were synthesized as agents for efficiently degrading environmental contaminants. Enzymatic biodegradation is an attractive technology for in situ cleanup of contaminated environments because enzyme-catalyzed reactions are not constrained by nutrient requirements for microbial growth and often have higher biodegradation rates. However, the limited stability of extracellular enzymes remains a major challenge for practical applications. Encapsulation is a recognized method to enhance enzymatic stability, but it can increase substrate diffusion resistance, lower catalytic rates, and increase the apparent half-saturation constants. Here, we report an effective approach for boosting enzymatic stability by single-step packaging into vault nanoparticles. With hollow core structures, assembled vault nanoparticles can simultaneously contain multiple enzymes. Manganese peroxidase (MnP), which is widely used in biodegradation of organic contaminants, was chosen as a model enzyme in the present study. MnP was incorporated into vaults via fusion to a packaging domain called INT, which strongly interacts with vaults' interior surface. MnP fused to INT and vaults packaged with the MnP-INT fusion protein maintained peroxidase activity. Furthermore, MnP-INT packaged in vaults displayed stability significantly higher than that of free MnP-INT, with slightly increased Km value. Additionally, vault-packaged MnP-INT exhibited 3 times higher phenol biodegradation in 24 h than did unpackaged MnP-INT. These results indicate that the packaging of MnP enzymes in vault nanoparticles extends their stability without compromising catalytic activity. This research will serve as the foundation for the development of efficient and sustainable vault-based bioremediation approaches for removing multiple contaminants from drinking water and groundwater. PMID:26493711

  5. Experiments examining drag in linear droplet packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. V.; Dunn-Rankin, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of vertically traveling droplet packets, where the droplets in each packet are aligned linearly, one behind another. The paper describes in detail, an experimental apparatus that produces repeatable, linearly aligned, and isolated droplet packets containing 1 6 droplets per packet. The apparatus is suitable for examining aerodynamic interactions between droplets within each packet. This paper demonstrates the performance of the apparatus by examining the drag reduction and collision of droplets traveling in the wake of a lead droplet. Comparison of a calculated single droplet trajectory with the detailed droplet position versus time data for a droplet packet provides the average drag reduction experienced by the trailing droplets due to the aerodynamic wake of the lead droplet. For the conditions of our experiment (4 droplet packet, 145 μm methanol droplets, 10 m/s initial velocity, initial droplet spacing of 5.2 droplet diameters, Reynolds number approx. 80) the average drag on the first trailing droplet was found to be 75% of the drag on the lead droplet.

  6. The performance analysis of linux networking - packet receiving

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt; Bowden, Mark; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    The computing models for High-Energy Physics experiments are becoming ever more globally distributed and grid-based, both for technical reasons (e.g., to place computational and data resources near each other and the demand) and for strategic reasons (e.g., to leverage equipment investments). To support such computing models, the network and end systems, computing and storage, face unprecedented challenges. One of the biggest challenges is to transfer scientific data sets--now in the multi-petabyte (10{sup 15} bytes) range and expected to grow to exabytes within a decade--reliably and efficiently among facilities and computation centers scattered around the world. Both the network and end systems should be able to provide the capabilities to support high bandwidth, sustained, end-to-end data transmission. Recent trends in technology are showing that although the raw transmission speeds used in networks are increasing rapidly, the rate of advancement of microprocessor technology has slowed down. Therefore, network protocol-processing overheads have risen sharply in comparison with the time spent in packet transmission, resulting in degraded throughput for networked applications. More and more, it is the network end system, instead of the network, that is responsible for degraded performance of network applications. In this paper, the Linux system's packet receive process is studied from NIC to application. We develop a mathematical model to characterize the Linux packet receiving process. Key factors that affect Linux systems network performance are analyzed.

  7. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  8. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    SciTech Connect

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC.

  9. Interconnecting network for switching data packets and method for switching data packets

    DOEpatents

    Benner, Alan Frederic; Minkenberg, Cyriel Johan Agnes; Stunkel, Craig Brian

    2010-05-25

    The interconnecting network for switching data packets, having data and flow control information, comprises a local packet switch element (S1) with local input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, a remote packet switch element (S2) with remote input buffers (I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, and data lines (L) for interconnecting the local and the remote packet switch elements (S1, S2). The interconnecting network further comprises a local and a remote arbiter (A1, A2) which are connected via control lines (CL) to the input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y), I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)), and which are formed such that they can provide that the flow control information is transmitted via the data lines (L) and the control lines (CL).

  10. Cranial vault deformity and intracranial hypertension secondary to cephalic molding at delivery: a case and its management.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J P; Hollier, L H; Weiner, H L; McCarthy, J G

    1999-05-01

    Cephalic molding at birth has been traditionally felt to be benign, resulting in only a transient and self-correcting cranial deformity. However, we report a 6-month-old infant who presented with extensive cephalic molding at birth in combination with persistent brachyturricephaly from unilateral coronal synostosis and occipital deformation. Helmet therapy over a 3-month period failed despite patient compliance and numerous adjustments. Intracranial hypertension developed, as documented by multiple occipital bony erosions on computed tomographic scan and by an elevated direct intracranial pressure reading. The cranial vault asymmetry was corrected in two surgical stages: (1) occipital bar advancement, temporoparietal bone remodeling, and midline sagittal strip compression to reduce vertical height, followed in 3 months by (2) fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling.

  11. A Comparison of Upper-Extremity Reaction Forces between the Yurchenko Vault and Floor Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Matthew K.; Bressel, Eadric

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables were peak vertical and peak anterior-posterior reaction forces. Each participant performed three trials of both conditions with the trail hand contacting a force platform. Vertical and anterior-posterior reaction forces, normalized to body weight, were greater (p < 0.05) during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault (2.38) than during the floor exercise round-off (2.15). Vertical reaction forces during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise round-off are similar to reaction forces transmitted to upper extremities during other gymnastic skills and ground reaction forces transmitted to lower extremities while running and walking at various speeds. Results of this study reveal a need for further research considering methods aimed at reducing reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities during the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise. Key PointsDespite high difficulty and increased risk, a dearth of information exists concerning reaction forces transmitted to upper-extremities of high-level gymnasts performing the Yurchenko vault.Reaction forces experienced by high-level gymnasts performing the Yurchenko vault are relatively high; aforementioned forces are comparable to forces transmitted to lower-extremities during various activities and may be responsible for upper-extremity injury.Reaction forces observed during this study will serve as a baseline in the evaluation of methods purporting to reduce forces transmitted to upper-extremities during

  12. Target-directed running in gymnastics: a preliminary exploration of vaulting.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Research to date has demonstrated the importance of running speed and an accurate take-off on gymnastics vaulting performance (Krug et al., 1998; Bohne et al., 2000). Current training practice for gymnastics vaulting is to stereotype the 15-25 m run-ups to the board, which assumes that a fast and reliable approach is best controlled predominantly without visual feedback. Incidences where gymnasts make errors during their run-ups, often landing onto the back of the board, occur frequently, even at the international level. The standard deviation method (e.g. Lee et al., 1982) for identifying visual regulation in long jump run-ups was employed in this first exploration of gymnastics vaulting to examine whether visual regulation processes are utilised. Secondly, the question of how a small number of gymnasts can run fast during the approach and perform more difficult vaults was addressed. Five elite female gymnasts aged 13-15 years performed five round-off entry vaults. One panning 50 Hz video camera recorded each trial from an elevated platform to evaluate the approach step, hurdle, and round-off characteristics, whilst two 250 Hz cameras recorded vaulting performance. Two qualified judges viewed each vaulting trial and provided a performance score. A precursor for a fast take-off from the board when vaulting is to utilise vision early to control the approach kinematics (p = 0.02). High take-off velocity was directly related to judge's score (p = 0.03). Coaches need to supplement gymnasts' vault training to include exercises that improve the gymnasts' ability to visually regulate their gait pattern whilst running.

  13. Issues in packet radio network design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, Barry M.; Nielson, Donald L.; Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1987-01-01

    The physical aspects of a packet radio network design, the automated management of the network, and the interface of the network to the users are examined. The networks provide data communications to users located over a broad geographic region where direct radio or wire connection between the source and destination user is not practical; the network consists of a radio, antenna, and digital controller. The physical connectivity, bandwidth-time-space management, channel access, and data link control of the network are analyzed. Consideration is given to link determination and control, routing and packet forwarding, congestion and flow control, and supported users management. The operation and management of a packet radio network, in particular network deployment and maintenance, network access methods, and its effect on the radio spectrum, are discussed. The performance and cost of a packet radio network are evaluated.

  14. A Packet Discarding Method with Two Parametrers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Atsuro; Inai, Hiroshi

    In order to avoid congestion in the network and to achieve a fair share of the resource among communication flows, the packet discarding method called RED (Random Early Detection) has been proposed. In that method, a router randomly discards arriving packets before its buffer overflows. Although some enhanced methods of RED have been proposed, they employ complicated controls to achieve high throughput and fairness among communication flows. However, many control parameters in the complicated methods would prevent from reaching their practical stages. This paper proposes a simple packet discarding method which reduces the number of parameters and provides better performance than existing ones. Concretely speaking, our method omits the probabilistic packet discard from RED. Via simulation, the proposed method provides higher throughput than existing ones and almost equal fairness.

  15. Individualized Science Packets for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blurton, Craig

    1983-01-01

    Discusses four problems facing gifted students in elementary science classrooms. Suggests development of teacher-made science packets to resolve these and other problems. A sample lesson on animal classification for grade three is provided. (JN)

  16. Quality assurance plan for placement of cold-cap grout, demonstration vault, Hanford Grout Vault Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, P.T.; Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; Walley, D.M.

    1992-08-01

    During FY 91, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold cap, a nonradioactive layer, between the solidified waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration waste disposal vault at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Facility. This document recommends requirements for a quality assurance (QA) plan for field mixing and placing of the cold-cap grout during final closure of the demonstration vault. Preplacement activities emphasize selection and testing of materials that will match the performance of materials used in the WES grout. Materials sources and applicable American Society of Testing and Materials, American Concrete Institute, and American Petroleum Institute specifications and requirements are provided. Archiving of physical samples of materials is essential, in addition to careful maintenance of test reports and laboratory data. Full-scale field trial mixing and a detailed preconstruction conference are recommended. Placement activities focus on production and placement of a grout that remains sufficiently constant throughout all batches and meets performance requirements. QA activities must be coordinated between the batch plant and delivery site. Recommended sampling during placement includes cylinders cast for subsequent tests of compressive strength and for nondestructive evaluation and prisms cast for monitoring volume stability. A minimum of two lifts is recommended. Postplacement activities include long-term monitoring of the properties of grout specimens cast during placement. Minimum testing of cylinders includes pulse velocity, fundamental frequency, and unconfined compressive strength. Monitoring characteristics of the microstructure also are recommended. The QA plan should designate an organization to have responsibility for maintaining complete records, reports, and archived samples, including details of deviations from plans written before field placement.

  17. Comparison of Ring-Buffer-Based Packet Capture Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Steven Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Traditional packet-capture solutions using commodity hardware incur a large amount of overhead as packets are copied multiple times by the operating system. This overhead slows sensor systems to a point where they are unable to keep up with high bandwidth traffic, resulting in dropped packets. Incomplete packet capture files hinder network monitoring and incident response efforts. While costly commercial hardware exists to capture high bandwidth traffic, several software-based approaches exist to improve packet capture performance using commodity hardware.

  18. Polyribosomes are molecular 3D nanoprinters that orchestrate the assembly of vault particles.

    PubMed

    Mrazek, Jan; Toso, Daniel; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Zhang, Xing; Zhou, Z Hong; Fernandez, Beatriz Campo; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H

    2014-11-25

    Ribosomes are molecular machines that function in polyribosome complexes to translate genetic information, guide the synthesis of polypeptides, and modulate the folding of nascent proteins. Here, we report a surprising function for polyribosomes as a result of a systematic examination of the assembly of a large ribonucleoprotein complex, the vault particle. Structural and functional evidence points to a model of vault assembly whereby the polyribosome acts like a 3D nanoprinter to direct the ordered translation and assembly of the multi-subunit vault homopolymer, a process which we refer to as polyribosome templating. Structure-based mutagenesis and cell-free in vitro expression studies further demonstrated the critical importance of the polyribosome in vault assembly. Polyribosome templating prevents chaos by ensuring efficiency and order in the production of large homopolymeric protein structures in the crowded cellular environment and might explain the origin of many polyribosome-associated molecular assemblies inside the cell.

  19. LPT. EBOR (TAN646) reactor vault. Concrete blocks for reactor shielding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR (TAN-646) reactor vault. Concrete blocks for reactor shielding going into shield test facility pool. Photographer: Comiskey. Date: February 19, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-933 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. GardnerDenver compressor, now occupying the former transformer vault to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gardner-Denver compressor, now occupying the former transformer vault to the West of the plant switch house - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  1. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  2. Vault Safety and Inventory System users manual, PRIME 2350. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, N.J.

    1994-12-14

    This revision is issued to request review of the attached document: VSIS User Manual, PRIME 2350, which provides user information for the operation of the VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System). It describes operational aspects of Prime 2350 minicomputer and vault data acquisition equipment. It also describes the User`s Main Menu and menu functions, including REPORTS. Also, system procedures for the Prime 2350 minicomputer are covered.

  3. Dynamics of Attosecond Electron Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritsson, Johan

    2005-05-01

    We present results from some of the first experimental studies of attosecond electron wave packets created via the absorption of ultrashort extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light pulses [1]. The pulses, made via high harmonic generation, form an attosecond pulse train (APT) whose properties we can manipulate by a combination of spatial and spectral filtering. For instance, we show that on-target attosecond pulses of 170 as duration, which is close to the single cycle limit, can be produced [2]. The electron wave packets created when such an APT is used to ionize an atom are different from the tunneling wave packets familiar from strong field ionization. We show how to measure the dynamics of these wave packets in a strong infrared (IR) field, where the absorption of energy above the ionization threshold is found to depend strongly on the APT-IR delay [3]. We also demonstrate that altering the properties of the initial electron wave packet by manipulating the APT changes the subsequent continuum electron dynamics. Finally, we show how the phase of a longer, femtosecond electron wave packet can be modulated by a moderately strong IR pulse with duration comparable to or shorter than that of the electron wave packet. This experiment reveals how the normal ponderomotive shift of an XUV ionization event is modified when the IR pulse is shorter than the XUV pulse.[1] The experiments were done at Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden.[2] R. López-Martens, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005)[3] P. Johnsson, et al., submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

  4. Radiology/Imaging. Clinical Rotation. Instructor's Packet and Student Study Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    The instructor's packet, the first of two packets, is one of a series of materials designed to help students who are investigating the activities within a radiology department or considering any of the imaging technologies as a career. The material is designed to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. This packet…

  5. Social Security. Cooperative Work Experience Learning Activity Packet: Series on Job Entry and Adjustment; Packet Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschbach, Dennis R.; And Others

    This student booklet is sixth in an illustrated series of eleven learning activity packets for use in teaching job hunting and application procedures and the management of wages to secondary students. Four units are included in this packet to explain (1) the different benefits social security provides and the principles behind the program; (2) the…

  6. An estimation of tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, A.D.; Cook, J.R.

    1991-12-02

    At the request of Waste Management, Interim Waste Technology has conducted a modeling study to estimate the tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults. These inventory limits are based on the groundwater impact of the planned waste disposal. The tritium inventory limit for an Intermediate Level Tritium Vault (ILTV) is estimated to be 400,000 Curies with a 100 year storage period. During this period, it is assumed that the ILTV will be vented, any leachate will be extracted, and its performance will be carefully monitored. The tritium inventory limits for a Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV) and an Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vault (ILNTV) are estimated to be 15,000 and 11,000 Curies, respectively. Venting and leachate extraction were not assumed necessary. These operational alternatives would further enhance the performance of these vaults. These limits are significantly higher than the forecasted maximum tritium inventories for the vaults. Details of the modeling study are described in the attached report.

  7. High Angular Momentum Rydberg Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyker, Brendan

    2011-12-01

    High angular momentum Rydberg wave packets are studied. Application of carefully tailored electric fields to low angular momentum, high- n (n ˜ 300) Rydberg atoms creates coherent superpositions of Stark states with near extreme values of angular momentum, ℓ. Wave packet components orbit the parent nucleus at rates that depend on their energy, leading to periods of localization and delocalization as the components come into and go out of phase with each other. Monitoring survival probability signals in the presence of position dependent probing leads to observation of characteristic oscillations based on the composition of the wave packet. The discrete nature of electron energy levels is observed through the measurement of quantum revivals in the wave packet localization signal. Time-domain spectroscopy of these signals allows determination of both the population and phase of individual superposition components. Precise manipulation of wave packets is achieved through further application of pulsed electric fields. Decoherence effects due to background gas collisions and electrical noise are also detailed. Quantized classical trajectory Monte-Carlo simulations are introduced and agree remarkably well with experimental results.

  8. LIBS identification of pigments from Aula Leopoldina vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, R.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Marczak, J.; Sarzynski, A.

    2009-07-01

    Aula Leopoldina is the most representative, baroque hall in Wroclaw University. In 2008, LIBS measurements of paintings layers of Aula vault were done. LIBS spectra permitted identification of mineral pigments used for specific colors of painting layers. This identification could not be unambiguous in each case since simultaneous occurrence of elements that could be components of different pigments of the same color was observed in some samples. For example, in some red samples the presence of aluminum and iron was stated, and hence red ochre or Mars red could be used as a pigment. In other samples the cinnabar can be additionally responsible for red color. Similar problems were observed in case of blue pigments, where existence of copper may show that azurite was used, but the presence of aluminum, sodium, silicon and iron can point to application of ultramarine, Egyptian or Prussian blues. The greatest difficulties occurred during identification of white pigments. Because of presence of barium, zinc, lead and titanium, the potential pigments might be lithopone, barite, zinc white, lead white or titanium white. Final choice of the pigment is determined by the time of last renovation and this points out that the zinc white was used.

  9. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-03-25

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  10. Parametric Packet-Layer Model for Evaluation Audio Quality in Multimedia Streaming Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egi, Noritsugu; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira

    We propose a parametric packet-layer model for monitoring audio quality in multimedia streaming services such as Internet protocol television (IPTV). This model estimates audio quality of experience (QoE) on the basis of quality degradation due to coding and packet loss of an audio sequence. The input parameters of this model are audio bit rate, sampling rate, frame length, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length. Audio bit rate, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length are calculated from header information in received IP packets. For sampling rate, frame length, and audio codec type, the values or the names used in monitored services are input into this model directly. We performed a subjective listening test to examine the relationships between these input parameters and perceived audio quality. The codec used in this test was the Advanced Audio Codec-Low Complexity (AAC-LC), which is one of the international standards for audio coding. On the basis of the test results, we developed an audio quality evaluation model. The verification results indicate that audio quality estimated by the proposed model has a high correlation with perceived audio quality.

  11. Packet radar spectrum recovery for physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Ehsan; Padasdao, Bryson; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Packet Doppler radar is investigated for extracting physiological signals. System on Chip is employed as a signal source in packet mode, and it transmits signals intermittently at 2.405 GHz to save power. Reflected signals are demodulated directly by spectral analysis of received pulses in the baseband. Spectral subtraction, using data from an empty room, is applied to extract the periodic movement. It was experimentally demonstrated that frequency of the periodic motion can be accurately extracted using this technique. Proposed approach reduces the computation complexity of the signal processing part effectively. PMID:24110048

  12. Packet Transport Technologies for Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lometti, Alberto; Busi, Italo; Grandi, Pietro; Sestito, Vincenzo; Paparella, Andrea

    The purpose of a transport network is to provide a reliable aggregation and transport infrastructure for any client traffic type, in any scale, at the lowest cost per bit. With the growth of packet services, operators are transforming their network infrastructures while looking at reducing capital expenditures and maximizing operational savings. In that scope, new technologies are emerging such as transport multi-protocol label switching and provider backbone transport. This article outlines the state of the art for packet-based transport technologies, comparing them and highlighting the key factors.

  13. Packet radar spectrum recovery for physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Ehsan; Padasdao, Bryson; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Packet Doppler radar is investigated for extracting physiological signals. System on Chip is employed as a signal source in packet mode, and it transmits signals intermittently at 2.405 GHz to save power. Reflected signals are demodulated directly by spectral analysis of received pulses in the baseband. Spectral subtraction, using data from an empty room, is applied to extract the periodic movement. It was experimentally demonstrated that frequency of the periodic motion can be accurately extracted using this technique. Proposed approach reduces the computation complexity of the signal processing part effectively.

  14. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  15. All-optical packet header and payload separation for un-slotted optical packet switched networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Zhang, Min; Ye, Peida

    2005-11-01

    A novel all-optical header and payload separation technique that can be utilized in un-slotted optical packet switched networks is presented. The technique uses a modified TOAD for packet header extraction with differential modulation scheme and two SOAs that perform a simple XOR operation between the packet and its self-derived header to get the separated payload. The main virtue of this system is simple structure and need not any additional continuous pulses. Through numerical simulations, the operating characteristics of the scheme are illustrated. In addition, the parameters of the system are discussed and designed to optimize the operation performance.

  16. X-ray Crystal Structure of the Vault, Largest Ribonucleoprotein Particle, with a Molecular Weight of 10 MDa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hideaki; Kato, Koji; Yamashita, Eiki

    Vaults are among the largest cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles and are found in numerous eukaryotic species. Although roles in multidrug resistance and innate immunity have been suggested, the cellular function remains unclear. We have determined the X-ray structure of rat liver vault at 3.5 Å resolution. A vault particle shell was composed of 78 MVP (Major vault protein) chains with 39-fold dihedral symmetry. The shoulder domain of MVP is structurally similar to SPFH (stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C) domain involved in lipid raft association.

  17. New Generation Dresden NPP Demineralizer Vault Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, M.S.; CET, Ph.D.; Forrester, K.; Azar, M.

    2008-07-01

    Electro-coagulation (EC) is a technique that facilitates rapid destabilization and flocculation of colloidal suspensions to cause the suspended solids to separate from slurry phase. It is generally accepted that coagulation is brought about primarily by the reduction of the net surface charge to a point where the colloidal particles, previously stabilized by electrostatic repulsion, can approach closely enough for van der Waals forces to hold them together and allow aggregation. In the EC process, the coagulant is generated in situ by electrolytic oxidation of an appropriate anode material (aluminum in this case). In this process, charged ionic species, metals or otherwise, and suspended solids are removed from wastewater by allowing them to interact with an ion having opposite charge, or with floc of metallic hydroxides generated electrochemically within the effluent. Typically, no supplementary organic polymer coagulant addition is required. Thus, electro-coagulation (EC) was found to be an attractive treatment option to rapidly destabilize the colloidal particulate phase, allowing more facile particulate removal by decantation and/or coarse filtration. However, the liquid medium must have some conductivity (> 100 {mu}mho is preferred), in order to allow effective electrical coupling with the EC electrodes. A very small amount of aluminum or sodium sulfate salts can be added to the feed slurry, adjusting the water quality parameters to a conductivity of >100 {mu}mho and a pH value near 6.0-7.0. The EC-treated vault slurry had a pH value near 6.5 (within the pH range for minimal solubility of amphoteric aluminum hydroxide). In contrast to untreated wastewater, the agglomerated particles in the EC-treated aliquot could be filtered relatively rapidly, yielding a clear filtrate, indicating that the flocs that have been formed are now > 20- {mu}m in size, are pumpable (high shear strength), and filterable/dewaterable with ease (low water content). Final waste volumes

  18. Controllably accelerating and decelerating Airy–Bessel–Gaussian wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fu; Yu, Weihao; Deng, Dongmei

    2016-11-01

    By solving the (3  +  1)D free-space Schrödinger equation in polar coordinates analytically, we have investigated the propagation of 3D controllably accelerating and decelerating Airy–Bessel–Gaussian (CAiBG) wave packets, even CAiBG wave packets, odd CAiBG wave packets and the superposition of several CAiBG wave packets in free space. The CAiBG wave packets are constructed with the Airy pulses with initial velocity in temporal domain and the Bessel–Gaussian beams in space domain. Due to the initial velocity on Airy pulses, we can obtain decelerating and accelerating Airy–Bessel–Gaussian wave packets by selecting different initial velocities. Moreover, by superposing several CAiBG wave packets, we can obtain the rotating wave packets.

  19. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  20. The European Space Agency standard for space packet utilisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Parkes, A.; Pidgeon, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the ESA concept for the use of CCSDS defined Telemetry and Telecommand Packets at the application level. These Packets are used to monitor and control remotely a space born application. This concept is defined in a Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS) which should become applicable for all ESA missions using Packets. The production of this standard is under the responsibility of an ESA standardization group called 'COES'.

  1. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  2. The Air We Breathe. Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

    This packet of materials is intended to provide teachers with an interdisciplinary approach to integrating air quality education into the existing curriculum of Connecticut schools. The unit is designed to complement the student booklet "The Air We Breathe," which is included. A major portion of the document is comprised of teaching activities.…

  3. Biological Diversity. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    Biological diversity, also commonly called genetic diversity, refers to the variety of organisms on Earth. Scientists are concerned that many species will become extinct because of extensive development in the tropical regions. This packet is designed to increase student's awareness about direct and indirect causes of extinction, endangered…

  4. Peninsula Humane Society Teacher's Packet. Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this teacher's packet are designed to familiarize secondary school students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons grouped under social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities focus on pet overpopulation, expressions of social responses in…

  5. Cashier/Checker Learning Activity Packets (LAPs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Twenty-four learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for six areas of instruction in a cashier/checker program. Section A, Orientation, contains an LAP on exploring the job of cashier-checker. Section B, Operations, has nine LAPs, including those on operating the cash register, issuing trading stamps, and completing the cash register balance…

  6. Metro College for Living. Workshop Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    This packet contains information and materials for conducting a training workshop for working with adults who are developmentally disabled. The materials are specifically designed to train volunteer teachers in the College for Living (CFL) program, which supplements residential programs in and around Denver and aids institutions in orienting…

  7. Resource Packet on Disability, Spirituality, and Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Nancy

    This resource packet includes information relating to the inclusion of people with disabilities in the Christian church. The first article, "Changing Attitudes, Creating Awareness," highlights several critical areas where churches can begin to understand the barriers of exclusion to people with disabilities. The following article, "Victim…

  8. The World Around You. Environmental Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garden Club of America, New York, NY.

    The Garden Club of America has compiled this environmental education packet of informational materials to help teachers educate their students for survival. The "Study Guide" contains essays by ten authorities on topics of population, soil, air, water, power and energy, solid waste management, open space, public lands, oceans, and wildlife. Each…

  9. Passive analysis technique for packet link performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, G.; Wan, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a bearer link is usually assessed by bit error rate (BER) tests or measurement of the error free seconds (EFS). These require exclusive access to the link. An alternative technique is presented that measures performance by passive observation of the frames passing over a packet link. This may be used to estimate the performance of the link.

  10. [Alum Rock Voucher Project. Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose, CA.

    This packet contains (1) informational booklets for parents in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, (2) a booklet on the pros and cons of a voucher system, (3) promotional material, (4) a progress report on the project, (5) the project proposal to OEO, and (6) a sample school and program preferences form. The program, according to the…

  11. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment. PMID:18784013

  12. The Hecht vault performed at the 1995 World Gymnastics Championships: deterministic model and judges' scores.

    PubMed

    Takei, Y; Blucker, E P; Nohara, H; Yamashita, N

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical variables that govern success of the Hecht vault. The participants were 122 male gymnasts from 30 countries performing the vault at the 1995 World Gymnastics Championships. The vaults were filmed using a Photosonics 16-mm motion picture camera operating at 100 Hz. Approximately 80 frames were digitized for each vault analysed. The method of Hay and Reid was used to develop a theoretical model to identify the mechanical and physical variables that determine linear and angular motions of the vault. Correlational analysis was used to establish the strength of the relationship between the causal mechanical variables identified in the model and the judges' scores. Significant correlations (P < 0.005) indicated that the following were important determinants of success: large horizontal and vertical velocities at take-off from the board and the horse; large vertical and angular distances of pre-flight; large vertical impulses of high force and short duration exerted on the horse and the resulting large changes in vertical velocity on the horse; and large horizontal and vertical distances and long times of post-flight. Of the 18 significant variables identified in the present study, the angular distance of pre- and post-flights, the horizontal velocity and angular momentum at take-off from the horse, and the average moment of inertia and duration of post-flight collectively accounted for 57% of the variation in the judges' scores. PMID:11144862

  13. Influence of kinematic parameters on pole vault result in top junior athletes.

    PubMed

    Zagorac, Nebojsa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the research was to ascertain the level of correlation between some kinematic parameters and the result success in the pole vault, using the sample of the best European female junior athletes. A set of 11 kinematic parameters has been applied, according to the McGinnis model, representing a predictor assemblage of variables. The maximum height vaulted presented a criterion variable. The research was conducted at the European Junior Athletics Championships in 2009. The entities were represented by the vaults in the final part of the competition. A general hypothesis of achieving a positive correlation between the system of predictor variables and the criteria had been set, and later confirmed. The results of the pole vault regression analysis confirmed the multiple correlations between the two groups of variables. The greatest influences on the prediction of pole vault success, regarding all the analyzed kinematic parameters, were the following variables: maximum pole bend, last stride speed and time of pole bend. The results were as expected, and can be used in kinesiology practice, especially during the technique learning process in young pole vaulters, but also in development of motor abilities relevant for success in this track and field discipline.

  14. PROJECT SUCCESS: Art. (Introductory Packet, Drawing, Claywork, Painting).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Nancy

    Four packets comprise the art component of an enrichment program for gifted elementary students. The introduction packet reviews identification of children gifted in art through pre and post measures. A drawing packet reviews techniques for such activities as human figure drawing, shading, crayon rubbinqs, experimenting with perspective, and…

  15. Television Compression Algorithms And Transmission On Packet Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, R. C.; Othmer, J. H.

