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Sample records for advanced parental age

  1. Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on aging parents. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include adult children, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  2. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  3. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  4. Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents.

    PubMed

    Sandin, S; Schendel, D; Magnusson, P; Hultman, C; Surén, P; Susser, E; Grønborg, T; Gissler, M; Gunnes, N; Gross, R; Henning, M; Bresnahan, M; Sourander, A; Hornig, M; Carter, K; Francis, R; Parner, E; Leonard, H; Rosanoff, M; Stoltenberg, C; Reichenberg, A

    2016-05-01

    Advancing paternal and maternal age have both been associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the shape of the association remains unclear, and results on the joint associations is lacking. This study tests if advancing paternal and maternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk and estimates the functional form of the associations. In a population-based cohort study from five countries (Denmark, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Western Australia) comprising 5 766 794 children born 1985-2004 and followed up to the end of 2004-2009, the relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated by using logistic regression and splines. Our analyses included 30 902 cases of ASD. Advancing paternal and maternal age were each associated with increased RR of ASD after adjusting for confounding and the other parent's age (mothers 40-49 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.24), P-value<0.001; fathers⩾50 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.49-1.85), P-value<0.001). Younger maternal age was also associated with increased risk for ASD (mothers <20 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.18 (95% CI: 1.08-1.29), P-value<0.001). There was a joint effect of maternal and paternal age with increasing risk of ASD for couples with increasing differences in parental ages. We did not find any support for a modifying effect by the sex of the offspring. In conclusion, as shown in multiple geographic regions, increases in ASD was not only limited to advancing paternal or maternal age alone but also to differences parental age including younger or older similarly aged parents as well as disparately aged parents.

  5. Parenting in a Technological Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedts, Geertrui

    2008-01-01

    Technology is not just a tool but an amalgam of conceptual, institutional, and interactional issues that occupy the space of technical reason. In this space, parents' identity is becoming narrowed according to a limited conception in which the place of "caring" is in danger of being lost. Parents are increasingly required to adopt knowledge on…

  6. Advancing videotape parent training: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the specific effects of adding a broader based, videotape treatment component (ADVANCE) to a basic videotape parent skills training program (GDVM). ADVANCE treatment trains parents to cope with interpersonal distress through improved communication, problem solving, and self-control skills. Seventy-eight families with a child diagnosed as oppositional-defiant or conduct-disordered were randomly assigned to either GDVM alone or GDVM plus ADVANCE. Parent reports of child adjustment and parent distress, assessment of child's knowledge of social skills, as well as independent observations of mother-and father-child interactions and communication and of problem solving between parents were obtained at pre- and post-GDVM and at post-ADVANCE. Both groups significantly improved at short-term follow-up. ADVANCE produced additional significant improvements in parents' communication, problem-solving skills, and consumer satisfaction, as well as children's increased knowledge of prosocial solutions. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:8063985

  7. Young Adults’ Provision of Support to Middle-Aged Parents

    PubMed Central

    Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.; Fingerman, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults often provide support to aging parents, but researchers know little about support that young adults provide middle-aged parents. This study examined support that young adults provide parents and explanations for that support from both offspring’s and parents’ perspectives. Method. Young adults (n = 515, mean age = 22.34) and their parents (n = 364, mean age = 50.09) from the Family Exchanges Study reported support that offspring provide parents. Participants also reported parental personal problems, parental disability status, relationship quality, and support that parents provide offspring. Results. Offspring provided parents with emotional support and listening more often than other forms of support. Offspring reported providing more frequent support than parents reported receiving. We examined factors associated with support using multilevel models. Both offspring and parents reported more frequent support provided to parents when they had higher quality relationships and when parents gave more frequent support to offspring. Offspring (but not parents) reported providing more frequent support to parents when parents were disabled. Discussion. Findings are consistent with solidarity theory, which suggests that high-quality relationships may explain support. The concept of self-enhancement and generativity in middle-aged parents may explain the intergenerational differences in the association between parental disability and support. PMID:24162441

  8. Successful Parenting for School-Age Parents. Teacher's Resource Guide. Student Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    The teacher's guide and student reference book presented here were developed as resources to facilitate school-age parenting education. The materials were organized around the nine essential elements for the Parenting Education for School-Age Parents course in Texas. The teacher's guide contains teaching strategies, teaching aids, paper-and-pencil…

  9. Psychological distress in parents of children with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Dussel, Veronica; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, J. Russel; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence and factors of psychological distress (PD) among parents of children with advanced cancer. Design Cohort study embedded within a randomized clinical trial (Pediatric Quality of Life and Evaluation of Symptoms Technology [PediQUEST] study). Setting Multicenter study conducted at three children’s hospitals (Boston Children’s Hospital, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Seattle Children’s Hospital). Participants Parents of children with advanced (progressive, recurrent, or refractory) cancer Outcome Measure Parental PD, as measured by the Kessler-6 (K6) general psychological distress scale. Results 86 of 104 parents completed the Survey about Caring for Children with Cancer (SCCC, 83% participation); 81 parents had complete K6 data. Over 50% of parents reported high PD and 16% met criteria for serious PD (compared to US prevalence of 2–3%). Parent perceptions of prognosis, goals of therapy, child symptoms/suffering, and financial hardship were associated with PD. In multivariate analyses, average parent K6 scores were higher among parents who believed their child was suffering highly and who reported great economic hardship. Conversely, PD was significantly lower among parents whose prognostic understanding was aligned with concrete goals of care. Conclusions Parenting a child with advanced cancer is strongly associated with high to severe levels of PD. Interventions aimed at aligning prognostic understanding with concrete care goals, and easing child suffering and financial hardship may mitigate parental PD. PMID:23545569

  10. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants’ education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child’s activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and

  11. Developing and Instituting a Parenting Course for Parents of Children Ages 3 through 14 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes, Ruth S.

    A licensed counselor working in a privately owned mental health facility implemented a practicum study designed to improve the parenting skills and quality of family communication in families with children between 3 and 14 years of age. Practicum goals were to: (1) give parents information that would improve their parenting skills; and (2)…

  12. Semelparous Penna Ageing Model with Parental Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehsenfeld, K. M.; Sá Martins, J. S.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Bernardes, A. T.

    In this paper we study the importance of parental care for the survival of semelparous species, that reproduce only once in life. We perform our simulations for sexual and asexual reproductions and show that catastrophic senescence (death soon after reproduction) is delayed if parental care is considered.

  13. Pilot trial of an age-paced parenting newsletter.

    PubMed

    Keane, Brigid; Waterston, Tony; McConachie, Helen; Towner, Elizabeth; Cook, Margaret; Birks, Eileen

    2005-10-01

    Supporting parents in the first three years of a child's life has the potential to produce successful outcomes. Present government initiatives such as Sure Start focus on this age group. An American educational intervention, in the style of a monthly newsletter, was adapted for use in the UK for parents of young children. Topics were presented in an easy-to-read format and focused on infant emotional development, parent interaction and play. Newsletters, called Baby Express were posted at monthly intervals to the family home providing age-paced information which could meet the specific needs of parents at that stage of their child's life. The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of the newsletter to UK parents and evaluate their satisfaction. Sixty home-based interviews were conducted and 95 per cent of mothers reported reading all or part of the newsletter. Changes in parenting style were spontaneously reported by 28 per cent of mothers. This study found that an aged-paced parenting newsletter was an acceptable and useful method of supporting parents in the early months of a child's life and promotes positive changes in parenting behaviour. PMID:16245675

  14. Pilot trial of an age-paced parenting newsletter.

    PubMed

    Keane, Brigid; Waterston, Tony; McConachie, Helen; Towner, Elizabeth; Cook, Margaret; Birks, Eileen

    2005-10-01

    Supporting parents in the first three years of a child's life has the potential to produce successful outcomes. Present government initiatives such as Sure Start focus on this age group. An American educational intervention, in the style of a monthly newsletter, was adapted for use in the UK for parents of young children. Topics were presented in an easy-to-read format and focused on infant emotional development, parent interaction and play. Newsletters, called Baby Express were posted at monthly intervals to the family home providing age-paced information which could meet the specific needs of parents at that stage of their child's life. The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of the newsletter to UK parents and evaluate their satisfaction. Sixty home-based interviews were conducted and 95 per cent of mothers reported reading all or part of the newsletter. Changes in parenting style were spontaneously reported by 28 per cent of mothers. This study found that an aged-paced parenting newsletter was an acceptable and useful method of supporting parents in the early months of a child's life and promotes positive changes in parenting behaviour.

  15. The Impact of Parental Death on Middle Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the impact of the loss of a parent on middle-aged children. A lifelong process of anticipatory orphanhood is suggested as helping to prepare for the impact of a parent's death. Reaction involves the dialectic between the persistence and breaking of the bond and between finitude and personal growth. (JAC)

  16. Health of Aging Parents and Childless Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendig, Hal; Dykstra, Pearl A.; van Gaalen, Ruben I.; Melkas, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews and presents research findings on the relationships between parenthood and health over the life span. Existing research shows lacunae. The links between reproductive behavior and longevity generally focus on family size rather than contrasting parents and nonparents. Studies of marital status differentials in survival…

  17. Perceptions of aging parents in the context of disengagement theory.

    PubMed

    Lahniers, C E

    1975-11-01

    Cumming and Henry's disengagement theory of aging was investigated by instructing 89 sons and daughters of parents in four aged groups to describe their parents in middle and old age. Various personality and social measures were used including bipolar adjective checklists, depression, optimism, and control scales. The results indicated that at least two factors, institutionalization and activity level, exert an effect on the perceived changes in aged parents. Two groups, one institutionalized and the other noninstitutionalized but without formal activities, were described as being disengaged: e.g., withdrawn socially, self-absorbed, as well as powerless, pessimistic, and depressed. The other two groups who were noninstitutionalized and involved in outer-world recreational and vocational activities were not seen as disengaged in any way in old age. The personality variable internal-external control of reinforcement may serve as an antecedent to withdrawal behaviors in the aged.

  18. [Parenting style in Spanish parents with children aged 6 to 14].

    PubMed

    Alonso-Geta, Petra María

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style.

  19. [Parenting].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions to this theme issue of a bulletin on infants aged birth to three, point out that becoming a parent is an evolving process and that infants' meanings to their parents shape parenting behavior and the capacity to change. Articles also examine the challenge of how to support parents as they come to, and continue in, the process of…

  20. Introduction: Childhood implications of parental aging.

    PubMed

    Cedars, Marcelle I

    2015-06-01

    Men and women are increasingly delaying childbearing to the late 30s, the 40s and beyond. The implications of this societal change on childhood health and well-being have only recently been a focus of research. There are known increased perinatal risks associated with increasing maternal age, while paternal age seems to have a potentially greater negative impact on childhood health. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the aging of sperm and eggs, and how these changes impact offspring, is a critical next step as we work to help patients build healthy families. PMID:25936233

  1. Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature.

  2. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  3. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Luevano-Contreras, Claudia; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food) and endogenously (in humans) with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research. PMID:22254007

  4. Effective Parenting Education through Age-Paced Newsletters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Nelson, Pat Tanner

    2004-01-01

    For more than 20 years, Cooperative Extension University and county faculty throughout the nation have made available an unusually parent-friendly series of educational newsletters. Monthly issues of the newsletters address information by age groups. Through local and state collaborations that often feature the county Extension office, hospitals,…

  5. Cardiovascular KATP channels and advanced aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua-Qian; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Coetzee, William A.

    2016-01-01

    With advanced aging, there is a decline in innate cardiovascular function. This decline is not general in nature. Instead, specific changes occur that impact the basic cardiovascular function, which include alterations in biochemical pathways and ion channel function. This review focuses on a particular ion channel that couple the latter two processes, namely the KATP channel, which opening is promoted by alterations in intracellular energy metabolism. We show that the intrinsic properties of the KATP channel changes with advanced aging and argue that the channel can be further modulated by biochemical changes. The importance is widespread, given the ubiquitous nature of the KATP channel in the cardiovascular system where it can regulate processes as diverse as cardiac function, blood flow and protection mechanisms against superimposed stress, such as cardiac ischemia. We highlight questions that remain to be answered before the KATP channel can be considered as a viable target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27733235

  6. Schools, Schooling, and Children's Support of Their Aging Parents

    PubMed Central

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R.

    2009-01-01

    Intergenerational transfers play an important role in individuals' lives across the life course. In this paper I pull together theories on intergenerational transfers and social change to inform our understanding of how changes in the educational context influence children's support of their parents. By examining multiple aspects of a couple's educational context, including husbands' and wives' education and exposure to schools, this paper provides new information on the mechanisms through which changes in social context influence children's support of their parents. Using data from a rural Nepalese area I use multilevel logistic regression to estimate the relationship between schooling, exposure to schools, and the likelihood of couples giving to their parents. I find that both schooling and exposure to schools itself have separate, opposite effects on support of aging parents. Higher levels of schooling for husbands was associated with a higher likelihood of having given support to husbands' parents. On the other hand, increased exposure to schools for husbands and wives was associated with a lower likelihood of having given to wives' parents. Findings constitute evidence that multiple motivations for intergenerational support exist simultaneously and are related to social context through different mechanisms. PMID:20161526

  7. Testing Age-Paced Parenting Newsletters up to Age 3: Greater Impact on First-Time Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.

    2012-01-01

    An age-paced newsletter for parents of toddlers was evaluated. Mothers reported the newsletters were as useful as information from doctors or nurses and more useful than other sources of information. We hypothesized and found that first-time mothers reported the newsletters more useful than experienced mothers--reading more of the newsletters and…

  8. Parental Age and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome in a Japanese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimada, Takafumi; Kitamoto, Atsushi; Todokoro, Ayako; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kim, Soo-Yung; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Minowa, Iwao; Someya, Toshikazu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Kano, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether advanced parental age and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are risk factors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS). Clinical charts of Japanese outpatients with ASD (n = 552), ADHD (n = 87), and TS (n = 123) were reviewed. Parental age of…

  9. Epidemiology of fracture risk with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Ensrud, Kristine E

    2013-10-01

    Bone loss and structural damage with advancing age lead to skeletal fragility as manifested by low bone mass and deficits in bone geometry, microarchitecture, and material properties. Skeletal fragility, in combination with a greater propensity to fall, results in an increased susceptibility to fractures with aging, known as fragility fractures. Fragility fractures exceed 2 million per year in number and account for nearly 20 billion dollars per year in health care costs in the United States. Advanced age, low bone mass, and previous fracture are strong risk factors for fractures at nearly all skeletal sites, but each type of fracture also has its own set of unique risk factors. Hip fractures are most strongly associated with adverse consequences, but these account for only a minority of fragility fractures. Vertebral fractures comprise the most common manifestation of fragility fracture, but the majority of these fractures are asymptomatic. Most research has focused on the epidemiology of fractures at the hip, vertebrae, and wrist and less is known about other fracture types, which account for 40% of total fragility fractures that are clinically recognized. Future research focused on identification of older adults at high risk of disabling fractures is warranted. PMID:23833201

  10. Regulation of alcohol intake with advancing age.

    PubMed

    York, James L; Welte, John; Hirsch, Judith

    2005-05-01

    Previous surveys of alcohol use in the general population have not gathered sufficient data to allow for estimations of the blood alcohol levels (BACs) routinely achieved in survey participants. Our goal was to assess the influence of age on the estimated peak BAC achieved on typical drinking occasions in a representative sample (n=2,626) of the U.S. adult population. Variables related to the quantity and duration of alcohol consumption on typical drinking occasions were assessed by computer-assisted telephone interview. In addition, the height, weight, age, and gender of subjects were ascertained to be used in equations to predict the volume of distribution of ethanol (total body water). Prediction equations were used to estimate the probable peak BACs achieved during the typical drinking occasion. The survey identified 1,833 subjects ("current drinkers") of 18-89 years, who reported alcohol consumption within the past 12 months. Linear regression analyses performed on data from these "current drinkers" revealed that, for both men and women, there was an age-related decrease in the predicted peak BAC achieved on typical drinking occasions. The approaches used to modify the BAC with advancing age differed slightly for men and women, but both relied heavily upon a reduction in the quantity of consumption.

  11. Effect of Parental Age on Treatment Response in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Opler, Mark; Malaspina, Dolores; Gopal, Srihari; Nuamah, Isaac; Savitz, Adam J; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, but its effect on treatment response has not been longitudinally studied. Methods Association of parental ages at the time of the child's birth with age of onset, initial symptom severity and treatment response (to placebo and three different weight-based doses of paliperidone ER) in adolescents with schizophrenia was assessed in a post-hoc analysis using data from a 6-week double-blind study, the primary results of which are published (NCT 00518323). Results The mean (SD) paternal age was 29.2 (6.2) years, range (16-50) and maternal age was 26.8 (5.7) years, range (17-42) at childbirth for the 201 adolescents (ages 12-17 years) included in the analysis. While parental ages were uncorrelated with age of onset or initial symptom severity, both maternal and paternal age showed significant effects on treatment response (p < 0.03) of all paliperidone ER arms versus placebo. Paternal age was significantly correlated to improvement in positive symptoms and maternal age significantly related to negative symptoms, although only paternal age remained significantly associated with the treatment response in analyses that included both parents’ ages. Conclusions APA was associated with greater treatment response to both paliperidone ER and placebo, but not to age of onset or initial symptom severity in adolescents with schizophrenia. The results support the contention that APA-related schizophrenia has distinct underpinnings from other cases. Further studies are required to explore the role of genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions, in treatment response in this complex disorder. PMID:24144440

  12. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  13. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  14. Parent-Child Educational Centers: A Facility for Early Childhood Education Ages, Infancy to Seven Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    A Parent-Child Educational Center is a coordinating activity purposing to serve parents along with their children from a child's infancy through the age of seven. Such a center is carried on through the mutual initiative and involvement of parents and professional staff. The center serves parents by (1) providing for the developmental well-being…

  15. Parenting School-Aged Children and Adolescents. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beekman, Nancy R.