    1988-10-01

    Wide-band packet transmission is a subject of strong current interest. The transmission of compressed TV signals over such networks is possible with any quality level. There are some specific advantages in using packet networks for TV transmission. Namely, any fixed data rate can be chosen, or a variable data rate can be utilized. However, on the negative side packet loss must be considered and differential delay in packet arrival must be compensated. The possibility of packet loss has a strong influence on compression algorithm choice. Differential delay of packet arrival is a new problem in codec design. Some issues relevant to mutual design of the transmission networks and compression algorithms will be presented. An assumption is that the packet network will maintain packet sequence integrity. For variable-rate transmission, a reasonable definition of peak data rate is necessary. Rate constraints may be necessary to encourage instituting a variable-rate service on the networks. The charging algorithm for network use will have an effect on selection of compression algorithm. Some values of and procedures for implementing packet priorities are discussed. Packet length has only a second-order effect on packet-TV considerations. Some examples of a range of codecs for differing data rates and picture quality are given. These serve to illustrate sensitivities to the various characteristics of packet networks. Perhaps more important, we talk about what we do not know about the design of such systems.

  16. Is palatal vault height a determinant for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Das, Sayan; Gupta, Tejpal; Dholam, Kanchan; Chouksey, Gunjan; Ghosh Laskar, Sarbani; Prakash Agarwal, Jai

    2015-11-01

    Although environmental and genetic factors are known for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the present study is an attempt to provide a hypothesis behind the development of NPC with regards to the anatomical factor, the hypothesis being that patients with a deeper palatal vault tend to have a higher risk of developing nasopharyngeal cancers. The objective of this study was to find out the palatal vault height in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and compare it with the palatal vault height in patients with oral carcinomas. The heights of the palatal vault of 20 consecutive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 20 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity (except hard palate) as control were recorded. In addition, in patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx the height of the palate on the CT scans was measured and correlation between these recordings were calculated. The palatal heights of the nasopharyngeal and oral cancer cohorts were compared using independent sample T test. A strong correlation was observed in the nasopharyngeal cancer cohort between the palatal height measured manually and the radiologically measured height on the CT scans (Pearson Correlation Coefficient - 0.633; p=0.003). The difference in the mean heights of the nasopharyngeal and oral cancer cohorts was statistically significant (p<0.001). Nasopharyngeal cancer patients tend to have a higher palatal vault height compared to those with carcinoma of oral cavity other than hard palate. In such palates with a deep vault, there is increased turbulent air flow leading to increased deposition of air-borne virus/carcinogens. Lingering of these agents may ultimately cause carcinoma of the nasopharynx. PMID:26206762

  17. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  18. Effect of Coulomb interaction on multi-electronwave packet dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Shiokawa, T.; Takada, Y.; Konabe, S.; Hatsugai, Y.; Muraguchi, M.; Endoh, T.; Shiraishi, K.

    2013-12-04

    We have investigated the effect of Coulomb interaction on electron transport in a one-dimensional nanoscale structure using a multi-electron wave packet approach. To study the time evolution, we numerically solve the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation, finding that the electron wave packet dynamics strongly depends on the Coulomb interaction strength. When the Coulomb interaction is large, each electron wave packet moves separately in the presence of an electric field. With weak Coulomb interaction, however, the electron wave packets overlap, forming and moving as one collective wave packet.

  19. Silicon-Germanium Fast Packet Switch Developed for Communications Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, Jorge A.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging multimedia applications and future satellite systems will require high-speed switching networks to accommodate high data-rate traffic among thousands of potential users. This will require advanced switching devices to enable communication between satellites. The NASA Lewis Research Center has been working closely with industry to develop a state-of-the-art fast packet switch (FPS) to fulfill this requirement. Recently, the Satellite Industry Task Force identified the need for high-capacity onboard processing switching components as one of the "grand challenges" for the satellite industry in the 21st century. In response to this challenge, future generations of onboard processing satellites will require low power and low mass components to enable transmission of services in the 100 gigabit (1011 bits) per second (Gbps) range.

  20. A computer program to facilitate performance assessment of underground low-level waste concrete vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, K.A.; Clifton, J.R.; Pommersheim, J.

    1996-08-01

    A computer program (4SIGHT) to facilitate performance assessment of underground concrete vaults for low level waste (LLW) disposal facilities is being developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Specifically, the program predicts the hydraulic conductivity and the service life of an underground concrete vault. The hydraulic conductivity estimate is based upon empirical relations. The service life is estimated from consideration of three major degradation processes: steel reinforcement corrosion, sulfate attack, and leaching. The performance prediction is based upon ion transport equations for both diffusion and advection. Most importantly, the computer program incorporates the synergistic degradation effects of all three processes, and their effect upon the transport coefficients.

  1. Development and Growth of the Normal Cranial Vault : An Embryologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Sang-Dae

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of a skull deformity requires an understanding of the normal morphogenesis of the cranium. Craniosynostosis is the premature, pathologic ossification of one or more cranial sutures leading to skull deformities. A review of the English medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about the prenatal development and growth of the cranial vault of the neurocranium. A process of morphogenic sequencing begins during prenatal development and growth, continues postnatally, and contributes to the basis for the differential manner of growth of cranial vault bones. This improved knowledge might facilitate comprehension of the pathophysiology of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226848

  2. Spin Models for Packet Routing Control in Computer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, T.

    We investigate packet flow in computer networks within the framework of statistical physics by using numerical simulations. As mathematical models for packet routing, we present a spin model with lattice gas spins and the one with Ising spins. Then we propose dynamic programming for optimal routing control of packet flow by using the two spin models. This is a kind of goal-directed learning for taking into account of time-dependent environment for the packets. Next we investigate a congestion problem by using the model with lattice gas spins when the packets are not sent to nodes at which their buffers are already full up with packets. Since we have found serious congestion in the packet flow, we then propose reinforcement learning for avoiding the congestion and have performed simulations on several networks including small world networks, scale free networks and so on.

  3. Wavelet packet entropy for heart murmurs classification.

    PubMed

    Safara, Fatemeh; Doraisamy, Shyamala; Azman, Azreen; Jantan, Azrul; Ranga, Sri

    2012-01-01

    Heart murmurs are the first signs of cardiac valve disorders. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to automatically differentiate normal heart sounds, from heart sounds with murmurs using various types of audio features. Entropy was successfully used as a feature to distinguish different heart sounds. In this paper, new entropy was introduced to analyze heart sounds and the feasibility of using this entropy in classification of five types of heart sounds and murmurs was shown. The entropy was previously introduced to analyze mammograms. Four common murmurs were considered including aortic regurgitation, mitral regurgitation, aortic stenosis, and mitral stenosis. Wavelet packet transform was employed for heart sound analysis, and the entropy was calculated for deriving feature vectors. Five types of classification were performed to evaluate the discriminatory power of the generated features. The best results were achieved by BayesNet with 96.94% accuracy. The promising results substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet packet entropy for heart sounds classification.

  4. A packet switched communications system for GRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Shabu; Yang, Wen-Hsing; Vadlamudi, Rani; Valenti, Joseph

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes the packet switched Instrumenters Communication System (ICS) that was developed for the Command Management Facility at GSFC to support the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft. The GRO ICS serves as a vital science data acquisition link to the GRO scientists to initiate commands for their spacecraft instruments. The system is ready to send and receive messages at any time, 24 hours a day and seven days a week. The system is based on X.25 and the International Standard Organization's (ISO) 7-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol model and has client and server components. The components of the GRO ICS are discussed along with how the Communications Subsystem for Interconnection (CSFI) and Network Control Program Packet Switching Interface (NPSI) software are used in the system.

  5. Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light.

    PubMed

    Kienberger, R; Hentschel, M; Uiberacker, M; Spielmann, Ch; Kitzler, M; Scrinzi, A; Wieland, M; Westerwalbesloh, Th; Kleineberg, U; Heinzmann, U; Drescher, M; Krausz, F

    2002-08-16

    Photoelectrons excited by extreme ultraviolet or x-ray photons in the presence of a strong laser field generally suffer a spread of their energies due to the absorption and emission of laser photons. We demonstrate that if the emitted electron wave packet is temporally confined to a small fraction of the oscillation period of the interacting light wave, its energy spectrum can be up- or downshifted by many times the laser photon energy without substantial broadening. The light wave can accelerate or decelerate the electron's drift velocity, i.e., steer the electron wave packet like a classical particle. This capability strictly relies on a sub-femtosecond duration of the ionizing x-ray pulse and on its timing to the phase of the light wave with a similar accuracy, offering a simple and potentially single-shot diagnostic tool for attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  6. Particlelike wave packets in complex scattering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérardin, Benoît; Laurent, Jérôme; Ambichl, Philipp; Prada, Claire; Rotter, Stefan; Aubry, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    A wave packet undergoes a strong spatial and temporal dispersion while propagating through a complex medium. This wave scattering is often seen as a nightmare in wave physics whether it be for focusing, imaging, or communication purposes. Controlling wave propagation through complex systems is thus of fundamental interest in many areas, ranging from optics or acoustics to medical imaging or telecommunications. Here, we study the propagation of elastic waves in a cavity and a disordered waveguide by means of laser interferometry. From the direct experimental access to the time-delay matrix of these systems, we demonstrate the existence of particlelike wave packets that remain focused in time and space throughout their complex trajectory. Due to their limited dispersion, their selective excitation will be crucially relevant for all applications involving selective wave focusing and efficient information transfer through complex media.

  7. Teleportation of nonclassical wave packets of light.

    PubMed

    Lee, Noriyuki; Benichi, Hugo; Takeno, Yuishi; Takeda, Shuntaro; Webb, James; Huntington, Elanor; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-04-15

    We report on the experimental quantum teleportation of strongly nonclassical wave packets of light. To perform this full quantum operation while preserving and retrieving the fragile nonclassicality of the input state, we have developed a broadband, zero-dispersion teleportation apparatus that works in conjunction with time-resolved state preparation equipment. Our approach brings within experimental reach a whole new set of hybrid protocols involving discrete- and continuous-variable techniques in quantum information processing for optical sciences.

  8. Packet theory of conditioning and timing.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2002-04-28

    Packet theory is based on the assumption that the momentary probability of producing a bout or packet of responding is controlled by the conditional expected time function. Bouts of head entry responses of rats into a food cup appear to have the same characteristics across a range of conditions. The conditional expected time function is the mean expected time remaining until the next food delivery as a function of time since an event such as food or stimulus onset. The conditional expected time function encodes mean interval duration as well as the distribution form so that both the mean response rate and form of responding in time can be predicted. Simulations of Packet theory produced accurate quantitative predictions of: (1) the effect of reinforcement density (mean food-food interval) and distribution form on responding; (2) scalar variance in fixed interval responding; (3) CS-US and intertrial interval effects on the strength of conditioning; and (4) the effect of the ratio of cycle:trial time on the strength of conditioning.

  9. BAG (Continuous Round Robin Packet Capture)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C. Philip

    2006-03-10

    Bag is a miniature pcap filter which takes pcap input (or input off the wire) using a bpf filter, if specified, and then writes the output to stdout or a file (in pcap format). It depends for some aspects of its functionality on a libpcap library which uses a shared memory packet capture ring bugger. There are two build in modules: chcksum and session. the build in chcksum modules is used to anonymize the ip addresses and repair any checksums in the stream. % bag -r /tmp/*.pcap -Cchucksum, 128.1 65: 10.10 The session module generates sessions which are defined as a series of packets that have two things in common. the first is a unique five-tuple composed oi an IP protocol, IP source address, IP source port, IP destination address, and IP destination port. The second is that if the originating packet is associated with a bi-directional service such as ftpltcp, characteristics and data will be kept for both flows involved with the service. The only protocols evaluated beyond the IP header are ICMP, TCP and UDP. A session can last for as long as bag is running. However, under normal conditions, sessions are generated every time they appear to have closed down. There is a man page included with the distribution which goes into more detail.

  10. BAG (Continuous Round Robin Packet Capture)

    2006-03-10

    Bag is a miniature pcap filter which takes pcap input (or input off the wire) using a bpf filter, if specified, and then writes the output to stdout or a file (in pcap format). It depends for some aspects of its functionality on a libpcap library which uses a shared memory packet capture ring bugger. There are two build in modules: chcksum and session. the build in chcksum modules is used to anonymize the ipmore » addresses and repair any checksums in the stream. % bag -r /tmp/*.pcap -Cchucksum, 128.1 65: 10.10 The session module generates sessions which are defined as a series of packets that have two things in common. the first is a unique five-tuple composed oi an IP protocol, IP source address, IP source port, IP destination address, and IP destination port. The second is that if the originating packet is associated with a bi-directional service such as ftpltcp, characteristics and data will be kept for both flows involved with the service. The only protocols evaluated beyond the IP header are ICMP, TCP and UDP. A session can last for as long as bag is running. However, under normal conditions, sessions are generated every time they appear to have closed down. There is a man page included with the distribution which goes into more detail.« less

  11. Resilient packet ring media access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thepot, Frederic

    2001-07-01

    The discussion will cover the new initiative to create a new MAC layer standard for resilient packet rings: IEEE 802.17 RPR. The key aspects of the presentation will include a preliminary address of the Metro Area Network today and the current networking technologies such as SONET/SDH which are not optimized to carry IP traffic over Metro MAN. The next segment will cover the options which could change the traditional and expensive layered networking model, and address the real benefits of marrying several technologies like Ethernet, SONET/SDH and IP into one technology. The next part of the discussion will detail the technical advantages a new MAC will bring to the services providers. Lastly a summary of the view and strategy about the acceptance and deployment of this new technology in the next 12 months, specifically, now one defines and develops standards for a Resilient Packet Ring Access Protocol for use in Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks for transfer of data packets at rates scalable to multiple gigabits per second; specifically address the data transmission requirements of carriers that have present and planned fiber optic physical infrastructure in a ring topology; and, defining and developing detailed specifications for using existing and/or new physical layers at appropriate data rates that will support transmission of this access protocol.

  12. System-level physics of autonomous nanorobots for hard chemistry and wave packet engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoli, Salvatore

    1994-08-01

    The operation of the prospective autonomous molecular robots that would represent the most advanced achievement of the molecular manufacturing conception is examined at various levels of physical description: the thermodynamic, the hydrodynamic, and the kinetic (Boltzmann) level down to local nonequilibrium thermodynamical and/or mechanical conditions possibly arising in work in some circumstances. The concept of wave packet engineering is suggested as a special technique in the exploitation of molecular robots possibilities, which are generally characterized as 'hard chemistry'.

  13. The Construction of Knowledge: A Reply to Nock and to Strong and DeVault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolley, Kathy Shepherd; Hall, Elaine J.

    1994-01-01

    Authors of original article on presentation of adoption and abortion in undergraduate marriage and family textbooks respond to commentaries on that article by Nock and by Strong and DeVault (all this issue). Respond by addressing aspects of authors' research regarding social construction approach in general and specific meaning of abortion and…

  14. Reliability and variability of day-to-day vault training measures in artistic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Hume, Patria; Calton, Mark; Aisbett, Brad

    2010-06-01

    Inter-day training reliability and variability in artistic gymnastics vaulting was determined using a customised infra-red timing gate and contact mat timing system. Thirteen Australian high performance gymnasts (eight males and five females) aged 11-23 years were assessed during two consecutive days of normal training. Each gymnast completed a number of vault repetitions per daily session. Inter-day variability of vault run-up velocities (at -18 to -12 m, -12 to -6 m, -6 to -2 m, and -2 to 0 m from the nearest edge of the beat board), and board contact, pre-flight, and table contact times were determined using mixed modelling statistics to account for random (within-subject variability) and fixed effects (gender, number of subjects, number of trials). The difference in the mean (Mdiff) and Cohen's effect sizes for reliability assessment and intra-class correlation coefficients, and the coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) were calculated for variability assessment. Approach velocity (-18 to -2m, CV = 2.4-7.8%) and board contact time (CV = 3.5%) were less variable measures when accounting for day-to-day performance differences, than pre-flight time (CV = 17.7%) and table contact time (CV = 20.5%). While pre-flight and table contact times are relevant training measures, approach velocity and board contact time are more reliable when quantifying vaulting performance. PMID:20806844

  15. Disposal Analysis of I-129 Bearing Waste Streams at the Intermediate Level Vault

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2001-01-25

    This report examines the effects of new waste-specific sorption characteristics reported for I-129 bearing wastes on inventory limits in the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). Inventory limits are described based on the revised performance assessment model using the waste-specific Kd's. Results are compared with inventory projections of waste streams for the next ten years.

  16. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault.

  17. Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes.

    PubMed

    Torres-Rouff, C; Yablonsky, L T

    2005-01-01

    This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River deltas are discussed. Temporal changes in the pattern of modification are also investigated, especially the dramatic homogenization of the custom resulting from the conquests of the Huns. This is contrasted with incidences of cranial modification in the south-central Andes, including the appearance of deliberate head shaping as well as shifts in the practice during the expansion of the Bolivian Altiplano state of Tiwanaku. Similarities in the use of cranial vault modification between these unrelated areas and in the alterations of the practice resulting from foreign contact are considered in light of vault modification's role as a malleable cultural artifact.

  18. BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA-631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT FOR BRINE PITS. CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING FOR BRINE PUMPS. CONCRETE PIPE TRENCH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-808-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0608-00-098-100677. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a saltstone vault

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, A.D.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Hsu, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    At the Savannah River Site, low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is mixed with slag, flyash, and cement to form a grout-like material called ``Saltstone.`` The Saltstone is poured into concrete vaults constructed at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SDF is designed for the release of contaminants in a slow, controlled manner over thousands of years. The impact of SDF on groundwater has been studied in a radiological performance assessment (PA). Groundwater models were used to predict the fluid flow and contaminant transport at SDF. The models predicted a spatial contaminant concentration distribution in groundwater as a function of time. This study focuses on the roof configuration of Saltstone vault, with special interests in cost-effectiveness. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a Saltstone vault. Four roof configurations were simulated. The tool used for the simulation was ECLIPSE, a finite-difference petroleum reservoir engineering code with an environmental tracer option. Nitrate was used as the ``tracer`` contaminant. In this study, ECLIPSE solves the two-phase two-dimensional flow and transport problem up to 10,000 years. This paper describes a modeling study used to evaluate roof design options for the Saltstone vault.

  20. LPT. EBOR (TAN646) interior, installing reactor in STF pool ("vault"). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR (TAN-646) interior, installing reactor in STF pool ("vault"). Pressure vessel shows core barrel and outlet nozzle (next to man below) to inner duct weld, which is prepared and in position for stress relieving. Camera facing southeast. Photographer: Comiskey. Date: January 20, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-239 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. MTR, TRA603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID CONCRETE WALLS. CONCRETE PLUGS, ONE LINED WITH LEAD, AND LIFT HANDLES. FLOOR WELLS SIX FEET DEEP BELOW FLOOR. IDO MTR-603-IDO-5, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110469, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 14. Photocopy of1931 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, FIRE PROOF VAULTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of1931 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, FIRE PROOF VAULTS FOR GENERAL FILES; PLAN, ELEVATION, SECTIONS. HABS photograph is an 8x10' contact print made from a high contrast copy negative of the original drawing in the collection of Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Administration Building, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Thickened cranial vault and parasagittal keeling: correlated traits and autapomorphies of Homo erectus?

    PubMed

    Balzeau, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.) is a key species in the hominin fossil record for the study of human evolution, being one of the first species discovered and perhaps the most documented, but also because of its long temporal range and having dispersed out of Africa earlier than any other human species. Here I test two proposed autapomorphic traits of H. erectus, namely the increased thickness of the upper cranial vault and parasagittal keeling. The definition of these two anatomical features and their expression and variation among hominids are discussed. The results of this study indicate that the upper vault in Asian H. erectus is not absolutely thicker compared with fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens, whereas Broken Hill and Petralona have values above the range of variation of H. erectus. Moreover, this anatomical region in Asian H. erectus is not significantly thicker compared with Pan paniscus. In addition, these results demonstrate that cranial vault thickness should not be used to make hypotheses regarding sexual attribution of fossil hominin specimens. I also show that the relation between relief on the external surface of the upper vault, parasagittal keeling and bregmatic eminence, and bone thickness is complex. In this context, the autapomorphic status of the two analysed traits in H. erectus may be rejected. Nevertheless, different patterns in the distribution of bone thickness on the upper vault were identified. Some individual variations are visible, but specificities are observable in samples of different species. The pattern of bone thickness distribution observed in Asian H. erectus, P. paniscus, possibly australopiths, and early Homo or Homo ergaster/erectus appears to be shared by these different species and would be a plesiomorphic trait among hominids. In contrast, two apomorphic states for this feature were identified for Neandertals and H. sapiens. PMID:23541383

  4. Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Ohtsuki, F; Wolfe, C A

    2010-10-01

    Two major views of human evolution have elicited considerable controversy. These are: [1] the "out of Africa" hypothesis and [2] the "multiregional" hypothesis. This paper is an attempt to try to reconcile these two scenarios using hominid cranial vault data. Elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs) were used to describe, in visual and numerical terms, the shape of the human cranial vault in norma lateralis. Using jpeg images, contours of the cranial vault of a large sample of hominid specimens were pre-processed in Photoshop CS and rotated in 2D space (positional-orientation) so that a line drawn from nasion to porion was horizontal. The cranial vault image was then digitized with 72 closely-spaced points and submitted to a specially written routine that computed EFFs normalized by scaling (size-standardization). This ensured that the representation was invariant with respect to starting point, size and orientation. Statistically significant differences were found between the H. sapiens sample and both the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis groups, leading to three conclusions: [1] the similarity in cranial vault shape between H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis suggests a single gradually evolving lineage; [2] The taxon H. heidelbergensis can be embedded into the H. erectus→H. neanderthalensis line; and [3] H. sapiens seems to be a separate evolutionary development and is considered here either as a separate species or as a possible example of an allopatric semispecies (Grant, 1977). The results here suggest that human evolution over the last 2 Ma may turn out to be neither totally multiregional or simply out of Africa but rather represents a considerably more complicated picture.

  5. Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Ohtsuki, F; Wolfe, C A

    2010-10-01

    Two major views of human evolution have elicited considerable controversy. These are: [1] the "out of Africa" hypothesis and [2] the "multiregional" hypothesis. This paper is an attempt to try to reconcile these two scenarios using hominid cranial vault data. Elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs) were used to describe, in visual and numerical terms, the shape of the human cranial vault in norma lateralis. Using jpeg images, contours of the cranial vault of a large sample of hominid specimens were pre-processed in Photoshop CS and rotated in 2D space (positional-orientation) so that a line drawn from nasion to porion was horizontal. The cranial vault image was then digitized with 72 closely-spaced points and submitted to a specially written routine that computed EFFs normalized by scaling (size-standardization). This ensured that the representation was invariant with respect to starting point, size and orientation. Statistically significant differences were found between the H. sapiens sample and both the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis groups, leading to three conclusions: [1] the similarity in cranial vault shape between H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis suggests a single gradually evolving lineage; [2] The taxon H. heidelbergensis can be embedded into the H. erectus→H. neanderthalensis line; and [3] H. sapiens seems to be a separate evolutionary development and is considered here either as a separate species or as a possible example of an allopatric semispecies (Grant, 1977). The results here suggest that human evolution over the last 2 Ma may turn out to be neither totally multiregional or simply out of Africa but rather represents a considerably more complicated picture. PMID:20801442

  6. Factors influencing performance in the Hecht vault and implications for modelling.

    PubMed

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the factors that influence Hecht vault performance and assessed the level of model complexity required to give an adequate representation of vaulting. A five-segment planar simulation model with a visco-elastic shoulder joint and a torque generator at the shoulder joint was used to simulate the contact phase in vaulting. The model was customized to an elite gymnast by determining subject-specific segmental inertia and joint torque parameters. The simulation model was matched to a performance of the Hecht vault by varying the visco-elastic characteristics of the shoulders and the arm-horse interface and the activation time history of the shoulder torque generator until the best match was found. Perturbing the matching simulation demonstrated that appropriate initial kinematics are necessary for a successful performance. Fixing the hip and knee angles at their initial values had a small effect with 3 degrees less rotation. Applying shoulder torque during the contact phase also had a small effect with only a 7 degrees range in landing angles. Excluding the hand segment from the model was found to have a moderate effect with 15 degrees less rotation and the time of contact reduced by 38%. Removing shoulder elasticity resulted in 50 degrees less rotation. The use of a five-segment simulation model confirmed that the use of shoulder torque plays a minor role in vaulting performance and that having appropriate initial kinematics at touchdown is essential. However, factors such as shoulder elasticity and the hands which have previously been ignored also have a substantial influence on performance. PMID:15519350

  7. Microwave Ionization of an Atomic Electron Wave Packet

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Michael W.; Ko, Lung; Gallagher, T. F.

    2001-07-23

    A short microwave pulse is used to ionize a lithium Rydberg wave packet launched from the core at a well-defined phase of the field. We observe a strong dependence on the relative phase between the motion of the wave packet and the oscillations of the field. This phase dependent ionization is also studied as a function of the relative frequency. Our experimental observations are in good qualitative agreement with a one-dimensional classical model of wave packet ionization.

  8. NeuroVault.org: a web-based repository for collecting and sharing unthresholded statistical maps of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwarz, Yannick; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Sochat, Vanessa V; Nichols, Thomas E; Poldrack, Russell A; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Here we present NeuroVault-a web based repository that allows researchers to store, share, visualize, and decode statistical maps of the human brain. NeuroVault is easy to use and employs modern web technologies to provide informative visualization of data without the need to install additional software. In addition, it leverages the power of the Neurosynth database to provide cognitive decoding of deposited maps. The data are exposed through a public REST API enabling other services and tools to take advantage of it. NeuroVault is a new resource for researchers interested in conducting meta- and coactivation analyses.

  9. Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Harai, Hiroaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Shinada, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Wataru; Wada, Naoya

    2011-12-12

    We developed novel integrated optical packet and circuit switch-node equipment. Compared with our previous equipment, a polarization-independent 4 × 4 semiconductor optical amplifier switch subsystem, gain-controlled optical amplifiers, and one 100 Gbps optical packet transponder and seven 10 Gbps optical path transponders with 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) client-interfaces were newly installed in the present system. The switch and amplifiers can provide more stable operation without equipment adjustments for the frequent polarization-rotations and dynamic packet-rate changes of optical packets. We constructed an optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed consisting of two switch nodes for accelerating network development, and we demonstrated 66 km fiber transmission and switching operation of multiplexed 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths and 100 Gbps optical packets encapsulating 10GbE frames. Error-free (frame error rate < 1×10(-4)) operation was achieved with optical packets of various packet lengths and packet rates, and stable operation of the network testbed was confirmed. In addition, 4K uncompressed video streaming over OPS links was successfully demonstrated.

  10. Controlling plasmonic wave packets in silver nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, L.; Nome, R.; Montgomery, J. M.; Gray, S. K.; Scherer, N. F.

    2010-09-01

    Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations were performed to explore the excitation of surface plasmon resonances in long silver (Ag) nanowires. In particular, we show that it is possible to generate plasmonic wave packets that can propagate along the nanowire by exciting superpositions of surface plasmon resonances. By using an appropriately chirped pulse, it is possible to transiently achieve localization of the excitation at the distal end of the nanowire. Such designed coherent superpositions will allow realizing spatiotemporal control of plasmonic excitations for enhancing nonlinear responses in plasmonic 'circuits'.

  11. Comparison of all optical forwarding packet architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Rim; Farhat, Amel; Menif, Mourad

    2016-04-01

    In this paper two all optical packet forwarding architectures based on non linear effect in semiconductor optical amplifier in Mach-Zehnder configuration SOA-MZI are studied. The first architecture consist in combing flip flop functionality with the AND logic functionality in the same unit. Error free operation at 40 Gbps for two cascaded nodes is achieved. In the second architecture two separated units namely the flip flop and the AND logic gate are used. 100 Gbps bit rate is reached. At 40 Gbps error free operation is achieved for three cascaded nodes.

  12. Audio-Visual/Communications Teaching Aids Packet. Supplementary Materials. Packet P-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This packet contains three handouts on training theory and the use of audiovisual aids, as well as a section on materials and presentation techniques for use by community development workers concerned with exchanging information and working with the people in a community. The first handout, "Communication in Development," briefly discusses the…

  13. Wireless Avionics Packet to Support Fault Tolerance for Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Gary L.; Whitaker, William D.; Dillon, James W.; Lux, James P.; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    In this protocol and packet format, data traffic is monitored by all network interfaces to determine the health of transmitter and subsystems. When failures are detected, the network inter face applies its recover y policies to provide continued service despite the presence of faults. The protocol, packet format, and inter face are independent of the data link technology used. The current demonstration system supports both commercial off-the-shelf wireless connections and wired Ethernet connections. Other technologies such as 1553 or serial data links can be used for the network backbone. The Wireless Avionics packet is divided into three parts: a header, a data payload, and a checksum. The header has the following components: magic number, version, quality of service, time to live, sending transceiver, function code, payload length, source Application Data Interface (ADI) address, destination ADI address, sending node address, target node address, and a sequence number. The magic number is used to identify WAV packets, and allows the packet format to be updated in the future. The quality of service field allows routing decisions to be made based on this value and can be used to route critical management data over a dedicated channel. The time to live value is used to discard misrouted packets while the source transceiver is updated at each hop. This information is used to monitor the health of each transceiver in the network. To identify the packet type, the function code is used. Besides having a regular data packet, the system supports diagnostic packets for fault detection and isolation. The payload length specifies the number of data bytes in the payload, and this supports variable-length packets in the network. The source ADI is the address of the originating interface. This can be used by the destination application to identify the originating source of the packet where the address consists of a subnet, subsystem class within the subnet, a subsystem unit

  14. Direct burial and vault emplacement data quality comparison at Dotson Ranch, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Aderhold, K.; Anderson, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Parker, T.; Miller, P. E.; Slad, G. W.; Reusch, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare the data quality of two emplacement methods for portable broadband seismic stations, traditional vault and direct burial, using power spectral density analysis to examine temporal trends in noise, the ratio of signal-to-noise for local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, coherence of both noise and earthquake signal recordings as well as overall data return. Sensor emplacement in the past has been overwhelmingly dominated by traditional vaults requiring more materials, manpower and time. A new technique of directly burying sensors drastically reduces the expense, personnel and time required to install a seismic station. Comparisons between the data quality of vault and direct buried sensors are needed to show that the time and money saved in emplacement does not downgrade the quality of the data collected. Two identical shallow vaults were installed adjacent to two identical direct burial sites at Dotson Ranch in San Antonio, New Mexico, in a deliberately-chosen noisy, wet and generally inhospitable location. These four sites each used a Guralp 3T sensor retrofitted with a waterproof lid and connector. Eight months of data recorded during 2012 from these four sensors are compared in order to determine if the emplacement method has a profound and systematic effect on data quality using several different metrics that mimic the actual use of seismic data in research. A posthole installation with a Nanometrics Trillium 120PH sensor was also installed at the site for a portion of the study and six months of data are included in the analysis. Overall the variability in data quality metrics used in this study is comparable between sites with differing emplacement method as it is between sites with the same emplacement method. Noise in the vaults is higher in amplitude during the transition from spring to summer as compared to the direct burials and is especially evident on the horizontal components at long periods between 20-170 seconds. Diurnal changes in

  15. Exact Results for `Bouncing' Gaussian Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, M.; Doncheski, M. A.; Robinett, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    We consider time-dependent Gaussian wave packet solutions of the Schrödinger equation, with arbitrary initial central position, x0, and momentum, p0, for an otherwise free particle, but with an infinite wall at x = 0, so-called bouncing wave packets. We show how difference or mirror solutions of the form ψ(x,t) - ψ(-x,t) can, in this case, be normalized exactly, allowing for the evaluation of a number of time-dependent expectation values and other quantities in closed form. For example, we calculate langp2rangt explicitly which illustrates how the free-particle kinetic (and hence total energy) is affected by the presence of the distant boundary. We also discuss the time dependence of the expectation values of position, langxrangt, and momentum, langprangt, and their relation to the impulsive force during the `collision' with the wall. Finally, the x0, p0 → 0 limit is shown to reduce a special case of a non-standard free-particle Gaussian solution. The addition of this example to the literature then expands of the relatively small number of Gaussian solutions to quantum mechanical problems with familiar classical analogs (free particle, uniform acceleration, harmonic oscillator, unstable oscillator, and uniform magnetic field) available in closed form.

  16. Per-packet reservation MAC protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrasnica, Halid

    2006-10-01

    Recent and future communications networks have to provide QoS guarantees for a rapidly growing number of various telecommunications services. Therefore, various communications systems, such as wireless and fixed access networks, apply reservation MAC protocols, providing a good network utilization, which is particularly important access networks with typically limited data rates, and ensuring realization of different QoS guarantees for various telecommunications services. This is important because of a hard competition among communications technologies applied in the access area. The considered MAC protocols apply a per-packet reservation method to avoid the transmission gaps caused by per-burst reservation, and accordingly to achieve a better network utilization. However, the per-packet reservation increases the network load caused by the signaling, which calls for an efficient resource sharing strategy in the signaling channel. There are two basic solutions for capacity sharing in the signaling channel: random access, usually using slotted ALOHA, and dedicated access, realized by a polling method. Performance improvement of basic protocols can be carried out in different ways; by protocol extensions, a combination of different protocol solutions, and the application of adaptive protocols providing a change of access parameters according to the current network status. The best network performance is achieved by application of two-step reservation protocol, which combined with additional features, such as appropriate signaling procedure, priority and fairness mechanisms, and combined reservation domains, can fulfill requirements of services with high QoS demands.

  17. Radiological Assessment for the Vance Road Facility Source Vault, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Morton

    2000-09-01

    From the 1950s, the Vance Road laboratories had been used for a broad range of nuclear medicine research involving numerous radionuclides. These radionuclides were stored in the a source vault located on the first floor of the facility. The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of ORISE performed a radiological assessment survey of the source vault after it had been remediated and in preparation for converting the area to office space.

  18. [Prolapse of the vaginal vault complicated by ileal evisceration. Possible role of dacron mesh in emergencies. Technical notes].

    PubMed

    Crespi, C; De Giorgio, A M

    1991-10-01

    The prolapse of vaginal vault after hysterectomy is a rather common event, whereas ileal evisceration and intestinal occlusion following a complete rupture of an inverted vaginal vault is extremely rare. The Authors report a case successfully treated using a modified Feldman and Birnbaum colposacropexy. The technique, which takes into account pathophysiologic mechanisms of vaginal prolapse, is described in detail and involves the use of a Dacron mesh. PMID:1839130

  19. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  20. Development of a New Cryptographic Construct Using Palmprint-Based Fuzzy Vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amioy; Kumar, Ajay

    2009-12-01

    The combination of cryptology and biometrics has emerged as promising component of information security. Despite the current popularity of palmprint biometric, there has not been any attempt to investigate its usage for the fuzzy vault. This paper therefore investigates the possible usage of palmprint in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. We suggest the use of both symmetric and asymmetric approach for the encryption. The ciphertext of any document is generated by symmetric cryptosystem; the symmetric key is then encrypted by asymmetric approach. Further, Reed and Solomon codes are used on the generated asymmetric key to provide some error tolerance while decryption. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint-based key generation system.

  1. An underground characterization program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.M.; Everitt, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) is developing a concept for disposing of nuclear fuel waste that involves placing and sealing it in a disposal vault excavated 500 to 1,000 m deep in the stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. In this concept, engineered and natural barriers serve to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Since 1983, underground characterization and testing in support of the CNFWMP has been ongoing at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba. This paper draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization that would provide the necessary information to make design decisions for a disposal vault in plutonic rock.

  2. Nature's Hitchhikers. A Fall Activity Packet for Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the characteristics of…

  3. Responding to Crisis at a School. A Resource Aid Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.

    Schools are increasingly confronted with crisis events. This resource aid packet provides materials to facilitate planning and implementation of a school-based crisis response and related staff training. The packet is divided into four sections. The first offers a brief overview that can be shared with school staff to raise awareness about the…

  4. Spring Birds. A Spring Activity Packet for First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the characteristics of…

  5. Reading the Rocks. A Fall Activity Packet for Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on various geological…

  6. Frogs and Toads. A Spring Activity Packet for Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the characteristics and…

  7. Understanding and Minimizing Staff Burnout. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.

    Staff who bring a mental health perspective to the schools can deal with problems of staff burnout. This packet is designed to help in beginning the process of minimizing burnout, a process that requires reducing environmental stressors, increasing personal capabilities, and enhancing job supports. The packet opens with brief discussions of "What…

  8. Continuing Development of California State Packet Radio Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownrigg, Edwin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background on the California State Library Packet Radio project, which will use packet radios to deploy a wireless, high-speed, wide-area network of 600 nodes, including 100 libraries, in the San Francisco Bay Area. Project goals and objectives, plan of operation, equipment, and evaluation plans are summarized. (MES)

  9. Learn about Seabirds. Teaching Packet, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Anchorage, AK.

    This teaching packet is designed to teach Alaskan students in grades 4-6 about Alaska's seabird populations, the worldwide significance of seabirds, and the environmental conditions to which seabirds are sensitive. The packet includes a curriculum guide (containing a teacher's background story and 12 teaching activities), a separately published…

  10. Forests and Flowers. A Spring Activity Packet for Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on plants and…

  11. Student Activity Packet for the California State Capitol Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This packet contains materials to help fourth and fifth grade teachers provide their students with background information for field trips to the California State Capitol Museum (Sacramento). The working museum focuses on the theme areas of California history, the state government/legislative process, and state symbols. The packet presents teacher…

  12. Nature Prepares for Winter. A Fall Activity Packet for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on preparations for winter…

  13. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  14. Michigan Natural History. A Spring Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the natural history of…

  15. Langston Hughes Curriculum Packet: Dig and Be Dug in Return.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Susan

    Designed in a flexible format for use by college instructors, high school teachers, and community education workers, this curriculum packet serves as an introduction to the life and works of black poet Langston Hughes. The major component of the packet is a critical essay that explores the thematic highlights of Hughes's career. The remaining…

  16. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. Appendices A through M

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file. (GHH)

  17. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C.; Gee, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. PMID:26859381

  18. Decrease in pH destabilizes individual vault nanocages by weakening the inter-protein lateral interaction

    PubMed Central

    Llauró, Aida; Guerra, Pablo; Kant, Ravi; Bothner, Brian; Verdaguer, Núria; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Vault particles are naturally occurring proteinaceous cages with promising application as molecular containers. The use of vaults as functional transporters requires a profound understanding of their structural stability to guarantee the protection and controlled payload delivery. Previous results performed with bulk techniques or at non-physiological conditions have suggested pH as a parameter to control vault dynamics. Here we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to monitor the structural evolution of individual vault particles while changing the pH in real time. Our experiments show that decreasing the pH of the solution destabilize the barrel region, the central part of vault particles, and leads to the aggregation of the cages. Additional analyses using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) are consistent with our single molecule AFM experiments. The observed topographical defects suggest that low pH weakens the bonds between adjacent proteins. We hypothesize that the observed effects are related to the strong polar character of the protein-protein lateral interactions. Overall, our study unveils the mechanism for the influence of a biologically relevant range of pHs on the stability and dynamics of vault particles. PMID:27739422

  19. A very early induction of major vault protein accompanied by increased drug resistance in U-937 cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Stephen, Andrew G; Cao, Jin; Tanzer, Lee R; Slapak, Christopher A; Harrison, Steadman D; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Dantzig, Anne H; Starling, James J; Rome, Leonard H; Moore, Robert E

    2002-01-10

    U-937 human leukemia cells were selected for resistance to doxorubicin in the presence or absence of a specific drug modulator that inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug-resistance gene (MDR1). Parental cells expressed low basal levels of the multidrug-resistance-associated gene (MRP1) and major vault protein (MVP) mRNAs and no MDR1 mRNA. Two doxorubicin-resistant cell lines were selected. Both drug-resistant cell lines upregulated the MVP mRNA level 1.5-fold within 1 cell passage. The MVP mRNA level continued to increase over time as the doxorubicin selection pressure was increased. MVP protein levels generally paralleled the mRNA levels. The 2 high molecular weight vault protein mRNAs were always expressed at constitutive levels. Fully formed vault particles consisting of the MVP, the 2 high molecular weight proteins and the vault RNA assembled and accumulated to increased levels in drug-selected cells. MVP induction is therefore the rate-limiting step for vault particle formation in U-937 cells. By passage 25 and thereafter, the selected cells were resistant to doxorubicin, etoposide, mitoxantrone and 5-fluorouracil by a pathway that was independent of MDR1, MRP1, MRP2 and breast cancer resistance protein. In summary, U-937 doxorubicin-selected cells are programmed to rapidly upregulate MVP mRNA levels, to accumulate vault particles and to become multidrug resistant.

  20. Decrease in pH destabilizes individual vault nanocages by weakening the inter-protein lateral interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llauró, Aida; Guerra, Pablo; Kant, Ravi; Bothner, Brian; Verdaguer, Núria; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2016-10-01

    Vault particles are naturally occurring proteinaceous cages with promising application as molecular containers. The use of vaults as functional transporters requires a profound understanding of their structural stability to guarantee the protection and controlled payload delivery. Previous results performed with bulk techniques or at non-physiological conditions have suggested pH as a parameter to control vault dynamics. Here we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to monitor the structural evolution of individual vault particles while changing the pH in real time. Our experiments show that decreasing the pH of the solution destabilize the barrel region, the central part of vault particles, and leads to the aggregation of the cages. Additional analyses using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) are consistent with our single molecule AFM experiments. The observed topographical defects suggest that low pH weakens the bonds between adjacent proteins. We hypothesize that the observed effects are related to the strong polar character of the protein-protein lateral interactions. Overall, our study unveils the mechanism for the influence of a biologically relevant range of pHs on the stability and dynamics of vault particles.

  1. Learning packets in nursing education: reviving the past.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Martin, Madeleine; Gribbins, Ashley

    2010-05-01

    Learning packets gained popularity in nursing education in the 1960's. Recently, they have been cited as strategies for distance learning. The aim of this project was to integrate Topic Focused Learning Packets as a complementary teaching strategy for presentation of new content to large classes of undergraduate nursing students. In addition to reducing in-class content presentation time, goals included: fostering critical thinking, actively engaging the student, and providing opportunities for team-based interaction. Rationale, design process and packets will be described. The learning packet was viewed positively by the students and faculty. Among 134 students, 119 strongly agreed or agreed that the learning packet was effective in increasing their understanding of the content and achieving the course objectives.

  2. The ESA standard for telemetry and telecommand packet utilisation: PUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    ESA has developed standards for packet telemetry and telecommand, which are derived from the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). These standards are now mandatory for future ESA programs as well as for many programs currently under development. However, while these packet standards address the end-to-end transfer of telemetry and telecommand data between applications on the ground and Application Processes on-board, they leave open the internal structure or content of the packets. This paper presents the ESA Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) which addresses this very subject and, as such, serves to extend and complement the ESA packet standards. The goal of the PUS is to be applicable to future ESA missions in all application areas (Telecommunications, Science, Earth Resources, microgravity, etc.). The production of the PUS falls under the responsibility of the ESA Committee for Operations and EGSE Standards (COES).

  3. Theory for low-frequency modulated Langmuir wave packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir wave packets with low frequency modulations (or beats) observed in the Jovian foreshock are argued to be direct evidence for the Langmuir wave decay L yields L-prime + S. In this decay, 'pump' Langmuir waves L, driven by an electron beam, produce backscattered product Langmuir waves L-prime and ion sound waves S. The L and L-prime waves beat at the frequency and wavevector of the S waves, thereby modulating the wave packets. Beam speeds calculated using the modulated Jovian wave packets (1) are reasonable, at 4-10 times the electron thermal speed, (2) are consistent with theoretical limits on the decay process, and (3) decrease with increasing foreshock depth, as expected theoretically. These results strongly support the theory. The modulation depth of some wave packets suggests saturation by the decay L yields L-prime + S. Applications to modulated Langmuir packets in the Venusian and terrestrial foreshocks and in a type III radio source are proposed.

  4. Monte Carlo neutron doses estimations inside a PET cyclotron vault room.

    PubMed

    Barquero, R; Méndez, R; Martí-Climent, J M; Quincoces, G

    2007-01-01

    Neutron organ equivalent doses, effective doses and dose equivalents received inside a positron emission tomography vault room in a maximum credible accident have been estimated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. While an operator was inside the vault room of a Cyclone 18/9 IBA cyclotron, this was producing (18)F with 30 muA proton current in the target and the operator had to activate a stopped emergency device placed on the wall. MC simulation of the cyclotron vault were carried out to estimate the organ and tissue equivalent doses in a mathematical male mannequin simulating the operator facing the wall on which the emergency device is placed. Doses were calculated at two emergency devices for each one of the two targets of the cyclotron, which were able to produce (18)F. The maximum effective dose in the mannequin was 6.70 Sv/h and the maximum organ equivalent dose was 18.47 Sv/h in spleen.

  5. Improvement of fuzzy vault scheme for securing key distribution in body sensor network.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cun-Zhang; He, Chen-Guang; Bao, Shu-Di; Li, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The security of Body Sensor Network (BSN) has become a vital concern, as the massive development of BSN applications in healthcare. A family of biometrics based security methods has been proposed in the last several years, where the bio-information derived from physiological signals is used as entity identifiers (EIs) for multiple security purposes, including node recognition and keying material protection. Among them, a method named as Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA) was proposed to use frequency-domain information of physiological signals together with Fuzzy Vault scheme to secure key distribution in BSN. In this study, the PSKA scheme was firstly analyzed and evaluated for its practical usage in terms of fuzzy performance, the result of which indicates that the scheme is not as good as claimed. An improved scheme with the deployment of Fuzzy Vault and error correcting coding was then proposed, followed by simulation analysis. The results indicate that the improved scheme is able to improve the performance of Fuzzy Vault and thus the success rate of authentication or key distribution between genuine nodes of a BSN. PMID:22255109

  6. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma of the craniospinal vault: case reports and review.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Bret C; Roulston, Diane; Shah, Gaurang V; Bijwaard, Karen E; McKeever, Paul E

    2006-07-01

    The peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma family tumor (pPNET/ESFT) group includes small round cell tumors of the bone, soft tissue, and nerve with morphological attributes of the germinal neuroepithelium. Peripheral PNETs/ESFTs also occur within the craniospinal vault, a region including the central nervous system, the meninges, and the cranial and spinal nerve roots. Gene rearrangements between the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 and members of the ETS gene family are common in and specific to pPNETs/ESFTs. Another defining characteristic of pPNETs/ESFTs is their membranous expression of the MIC2 gene product. We describe 2 cases of pPNETs within the craniospinal vault. An intradural tumor arising from the nerve roots of the cauda equina was discovered in a 32-year-old man presenting with radiculopathic back pain and lower-extremity weakness. An intracranial pPNET that mimicked a meningioma was found in a 21-year-old man presenting with headache and visual disturbances. MIC2 gene product expression and EWS/ETS gene rearrangement were detected in both case patients. The literature with regard to pPNETs/ESFTs arising within the craniospinal vault is reviewed.

  7. Secure voice-based authentication for mobile devices: vaulted voice verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. C.; Scheirer, Walter J.; Boult, Terrance E.

    2013-05-01

    As the use of biometrics becomes more wide-spread, the privacy concerns that stem from the use of biometrics are becoming more apparent. As the usage of mobile devices grows, so does the desire to implement biometric identification into such devices. A large majority of mobile devices being used are mobile phones. While work is being done to implement different types of biometrics into mobile phones, such as photo based biometrics, voice is a more natural choice. The idea of voice as a biometric identifier has been around a long time. One of the major concerns with using voice as an identifier is the instability of voice. We have developed a protocol that addresses those instabilities and preserves privacy. This paper describes a novel protocol that allows a user to authenticate using voice on a mobile/remote device without compromising their privacy. We first discuss the Vaulted Verification protocol, which has recently been introduced in research literature, and then describe its limitations. We then introduce a novel adaptation and extension of the Vaulted Verification protocol to voice, dubbed Vaulted Voice Verification (V3). Following that we show a performance evaluation and then conclude with a discussion of security and future work.

  8. Effect of the upper limbs muscles activity on the mechanical energy gain in pole vaulting.

    PubMed

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-chollet, Claire

    2012-04-01

    The shoulder muscles are highly solicited in pole vaulting and may afford energy gain. The objective of this study was to determine the bilateral muscle activity of the upper-limbs to explain the actions performed by the vaulter to bend the pole and store elastic energy. Seven experienced athletes performed 5-10 vaults which were recorded using two video cameras (50Hz). The mechanical energy of the centre of gravity (CG) was computed, while surface electromyographic (EMG) profiles were recorded from 5 muscles bilateral: deltoideus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, triceps, and latissimus dorsi muscles. The level of intensity from EMG profile was retained in four sub phases between take-off (TO1) and complete pole straightening (PS). The athletes had a mean mechanical energy gain of 22% throughout the pole vault, while the intensities of deltoideus, biceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi muscles were sub phases-dependent (p<0.05). Stabilizing the glenohumeral joint (increase of deltoideus and biceps brachii activity) and applying a pole bending torque (increase of latissimus dorsi activity) required specific muscle activation. The gain in mechanical energy of the vaulter could be linked to an increase in muscle activation, especially from latissimusdorsi muscles.

  9. Nondiffracting accelerating wave packets of Maxwell's equations.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, Ido; Bekenstein, Rivka; Nemirovsky, Jonathan; Segev, Mordechai

    2012-04-20

    We present the nondiffracting spatially accelerating solutions of the Maxwell equations. Such beams accelerate in a circular trajectory, thus generalizing the concept of Airy beams to the full domain of the wave equation. For both TE and TM polarizations, the beams exhibit shape-preserving bending which can have subwavelength features, and the Poynting vector of the main lobe displays a turn of more than 90°. We show that these accelerating beams are self-healing, analyze their properties, and find the new class of accelerating breathers: self-bending beams of periodically oscillating shapes. Finally, we emphasize that in their scalar form, these beams are the exact solutions for nondispersive accelerating wave packets of the most common wave equation describing time-harmonic waves. As such, this work has profound implications to many linear wave systems in nature, ranging from acoustic and elastic waves to surface waves in fluids and membranes. PMID:22680719

  10. Nondiffracting accelerating wave packets of Maxwell's equations.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, Ido; Bekenstein, Rivka; Nemirovsky, Jonathan; Segev, Mordechai

    2012-04-20

    We present the nondiffracting spatially accelerating solutions of the Maxwell equations. Such beams accelerate in a circular trajectory, thus generalizing the concept of Airy beams to the full domain of the wave equation. For both TE and TM polarizations, the beams exhibit shape-preserving bending which can have subwavelength features, and the Poynting vector of the main lobe displays a turn of more than 90°. We show that these accelerating beams are self-healing, analyze their properties, and find the new class of accelerating breathers: self-bending beams of periodically oscillating shapes. Finally, we emphasize that in their scalar form, these beams are the exact solutions for nondispersive accelerating wave packets of the most common wave equation describing time-harmonic waves. As such, this work has profound implications to many linear wave systems in nature, ranging from acoustic and elastic waves to surface waves in fluids and membranes.

  11. Networked LQG control over lossy channels with computational/packet-transmission delays and coarsely quantised packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Yung Kuan; Moayedi, Maryam; Chai Soh, Yeng

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control problem of networked multi-input, multi-output systems where computational delay exists and the measurement and control signals are packetised and transmitted through a network within which random delay and packet loss may occur during transmissions. A transmission control protocol (TCP)-like protocol for the communication network is considered in which acknowledgement is sent from the actuator to the controller if and only if the control packet is received, assuming these acknowledgements always reach the estimator in time and without fail. To minimise the data word-length for transmissions over the network and to maximise control system performance, it is proposed that different quantisation resolutions be used for transmission data encapsulation, and control and output signals A/D-D/A conversions at sensor/actuator. To circumvent the problem of disparity between encapsulation and A/D-D/A quantisation resolutions, a pseudo-stochastic approach via subtractive dither is applied to quantise the transmission packets. This also enables us to model the quantisation errors as uncorrelated independent zero-mean additive white noises and apply standard LQG methodology and separation principle to design the estimator and the controller separately. An example is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  12. PERMEABILITY TESTING OF SIMULATED SALTSTONE CORE AND VAULT 4 CELL E SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.; Dixon, K.

    2011-08-22

    The Engineering Process Development Group (EPD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared simulated saltstone core samples to evaluate the effect of sample collection by coring on the permeability of saltstone. The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the SRNL was given the task of measuring the permeability of cores of simulated saltstone. Saltstone samples collected from Vault 4 Cell E using both dry and wet coring methods were also submitted for permeability analysis. The cores from Vault 4 Cell E were in multiple pieces when they were recovered (Smith, 2008 Cheng et.al, 2009). Permeability testing was only performed on the portions of the core sample that were intact, had no visible fractures or cracks, and met the specifications for 'undisturbed specimens' identified in Method ASTM D5084-03 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter that was used for the testing. Permeability values for cores of simulated saltstone compared with values from permeability tests conducted on molded saltstone samples by an independent laboratory using the same method. All hydraulic conductivity results for Vault 4 samples exceeded results for both molded and cored saltstone simulant samples. The average hydraulic conductivity result for Vault 4 Cell E samples of 3.9 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than that of the simulated saltstone with an average of 4.1 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. Numerical flow and transport simulations of moisture movement through saltstone performed for the performance assessment of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) used 2.0 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec for the hydraulic conductivity of saltstone (Flach et al, 2009). The results for simulated versus actual saltstone were further compared using non-parametric statistics. The results from non-parametric statistical analysis of results indicate that there is at least a

  13. Tunable storage of optical data packets modulated in spectrally efficient formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    An all-optical telecommunications network requires all-optical routers. These routers would be able to process optical signals directly, without the transformation to the electrical domain. Thus, optical routers have the potential to accelerate telecommunications, i.e. to enhance the data rate and to minimize the latency times. Furthermore, since the double transformation at each network node can be omitted, they could be able to reduce the energy consumption of telecommunications. Key elements of optical routers are optical buffers, which are able to store the optical packets prior to processing in order to avoid congestion. Therefore, many different concepts for the realization of optical buffers have been presented so far. Most of these can just store or delay on-off keyed (OOK) signals. However, in optical telecommunications advanced modulation formats will be increasingly used because they are able to improve the transmission properties and to take advantage of the capacity of optical fibers. Thus, advanced modulation formats can drastically increase the transmissible data rates. Most of these advanced formats modulate the carrier's phase or are a combination of amplitude and phase modulation. Here the storage of amplitude and phase modulated data packets with the so called quasi-light-storage (QLS) method will be shown. The QLS relies on the time-bandwidth coherence of each signal. Thus, as long as the sampling theorem in the frequency domain is not violated, a distortion-free storage of optical data packets with a delay-bandwidth product (DBP) of several thousand bits is possible. Here we will discuss the applicability of the QLS method to advanced modulation formats and we show experimental results of the tunable alloptical storage of OOK modulated signals with a DBP of 160 bit and the storage of phase shift keyed signals with a DBP of 60 bits.

  14. Priority-based methods for reducing the impact of packet loss on HEVC encoded video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2013-02-01

    The rapid growth in the use of video streaming over IP networks has outstripped the rate at which new network infrastructure has been deployed. These bandwidth-hungry applications now comprise a significant part of all Internet traffic and present major challenges for network service providers. The situation is more acute in mobile networks where the available bandwidth is often limited. Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently on track for completion in 2013. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC) for the same quality. However, there has been very little published research on HEVC streaming or the challenges of delivering HEVC streams in resource-constrained network environments. In this paper we consider the problem of adapting an HEVC encoded video stream to meet the bandwidth limitation in a mobile networks environment. Video sequences were encoded using the Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM6) for HEVC. Network abstraction layers (NAL) units were packetized, on a one NAL unit per RTP packet basis, and transmitted over a realistic hybrid wired/wireless testbed configured with dynamically changing network path conditions and multiple independent network paths from the streamer to the client. Two different schemes for the prioritisation of RTP packets, based on the NAL units they contain, have been implemented and empirically compared using a range of video sequences, encoder configurations, bandwidths and network topologies. In the first prioritisation method the importance of an RTP packet was determined by the type of picture and the temporal switching point information carried in the NAL unit header. Packets containing parameter set NAL units and video coding layer (VCL) NAL units of the instantaneous decoder refresh (IDR) and the clean random access (CRA) pictures were given the

  15. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1993-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

  16. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1993-10-05

    An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

  17. Rate-matching packet scheduler for real-rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kang; Walpole, Jonathan; McNamee, Dylan; Pu, Calton; Steere, David C.

    2000-12-01

    A packet scheduler is an operating system component that controls the allocation of network interface bandwidth to outgoing network flows. By deciding which packet to send next, packet schedulers not only determine how bandwidth is shared among flows, but also play a key role in determining the rate and timing behavior of individual flows. The recent explosion of rate and timing-sensitive flows, particularly in the context of multimedia applications, has focused new interest on packet schedulers. Next generation packet schedulers must not only ensure separation among flows and meet real-time performance constraints, they must also support dynamic fine- grain real-location of bandwidth for flows with variable-bit- rate requirements. Unfortunately, today's packet schedulers either do not support rate and timing sensitive flows, or do so with reservation systems that are relatively coarse-grain and inflexible. This paper makes two contributions. First it shows how bandwidth requirements can be inferred directly from real-rate flows, without requiring explicit specifications from the application. Second, it presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of a rate-matching packet scheduler that uses these inferred requirements to automatically and dynamically control the bandwidth allocation to flows.

  18. Reinforcement learning for congestion-avoidance in packet flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Keisuke; Tretiakov, Alexei

    2005-04-01

    Occurrence of congestion of packet flow in computer networks is one of the unfavorable problems in packet communication and hence its avoidance should be investigated. We use a neural network model for packet routing control in a computer network proposed in a previous paper by Horiguchi and Ishioka (Physica A 297 (2001) 521). If we assume that the packets are not sent to nodes whose buffers are already full of packets, then we find that traffic congestion occurs when the number of packets in the computer network is larger than some critical value. In order to avoid the congestion, we introduce reinforcement learning for a control parameter in the neural network model. We find that the congestion is avoided by the reinforcement learning and at the same time we have good performance for the throughput. We investigate the packet flow on computer networks of various types of topology such as a regular network, a network with fractal structure, a small-world network, a scale-free network and so on.