    Research on parenting with particular attention to parental influence on such matters as self-esteem, academic achievement, social support, and parent-child communication is synthesized in this document. Parental concerns are noted and discussed from an historical vantage point and compared with what concerns parents most today. Sources of help…

  16. Parenting Stress, Parental Reactions, and Externalizing Behavior From Ages 4 to 10

    PubMed Central

    Mackler, Jennifer S.; Kelleher, Rachael T.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’Brien, Marion

    2014-01-01

    The association between parenting stress and child externalizing behavior, and the mediating role of parenting, has yielded inconsistent findings; however, the literature has typically been cross-sectional and unidirectional. In the current study the authors examined the longitudinal transactions among parenting stress, perceived negative parental reactions, and child externalizing at 4, 5, 7, and 10 years old. Models examining parent effects (parenting stress to child behavior), child effects (externalizing to parental reactions and stress), indirect effects of parental reactions, and the transactional associations among all variables, were compared. The transactional model best fit the data, and longitudinal reciprocal effects emerged between parenting stress and externalizing behavior. The mediating role of parental reactions was not supported; however, indirect effects suggest that parenting stress both is affected by and affects parent and child behavior. The complex associations among parent and child variables indicate the importance of interventions to improve the parent–child relationship and reducing parenting stress. PMID:26778852

  17. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  18. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Sean G.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. Methodology: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. Results: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers’ age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. PMID:27637201

  19. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anna C; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  20. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  1. Down Syndrome: Parental Origin, Recombination, and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Božović, Ivana Babić; Grubić, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinić, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Čulić, Vida

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

  2. Down syndrome: parental origin, recombination, and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Božović, Ivana Babić; Grubić, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinić, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Culić, Vida; Brajenović-Milić, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

  3. Chronological Age, Cognitions, and Practices in European American Mothers: A Multivariate Study of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied multiple parenting cognitions and practices in European American mothers (N=262) who ranged from 15 to 47 years of age. All were 1st-time parents of 20-month-old children. Some age effects were 0; others were linear or nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects determined by spline regression showed significant associations to a "knot"…

  4. Measuring Parenting Practices among Parents of Elementary School-Age Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Radey, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to establish the factor structure of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), an instrument designed to measure parenting practices among parents of elementary school children. Methods: Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) procedures are used to validate the APQ with 790 parents of…

  5. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations.

  6. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  7. Parental Age and Lifespan Influence Offspring Recruitment: A Long-Term Study in a Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6–12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  8. Parental Behavior Toward Boys and Girls of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Eva; And Others

    1961-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of sex roles in the United States has indicated a tendency for parents to treat girls less harshly than boys and for fathers to treat girls with more special warmth than they do boys. Eighteen children and their parents were interviewed and observed in Oslo, Norway, as part of a longitudinal study of parental influence…

  9. The Advocacy Experiences of Parents of Elementary Age, Twice-Exceptional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besnoy, Kevin D.; Swoszowski, Nicole C.; Newman, Jane L.; Floyd, Amanda; Jones, Parrish; Byrne, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    For many parents, successfully advocating for their twice-exceptional child can be intimidating and overwhelming. Using grounded theory, we conducted a study with parents (n = 8) of elementary age, twice-exceptional children to learn about their advocacy experiences. Findings revealed that parents simultaneously advocated for their child's…

  10. Personal Experience of Aging in the Children of a Parent with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerritsen, Debby; Kuin, Volande; Steverink, Nardi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether adults with a parent with dementia experience their personal aging differently than adults whose parents do not have dementia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 adults who had a parent with dementia and 25 controls. We found that, although in a general sense the two groups were quite similar in their…

  11. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  12. Parental support during young adulthood: Why does assistance decline with age?

    PubMed Central

    Hartnett, Caroline Sten; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira; Fingerman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found that financial transfers from parents to young adult children decline as children age and that age is one of the strongest predictors of support. Using data collected from young adults (ages 18 to 34) and their parents (ages 40 to 60; N=536 parent-child dyads), we explore the possibility that the relationship between age and financial support is mediated by offspring needs, acquisition of adult roles, or geographical and emotional closeness. We find that age-related declines in offspring’s needs help to explain why financial support falls with age. However, offspring age remains a robust predictor of financial support after controlling for a wide range of factors, suggesting that age norms condition support from parents to offspring. PMID:23976811

  13. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  14. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age.

  15. Observing Interactions between Children and Adolescents and their Parents: The Effects of Anxiety Disorder and Age.

    PubMed

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.

  16. Research Advances in Aging 1984-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has, for the past several years, focused attention on a wide range of clinical problems associated with aging, including falls and gait disorders, bone fractures, urinary incontinence, and hypertension. Understanding the causes of and exploring possible treatments for Alzheimer's disease has been another of…

  17. Parental age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-05-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  18. Intergenerational Exchanges of Middle-Aged Adults With Their Parents and Parents-In-Law in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Han, Gyounghae

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated patterns of support exchanges between Korean adult children and their parents and parents-in-law, gender differences in these patterns, and implications of children’s marital quality for exchange patterns. Data were from a nationally representative sample of married adults (N = 920, age 30–59 years) with at least 1 living parent and 1 living parent-in-law. Latent class analysis was applied to 12 indicators of exchanges (financial, instrumental, emotional support given to and received from parents and parents-in-law). Five classes of exchanges were identified, 3 showing balanced patterns of exchanges with parents and parents-in-law across three types of support and 2 classes with unbalanced patterns (e.g., giving instrumental and financial, but not emotional support). The findings revealed variability in intergenerational exchange patterns, with a mix of patrilineal traditional and balanced patterns. Significant associations of exchange patterns with adult children’s marital quality suggest the importance of balanced exchanges with parents for marriage. PMID:25937670

  19. Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

  20. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  1. Advancing Home-School Relations through Parent Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergnehr, Disa

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores a local initiative to develop parent support services through the school system. In focus are the discourse on home-school relations and parent support and the interplay between discourse and practical occurrences. Official documents, interviews and notes from municipal meetings and informal conversations were obtained…

  2. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  3. Midlife and Aging Parents of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan; Hong, Jinkuk

    2011-01-01

    Using population data, this study included parents of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (n = 220) and parents of individuals without disabilities (n = 1,042). Parents of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities were further divided into those who co-resided with their adult child and those whose adult…

  4. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  5. 34 CFR 300.520 - Transfer of parental rights at age of majority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of parental rights at age of majority. 300.520... Children § 300.520 Transfer of parental rights at age of majority. (a) General. A State may provide that... consent with respect to the child's educational program. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1415(m))...

  6. A Training Program to Reduce "Visitation Stress" in Single Parents and Their Latency Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ron

    This practicum was designed to decrease single parent and latency age child stress associated with child and noncustodial parent visitations, and to improve children's school behaviors. A 9-session, 12-week education and training program for single mothers (N=6) and their elementary school age children (N=15), designed to reduce stress by…

  7. Age-related parenting stress differences in mothers of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Macias, Michelle M; Saylor, Conway F; Rowe, Brandy P; Bell, Nancy L

    2003-12-01

    This study examined whether ages of child and parent were risk factors for general parenting stress and disability-specific stress in families of children with spina bifida. Parents of 64 children with spina bifida completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory, and measures of family support and resources. Scores of families with children under 6 years (preschool) versus 6- to 12-yr.-old children (school age) were compared, as were scores of mothers above or below Age 35. Parents of school-aged children reported significantly higher stress on the Concerns for the Child domain of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. Mothers over 35 tended to report higher stress in the Concerns for the Child and Medical/Legal Concerns domains of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. No associations with medical severity, socioeconomic status, family resources, or family support were detected. As the children age and disability-related differences become more apparent, the same level of functioning and severity of disability may be associated with additional parenting stress. Older mothers and those with school-age children may need more resources than current social support systems typically provide.

  8. Who Gets What and Why? Help Middle-Aged Adults Provide to Parents and Grown Children

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Lindsay M.; Chan, Wai; Birditt, Kira; Franks, Melissa M.; Zarit, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults engage in support exchanges with generations above and below. This study investigated (a) how support to one generation is associated with support to the other and (b) factors accounting for whether parents or offspring receive more support in a family. Methods. Middle-aged adults aged 40–60 years (N = 633) completed telephone interviews regarding their relationships and support exchanges with each grown child and living parent. Results. Multilevel models revealed that most participants provided more support to the average grown child than to the average parent. Yet, a proportion of the sample reversed this pattern, providing more support to parents. Mediation models revealed that middle-aged adults provided greater support to offspring because they viewed offspring as more important than parents and offspring had greater everyday needs (e.g., being a student, not married). Parental disability accounted for greater support to parents. Discussion. Discussion integrates solidarity theory, developmental stake, and contingency theory. Most middle-aged adults provide more to grown offspring than to parents, consistent with their greater stake in their progeny. Middle-aged adults also respond to crises (i.e., parental disability) and everyday needs (i.e., offspring student status) in providing intergenerational support, in accordance with contingency theory. PMID:20223807

  9. Maternal chronological age, prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting of infants.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little or no association afterward; by spline regression, estimated points at which the slope of the regression line changed were 25 years for prenatal and perinatal history, 31 years for social supports, and 27 years for parenting practices. Given the expanding age range of first-time parents, these findings underscore the importance of incorporating maternal age as a factor in studies of parenting and child development. PMID:16942495

  10. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  11. Parental Spending on School-Age Children: Structural Stratification and Parental Expectation

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingxin; Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean

    2015-01-01

    As consumption expenditures are increasingly recognized as direct measures of children’s material well-being, they provide new insights into the process of intergenerational transfers from parents to children. Little is known, however, about how parents allocate financial resources to individual children. To fill this gap, we develop a conceptual framework based on stratification theory, human capital theory, and the child-development perspective; exploit unique child-level expenditure data from Child Supplements of the PSID; and employ quantile regression to model the distribution of parental spending on children. Overall, we find strong evidence supporting our hypotheses regarding the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and parental expectation. Our nuanced estimates suggest that (1) parental education, occupation, and family income have differential effects on parental spending, with education being the most influential determinant; (2) net of SES, race continues to be a significant predictor of parental spending on children; and (3) parental expectation plays a crucial role in determining whether parents place a premium on child development in spending and how parents prioritize different categories of spending. PMID:25933638

  12. Age 26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; White, Barry A. B.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Robertson, Dylan L.

    2011-01-01

    Using data collected up to age 26 in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, this cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) is the first for a sustained publicly funded early intervention. The program provides services for low-income families beginning at age 3 in 20 school sites. Kindergarten and school-age services are provided up to age 9…

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent Training and Emotion Socialization Program for Families of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Jasmin L.; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that…

  14. Mothers' Parenting Behaviors in Families of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational and Questionnaire Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…

  15. The Effects of the Parenting Styles on Social Skills of Children Aged 5-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kol, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…

  16. X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... a radiologist (a doctor who's specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray images). The radiologist will ...

  17. Findings from an Evaluation of a Comprehensive Parent Education Program for School-Age Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Maureen H.; Fuscaldo, Diane P.

    This study evaluates the impact of the Parent Linking Project III (PLP III) on its participants. The PLP III is a comprehensive program for teenage mothers which offers workshops in parenting, mother-child interaction, and vocational awareness, and provides day care services that allow teen mothers to take the opportunity to complete their high…

  18. School-Age Parents: Federal Programs and Policies Relevant to Pregnant or Parenting Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.

    Federal programs and policies that affect pregnant and parenting teenagers, particularly those programs that are of relevance to schools, are briefly described. The main categories of programs and legislation described are: (1) those bearing on teenage parents and education; (2) pre-school programs; (3) day care; (4) welfare; (5) social services;…

  19. Influence of parental consanguineous marriages on age at onset of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Mostafa

    2012-07-30

    The present study was performed to investigate the association between parental consanguineous marriages and age at onset of bipolar disorder (BPD). A total of 195 BPD patients participated in the study. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that relationships between age at onset and cumulative proportion of patients have different patterns with respect to types of parental marriages. Among early onset cases, the age at onset was higher for offspring of consanguineous than unrelated marriages, whereas in late onset cases the age at onset was lower for offspring of consanguineous than unrelated marriages. However, there was no difference between consanguineous and unrelated marriages for intermediate age at onset.

  20. A Link between Generations: Intergenerational Relations and Depression in Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Charlotte Chorn

    1995-01-01

    Examined the relationship between three aspects of intergenerational relations--problem in the life of an adult child, conflict with an adult child, and social support from an adult child--and depression in aging parents. Of the three aspects, only support from an adult child consistently related to parents' depression. (RJM)

  1. Self-Determination among Transition-Age Youth with Autism or Intellectual Disability: Parent Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 68 parents' views of the self-determination skills and capacities of their young adult children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability (ages 19-21 years). Results indicated parents placed a high value on the importance of all seven component skills (i.e., choice-making skills, decision-making skills,…

  2. Watermelons Not War! A Support Book for Parenting in the Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Kate; And Others

    The Nuclear Education Project (NEP), a group of five women concerned about parenting in a nuclear age, developed this guide to help parents and others develop a sense of hope and promote a greater involvement in the democratic political process. Chapter I, "The Heart of the Matter," presents sections on answering possible questions children might…

  3. It Matters if They Read: Evaluation of Ten Age-Paced Parent Education Home Learning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudaback, Dorothea

    A study examined the readership of state cooperative extension offices' home learning programs--nine series of booklets of information about pregnancy, infant development, and parenting, mailed to parents in ten states to coincide with pregnancy stage and baby's age in months. The reading level of the series varied from sixth to eighth-grade…

  4. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

  5. Proximity as a Mediating Influence on the Perceived Aging Parent-Adult Child Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Joyce McDonough; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined proximity and relationship between aging parents (N=224) and adult children. Found no difference in quality of relationships between parents whose children lived near and those whose children lived over 60 miles away. Significant predictors for proximate group were personal sense of control and education; for distant group, child gender…

  6. Parents' Developmental Concerns and Age Variance at Diagnosis of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Kimberly A.; Maxim, Rolanda A.; Leet, Terry L.; Ultmann, Monica H.

    2009-01-01

    Although early recognition of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important, the age of children at diagnosis is variable. Forty-five participants diagnosed with ASD were divided into groups based on age at diagnosis and compared on age when parents first became concerned about various aspects of their development. Results demonstrated no…

  7. Reconciling Hf-W Model Ages of IVB Parent Body with Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, W.; Breuer, D.; Kleine, T.; Kruijer, T.

    2016-08-01

    We calculated the differentiation of the parent body of IVB iron meteorites comparing its evolution to the metal separation data. Our models are consistent with the separation ages inferred from the Hf-W chronology.

  8. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. PMID:27090341

  9. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.

  10. Education for School-Age Parenting. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carta, Elizabeth

    Techniques are described which were used to develop and establish the Young Parents Program, a pilot project used to develop and expand the homebound instruction function of Norwalk Hospital by providing broadening family functioning type experiences to pregnant girls in the Norwalk, Connecticut, schools. The instructional objectives listed are…

  11. Teen-Age Parents and Child Support: Creating Family Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustos, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    This report examines the special problems associated with establishing paternity and collecting child support from teenage parents. The report reviews public policy options for legislators and is divided into three major sections: estabilishing paternity, child support enforcement, and state legislative policy and program responses. It notes that…

  12. The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-01-01

    Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life. PMID:23912310

  13. TV parenting practices: Is the same scale appropriate for parents of children of different ages?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to use multidimensional polytomous item response modeling (MPIRM) to evaluate the psychometric properties of a television (TV) parenting practices (PP) instrument and to perform differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to test whether item parameter estimates differed across educ...

  14. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction.

  15. Help With “Strings Attached”: Offspring Perceptions That Middle-Aged Parents Offer Conflicted Support

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults often provide beneficial support to grown children. Yet, in some relationships, grown children may feel beholden or intruded upon when they receive parental help. The purpose of this study was to examine such conflicted support in relationships between middle-aged parents and young adults. Methods. Middle-aged parents (aged 40–60, n = 399) and their grown children (n = 592) participated. Parents rated perceptions of providing support and relationship quality with each child. Grown children indicated whether their mothers and fathers provided conflicted support and rated their perceptions of parental support, relationship quality, and other factors. Results. Multilevel models revealed that offspring’s perceptions of conflicted support were associated with (a) parents’ evaluations about providing support (e.g., greater stress and beliefs that grown children should be autonomous), (b) poorer quality relationships, and (c) offspring having more problems. Discussion. Findings suggest that perceptions of conflicted support are embedded in a larger constellation of relationship problems and underlying distress for parents and children. These patterns may reflect lifelong difficulties in the tie or that arise in adulthood. Researchers might seek to understand how dyads experiencing such conflicted support differ from more normative relationships characterized by warmth and well-received support. PMID:23707999

  16. Single Parents, Working Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Secondary School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David E.; And Others

    This paper presents a replication of previous research which estimated a structural equation model relating elementary school age students' achievement to the number of parents and maternal work. The research presented here focuses on secondary school age students, and provides partial support for previous findings in which elementary school age…

  17. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, "N" = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas…

  18. Parent-Child Interaction and Adolescents' Future Orientation: The Effects of Age and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    A number of studies have shown that parent-child interaction influences the manner in which adolescents see their future. In an investigation designed to determine whether this influence varies according to the child's age and sex, 57 Finnish adolescents were interviewed at ages 11 and 15 about their hopes for the future. The internality,…

  19. An analysis of the parental age effect for inv dup (15).

    PubMed Central

    Connor, J M; Gilmore, D H

    1984-01-01

    Parental ages and birth order were analysed in 16 sporadic cases of inv dup (15) using the method of Smith. A significant maternal age effect was apparent (dm = 5.989, SE 1.86; df = 2.02, SE 2.496; db = 0.138, SE 0.46). PMID:6748017

  20. Universal Design in Housing "Comes of Age"...for Parents and Kids Alike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with special needs are beginning to realize that a home designed for their child who might now use a wheelchair may benefit them as well in the future as they "Age in Place". As the boomers age and Medicare and Medicaid seem to possibly decline in the not so distant future as a source of funding for elderly and special needs…

  1. Support to Aging Parents and Grown Children in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…

  2. Infection susceptibility and immune senescence with advancing age replicated in accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lijun; Jiang, Tony T; Kinder, Jeremy M; Ertelt, James M; Way, Sing Sing

    2015-12-01

    Aging confers increased susceptibility to common pathogens including influenza A virus. Despite shared vulnerability to infection with advancing age in humans and rodents, the relatively long time required for immune senescence to take hold practically restricts the use of naturally aged mice to investigate aging-induced immunological shifts. Here, we show accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice with spontaneous mutation in the nuclear scaffolding protein, lamin A, replicate infection susceptibility, and substantial immune cell shifts that occur with advancing age. Naturally aged (≥ 20 month) and 2- to 3-month-old Lmna(Dhe) mice share near identically increased influenza A susceptibility compared with age-matched Lmna(WT) control mice. Increased mortality and higher viral burden after influenza infection in Lmna(Dhe) mice parallel reduced accumulation of lung alveolar macrophage cells, systemic expansion of immune suppressive Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells, and skewed immune dominance among viral-specific CD8⁺T cells similar to the immunological phenotype of naturally aged mice. Thus, aging-induced infection susceptibility and immune senescence are replicated in accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice. PMID:26248606

  3. Disorganized attachment representation and atypical parenting in young school age children with externalizing disorder.

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan; Stanley, Charlie; Peters, Sarah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the relationship of child attachment representation, psychopathology, and maternal atypical parenting in a high risk sample. Sixty-one consecutive clinical referrals with externalizing disorder aged 4 - 9 years were assessed for attachment representations measured with Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST), atypical parental expressed emotion (EE), maternal mood, and parent and teacher ratings of child behaviour. Disorganized attachment representations were found in 58% of cases, independent of ADHD symptoms. Pervasive disorganization was associated with very high maternal EE. Attachment status, maternal depression, and ADHD diagnosis were independently associated with parent-rated child behaviour problems; teacher ratings were associated with child's age and ADHD status. Disorganized attachment shows a high prevalence and independent associations with attention deficit symptomatology and maternal EE.