  19. Unlocking the vault: next generation museum population genomics

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ke; Linderoth, Tyler; Vanderpool, Dan; Good, Jeffrey M; Nielsen, Rasmus; Moritz, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Natural history museum collections provide unique resources for understanding how species respond to environmental change, including the abrupt, anthropogenic climate change of the past century. Ideally, researchers would conduct genome-scale screening of museum specimens to explore the evolutionary consequences of environmental changes, but to date such analyses have been severely limited by the numerous challenges of working with the highly degraded DNA typical of historic samples. Here we circumvent these challenges by using custom, multiplexed, exon-capture to enrich and sequence ~11,000 exons (~4Mb) from early 20TH century museum skins. We used this approach to test for changes in genomic diversity accompanying a climate-related range retraction in the alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) in the high Sierra Nevada area of California, USA. We developed robust bioinformatic pipelines that rigorously detect and filter-out base misincorporations in DNA derived from skins, most of which likely resulted from post-mortem damage. Furthermore, to accommodate genotyping uncertainties associated with low-medium coverage data, we applied a recently developed probabilistic method to call SNPs and estimate allele frequencies and the joint site frequency spectrum. Our results show increased genetic subdivision following range retraction, but no change in overall genetic diversity at either non-synonymous or synonymous sites. This case study showcases the advantages of integrating emerging genomic and statistical tools in museum collection-based population genomic applications. Such technical advances greatly enhance the value of museum collections, even where a pre-existing reference is lacking, and points to a broad range of potential applications in evolutionary and conservation biology. PMID:24118668

  20. Unlocking the vault: next-generation museum population genomics.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ke; Linderoth, Tyler; Vanderpool, Dan; Good, Jeffrey M; Nielsen, Rasmus; Moritz, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Natural history museum collections provide unique resources for understanding how species respond to environmental change, including the abrupt, anthropogenic climate change of the past century. Ideally, researchers would conduct genome-scale screening of museum specimens to explore the evolutionary consequences of environmental changes, but to date such analyses have been severely limited by the numerous challenges of working with the highly degraded DNA typical of historic samples. Here, we circumvent these challenges by using custom, multiplexed, exon capture to enrich and sequence ~11,000 exons (~4 Mb) from early 20th-century museum skins. We used this approach to test for changes in genomic diversity accompanying a climate-related range retraction in the alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) in the high Sierra Nevada area of California, USA. We developed robust bioinformatic pipelines that rigorously detect and filter out base misincorporations in DNA derived from skins, most of which likely resulted from postmortem damage. Furthermore, to accommodate genotyping uncertainties associated with low-medium coverage data, we applied a recently developed probabilistic method to call single-nucleotide polymorphisms and estimate allele frequencies and the joint site frequency spectrum. Our results show increased genetic subdivision following range retraction, but no change in overall genetic diversity at either nonsynonymous or synonymous sites. This case study showcases the advantages of integrating emerging genomic and statistical tools in museum collection-based population genomic applications. Such technical advances greatly enhance the value of museum collections, even where a pre-existing reference is lacking and points to a broad range of potential applications in evolutionary and conservation biology.

  1. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. PMID:21889150

  2. Observation of Quantum Interference between Separated Mechanical Oscillator Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzler, D.; Flühmann, C.; Negnevitsky, V.; Lo, H.-Y.; Marinelli, M.; Nadlinger, D.; Home, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We directly observe the quantum interference between two well-separated trapped-ion mechanical oscillator wave packets. The superposed state is created from a spin-motion entangled state using a heralded measurement. Wave packet interference is observed through the energy eigenstate populations. We reconstruct the Wigner function of these states by introducing probe Hamiltonians which measure Fock state populations in displaced and squeezed bases. Squeezed-basis measurements with 8 dB squeezing allow the measurement of interference for Δ α =15.6 , corresponding to a distance of 240 nm between the two superposed wave packets.

  3. Realization of localized Bohr-like wave packets.

    PubMed

    Mestayer, J J; Wyker, B; Lancaster, J C; Dunning, F B; Reinhold, C O; Yoshida, S; Burgdörfer, J

    2008-06-20

    We demonstrate a protocol to create localized wave packets in very-high-n Rydberg states which travel in nearly circular orbits around the nucleus. Although these wave packets slowly dephase and eventually lose their localization, their motion can be monitored over several orbital periods. These wave packets represent the closest analog yet achieved to the original Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, i.e., an electron in a circular classical orbit around the nucleus. The possible extension of the approach to create "planetary atoms" in highly correlated stable multiply excited states is discussed.

  4. Observation of Quantum Interference between Separated Mechanical Oscillator Wave Packets.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, D; Flühmann, C; Negnevitsky, V; Lo, H-Y; Marinelli, M; Nadlinger, D; Home, J P

    2016-04-01

    We directly observe the quantum interference between two well-separated trapped-ion mechanical oscillator wave packets. The superposed state is created from a spin-motion entangled state using a heralded measurement. Wave packet interference is observed through the energy eigenstate populations. We reconstruct the Wigner function of these states by introducing probe Hamiltonians which measure Fock state populations in displaced and squeezed bases. Squeezed-basis measurements with 8 dB squeezing allow the measurement of interference for Δα=15.6, corresponding to a distance of 240 nm between the two superposed wave packets.

  5. [Vaginal vault fixation and reinforcement of the rectovaginal septum technique for the treatment of vault prolapse associated or not with rectocele].

    PubMed

    Pigne, Alain; Faux, A; Deval, B

    2011-04-01

    The most important current concept in therapeutic management of female genital prolapse is the use of non absorbable prosthesis through a vaginal approach. The application of these surgical techniques to repair prolapse aims to restore the anatomic position of the pelvis, while preserving urinary, bowel and sexual functions. Since 2005, we use the Apogee® prosthesis for the treatment of both the vault prolapse and associated posterior colpocele. The purpose of this paper is the detailed description of the technique of placement of Apogee® prosthetic system, so that it can be useful to clarify the key points of this surgical reconstructive surgical technique and different gestures associated with the placement of this type of prosthesis.

  6. All-optical packet header and payload separation based on two TOADs for optical packet switched networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Zhang, Min; Ye, Peida

    2006-09-01

    We present a novel all-optical header and payload separation technique that can be utilized in Un-Slotted optical packet switched networks. The technique uses two modified TOADs, one is for packet header extraction with differential modulation scheme and the other performs a simple XOR operation between the packet and its self-derived header to get the separated payload. The main virtue of this system is simple structure and low power consumption. Through numerical simulations, the operating characteristics of the scheme are illustrated. In addition, the system parameters are discussed and designed to optimize the performance of the proposed scheme.

  7. Initial phase and free-particle wave packet evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Theodore L.

    2009-06-01

    The evolution of the free-particle wave function in one dimension is the same as scalar Fresnel diffraction from a one-dimensional structure. Quantum mechanics courses often explore the propagation of Gaussian wave packets, but the diffractionlike mathematics is sufficiently tractable to investigate the propagation of other wave packets, both numerically and analytically. More importantly, the diffraction analogy facilitates the development of an intuitive understanding of the role that the initial phase plays in free-particle wave packet evolution. This article considers some of the effects of the initial phase function on the subsequent evolution of free-particle wave packets in the position representation. These considerations reinforce the idea that the classical mechanics limit embodied in the correspondence principle and formalized in the Ehrenfest theorem is necessarily an incomplete representation of quantum behavior.

  8. Localization of wave packets in one-dimensional random potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Juan Pablo Ramírez; Wellens, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We study the expansion of an initially strongly confined wave packet in a one-dimensional weak random potential with short correlation length. At long times, the expansion of the wave packet comes to a halt due to destructive interferences leading to Anderson localization. We develop an analytical description for the disorder-averaged localized density profile. For this purpose, we employ the diagrammatic method of Berezinskii which we extend to the case of wave packets, present an analytical expression of the Lyapunov exponent which is valid for small as well as for high energies, and, finally, develop a self-consistent Born approximation in order to analytically calculate the energy distribution of our wave packet. By comparison with numerical simulations, we show that our theory describes well the complete localized density profile, not only in the tails but also in the center.

  9. Packet-Based Protocol Efficiency for Aeronautical and Satellite Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between bit error ratios and the effective link efficiency when transporting data with a packet-based protocol. Relations are developed to quantify the impact of a protocol s packet size and header size relative to the bit error ratio of the underlying link. These relations are examined in the context of radio transmissions that exhibit variable error conditions, such as those used in satellite, aeronautical, and other wireless networks. A comparison of two packet sizing methodologies is presented. From these relations, the true ability of a link to deliver user data, or information, is determined. Relations are developed to calculate the optimal protocol packet size forgiven link error characteristics. These relations could be useful in future research for developing an adaptive protocol layer. They can also be used for sizing protocols in the design of static links, where bit error ratios have small variability.

  10. Analytic approach to the wave packet formalism in oscillation phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardini, A.E.; Leo, S. de

    2004-09-01

    We introduce an approximation scheme to perform an analytic study of the oscillation phenomena in a pedagogical and comprehensive way. By using Gaussian wave packets, we show that the oscillation is bounded by a time-dependent vanishing function which characterizes the slippage between the mass-eigenstate wave packets. We also demonstrate that the wave packet spreading represents a secondary effect which plays a significant role only in the nonrelativistic limit. In our analysis, we note the presence of a new time-dependent phase and calculate how this additional term modifies the oscillating character of the flavor conversion formula. Finally, by considering box and sine wave packets we study how the choice of different functions to describe the particle localization changes the oscillation probability.

  11. Propagation velocity of Alfven wave packets in a dissipative plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Amagishi, Y.; Nakagawa, H. ); Tanaka, M. )

    1994-09-01

    We have experimentally studied the behavior of Alfven wave packets in a dissipative plasma due to ion--neutral-atom collisions. It is urged that the central frequency of the packet is observed to gradually decrease with traveling distance in the absorption range of frequencies because of a differential damping among the Fourier components, and that the measured average velocity of its peak amplitude is not accounted for by the conventional group velocity, but by the prediction derived by Tanaka, Fujiwara, and Ikegami [Phys. Rev. A 34, 4851 (1986)]. Furthermore, when the initial central frequency is close to the critical frequency in the anomalous dispersion, the wave packet apparently collapses when traveling along the magnetic field; however, we have found that it is decomposed into another two wave packets with the central frequencies being higher or lower than the critical frequency.

  12. Nondispersive wave packets -- control through chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchleitner, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Nondispersive wave packets were predicted to emerge in periodically driven Rydberg atoms a little more than 10 years ago [1], and have now been observed in the laboratory [2]. I shall illustrate how these robust, generic ``quantum particles'' and their relatives naturally emerge from the theory of chaotic quantum systems [3], and thus open new perspectives for robust quantum control in various experimental settings -- from one and two-electron [4] atoms under periodic or impulsive [5] driving to cold atoms in flashing periodic potentials, possibly amended by harmonic confinement [6]. Besides the fundamental underlying (nonlinear) resonance phenomena also some more subtle properties will be discussed, including open questions within the realm of spectral theory. *[1] A. Buchleitner, thèse de doctorat, Universit'e Paris 6 (1993); I. Bialynicki-Birula, M. Kalinski, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1777 (1994); D. Delande and A. Buchleitner, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 85 (1994). *[2] H. Maeda and T. F. Gallagher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133004 (2004). *[3] A. Buchleitner, D. Delande, and J. Zakrzewski, Phys. Rep. 386, 409 (2002). *[4] J. Madroñero, PhD thesis, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (2004), http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/archive/00002187. *[5] D.G. Arb'o et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 63401 (2003). *[6] A.R.R. de Carvalho and A. Buchleitner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 204101 (2004).

  13. Computational Vision in Uv-Mapping of Textured Meshes Coming from Photogrammetric Recovery: Unwrapping Frescoed Vaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robleda, P. G.; Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2016-06-01

    Sometimes it is difficult to represent "on paper" the existing reality of architectonic elements, depending on the complexity of his geometry, but not only in cases with complex geometries: non-relief surfaces, can need a "special planar format" for its graphical representation. Nowadays, there are a lot of methods to obtain tridimensional recovery of our Cultural Heritage with different ranges of the relationship accuracy / costs, even getting high accuracy using "low-cost" recovery methods as digital photogrammetry, which allow us easily to obtain a graphical representation "on paper": ortho-images of different points of view. This can be useful for many purposes but, for others, an orthographic projection is not really very interesting. In non-site restoration tasks of frescoed vaults, a "planar format" representation in needed to see in true magnitude the paintings represented on the intrados vault, because of the general methodology used: gluing the fresco on a fabric, removing the fresco-fabric from the support, moving to laboratory, removing the fresco from the fabric, restoring the fresco, gluing back the restored fresco on another fabric, laying the restored fresco on the original location and removing the fabric. Because of this, many times, an unfolded model is needed, in a similar way a cylinder or cone can be unfolded, but in this case with a texture included: UV unwrapping. Unfold and fold-back processes, can be especially interesting in restoration field of frescoed vaults and domes at: chromatic recovery of paintings, reconstruction of partially missed geometries, transference of paintings on surfaces, etc.

  14. 324 Radiochemical engineering cells and high level vault tanks mixed waste compliance status

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-29

    The 324 Building in the Hanford 300 Area contains Radiochemical Engineering Cells and High Level Vault tanks (the {open_quotes}REC/HLV{close_quotes}) for research and development activities involving radioactive materials. Radioactive mixed waste within this research installation, found primarily in B-Cell and three of the high level vault tanks, is subject to RCRA/DWR ({open_quotes}RCRA{close_quotes}) regulations for storage. This white paper provides a baseline RCRA compliance summary of MW management in the REC/HLV, based on best available knowledge. The REC/HLV compliance project, of which this paper is a part, is intended to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable given the special technical difficulties of managing high activity radioactive materials, and to assure protection of human health and safety and the environment. The REC/HLV was constructed in 1965 to strict standards for the safe management of highly radioactive materials. Mixed waste in the REC/HLV consists of discarded tools and equipment, dried feed stock from nuclear waste melting experiments, contaminated particulate matter, and liquid feed stock from various experimental programs in the vault tanks. B-Cell contains most of these materials. Total radiological inventory in B-Cell is estimated at 3 MCi, about half of which is potentially {open_quotes}dispersible{close_quotes}, that is, it is in small pieces or mobile particles. Most of the mixed waste currently in the REC/HLV was generated or introduced before mixed wastes were subjected to RCRA in 1987.

  15. The military health system's personal health record pilot with Microsoft HealthVault and Google Health

    PubMed Central

    Barnhill, Rick; Heermann-Do, Kimberly A; Salzman, Keith L; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design, build, implement, and evaluate a personal health record (PHR), tethered to the Military Health System, that leverages Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health infrastructure based on user preference. Materials and methods A pilot project was conducted in 2008–2009 at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington. Our PHR was architected to a flexible platform that incorporated standards-based models of Continuity of Document and Continuity of Care Record to map Department of Defense-sourced health data, via a secure Veterans Administration data broker, to Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health based on user preference. The project design and implementation were guided by provider and patient advisory panels with formal user evaluation. Results The pilot project included 250 beneficiary users. Approximately 73.2% of users were <65 years of age, and 38.4% were female. Of the users, 169 (67.6%) selected Microsoft® HealthVault, and 81 (32.4%) selected Google® Health as their PHR of preference. Sample evaluation of users reflected 100% (n=60) satisfied with convenience of record access and 91.7% (n=55) satisfied with overall functionality of PHR. Discussion Key lessons learned related to data-transfer decisions (push vs pull), purposeful delays in reporting sensitive information, understanding and mapping PHR use and clinical workflow, and decisions on information patients may choose to share with their provider. Conclusion Currently PHRs are being viewed as empowering tools for patient activation. Design and implementation issues (eg, technical, organizational, information security) are substantial and must be thoughtfully approached. Adopting standards into design can enhance the national goal of portability and interoperability. PMID:21292705

  16. What sampling device is the most appropriate for vaginal vault cytology in gynaecological cancer follow up?

    PubMed Central

    Lino, Del Pup; Vincenzo, Canzonieri; Diego, Serraino; Elio, Campagnutta

    2012-01-01

    Background In women with cancer-related hysterectomy, the vaginal vault cytology has a low efficacy - when performed by conventional methods – for the early detection of vaginal recurrence. The amount of exfoliated cells collected is generally low because of atrophy, and the vaginal vault corners can be so narrow that the commonly used Ayres spatula cannot often penetrate deeply into them. This prospective study aimed at identifying the advantages obtained in specimens collection using the cytobrush, as compared to the Ayres’s spatula. Patients and methods. 141 gynaecologic cancer patients were studied to compare samplings collected with Ayre’s spatula or with cytobrush. In a pilot setting of 15 patients, vaginal cytology samples obtained by both Ayre’s spatula and cytobrush were placed at the opposite sites of a single slide for quali-quantitative evaluation. Thereafter, the remaining 126 consecutive women were assigned to either group A (spatula) or B (cytobrush) according to the order of entry. The same gynaecologist performed all the procedures. Results In all 15 pilot cases, the cytobrush seemed to collect a higher quantity of material. The comparative analysis of the two complete groups indicated that the cytobrush technique was more effective than the spatula one. The odds ratio (OR) for an optimal cytology using the cytobrush was 2.8 (95% confidence interval -C.I. 1.3–6.2; chi-square test, p=0.008). Conclusions Vaginal vault cytology with cytobrush turned out to better perform than the traditional Ayre’s spatula to obtain an adequate sampling in gynecological cancer patients. PMID:23077454

  17. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  18. Embedded wavelet packet transform technique for texture compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Cheng, Po-Yuen; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1995-09-01

    A highly efficient texture compression scheme is proposed in this research. With this scheme, energy compaction of texture images is first achieved by the wavelet packet transform, and an embedding approach is then adopted for the coding of the wavelet packet transform coefficients. By comparing the proposed algorithm with the JPEG standard, FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard and the EZW scheme with extensive experimental results, we observe a significant improvement in the rate-distortion performance and visual quality.

  19. Behavior of a Moist Kelvin Wave Packet with Nonlinear Heating.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Xue, Yan

    1992-04-01

    The effects of nonlinear (positive only or conditional) heating on moist Kelvin waves are examined with a simple equatorial zonal-plane model describing the gravest baroclinic mode.The unstable perturbation subject to nonlinear beating emerges as a wave packet. A typical amplifying, eastward-moving wave packet is characterized by an asymmetric structure: 1) the ascending branch (wet region) is much narrower than the two descending ones (dry regions); and 2) the circulation cell to the east of the wet region center is smaller and stronger than its counterpart to the west of the center. The wet-dry asymmetry is primarily caused by the nonlinear beating effect, while the east-west asymmetry is a result of the movement of the wave packet relative to mean flow. The existence of Newtonian cooling and Rayleigh friction enhances the structural asymmetries.The unstable wave packet is characterized by two zonal length scales: the ascending branch length (ABL) and total circulation extent (TCE). For a given basic state, the growth rate of a wave packet increases with decreasing ABL or TCE. However, up to a moderate growth rate (order of day1) the energy spectra of all wave packets are dominated by zonal wavenumber one regardless of ABL size. In particular, the slowly growing (low frequency) wave packets normally exhibit TCEs of planetary scale and ABLs of synoptic scale.Observed equatorial intraseasonal disturbances often display a narrow convection region in between two much broader dry regions and a total circulation of planetary scale. These structure and scale characteristics are caused by the effects of nonlinear heating and the cyclic geometry of the equator. It is argued that the unstable disturbance found in numerical experiments (e.g., Lau and Peng; Hayashi and Sumi) is a manifestation of the nonlinear wave packet.

  20. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-04-11

    This report is the first revision to ``Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0.

  1. Effect of Saltstone Vault Roof Configuration on the Rate of Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Yu, A.D.; Lam, Poh-Sang

    1994-12-28

    At the Savannah River Site, low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is mixed with slag, flyash, and cement to form a grout-like material called ``Saltstone``. The Saltstone is poured into concrete vaults constructed at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The impact of SDF on groundwater has been studied in a radiological performance assessment (PA). Sophisticated groundwater models were used to predict the groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems. The modeling effort was divided into two parts: the unsaturated-zone model and the saturated zone model. One of the major performance objectives is to show that the impacted groundwater will be in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act.

  2. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1995-04-18

    An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

  3. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

  4. TCP Packet Trace Analysis. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of a trace of packets collected from the network is often the only method available for diagnosing protocol performance problems in computer networks. This thesis explores the use of packet traces to diagnose performance problems of the transport protocol TCP. Unfortunately, manual examination of these traces can be so tedious that effective analysis is not possible. The primary contribution of this thesis is a graphical method of displaying the packet trace which greatly reduce, the tediousness of examining a packet trace. The graphical method is demonstrated by the examination of some packet traces of typical TCP connections. The performance of two different implementations of TCP sending data across a particular network path is compared. Traces many thousands of packets long are used to demonstrate how effectively the graphical method simplifies examination of long complicated traces. In the comparison of the two TCP implementations, the burstiness of the TCP transmitter appeared to be related to the achieved throughput. A method of quantifying this burstiness is presented and its possible relevance to understanding the performance of TCP is discussed.

  5. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  6. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Lagomarsino, Sergio; Milani, Gabriele

    2015-12-31

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  7. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Milani, Gabriele; Lagomarsino, Sergio

    2015-12-01

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  8. Sustained raised intracranial pressure implicated only by pattern reversal visual evoked potentials after cranial vault expansion surgery.

    PubMed

    Liasis, Alki; Thompson, Dorothy A; Hayward, Richard; Nischal, Ken K

    2003-07-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial sutures, may be associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP) with or without a reduced intracranial volume. Regardless of the aetiology, raised ICP may result in optic neuropathy, the timely detection of which can prevent further visual deterioration. Raised ICP is usually treated with craniofacial surgery such as cranial vault expansion. In this case study, we recorded serial pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs) and obtained digital optic disc images before and after cranial vault expansion surgery. The amplitude of the pVEPs continued to decrease after cranial vault expansion surgery, prompting further neuroimaging that implicated a blocked ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Only after shunt revision did the pVEP amplitude increase. Throughout the monitoring period, there was no change in the appearance of either the right or left optic disk, nor a consistent change in visual acuity. PMID:12845197

  9. Harvey Cushing's Approaches to Tumors in His Early Career: From the Skull Base to the Cranial Vault.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Courtney; Raza, Shaan M; Gallia, Gary L; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-07-01

    In this report, we review Dr. Cushing's early surgical cases at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, revealing details of his early operative approaches to tumors of the skull base and cranial vault. Following Institutional Review Board approval, and through the courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Archives, we reviewed the Johns Hopkins Hospital surgical files from 1896 to 1912. Participants included four adult patients and one child who underwent surgical resection of bony tumors of the skull base and the cranial vault. The main outcome measures were operative approach and condition recorded at the time of discharge. The indications for surgery included unspecified malignant tumor of the basal meninges and temporal bone, basal cell carcinoma, osteoma of the posterior skull base, and osteomas of the frontal and parietofrontal cranial vault. While Cushing's experience with selected skull base pathology has been previously reported, the breadth of his contributions to operative approaches to the skull base has been neglected. PMID:22470271

  10. Homology of the cranial vault in birds: new insights based on embryonic fate-mapping and character analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddin, Hillary C.; Piekarski, Nadine; Sefton, Elizabeth M.; Hanken, James

    2016-08-01

    Bones of the cranial vault appear to be highly conserved among tetrapod vertebrates. Moreover, bones identified with the same name are assumed to be evolutionarily homologous. However, recent developmental studies reveal a key difference in the embryonic origin of cranial vault bones between representatives of two amniote lineages, mammals and birds, thereby challenging this view. In the mouse, the frontal is derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) but the parietal is derived from mesoderm, placing the CNC-mesoderm boundary at the suture between these bones. In the chicken, this boundary is located within the frontal. This difference and related data have led several recent authors to suggest that bones of the avian cranial vault are misidentified and should be renamed. To elucidate this apparent conflict, we fate-mapped CNC and mesoderm in axolotl to reveal the contributions of these two embryonic cell populations to the cranial vault in a urodele amphibian. The CNC-mesoderm boundary in axolotl is located between the frontal and parietal bones, as in the mouse but unlike the chicken. If, however, the avian frontal is regarded instead as a fused frontal and parietal (i.e. frontoparietal) and the parietal as a postparietal, then the cranial vault of birds becomes developmentally and topologically congruent with those of urodeles and mammals. This alternative hypothesis of cranial vault homology is also phylogenetically consistent with data from the tetrapod fossil record, where frontal, parietal and postparietal bones are present in stem lineages of all extant taxa, including birds. It further implies that a postparietal may be present in most non-avian archosaurs, but fused to the parietal or supraoccipital as in many extant mammals.

  11. Major vault protein supports glioblastoma survival and migration by upregulating the EGFR/PI3K signalling axis

    PubMed Central

    Lötsch, Daniela; Steiner, Elisabeth; Holzmann, Klaus; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Pirker, Christine; Hlavaty, Juraj; Petznek, Helga; Hegedus, Balazs; Garay, Tamas; Mohr, Thomas; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquitous expression and high conservation during evolution, precise cellular functions of vault ribonucleoparticles, mainly built of multiple major vault protein (MVP) copies, are still enigmatic. With regard to cancer, vaults were shown to be upregulated during drug resistance development as well as malignant transformation and progression. Such in a previous study we demonstrated that human astrocytic brain tumours including glioblastoma are generally high in vault levels while MVP expression in normal brain is comparably low. However a direct contribution to the malignant phenotype in general and that of glioblastoma in particular has not been established so far. Thus we address the questions whether MVP itself has a pro-tumorigenic function in glioblastoma. Based on a large tissue collection, we re-confirm strong MVP expression in gliomas as compared to healthy brain. Further, the impact of MVP on human glioblastoma aggressiveness was analysed by using gene transfection, siRNA knock-down and dominant-negative genetic approaches. Our results demonstrate that MVP/vaults significantly support migratory and invasive competence as well as starvation resistance of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. The enhanced aggressiveness was based on MVP-mediated stabilization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling axis. Consequently, MVP overexpression resulted in enhanced growth and brain invasion in human glioblastoma xenograft models. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that vaults have a tumour-promoting potential by stabilizing EGFR/PI3K-mediated migration and survival pathways in human glioblastoma. PMID:24243798

  12. CSER 94-014: Storage of metal-fuel loaded EBR-II casks in concrete vault on PFP grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, A.L.

    1994-12-05

    A criticality safety evaluation is presented to permit EBR-2 spent fuel casks loaded with metallic fuel rods to be stored in an 8-ft diameter, cylindrical concrete vault inside the PFP security perimeter. The specific transfer of three casks with Pu alloy fuel from the Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment from the burial grounds to the vault is thus covered. Up to seven casks may be emplaced in the casing with 30 inches center to center spacing. Criticality safety is assured by definitive packaging rules which keep the fissile medium dry and at a low effective volumetric density.

  13. NeuroVault.org: a web-based repository for collecting and sharing unthresholded statistical maps of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwarz, Yannick; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Maumet, Camille; Sochat, Vanessa V.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present NeuroVault—a web based repository that allows researchers to store, share, visualize, and decode statistical maps of the human brain. NeuroVault is easy to use and employs modern web technologies to provide informative visualization of data without the need to install additional software. In addition, it leverages the power of the Neurosynth database to provide cognitive decoding of deposited maps. The data are exposed through a public REST API enabling other services and tools to take advantage of it. NeuroVault is a new resource for researchers interested in conducting meta- and coactivation analyses. PMID:25914639

  14. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-02-10

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons.

  15. An Order-of-Magnitude Estimation of Benzene Concentration in Saltstone Vault

    SciTech Connect

    ALEXANDER, CHOI

    2005-02-28

    The contents of Tank 48 that include the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitates of potassium and cesium will be grouted and stored in the Saltstone vault. The grouting process is exothermic, which should accelerate the decomposition of TPB precipitates eventually to benzene. Because the vault is not currently outfitted with an active ventilation system, there is a concern that a mixture of flammable gases may form in the vapor space of each cell filled with the curing grout. The purpose of this study was to determine if passive breathing induced by the diurnal oscillations of atmospheric pressure would provide any mitigating measure against potential flammability. Specifically, it was requested that a set of algorithms be developed that would predict the equilibrium concentration of benzene as a function of benzene generation rate, fill height, and the amplitude of the barometric pressure oscillations. These algorithms were to be derived based on several simplifying assumptions so that order of magnitude estimates could be made quickly for scoping purposes. This memo documents the resulting algorithms along with those key assumptions made. These algorithms were then applied to simulate several test cases, including the baseline case where the cell was filled to the maximum height of 25 ft at the bulk benzene generation rate of 3.4 g/hr.

  16. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Boldsen, Jesper L.; Milner, George R.; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

  17. A novel web-enabled healthcare solution on health vault system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lingxia; Chen, Min; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Lai, Xiaorong; Vuong, Son

    2012-06-01

    Complicated Electronic Medical Records (EMR) systems have created problems in systems regarding an easy implementation and interoperability for a Web-enabled Healthcare Solution, which is normally provided by an independent healthcare giver with limited IT knowledge and interests. An EMR system with well-designed and user-friendly interface, such as Microsoft HealthVault System used as the back-end platform of a Web-enabled healthcare application will be an approach to deal with these problems. This paper analyzes the patient oriented Web-enabled healthcare service application as the new trend to delivery healthcare from hospital/clinic-centric to patient-centric, the current e-healthcare applications, and the main backend EMR systems. Then, we present a novel web-enabled healthcare solution based on Microsoft HealthVault EMR system to meet customers' needs, such as, low total cost, easily development and maintenance, and good interoperability. A sample system is given to show how the solution can be fulfilled, evaluated, and validated. We expect that this paper will provide a deep understanding of the available EMR systems, leading to insights for new solutions and approaches driven to next generation EMR systems.

  18. Range and Image Based Modelling: a way for Frescoed Vault Texturing Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the restoration of the frescoed vaults it is not only important to know the geometric shape of the painted surface, but it is essential to document its chromatic characterization and conservation status. The new techniques of range-based and image-based modelling, each with its limitations and advantages, offer a wide range of methods to obtain the geometric shape. In fact, several studies widely document that laser scanning enable obtaining three-dimensional models with high morphological precision. However, the quality level of the colour obtained with built-in laser scanner cameras is not comparable to that obtained for the shape. It is possible to improve the texture quality by means of a dedicated photographic campaign. This procedure, however, requires to calculate the external orientation of each image identifying the control points on it and on the model through a costly step of post processing. With image-based modelling techniques it is possible to obtain models that maintain the colour quality of the original images, but with variable geometric precision, locally lower than the laser scanning model. This paper presents a methodology that uses the camera external orientation parameters calculated by image based modelling techniques to project the same image on the model obtained from the laser scan. This methodology is tested on an Italian mirror (a schifo) frescoed vault. In the paper the different models, the analysis of precision and the efficiency evaluation of proposed methodology are presented.

  19. Multi-echo processing by a bottlenose dolphin operating in "packet" transmission mode at long range.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Schroth-Miller, Maddie; Borror, Nancy; Tormey, Megan; Brewer, Arial; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly; Goya, Gavin

    2014-11-01

    Bottlenose dolphins performing echolocation tasks at long ranges may utilize a transmission mode where bursts, or "packets," of echolocation clicks are emitted rather than single clicks. The clicks within each packet are separated by time intervals well below the two-way travel time, while the packets themselves are emitted at intervals greater than the two-way travel time. Packet use has been shown to increase with range; however, the exact function of packets and the advantages gained by their utilization remain unknown. In this study, the capability for dolphins to utilize multi-echo processing within packets of echoes was investigated by manipulating the number of available echoes within each packet as a dolphin performed a long-range echolocation task. The results showed an improvement in detectability with an increase in the number of echoes in each packet and suggest that packet use is an adaptation to allow multi-echo processing at long ranges without introducing range ambiguity.

  20. An effective packetization algorithm of LT codes for stable video streaming over wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongju; Kim, Wan; Song, Hwangjun

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we propose an effective And-Or tree based packetization algorithm of Luby Transform (LT) codes to provide stable video streaming services by minimizing the deterioration of video streaming service quality caused by lost packets over error-prone wireless network. To accomplish our goal, the proposed packetization algorithm considers the relationships among encoded symbols of LT codes based on an And-Or tree analysis tool, and then puts the these encoded symbols into packets to minimize the packet loss effect during packet transmission and improve the decoding success rate of LT codes by reducing the correlations among packets. We conduct a mathematical analysis to prove performance of our packetization algorithm of LT codes compared with conventional packetization algorithm. Finally, the proposed system is fully implemented in Java and C/C++, and widely tested to show that the proposed packetization algorithm works reasonably well. The experimental results are provided to demonstrate that the proposed packetization algorithm supports more stable video streaming services with higher peak signal-to-nose ratio (PSNR) than the conventional packetization algorithm with various packet loss patterns, including random and burst packet loss patterns.

  1. Rydberg wave packets and half-cycle electromagnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Chandra Shekar

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation summarizes an examination of the dynamics of atomic Rydberg wave packets with coherent pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation consisting of less than a single cycle of the electric field. The bulk of the energy is contained in just a half-cycle. Previous work (1, 10) has shown how these half-cycle pulses can be used to ionize the highly excited states of an atom, and that a classical view of electronic motion in the atom explains the ionization mechanism. To further probe the boundary between classical trajectories and quantum mechanics, in this work we investigate dynamical combinations of Rydberg states, or Rydberg wave packets, and how they ionize under the influence of a half-cycle electromagnetic pulse. With time-domain techniques we are able to extract the dynamics of the wave packet from the ionization rate. We then observe wave packet motion in both the electronic radial and angular coordinates, and can view it directly with the half-cycle pulse anywhere on its trajectory. This is the unique feature of half- cycle pulse ionization. Semiclassical ideas of ionization in conjunction with quantum descriptions of the wave packet, are capable of reproducing the main trends in our data, and in the absence of a rigorous model we rely on these. Experiments of this nature provide examples of the ongoing effort to use the coherent properties of radiation to control electronic motion in an atom, as well as to probe the boundaries between quantum and classical mechanics.

  2. Integrated optical buffers for packet-switched networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Emily Frances

    Routers form the backbone of the Internet, directing data to the right locations with huge throughput capacity of terabits/second) and very few errors (1 error allowed in 1012 bits). However, as the Internet continues to grow rapidly, so must the capacity of electronic routers, thereby also growing in footprint and power consumption. The energy bill alone has developers looking for an alternate solution. Today's routers can only operate with electrical signals although Internet data is transmitted optically. This requires the data to be converted from the optical domain to the electrical domain and back again. Optical routers have the potential of saving in power by omitting these conversions, but have been held back in part by the lack of a practical optical memory device. This work presents the first integrated optical buffer for next generation optical packet-switched networks. Buffering is required in a router to move packets of data in order to avoid collisions between packets heading to the same destination at the same time. The device presented here uses an InP-based two-by-two switch with a silica waveguide delay to form a recirculating buffer. Packet storage was shown with 98% packet recovery for 5 circulations. Autonomous contention resolution was demonstrated with two buffered channels to show that the technology is a realistic solution for creating multiple element buffers on multiple router ports. This thesis proposes and demonstrates the first integrated optical random access memory, thereby making a great stride toward high capacity optical routers.

  3. Assessment of thermal performance for the design of a passively-cooled plutonium storage vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Joseph Conway

    A passively-cooled plutonium storage vault, rather than one with a safety-qualified, forced-flow cooling system, could save as much as 100 million over the project lifetime. Either configuration must maintain the temperature of the stored plutonium metal, with its significant internal heat generation, below 239 sp circF. Alpha-phase metal, if allowed to exceed this temperature, will transition to beta-phase metal and undergo a volumetric expansion which could rupture the storage container system. An investigation was performed to determine whether a passively-cooled vault is feasible. Significant temperature drops occurred in two regions, both were gas-filled vertical annuli with heat flux boundary conditions on the inner surfaces and fixed temperature boundary conditions on the outer surfaces. The thermal resistance method was employed to evaluate radial heat transfer across each annulus, coupling natural convection, radiation, and conduction. Correlations from Thomas et al and Kulacki et al were used to evaluate the degree of natural convective enhancement. For the helium-filled region between the plutonium metal rod and the container with a characteristic length of 3.9 centimeters and an aspect ratio of 5.6, the Rayleigh number was 800 when the effect of radiation was removed. This resulted in a Nusselt number of 1.8. For the air-filled region between twelve vertically arranged containers and the storage tube with a characteristic length of 5.8 centimeters and an aspect ratio of 78, the Rayleigh number was 5times10sp5. This resulted in a Nusselt number of approximately 4.5, neglecting the effect of radiation. FIDAP 7.62\\copyright$ (Fluid Dynamics Analysis Package) was used to perform multi-dimensional finite element analyses of these regions employing both buoyant and radiative effects. Both simplified and more geometrically complex models were employed, all of which compared favorably to the results using the thermal resistance method. The results of the

  4. Intensive care unit course of infants and children after cranial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Craniosynostosis (CSS) results from the premature closure of one or more cranial sutures, leading to deformed calvaria at birth. It is a common finding in children with an incidence of one in 2000 births. Surgery is required in order to release the synostotic constraint and promote normal calvaria growth. Cranial vault remodeling is the surgical approach to CSS repair at our institution and it involves excision of the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones. The purpose of this article is to describe the post-operative course of infants and children admitted to our PICU after undergoing cranial vault remodeling for primary CSS. Findings Complete data was available for analyses in only 82 patients, 44 males (M) and 38 females (F); M: F ratio was 1:1.2. Patients (pts) age in months (mo) ranged from 2 mo to 132 mo, mean 18.2 ±-24.9 mo and weights (wt) ranged from 4.7 kg to 31.4 kg, mean 10.24 ± 5.5 Kg.. Duration of surgery (DOS) ranged from 70 minutes to 573 minutes mean 331.6 ± 89.0 minutes. No significant correlation exist between duration of surgery, suture category, patient's age or use of blood products (P > 0.05). IOP blood loss was higher in older pts (P < 0.05) and it correlates with body temperature in the PICU (P < .0001). Post-op use of FFP correlated with intra-operative PRBC transfusion (P < 0.0001). More PRBC was transfused within 12 hrs-24 hrs in PICU compared to other time periods (P < 0.05). LOS in PICU was < 3 days in 68% and > 3 days in 32%. Pts with fever had prolonged LOS (P < 0. 05); re-intubation rate was 2.4% and MVD were 1.83 days. Repeat operation for poor cosmetic results occurred in 9.7% of pts. Conclusions Post-op morbidities from increased use of blood products can be minimized if cranial vault remodeling is done at a younger age in patients with primary CSS. PICU length of stay is determined in part by post-op pyrexia and it can be reduced if extensive evaluations of post-op fever are avoided. PMID:21906303

  5. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... address, and signature; (iii) For personal checks, verify the patron's check cashing authority and...

  6. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... address, and signature; (iii) For personal checks, verify the patron's check cashing authority and...

  7. Major Vault Protein is Expressed along the Nucleus–Neurite Axis and Associates with mRNAs in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Paspalas, Constantinos D.; Perley, Casey C.; Venkitaramani, Deepa V.; Goebel-Goody, Susan M.; Zhang, YongFang; Kurup, Pradeep; Mattis, Joanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Major Vault Protein (MVP), the main constituent of the vault ribonucleoprotein particle, is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells and upregulated in a variety of tumors. Vaults have been speculated to function as cargo transporters in several cell lines, yet no work to date has characterized the protein in neurons. Here we first describe the cellular and subcellular expression of MVP in primate and rodent cerebral cortex, and in cortical neurons in vitro. In prefrontal, somatosensory and hippocampal cortices, MVP was predominantly expressed in pyramidal neurons. Immunogold labeled free and attached ribosomes, and structures reminiscent of vaults on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. The nucleus was immunoreactive in association with nucleopores. Axons and particularly principal dendrites expressed MVP along individual microtubules, and in pre- and postsynaptic structures. Synapses were not labeled. Colocalization with microtubule-associated protein-2, tubulin, tau, and phalloidin was observed in neurites and growth cones in culture. Immunoprecipitation coupled with reverse transcription PCR showed that MVP associates with mRNAs that are known to be translated in response to synaptic activity. Taken together, our findings provide the first characterization of neuronal MVP along the nucleus–neurite axis and may offer new insights into its possible function(s) in the brain. PMID:19029061

  8. Gothic Churches in Paris ST Gervais et ST Protais Image Matching 3d Reconstruction to Understand the Vaults System Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  9. Response to requests by FMF and DWPF concerning disposal of FMF saltstone drums in Z-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1989-07-25

    Disposal of FMF saltstone in 55 gallon drums in the Z-Area Industrial Waste Landfill requires modification of the landfill permit. Approximately 5000 drums of FMF saltstone are currently stored on SC DHEC-permitted concrete storage pads adjacent to the burial ground. At a meeting with DWPF, FMF, and EPS on July 18, 1989, IWT agreed to supply the following information: (1) Consequence of disposal of CCA (Cu, Cr, As) treated wood pallets in the Z-Area vaults. (Four drums of FMF saltstone are currently banded to each pallet.) (2) Consequence of placing partially filled FMF drums in the Z-Area vaults. (3) Formulation for clean grout back-fill. Grout will be emplaced around and over the drums, thereby isolating them from environment (rainwater) prior to vault capping. (4) Maximum loading of FMF saltstone drums in the Z-Area vaults. (5) Consequence of void volume in drums, in clean grout, or both on groundwater modeling results. This document is a response to the above requests.

  10. Correlation of Palatal Rugoscopy with Gender, Palatal Vault Height and ABO Blood Groups in Three Different Indian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Verma, KG; Verma, P; Bansal, N; Basavaraju, S; Sachdeva, SK; Khosa, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palatal rugae (PR) are asymmetrical irregular elevations, recorded during maxillary cast fabrication, that can be used for identification purpose if previous comparative sources are available. Aim: This study investigated uniqueness of PR patterns in relation to gender, palatal vault forms, and ABO blood groups in three (North-East [N-E], Northern and Western) populations of India. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted on randomly selected 90 students, 30 from each sub population. Design - The palatal vault was recorded as Types I, II, and III. The maxillary casts were analyzed for each subject. The blood group of each subject was also recorded. Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship among different variables. Results: The PR number was more among females with an insignificant correlation among gender and mean rugae size on both sides. Types I and II hard palate vaults were seen associated with straight forwardly directed PR pattern, while Type III with curved forwardly directed PR. On the right side, straight rugae shape was most common type. On the left side, straight rugae shape was most common in Northern population while in N-E and Western populations curved rugae was the dominating type. A highly significant correlation was found between ABO blood groups and different PR patterns. Conclusions: PR possesses unique characteristics and can be used along with palatal vault forms as well as ABO blood groups for racial and individualistic soft tissue oral print in forensic cases. PMID:25328791

  11. A New Reactive FMIPv6 Mechanism for Minimizing Packet Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pyungsoo

    This paper considers a new reactive fast handover MIPv6 (FMIPv6) mechanism to minimize packet loss of the existing mechanism. The primary idea of the proposed reactive FMIPv6 mechanism is that the serving access router buffers packets toward the mobile node (MN) as soon as the link layer between MN and serving base station is disconnected. To implement the proposed mechanism, the router discovery message exchanged between MN and serving access router is extended. In addition, the IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover Function event service message is defined newly. Through analytic performance evaluation and experiments, the proposed reactive FMIPv6 mechanism can be shown to minimize packet loss much than the existing mechanism.

  12. Semiclassical Dynamics of Electron Wave Packet States with Phase Vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Bliokh, Konstantin Yu.; Bliokh, Yury P.; Savel'ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco

    2007-11-09

    We consider semiclassical higher-order wave packet solutions of the Schroedinger equation with phase vortices. The vortex line is aligned with the propagation direction, and the wave packet carries a well-defined orbital angular momentum (OAM) ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})l (l is the vortex strength) along its main linear momentum. The probability current coils around the momentum in such OAM states of electrons. In an electric field, these states evolve like massless particles with spin l. The magnetic-monopole Berry curvature appears in momentum space, which results in a spin-orbit-type interaction and a Berry/Magnus transverse force acting on the wave packet. This brings about the OAM Hall effect. In a magnetic field, there is a Zeeman interaction, which, can lead to more complicated dynamics.

  13. On-board congestion control for satellite packet switching networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.

    1991-01-01

    It is desirable to incorporate packet switching capability on-board for future communication satellites. Because of the statistical nature of packet communication, incoming traffic fluctuates and may cause congestion. Thus, it is necessary to incorporate a congestion control mechanism as part of the on-board processing to smooth and regulate the bursty traffic. Although there are extensive studies on congestion control for both baseband and broadband terrestrial networks, these schemes are not feasible for space based switching networks because of the unique characteristics of satellite link. Here, we propose a new congestion control method for on-board satellite packet switching. This scheme takes into consideration the long propagation delay in satellite link and takes advantage of the the satellite's broadcasting capability. It divides the control between the ground terminals and satellite, but distributes the primary responsibility to ground terminals and only requires minimal hardware resource on-board satellite.

  14. Bufferless Ultra-High Speed All-Optical Packet Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttagi, Shrihari; Prince, Shanthi

    2011-10-01

    All-Optical network is still in adolescence to cope up with steep rise in data traffic at the backbone network. Routing of packets in optical network depends on the processing speed of the All-Optical routers, thus there is a need to enhance optical processing to curb the delay in packet forwarding unit. In the proposed scheme, the header processing takes place on fly, therefore processing delay is at its lower limit. The objective is to propose a framework which establishes high data rate transmission with least latency in data routing from source to destination. The Routing table and optical header pulses are converted into Pulse Position (PP) format, thus reducing the complexity and in turn the processing delay. Optical pulse matching is exercised which results in multi-output transmission. This results in ultra-high speed packet forwarding unit. In addition, this proposed scheme includes dispersion compensation unit, which makes the data reliable.

  15. Chiral wave-packet scattering in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qing-Dong; Jiang, Hua; Liu, Haiwen; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X. C.

    2016-05-01

    In quantum mechanics, a particle is best described by the wave packet instead of the plane wave. Here, we study the wave-packet scattering problem in Weyl semimetals with the low-energy Weyl fermions of different chiralities. Our results show that the wave packet acquires a chirality-protected shift in the single-impurity scattering process. More importantly, the chirality-protected shift can lead to an anomalous scattering probability, and thus affects the transport properties in Weyl semimetals. We find that the ratio between the transport lifetime and the quantum lifetime increases sharply when the Fermi energy approaches the Weyl nodes, providing an explanation of the experimentally observed ultrahigh mobility in topological (Weyl or Dirac) semimetals.

  16. Wave packet propagation across barriers by semiclassical initial value methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Jakob; Kay, Kenneth G.

    2015-07-01

    Semiclassical initial value representation (IVR) formulas for the propagator have difficulty describing tunneling through barriers. A key reason is that these formulas do not automatically reduce, in the classical limit, to the version of the Van Vleck-Gutzwiller (VVG) propagator required to treat barrier tunneling, which involves trajectories that have complex initial conditions and that follow paths in complex time. In this work, a simple IVR expression, that has the correct tunneling form in the classical limit, is derived for the propagator in the case of one-dimensional barrier transmission. Similarly, an IVR formula, that reduces to the Generalized Gaussian Wave Packet Dynamics (GGWPD) expression [D. Huber, E. J. Heller, and R. Littlejohn, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2003 (1988)] in the classical limit, is derived for the transmitted wave packet. Uniform semiclassical versions of the IVR formulas are presented and simplified expressions in terms of real trajectories and WKB penetration factors are described. Numerical tests show that the uniform IVR treatment gives good results for wave packet transmission through the Eckart and Gaussian barriers in all cases examined. In contrast, even when applied with the proper complex trajectories, the VVG and GGWPD treatments are inaccurate when the mean energy of the wave packet is near the classical transmission threshold. The IVR expressions for the propagator and wave packet are cast as contour integrals in the complex space of initial conditions and these are generalized to potentially allow treatment of a larger variety of systems. A steepest descent analysis of the contour integral formula for the wave packet in the present cases confirms its relationship to the GGWPD method, verifies its semiclassical validity, and explains results of numerical calculations.

  17. The Open Host Network Packet Process Correlator for Windows

    2014-06-17

    The Hone sensors are packet-process correlation engines that log the relationships between applications and the communications they are responsible for. Hone sensors are available for a variety of platforms including Linux, Windows, and MacOSX. Hone sensors are designed to help analysts understand the meaning of communications on a deeper level by associating the origin or destination process to the communication. They do this by tracing communications on a per-packet basis, through the kernel of themore » operating system to determine their ultimate source/destination on the monitored machine.« less

  18. Wave packet dynamics under effect of a pulsed electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, A. R. C. B.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Dias, W. S.

    2016-06-01

    We studied the dynamics of an electron in a crystalline one-dimensional model under effect of a time-dependent Gaussian field. The time evolution of an initially Gaussian wave packet it was obtained through the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Our analysis consists of computing the electronic centroid as well as the mean square displacement. We observe that the electrical pulse is able to promote a special kind of displacement along the chain. We demonstrated a direct relation between the group velocity of the wave packet and the applied electrical pulses. We compare those numerical calculations with a semi-classical approach.

  19. The Open Host Network Packet Process Correlator for Windows

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-17

    The Hone sensors are packet-process correlation engines that log the relationships between applications and the communications they are responsible for. Hone sensors are available for a variety of platforms including Linux, Windows, and MacOSX. Hone sensors are designed to help analysts understand the meaning of communications on a deeper level by associating the origin or destination process to the communication. They do this by tracing communications on a per-packet basis, through the kernel of the operating system to determine their ultimate source/destination on the monitored machine.

  20. Control with a random access protocol and packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liyuan; Guo, Ge

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates networked control systems whose actuators communicate with the controller via a limited number of unreliable channels. The access to the channels is decided by a so-called group random access protocol, which is modelled as a binary Markov sequence. Data packet dropouts in the channels are modelled as independent Bernoulli processes. For such systems, a systematic characterisation for controller synthesis is established and stated in terms of the transition probabilities of the Markov protocol and the packet dropout probabilities. The results are illustrated via a numerical example.

  1. Gabor Wave Packet Method to Solve Plasma Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    A. Pletzer; C.K. Phillips; D.N. Smithe

    2003-06-18

    A numerical method for solving plasma wave equations arising in the context of mode conversion between the fast magnetosonic and the slow (e.g ion Bernstein) wave is presented. The numerical algorithm relies on the expansion of the solution in Gaussian wave packets known as Gabor functions, which have good resolution properties in both real and Fourier space. The wave packets are ideally suited to capture both the large and small wavelength features that characterize mode conversion problems. The accuracy of the scheme is compared with a standard finite element approach.

  2. Symmetry and conservation laws in semiclassical wave packet dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsawa, Tomoki

    2015-03-15

    We formulate symmetries in semiclassical Gaussian wave packet dynamics and find the corresponding conserved quantities, particularly the semiclassical angular momentum, via Noether’s theorem. We consider two slightly different formulations of Gaussian wave packet dynamics; one is based on earlier works of Heller and Hagedorn and the other based on the symplectic-geometric approach by Lubich and others. In either case, we reveal the symplectic and Hamiltonian nature of the dynamics and formulate natural symmetry group actions in the setting to derive the corresponding conserved quantities (momentum maps). The semiclassical angular momentum inherits the essential properties of the classical angular momentum as well as naturally corresponds to the quantum picture.

  3. Zeno dynamics in wave-packet diffraction spreading

    SciTech Connect

    Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel; Sanz, Angel S.

    2011-11-15

    We analyze a simple and feasible practical scheme displaying Zeno, anti-Zeno, and inverse-Zeno effects in the observation of wave-packet spreading caused by free evolution. The scheme is valid both in spatial diffraction of classical optical waves and in time diffraction of a quantum wave packet. In the optical realization, diffraction spreading is observed by placing slits between a light source and a light-power detector. We show that the occurrence of Zeno or anti-Zeno effects depends just on the frequency of observations between the source and detector. These effects are seen to be related to the diffraction mode theory in Fabry-Perot resonators.

  4. Short-time Chebyshev wave packet method for molecular photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaopeng; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-08-01

    In this letter we present the extended usage of short-time Chebyshev wave packet method in the laser induced molecular photoionization dynamics. In our extension, the polynomial expansion of the exponential in the time evolution operator, the Hamiltonian operator can act on the wave packet directly which neatly avoids the matrix diagonalization. This propagation scheme is of obvious advantages when the dynamical system has large Hamiltonian matrix. Computational simulations are performed for the calculation of photoelectronic distributions from intense short pulse ionization of K2 and NaI which represent the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) model and Non-BO one, respectively.

  5. Alternative packet switch architectures for a 30/20 GHz FDMA/TDMA geostationary communication satellite network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stehle, Roy; Ogier, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    This study has investigated alternatives for realizing a packet-based network switch for deployment on a communication satellite. The emphasis was on the avoidance of contention problems that can occur due to the simultaneous arrival of an excessive number of packets destined for the same downlink dwell. The study was to look ahead, beyond the current Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) capability, to the next generation of satellites. The study has not been limited by currently available technology, but has used university and commercial research efforts as a basis for designs that can be readily constructed and launched within the next five years. Tradeoffs in memory requirement, power requirement, and architecture have been considered as a part of our study.

  6. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    PubMed

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  7. The role of mode of delivery on elastic fiber architecture and vaginal vault elasticity: a rodent model study

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Keith; Billah, Mubashir; Raparia, Eva; Shah, Anup; Silverstein, Moshe; Ahmad, Amanda; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the role of mode of delivery and pregnancy on the architecture of vaginal elastic fibers and vaginal vault elasticity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In primiparous rats submitted to spontaneous or Cesarean delivery and virgin rats submitted to simulated delivery, the tortuosity of elastic fibers (defined as the ratio of length to end-to-end distance) was observed to decrease when measured two days to two weeks postpartum. In addition, the measured tortuosity of elastic fibers in multiparous rats was greater than that of virgin rats. The tortuosity of elastic fibers of all rats measured at two days postpartum were found to be similar to that of multiparous rats. At two weeks postpartum the measured tortuosity of vaginal elastic fibers was indistinguishable from virgin rats, regardless of the delivery method. Borrowing from the field of polymer physics, a model is suggested that connects elastic fiber tortuosity to the resulting tension under an applied stress; fibers having high tortuosity are expected to provide less structural support than more linear, low tortuosity fibers. To probe the macroscopic effects in elasticity due to architectural changes observed in elastic fibers, we have measured the stiffness of the vaginal vault in each cohort using a pressure-infusion system. The vaginal vault stiffness of all primiparous rats measured two weeks postpartum was greater than that measured two days postpartum. In addition, the vaginal vault of virgin rats was stiffer than that of multiparous rats. These observations confirmed that vaginal vault elastic fibers undergo significant remodeling due to pregnancy and parturition, and that the complex remodeling may be a significant contributor to tissue elasticity. Remarkably, regardless of the mode of delivery or simulated tissue trauma, elastic fiber tortuosity is observed to decrease from two days to two weeks postpartum indicating the onset of repair and recovery of tissue stiffness

  8. Somersaulting techniques used in high-scoring and low-scoring Roche vaults performed by male Olympic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshiaki; Dunn, J Hubert; Blucker, Erik P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the somersaulting techniques used in the 16 highest-scoring and 16 lowest-scoring Roche vaults. Our hypothesis was that the gymnasts performing the highest-scoring Roche vaults would demonstrate a better technique than those performing the lowest-scoring Roche vaults while on the horse (pushing off the horse more effectively), somersaulting (executing most of the required somersaults higher in flight), and landing (showing a greater control). A 16-mm motion picture camera, operating at 100 Hz, recorded the vaults during the official competition. The two-dimensional direct linear transformation was used for spatial reconstruction. The results of t-tests (P < 0.05) indicated that, compared with the low-scoring gymnasts, the high-scoring gymnasts had: (1) greater height of body centre of mass and a more fully extended body position at the horse take-off; (2) greater height of body centre of mass at the peak of post-flight, knee release, and touchdown on the mat; (3) greater horizontal and vertical displacements of body centre of mass, greater somersaulting rotation, and longer time from the knee release to mat touchdown; and (d) markedly smaller landing point deductions. In conclusion, a successful Roche vault is likely when the focus is on: (a) leaving the horse with a large vertical velocity in an extended body position to achieve a high trajectory of centre of mass by first extending the legs, then immediately pushing off the horse vigorously, using the muscles of the upper extremity; (b) grasping the knees immediately after the take-off from the horse, achieving the tightly tucked body position early during the ascent to the peak, and completing two-thirds of the required somersaults at a great height; (c) releasing the knees and extending the body above the top level of the horse; and (d) contacting the mat with a high body centre of mass position. PMID:17454535

  9. Global Ex-Situ Crop Diversity Conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: Assessing the Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Westengen, Ola T.; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

  10. Determination of the biodegradation rate of asphalt for the Hanford grout vaults. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Li, S.W.

    1993-04-01

    Testing was initiated in March 1991 and completed in November 1992 to determine the rate at which asphalt is biodegraded by microorganisms native to the Hanford Site soils. The asphalt tested (AR-6000, US Oil, Tacoma, Washington) is to be used in the construction of a diffusion barrier for the Hanford grout vaults. Experiments to determine asphalt biodegradation rates were conducted using three separate test sets. These test sets were initiated in March 1991, January 1992, and June 1992 and ran for periods of 6 months, 11 months, and 6 months, respectively. The experimental method used was one originally developed by Bartha and Pramer (1965), and further refined by Bowerman et al. (1985), that determined the asphalt biodegradation rate through the measurement of carbon dioxide evolved.

  11. SU-D-BRE-07: Neutron Shielding Assessment for a Compact Proton Therapy Vault

    SciTech Connect

    Prusator, M; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To perform a neutron shielding assessment of a commercially available compact proton therapy system. Methods: TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation) beta release was used to model beam line components for Mevion S250 proton treatment system the design of which is that the cyclotron is present in the treatment room. Three neutron production sources were taken into account in the simulation. These are the cyclotron, the treatment nozzle and the patient itself, respectively. The cyclotron was modeled as a cylindrical iron target (r =5 cm, length = 8 cm). A water phantom (10 cm ×10 cm ×60 cm) was used to model the patient and various structures (scattering foils, range modulator wheel, applicator and compensator) defaulted in TOPAS were used to model the passive scattering treatment nozzle. Neutron fluences and energy spectra were counted in a spherical scoring geometry per incident proton in 18 angular bins (10 degree each). Fluence to dose conversion factors from ICRU publication 74 were used to acquire neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10). A point source line of sight model was then used to calculate neutron dose at eight locations beyond shielding barriers. Results: The neutron ambient dose equivalent was calculated at the 8 points of interest around the proton treatment vault. The highest dose was found to be less than 0.781 mSv/year outside south barrier wall. However, the dose is less than 0.05 mSv/year at the control room area of the proton vault. Conclusion: All Points of interest were well under annual dose limits. This suggests that the shielding design of this compact proton therapy system is sufficient for radiation protection purpose. However, it is important to note that the workload and the occupancy factors are direct multipliers for dose calculations beyond the barrier and must be accurately estimated for validation of our results.

  12. 3D-Conformal Versus Intensity-Modulated Postoperative Radiotherapy of Vaginal Vault: A Dosimetric Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Cilla, Savino; Macchia, Gabriella Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Romanella, Michele; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Padula, Gilbert; Picardi, Vincenzo; Scambia, Giovanni; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated a step-and-shoot IMRT plan in the postoperative irradiation of the vaginal vault compared with equispaced beam arrangements (3-5) 3D-radiotherapy (RT) optimized plans. Twelve patients were included in this analysis. Four plans for each patient were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, homogeneity index (HI), and conformity index (CI): (1) 3 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (2) 4 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (3) 5 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (4) step-and-shoot IMRT technique. CI showed a good discrimination between the four plans. The mean scores of CI were 0.58 (range: 0.38-0.67) for the 3F-CRT plan, 0.58 (range: 0.41-0.66) for 4F-CRT, 0.62 (range: 0.43-0.68) for 5F-CRT and 0.69 (range: 0.58-0.78) for the IMRT plan. A significant improvement of the conformity was reached by the IMRT plan (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). As expected, the increment of 3D-CRT fields was associated with an improvement of target dose conformity and homogeneity; on the contrary, in the IMRT plans, a better conformity was associated to a worse target dose homogeneity. A significant reduction in terms of D{sub mean}, V90%, V95%, V100% was recorded for rectal and bladder irradiation with the IMRT plan. Surprisingly, IMRT supplied a significant dose reduction also for rectum and bladder V30% and V50%. A significant dosimetric advantage of IMRT over 3D-RT in the adjuvant treatment of vaginal vault alone in terms of treatment conformity and rectum and bladder sparing is shown.