  4. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. PMID:24720565

  5. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance.

  6. Advancing Parent-Professional Leadership: Effective Strategies for Building the Capacity of Parent Advisory Councils in Special Education. The Institute Brief. Issue No. 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeltzig, Heike; Kusminsky, Matthew N.; Foley, Susan M.; Robison, Richard; Popper, Barbara; Gutierrez-Wilson, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, last amended in 2004 (IDEA 2004), encourages parents and educators to work collaboratively, emphasizing that as a team they are uniquely suited to make decisions that help improve the educational experiences and outcomes of children with disabilities. The Advancing Parent-Professional Leadership in…

  7. The histories of ordinary chondrite parent bodies - U, Th-He age distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, J.T.; Wang, Sichao Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing )

    1991-06-01

    Age patterns observed in meteorite groups reflect the different thermal or impact histories experienced by their parent bodies. To assess the number of ordinary chondrite (OC) parent bodies, rare-gas data in the Schultz and Kruse (1989) data base were used to calculate U, Th-He gas-retention ages. Most H- and LL-chondrite ages are high; about 81 percent are greater than 2.2 Ga. In contrast, most L-chondrite ages are low; about 69 percent are not greater than 2.2 Ga, and about 35 percent are not greater than 0.9 Ga. The latter fraction is substantially lower than the value of 44 percent given by Heymann (1967). The difference is attributed to the preferential inclusion of shocked L chondrites in early studies. Broad age peaks in the H and LL groups near 3.4 Ga probably reflect thermal loss during metamorphism, but in the H distribution there is a hint of minor outgassing 'events' near 1 Ga. The L/LL chondrites have chemical properties intermediate between and unresolvable from L and LL chondrites. The high ages of most L/LL chondrites are evidence against these originating on the L parent body; the L/LL age distribution is consistent with an origin on the LL parent body or on an independent body. 22 refs.

  8. The histories of ordinary chondrite parent bodies - U, Th-He age distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Wang, Sichao

    1991-06-01

    Age patterns observed in meteorite groups reflect the different thermal or impact histories experienced by their parent bodies. To assess the number of ordinary chondrite (OC) parent bodies, rare-gas data in the Schultz and Kruse (1989) data base were used to calculate U, Th-He gas-retention ages. Most H- and LL-chondrite ages are high; about 81 percent are greater than 2.2 Ga. In contrast, most L-chondrite ages are low; about 69 percent are not greater than 2.2 Ga, and about 35 percent are not greater than 0.9 Ga. The latter fraction is substantially lower than the value of 44 percent given by Heymann (1967). The difference is attributed to the preferential inclusion of shocked L chondrites in early studies. Broad age peaks in the H and LL groups near 3.4 Ga probably reflect thermal loss during metamorphism, but in the H distribution there is a hint of minor outgassing "events" near 1 Ga. The L/LL chondrites have chemical properties intermediate between and unresolvable from L and LL chondrites. The high ages of most L/LL chondrites are evidence against these originating on the L parent body; the L/LL age distribution is consistent with an origin on the LL parent body or on an independent body.

  9. [Melatonin secretion in women of advanced reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, K S; Rapoport, S I; Solov'eva, A V

    2013-01-01

    The patient's age is a key factor determining success of in vitro fertilization. The ovarian reserve and oocyte quality are known to decrease with age. Much attention has been given recently to the role of epiphysis and its hormone, melatonin, in synchronization of daily and seasonal biorhythms in anti-stress protection and neuroregulation of reproductive processes. The aim of our work was to study melatonin levels in infertile women of reproductive age. We also measured sex hormones, anti-Mullerian hormone, FSH, and LH in blood and melatonin sulfate in urine at 8 points (RIA). Women of advanced reproductive age showed markedly reduced melatonin secretion due to functional disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Results of the study suggest the necessity of prescription of exogenous melatonin to the patients included in assisted reproduction programs for the improvement of their efficacy.

  10. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  11. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  12. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children With Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, N = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas disengagement and distraction strategies exacerbated the effects of burden on depression symptoms. Most effects were similar for mothers and fathers, and all coping strategies, including active strategies to reduce stress (primary engagement), had greater effects for the parents with co-resident children. Vulnerability to caregiver burden was greatest when the aging parents with co-resident children used disengagement and distraction coping, but those who used engagement coping were resilient. PMID:24679353

  13. Association of Parental Age and the Type of Down Syndrome on the Territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Sotonica, Mia; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Hasic, Sabaheta; Kiseljakovic, Emina; Jadric, Radivoj; Ibrulj, Slavka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advanced paternal and/or maternal age is a classic risk factor for Down syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of Down syndrome types in children and its association with maternal and paternal age in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Subjects and Methods: The cross sectional, observational study included 127 children, 49 girls and 78 boys, aged 1-180 months suspected to have Down syndrome, admitted to the Centre for Genetics, Faculty of Medicine University of Sarajevo, for cytogenetic analysis and differential diagnosis of Down syndrome during the period from January 2010 to May 2015. Standard method of 72 hours cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been applied. The accepted level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Study Results: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy (86.6%), comparing to translocation and mosaicism (7.1%; 6.3%, respectively). The highest frequency of Down syndrome cases was in mother and father’s group from 30-39 years old (57; 57 children, respectively) compared to mother and father’s groups with younger than 30 (44; 29, respectively) and 40 and older (26; 41, respectively). The significant difference was found in maternal age between translocation and mosaicism groups (p=0.036). Difference between parental years and type of Down syndrome was significant when Standard trisomy 21 and translocation (p=0.045), as well as mosaicism and translocation (p=0.036), were compared. Conclusion: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy 21, with highest occurrence in parents from 30 to 39 years old. Parents were the youngest in translocation group. Obtained results suggest that multidisciplinary approach to identifying the trigger for trisomy appearance and the influence of maternal age is required. PMID:27147778

  14. Overlooked potential: older-age parents in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathalie; Knodel, John; Kiry Kim, Sovan; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2008-11-01

    The advent of widespread ART provision in low- and middle-income countries requires not just medical attention, but also social and psychological support to encourage and monitor strict adherence to drug regimens. Developing innovative approaches to providing this broad support is a major challenge, especially within the financial constraints of resource-limited countries hardest hit by the epidemic. In this study, we examine the role of older-age parents in monitoring ART treatment and caring for their HIV-infected children and grandchildren in Cambodia. Our results are based on 25 open-ended interviews with older-age parents of people with AIDS (PWHA). A high level of co-residence when PWHA become ill and a sense of parental responsibility and emotional attachment facilitate high parental involvement in their children's and grandchildren's illness, care and treatment. Our interviews indicate that parents play an important role in encouraging their children to get tested and to access treatment if they test positive. They consistently monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and opportunistic infections and remind PWHA to attend medical appointments and support-group meetings. Parents also provide for the nutrition and hygiene of PWHA essential to the success of ART treatments. We find that despite low levels of education, older parents were able to express clear, correct and detailed knowledge of complicated ART treatment regimens, nutrition and hygiene. Overall, our findings show that older parents play a pivotal role in care and treatment if they are provided with proper resources and training and have the ability to understand the necessity and details of ensuring strict adherence to medications. Based on these results, we suggest that explicitly including older parents in policy and programs for care and treatment would allow Cambodia and other countries to take advantage of this unique and effective but overlooked asset in AIDS care and treatment. PMID

  15. Nurse/parent role perceptions in care of neonatal intensive care unit infants: implications for the advanced practice nurse.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S D; Frank, D I

    2000-09-01

    This study compared parent and nurse perceptions of the nurse's roles regarding responsibilities toward infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). It also examined the attitudes of nurses and parents regarding the extent to which parents should participate in the care of their infants in the NICU, as well as the role of the advanced practice nurse (APN). The convenience sample of 25 parents of infants in the NICU and 35 nurses who cared for the infants was surveyed regarding perceptions of nurses and parents about nurse responsibilities and parent roles in the NICU. Results suggest parents and nurses have different perceptions about role expectations and that nurses perceive themselves to lack comfort and knowledge in providing support to parents. The findings support a role of the APN as fostering a nursing NICU philosophy to facilitate role transition for parents of infants in the NICU.

  16. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. PMID:24439665

  17. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and diabetic vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2005-02-01

    Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is essentially involved in the development and progression of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Among various metabolic derangements implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complication, advanced glycation end product (AGE) hypothesis is most compatible with the theory of 'hyperglycemic memory'. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of diabetic vascular complication, specially focusing on AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) system. Several types of AGE inhibitors and their therapeutic implications in this devastating disorder are also discussed here. PMID:18220586

  18. Training maltreating parents in elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing with their preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K.; Thomas, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Objective In the current study, the effects of training maltreating parents and their preschool-aged children in elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing were examined. Method 44 parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a training (reminiscing) or wait-list (control) condition. All participating parents had substantiated maltreatment and were involved with the Department of Child Services at the time of enrollment. Children were 3–6 years old (M = 4.88, SD = .99) and living in the custody of the participating parent. Dyads in the reminiscing condition received four, weekly, in-home sessions in elaborative and emotion rich reminiscing. Results At a follow-up assessment, maltreating parents in the reminiscing condition provided more high-elaborative utterances, references to children’s negative emotions, and explanations of children’s emotion during reminiscing than did parents in the control condition. Children in the reminiscing condition had richer memory recall and made more emotion references than did children in the control condition during reminiscing with their mothers, but not with an experimenter. Conclusion The findings suggest that maltreating parents can be taught elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing skills, with benefits for child cognitive and emotional development. The potential clinical utility of a reminiscing-based training for maltreating families with young children is discussed. PMID:23548682

  19. Oxidative Stress in Aging: Advances in Proteomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Pallàs, Mercè; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a gradual, complex process in which cells, tissues, organs, and the whole organism itself deteriorate in a progressive and irreversible manner that, in the majority of cases, implies pathological conditions that affect the individual's Quality of Life (QOL). Although extensive research efforts in recent years have been made, the anticipation of aging and prophylactic or treatment strategies continue to experience major limitations. In this review, the focus is essentially on the compilation of the advances generated by cellular expression profile analysis through proteomics studies (two-dimensional [2D] electrophoresis and mass spectrometry [MS]), which are currently used as an integral approach to study the aging process. Additionally, the relevance of the oxidative stress factors is discussed. Emphasis is placed on postmitotic tissues, such as neuronal, muscular, and red blood cells, which appear to be those most frequently studied with respect to aging. Additionally, models for the study of aging are discussed in a number of organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, senescence-accelerated probe-8 mice (SAMP8), naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), and the beagle canine. Proteomic studies in specific tissues and organisms have revealed the extensive involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in aging. PMID:24688629

  20. Oxidative stress in aging: advances in proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Pallàs, Mercè; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a gradual, complex process in which cells, tissues, organs, and the whole organism itself deteriorate in a progressive and irreversible manner that, in the majority of cases, implies pathological conditions that affect the individual's Quality of Life (QOL). Although extensive research efforts in recent years have been made, the anticipation of aging and prophylactic or treatment strategies continue to experience major limitations. In this review, the focus is essentially on the compilation of the advances generated by cellular expression profile analysis through proteomics studies (two-dimensional [2D] electrophoresis and mass spectrometry [MS]), which are currently used as an integral approach to study the aging process. Additionally, the relevance of the oxidative stress factors is discussed. Emphasis is placed on postmitotic tissues, such as neuronal, muscular, and red blood cells, which appear to be those most frequently studied with respect to aging. Additionally, models for the study of aging are discussed in a number of organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, senescence-accelerated probe-8 mice (SAMP8), naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), and the beagle canine. Proteomic studies in specific tissues and organisms have revealed the extensive involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in aging.

  1. Psychological and behavioral disease during developmental age: the importance of the alliance with parents

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Michela; Ramaglioni, Elisabetta; Lai, Jessica; Svanellini, Lorenza; Toldo, Irene; Del Col, Lara; Salviato, Cinzia; Spoto, Andrea; Antonio, Battistella Pier

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the clinician’s alliance with parents during the diagnostic process in relation to therapeutic compliance and clinical evolution of individuals aged 0–11 years. The sample was formed by 84 individuals aged 0 to 11 years (18 < 6 years, 66 aged 6 to 11 years; 62 males and 22 females) who came to the Neuropsychiatric Unit for Children and Adolescents for a consultation regarding psychorelational and behavioral problems. Neuropsychiatric consultation took place in five diagnostic interviews with child and parents, separately. The last session was devoted to communication of psychiatric diagnosis (according to ICD 10) and therapeutic suggestions, if any. The clinician’s relationship with parents and patients’ participation were evaluated in terms of collaboration and quality of interaction, on the basis of pre-established criteria. Data about patients’ therapeutic compliance and clinical outcome were collected during a follow-up visit eight months after the last session. Results suggest that the better the alliance between parents and clinician, the higher the therapeutic compliance and the likelihood of a positive outcome for patients. Our data suggest that good communication with parents benefits child patients, both in terms of response to the parents’ need to report their children’s worrying behavior and as a response to the discomfort expressed by children when they come in for consultation. PMID:19898668

  2. Examining genotypic variation in autism spectrum disorder and its relationship to parental age and phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Sykes, Lisa K; Geier, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies on genetic testing of chromosomal abnormalities in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) found that ~80% have negative genetic test results (NGTRs) and ~20% have positive genetic test results (PGTRs), of which ~7% were probable de novo mutations (PDNMs). Research suggests that parental age is a risk factor for an ASD diagnosis. This study examined genotypic variation in ASD and its relationship to parental age and phenotype. Methods Phenotype was derived from detailed clinical information, and genotype was derived from high-resolution blood chromosome and blood whole-genome copy number variant genetic testing on a consecutive cohort (born: 1983–2009) of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N=218). Results Among the subjects examined, 80.3% had NGTRs and 19.7% had PGTRs, of which 6.9% had PDNMs. NGTR subjects were born more recently (the risk of PDNMs decreasing by 12% per more recent birth year) and tended to have an increased male–female ratio compared to PDNM subjects. PDNM subjects had significantly increased mean parental age and paternal age at subject’s birth (the risk of a PDNM increasing by 7%–8% per year of parental or paternal age) compared to NGTR subjects. PGTR and NGTR subjects showed significant improvements in speech/language/communication with increasing age. PGTR subjects showed significant improvements in sociability, a core feature of an ASD diagnosis, with increasing age, whereas NGTR subjects showed significant worsening in sociability with increasing age. Conclusion This study helps to elucidate different phenotypic ASD subtypes and may even indicate the need for differential diagnostic classifications. PMID:27555794

  3. A randomized controlled trial of a parent training and emotion socialization program for families of hyperactive preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Sharonne D; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Jasmin L; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that involved teaching parenting strategies for managing hyperactive and disruptive behavior as well as emotion socialization strategies for improving children's emotion regulation. Compared to WL mothers, PT mothers reported significantly less child inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional defiance, and emotional lability; were observed using significantly more positive and less negative parenting; and reported significantly less maternal verbosity and unsupportive emotion socialization practices. Results provide some support for the effectiveness of this parenting program for reducing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and associated problems in preschool-aged children.

  4. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  5. What Parents Can Do: School Age Children | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Children Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents As kids get older, they still need a parent's help to keep their teeth sparkling clean and healthy. Here are five tips— 1. Find out if your water has fluoride in it (check with your local water utility). ...

  6. Aging Parents with Adult Mentally Retarded Children: Family Risk Factors and Sources of Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    1989-01-01

    Predictors of 4 indices of well-being (physical health, life satisfaction, burden, and parenting stress) were examined among 203 aging mothers of mentally retarded adults living at home. Predictive variables examined include maternal characteristics, retarded adult's characteristics, family social climate, mother's social support network, and…

  7. Norms of Filial Responsibility for Aging Parents across Time and Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Daphna; Silverstein, Merril

    2006-01-01

    This investigation examined the normative expectation that adult children should be responsible for the care of their aging parents, and how this norm changes over the adult life span, across several decades of historical time, in relation to generational position in families, and between successive generations. Analyses were performed using 4…

  8. Parents' and Teachers' Ratings of the Social Skills of Elementary-Age Students Who Are Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhrow, Melissa M.; Hartshorne, Timothy S.; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Ratings by 23 parents and 21 regular education teachers of 20 elementary-aged students with blindness on the Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS) were compared to ratings for the SSRS sighted-norm group. Although no significant differences were found for overall ratings, students with blindness were rated as less academically competent and higher on…

  9. Development of a Typology of Dual-Earner Couples Caring for Children and Aging Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jennifer C.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Neal, Margaret B.; Sinclair, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Using a national sample of 267 couples, the authors identify distinct profiles of dual-earner couples in the sandwiched generation (i.e., those caring for children and aging parents) using cluster analysis and then assess the relationship between these profiles and work-family conflict. The profiles are defined by characteristics of couples' child…

  10. Joint and Maternal Custody: The Outcome for Boys Aged 6-11 and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Virginia

    Although divorcing parents have a variety of child custody arrangements from which to choose, opinions are mixed as to which children benefit from which arrangements. To compare the adjustment of boys in joint and maternal physical custody and to investigate factors related to their adjustment, 20 joint custody families with a boy aged 6-11 and a…

  11. Age of Majority: Preparing Your Child for Making Good Choices. Parent Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, Minneapolis, MN.