  13. Joint source coding, transport processing, and error concealment for H.323-based packet video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qin-Fan; Kerofsky, Louis

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate how to adapt different parameters in H.263 source coding, transport processing and error concealment to optimize end-to-end video quality at different bitrates and packet loss rates for H.323-based packet video. First different intra coding patterns are compared and we show that the contiguous rectangle or square block pattern offers the best performance in terms of video quality in the presence of packet loss. Second, the optimal intra coding frequency is found for different bitrates and packet loss rates. The optimal number of GOB headers to be inserted in the source coding is then determined. The effect of transport processing strategies such as packetization and retransmission is also examined. For packetization, the impact of packet size and the effect of macroblock segmentation to picture quality are investigated. Finally, we show that the dejitter buffering delay can be used to the advantage for packet loss recovery with video retransmission without incurring any extra delay.

  14. A multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network with optical buffering.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Shinada, Satoshi; Miyazawa, Takaya; Harai, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Wataru; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Koji; Toyozumi, Tatuya; Wada, Naoya

    2012-12-17

    We newly developed a 3 × 3 integrated optical packet and circuit switch-node. Optical buffers and burst-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with the gain flatness are installed in the 3 × 3 switch-node. The optical buffer can prevent packet collisions and decrease packet loss. We constructed a multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network testbed connecting two single-ring networks and a client network by the 3 × 3 switch-node. For the first time, we demonstrated 244 km fiber transmission and 5-node hopping of multiplexed 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths and 100 Gbps optical packets encapsulating 10 Gigabit Ethernet frames on the testbed. Error-free (frame error rate < 1 × 10(-4)) operation was achieved with optical packets of various packet lengths. In addition, successful avoidance of packet collisions by optical buffers was confirmed.

  15. Standard services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized telemetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William H.

    1989-01-01

    Standard functional services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized data are discussed with particular reference to the future implementation of packet processing systems, such as those for the Space Station Freedom. The major functions are listed under the following major categories: input processing, packet processing, and output processing. A functional block diagram of a packet data processing facility is presented, showing the distribution of the various processing functions as well as the primary data flow through the facility.

  16. Compression of echocardiographic scan line data using wavelet packet transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hang, X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Qin, J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient compression strategy is indispensable for digital echocardiography. Previous work has suggested improved results utilizing wavelet transforms in the compression of 2D echocardiographic images. Set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) was modified to compress echocardiographic scanline data based on the wavelet packet transform. A compression ratio of at least 94:1 resulted in preserved image quality.

  17. A CURRICULUM FOR ENGLISH, STUDENT PACKET, GRADE 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Curriculum Development Center.

    THE LITERATURE PROGRAM OF THE GRADE 12 STUDENT PACKET OF THE NEBRASKA ENGLISH CURRICULUM CONSISTS OF A SELECTIVE SURVEY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE FROM THE RENAISSANCE TO THE 20TH CENTURY. IT BEGINS WITH A UNIT ON SHAKESPEAREAN TRAGEDY IN WHICH STUDENTS READ REVENGE TRAGEDIES--SENECA'S "THYESTES" AND KYD'S "THE SPANISH TRAGEDY"--AS PREPARATION FOR THE…

  18. Scattering of wave packets on atoms in the Born approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlovets, D. V.; Kotkin, G. L.; Serbo, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    It has recently been demonstrated experimentally that 200 -300 keV electrons with the unusual spatial profiles can be produced and even focused to a subnanometer scale—namely, electrons carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum and also the so-called Airy beams. Since the wave functions of such electrons do not represent plane waves, the standard Born formula for scattering of them off a potential field is no longer applicable and, hence, needs modification. In the present paper, we address the generic problem of elastic scattering of a wave packet of a fast nonrelativistic particle off a potential field. We obtain simple and convenient formulas for a number of events and an effective cross section in such a scattering, which represent generalization of the Born formula for a case when finite sizes and spatial inhomogeneity of the initial packet should be taken into account. As a benchmark, we consider two simple models corresponding to scattering of a Gaussian wave packet on a Gaussian potential and on a hydrogen atom, and perform a detailed analysis of the effects brought about by the limited sizes of the incident beam and by the finite impact parameter between the potential center and the packet's axis.

  19. Energy Crisis: Libya's and Nigeria's Role. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet contains practical suggestions and resource materials to help secondary teachers teach about Libya's and Nigeria's roles in the energy crisis. Students become acquainted with the governments and cultures of the two countries, examine their social problems, and learn how the Libyan and Nigerian governments are using money from…

  20. Teaching about the U.S. Constitution. A Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leming, Robert S.; And Others

    The 200th anniversary of the United States Constitution offers an excellent opportunity for encouraging renewed study of the principles and foundations of constitutional government. This resource packet provides a listing of current materials and resources to aid teachers in planning lesson units. The listings include: (1) professional…

  1. Solar Energy Education Packet for Elementary & Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    The arrangement of this packet is essentially evolutionary, with a conscious effort to alternate reading assignments, activities and experiments. It begins with solar energy facts and terminology as background to introduce the reader to basic concepts. It progresses into a discussion of passive solar systems. This is followed by several projects…

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.306 - Operator's packet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.3-Use and Care of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39.306 Operator's packet. The GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) will provide...

  3. 41 CFR 101-39.306 - Operator's packet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.3-Use and Care of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39.306 Operator's packet. The GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) will provide...

  4. Using the Internet To Create Primary Source Teaching Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanFossen, Phillip J.; Shiveley, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes strategies and guidelines for creating age- and content-appropriate primary source documents using the Internet. Discusses the value of using topic-specific primary source teaching packets, or jackdaws. Provides three Internet generated jackdaws: New Deal/FDR, Home Front during World War II, and the Gilded Age. Addresses fair use issues.…

  5. Using Document Reading Activity Packets (DRAP) in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomanis, James F.; Schulz, Constance

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a Document Reading Activity Packet (DRAP) revolving around the "Fort Washington Incident" of the War of 1812 and the resulting court martial of Captain Samuel T. Dyson. Explains this exercise is designed to stimulate students' interest in their own state histories as well as stimulate their curiosity for further research. (BSR)

  6. Office Reprographics. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This training package, one in a series of instructional modules consisting of an instructor's guide and a student activity packet, deals with office reprographics. Included in the instructor's guide are general directions for implementing the presentation; a detailed guide for teaching the lesson that includes performance objectives, suggestions…

  7. A CURRICULUM FOR ENGLISH, STUDENT PACKET, GRADE 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Curriculum Development Center.

    THE SEVENTH-GRADE STUDENT PACKET, PRODUCED BY THE NEBRASKA CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTER, BEGINS WITH THE UNIT ENTITLED "THE MAKING OF STORIES" IN WHICH STUDENTS CONSIDER WRITERS' AUDIENCES AND METHODS OF COMPOSITION AND PRESENTATION. SUCH MATERIAL AS "A CHRISTMAS CAROL" AND SELECTIONS FROM "THE ODYSSEY,""BEOWULF,""HYMN TO HERMES," AND GRIMM'S…

  8. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  9. Teen Pregnancy Prevention and Support. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.

    This introductory packet is designed to help those with an interest in preventing teen pregnancy. It opens with "A Brief Introduction to Teen Pregnancy Prevention and Support," an essay by the Center for Mental Health in Schools of the University of California, Los Angeles, that outlines the dimensions of the problem. "A Quick Overview of Some…

  10. Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-08-13

    Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

  11. "Macbeth." A Play Packet To Accompany "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engen, Barbara; Campbell, Joy

    Intended for use by elementary school teachers as a supplement to the book, "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare," or for use by itself to produce one Shakespeare play, this play packet contains ready-to-reproduce materials for the production of "Macbeth." Materials include: staging suggestions for scenery, props, lighting, and costumes; a short…

  12. Environmental Education Inservice Training Packet for the Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center, Thomson, IL.

    The inservice teacher training packet, developed with help from the environmental education program of the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center, is designed to help intermediate-level teachers develop teaching skills which will enable them to introduce environmental or outdoor education to their students and develop those concepts, attitudes, and…

  13. Maintaining Inequality: A Background Packet on Tracking and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Education Activists, Rosendale, NY.

    This document includes a selection of materials from the National Coalition of Education Activists (NCEA) on tracking and ability grouping designed to be a tool for teachers who wish to organize their school or district against tracking. The packet contains a cover letter, a response/feedback form, and reproductions of the following articles: (1)…

  14. A CURRICULUM FOR ENGLISH, TEACHER PACKET, GRADE 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Curriculum Development Center.

    UNITS IN THE TEACHER PACKET FOR THE 11TH-GRADE NEBRASKA ENGLISH CURRICULUM ARE ORGANIZED AROUND THREE MAJOR THEMES IN AMERICAN LITERATURE--MAN AND NATURE, MAN AND MORAL LAW, AND MAN AND SOCIETY. THE MAN AND NATURE THEME IS EXAMINED IN TWO UNITS--"INDIVIDUALISM AND IDEALISM, SPIRITUAL AUTOBIOGRAPHY" AND "THE SEARCH FOR FORM." THE FORMER UNIT, AN…

  15. Wave packet motion in harmonic potential and computer visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuru, Hideo; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    Wave packet motions of a single electron in harmonic potentials or a magnetic field are obtained analytically. The phase of the wave function which depends on both time and space is also presented explicitly. The probability density of the electron changes its width and central position periodically. These results are visualized using computer animation techniques.

  16. Quality Enhancement of Packet Audio with Time-Scale Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2002-12-01

    In traditional packet voice or the emerging 2.5G and 3G wireless data services, smooth and timely delivery of audio is an essential requirement in Quality of Service (QoS) provision. It has been shown in our previous work that, by adapting time-scale modification to audio signals, an adaptive play-out algorithm can be designed to minimize packet dropping at the receiver end. By stretching the audio frame duration up and down, the proposed algorithm could adapt quickly to accommodate fluctuating delays including delay spikes. In this paper, we will address the packet audio QoS with emphasis on end-to-end delay, packet loss, and delay jitter. The characteristics of delay and loss will be discussed. Adaptive playback will enhance the audio quality by adapting to the transmission delay jitter and delay spike. Coupled with Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes, the proposed delay and loss concealment algorithm achieves less overall application loss rate without sacrificing on the average end-to-end delay. The optimal solution of such algorithms will be discussed. We also investigate the stretching-ratio transition effect on perceived audio quality by measuring the objective Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) Mean Opinion Score (MOS).

  17. Electronic-To-Optical-To-Electronic Packet-Data Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Space-time multiplexer (STM) cell-based communication system designed to take advantage of both high throughput attainable in optical transmission links and flexibility and functionality of electronic processing, storage, and switching. Long packets segmented and transmitted optically by wavelength-division multiplexing. Performs optoelectronic and protocol conversion between electronic "store-and-forward" protocols and optical "hot-potato" protocols.

  18. Canada and the United States. Perspective. Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    The similarities and differences of Canada and the United States are explored in this Learning Activity Packet (LAP). Ten learning objectives are given which encourage students to examine: 1) the misconceptions Americans and Canadians have about each other and their ways of life; 2) the effect and influence of French and English exploration and…

  19. SLIAG Advocacy Packet: A Guide for Community-Based Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    This packet of materials is designed as a basic guide for community-based organizations (CBOs) interested in tracking the use of State Legalization Impact Assistance Grants (SLIAG) funds and in advocating that they be used efficiently and effectively. The SLIAG program was created under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) to…

  20. Resonance-assisted decay of nondispersive wave packets.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, Sandro; Schlagheck, Peter; Eltschka, Christopher; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2006-07-28

    We present a quantitative semiclassical theory for the decay of nondispersive electronic wave packets in driven, ionizing Rydberg systems. Statistically robust quantities are extracted combining resonance-assisted tunneling with subsequent transport across chaotic phase space and a final ionization step.

  1. [Geography Awareness Week Activity Packet, 1987 and 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Alliance for Geographic Education, College Station.

    This resource packet contains materials and suggestions to integrate National Geography Awareness Week for 1987 and 1988 into elementary and secondary education in Texas. The materials for 1987 include: (1) a pamphlet for a balloon release; (2) a collection of ideas for student activities; (3) a description of two field experiences; (4) a…

  2. An integrated circuit/packet switched videoconferencing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kippenhan, H.A. Jr.; Lidinsky, W.P.; Roediger, G.A.; Watts, T.A.

    1995-11-01

    The HEP Network Resource Center (HEPNRC) at Fermilab and the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) collaboration have evolved a flexible, cost-effective, widely accessible videoconferencing system for use by high energy physics collaborations and others wishing to use videoconferencing. No current systems seemed to fully meet the needs of high energy physics collaborations. However, two classes of videoconferencing technology: circuit-switched and packet-switched, if integrated, might encompass most of HEP`s needs. It was also realized that, even with this integration, some additional functions were needed and some of the existing functions were not always wanted. HEPNRC with the help of members of the CDF collaboration set out to develop such an integrated system using as many existing subsystems and components as possible. This system is called VUPAC (Videoconferencing Using PAckets and Circuits). This paper begins with brief descriptions of the circuit-switched and packet-switched videoconferencing systems. Following this, issues and limitations of these systems are considered. Next the VUPAC system is described. Integration is accomplished primarily by a circuit/packet videoconferencing interface. Augmentation is centered in another subsystem called MSB (Multiport multisession Bridge). Finally, there is a discussion of the future work needed in the evolution of this system.

  3. Customized lifting multiwavelet packet information entropy for equipment condition identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinglong; Zuo, Ming J.; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Xuefeng

    2013-09-01

    Condition identification of mechanical equipment from vibration measurement data is significant to avoid economic loss caused by unscheduled breakdowns and catastrophic accidents. However, this task still faces challenges due to the complexity of equipment and the harsh environment. This paper provides a possibility for equipment condition identification by proposing a method called customized lifting multiwavelet packet information entropy. Benefiting from the properties of multi-resolution analysis and multiple wavelet basis functions, the multiwavelet method has advantages in characterizing non-stationary vibration signals. In order to realize the accurate detection and identification of the condition features, a customized lifting multiwavelet packet is constructed via a multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then the vibration signal from the mechanical equipment is processed by the customized lifting multiwavelet packet transform. The relative energy in each frequency band of the multiwavelet packet transform coefficients that equals a percentage of the whole signal energy is taken as the probability. The normalized information entropy is obtained based on the relative energy to describe the condition of a mechanical system. The proposed method is applied to the condition identification of a rolling mill and a demountable disk-drum aero-engine. The results support the feasibility of the proposed method in equipment condition identification.

  4. The Sphinx and the Pyramids at Giza. Educational Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliano, Sara; Rapport, Wendy

    This packet of materials was created to accompany the exhibit "The Sphinx and the Pyramids: 100 Years of American Archaeology at Giza" at the Semitic Museum of Harvard University. The lessons and teacher's guide focus on the following: (1) "The Mystery of the Secret Tomb" where students take on the role of an archaeologist by attempting to solve a…

  5. Application of Cellular Automata to Detection of Malicious Network Packets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    A problem in computer security is identification of attack signatures in network packets. An attack signature is a pattern of bits that characterizes a particular attack. Because there are many kinds of attacks, there are potentially many attack signatures. Furthermore, attackers may seek to avoid detection by altering the attack mechanism so that…

  6. Teacher Education Packet for Illinois Core Curriculum in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul; Pepple, Jerry

    Developed for use by teacher educators or state staff, this teaching packet provides preservice or inservice training to teachers and prospective teachers on how to use the Illinois Core Curriculum in Agriculture. (It is recommended that copies of the Illinois core materials be available to the students.) Three problem areas are included:…

  7. Anti-Litter Curriculum Packet, Interdisciplinary, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillis, Richard

    This curriculum packet consists of 20 illustrated cards with 15 activities designed to create "positive feelings" about a clean environment. Activities range from picture coloring for younger students, to lessons such as the economic and health problems litter creates for older students. Objectives include encouraging anti-litter and…

  8. Assessment of spare reliability for multi-state computer networks within tolerable packet unreliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Huang, Cheng-Fu

    2015-04-01

    From a quality of service viewpoint, the transmission packet unreliability and transmission time are both critical performance indicators in a computer system when assessing the Internet quality for supervisors and customers. A computer system is usually modelled as a network topology where each branch denotes a transmission medium and each vertex represents a station of servers. Almost every branch has multiple capacities/states due to failure, partial failure, maintenance, etc. This type of network is known as a multi-state computer network (MSCN). This paper proposes an efficient algorithm that computes the system reliability, i.e., the probability that a specified amount of data can be sent through k (k ≥ 2) disjoint minimal paths within both the tolerable packet unreliability and time threshold. Furthermore, two routing schemes are established in advance to indicate the main and spare minimal paths to increase the system reliability (referred to as spare reliability). Thus, the spare reliability can be readily computed according to the routing scheme.

  9. Children's Literature with a Science Emphasis: Twenty Teacher-Developed K-8 Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Malcolm B.

    This document features 10 science activity packets developed for elementary students by science teachers in a graduate seminar. The activity packets were designed to cover existing commercial children's books on specific content areas. The 10 activity packets are: (1) "Bringing the Rain to Kapiti Plain," which explains the water cycle; (2)…

  10. An Order-of-Magnitude Estimation of Benzene Concentration in Saltstone Vault

    SciTech Connect

    CHOI, A

    2006-03-20

    The contents of Tank 48H that include the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitates of potassium and cesium will be grouted and stored in the Saltstone vault. The grouting process is exothermic, which should accelerate the rate of decomposition of TPB precipitates eventually to benzene. Because the vault is not currently outfitted with an active ventilation system, there is a concern that a mixture of flammable gases may form in the vapor space of each cell filled with the curing grout. The purpose of this study was to determine if passive breathing induced by the diurnal fluctuations of barometric pressure would provide any mitigating measure against potential flammability in the cell vapor space. In Revision 0 of this document, a set of algorithms were presented that would predict the equilibrium concentration of benzene in the cell vapor space as a function of benzene generation rate, fill height, and passive breathing rate. The algorithms were derived based on several simplifying assumptions so that order of magnitude estimates could be made quickly for scoping purposes. In particular, it was assumed that passive breathing would occur solely due to barometric pressure fluctuations that were sinusoidal; the resulting algorithm for estimating the rate of passive breathing into or out of each cell is given in Eq. (10). Since Revision 0 was issued, the validity of this critical assumption on the mode of passive breathing was checked against available passive ventilation data for the Hanford waste tanks. It was found that the passive breathing rates estimated from Eq. (10) were on average 50 to 90% lower than those measured for 5 out of 6 Hanford tanks considered in this study (see Table 1); for Tank U-106, the estimated passive breathing rates were on average 20% lower than the measured data. These results indicate that Eq. (10) would most likely under predict passive breathing rates of the Saltstone vault. At a given fill height and benzene generation rate, under

  11. End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.; Sank, V.; Fong, Wai; Miko, J.; Powers, M.; Folk, John; Conaway, B.; Michael, K.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC), via a fiber optic link, where data was then transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The received data acquired at the White Sands Complex (WSC) was transferred back to the AOST where the data was captured and decompressed back to the original images. This paper describes the compression algorithm, the AOST configuration, key flight components, data formats, and the communication link characteristics and test results.

  12. The preadmission packet: a strategy that benefits patients and nurses during the admission process.

    PubMed

    Keithly, Sherry; Muldoon, Mary; Cheng, Dunlei; Vish, Nancy; Dejong, Sandra McLeroy; Adams, Jenny

    2011-10-01

    At Baylor Jack and Jane Hamilton Heart and Vascular Hospital, we developed a preadmission packet that is given to patients before their procedure date, enabling them to complete much of their paperwork in advance. The results of our subsequent study revealed that nurses save time during the assessment interview when patients arrive at the hospital with their admission database forms completed. In a busy facility with a large number of patients admitted daily, the nursing time saved can translate into a substantial economic benefit. Even more important, however, is the benefit to patients, who feel less rushed and provide a more thorough and accurate medical history when they can fill out the admission database form at home.

  13. Wave-packet analysis of strong-field ionization of sodium in the quasistatic regime*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunjac, Andrej; Popović, Duška B.; Simonović, Nenad S.

    2016-05-01

    Strong field ionization of the sodium atom in the tunnelling and over-the-barrier regimes is studied by examining the valence electron wave-packet dynamics in the static electric field. The lowest state energy and the ionization rate determined by this method for different strengths of the applied field agree well with the results obtained using other methods. The initial period of the nonstationary decay after switching the field on is analyzed and discussed. It is demonstrated that, if the Keldysh parameter is significantly lower than one (quasistatic regime), the probability of ionization by a laser pulse can be obtained from the static rates. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  14. Investigation into the formation of charge packets in polyethylene: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Chen, G.; Lewin, P. L.

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of charge packet has been reported in polymeric insulation materials under the application of dc electric fields in recent decades. It is noted that such charge packets could lead to substantial modification of local electric stress, which increases the possibility of failure of insulating materials. The physics of charge packets has not yet been revealed clearly. In this paper, the dynamics of positive charge packets in polyethylene is observed using the pulsed electro-acoustic technique. Negative differential mobility of positive charge carrier is found, which is believed to be crucial to the formation of charge packets. This negative differential mobility is introduced into a bipolar charge transport model to simulate the packet-like space charge in polymers. Simulation results show that not only the negative differential mobility but also weaker trapping characteristic are required to generate a positive charge packet in polyethylene under dc stress.

  15. Investigation of the Chromosphere-Corona Interface with the Upgraded Very High Angular Resolution Ultraviolet Telescope (VAULT2.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, Angelos; Beltran, Samuel Tun; Chintzoglou, Georgios; Eisenhower, Kevin; Korendyke, Clarence; Feldman, Ronen; Moser, John; Shea, John; Johnson-Rambert, Mary; McMullin, Don; Stenborg, Guillermo; Shepler, Ed; Roberts, David

    2016-03-01

    Very high angular resolution ultraviolet telescope (VAULT2.0) is a Lyman-alpha (Lyα; 1216Å) spectroheliograph designed to observe the upper chromospheric region of the solar atmosphere with high spatial (<0.5‧‧) and temporal (8s) resolution. Besides being the brightest line in the solar spectrum, Lyα emission arises at the temperature interface between coronal and chromospheric plasmas and may, hence, hold important clues about the transfer of mass and energy to the solar corona. VAULT2.0 is an upgrade of the previously flown VAULT rocket and was launched successfully on September 30, 2014 from White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). The target was AR12172 midway toward the southwestern limb. We obtained 33 images at 8s cadence at arc second resolution due to hardware problems. The science campaign was a resounding success, with all space and ground-based instruments obtaining high-resolution data at the same location within the AR. We discuss the science rationale, instrument upgrades, and performance during the first flight and present some preliminary science results.

  16. Predictive onboard flow control for packet switching satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobinsky, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    We outline two alternate approaches to predicting the onset of congestion in a packet switching satellite, and argue that predictive, rather than reactive, flow control is necessary for the efficient operation of such a system. The first method discussed is based on standard, statistical techniques which are used to periodically calculate a probability of near-term congestion based on arrival rate statistics. If this probability exceeds a present threshold, the satellite would transmit a rate-reduction signal to all active ground stations. The second method discussed would utilize a neural network to periodically predict the occurrence of buffer overflow based on input data which would include, in addition to arrival rates, the distributions of packet lengths, source addresses, and destination addresses.

  17. Second Harmonic Generation of Nanoscale Phonon Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojahr, A.; Gohlke, M.; Leitenberger, W.; Pudell, J.; Reinhardt, M.; von Reppert, A.; Roessle, M.; Sander, M.; Gaal, P.; Bargheer, M.

    2015-11-01

    Phonons are often regarded as delocalized quasiparticles with certain energy and momentum. The anharmonic interaction of phonons determines macroscopic properties of the solid, such as thermal expansion or thermal conductivity, and a detailed understanding becomes increasingly important for functional nanostructures. Although phonon-phonon scattering processes depicted in simple wave-vector diagrams are the basis of theories describing these macroscopic phenomena, experiments directly accessing these coupling channels are scarce. We synthesize monochromatic acoustic phonon wave packets with only a few cycles to introduce nonlinear phononics as the acoustic counterpart to nonlinear optics. Control of the wave vector, bandwidth, and consequently spatial extent of the phonon wave packets allows us to observe nonlinear phonon interaction, in particular, second harmonic generation, in real time by wave-vector-sensitive Brillouin scattering with x-rays and optical photons.

  18. Wave packet dynamics in the optimal superadiabatic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, V.; Goddard, B. D.; Manthe, U.

    2016-06-01

    We explain the concept of superadiabatic representations and show how in the context of electronically non-adiabatic transitions they lead to an explicit formula that can be used to predict transitions at avoided crossings. Based on this formula, we present a simple method for computing wave packet dynamics across avoided crossings. Only knowledge of the adiabatic potential energy surfaces near the avoided crossing is required for the computation. In particular, this means that no diabatization procedure is necessary, the adiabatic electronic energies can be computed on the fly, and they only need to be computed to higher accuracy when an avoided crossing is detected. We test the quality of our method on the paradigmatic example of photo-dissociation of NaI, finding very good agreement with results of exact wave packet calculations.

  19. Probing surface states with many-body wave packet scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damon, F.; Georgeot, B.; Guéry-Odelin, D.

    2016-07-01

    The scattering of 1D matter wave bright solitons on attractive potentials enables one to populate bound states, a feature impossible with noninteracting wave packets. Compared to noninteracting states, the populated states are renormalized by the attractive interactions between atoms and keep the same topology. This renormalization can even transform a virtual state into a bound state. By switching off adiabatically the interactions, the trapped wave packets converge towards the true noninteracting bound states. Our numerical studies show how such scattering experiments can reveal and characterize the surface states of a periodic structure whose translational invariance has been broken. We provide evidence that the corresponding 3D regime should be accessible with current techniques.

  20. Exciton-polariton localized wave packets in a microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronych, Oksana; Buraczewski, Adam; Matuszewski, MichałÂ; Stobińska, Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of creating X waves, or localized wave packets, in resonantly excited exciton-polariton superfluids. We demonstrate the existence of X-wave traveling solutions in the coupled exciton-photon system past the inflection point, where the effective mass of lower polaritons is negative in the direction perpendicular to the wave vector of the pumping beam. Contrary to the case of bright solitons, X waves do not require nonlinearity for sustaining their shape. Nevertheless, we show that nonlinearity is important for their dynamics, as it allows for their spontaneous formation from an initial Gaussian wave packet. Unique properties of exciton-polaritons may lead to applications of their X waves in long-distance signal propagation inside novel integrated optoelectronic circuits based on excitons.

  1. Very low bit rate voice for packetized mobile applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, C.D.; Malone, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    Transmitting digital voice via packetized mobile communications systems that employ relatively short packet lengths and narrow bandwidths often necessitates very low bit rate coding of the voice data. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an efficient voice coding system operating at 800 bits per second (bps). The coding scheme is a modified version of the 2400 bps NSA LPC-10e standard. The most significant modification to the LPC-10e scheme is the vector quantization of the line spectrum frequencies associated with the synthesis filters. An outline of a hardware implementation for the 800 bps coder is presented. The speech quality of the coder is generally good, although speaker recognition is not possible. Further research is being conducted to reduce the memory requirements and complexity of the vector quantizer, and to increase the quality of the reconstructed speech. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Very low bit rate voice for packetized mobile applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, C.D.; Malone, K.T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that transmitting digital voice via packetized mobile communications systems that employ relatively short packet lengths and narrow bandwidths often necessitates very low bit rate coding of the voice data. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an efficient voice coding system operating at 800 bits per second (bps). The coding scheme is a modified version of the 2400 bps NSA LPC-10e standard. The most significant modification to the LPC-10e scheme is the vector quantization of the line spectrum frequencies associated with the synthesis filters. An outline of a hardware implementation for the 800 bps coder is presented. The speech quality of the coder is generally good, although speaker recognition is not possible. Further research is being conducted to reduce the memory requirements and complexity of the vector quantizer, and to increase the quality of the reconstructed speech. This work may be of use dealing with nuclear materials.

  3. Wave packet dynamics in the optimal superadiabatic approximation.

    PubMed

    Betz, V; Goddard, B D; Manthe, U

    2016-06-14

    We explain the concept of superadiabatic representations and show how in the context of electronically non-adiabatic transitions they lead to an explicit formula that can be used to predict transitions at avoided crossings. Based on this formula, we present a simple method for computing wave packet dynamics across avoided crossings. Only knowledge of the adiabatic potential energy surfaces near the avoided crossing is required for the computation. In particular, this means that no diabatization procedure is necessary, the adiabatic electronic energies can be computed on the fly, and they only need to be computed to higher accuracy when an avoided crossing is detected. We test the quality of our method on the paradigmatic example of photo-dissociation of NaI, finding very good agreement with results of exact wave packet calculations. PMID:27305998

  4. Stochastic acceleration of ions driven by Pc1 wave packets

    SciTech Connect

    Khazanov, G. V. Sibeck, D. G.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2015-07-15

    The stochastic motion of protons and He{sup +} ions driven by Pc1 wave packets is studied in the context of resonant particle heating. Resonant ion cyclotron heating typically occurs when wave powers exceed 10{sup −4} nT{sup 2}/Hz. Gyroresonance breaks the first adiabatic invariant and energizes keV ions. Cherenkov resonances with the electrostatic component of wave packets can also accelerate ions. The main effect of this interaction is to accelerate thermal protons to the local Alfven speed. The dependencies of observable quantities on the wave power and plasma parameters are determined, and estimates for the heating extent and rate of particle heating in these wave-particle interactions are shown to be in reasonable agreement with known empirical data.

  5. Predictive onboard flow control in packet switching satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobinsky, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    We outline two alternate approaches to predicting the onset of congestion in a packet switching satellite, and argue that predictive, rather than reactive, flow control is necessary for the efficient operation of such a system. The first method discussed is based on standard, statistical techniques which are used to periodically calculate a probability of near-term congestion based on arrival rate statistics. If this probability exceeds a present threshold, the satellite would transmit a rate-reduction signal to all active ground stations. The second method discussed would utilize a neural network to periodically predict the occurrence of buffer overflow based on input data which would include, in addition to arrival rates, the distributions of packet lengths, source addresses, and destination addresses.