    This brief provides information to parents of students with disabilities on preparing students for reaching the age of majority and assuming responsibility for their education and life choices. It begins by reviewing regulations under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that give states the authority to elect to transfer educational…

  12. Parenting approaches and digital technology use of preschool age children in a Chinese community

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has shown that parents play an important role in fostering and supporting preschoolers’ developing maturity and decisions about DT use, and in protecting them from potential risk due to excessive DT exposure, there have been limited studies conducted in Hong Kong focusing on parent-child DT use. This study had three objectives: 1) to explore parental use of DTs with their preschool children; 2) to identify the DT content that associated with child behavioral problems; and 3) to investigate the relationships between approaches adopted by parents to control children’s DT use and related preschooler behavioral problems. Methods This exploratory quantitative study was conducted in Hong Kong with 202 parents or guardians of preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 attending kindergarten. The questionnaire was focused on four aspects, including 1) participants’ demographics; 2) pattern of DT use; 3) parenting approach to manage the child’s DT use; and 4) child behavioral and health problems related to DT use. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the main data analysis method for identifying the DT or parental approach-related predictors of the preschooler behavioral problems. Results In the multiple linear regression model, the ‘restrictive approach score’ was the only predictor among the three parental approaches (B:1.66, 95% CI: [0.21, 3.11], p < 0.05). Moreover, the viewing of antisocial behavior cartoons by children also significantly increased the tendency of children to have behavioral problem (B:3.84, 95% CI: [1.66, 6.02], p < 0.01). Conclusions Since preschool children’s cognitive and functional abilities are still in the developmental stage, parents play a crucial role in fostering appropriate and safe DT

  13. Parental education is related to C-reactive protein among female middle-aged community volunteers.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Marsland, Anna L; Flory, Janine D; Muldoon, Matthew F; Cohen, Sheldon; Manuck, Stephen B

    2009-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that socioeconomic attributes of both childhood and adulthood confer risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we examine the association of both parental and individual educational attainment with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory mediator relevant to cardiovascular pathophysiology, in a mid-life community sample. Subjects were 811 men and women (394 men/417 women; 87% European-American/13% African-American), 30-54 years of age. Plasma concentrations of CRP were determined from blood samples obtained at a single session following an overnight fast. Regression analyses adjusting for age and race showed both parental education and individual education to be associated inversely with CRP in women, but not men. The relationship of parental education with CRP in women persisted on multivariable adjustment for both lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, exercise, body mass index) and individual SES. Independent of reported personal educational attainment, mid-life adult women whose parents achieved fewer years of educational attainment exhibit higher levels of circulating CRP than women with higher parental education. This association may help explain the increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality conferred by low childhood socioeconomic status.

  14. Sexuality in advanced age in Jewish thought and law.

    PubMed

    David, Benjamin E; Weitzman, Gideon A

    2015-01-01

    Judaism has a positive attitude to sexual relations within a marriage, and views such sexual relations as important not only for procreation but also as part of the framework of marriage. This is true for any age group, and sexuality is seen as an essential element of marriage for couples of advanced age. In this article, the authors present the views of Jewish law and thought regarding sexuality among older couples. The authors illustrate this using 3 case studies of couples who sought guidance in the area of sexuality. In addition, this area of counseling benefits greatly from an ongoing relationship and dialogue between expert rabbis in the field and therapists treating older Orthodox Jewish patients for sexual dysfunction. The triad relationship of couple, therapist, and rabbi enhances the ability to treat and assist such couples to seek treatment and overcome their difficulties. PMID:24313599

  15. Measurement Properties and Classification Accuracy of Two Spanish Parent Surveys of Language Development for Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 2 Spanish parent surveys of language development, the Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ; Squires, Potter, & Bricker, 1999) and the Pilot Inventario-III (Pilot INV-III; Guiberson, 2008a). Method: Forty-eight Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children…

  16. Early Parental and Child Predictors of Recurrent Abdominal Pain at School Age: Results of a Large Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; Hotopf, Matthew; Wiles, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether parental psychological and physical factors and child factors measured in the first year of life were associated with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children at age 6 3/4 years. Method: A longitudinal cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), followed 8,272 children from pregnancy to age 6…

  17. Male-biased sex allocation in ageing parents; a longitudinal study in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation. PMID:27484643

  18. Male-biased sex allocation in ageing parents; a longitudinal study in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation.

  19. Parents׳ experiences of raising pre-school aged children in an outer-Melbourne growth corridor.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Fiona Jane; Rich, Stephanie; Stockdale, Rebecca; Shelley, Julia

    2014-05-01

    There is growing concern about the outer-suburbs in Australia as healthy places to raise children. This paper aimed to explore this from the perspectives of parents raising preschool-age children in an outer-Melbourne municipality. Findings showed that parents were positive about the natural environment as well as the provision of recreation areas and generally felt their neighbourhoods were a safe place for raising children. However, car-dependency, housing estate design and limited local job opportunities all appeared to contribute to social isolation amongst families. Using the Environments for Health Framework, this paper makes suggestions to improve liveability for families in this municipality.

  20. Definition of advanced age in HIV infection: looking for an age cut-off.

    PubMed

    Blanco, José R; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Vallejo, Manuel; Berenguer, Juan; Solera, Carmen; Rubio, Rafael; Pulido, Federico; Asensi, Victor; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The age of 50 has been considered as a cut-off to discriminate older subjects within HIV-infected people according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, the International AIDS Society (IAS) mentions 60 years of age and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) makes no consideration. We aimed to establish an age cut-off that could differentiate response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and, therefore, help to define advanced age in HIV-infected patients. CoRIS is an open, prospective, multicenter cohort of HIV adults naive to HAART at entry (January 2004 to October 2009). Survival, immunological response (IR) (CD4 increase of more than 100 cell/ml), and virological response (VR) (HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml) were compared among 5-year age intervals at start of HAART using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by hospital and adjusted for potential confounders. Among 5514 patients, 2726 began HAART. During follow-up, 2164 (79.4%) patients experienced an IR, 1686 (61.8%) a VR, and 54 (1.9%) died. Compared with patients aged <25 years at start of HAART, those aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-59, and 70 or older were 32% (aHR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), 29% (aHR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.96), 34% (aHR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95), 39% (aHR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37-1.00), and 43% (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31-1.04) less likely to experience an IR. The VR was similar across all age groups. Finally, patients aged 50-59 showed a 3-fold increase (aHR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.07-11.99) in their risk of death compared to those aged <30 years. In HIV infection, patients aged ≥50 years have a poorer immunological response to HAART and a poorer survival. This age could be used to define medically advanced age in HIV-infected people.

  1. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  2. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  3. Warm Parenting and Effortful Control in Toddlerhood: Independent and Interactive Predictors of School-Age Externalizing Behavior.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Julia D; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-08-01

    Externalizing symptoms, such as aggression, impulsivity, and inattention, represent the most common forms of childhood maladjustment (Campbell et al. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 467-488, 2000). Several dimensions of parenting behavior, including overreactive and warm parenting, have been linked to children's conduct problems. However, the majority of these studies involve biologically-related family members, thereby limiting understanding of the role of genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of parenting on child psychopathology. This study extends previous research by exploring associations between overreactive and warm parenting during toddlerhood and school-age externalizing problems, as well as the potential moderating effects of child effortful control (EC) on such associations using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 225 adoption-linked families (adoptive parents, adopted child [124 male and 101 female] and birth parent[s]), thereby allowing for a more precise estimate of environmental influences on the association between parenting and child externalizing problems. Adoptive mothers' warm parenting at 27 months predicted lower levels of child externalizing problems at ages 6 and 7. Child EC moderated this association in relation to teacher reports of school-age externalizing problems. Findings corroborate prior research with biological families that was not designed to unpack genetic and environmental influences on associations between parenting and child externalizing problems during childhood, highlighting the important role of parental warmth as an environmental influence. PMID:26496906

  4. Parenting children under three years of age in a south Indian setting.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shibi; Vijayakumar, Chellarani; Siva, Rajeshwari; Isaac, Rita

    2007-01-01

    A cross sectional study design to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of mothers regarding parenting of children less than 3 years of age was conducted with 120 mothers from both rural and urban areas of South India. Mothers were interviewed in their homes using a structured questionnaire. The nutritional status of their children was assessed by Anthropometry IAP (Indian Academy of Paediatrics) classification and Waterloo's classification were used to assess their children's nutritional status, and the Thiruvananthapuram Development Screening Chart [TDSC] was used to assess the children's development. The majority of mothers had moderately adequate knowledge regarding parenting. The mother's level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05) with their practice and attitude. The study brought out the association between sociodemographic variables and knowledge, attitude, and practice of mothers and its impact on growth and development of their children. Results provide direction for nurses in developing better life style education and parenting training programs.

  5. Age-dependent diet change, parental care and reproductive costin tawny owls Strix aluco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasvári, Lajos; Hegyi, Zoltán; Csörgõ, Tibor; Hahn, István

    2000-07-01

    Tawny owls Strix aluco breeding in nest-boxes were studied in a mixed oak/hornbeam/beech forest located in the Duna-Ipoly National Park 30 km north-west of Budapest, Hungary, during the period 1992-1999. Diet composition, prey mass, breeding performance and body mass of the parents of known age were recorded. Older males had a greater ability to choose alternate prey, delivered a greater mass of prey with a higher feeding frequency and achieved higher productivity than younger males when the availability of the preferred prey declined. The reproductive cost was paid only by young parents. We suggest that the lowest breeding performance, which was observed with young parents in adverse weather conditions, may be due to both the lower ability of these younger birds to exploit alternative prey and to their poor body condition which resulted in them providing fewer resources to their offspring because of their need to provide for their own survival.

  6. Improvements in IVF in women of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-07-01

    Women above age 40 years in the US now represent the most rapidly growing age group having children. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are rapidly aging in parallel. Especially where egg donations are legal, donation cycles, therefore, multiply more rapidly than autologous IVF cycles. The donor oocytes, however, are hardly ever a preferred patient choice. Since with use of own eggs, live birth rates decline with advancing age but remain stable (and higher) with donor eggs, older patients always face the difficult and very personal choice between poorer chances with own and better chances with donor oocytes. Physician contribution to this decision should in our opinion be restricted to accurate outcome information for both options. Achievable pregnancy and live birth rates in older women are, however, frequently underestimated, thereby mistakenly biasing fertility providers, private insurance companies and even regulatory government agencies. Restriction on access to IVF for older women is then often the consequence. In this review, we summarize the limited published data on best treatments of 'older' ovaries, while also addressing treatment approaches that should be avoided in older women. This focused review, therefore, to a degree is subjective. Research addressing aging ovaries in IVF has been disappointingly sparse, and has in our opinion too heavily concentrated on methods of embryo selection (ES), which, especially in older women, not only fail to improve IVF outcomes, but actually, negatively affect live birth chances. We conclude that, aside from breakthroughs in gamete creation, only pharmacological interventions into early (small growing follicle stages) follicle maturation will offer new potential to positively impact oocyte and embryo quality and, therefore, IVF outcomes. Research, therefore, should be accordingly redirected.

  7. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ≥ 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ≥ 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID

  8. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States. PMID:26267591

  9. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States.

  10. Parental control, parental warmth, and psychosocial adjustment in a sample of substance-abusing mothers and their school-aged and adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Suchman, Nancy E; Rounsaville, Bruce; DeCoste, Cindy; Luthar, Suniya

    2007-01-01

    Parenting interventions for substance-abusing adults have been broadly based on two approaches, one emphasizing parental control as a means to managing children's behavior and the second emphasizing parental warmth and sensitivity as means to fostering children's psychological development. In this investigation, we examined associations of parental control and parental warmth, respectively, with children's behavioral and psychological adjustment in a sample of 98 women enrolled in methadone maintenance and their school-aged and adolescent children. Using collateral data collected during the baseline phase of a randomized clinical trial (Luthar, S. S., Suchman, N. E., & Altomare, M. [in press]. Relational Psychotherapy Mothers Group: A randomized clinical trial for substance abusing mothers [in preparation]), we tested predictions that (a) parental control would be more strongly associated with children's behavioral adjustment and (b) parental warmth would be more strongly associated with children's psychological adjustment. Both predictions were generally confirmed, although some crossover among parenting and child dimensions was also evident. Results support the theoretical stance that parental limit setting and autonomy support, as well as nurturance and involvement, are important factors, respectively, in children's behavioral and psychological adjustment. PMID:17175393

  11. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval:…

  12. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  13. Longitudinal Relations Between Observed Parenting Behaviors and Dietary Quality of Meals From Ages 2 to 5

    PubMed Central

    Montaño, Zorash; Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Parents influence a child’s diet by modeling food choices, selecting the food they will make available, and controlling the child’s intake. Few studies have examined the covariation between parent’s behavior management practices and their guidance and support for a young child’s nutritional environment in early childhood. We hypothesized that parents’ positive behavior support (PBS), characterized as skillful behavior management and proactive structuring of children’s activities, would predict dietary quality over the course of early childhood (age 2 to 5 years), a critical period for the development of a dietary lifestyle through the lifespan. Methods Participants included 731 culturally diverse, low-income families in a randomized, controlled trial of the Family Check-Up. Families participated in a yearly home visit videotaped assessment when children were 2 to 5 years. PBS and dietary quality of meals parents served to their children were assessed by coding videotapes of structured parent–child interactions, including a meal preparation task. A cross-lagged panel model was used to evaluate the longitudinal relation between PBS and the dietary quality of meals served during the meal preparation task. Results Analyses revealed that PBS repeatedly predicted meals’ dietary quality the following year: age 2–3 (β = .30), age 3–4 (β = 0.14), age 4–5 (β = 0.37). Dietary quality significantly predicted PBS 1 year later: age 3–4 (β = 0.16), age 4–5 (β = 0.14). As expected, the relative strength of the relationship from PBS to dietary quality was significantly stronger than the reverse, from dietary quality to PBS. Conclusions Positive behavior management and proactive parenting practices are an important foundation for establishing a healthy nutritional environment for young children. These findings suggest that family-centered prevention interventions for pediatric obesity may benefit from targeting PBS in service of promoting

  14. Differences in Parent-Provider Concordance Regarding Prognosis and Goals of Care Among Children With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Orellana, Liliana; Kang, Tammy I.; Geyer, J. Russell; Feudtner, Chris; Dussel, Veronica; Wolfe, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Concordance between parents of children with advanced cancer and health care providers has not been described. We aimed to describe parent-provider concordance regarding prognosis and goals of care, including differences by cancer type. Patients and Methods A total of 104 pediatric patients with recurrent or refractory cancer were enrolled at three large children's hospitals. On enrollment, their parents and providers were invited to complete a survey assessing perceived prognosis and goals of care. Patients' survival status was retrospectively abstracted from medical records. Concordance was assessed via discrepancies in perceived prognosis, κ statistics, and McNemar's test. Distribution of categorical variables and survival rates across cancer type were compared with Fisher's exact and log-rank tests, respectively. Results Data were available from 77 dyads (74% of enrolled). Parent-provider agreement regarding prognosis and goals of care was poor (κ, 0.12 to 0.30). Parents were more likely to report cure was likely (P < .001). The frequency of perceived likelihood of cure and the goal of cure varied by cancer type for both parents and providers (P < .001 to .004). Relatively optimistic responses were more common among parents and providers of patients with hematologic malignancies, although there were no differences in survival. Conclusion Parent-provider concordance regarding prognosis and goals in advanced pediatric cancer is generally poor. Perceptions of prognosis and goals of care vary by cancer type. Understanding these differences may inform parent-provider communication and decision making. PMID:25024073

  15. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  16. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children: Ninos Activos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latino children are at high risk of becoming obese. Physical activity (PA) can help prevent obesity. Parents can influence children's PA through parenting practices. This study aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) sociodemographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived environmental, a...

  17. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents can influence their children's physical activity (PA) through parenting practices (PP). Correlates of PA-PP have not been investigated. This study therefore aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) socio-demographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived-environmental, and (4) obje...

  18. Age and Gender Differences in the Well-Being of Midlife and Aging Parents with Children with Mental Health or Developmental Problems: Report of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hong, Jinkuk; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), this article examines: (1) the effect of having children with developmental or mental health problems on parents mental and physical health, (2) the extent to which this effect varies by parental age and gender, and (3) the effects of disability-related factors on the well-being of…

  19. INITIAL VALIDATION OF THE ASSESSMENT OF PARENTING TOOL: A TASK- AND DOMAIN-LEVEL MEASURE OF PARENTING SELF-EFFICACY FOR PARENTS OF INFANTS FROM BIRTH TO 24 MONTHS OF AGE.

    PubMed

    Moran, Tracy E; Polanin, Joshua R; Evenson, Amber L; Troutman, Beth R; Franklin, Christina L

    2016-05-01

    Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) includes parents' self-perceptions regarding their capabilities in performing the numerous and changing tasks associated with parenting a specific child (i.e., domain-specific PSE) as well as their self-perceptions in the parenting role overall (i.e., domain-general PSE). Prior literature has demonstrated PSE's relations with numerous constructs significant to mental health and the parent-infant relationship. Prior measures of PSE have been limited by focusing on only domain-specific or domain-general PSE, ignoring the importance of infant development to PSE, and other psychometric limitations. This article presents sound psychometric data for a new measure of PSE, the Assessment of Parenting Tool (APT). The APT includes task-level items on the Domain-Specific subscale (APT-DS) for each age-referenced version of the measure as well as a domain-general subscale that taps overall PSE within the first 24 months' postpartum. Initial construct validity of the measure is established, particularly for parents of infants aged 3 months and older. A stable, three-factor structure for the domain-general subscale includes "coping with being a parent," "attuned parenting," and "self-perceived model parenting." Future directions for the APT, including a revised checklist format for the domain-specific subscale, are included.

  20. Social-cognitive predictors of low-income parents' restriction of screen time among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use. PMID:23239766

  1. Advancing age progressively affects obstacle avoidance skills in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Nienhuis, Bart; Duysens, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    The ability to adequately avoid obstacles while walking is an important skill that allows safe locomotion over uneven terrain. The high proportion of falls in the elderly that is associated to tripping over obstacles potentially illustrates an age-related deterioration of this locomotor skill. Some studies have compared young and old adults, but very little is known about the changes occurring within different age groups of elderly. In the present study, obstacle avoidance performance was studied in 25 young (20-37 years) and 99 older adults (65-88 years). The participants walked on a treadmill at a speed of 3 km/h. An obstacle was dropped 30 times in front of the left foot at various phases in the step cycle. Success rates (successful avoidance) were calculated and related to the time available between obstacle appearance and the estimated instant of foot contact with the obstacle (available response times or ARTs ranging from 200 to more than 350 ms). In addition, latencies of avoidance reactions, the choice of avoidance strategies (long or short step strategy, LSS or SSS), and three spatial parameters related to obstacle avoidance (toe distance, foot clearance, and heel distance) were determined for each participant. Compared to the young, the older adults had lower success rates, especially at short ARTs. Furthermore, they had longer reaction times, more LSS reactions, smaller toe and heel distances, and larger foot clearances. Within the group of elderly, only the 65-69 year olds were not different from young adults with respect to success rate, despite marked changes in the other parameters measured. In particular, even this younger group of elderly showed a dramatic reduction in the amount of SSS trials compared to young adults. Overall, age was a significant predictor of success rates, reaction times, and toe distances. These parameters deteriorated with advancing age. Finally, avoidance success rates at short ARTs were considerably worse in elderly

  2. Early Adolescent Age and Gender Differences in Patterns of Emotional Self-Disclosure to Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends among 174 junior high school students. Found that girls exhibited greater emotional self-disclosure to parents and peers than did males, and that emotional self-disclosure to friends was greatest among older adolescents. (Author/NB)

  3. A child-centered scale of informal social control for Latino parents of preschool-age children: Development and validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perceived neighborhood informal social control may determine whether parents allow their young children to be physically active in the neighborhood. We developed and validated a scale of neighborhood child-centered informal social control appropriate for Latino parents of preschool-age children. The...

  4. Parents and Adolescents Growing up in the Digital Age: Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Proactive Media Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Dyer, W. Justin; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined how parents' use of restrictive and active monitoring and deference changed over three years, and examined both adolescent and parent characteristics as predictors of initial levels of media monitoring, as well as change in media monitoring. Participants included 276 mother-child dyads (M age of child = 12.08, SD = 0.63,…

  5. Feeding Practices and Styles Used by a Diverse Sample of Low-Income Parents of Preschool-age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…

  6. Very Pre-Term Infants' Behaviour at 1 and 2 Years of Age and Parental Stress Following Basic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…

  7. Older-Aged Parents: The Final Safety Net for Adult Sons and Daughters with AIDS in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodel, John; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the role that older-aged parents play in the care and support of adult sons and daughters with HIV or AIDS and of AIDS orphans in Thailand within the context of a limited institutional safety net. The analysis draws on both quantitative and qualitative data from survey and open-ended interviews with the parents and from…

  8. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: evidence from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child's sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son or a daughter differentially affects the wellbeing of older parents, measured by depressive symptoms and self-rated health. We find that for mothers, a son's death is associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and a decline in self-rated health, but fathers' health is not adversely affected by a son's death. There is little evidence that a daughter's death has a negative effect on either maternal or paternal wellbeing. We situate these findings within their social and cultural contexts and discuss social policies that would reduce gender and health inequality.

  9. The Amagugu Intervention: A Conceptual Framework for Increasing HIV Disclosure and Parent-Led Communication about Health among HIV-Infected Parents with HIV-Uninfected Primary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Rochat, Tamsen J.; Mitchell, Joanie; Stein, Alan; Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo Brilliant; Bland, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalization, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counselors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement, and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre–post-evaluation study with 281 families showed that the intervention was feasible, acceptable, and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms, and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large-scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for the child. The

  10. The Amagugu Intervention: A Conceptual Framework for Increasing HIV Disclosure and Parent-Led Communication about Health among HIV-Infected Parents with HIV-Uninfected Primary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Rochat, Tamsen J.; Mitchell, Joanie; Stein, Alan; Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo Brilliant; Bland, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalization, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counselors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement, and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre–post-evaluation study with 281 families showed that the intervention was feasible, acceptable, and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms, and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large-scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for the child. The

  11. The Amagugu Intervention: A Conceptual Framework for Increasing HIV Disclosure and Parent-Led Communication about Health among HIV-Infected Parents with HIV-Uninfected Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Mitchell, Joanie; Stein, Alan; Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo Brilliant; Bland, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalization, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counselors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement, and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre-post-evaluation study with 281 families showed that the intervention was feasible, acceptable, and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms, and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large-scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for the child. The

  12. Parental, prenatal, and neonatal associations with ball skills at age 8 using an exposome approach.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean; Gregory, Steven; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Lingam, Raghu; Davis, John M; Emmett, Pauline; Steer, Colin D; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2014-10-01

    There is little consistency in the literature concerning factors that influence motor coordination in children. A hypothesis-free "exposome" approach was used with 7359 children using longitudinal information covering 3 generations in regard to throwing a ball accurately at age 7 years. The analyses showed an independent robust negative association with mother's unhappiness in her midchildhood (6-11 years). No such association was present for study fathers. The offspring of parents who described themselves as having poor eyesight had poorer ability. This hypothesis-free approach has identified a strong negative association with an unhappy childhood. Future studies of this cohort will be used to determine whether the mechanism is manifest through differing parenting skills, or a biological mechanism reflecting epigenetic effects. PMID:24828115

  13. Parental, Prenatal, and Neonatal Associations With Ball Skills at Age 8 Using an Exposome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Steven; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Lingam, Raghu; Davis, John M.; Emmett, Pauline; Steer, Colin D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    There is little consistency in the literature concerning factors that influence motor coordination in children. A hypothesis-free “exposome” approach was used with 7359 children using longitudinal information covering 3 generations in regard to throwing a ball accurately at age 7 years. The analyses showed an independent robust negative association with mother’s unhappiness in her midchildhood (6-11 years). No such association was present for study fathers. The offspring of parents who described themselves as having poor eyesight had poorer ability. This hypothesis-free approach has identified a strong negative association with an unhappy childhood. Future studies of this cohort will be used to determine whether the mechanism is manifest through differing parenting skills, or a biological mechanism reflecting epigenetic effects. PMID:24828115

  14. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  15. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts. PMID:24808883

  16. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child.

  17. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    PubMed

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence. PMID:26728747

  18. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    PubMed

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence.

  19. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Reznar, Melissa M; Carlson, John S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Pavangadkar, Amol S; Scott, Marci K; Hoerr, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine the parent feeding guide Eat Healthy, Your Children are Watching, A Parent's Guide to Raising a Healthy Eater. An interdisciplinary planning team developed a five-topic, multimedia, interactive guide addressing the strategies most associated with improved diet quality and weight status of children aged 3 to 5 years. Research staff conducted iterative phases of field testing, reformatting, in-depth interviews, and materials testing with Head Start or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education caregivers (N=38) of children aged 3 to 5 years during 2011 and 2012. Convergence of feedback from caregivers' interviews and each booklet's attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction subscale scores were used to determine and affirm areas for improvement. Lower than desired attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction scores (optimal score=5) in 2011 and too much text resulted in revisions and reformatting that improved scores from 3.8 to 4.9 in 2012. The revision of materials to reflect less text, additional white space, checklists of mealtime behaviors, and learning activities for preschool-aged children resulted in dramatically improved materials and greater acceptance by parents, as shown by both quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Formative evaluation procedures involving the use of data-based decision making allowed for the development of intervention materials that met the unique needs of the population served.

  20. Early elementary school-aged child attachment to parents: a test of theory and implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Oxford, M L; Harachi, T W; Catalano, R F; Haggerty, K P; Abbott, R D

    2000-06-01

    Child attachment to parents has been shown in the literature to reduce the likelihood of problem behaviors through enhancing resiliency. Research examining attachment and its relationship to antisocial behavioral outcomes in adolescents has been shaped largely by social control theorists who have theorized that attachment to prosocial others inhibits the expression of antisocial behavioral outcomes (Hirschi, 1969). This paper seeks to expand the literature by investigating the development of child attachment to parent(s) during the early elementary school years as specified theoretically by the social development model (Catalano & Hawkins, 1996). Using structural equation modeling, the results support the theoretical model as proposed by the social development model. School-aged children's attachment to parents can be successfully predicted by constructs outlined in the social development model. Finally, implications for interventions that enhance child attachment to parent(s) are discussed.

  1. Mothers' Parenting Behaviors in Families of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational and Questionnaire Study.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-11-01

    Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using both an observational measure and a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that mothers of children with ASD obtained significantly lower scores on Sensitivity and Provision of structure as measured during the observation. They reported significantly higher scores on Material rewarding and Adapting the environment on the questionnaire. When controlling for parenting stress, the group differences on Sensitivity and Material rewarding did not remain significant.

  2. The Association of Parenting Style and Child Age with Parental Limit Setting and Adolescent MySpace Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Larry D.; Cheever, Nancy A.; Carrier, L. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Parent and teen MySpace user pairs completed online surveys administered in June (N = 266) and September 2006 (N = 341) to assess relationships between parenting styles and limit setting and monitoring of online behaviors, the prevalence of Internet dangers and pre-teen and teen MySpace behaviors. Cross-comparison measures of MySpace usage,…

  3. Reliable ratings or reading tea leaves: can parent, teacher, and clinician behavioral ratings of preschoolers predict ADHD at age six?

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sarah; Schneiderman, Robyn L; Rajendran, Khushmand; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-05-01

    To assess the relative ability of parent, teacher, and clinician behavioral ratings of preschoolers to predict ADHD severity and diagnosis at 6 years of age. Hyperactive/inattentive preschoolers [N = 104, 75 % boys, Mean (SD) age = 4.37 (0.47) years] were followed over 2 years (mean = 26.44 months, SD = 5.66). At baseline (BL), parents and teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV and clinicians completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children following a psychological testing session. At age 6, [Mean (SD) age = 6.62 (0.35) years], parents were interviewed with the K-SADS-PL; teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV; and laboratory measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention were obtained from children. Hierarchical logistic and linear regression analyses examined which combination of BL ratings best predicted 6-year-old ADHD diagnosis and severity, respectively. At age 6, 56 (53.8 %) children met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of ADHD. BL ratings from parent/teacher/clinician, parent/teacher and parent/clinician combinations significantly predicted children who had an ADHD diagnosis at age 6. Parent and clinician, but not teacher, behavior ratings were significant independent predictors of ADHD diagnosis and severity at 6-years-old. However, only clinician reports of preschoolers' behaviors predicted laboratory measures of over-activity and inattention at follow-up. Cross-situationality is important for a diagnosis of ADHD during the preschool years. Among parents, teachers and clinicians, positive endorsements from all three informants, parent/teacher or parent/clinician appear to have prognostic value. Clinicians' ratings of preschoolers' inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity are valid sources of information for predicting ADHD diagnosis and severity over time.

  4. The Joint Influence of Mother and Father Parenting on Child Cognitive Outcomes at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Few studies of parenting have considered the possibility that the association between one parent's supportive parenting and a child's early cognition is moderated by the other parent's supportiveness. We test this proposition using a low-income sample of coresident couples. In addition, we cross-classify parents within couples according to their…

  5. School-Aged Functioning of Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before Age Three: Parent-Reported Diagnostic, Adaptive, Medication, and School Placement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towle, Patricia O.; Vacanti-Shova, Karyn; Shah, Shristi; Higgins-D'alessandro, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Eighty children with early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses (under 36 months) were identified using a chart abstraction protocol applied to early intervention charts. Parents filled out questionnaires by mail when the children were school-aged (ages 6-16 years). Similar to previous studies, approximately 20 % no longer had ASD diagnoses;…

  6. Parental age and the origin of trisomy 21. A study of 302 families.

    PubMed

    Dagna Bricarelli, F; Pierluigi, M; Landucci, M; Arslanian, A; Coviello, D A; Ferro, M A; Strigini, P

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to define the role of parental age in determining the prevalence of 47, +21 according to the origin of nondisjunction. This report analyzes the original data of 197 informative families from Italy and reviews the available literature (96 families from Denmark and 201 from other countries). Mothers whose gametes showed nondisjunction are treated as cases, and those with normal meiosis as controls within each study. To utilize the data fully, maternal age at birth of a 47, +21 individual is treated as a continuous variable in a nonparametric comparison. The combined evidence indicates that nondisjunction in the female is associated with a significant age difference between cases and controls which is mostly due to errors in the second meiotic division. It may be inferred that in the general population, aging enhances nondisjunction at both first and second division in the female, while aging in the male is presumably associated mostly (or only) with first division errors. Implications and alternative models are discussed.

  7. Parental age and the origin of trisomy 21. A study of 302 families.

    PubMed

    Dagna Bricarelli, F; Pierluigi, M; Landucci, M; Arslanian, A; Coviello, D A; Ferro, M A; Strigini, P

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to define the role of parental age in determining the prevalence of 47, +21 according to the origin of nondisjunction. This report analyzes the original data of 197 informative families from Italy and reviews the available literature (96 families from Denmark and 201 from other countries). Mothers whose gametes showed nondisjunction are treated as cases, and those with normal meiosis as controls within each study. To utilize the data fully, maternal age at birth of a 47, +21 individual is treated as a continuous variable in a nonparametric comparison. The combined evidence indicates that nondisjunction in the female is associated with a significant age difference between cases and controls which is mostly due to errors in the second meiotic division. It may be inferred that in the general population, aging enhances nondisjunction at both first and second division in the female, while aging in the male is presumably associated mostly (or only) with first division errors. Implications and alternative models are discussed. PMID:2523851

  8. On the age and parent body of the daytime Arietids meteor shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, A.; Wiegert, P.; Pokorny, P.; Brown, P.

    2016-01-01

    The daytime Arietid meteor shower is active from mid-May to late June and is among the strongest of the annual meteor showers, comparable in activity and duration to the Perseids and the Geminids. Due to the daytime nature of the shower, the Arietids have mostly been constrained by radar studies. The Arietids exhibit a long-debated discrepancy in the semi-major axis and the eccentricity of meteoroid orbits as measured by radar and optical surveys. Radar studies yield systematically lower values for the semi-major axis and eccentricity, where the origin of these discrepancies remain unclear. The proposed parent bodies of the stream include comet 96P/Machholz and more recently the Marsden's group of sun-skirting comets. In this work, we present detailed numerical modelling of the daytime Arietid meteoroid stream, with the goal to identifying the parent body and constraining the age of the stream. We use observational data from an extensive survey of the Arietids by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR), in the period of 2002-2013, and several optical observations by the SonotaCo meteor network and the Cameras for All-sky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS). Our simulations suggest that the age and observed characteristics of the daytime Arietids are consistent with cometary activity from 96P, over the past 12000 years. The sunskirting comets that presumably formed in a major comet breakup between 100 - 950 AD (Chodas and Sekanina, 2005), alone, cannot explain the observed shower characteristics of the Arietids. Thus, the Marsden sunskirters cannot be the dominant parent, though our simulations suggest that they contribute to the core of the stream.

  9. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874

  10. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Perry, John R B; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Hua Zhao, Jing; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davey Smith, George; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco E J; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

    2014-10-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  11. Parent-of-origin specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J. Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D’adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco EJ; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul DP; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth JF; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality1. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation2,3, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P<5×10−8) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1/WDR25, MKRN3/MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signaling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  12. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Perry, John R B; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Hua Zhao, Jing; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davey Smith, George; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco E J; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

    2014-10-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition.

  13. Childlessness and Psychological Well-Being in Midlife and Old Age: An Examination of Parental Status Effects across a Range of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Slagsvold, Britt; Moum, Torbjorn

    2009-01-01

    The study explores and distinguishes links between parental status (childless persons, parents with residential children, and empty nest parents) and a range of psychological well-being outcomes in midlife and old age. Data are from the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG) study (n = 5,189). We separate outcomes…

  14. Bullying in German Primary Schools: Gender Differences, Age Trends and Influence of Parents' Migration and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…

  15. Mothers' and Fathers' Couple and Family Contextual Influences, Parent Involvement, and School-Age Child Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…

  16. Parenting Styles and Attachment in School-Aged Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Su Re; Beilby, Janet M.; Byrnes, Michelle L.; Hennessey, Neville W.

    2012-01-01

    Parental input has been described as influential in early childhood stuttering yet the exact nature of this influence remains equivocal. The present study aimed to examine whether quantitative measures of parenting styles, parent and peer attachment patterns, and parent- and self-reported child behaviour could differentiate between school-aged…

  17. Obese parents – obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0–3: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children’s weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants’ weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. Methods/Design We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent–child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent–child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Discussion Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the

  18. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood. PMID:19346045

  19. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status.

  20. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. PMID:24183134

  1. The Speech and Language of Children Aged 25 Months: Descriptive Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Sue; Loader, Sue; Northstone, Kate; Beveridge, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) provided descriptive data on the speech and language of 25-month-olds. Findings indicated great range in the stage of expressive language development achieved. Girls showed more advanced skills than boys. A clear pattern was identified in use of sound classes. Child verbal comprehension…

  2. Age-26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; White, Barry A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Robertson, Dylan L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) early childhood intervention. Using data collected up to age 26 on health and well-being, the study is the first adult economic analysis of a sustained large-scale and publicly-funded intervention. As part of the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a complete cohort of 900 low-income children who enrolled in 20 CPCs beginning at age 3 were compared to 500 well-matched low-income children who participated in the usual educational interventions for the economically disadvantaged in Chicago schools. School-age services were provided up to age 9 (third grade). Findings indicated that the three components of CPC had economic benefits in 2007 dollars that exceeded costs. The preschool program provided a total return to society of $10.83 per dollar invested (net benefits per participant of $83,708). Benefits to the public (other than program participants and families) were $7.20 per dollar invested. The primary sources of benefits were increased earnings and tax revenues, averted criminal justice system and victim costs, and savings for child welfare, special education, and grade retention. The school-age program had a societal return of $3.97 per dollar invested and a $2.11 public return. The extended intervention program (4 to 6 years of participation) had a societal return of $8.24 and public return of $5.21. Estimates were robust across a wide range of discount rates and alternative assumptions, and were consistent with the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Males, 1-year preschool participants, and children from higher risk families had greater economic benefits. Findings provide strong evidence that sustained early childhood programs can contribute to well-being for individuals and society. PMID:21291448

  3. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    PubMed

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children.

  4. Changing Attitudes Toward Care of Aging Parents: The Influence of Education, International Travel, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Compernolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Population aging is a key public health issue facing many nations, and is particularly pronounced in many Asian countries. At the same time, attitudes toward filial obligation are also rapidly changing, with a decreasing sense that children are responsible for caring for elderly parents. This investigation blends the family versus nonfamily mode of social organization framework with a life course perspective to provide insight into the processes of ideational change regarding filial responsibility, highlighting the influence of education and international travel. Using data from a longitudinal study in Nepal—the Chitwan Valley Family Study—results demonstrate that education and international travel are associated with a decrease in attitudes toward filial obligation. However, findings further reveal that the impact of education and international travel vary both across the life course and by gender. PMID:25866415

  5. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    PubMed

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children. PMID:9681260

  6. Cosmic-Ray-Exposure Ages of Diogenites and the Collisional History of the HED Parent Body or Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; vanderBorg, K.; Loeken, T.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-exposure ages of meteorites provide information on the collisional history of their parent bodies and the delivery mechanism of meteorites to Earth. The exposure-age distributions of ordinary chondrites show distinct patterns for H, L, and LL types, consistent with their origin on different parent bodies. The exposure-age distributions of howardites, eucrites. and diogenites (HEDS) show a common pattern with major peaks at 22 Ma and 38 Ma This provides additional evidence for a common origin of the HED meteorites, possibly 4 Vesta, although orbital dynamics calculations showed that the delivery of meteorites from Vesta to Earth is difficult. However, the discovery of several kilometer-sized Vesta-like asteroids in the region between Vesta and the 3:1 resonance suggested that these seem more likely parent bodies of the HEDs than Vesta itself. This implies that the exposure-age clusters may represent samples of several parent bodies. Therefore, the near-absence of diogenites with ages <20 Ma might be of interest for the composition of these kilometer-sized fragments of Vesta. Here we present cosmic-ray-exposure ages of 20 diogenites, including 9 new meteorites. In addition, we calculate the probability for each peak to occur by chance, assuming a constant production rate of HED fragments.