  6. Future directions in packet radio architectures and protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacham, Nachum; Westcott, Jil

    1987-01-01

    The technology of packet switching over multihop, multiple-access channels has evolved to the point at which its protocols can now support internetwork operation of medium-size networks whose nodes possess some degree of mobility. As regards the needs and challenges of the future operating environment, it is clear that these can be met only by enhancing the packet radio architecture and its protocols. Several enhancements that allow the organization of large, dynamic networks that can operate over multiple channels, adapt to varying conditions, and possess self-monitoring and self-control capabilities are discussed. As these areas are examined, the attendant issues and tradeoffs are discussed; in addition, some protocols and information regarding their performance are presented.

  7. Two-dimensional attosecond electron wave-packet interferometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xinhua

    2015-05-01

    We propose a two-dimensional interferometry based on the electron wave-packet interference by using a cycle-shaped orthogonally polarized two-color laser field. With such a method, the subcycle and intercycle interferences can be disentangled into different directions in the measured photoelectron momentum spectra. The Coulomb influence can be minimized and the overlapping of interference fringes with the complicated low-energy structures can be avoided as well. The contributions of the excitation effect and the long-range Coulomb potential can be traced in the Fourier domain of the photoelectron distribution. Because of these advantages, precise information on valence electron dynamics of atoms or molecules with attosecond temporal resolution and additional spatial information with angstrom resolution can be obtained with the two-dimensional electron wave-packet interferometry.

  8. The Interference of the Dynamically Squeezed Vibrational Wave Packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinogradov, An. V.; Janszky, J.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    An electronic excitation of a molecule by a sequence of two femtosecond phase-locked laser pulses is considered. In this case the interference between the vibrational wave packets induced by each of the subpulses within a single molecule takes place. It is shown that due to the dynamical squeezing effect of a molecular vibrational state the interference of the vibrational wave packets allows one to measure the duration of a femtosecond laser pulse. This can be achieved experimentally by measuring the dependence of the integral fluorescence of the excited molecule on the delay time between the subpulses. The interference can lead to a sharp peak (or to a down-fall) in that dependence, the width of which is equal to the duration of the laser pulse. It is shown that finite temperature of the medium is favorable for such an experiment.

  9. Two-Dimensional Attosecond Electron Wave-Packet Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinhua

    2015-05-01

    We propose a two-dimensional interferometry based on the electron wave-packet interference by using a cycle-shaped orthogonally polarized two-color laser field. With such a method, the subcycle and intercycle interferences can be disentangled into different directions in the measured photoelectron momentum spectra. The Coulomb influence can be minimized and the overlapping of interference fringes with the complicated low-energy structures can be avoided as well. The contributions of the excitation effect and the long-range Coulomb potential can be traced in the Fourier domain of the photoelectron distribution. Because of these advantages, precise information on valence electron dynamics of atoms or molecules with attosecond temporal resolution and additional spatial information with angstrom resolution can be obtained with the two-dimensional electron wave-packet interferometry.

  10. Formation of wave packets in electron diffraction on crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanning, Robert; Bahrim, Cristian

    2012-02-01

    Measurements of electron diffraction typically reveal the atomic structure of crystals and allow finding the length of chemical bonds. The effective electronic charge of each atom in the crystal acts upon the incident electron beam as a netting of narrow pinholes, and Fourier transforms the unique deBroglie wavelength of the projectile electron accelerated at fixed voltage into a wave packet. Using the uncertainty principle one can understand the mechanism that makes an incident electron to become a wave packet travelling inside the crystal at a group velocity identical with the initial speed of the projectile electron. Furthermore, the Pauli Exclusion Principle allows us to understand the fast passage of the projectile electron through the crystal and also, it allows the evaluation of the characteristic time for electron transmission. The project was sponsored by the STAIRSTEP program under the NSF-DUE grant# 0757057.

  11. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  12. Options for Middle Vault and Dorsum Restoration after Hump Removal in Primary Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Milos; Riedel, Frank; Göksel, Abdülkadir; Wurm, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of unfavorable sequelae following humpectomy in reduction rhinoplasty by restoration of the middle nasal vault complex today has become imperative in the majority of patients with perhaps the exception of small humps. In general, the techniques used for preservation and reconstruction of these important anatomical structures can be divided into two main categories: spreader graft and spreader flap techniques. Oversimplified spreader graft techniques require donor cartilage, whereas spreader flap techniques use the excess height of the medial portion of the upper lateral cartilages in patients with a cartilaginous hump. In principle, both donor cartilage and preserved upper lateral cartilages usually are positioned along both sides of the dorsal septum to provide natural and harmonious contours as well as to avoid functional impairment (valve collapse). However, the considerable number of publications on this topic attests to existing downsides of both surgical principles. To overcome these shortcomings, we illustrate additional modifications in the application of spreader grafts as well as spreader flaps. However, the main goal of this article is to provide an algorithm helping to decide which technique is best suited to meet the requirements of each individual patient. PMID:27494581

  13. An optimization model and solution for radiation shielding design of radiotherapy treatment vaults.

    PubMed

    Newman, Francis; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud

    2008-01-01

    In radiation shielding design, one is usually faced with a set of conflicting goals that are navigated by an experienced physicist. If one has abundant space, the task is simplified because concrete is relatively inexpensive and will provide adequate shielding for high energy photons and neutrons, when applicable. However, if space is constrained (which is usually the case), the design becomes more difficult since one will likely have to employ combinations of steel, lead, and concrete, or other new materials--each with different properties and costs. Very experienced shielding designers can draw upon previous plans, but they do not know if their design is optimal in any sense. We have constructed a linear program that minimizes the cost of the shielding materials and minimizes the dose at the protection point or the shielding thickness subject to space constraints and to Federal or State regulations regarding the allowable exposure to individuals adjacent to the radiotherapy vault. In spite of what appears to be a simple model, the solution may require iterations of the optimization to arrive at the optimal solution. PMID:18293573

  14. IP- -: A Reduced Internet Protocol for Optical Packet Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Masataka; Fujikawa, Kenji

    IP- - is proposed as an Internet Protocol suitable for optical packet networking. As optical routers require much faster control than electric ones and lack of optical buffers other than those by fiber delay lines requires fixed time control, Internet Protocols must be at least as simple as IPv4 and much simpler than IPv6. IP- - also addresses issues of IP address space exhaustion and IP routing table explosion.

  15. Ground equipment for the support of packet telemetry and telecommand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hell, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes ground equipment for packet telemetry and telecommand which has been recently developed by industry for the European Space Agency. The architectural concept for this type of equipment is outlined and the actual implementation is presented. Focus is put on issues related to cross support and telescience as far as they affect the design of the interfaces to the users of the services provided by the equipment and to the management entities in charge of equipment control and monitoring.

  16. Spin-orbit states of neutron wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsofini, Joachim; Sarenac, Dusan; Wood, Christopher J.; Cory, David G.; Arif, Muhammad; Clark, Charles W.; Huber, Michael G.; Pushin, Dmitry A.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method to prepare an entangled spin-orbit state between the spin and the orbital angular momenta of a neutron wave packet. This spin-orbit state is created by passing neutrons through the center of a quadrupole magnetic field, which provides a coupling between the spin and orbital degrees of freedom. A Ramsey-fringe-type measurement is suggested as a means of verifying the spin-orbit correlations.

  17. Lossless Compression of Data into Fixed-Length Packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, Aaron B.; Klimesh, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program effects lossless compression of data samples from a one-dimensional source into fixed-length data packets. The software makes use of adaptive prediction: it exploits the data structure in such a way as to increase the efficiency of compression beyond that otherwise achievable. Adaptive linear filtering is used to predict each sample value based on past sample values. The difference between predicted and actual sample values is encoded using a Golomb code.

  18. Software For Management Of A Packet-Radio Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Patrick J.; Chauvin, Todd H.; Oliver, Gordon P.; Statman, Joseph I.

    1994-01-01

    Network-management software assists in planning, monitoring, and controlling resources of Datalink network. Packet-message network featuring time-division multiple access, frequency and spatial diversity, and dynamic tree-structured routing scheme. Developed for communication between central control station on ground and instrumented aircraft flying over test range. Aircraft derives navigational data from satellites of Global Positioning System, and primary function of Datalink network feeding GPS position data from participating aircraft into control center in real time.

  19. Attosecond Electron Wave-Packet Interference Observed by Transient Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Holler, M.; Schapper, F.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.

    2011-03-25

    We perform attosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy around the first ionization threshold of helium and observe rapid oscillations of the absorption of the individual harmonics as a function of time delay with respect to a superimposed, moderately strong infrared laser field. The phase relation between the absorption modulation of individual harmonics gives direct evidence for the interference of transiently bound electronic wave packets as the mechanism behind the absorption modulation.

  20. Attosecond electron wave-packet interference observed by transient absorption.

    PubMed

    Holler, M; Schapper, F; Gallmann, L; Keller, U

    2011-03-25

    We perform attosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy around the first ionization threshold of helium and observe rapid oscillations of the absorption of the individual harmonics as a function of time delay with respect to a superimposed, moderately strong infrared laser field. The phase relation between the absorption modulation of individual harmonics gives direct evidence for the interference of transiently bound electronic wave packets as the mechanism behind the absorption modulation.

  1. Accelerating Airy-Gauss-Kummer localized wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi; Huang, Tingwen

    2014-01-01

    A general approach to generating three-dimensional nondiffracting spatiotemporal solutions of the linear Schrödinger equation with an Airy-beam time-dependence is reported. A class of accelerating optical pulses with the structure of Airy-Gauss-Kummer vortex beams is obtained. Our results demonstrate that the optical field contributions to the Airy-Gauss-Kummer accelerating optical wave packets of the cylindrical symmetry can be characterized by the radial and angular mode numbers.

  2. SDN architecture for optical packet and circuit integrated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing an optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) network, which realizes dynamic optical path, high-density packet multiplexing, and flexible wavelength resource allocation. In the OPCI networks, a best-effort service and a QoS-guaranteed service are provided by employing optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) respectively, and users can select these services. Different wavelength resources are assigned for OPS and OCS links, and the amount of their wavelength resources are dynamically changed in accordance with the service usage conditions. To apply OPCI networks into wide-area (core/metro) networks, we have developed an OPCI node with a distributed control mechanism. Moreover, our OPCI node works with a centralized control mechanism as well as a distributed one. It is therefore possible to realize SDN-based OPCI networks, where resource requests and a centralized configuration are carried out. In this paper, we show our SDN architecture for an OPS system that configures mapping tables between IP addresses and optical packet addresses and switching tables according to the requests from multiple users via a web interface. While OpenFlow-based centralized control protocol is coming into widespread use especially for single-administrative, small-area (LAN/data-center) networks. Here, we also show an interworking mechanism between OpenFlow-based networks (OFNs) and the OPCI network for constructing a wide-area network, and a control method of wavelength resource selection to automatically transfer diversified flows from OFNs to the OPCI network.

  3. The effect of human rhythm on packet delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhao; Huang, Zi-Gang; Yang, Lei; Xue, De-Sheng; Wang, Ying-Hai

    2010-08-01

    In communication networks such as the Internet, the relationship between packet generation rate and time is similar to a rectangle wavefunction due to the rhythm of humans. Thus, we investigate the traffic dynamics on a network with a rectangle wavepacket generation rate. It is found that the critical delivering capacity parameter βc (which separates the congested phase and the free phase) decreases significantly with the duty cycle r of the rectangle wave for package generation. And, in the congested phase, more collective generation of packets (smaller r) is helpful for decreasing the packet aggregation rate. Moreover, it is found that the congested phase can be divided into two regions, i.e., region 1 and region 2, where the distributions of queue lengths are nonlinear and linear, respectively. Also, the linear expression for the distribution of queue lengths in region 2 is obtained analytically. Our work reveals an obvious effect of the rectangle wave on the traffic dynamics and the queue length distribution in the system, which is of essential interest and may provide insights into the designing of work-rest schedules and routing strategies.

  4. Generalized Gaussian wave packet dynamics: Integrable and chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Harinder; Vyas, Manan; Tomsovic, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate semiclassical wave packet propagation technique is a complex, time-dependent Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method known as generalized Gaussian wave packet dynamics (GGWPD). It requires overcoming many technical difficulties in order to be carried out fully in practice. In its place roughly twenty years ago, linearized wave packet dynamics was generalized to methods that include sets of off-center, real trajectories for both classically integrable and chaotic dynamical systems that completely capture the dynamical transport. The connections between those methods and GGWPD are developed in a way that enables a far more practical implementation of GGWPD. The generally complex saddle-point trajectories at its foundation are found using a multidimensional Newton-Raphson root search method that begins with the set of off-center, real trajectories. This is possible because there is a one-to-one correspondence. The neighboring trajectories associated with each off-center, real trajectory form a path that crosses a unique saddle; there are exceptions that are straightforward to identify. The method is applied to the kicked rotor to demonstrate the accuracy improvement as a function of ℏ that comes with using the saddle-point trajectories.

  5. Geometrical aspects in optical wave-packet dynamics.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Masaru; Murakami, Shuichi; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2006-12-01

    We construct a semiclassical theory for propagation of an optical wave packet in a nonconducting medium with a periodic structure of dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability, i.e., a nonconducting photonic crystal. We employ a quantum-mechanical formalism in order to clarify its link to those of electronic systems. It involves the geometrical phase, i.e., Berry's phase, in a natural way, and describes an interplay between orbital motion and internal rotation. Based on the above theory, we discuss the geometrical aspects of the optical Hall effect. We also consider a reduction of the theory to a system without periodic structure and apply it to the transverse shift of an optical beam at an interface reflection or refraction. For a generic incident beam with an arbitrary polarization, an identical result for the transverse shift of each reflected or transmitted beam is given by the following different approaches: (i) analytic evaluation of wave-packet dynamics, (ii) total angular momentum (TAM) conservation for individual photons, and (iii) numerical simulation of wave-packet dynamics. It is consistent with a result by classical electrodynamics. This means that the TAM conservation for individual photons is already taken into account in wave optics, i.e., classical electrodynamics. Finally, we show an application of our theory to a two-dimensional photonic crystal, and propose an optimal design for the enhancement of the optical Hall effect in photonic crystals.

  6. Electronically nonadiabatic wave packet propagation using frozen Gaussian scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondorskiy, Alexey D.; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-09-01

    We present an approach, which allows to employ the adiabatic wave packet propagation technique and semiclassical theory to treat the nonadiabatic processes by using trajectory hopping. The approach developed generates a bunch of hopping trajectories and gives all additional information to incorporate the effect of nonadiabatic coupling into the wave packet dynamics. This provides an interface between a general adiabatic frozen Gaussian wave packet propagation method and the trajectory surface hopping technique. The basic idea suggested in [A. D. Kondorskiy and H. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8937 (2004)] is revisited and complemented in the present work by the elaboration of efficient numerical algorithms. We combine our approach with the adiabatic Herman-Kluk frozen Gaussian approximation. The efficiency and accuracy of the resulting method is demonstrated by applying it to popular benchmark model systems including three Tully's models and 24D model of pyrazine. It is shown that photoabsorption spectrum is successfully reproduced by using a few hundreds of trajectories. We employ the compact finite difference Hessian update scheme to consider feasibility of the ab initio "on-the-fly" simulations. It is found that this technique allows us to obtain the reliable final results using several Hessian matrix calculations per trajectory.

  7. Wave packet spreading and localization in electron-nuclear scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Paul E.; Markmann, Andreas; Morozov, Igor V.; Valuev, Ilya A.; Fichtl, Christopher A.; Richards, David F.; Batista, Victor S.; Graziani, Frank R.; Murillo, Michael S.

    2013-06-01

    The wave packet molecular dynamics (WPMD) method provides a variational approximation to the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Its application in the field of high-temperature dense plasmas has yielded diverging electron width (spreading), which results in diminishing electron-nuclear interactions. Electron spreading has previously been ascribed to a shortcoming of the WPMD method and has been counteracted by various heuristic additions to the models used. We employ more accurate methods to determine if spreading continues to be predicted by them and how WPMD can be improved. A scattering process involving a single dynamic electron interacting with a periodic array of statically screened protons is used as a model problem for comparison. We compare the numerically exact split operator Fourier transform method, the Wigner trajectory method, and the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). Within the framework of the TDVP, we use the standard variational form of WPMD, the single Gaussian wave packet (WP), as well as a sum of Gaussian WPs, as in the split WP method. Wave packet spreading is predicted by all methods, so it is not the source of the unphysical diminishing of electron-nuclear interactions in WPMD at high temperatures. Instead, the Gaussian WP's inability to correctly reproduce breakup of the electron's probability density into localized density near the protons is responsible for the deviation from more accurate predictions. Extensions of WPMD must include a mechanism for breakup to occur in order to yield dynamics that lead to accurate electron densities.

  8. Generalized Gaussian wave packet dynamics: Integrable and chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Pal, Harinder; Vyas, Manan; Tomsovic, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate semiclassical wave packet propagation technique is a complex, time-dependent Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method known as generalized Gaussian wave packet dynamics (GGWPD). It requires overcoming many technical difficulties in order to be carried out fully in practice. In its place roughly twenty years ago, linearized wave packet dynamics was generalized to methods that include sets of off-center, real trajectories for both classically integrable and chaotic dynamical systems that completely capture the dynamical transport. The connections between those methods and GGWPD are developed in a way that enables a far more practical implementation of GGWPD. The generally complex saddle-point trajectories at its foundation are found using a multidimensional Newton-Raphson root search method that begins with the set of off-center, real trajectories. This is possible because there is a one-to-one correspondence. The neighboring trajectories associated with each off-center, real trajectory form a path that crosses a unique saddle; there are exceptions that are straightforward to identify. The method is applied to the kicked rotor to demonstrate the accuracy improvement as a function of ℏ that comes with using the saddle-point trajectories.

  9. Electronically nonadiabatic wave packet propagation using frozen Gaussian scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kondorskiy, Alexey D.; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-09-21

    We present an approach, which allows to employ the adiabatic wave packet propagation technique and semiclassical theory to treat the nonadiabatic processes by using trajectory hopping. The approach developed generates a bunch of hopping trajectories and gives all additional information to incorporate the effect of nonadiabatic coupling into the wave packet dynamics. This provides an interface between a general adiabatic frozen Gaussian wave packet propagation method and the trajectory surface hopping technique. The basic idea suggested in [A. D. Kondorskiy and H. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8937 (2004)] is revisited and complemented in the present work by the elaboration of efficient numerical algorithms. We combine our approach with the adiabatic Herman-Kluk frozen Gaussian approximation. The efficiency and accuracy of the resulting method is demonstrated by applying it to popular benchmark model systems including three Tully’s models and 24D model of pyrazine. It is shown that photoabsorption spectrum is successfully reproduced by using a few hundreds of trajectories. We employ the compact finite difference Hessian update scheme to consider feasibility of the ab initio “on-the-fly” simulations. It is found that this technique allows us to obtain the reliable final results using several Hessian matrix calculations per trajectory.

  10. Rydberg Wave Packets and Half-Cycle Electromagnetic Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Chandra S.

    1998-05-01

    This dissertation summarizes an examination of the dynamics of atomic Rydberg wave packets with coherent pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation consisting of less than a single cycle of the electric field. The bulk of the energy is contained in just a half-cycle. Previous work ( R. Jones, D. You, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 70, 1993. had shown how these half-cycle pulses can be used to ionize the highly excited states of an atom, and that a classical view of electronic motion in the atom explains the ionization mechanism. To further probe the boundary between classical trajectories and quantum mechanics, in this work I investigate dynamical combinations of Rydberg states, or Rydberg wave packets, and how they ionize under the influence of a half-cycle electromagnetic pulse. With time-domain techniques I am able to extract the dynamics of the wave packet from the ionization rate, and to observe wave packet motion in both the electronic radial ( C. Raman, C. Conover, C. Sukenik, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg wavepackets by sub-picosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 76, 1996.and angular ( C. Raman, T. Weinacht, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Stark wavepackets viewed with half cycle pulses.'' Phys. Rev. A), vol. 55, No. 6, 1997. coordinates. This is the first time a wavepacket technique has been used to view electron motion everywhere on its trajectory, and not just at the nucleus. This is the principal feature of half-cycle pulse ionization. Semiclassical ideas of ionization in conjunction with quantum descriptions of the wave packet, are capable of reproducing the main trends in the data, and in the absence of a rigorous model I rely on these. Experiments of this nature provide examples of the ongoing effort to use the coherent properties of radiation to control electronic motion in an atom, as well as to probe the boundaries between

  11. Use of frozen cranial vault bone allografts in the repair of extensive cranial bone defects.

    PubMed

    Vanaclocha, V; Bazan, A; Saiz-Sapena, N; Paloma, V; Idoate, M

    1997-01-01

    In cranioplasty complexity is proportional to the size of the detect, particularly if greater than 50 cm2. If the patient's own bone flap is not available, allogenic frozen bone graft can be used instead. Between June 1990 and June 1995 twenty cranioplasties with allogenic frozen bone grafts were performed. Age of patients ranged between 23 and 63 years (average 38.4 years). Male/female ratio was 2:1.7. Size of craniectomy ranged between 65 and 150 cm2 (average 83.3 cm2). Follow-up ranged between 10 and 58 months (average 41 months). Donors were tested to rule out transmissible diseases, infections, sepsis and/or cancer. Bone grafts were removed under aseptic conditions, microbiological cultures were taken, wrapped in a gauze soaked with Gentamicin sulphate and Bacitracin, sealed in three sterilised vinyl plastic bags, and stored in a deep freezer for a minimum of 30 days (range 36-93 days, average 67 days), at a temperature of -80 degrees C. Grafts were placed in the defect after a step was carved on its borders to facilitate the contact between host and graft. Vancomycin 1 g. IV/12 hours and Ceftriaxone 1 g. IV/12 hours were administered for five days. Grafts were covered by means of scalp flaps. Only one required a musculocutaneous free flap. None was exposed, extruded or had to be removed. Plain skull X-ray studies showed progressive remodelling of the grafts. Partial resorption was observed in two (2/20, 10%) and loss of thickness in another 3/20 (15%), but with no changes in the contour. Biopsies were taken in 3/20 (15%) cases at a second surgical procedure. Areas of osteoclastic resorptive activity mixed with others of osteoblastic bone apposition, showed replacement with new bone. We conclude that cranial vault frozen allografts are a good alternative to autologous bone when the latter is absent or not present in sufficient amount. PMID:9265959

  12. Software Verification & Validation Report for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    YEH, T.

    2002-11-20

    This document reports on the analysis, testing and conclusions of the software verification and validation for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization ventilation system. Automation control system will use the Allen-Bradley software tools for programming and programmable logic controller (PLC) configuration. The 244-AR Interim Stabilization Ventilation System will be used to control the release of radioactive particles to the environment in the containment tent, located inside the canyon of the 244-AR facility, and to assist the waste stabilization efforts. The HVAC equipment, ducts, instruments, PLC hardware, the ladder logic executable software (documented code), and message display terminal are considered part of the temporary ventilation system. The system consists of a supply air skid, temporary ductwork (to distribute airflow), and two skid-mounted, 500-cfm exhausters connected to the east filter building and the vessel vent system. The Interim Stabilization Ventilation System is a temporary, portable ventilation system consisting of supply side and exhaust side. Air is supplied to the containment tent from an air supply skid. This skid contains a constant speed fan, a pre-filter, an electric heating coil, a cooling coil, and a constant flow device (CFD). The CFD uses a passive component that allows a constant flow of air to pass through the device. Air is drawn out of the containment tent, cells, and tanks by two 500-cfm exhauster skids running in parallel. These skids are equipped with fans, filters, stack, stack monitoring instrumentation, and a PLC for control. The 500CFM exhaust skids were fabricated and tested previously for saltwell pumping activities. The objective of the temporary ventilation system is to maintain a higher pressure to the containment tent, relative to the canyon and cell areas, to prevent contaminants from reaching the containment tent.

  13. Implementation of a Data Packet Generator Using Pattern Matching for Wearable ECG Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Yun Hong; Jeong, Do Un

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a packet generator using a pattern matching algorithm for real-time abnormal heartbeat detection is proposed. The packet generator creates a very small data packet which conveys sufficient crucial information for health condition analysis. The data packet envelopes real time ECG signals and transmits them to a smartphone via Bluetooth. An Android application was developed specifically to decode the packet and extract ECG information for health condition analysis. Several graphical presentations are displayed and shown on the smartphone. We evaluate the performance of abnormal heartbeat detection accuracy using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database and real time experiments. The experimental result confirm our finding that abnormal heart beat detection is practically possible. We also performed data compression ratio and signal restoration performance evaluations to establish the usefulness of the proposed packet generator and the results were excellent. PMID:25029280

  14. Implementation of a data packet generator using pattern matching for wearable ECG monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Noh, Yun Hong; Jeong, Do Un

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a packet generator using a pattern matching algorithm for real-time abnormal heartbeat detection is proposed. The packet generator creates a very small data packet which conveys sufficient crucial information for health condition analysis. The data packet envelopes real time ECG signals and transmits them to a smartphone via Bluetooth. An Android application was developed specifically to decode the packet and extract ECG information for health condition analysis. Several graphical presentations are displayed and shown on the smartphone. We evaluate the performance of abnormal heartbeat detection accuracy using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database and real time experiments. The experimental result confirm our finding that abnormal heart beat detection is practically possible. We also performed data compression ratio and signal restoration performance evaluations to establish the usefulness of the proposed packet generator and the results were excellent. PMID:25029280

  15. Observation of ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) wave-packet propagation in a tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.; Gould, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    Experimental observation of ICRF wave-packet propagation in a tokamak plasma is reported. Studies were carried out in the Caltech Research Tokamak in a pure hydrogen plasma and in a regime where fast-wave damping was sufficiently small to permit multiple toroidal transits of the wave-packet. Waves were launched by exciting a small loop antenna with a short burst of rf current and were detected with shielded magnetic probes. Probe scans revealed a large increase in wave-packet amplitude at smaller minor radii, and the packet velocity was found to be independent of radial position. Measurement of the packet transit time yielded direct information about the wave group velocity. Packet velocity was investigated as a function of the fundamental excitation frequency, plasma density, and toroidal magnetic field. Results are compared with the predictions of a cold plasma model which includes a vacuum layer at the edge. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  16. PacketLib: A C++ Library for Scientific Satellite Telemetry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.

    PacketLib is a C++ open-source software library for writing applications which deal with satellite telemetry source packets, provided that the packets are compliant with the CCSDS Telemetry and Telecommand Standards. The library is being used within the Italian Space Agency (ASI) mission AGILE for simulation, graphical display, processing and decoding of the telemetry generated by the Test Equipment (TE) of two AGILE detectors. From an input stream of bytes, the library is able to recognize automatically the source packets (described by a simple configuration file), and provides a simple access to each packet field by means of an object oriented interface. In the same way the library writes source packets to output stream. Various types of input and output streams are abstracted by a software layer.

  17. Discrete Wavelet Packet Transforms and volcanic tremor: method and application to Erta 'Ale, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. P.; Carniel, R.; Malone, S.

    2005-12-01

    The time-varying properties of volcanic tremor demand advanced techniques capable of analyzing changes in both time and frequency domains. Specifically, rapid data preprocessing techniques with the ability to distinguish signal from noise are especially valuable in analyzing the temporal, spatial, and spectral properties of these signals. To this end, we use the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform and the Best Shift Basis algorithm to select an orthonormal basis for continuous volcanic tremor data, then apply a simple statistical test to eliminate frequency bands that primarily consist of Gaussian white noise. We then use the Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform to compute and analyze features in the detail coefficients of each "signal" band. Because MODWPT detail coefficients are equivalent to a time series convolved with a zero phase filter, we apply standard polarization and amplitude-based location techniques to each frequency band's detail coefficients to analyze possible source locations and mechanisms. To demonstrate the usefulness of these techniques, we present a sample analysis of data from Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, recorded on a temporary network in November 2003. Data were sampled at 100 Hz and the DWPT was computed with the LA(16) wavelet to a maximum level of j = 7. The optimal basis for this data set consists of 54 frequency bands, but only 9 contain meaningful "signal" energy. We identify two frequency bands whose locations suggest a distributed source; three frequency bands whose signals may come from the lava lake itself; three high-frequency bands of scattered energy; and one very high frequency band of non-Gaussian instrument noise. Finally, we discuss optimization efforts, computational efficiency, and the feasibility of using similar wavelet methods to preprocess data in real time or near real time.

  18. Selection of ionization paths of K2 on superfluid helium droplets by wave packet interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Marek Bastian; Dufour, Adrien; Achazi, Georg; Patas, Alexander; Scheier, Paul; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2016-08-01

    We report on the control of wave packet dynamics for the ionization of K2 attached to the surface of superfluid helium droplets. The superfluid helium matrix acts as a heat sink and reduces the coherence time of molecular processes by dissipation. We use tailor-shaped pulses in order to activate or inhibit different ionization paths by constructive or destructive wave packet interference. A drastic change of the wave packet dynamics is observed by shifting the phase between the exciting sub pulses.

  19. Encoding and Decoding Information in High-n Circular Wave Packets

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, S.; Reinhold, Carlos O; Burgdorfer, J.; Wyker, B.; Dunning, F. B.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the extraction of detailed information on the density matrix of very-high-n(> 300) near-circular Rydberg wave packets through Fourier analysis of the quantum beat and quantum revival signal. The remarkably long coherence times associated with circular wave packets facilitate the preservation and read-out of information encoded in this matrix. We illustrate the power of the method by determining the angular localization of the components of a wave packet.