  7. A comparison between the lifestyles of men and women--parents of school age children.

    PubMed

    Fiala, J; Brázdová, Z

    2000-05-01

    Women live longer than men and experience lower overall and specific mortality resulting from various diseases, even when younger. The reasons for this have yet to be satisfactorily explained. However, biological differences on one hand and differing lifestyles on the other might be responsible. The purpose of the study was to examine to what extent the lifestyle of men and women differs within a relatively homogeneous population group. The lifestyles of 4,353 parents of school age children (58% women and 42% men) were examined using questionnaires. The results show considerable differences between the genders. Men had worse dietary habits--consuming significantly less vegetables, fruit and milk, but too much meat; they consumed more processed meat and fat-containing items within the food sub-categories; they preferred less low-fat milk products and consumed less wholemeal products. Men more often consumed alcohol, drank more of it and often crossed the limits hazardous for health. There were more smokers among the men, they smoked more cigarettes and the non-smokers more often indicated passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Overweight and obesity occurred more often among men. Relatively minor differences, rather to the benefit of men, occurred in the field of leisure-time physical sporting activities, where slightly more men pursued regular sporting activities but in significantly higher amounts than the women, whereas the men did less regular daily walking. Women, as opposed to men, displayed more interest in comprehensive primary preventive medical examinations. The results obtained suggest that women lived a generally more healthy lifestyle than men within the examined homogeneous group of parents of school age children, consisting mostly of pairs of partners. They support the assumption that the healthier lifestyle of women very significantly contributes to their lower mortality.

  8. Parenting Behaviours among Low-Income Mothers of Preschool Age Children in the USA: Implications for Parenting Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall quality of parenting behaviours among low-income mothers in the USA and the extent to which they are influenced by risk factors within the family environment, maternal well-being and maternal risk characteristics associated with socio-economic status. Participants consisted of 1070 low-income mothers of…

  9. Paternal Transmission of Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosome 15 Identified in Prenatal Diagnosis Due to Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruna C S; Portocarrero, Ana; Alves, Cláudia; Sampaio, André; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The detection of supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) in prenatal diagnosis is always a challenge. In this study, we report a paternally inherited case of a small SMC(15) that was identified in prenatal diagnosis due to advanced maternal age. A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation. A fetal abnormal karyotype - 47,XX,+mar - with one sSMC was detected in all metaphases. Since this sSMC was critical in the parental decision to continue or interrupt this pregnancy, we proceeded to study the fetus and their parents. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a fetal karyotype 47,XX,+mar pat.ish idic(15)(ql2)(D15Zl++,SNRPN-), in which the sSMC(15) was a paternally inherited inverted duplicated chromosome and did not contain the critical region of Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes. Moreover, fetal uniparental disomy was excluded. Based on this information and normal obstetric ultrasounds, the parents decided to proceed with the pregnancy and a phenotypically normal girl was born at 39 weeks of gestation. In conclusion, the clinical effects of sSMCs need to be investigated, especially when sSMCs are encountered at prenatal diagnosis. Here, although the paternal sSMC(15) was not associated with an abnormal phenotype, its characterization allows more accurate genetic counseling for the family progeny. PMID:26523119

  10. An evaluation of a short questionnaire for parents about their school-aged children's global maturity level.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Nordberg, Lillemor; Fried, Ingegärd; Edbom, Tobias; Ekman, Sophie; Rydelius, Per Anders

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate a questionnaire for parents concerning their school-aged children's global maturity level. Immature children (n = 29) as reported by their parents were compared to a control group (n = 68). Immaturity was linked to a reduced general knowledge, a childish body appearance, problems with the fine motor function and problems with peers. The index group also had on average a lower test result in total score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and more commission errors in the Continuous Performance Test, both test results indicating a lower mental age.

  11. Examining social-cognitive predictors of parenting skills among mothers with preschool and early elementary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi, Saiideh; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Norouzi, Ali; Jafari, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Context: Identification of parenting skills determinants among mothers is an ongoing field of research. Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the social cognitive predictors of parenting skills among mothers. Settings and Design: Previous studies have demonstrated the health action process approach (HAPA) as a credible frame for predicting behavior, but the number of studies considering the predictive value of parenting skills determinants among mothers is rare. Subjects and Methods: An 8 months prospective design was applied. Participants were mothers with preschool and early elementary school-aged children. At the 1st time, 120 participants completed self-report questionnaires regarding their risk perception, outcome expectancies, task self-efficacy, and intentions toward parenting skills. At the 2nd time, they returned a follow-up questionnaire, which measured planning, coping self-efficacy, and recovery self-efficacy and finally, 8 months later as the 3rd time, parenting skills were measured. Path analysis was used for analysis. Results: Path analysis indicated that, in the motivational phase, there was no relationship between parenting skills intention and risk perception, outcome expectancies, and task self-efficacy. Furthermore, no relationship was found between parenting skills intention and planning. In the volitional phase, coping self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, and planning were statistically significant predictors of parenting skills. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that volitional phase of the HAPA model is useful in determining parenting skills. However, the role motivational variables seem to be unimportant in performing these behaviors. It was concluded that everybody intended to apply parenting skills, in nature, and intervention strategies should be focused on turning intentions into behavior. PMID:27462638

  12. Harnessing Innovative Technologies to Advance Children’s Mental Health: Behavioral Parent Training As an Example

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Kincaid, Carlye; Parent, Justin; Fenton, Nicole; Goodrum, Nada

    2012-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors of childhood are among the most common reasons for referral of children to mental health professionals. Behavioral parent training (BPT) is the most efficacious intervention for these problem behaviors, yet BPT is substantially underutilized beyond university research and clinic settings. With the aim of addressing this research-to-practice gap, this article highlights the considerable, but largely unrealized, potential for technology to overcome the two most pressing challenges hindering the diffusion of BPT: (1). The dearth of BPT training and supervision opportunities for therapists who work with families of children with disruptive behaviors and; (2). The failure to engage and retain families in BPT services when services are available. To this end, this review presents a theoretical framework to guide technological innovations in BPT and highlights examples of how technology is currently being harnessed to overcome these challenges. This review also discusses recommendations for using technology as a delivery vehicle to further advance the field of BPT and the potential implications of technological innovations in BPT for other areas of children’s mental health are discussed. PMID:23313761

  13. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  14. Human mortality at very advanced age might be constant.

    PubMed

    Klemera, P; Doubal, S

    1997-11-01

    An attempt was made to identify the course of the mortality rate at the upper tail of human age. The only known data suitable for this purpose were published by Riggs and Millecchia (J.E. Riggs, R.J. Millecchia, Mech. Ageing Dev. 62 (1992) 191-199) and our analysis follows up their results. By means of mathematical elaboration it was proved that these data imply a constant mortality rate (approx. 25% per year) at ages above 113 years for men and above 116 years for women. Indirect arguments supporting the validity of the source data are discussed. Nevertheless, even if the source data are mistaken, we proved they cannot be the product of purely random errors and our results may contribute to the elucidation of the origin of those systematic errors. PMID:9379712

  15. Parental Delay or Refusal of Vaccine Doses, Childhood Vaccination Coverage at 24 Months of Age, and the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Philip J.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Zhao, Zhen; Dorell, Christina G.; Howes, Cynthia; Hibbs, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the association between parents' beliefs about vaccines, their decision to delay or refuse vaccines for their children, and vaccination coverage of children at aged 24 months. Methods We used data from 11,206 parents of children aged 24–35 months at the time of the 2009 National Immunization Survey interview and determined their vaccination status at aged 24 months. Data included parents' reports of delay and/or refusal of vaccine doses, psychosocial factors suggested by the Health Belief Model, and provider-reported up-to-date vaccination status. Results In 2009, approximately 60.2% of parents with children aged 24–35 months neither delayed nor refused vaccines, 25.8% only delayed, 8.2% only refused, and 5.8% both delayed and refused vaccines. Compared with parents who neither delayed nor refused vaccines, parents who delayed and refused vaccines were significantly less likely to believe that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children (70.1% vs. 96.2%), that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated (71.0% vs. 90.0%), and that vaccines are safe (50.4% vs. 84.9%). Children of parents who delayed and refused also had significantly lower vaccination coverage for nine of the 10 recommended childhood vaccines including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (65.3% vs. 85.2%), polio (76.9% vs. 93.8%), and measles-mumps-rubella (68.4% vs. 92.5%). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, we found that parents who were less likely to agree that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children, to believe that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated, or to believe that vaccines are safe had significantly lower coverage for all 10 childhood vaccines. Conclusions Parents who delayed and refused vaccine doses were more likely to have vaccine safety concerns and perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics may assist

  16. The development of postinstitutionalized versus parent-reared Russian children as a function of age at placement and family type.

    PubMed

    McCall, Robert B; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J; Groark, Christina J; Palmov, Oleg I; Nikiforova, Natalia V; Salaway, Jennifer; Julian, Megan M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 149 children, who spent an average of 13.8 months in Russian institutions, were transferred to Russian families of relatives and nonrelatives at an average age of 24.7 months. After residing in these families for at least 1 year (average = 43.2 months), parents reported on their attachment, indiscriminately friendly behavior, social-emotional competencies, problem behaviors, and effortful control when they were 1.5-10.7 years of age. They were compared to a sample of 83 Russian parents of noninstitutionalized children, whom they had reared from birth. Generally, institutionalized children were rated similarly to parent-reared children on most measures, consistent with substantial catch-up growth typically displayed by children after transitioning to families. However, institutionalized children were rated more poorly than parent-reared children on certain competencies in early childhood and some attentional skills. There were relatively few systematic differences associated with age at family placement or whether the families were relatives or nonrelatives. Russian parent-reared children were rated as having more problem behaviors than the US standardization sample, which raises cautions about using standards cross-culturally. PMID:26753952

  17. The development of postinstitutionalized versus parent-reared Russian children as a function of age at placement and family type.

    PubMed

    McCall, Robert B; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J; Groark, Christina J; Palmov, Oleg I; Nikiforova, Natalia V; Salaway, Jennifer; Julian, Megan M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 149 children, who spent an average of 13.8 months in Russian institutions, were transferred to Russian families of relatives and nonrelatives at an average age of 24.7 months. After residing in these families for at least 1 year (average = 43.2 months), parents reported on their attachment, indiscriminately friendly behavior, social-emotional competencies, problem behaviors, and effortful control when they were 1.5-10.7 years of age. They were compared to a sample of 83 Russian parents of noninstitutionalized children, whom they had reared from birth. Generally, institutionalized children were rated similarly to parent-reared children on most measures, consistent with substantial catch-up growth typically displayed by children after transitioning to families. However, institutionalized children were rated more poorly than parent-reared children on certain competencies in early childhood and some attentional skills. There were relatively few systematic differences associated with age at family placement or whether the families were relatives or nonrelatives. Russian parent-reared children were rated as having more problem behaviors than the US standardization sample, which raises cautions about using standards cross-culturally.

  18. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  19. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  20. Delinquent Risks of Parental Abuse at the Age of 11 Years among At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2014-01-01

    Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…

  1. The Role of Parental Involvement in the Autonomy Development of Traditional-Age College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullaty, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Increased parental involvement in higher education has led to a rise in the number of parent interactions with university faculty and staff. The purpose of this study was to explore how parental involvement influences the process of college student autonomy development and to examine the implications of this process for college administrators.…

  2. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  3. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  4. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  5. Perceptual restoration of degraded speech is preserved with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Saija, Jefta D; Akyürek, Elkan G; Andringa, Tjeerd C; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive skills, such as processing speed, memory functioning, and the ability to divide attention, are known to diminish with aging. The present study shows that, despite these changes, older adults can successfully compensate for degradations in speech perception. Critically, the older participants of this study were not pre-selected for high performance on cognitive tasks, but only screened for normal hearing. We measured the compensation for speech degradation using phonemic restoration, where intelligibility of degraded speech is enhanced using top-down repair mechanisms. Linguistic knowledge, Gestalt principles of perception, and expectations based on situational and linguistic context are used to effectively fill in the inaudible masked speech portions. A positive compensation effect was previously observed only with young normal hearing people, but not with older hearing-impaired populations, leaving the question whether the lack of compensation was due to aging or due to age-related hearing problems. Older participants in the present study showed poorer intelligibility of degraded speech than the younger group, as expected from previous reports of aging effects. However, in conditions that induce top-down restoration, a robust compensation was observed. Speech perception by the older group was enhanced, and the enhancement effect was similar to that observed with the younger group. This effect was even stronger with slowed-down speech, which gives more time for cognitive processing. Based on previous research, the likely explanations for these observations are that older adults can overcome age-related cognitive deterioration by relying on linguistic skills and vocabulary that they have accumulated over their lifetime. Alternatively, or simultaneously, they may use different cerebral activation patterns or exert more mental effort. This positive finding on top-down restoration skills by the older individuals suggests that new cognitive training methods

  6. Perceptual restoration of degraded speech is preserved with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Saija, Jefta D; Akyürek, Elkan G; Andringa, Tjeerd C; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive skills, such as processing speed, memory functioning, and the ability to divide attention, are known to diminish with aging. The present study shows that, despite these changes, older adults can successfully compensate for degradations in speech perception. Critically, the older participants of this study were not pre-selected for high performance on cognitive tasks, but only screened for normal hearing. We measured the compensation for speech degradation using phonemic restoration, where intelligibility of degraded speech is enhanced using top-down repair mechanisms. Linguistic knowledge, Gestalt principles of perception, and expectations based on situational and linguistic context are used to effectively fill in the inaudible masked speech portions. A positive compensation effect was previously observed only with young normal hearing people, but not with older hearing-impaired populations, leaving the question whether the lack of compensation was due to aging or due to age-related hearing problems. Older participants in the present study showed poorer intelligibility of degraded speech than the younger group, as expected from previous reports of aging effects. However, in conditions that induce top-down restoration, a robust compensation was observed. Speech perception by the older group was enhanced, and the enhancement effect was similar to that observed with the younger group. This effect was even stronger with slowed-down speech, which gives more time for cognitive processing. Based on previous research, the likely explanations for these observations are that older adults can overcome age-related cognitive deterioration by relying on linguistic skills and vocabulary that they have accumulated over their lifetime. Alternatively, or simultaneously, they may use different cerebral activation patterns or exert more mental effort. This positive finding on top-down restoration skills by the older individuals suggests that new cognitive training methods

  7. Does Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products Contribute to the Aging Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Nicklett, Emily J.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background. Aging is a complex multifactorial process characterized by accumulation of deleterious changes in cells and tissues, progressive deterioration of structural integrity and physiological function across multiple organ systems, and increased risk of death. Methods. We conducted a review of the scientific literature on the relationship of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with aging. AGEs are a heterogeneous group of bioactive molecules that are formed by the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Results. Humans are exposed to AGEs produced in the body, especially in individuals with abnormal glucose metabolism, and AGEs ingested in foods. AGEs cause widespread damage to tissues through upregulation of inflammation and cross-linking of collagen and other proteins. AGEs have been shown to adversely affect virtually all cells, tissues, and organ systems. Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that elevated circulating AGEs are associated with increased risk of developing many chronic diseases that disproportionally affect older individuals. Conclusions. Based on these data, we propose that accumulation of AGEs accelerate the multisystem functional decline that occurs with aging, and therefore contribute to the aging phenotype. Exposure to AGEs can be reduced by restriction of dietary intake of AGEs and drug treatment with AGE inhibitors and AGE breakers. Modification of intake and circulating levels of AGEs may be a possible strategy to promote health in old age, especially because most Western foods are processed at high temperature and are rich in AGEs. PMID:20478906

  8. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  9. Early Adolescent Age and Gender Differences in Patterns of Emotional Self-Disclosure to Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    This study explored adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends. An additional purpose was to describe how familial and individual developmental characteristics influence patterns of adolescent emotional disclosure. The sample consisted of 174 junior high school students between 12 and 15…

  10. Age 21 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Mann, Emily A.

    Researchers conducted the first cost-benefit analysis of a federally-financed, comprehensive early childhood program involving the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers, which are located in public schools and provide educational and family support services to low-income children ages 3-9 years. Data came from a cohort of children born in 1980 who…

  11. Parental Monitoring Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Problem Behaviors among African American Urban Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Maryse H.; Miller, Bobbi Viegas; O'Donnell, Philip C.; Wasserman, Michelle S.; Colder, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent delinquency, drug use and aggression remain societal concerns. These problems are more common with adolescent boys than girls, and tend to increase with age. Although a lack of parental monitoring has been found to be related to problem behaviors, the mediating role of monitoring on the relationship of sex and grade to problem behaviors…

  12. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  13. Yardsticks: Children in the Classroom Ages 4-14. A Resource for Parents and Teachers. [Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip

    Expanded from its previous edition to include ages 13 and 14, this book provides teachers and parents with a quick reference on important childhood developmental issues, explaining what children should be learning and doing in the classroom at each developmental stage. The book begins by discussing how developmental issues can affect…

  14. The Impact of Gender, Family Type and Age on Undergraduate Parents' Perception of Causes of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…

  15. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  16. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65-75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  17. The impact of changing parenting styles on the advancement of pediatric oral health.

    PubMed

    Law, Clarice S

    2007-03-01

    Behavior management is significant to delivery of dental care to the child. We must be able to elicit cooperation of the child for dental procedures, and of child and parents, for adherence to a preventive home care regimen. However, society has changed, affecting the ability of dentists to influence children and their parents. The purpose of this paper is to review changes in parenting styles that have impacted the nature of oral care in the child.

  18. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B.

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W.; Kim, Ivana K.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130

  20. Parents of children with haemophilia at an early age: assessment of perceived stress and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ortuño, A; Cuesta-Barriuso, R; Nieto-Munuera, J

    2014-11-01

    Haemophilia is a chronic disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach for proper management and control of its clinical manifestations. The perception and management of parents of children with haemophilia can be affected by stressful situations as a result of treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of stress and family functioning in parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years. This is an observational clinical study involving 49 parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years who attended the VIII Workshop for Parents of Children with haemophilia, organized by the Spanish Federation of Hemophilia in La Charca, Murcia (Spain). After obtaining parental consent, the questionnaires was applied to them, FACES III (family functioning) and Pediatric Inventory for Parents (perceived stress), and a record of data on the clinical characteristics and treatment. Significant differences in the perception of stressors by gender of parents were found. A family history of haemophilia, the use of port-a-cath, inhibitor development and gender of the parents were the descriptive variables most correlated with dependents variables. These variables, together with the type of haemophilia affect significantly in the parental stress and family functioning. Parents have difficulty adjusting to disease management, perceiving many stressors. Gender and family history, can hinder the proper compliance with treatments, reducing its effectiveness.

  1. Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40

  2. Advancing the Aging and Technology Agenda in Gerontology

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Matthews, Judith T.; De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Beach, Scott R.; Czaja, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in technology for older adults is driven by multiple converging trends: the rapid pace of technological development; the unprecedented growth of the aging population in the United States and worldwide; the increase in the number and survival of persons with disability; the growing and unsustainable costs of caring for the elderly people; and the increasing interest on the part of business, industry, and government agencies in addressing health care needs with technology. These trends have contributed to the strong conviction that technology can play an important role in enhancing quality of life and independence of older individuals with high levels of efficiency, potentially reducing individual and societal costs of caring for the elderly people. The purpose of this “Forum” position article is to integrate what we know about older adults and technology systems in order to provide direction to this vital enterprise. We define what we mean by technology for an aging population, provide a brief history of its development, introduce a taxonomy for characterizing current technology applications to older adults, summarize research in this area, describe existing development and evaluation processes, identify factors important for the acceptance of technology among older individuals, and recommend future directions for research in this area. PMID:25165042

  3. Advancing the Aging and Technology Agenda in Gerontology.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Richard; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Matthews, Judith T; De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Beach, Scott R; Czaja, Sara J

    2015-10-01

    Interest in technology for older adults is driven by multiple converging trends: the rapid pace of technological development; the unprecedented growth of the aging population in the United States and worldwide; the increase in the number and survival of persons with disability; the growing and unsustainable costs of caring for the elderly people; and the increasing interest on the part of business, industry, and government agencies in addressing health care needs with technology. These trends have contributed to the strong conviction that technology can play an important role in enhancing quality of life and independence of older individuals with high levels of efficiency, potentially reducing individual and societal costs of caring for the elderly people. The purpose of this "Forum" position article is to integrate what we know about older adults and technology systems in order to provide direction to this vital enterprise. We define what we mean by technology for an aging population, provide a brief history of its development, introduce a taxonomy for characterizing current technology applications to older adults, summarize research in this area, describe existing development and evaluation processes, identify factors important for the acceptance of technology among older individuals, and recommend future directions for research in this area.

  4. Younger Age at Crisis Following Parental Death in Male Children and Adolescents is Associated with Higher Risk for Dementia at Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Goldbourt, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of midlife report of crisis following parental death (CFPD) during childhood and adolescence, with dementia at old age. Methods In 1965, 9362 male participants of the Israel Ischemic Heart disease (IIHD) study were asked whether they have experienced CFPD (paternal or maternal) during the following ages: 0–6. 7–12. 13–18 or >18 years. Dementia was assessed over three decades later in 1889 survivors of the original cohort, 1,652 of whom were assessed for CFPD in 1965. Results Controlling for age, the estimated odds for dementia relative to individuals who reported crisis following paternal parental death (CFPR-P) at the age of 18 and above, were 3.06 (95%CI 1.42–6.61), 2.15 (95% CI 0.87–5.31) and 2.35 (95%CI 1.05–5.28) for those who reported CFPD-P at the ages of 0–6, 7–12 and 13–18 respectively. Odds for dementia were 0.60 (95% CI 0.32–1.11) for participants who reported CFPD-P at ages of 18 and above, compared to participants who did not report such a crisis. Similar results were obtained for the association of crisis reported following maternal parental death (CFPD-M) at different age groups and dementia. Conclusions CFPD during childhood is associated with increased risk for dementia in males who survived until old age. PMID:21537146

  5. Parental age effects, but no evidence for an intrauterine effect in the transmission of myotonic dystrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Fernando; Vásquez, Melissa; Cuenca, Patricia; Campos, Domingo; Santamaría, Carolina; del Valle, Gerardo; Brian, Roberto; Sittenfeld, Mauricio; Monckton, Darren G

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CTG repeat (g.17294_17296(45_1000)) with more repeats associated with increased disease severity and reduced age at onset. Expanded disease-associated alleles are highly unstable in both the germline and soma. Germline instability is expansion biased, providing a molecular explanation for anticipation. Somatic instability is expansion biased, size- and age-dependent, features that have compromised genotype–phenotype correlations and intergenerational studies. We corrected these confounding factors by estimating the progenitor allele length in 54 father–offspring and 52 mother–offspring pairs in Costa Rican DM1 families. Not surprisingly, we found major parental allele length effects on the size of the allele transmitted, the magnitude of the intergenerational length change, the age at onset in the next generation and the degree of anticipation in both male and female transmissions. We also detected, for the first time, an age-of-parent effect for both male and female transmission. Interestingly, we found no evidence for an intrauterine effect in the transmission of congenital DM1, suggesting previous reports may have been an artefact of age-dependent somatic instability and sampling bias. These data provide new insights into the germline dynamics of the CTG repeat and opportunities for providing additional advice and more accurate risk assessments to prospective parents in DM1 families. PMID:25052313

  6. School-aged functioning of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder before age three: parent-reported diagnostic, adaptive, medication, and school placement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Towle, Patricia O; Vacanti-Shova, Karyn; Shah, Shristi; Higgins-D'alessandro, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Eighty children with early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses (under 36 months) were identified using a chart abstraction protocol applied to early intervention charts. Parents filled out questionnaires by mail when the children were school-aged (ages 6-16 years). Similar to previous studies, approximately 20% no longer had ASD diagnoses; the other participants were assigned to Moderate/Severe versus Mild ASD outcome groups. These three groups were compared across several variables, including diagnostic features and functional features including adaptive behavior, social experiences, medication use, and school placement. The findings expand our knowledge about outcomes in longitudinal studies of children with ASD, as well as provide support for using relatively indirect methods (chart review, parent questionnaire) to gather this type of information.

  7. Sex-specific parental care strategies via nestling age: females pay more attention to nestling demands than males do in the horned lark, Eremophila alpestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jing; Du, Bo; Liu, Nai-Fa; Bao, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2014-06-01

    In many species, nestling demands vary continuously during early development and both parents have different parental care strategies at each nestling age. Sexual conflict arises when each parent expects its partner investing more in parental care. It is largely unknown how the two parents respond to the dynamics of nestling demands and resolve the sexual conflict during nestling period, especially on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To address this question, we monitored parental care behaviors of horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) using video-recording systems. We found that male horned larks invested less in parental care, but had a larger body size than females, which is consistent with the parental investment hypothesis. Only the female brooded nestlings, but both parents contributed to feeding efforts. Feeding rates of males and females were negatively correlated, indicating that they used evolutionarily stable strategies. Strategies of parental care via nestling age were sex-specific. Females continuously adjusted care behaviors to follow the dynamics of nestling demands as nestling age increased, such as decreasing brood attentiveness and increasing feeding rate. By contrast, male feeding rate showed no significant correlation with nestling age, but increased with the synchrony feeding rate. We suggest the synchrony feeding behavior may act as a control measure for females to promote and assess the males' contribution. We consider low mating opportunities drive males to act as assistants for females, and correspondingly cause males to pay less attention to nestling demands than females. PMID:24882094

  8. Playing Smart: A Parent's Guide to Enriching, Offbeat Learning Activities for Ages 4-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Susan K.; Espeland, Pamela, Ed.

    Recognizing that children need enrichment at home, this book offers hundreds of unusual ways for kids and parents to spend time together. It also demonstrates the fun people can have while learning, and the learning that goes on while having fun. Using this book as a guide, parents and children can survey new subjects ranging from cultural…

  9. Social cognition in parents: inferential and affective reactions to children of three age levels.

    PubMed

    Dix, T; Ruble, D N; Grusec, J E; Nixon, S

    1986-08-01

    The present research proposes and tests an attributional model of parent cognition. Derived from correspondent inference theory, the model emphasizes that parents assess children's behavior primarily by determining whether that behavior reflects children's intentions and dispositions or, instead, constraints on children's control of behavior from situational pressures or developmental limitations in knowledge and ability. In 2 studies, support was obtained for 4 predictions. First, findings show that parents' assessments of children's behavior are closely tied to the developmental level of the child. As children developed, parents thought children's behavior was increasingly caused by personality dispositions and was increasingly intentional, under the child's control, and, for misconduct, understood to be wrong. Second, parents' affective reactions to misconduct were related to their assessments of its cause and, third, became increasingly negative as children developed. Positive affect, in contrast, was unrelated to attributions for children's positive behavior. Fourth, parents' assessments of children's behavior were affected by the behavior's desirability. Parents thought children's altruism was more intentional, dispositional, and under the child's control than children's misconduct. Implications for how parents assess and react to children's behavior are discussed.

  10. IDEA Special Education Resolution Meetings. A Guide for Parents of Children & Youth (Ages 3-21)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), 2014

    2014-01-01

    A resolution meeting is a dispute resolution process that takes place after a parent files a due process complaint. Resolution meetings offer parents and school districts the opportunity to resolve issues before a due process hearing happens. This publication describes Resolution Meetings generally for Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  11. Experimental Therapy for School-Age Children and Their Parents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shames, George H.; Egolf, Donald B.

    Reported were the development and testing of a therapy program for stutterers which aimed at involving parents in the treatment process. The experimental therapy program was developed and applied to a group of 13 parent child dyads whose interaction patterns were analyzed in an attempt to identify factors pertinent to the child's stuttering.…

  12. A Parent Training Program for Increasing the Visual Development of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikowski, Timothy J.

    This practicum provided training for 50 parents of children receiving clinic services for visual processing disorders and provided information on visual disorders to the children's teachers. The 8-month program involved 13 parent training sessions. These sessions focused on such topics as: current research findings on vision; identification of…

  13. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  14. Unintentional Injury Risk in School-Age Children: Examining Interrelations between Parent and Child Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Melissa; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Kane, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on children's risk of injury reveals that parent and child factors are often interrelated. This study examined relations between children's risk taking, parent appraisal of this risk taking, and children's rate of injury in youth 8 and 9 years old. Methods: Responses to questionnaires and laboratory tasks were used to examine…

  15. Needs Assessment of Parents of Typical Children Ages 4 to 5 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Deon LaMount

    2010-01-01

    Parent education programs have been very successful in meeting the pre-established goals and expectations of their program without the input of parent participants prior to program implementation. Although programs continue to improve, it is important that programs begin to consider the specific needs of their target population. One parent…

  16. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion (FC) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  17. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-09-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion ( FC: ) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  18. Impact of the advances in age on the gastrointestinal microflora of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Benno, Y; Nakao, H; Uchida, K; Mitsuoka, T

    1992-08-01

    The gastrointestinal microflora of male beagle dogs in two different age groups; I) less than month 12 of age, and II) more than year 11 of age, was compared. No detectable difference occurred on the microflora of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in both dogs. Large bowel (cecum, colon and rectum) microflora in both dogs yielded the different microbial populations. In all regions of large bowel, the levels of bacteroides, eubacteria, peptostreptococci, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and staphylococci in the elderly dogs were lower than those in the younger animals, whereas the numbers of Clostridium perfringens and streptococci in the elderly animals were higher than those in the youngers. The high incidence of lecithinase-negative clostridia was observed with advances in age, but not that of spiral shaped rods. The result of this study shows that the advances in age of beagle dogs yield some changes in the microbial population of large bowel in the animals.

  19. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t test for mean and regression analysis. RESULTS The majority of women at advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and such major geriatric problems as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%), the minority - fall and fainting (39%) as well as stool incontinence (17%), severe functional and cognitive impairment (24% and 10% respectively). Women at advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3 on 1-5 scale), social relationships (3.5) and environment (3.2), but negatively - general, physical and psychological health (2.7, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively). The presence of chronic pain and major geriatric problems: urinary and stool incontinences, falls and fainting, visual disturbances and hypoacusis significantly decreases overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment of women at advanced age. Overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment correlate to functional and cognitive impairments of women at advanced age. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life of women at advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems as well as functional and cognitive impairments occur. PMID:27580565

  20. Parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters: a prospective study among US women.

    PubMed

    Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Hennekens, C H; Rosner, B; Speizer, F E

    1991-01-01

    We examined the relation between parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer among daughters in a population of 118,309 US women who were 30 to 55 years of age in 1976 and without prior diagnosis of cancer. During 1,140,239 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,799 incident cases of breast cancer in this population. After adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors, we observed only a weak and nonsignificant trend in risk of breast cancer with increasing maternal age at birth and no relation for paternal age. After adjusting for other risk factors, the chi trend was 1.10, P = 0.27 for increasing maternal age at birth. Daughters born to mothers 30 to 34 years of age had an age-adjusted relative risk of breast cancer of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.37) compared to daughters born to mothers less than 20 years of age. The weak positive trend in risk with increasing maternal age was present among both pre- and postmenopausal women. These findings suggest that there is little or no association between maternal age and risk of breast cancer, and that paternal age is not related to risk of breast cancer.

  1. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102–105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be

  2. The Development of Cognitive, Language, and Cultural Skills from Age 3 to 6: A Comparison between Children of Turkish Origin and Children of Native-Born German Parents and the Role of Immigrant Parents' Acculturation to the Receiving Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Birgit; Klein, Oliver; Biedinger, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the longitudinal development of differences in academic skills between children of Turkish origin and children of native-born German parents from age 3 to 6 in Germany with a focus on the role of immigrant parents' acculturation to the receiving society. Growth curve models show that Turkish-origin children start with lower…

  3. Toward generic principles of treating parents and children: integrating psychotherapy with the school-aged child and early family intervention.

    PubMed

    Heinicke, C M

    1990-12-01

    Generic principles governing the outcome and process of the treatment of children and their families can be generated from both research on the psychotherapy of school-aged children and early family intervention. Evidence indicates that the amenability of the child or parent to treatment and the comprehensiveness, duration, and intensity of the helping process are significant parameters. Definition of significant early family intervention roles allows linkage to various therapeutic roles with school-aged children and forces the recognition that most treatment situations involve more roles than are officially recognized. This articulation of the profile of intervention roles among poverty level, first-time parents at risk for neglecting their infant drew on several bodies of theory: psychoanalytic, cognitive, behavioral, social cognitive, and positive reinforcement principles, and advocacy and direct assistance as used in clinical social casework.

  4. Widowhood in Los Robles: Parent-child relations and economic survival in old age in urban Mexico.

    PubMed

    Levine, S E

    1986-09-01

    In rural Mexico the burden of care for widowed and elderly mothers has traditionally fallen on sons; but Mexico is now more than 70% urban and, in the city, patterns of support for aging parents vary widely. In the face of steep inflation, widespread unemployment and economic stagnation, young people are increasingly hesitant to offer support, while older people feel less entitled to and more ambivalent about requesting it. PMID:24389632

  5. Finger patterns and age of onset for the determination of the parent-of-origin in the transmission of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ponnudurai, R.; Jayakar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Dermatoglyphic traits which are reported to be largely determined by genes could be considered as phenotypic characterestics and if the same are expressed through generations in schizophrenic families it can be speculated to serve as genetic markers for schizophrenia. Another factor that might be influenced by genes is the age of onset of the illness in the offspring and the parent of origin. Objective: This study was aimed to elucidate the occurrence of identical finger patterns in the schizophrenic patients and their affected parents. The other objective was to assess the age of onset of the illness in them. Methods: Forty six schizophrenic patients in whom one of the parents was also affected with schizophrenia or related disorders were recruited. Of these pairs 29 were taken up for finger patterns analysis, with an equal number of control group pairs. 35 proband and parent pairs were investigated for the age of onset of the illness. Results: The frequency of occurrence of identical patterns in the right thumbs of proband and their affected mother pairs was significantly more than between the proband and their affected father pairs. Additionally, the number of identical patterns was also more in the right thumbs of proband and their affected mother pairs compared with the control group. The difference between the mean age of onset of the illness in the probands and their affected fathers was more than between the probands and their affected mothers. Conclusion: The genetic association of schizophrenic patients with the affected maternal side appear to be more stronger than with the paternal side. PMID:25657454

  6. Contact allergy to topical medicaments becomes more common with advancing age: an age-stratified study.

    PubMed

    Green, Carl M; Holden, Catherine R; Gawkrodger, David J

    2007-04-01

    Eczema is common in the elderly people who often use topical medicaments. Previous studies in the elderly people have noted allergic positive patch tests in between 43% and 64% of those tested. We set out to assess whether medicament contact allergies are more common in elderly patients. We undertook a retrospective age-stratified study of all patients patch tested at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, between January 1994 and July 2005. We confirmed that contact allergy to topical medicaments is more common in those aged more than 70 years compared with the younger age groups. There was no sex difference. The commonest problematic allergen types found in medicaments were fragrances and preservatives. The most frequent individual allergens were fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae, lanolins, local anaesthetic agents, neomycin and gentamicin, and tixocortol pivolate. The pattern of medicament contact allergens was similar to that of the younger age groups except that multiple allergic positives were more frequent and sensitivities to local anaesthetics and Myroxylon pereirae were proportionally more common. Elderly patients were more likely to have multiple contact allergies than the younger ones. Care needs to be taken when prescribing topical medicaments to elderly patients with eczema, especially for preparations that contain perfumes, lanolins, and local anaesthetics.

  7. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565

  8. The needs of aging parents caring for an adult with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Minnes, Patricia; Woodford, Lynn; Carlson, Peter; Johnston, Jane; McColl, Mary Ann

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on issues of concern to and service needs of older parents caring for an adult son or daughter with an acquired brain injury (ABI) in Ontario. Three issues were identified as particularly challenging: diagnosis of the brain injury, parents' feelings about the cause of the brain injury, and planning for long-term accommodation for their family member with a brain injury. The most frequently cited services needed for the person with ABI were social and/or recreational activities, day programs, and residential placement. The most frequently cited services needed by parents were parent education and support groups. The information gathered provides a base for further research in other sectors. Implications of these initial findings for clinical practice and policy and program development are discussed.

  9. Effect of advanced glycation end product intake on inflammation and aging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Katrien; Mets, Tony; Njemini, Rose; Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Aging is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory status that contributes to chronic diseases such as age-related muscle wasting, kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to be proinflammatory, this systematic review examined the relation between the dietary intake of AGEs and inflammatory processes. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were screened systematically. Seventeen relevant studies in humans or animals were included. The intervention studies in humans showed mainly a decrease in inflammation in subjects on a low-AGE diet, while an increase in inflammation in subjects on a high-AGE diet was less apparent. About half of the observational studies found a relationship between inflammatory processes and AGEs in food. When the results are considered together, the dietary intake of AGEs appears to be related to inflammatory status and the level of circulating AGEs. Moreover, limiting AGE intake may lead to a decrease in inflammation and chronic diseases related to inflammatory status. Most of the trials were conducted in patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetes, and thus additional studies in healthy individuals are needed. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the effects of lifetime exposure of dietary AGEs on aging and health.

  10. Mindful Sustainable Aging: Advancing a Comprehensive Approach to the Challenges and Opportunities of Old Age.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Håkan; Bülow, Pia H; Kazemi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of this article is to present a new concept called mindful sustainable aging (MSA), which is informed by mindfulness practices that support the physical, the mental, and especially, the social and the existential dimensions of old life. The concept of MSA is discussed and compared with four influential psychosocial theories in the field of gerontology, i.e., activity theory, disengagement theory, successful aging theory and gerotranscendence theory. The article ends with reviewing research on how mindfulness practice can help to manage, diminish and/or improve a number of serious physical conditions that are common among older people. The potential of mindfulness when it comes to facilitating for older adults in their quest for spiritual and existential meaning is discussed extensively throughout the article.