  20. Packet Randomized Experiments for Eliminating Classes of Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Pavela, Greg; Wiener, Howard; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Fields, David A.; Voss, Jameson D.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although randomization is considered essential for causal inference, it is often not possible to randomize in nutrition and obesity research. To address this, we develop a framework for an experimental design—packet randomized experiments (PREs), which improves causal inferences when randomization on a single treatment variable is not possible. This situation arises when subjects are randomly assigned to a condition (such as a new roommate) which varies in one characteristic of interest (such as weight), but also varies across many others. There has been no general discussion of this experimental design, including its strengths, limitations, and statistical properties. As such, researchers are left to develop and apply PREs on an ad hoc basis, limiting its potential to improve causal inferences among nutrition and obesity researchers. Methods We introduce PREs as an intermediary design between randomized controlled trials and observational studies. We review previous research that used the PRE design and describe its application in obesity-related research, including random roommate assignments, heterochronic parabiosis, and the quasi-random assignment of subjects to geographic areas. We then provide a statistical framework to control for potential packet-level confounders not accounted for by randomization. Results PREs have successfully been used to improve causal estimates of the effect of roommates, altitude, and breastfeeding on weight outcomes. When certain assumptions are met, PREs can asymptotically control for packet-level characteristics. This has the potential to statistically estimate the effect of a single treatment even when randomization to a single treatment did not occur. Conclusions Applying PREs to obesity-related research will improve decisions about clinical, public health, and policy actions insofar as it offers researchers new insight into cause and effect relationships among variables. PMID:25444088

  1. Time delay of wave packets during their tunnelling through a quantum diode

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, N A; Skalozub, V V

    2014-04-28

    A modified saddle-point method is used to investigate the process of propagation of a wave packet through a quantum diode. A scattering matrix is constructed for the structure in question. The case of tunnelling of a packet with a Gaussian envelope through the diode is considered in detail. The time delay and the shape of the wave packet transmitted are calculated. The dependence of the delay time on the characteristics of the input packet and the internal characteristics of the quantum diode is studied. Possible applications of the results obtained are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. Wave-packet dynamics on Chern-band lattices in a trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sthitadhi; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Moessner, Roderich; Haque, Masudul

    2015-12-01

    The experimental realization of lattices with Chern bands in ultracold-atom and photonic systems has motivated the study of time-dependent phenomena, such as spatial propagation, in lattices with nontrivial topology. We study the dynamics of Gaussian wave packets on the Haldane honeycomb Chern-band lattice model, in the presence of a harmonic trap. We focus on the transverse response to a force, which is due partly to the Berry curvature and partly to the transverse component of the energy band curvature. We evaluate the accuracy of a semiclassical description, which treats the wave packet as a point particle in both real and momentum space, in reproducing the motion of a realistic wave packet with finite extent. We find that, in order to accurately capture the wave-packet dynamics, the extent of the wave packet in momentum space needs to be taken into account: The dynamics is sensitive to the interplay of band dispersion and Berry curvature over the finite region of momentum (reciprocal) space where the wave packet has support. Moreover, if the wave packet is prepared with a finite initial momentum, the semiclassical analysis reproduces its motion as long as it has a large overlap with the eigenstates of a single band. The semiclassical description generally improves with increasing real-space size of the wave packet, as long as the external conditions (e.g., external force) remain uniform throughout the spatial extent of the wave packet.

  3. Generation of optical pulse packet using a fiber stacker for time fiducial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Honghuan; Wang, Jianjun; Huang, Zhihua; Li, Qi; Xu, Lixin; Tang, Xuan; Li, Chengyu; Guo, Chao; Zhao, Pengfei; Jing, Feng

    2016-08-01

    We present the concept of multicolor optical pulse packet generation based on modified fiber stackers featured with reflection geometries. Infrared radiation, visible and ultraviolet time fiducials were obtained by the amplification and frequency-conversion of the pulse packet generated in this fiber stacker. Application for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment diagnosis with time fiducials was demonstrated. With featured reflection geometries, the shaped packet pulses with uniform sub-pulse polarization states in a temporal window of ns range were generated in the fiber stacker. The design greatly simplifies the packet pulse generation for time fiducial and could be used for laser-driven ICF experimental diagnosis.

  4. Time behavior of a Gaussian wave packet accompanying the generalized coherent state for the inverted oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maamache, Mustapha; Bouguerra, Yacine; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2016-06-01

    A Gaussian wave packet of the inverted oscillator is investigated using the invariant operator method together with the unitary transformation method. A simple wave packet directly derived from the eigenstates of the invariant operator of the system corresponds to a plane wave that is fully delocalized. However, we can construct a weighted wave packet in terms of such plane waves, which corresponds to a Gaussian wave. This wave packet is associated with the generalized coherent state, which can be crucially utilized for investigating the classical limit of quantum wave mechanics. Various quantum properties of the system, such as fluctuations of the canonical variables, the uncertainty product, and the motion of the wave packet or quantum particle, are analyzed by means of this wave packet. We have confirmed that the time behavior of such a wave packet is very similar to the counterpart classical state. The wave packet runs away from the origin in the positive or negative direction in the 1D coordinate depending on the condition of the initial state. We have confirmed that this wave packet not only moves acceleratively but also spreads out during its propagation.

  5. Self-organising continuous attractor networks with multiple activity packets, and the representation of space.

    PubMed

    Stringer, S M; Rolls, E T; Trappenberg, T P

    2004-01-01

    'Continuous attractor' neural networks can maintain a localised packet of neuronal activity representing the current state of an agent in a continuous space without external sensory input. In applications such as the representation of head direction or location in the environment, only one packet of activity is needed. For some spatial computations a number of different locations, each with its own features, must be held in memory. We extend previous approaches to continuous attractor networks (in which one packet of activity is maintained active) by showing that a single continuous attractor network can maintain multiple packets of activity simultaneously, if each packet is in a different state space or map. We also show how such a network could by learning self-organise to enable the packets in each space to be moved continuously in that space by idiothetic (motion) inputs. We show how such multi-packet continuous attractor networks could be used to maintain different types of feature (such as form vs colour) simultaneously active in the correct location in a spatial representation. We also show how high-order synapses can improve the performance of these networks, and how the location of a packet could be read by motor networks. The multiple packet continuous attractor networks described here may be used for spatial representations in brain areas such as the parietal cortex and hippocampus.

  6. Real-time video transmission over a fast packet-switched network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Robert J.; Ma, Joong S.; Gonzales, Cesar A.

    1989-04-01

    Realtime transmission of packetized video is a relatively new but important area of research since tomorrow's networks will likely be based on a common fast packet-switching technology, replacing today's heterogeneous networks which are mixtures of circuit-switched and packet-switched networks dedicated for synchronous and asynchronous applications respectively. Unlike fixed bandwidth transmission channels, packet-switched networks can accommodate the bursty and highly variable rate of compressed motion video yet keep a constant level of image quality. Potential applications include motion video databases, video teleconferencing, and broadcasting over private networks. Unfortunately, traditional video-compression techniques which are applicable to synchronous, fixed bandwidth channels--cannot be applied in this new environment without substantial revisions that take into account the statistical nature of packet data transmission. Independent of their topology, fast packet-switched networks present unique challenges to the coding of motion video; one cannot simply divorce the coding of the source from the characteristics of the channel. The potential for loss of data integrity due to packet losses and transmission errors must be taken into account. The problem of re-synchronization must also be addressed since packet-switched networks are asynchronous by nature. In this paper, we evaluate image coding techniques for motion video in view of the constraints imposed by the packetized medium.

  7. The application study of wavelet packet transformation in the de-noising of dynamic EEG data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifeng; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Baohui; Wei, Xiaoyang; Yan, Guiding; Geng, Xichen; Jin, Zhao; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lin, Rong; Wang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the basic principle of wavelet packet analysis, and on this basis introduces the general principle of wavelet packet transformation for signal den-noising. The dynamic EEG data under +Gz acceleration is made a de-noising treatment by using wavelet packet transformation, and the de-noising effects with different thresholds are made a comparison. The study verifies the validity and application value of wavelet packet threshold method for the de-noising of dynamic EEG data under +Gz acceleration. PMID:26405863

  8. Field structure of collapsing wave packets in 3D strong Langmuir turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, D. L.; Robinson, P. A.; Goldman, M. V.

    1989-01-01

    A simple model is constructed for the electric fields in the collapsing wave packets found in 3D simulations of driven and damped isotropic strong Langmuir turbulence. This model, based on a spherical-harmonic decomposition of the electrostatic potential, accounts for the distribution of wave-packet shapes observed in the simulations, particularly the predominance of oblate wave packets. In contrast with predictions for undamped and undriven subsonic collapse of scalar fields, oblate vector-field wave packets do not flatten during collapse but, instead, remain approximately self-similar and rigid.

  9. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity.

  10. Nonlinear single Compton scattering of an electron wave packet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angioi, A.; Mackenroth, F.; Di Piazza, A.

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear single Compton scattering has been thoroughly investigated in the literature under the assumption that the electron initially has a definite momentum. Here, we study a more general initial state and consider the electron as a wave packet. In particular, we investigate the energy spectrum of the emitted radiation and show that, in typical experimental situations, some features of the spectra shown in previous works are almost completely washed out. Moreover, we show that, at comparable relative uncertainties, the one in the momentum of the incoming electron has a larger impact on the photon spectra at a fixed observation direction than the one on the laser frequency.

  11. Electroencephalography data analysis by using discrete wavelet packet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Janier Josefina, B.

    2015-05-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the electrical activity generated by the movement of neurons in the brain. It is categorized into delta waves, theta, alpha, beta and gamma. These waves exist in a different frequency band. This paper is a continuation of our previous research. EEG data will be decomposed using Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (DWPT). Daubechies wavelets 10 (D10) will be used as the basic functions for research purposes. From the main results, it is clear that the DWPT able to characterize the EEG signal corresponding to each wave at a specific frequency. Furthermore, the numerical results obtained better than the results using DWT. Statistical analysis support our main findings.

  12. Engineering biphoton wave packets with an electromagnetically induced grating

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Jianming; Xiao Min; Zhai Yanhua; Du Shengwang

    2010-10-15

    We propose to shape biphoton wave packets with an electromagnetically induced grating in a four-level double-{Lambda} cold atomic system. We show that the induced hybrid grating plays an essential role in directing the new fields into different angular positions, especially for the zeroth-order diffraction. A number of interesting features appears in the shaped two-photon wave forms. For example, broadening or narrowing the spectrum would be possible in the proposed scheme even without the use of a cavity.

  13. Optimizing bandwidth utilization in packet based telemetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, J.R.

    1995-10-17

    A consistent theme in spacecraft telemetry system design is the desire to obtain maximum bandwidth utilization given a fixed transmission capability (usually due to cost/weight criteria). Extensions to basic packetization telemetry architectures are discussed which can facilitate a reduction in the amount of actual data telemetered, without loss of data quality. Central to the extensions are the establishment of an ``intelligent`` telemetry process, which can evaluate pending data to be telemetered, and act to compress, discard, or re-formulate data before actual transmission to ground stations.

  14. A Wavelet Packets Approach to Electrocardiograph Baseline Drift Cancellation

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffary, Behzad

    2006-01-01

    Baseline wander elimination is considered a classical problem. In electrocardiography (ECG) signals, baseline drift can influence the accurate diagnosis of heart disease such as ischemia and arrhythmia. We present a wavelet-transform- (WT-) based search algorithm using the energy of the signal in different scales to isolate baseline wander from the ECG signal. The algorithm computes wavelet packet coefficients and then in each scale the energy of the signal is calculated. Comparison is made and the branch of the wavelet binary tree corresponding to higher energy wavelet spaces is chosen. This algorithm is tested using the data record from MIT/BIH database and excellent results are obtained. PMID:23165064

  15. A dynamic packet-switching system for satellite broadcast channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, R.

    1975-01-01

    A new satellite multi-access scheme for packet-switching computer communications combines a dynamic allocation technique with conventional time-division multiplexing to minimize delays and maximize traffic thruput. The scheme is designed to give the shortest delays to short-duration interactive or priority traffic, at the expense of longer delays for large data transfers. Simulation results show markedly improved delay-thruput characteristics over conventional time-division multiplexing for a wide range of traffic mixes, with especially significant performance gains as the traffic imbalance among the nodes increases.

  16. Wave-packet evolution in non-Hermitian quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Graefe, Eva-Maria; Schubert, Roman

    2011-06-15

    The quantum evolution of the Wigner function for Gaussian wave packets generated by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian is investigated. In the semiclassical limit ({h_bar}/2{pi}){yields}0 this yields the non-Hermitian analog of the Ehrenfest theorem for the dynamics of observable expectation values. The lack of Hermiticity reveals the importance of the complex structure on the classical phase space: The resulting equations of motion are coupled to an equation of motion for the phase-space metric - a phenomenon having no analog in Hermitian theories.

  17. Simulation of the collapse and dissipation of Langmuir wave packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, D. L.; Winglee, R. M.; Robinson, P. A.; Glanz, J.; Goldman, M. V.

    1990-01-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and Zakharov's partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to investigate the collapse of isolated Langmuir wave packets in two dimensions. Collapse thresholds are determined numerically, and the roles of enhanced Langmuir wave damping and nonlinearities not included in the standard Zakharov equations are discussed. The Langmuir wave and ion dynamics in PIC simulations are compared with the predictions of PDE simulations incorporating enhanced Langmuir damping. Electron heating and coherent acceleration in the PIC simulations are discussed and compared with predictions of the transit-time theory.

  18. Constraining ground motion parameters and determining the historic earthquake that damaged the vaults underneath the Old City of Jerusalem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoda-Biran, G.; Hatzor, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    Evidence for seismically induced damage are preserved in historic masonry structures below the Old City of Jerusalem at a site known locally as the 'Western Wall Tunnels' complex, possibly one of the most important tourist attractions in the world. In the tunnels, structures dated to 500 BC and up until modern times have been uncovered by recent archeological excavation. One of the interesting findings is a 100 m long bridge, composed of two rows of barrel vaults, believed to have been constructed during the 3rd century AD to allow easy access to the Temple Mount. In one of the vaults a single masonry block is displaced 7 cm downward with respect to its neighbors (see figure below). Since the damage seems seismically driven, back analysis of the damage with the numerical Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) method was performed, in order to constrain the peak ground acceleration (PGA) that had caused the damage. First the numerical method used for back analysis was verified with an analytical solution for the case of a rocking monolithic column, then validated with experimental results for site response analysis. The verification and validation prove the DDA is capable of handling dynamic and wave propagation problems. Next, the back analysis was performed. Results of the dynamic numerical simulations suggest that the damage observed at the vault was induced by seismic vibrations that must have taken place before the bridge was buried underground, namely when it was still in service. We find that the PGA required for causing the observed damage was high - between 1.5 and 2 g. The PGA calculated for Jerusalem on the basis of established attenuation relationships for historic earthquakes that struck the region during the relevant time period is about one order of magnitude lower: 0.14 and 0.48 g, for the events that took place at 362 and 746 AD, respectively. This discrepancy is explained by local site effects that must have amplified bedrock ground motions by a

  19. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  20. Measurement of neutron dose equivalent outside and inside of the treatment vault of GRID therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xudong; Charlton, Michael A.; Esquivel, Carlos; Eng, Tony Y.; Li, Ying; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the neutron and photon dose equivalent rates at the treatment vault entrance (H{sub n,D} and H{sub G}), and to study the secondary radiation to the patient in GRID therapy. The radiation activation on the grid was studied.Methods: A Varian Clinac 23EX accelerator was working at 18 MV mode with a grid manufactured by .decimal, Inc. The H{sub n,D} and H{sub G} were measured using an Andersson–Braun neutron REM meter, and a Geiger Müller counter. The radiation activation on the grid was measured after the irradiation with an ion chamber γ-ray survey meter. The secondary radiation dose equivalent to patient was evaluated by etched track detectors and OSL detectors on a RANDO{sup ®} phantom.Results: Within the measurement uncertainty, there is no significant difference between the H{sub n,D} and H{sub G} with and without a grid. However, the neutron dose equivalent to the patient with the grid is, on average, 35.3% lower than that without the grid when using the same field size and the same amount of monitor unit. The photon dose equivalent to the patient with the grid is, on average, 44.9% lower. The measured average half-life of the radiation activation in the grid is 12.0 (±0.9) min. The activation can be categorized into a fast decay component and a slow decay component with half-lives of 3.4 (±1.6) min and 15.3 (±4.0) min, respectively. There was no detectable radioactive contamination found on the surface of the grid through a wipe test.Conclusions: This work indicates that there is no significant change of the H{sub n,D} and H{sub G} in GRID therapy, compared with a conventional external beam therapy. However, the neutron and scattered photon dose equivalent to the patient decrease dramatically with the grid and can be clinical irrelevant. Meanwhile, the users of a grid should be aware of the possible high dose to the radiation worker from the radiation activation on the surface of the grid. A delay in handling the grid after the beam

  1. Estimate of Gaseous 14Carbon Concentrations Emanating from the Intermediate-Level Vault Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    {sup 14}Carbon-bearing resin waste will be disposed in the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Intermediate Level Vaults (ILV) located in E-Area on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This waste will be buried in a cementitious environment in the vadose zone, i.e., the subsurface zone above the aquifer. As the resin ages, and equilibrates with slowly infiltrating water, it is expected that the {sup 14}C will partition to the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. The objective of this task was to estimate the concentration of gaseous {sup 14}C in the waste pore space that is in contact with the resin leachate. The approach used to estimate this value was built largely around data generated from lysimeter studies that were conducted for 9 years. These lysimeters contained the same type of used resins (mixed-bed deionizer resins used in the purification of the heavy water moderator of SRS reactors) as are being disposed in the ILV. During the 9 year period, pore water {sup 14}C leaching concentrations were monitored to provide an excellent estimate of the long-term behavior of {sup 14}C release rates from the resins. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to calculate {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentrations. These calculations included the {sup 14}C pore water data from the lysimeter study, and data from a field study that was a natural analogue to a long-term cementitious environment (Khoury et al. 1992). The calculations predicted an extremely low {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration of 1.9 x 10{sup -7} Ci/m{sup 3} {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} in the air spaces above the resin leachate. This low concentrations is not surprising in light of both laboratory and field observations that concrete acts as a strong sorbent of CO{sub 2(g)}. This calculated {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration will now be included in future risk calculations.

  2. ‘Superluminal paradox’ in wave packet propagation and its quantum mechanical resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.

    2013-12-15

    We analyse in detail the reshaping mechanism leading to apparently ‘superluminal’ advancement of a wave packet traversing a classically forbidden region. In the coordinate representation, a barrier is shown to act as an effective beamsplitter, recombining envelopes of the freely propagating pulse with various spacial shifts. Causality ensures that none of the constituent envelopes are advanced with respect to free propagation, yet the resulting pulse is advanced due to a peculiar interference effect, similar to the one responsible for ‘anomalous’ values which occur in Aharonov’s ‘weak measurements’. In the momentum space, the effect is understood as a bandwidth phenomenon, where the incident pulse probes local, rather than global, analytical properties of the transmission amplitude T(p). The advancement is achieved when T(p) mimics locally an exponential behaviour, similar to the one occurring in Berry’s ‘superoscillations’. Seen in a broader quantum mechanical context, the ‘paradox’ is but a consequence of an attempt to obtain ‘which way?’ information without destroying the interference between the pathways of interest. This explains, to a large extent, the failure to adequately describe tunnelling in terms of a single ‘tunnelling time’. -- Highlights: •Apparent superluminality is described in the language of quantum measurements. •A barrier acts as a beamsplitter delaying copies of the initial pulse. •In the coordinate space the effect is similar to what occurs in ‘weak measurements’. •In the momentum space it relies on superoscillations in the transmission amplitude. •It is an interference effect, unlikely to be explained in simpler physical terms.

  3. Non-Hermitian wave packet approximation of Bloch optical equations

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Eric; Sukharev, Maxim

    2013-01-14

    We introduce a non-Hermitian approximation of Bloch optical equations. This approximation provides a complete description of the excitation, relaxation, and decoherence dynamics of ensembles of coupled quantum systems in weak laser fields, taking into account collective effects and dephasing. In the proposed method, one propagates the wave function of the system instead of a complete density matrix. Relaxation and dephasing are taken into account via automatically adjusted time-dependent gain and decay rates. As an application, we compute the numerical wave packet solution of a time-dependent non-Hermitian Schroedinger equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a quantum nano-structure, and compare the calculated transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra with those obtained from the numerical solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation. It is shown that the proposed wave packet scheme is significantly faster than the propagation of the full density matrix while maintaining small error. We provide the key ingredients for easy-to-use implementation of the proposed scheme and identify the limits and error scaling of this approximation.

  4. Application of wavelet packet transform to compressing Raman spectra data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Peng, Fei; Cheng, Qinghua; Xu, Dahai

    2008-12-01

    Abstract The Wavelet transform has been established with the Fourier transform as a data-processing method in analytical fields. The main fields of application are related to de-noising, compression, variable reduction, and signal suppression. Raman spectroscopy (RS) is characterized by the frequency excursion that can show the information of molecule. Every substance has its own feature Raman spectroscopy, which can analyze the structure, components, concentrations and some other properties of samples easily. RS is a powerful analytical tool for detection and identification. There are many databases of RS. But the data of Raman spectrum needs large space to storing and long time to searching. In this paper, Wavelet packet is chosen to compress Raman spectra data of some benzene series. The obtained results show that the energy retained is as high as 99.9% after compression, while the percentage for number of zeros is 87.50%. It was concluded that the Wavelet packet has significance in compressing the RS data.

  5. Packet Drop Avoidance for High-speed network transmission protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun

    2004-05-01

    As network bandwidth continues to grow and longer paths are used to exchange large scientific data between storage systems and GRID computation, it has become increasingly obvious that there is a need to deploy a packet drop avoidance mechanism into network transmission protocols. Current end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanisms used in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) have worked well on low bandwidth delay product networks, but with newer high-bandwidth delay networks they have shown to be inefficient and prone to unstable. This is largely due to increased network bandwidth coupled with changes in internet traffic patterns. These changes come from a variety of new network applications that are being developed to take advantage of the increased network bandwidth. This paper will examine the end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanism and perform a step-by-step analysis of its theory. In addition we will propose an alternative approach developed as part of a new network transmission protocol. Our alternative protocol uses a packet drop avoidance (PDA) mechanism built on top of the maximum burst size (MBS) theory combined with a real-time available bandwidth algorithm.

  6. Wave packet spreading and localization in electron-nuclear scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markmann, Andreas; Grabowski*, P. E.; Morozov, I. V.; Valuev, I. A.; Fichtl, C. A.; Batista, V. S.; Graziani, F. R.; Murillo, M. S.; Cimarron Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The wave packet molecular dynamics (WPMD) method solves the time-dependent Schrödinger equation via a variational approximation. Application to high-temperature dense plasmas has yielded diverging electron width (spreading) with diminished electron-nuclear interaction. This was previously ascribed to a shortcoming of WPMD and has been counteracted by heuristic additions to the model. We employ various methods to determine if spreading continues to be predicted. Single electron scattering on a periodic array of statically screened protons is used as a model problem for comparison via the numerically exact split operator Fourier transform method, the Wigner trajectory method, and the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). Within the TDVP, we use as ansätze the standard form of WPMD, a single Gaussian wave packet (WP), as well as the split WP method, a linear combination of Gaussian WPs. Spreading is predicted by all methods, so is not the cause of unphysical diminishing interactions in WPMD. Instead, the Gaussian WP's inability to reproduce breakup of the density into fragments localized near ions is responsible for the deviation between methods. Hence, extensions of WPMD must include a mechanism for breakup. Authors contributed equally.

  7. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  8. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps.

  9. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps. PMID:25869863

  10. Creation of multihole molecular wave packets via strong-field ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, Dominik; Weinacht, Thomas; Rozgonyi, Tamas; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Jesus; Gonzalez, Leticia; Nichols, Sarah

    2010-07-15

    We demonstrate the creation of vibrational wave packets on multiple electronic states of a molecule via strong-field ionization. Furthermore, we show that the relative contribution of the different electronic states depends on the shape of the laser pulse which launches the wave packets.

  11. Fokker-Planck approach to the pulse packet propagation in synfire chain.

    PubMed

    Câteau, H; Fukai, T

    2001-01-01

    We applied the Fokker-Planck method to the so-called 'synfire chain' network model and showed how a synchronous population spike (pulse packet) evolves to a narrow pulse packet (width < 1 ms) or fades away, depending on its initial size and width. The results of numerical integration of the Fokker-Planck equation are in good agreement with those of simulations on a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. For a narrow input pulse packet, the integration of the Fokker-Planck equation requires careful numerical treatment. However, we can construct a precise analytical waveform of an output packet, which proves valid for narrow input pulse packets, from the stationary solution to the Fokker-Planck equation and a previously proposed approximate input-output relationship. Our methods enable us also to understand an essential role of the synaptic noise in the evolution, the peculiar temporal evolution of a broader pulse packets, and the irrelevance of the refractory period in determining the waveform of a pulse packet. Furthermore, we elucidate possible functional roles of multiple interactive pulse packets in spatiotemporal information processing, i.e. the association of information and the temporal competition. PMID:11665762

  12. A multi-function IEC 61850 packet generator based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Hong-bin; Cheng, Han-miao

    2016-07-01

    An IEC 61850 packet generator is used to produce IEC 61850-9-2 packets by simulating the merging unit and testing the IEC 61850 digital device. While the existing IEC packet generator can produce ideal digital without any noise, it does not take into account the fact that the merging unit output signal packets will be inevitably superimposed with noise. Since the International Electrical Commission standard of the electronic current transformer specifies the minimum output signal-to-noise ratio of the merging unit to be 30 dB, and the signal superimposed with noise will influence the operation performance of the digital device, it is necessary to design a multi-function IEC 61850-9-2 packet generator for a digital device test. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-function IEC 61850 packet generator has been developed, which not only can output various IEC 61850-9-2 packets, but also can add white Gaussian noise to the signal for digital device testing. By testing three digital electricity meters from different manufacturers, we showed that the error of the digital electricity meter is significantly larger when the signal packet is superimposed with noise. Also when the signal-to-noise ration is 30 dB, the error of one of the meters exceeds the allowed range of the accuracy class. This indicates that the noise testing and the noise setting function of the system has an important role in the testing of a digital device.

  13. PROJECT SUCCESS: Marine Science. (Introductory Packet, Basic Marine Science Laboratory Techniques, Oceanographic Instruments, Individual Projects, Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Bryan

    Five packets comprise the marine science component of an enrichment program for gifted elementary students. Considered in the introductory section are identification (pre/post measure) procedures. Remaining packets address the following topics (subtopics in parentheses): basic marine science laboratory techniques (microscope techniques and metric…

  14. Animal Homes and Habitats. A Fall Activity Packet for Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on animal populations and…

  15. Mae Conn and Associates. A Legal Secretary Position Simulation. Student Packet 3. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta.

    This is the third of four student packets forming part of a position simulation for use in an office applications laboratory at the postsecondary level. The purpose of the simulation is to give the student an opportunity to learn the tasks and duties performed by a legal secretary. The packet, which begins with a simulated office schedule for one…

  16. Observation of wave packet distortion during a negative-group-velocity transmission.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dexin; Salamin, Yannick; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Qiao, Shan; Zheng, Guoan; Ran, Lixin

    2015-01-29

    In Physics, causality is a fundamental postulation arising from the second law of thermodynamics. It states that, the cause of an event precedes its effect. In the context of Electromagnetics, the relativistic causality limits the upper bound of the velocity of information, which is carried by electromagnetic wave packets, to the speed of light in free space (c). In anomalously dispersive media (ADM), it has been shown that, wave packets appear to propagate with a superluminal or even negative group velocity. However, Sommerfeld and Brillouin pointed out that the "front" of such wave packets, known as the initial point of the Sommerfeld precursor, always travels at c. In this work, we investigate the negative-group-velocity transmission of half-sine wave packets. We experimentally observe the wave front and the distortion of modulated wave packets propagating with a negative group velocity in a passive artificial ADM in microwave regime. Different from previous literature on the propagation of superluminal Gaussian packets, strongly distorted sinusoidal packets with non-superluminal wave fronts were observed. This result agrees with Brillouin's assertion, i.e., the severe distortion of seemingly superluminal wave packets makes the definition of group velocity physically meaningless in the anomalously dispersive region.

  17. Multiwavelet packet entropy and its application in transmission line fault recognition and classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qiaoge

    2014-11-01

    Multiwavelets possess better properties than traditional wavelets. Multiwavelet packet transformation has more high-frequency information. Spectral entropy can be applied as an analysis index to the complexity or uncertainty of a signal. This paper tries to define four multiwavelet packet entropies to extract the features of different transmission line faults, and uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to recognize and classify 10 fault types of power transmission lines. First, the preprocessing and postprocessing problems of multiwavelets are presented. Shannon entropy and Tsallis entropy are introduced, and their difference is discussed. Second, multiwavelet packet energy entropy, time entropy, Shannon singular entropy, and Tsallis singular entropy are defined as the feature extraction methods of transmission line fault signals. Third, the plan of transmission line fault recognition using multiwavelet packet entropies and an RBF neural network is proposed. Finally, the experimental results show that the plan with the four multiwavelet packet energy entropies defined in this paper achieves better performance in fault recognition. The performance with SA4 (symmetric antisymmetric) multiwavelet packet Tsallis singular entropy is the best among the combinations of different multiwavelet packets and the four multiwavelet packet entropies.

  18. In the Public Interest: Law, Government, and Media. Maryland Women's History Resource Packet--1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Commission for Women, Baltimore.

    Designed to be used for National Women's History Week (March 2-8), this 1986 Maryland women's history resource packet centers around Maryland women who have made significant volunteer and career contributions in the areas of government, law, and the public interest media. The packet begins with suggested student activity lists and activity sheets…

  19. Japanese Painting: Form and Function. A Teacher Workshop on May 14, 1994. Teacher's Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schardt, Molly; And Others

    This packet accompanies a slide series designed to introduce students to Japanese painting from the 12th century to the late 19th century. The packet includes an essay introduction to establish a historical framework, maps of the region, a time line of the chronology of Japan from 2000 B.C. to the present, illustrations of various art forms, a…

  20. Women's Studies for Teachers and Administrators: A Packet of Inservice Education Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froschl, Merle, Ed.; And Others

    This packet of materials is designed for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators who are engaged in inservice education and interested in the movement to eliminate sexism in schools. Two major purposes of the packet are to help a school district start an inservice course on sexism in education and to show the potential of such a…