  11. Mindful Sustainable Aging: Advancing a Comprehensive Approach to the Challenges and Opportunities of Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Håkan; Bülow, Pia H.; Kazemi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to present a new concept called mindful sustainable aging (MSA), which is informed by mindfulness practices that support the physical, the mental, and especially, the social and the existential dimensions of old life. The concept of MSA is discussed and compared with four influential psychosocial theories in the field of gerontology, i.e., activity theory, disengagement theory, successful aging theory and gerotranscendence theory. The article ends with reviewing research on how mindfulness practice can help to manage, diminish and/or improve a number of serious physical conditions that are common among older people. The potential of mindfulness when it comes to facilitating for older adults in their quest for spiritual and existential meaning is discussed extensively throughout the article. PMID:27247673

  12. Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun Sook

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.

  13. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  14. Reciprocity in relationships: socio-economic and health influences on intergenerational exchanges between Third Age parents and their adult children in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Emily

    2005-06-01

    In this paper data from a nationally representative British longitudinal study are used to analyse exchanges of support between Third Age parents (aged 55-75) and their adult children. Results show that between two thirds and three quarters of parents in this age group were involved in some sort of exchange relationship with at least one of their children. Generally, more Third Age parents were providers than recipients of help, but there was a strong reciprocal element to intergenerational exchange with, for example, married parents who provided support to at least one child being twice as likely as those who did not to receive support from a child, after allowance for a range of relevant parental and child characteristics. Parental characteristics associated with higher probability of providing help included higher income, home ownership and being married or widowed rather than divorced. Higher income and home ownership were, however, negatively associated with odds of receiving help from a child, again after adjustment for other co-variates, suggesting socio-economic differences in the balance of support exchanges. Children seem responsive to parental needs in that receipt of help from a child was positively associated with older parental age and with parental disability. The paper shows that in Britain, as in the USA, the balance of intergenerational exchanges involving Third Age adults is downward rather than upward, in contravention of depictions of older adults as 'burdens' on younger generations. Current demographic and social changes are, it is argued, likely to increase support demands from adult children to Third Age parents in coming decades. PMID:15926906

  15. What's Missing in Missing Data? Omissions in Survey Responses among Parents of Children with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Dussel, Veronica; Orellana, Liliana; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, J. Russel; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Missing data is a common phenomenon with survey-based research; patterns of missing data may elucidate why participants decline to answer certain questions. Objective: To describe patterns of missing data in the Pediatric Quality of Life and Evaluation of Symptoms Technology (PediQUEST) study, and highlight challenges in asking sensitive research questions. Design: Cross-sectional, survey-based study embedded within a randomized controlled trial. Setting: Three large children's hospitals: Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center (DF/BCCDC); Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP); and Seattle Children's Hospital (SCH). Measurements: At the time of their child's enrollment, parents completed the Survey about Caring for Children with Cancer (SCCC), including demographics, perceptions of prognosis, treatment goals, quality of life, and psychological distress. Results: Eighty-six of 104 parents completed surveys (83% response). The proportion of missing data varied by question type. While 14 parents (16%) left demographic fields blank, over half (n=48; 56%) declined to answer at least one question about their child's prognosis, especially life expectancy. The presence of missing data was unrelated to the child's diagnosis, time from progression, time to death, or parent distress (p>0.3 for each). Written explanations in survey margins suggested that addressing a child's life expectancy is particularly challenging for parents. Conclusions and Relevance: Parents of children with cancer commonly refrain from answering questions about their child's prognosis, however, they may be more likely to address general cure likelihood than explicit life expectancy. Understanding acceptability of sensitive questions in survey-based research will foster higher quality palliative care research. PMID:24865204

  16. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) system in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsui, Takanori

    2006-03-01

    Vascular complications are a leading cause of blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. There is a growing body of evidence that formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) progress during normal aging, and at an extremely accelerated rate in diabetes, thus being involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Furthermore, the interaction by AGEs of their receptor, RAGE, activates down-stream signaling and evokes inflammatory responses in vascular wall cells. Therefore, inhibition of AGE formation or blockade of the RAGE signaling may be a promising target for therapeutic intervention to prevent diabetic vascular complications. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy, especially focusing on the AGE-RAGE system. Several types of inhibitors of the AGE-RAGE system and their therapeutic implications are also reviewed here. PMID:16712466

  17. Surface exposure dating of Little Ice Age ice cap advances on Disko Island, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Timothy; Jomelli, Vincent; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Swingedouw, Didier; Favier, Vincent; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA: 1200-1920 AD) glacier advances in Greenland often form the most extensive positions of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice cap and margins since the Early Holocene. Across Greenland these advances are commonly represented by un-vegetated moraines, usually within 1-5 km of the present ice margin. However, chronological constraints on glacier advances during this period are sparse, meaning that GrIS and ice cap behavior and advance/retreat chronology remains poorly understood during this period. At present the majority of ages are based on historical accounts, ice core data, and radiocarbon ages from proglacial threshold lakes. However, developments in the accuracy and precision of surface exposure methods allow dating of LIA moraine boulders, permitting an opportunity to better understand of ice dynamics during this period. Geomorphological mapping and surface exposure dating (36Cl) were used to interpret moraine deposits from the Lyngmarksbræen on Disko Island, West Greenland. A Positive Degree Day (PDD) model was used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and mass balance changes for two distinct paleo-glacial extents. Three moraines (M1, M2, and M3) were mapped in the field, and sampled for 36Cl surface exposure dating. The outermost moraine (M1) was of clearly different morphology to the inner moraines, and present only in small fragments. M2 and M3 were distinct arcuate termino-lateral moraines within 50 m of one another, 1.5 km from the present ice margin. The weighted average of four 36Cl ages from M1 returned an early Holocene age of 8.4 ± 0.6 ka. M2 (four samples) returned an age of 0.57 ± 0.04 ka (1441 AD) and M3 (four samples) returned an age of 0.28 ± 0.02 ka (1732 AD). These surface exposure ages represent the first robustly dated Greenlandic ice cap moraine sequence from the LIA. The two periods of ice cap advance and marginal stabilisation are similar to recorded periods of LIA GrIS advance in west Greenland, constrained

  18. Cosmogenic 10Be constraints on Little Ice Age glacial advances in the eastern Tian Shan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Li, Yingkui; Harbor, Jon; Liu, Gengnian; Yi, Chaolu; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-04-01

    Presumed Little Ice Age (LIA) glacial advances, represented by a set of fresh, sharp-crested, boulder covered and compact moraines a few hundred meters downstream from modern glaciers, have been widely recognized in the Central Asian highlands. However, few studies have constrained the formation ages of these moraines. We report 31 10Be exposure ages from presumed LIA moraines in six glacial valleys in the Urumqi River headwater area and the Haxilegen Pass area of the eastern Tian Shan, China. Our results reveal that the maximum LIA glacial extent occurred mainly around 430 ± 100 yr, a cold and wet period as indicated by proxy data from ice cores, tree rings, and lake sediments in Central Asia. We also dated a later glacial advance to 270 ± 55 yr. However, 10Be exposure ages on several presumed LIA moraines in front of small, thin glaciers are widely scattered and much older than the globally recognized timing of the LIA. Historical topographic maps indicate that most glaciers were more extensive in the early 1960s, and two of our 10Be sample sites were located close to the ice front at that time. Boulders transported by these small and thin glaciers may be reworked from deposits originally formed prior to the LIA glacial advances, producing apparently old and widely scattered exposure ages due to varied nuclide inheritance. Other published ages indicated an earlier LIA advance around 790 ± 300 yr in the easternmost Tian Shan, but in our study area the more extensive advance around 430 ± 100 yr likely reworked or covered deposits from this earlier event.

  19. Parenting in the Early Years: A Review of Programs for Parents of Children from Birth to Three Years of Age. Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Stansbery, P. A.

    Noting that the demands and expectations of parents worldwide have shifted tremendously over the last 20 years, and that parents' ability to fulfill their parental roles will affect their communities as well as their own children, this booklet examines programming for parents that is designed to support young children's development, and discusses…

  20. Occurrence of parent-reported food hypersensitivities and food allergies among children aged 1-4 yr.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Näyhä, Simo; Kaila, Minna; Hiltunen, Liisa; Läärä, Esa

    2009-06-01

    Food allergies (FAs) and hypersensitivities (FHSs) have rarely been studied in large unselected child populations. This population-based cross-sectional survey estimated the occurrence of FHS as perceived by parents and that of FA diagnosed by a physician among children aged 1-4 yr in south-eastern Finland. Before the scheduled annual follow-up visit to the local child health clinic, the parents of children who were born between 1 April, 2001 and 31 March, 2005, and living in the Province of South Karelia (data from Finnish Population Register) were mailed a questionnaire containing items on the child's background, physician-diagnosed FAs and FHSs perceived by the parents. The questionnaires were returned during the visit. Three thousand three hundred and eight (69%) out of the 4779 questionnaires were returned. The lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed FAs was 9%. In an additional 21%, FHSs were perceived by the parents only. In a further 19% at least one food item had been eliminated from the diet without any perception of symptoms, this proportion having a downward trend by age. Physician-diagnosed FAs were more common in boys than in girls. Cow's milk was the most commonly reported cause of food-associated symptoms (13% of all children). One-third of the children aged 1-4 yr suffered from food-associated symptoms, and in an additional fifth at least one food item had been eliminated from their diet, implying that every other child had possibly been subjected to some form of elimination diet. PMID:19538354

  1. Longitudinal changes in the time parents spend in activities with their adolescent children as a function of child age, pubertal status, and gender.

    PubMed

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the time Dutch mothers (N = 301) and fathers (N = 255) spend per day engaging in 4 activities (going somewhere, doing something, watching TV, and eating together) with their adolescent children both concurrently and 5 years later. Also assessed was whether parent-child shared time was related to parent or child gender and whether age-related differences could be explained by adolescent pubertal status, family conflict, adolescent and parent work or volunteer hours, parental work stress, and adolescent computer use. Finally, the study examined whether family conflict predicted changes in shared time and whether shared time predicted changes in conflict. The findings showed that age changes depended on the activity and that pubertal status mediated age differences in TV viewing among mixed-gender parent-child pairs. Shared time during pre-, early, and mid-adolescence was linked to decreases in family conflict 5 years later.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM (CHC13). A McDonald, Y M Sey and J E Simmons. NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC.
    Disinfection, by chlorination or by ozonation followed by treatment with either chlorine or chloramine, of water containi...

  3. Advances in Disentangling Age, Cohort, and Time Effects: No Quadrature of the Circle, but a Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on Schaie's (1965) general developmental model, various data-driven and theory-based approaches to the exploration and disentangling of age, cohort, and time effects on human behavior have emerged. This paper presents and discusses an advancement of data-driven interpretations that stresses parsimony when interpreting the results of…

  4. Parent-Child Socialization in Diverse Cultures. Annual Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Carter, D. Bruce, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the role of culture in the functioning of families and the socialization of children. Following an introduction by Irving Sigel, the 15 essays are: (1) "Parent-Child Interactions in Urban Indian Families in New Delhi: Are They Changing?" (Jaipaul Roopnarine and Ziarat Hossain); (2) "Chinese Families" (Harold…

  5. Parents with Intellectual Disability and Their Children: Advances in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, women and men with intellectual disability (ID) marry and have children of their own; however, in some countries, this is still taboo. Reproduction and parenting by people with ID is often a "hot" topic. Important questions related to this phenomenon include: Can people with ID provide "good enough"…

  6. Developmental interplay between children's biobehavioral risk and the parenting environment from toddler to early school age: Prediction of socialization outcomes in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Kim, Sanghag; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    We followed 100 community families from toddler age to preadolescence. Each mother- and father-child dyad was observed at 25, 38, 52, 67, and 80 months (10 hr/child) to assess positive and power-assertive parenting. At age 10 (N = 82), we obtained parent- and child-reported outcome measures of children's acceptance of parental socialization: cooperation with parental monitoring, negative attitude toward substance use, internalization of adult values, and callous-unemotional tendencies. Children who carried a short serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) allele and were highly anger prone, based on anger observed in laboratory from 25 to 80 months, were classified as high in biobehavioral risk. The remaining children were classified as low in biobehavioral risk. Biobehavioral risk moderated links between parenting history and outcomes. For low-risk children, parenting measures were unrelated to outcomes. For children high in biobehavioral risk, variations in positive parenting predicted cooperation with monitoring and negative attitude toward substance use, and variations in power-assertive parenting predicted internalization of adult values and callous-unemotional tendencies. Suboptimal parenting combined with high biobehavioral risk resulted in the poorest outcomes. The effect for attitude toward substance use supported differential susceptibility: children high in biobehavioral risk who received optimal parenting had a more adaptive outcome than their low-risk peers. The remaining effects were consistent with diathesis-stress.

  7. Supportive parenting mediates widening neighborhood socioeconomic disparities in children’s antisocial behavior from ages 5 to 12

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Russell, Michael A.; Sampson, Robert J.; Arsenault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report a graded relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children’s antisocial behavior that (1) can be observed at school entry, (2) widens across childhood, (3) remains after controlling for family-level SES and risk, and (4) is completely mediated by maternal warmth and parental monitoring (defined throughout as supportive parenting). Children were participants in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study (n=2232), which prospectively tracked the development of children and their neighborhoods across childhood. Direct and independent effects of neighborhood-level SES on children’s antisocial behavior were observed as early as age 5 and the gap between children living in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods widened as children approached adolescence. By age 12, the effect of neighborhood socioeconomic status on children’s antisocial behavior was as large as the effect observed for our most robust predictor of antisocial behavior – sex! (Cohen’s d = .51 when comparing children growing up in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods in comparison to Cohen’s d = .53 when comparing antisocial behavior among boys versus girls). However, differences in children’s levels and rate of change in antisocial behavior across deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods were completely mediated by supportive parenting practices. Implications of our findings for studying and reducing socioeconomic disparities in antisocial behavior among children are discussed. PMID:22781850

  8. Turkish validity and reliability of a pediatric quality of life cancer module for children aged 8-12 and parents.

    PubMed

    Tanir, Meltem Kurtuncu; Kuguoglu, Sema

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability in Turkey of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cancer Module (PedsQL 3.0) for children aged 8-12 in the hematology-oncology polyclinics of two university hospitals in Istanbul during the period 2006-2007. The data collection instruments were the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cancer Module (PedsQL 3.0) and a socio-demographic questionnaire, applied for 146 children diagnosed with cancer and 146 parents. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the PedsQL 3.0 were found to be 0.602-0.982 for sub-groups with the children's form, 0.644-0.966 with the parents' form. The scale was found to give a significantly high level of reliability (0.60 ≤ ± < 0.80). Significant and directly proportional correlations were demonstrated between the forms for children and parents. It was concluded that the PedsQL 3.0 cancer module is a valid and reliable tool for assessing the quality of life of Turkish children, aged 8-12, diagnosed with cancer.

  9. White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J.; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Doran, Samuel T.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Melah, Kelsey E.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype. Methods This study included 343 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A region of interest analysis was performed on fractional anisotropy maps, in addition to mean, radial, and axial diffusivity maps, aligned to a common template space using a diffeomorphic, tensor-based registration method. The analysis focused on brain regions known to be affected in AD including the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Analyses assessed the impact of APOE4, parental family history of AD, age, and sex on white matter microstructure in late middle-aged participants (aged 47–76 years). Results Both APOE4 and parental family history were associated with microstructural white matter differences. Participants with parental family history of AD had higher FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We observed an interaction between family history and APOE4, where participants who were family history positive but APOE4 negative had lower axial diffusivity in the uncinate fasciculus, and participants who were both family history positive and APOE4 positive had higher axial diffusivity in this region. We also observed an interaction between APOE4 and age, whereby older participants (=65 years of age) who were APOE4 carriers, had higher MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the portion of the cingulum bundle running adjacent to the cingulate cortex, compared to non-carriers. Older participants who were APOE4 carriers also showed higher radial diffusivity in the genu compared to non-carriers. Across

  10. Oxidative Lipidomics Coming of Age: Advances in Analysis of Oxidized Phospholipids in Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidized phospholipids are now well recognized as markers of biological oxidative stress and bioactive molecules with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. While analytical methods continue to be developed for studies of generic lipid oxidation, mass spectrometry (MS) has underpinned the advances in knowledge of specific oxidized phospholipids by allowing their identification and characterization, and it is responsible for the expansion of oxidative lipidomics. Recent Advances: Studies of oxidized phospholipids in biological samples, from both animal models and clinical samples, have been facilitated by the recent improvements in MS, especially targeted routines that depend on the fragmentation pattern of the parent molecular ion and improved resolution and mass accuracy. MS can be used to identify selectively individual compounds or groups of compounds with common features, which greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity of detection. Application of these methods has enabled important advances in understanding the mechanisms of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, steatohepatitis, leprosy, and cystic fibrosis, and it offers potential for developing biomarkers of molecular aspects of the diseases. Critical Issues and Future Directions: The future in this field will depend on development of improved MS technologies, such as ion mobility, novel enrichment methods and databases, and software for data analysis, owing to the very large amount of data generated in these experiments. Imaging of oxidized phospholipids in tissue MS is an additional exciting direction emerging that can be expected to advance understanding of physiology and disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1646–1666. PMID:25694038

  11. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The "Brain Age Gap Estimation" (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM

  12. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  13. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  14. Proactive gait strategies to mitigate risk of obstacle contact are more prevalent with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Muir, B C; Haddad, J M; Heijnen, M J H; Rietdyk, S

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine if healthy older adults adopt strategies to decrease the likelihood of obstacle contact, and to determine how these strategies are modified as a function of advancing age. Three age groups were examined: 20-25 yo (N = 19), 65-79 yo (N = 11), and 80-91 yo (N = 18). Participants stepped over a stationary, visible obstacle on a walkway. Step length and gait speed progressively decreased with advancing age; the shorter step length resulted in closer foot placement to the obstacle and an associated increased risk of obstacle contact. Lead (first limb to cross the obstacle) and trail (second) limb trajectories were examined for behavior that mitigated the risk of contact. (1) Consistent trail foot placement before the obstacle across all ages allowed space and time for the trail foot to clear the obstacle. (2) To avoid lead limb contact due to closer foot placement before and after the obstacle, the lead toe was raised more vertically after toe-off, and then the foot was extended beyond the landing position (termed lead overshoot) and retracted backwards to achieve the shortened step length. Lead overshoot progressively increased with advancing age. (3) Head angle was progressively lower with advancing age, an apparent attempt to gather more visual information during approach. Overall, a series of proactive strategies were adopted to mitigate risk of contact. However, the larger, more abrupt movements associated with a more vertical foot trajectory and lead overshoot may compromise whole body balance, indicating a possible trade-off between risk of contact and stability.

  15. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.

  16. Strengthening Parenting Skills: School Age. Secondary Learning Guide 2. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on strengthening parenting skills is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems;…

  17. Major Concerns of Hospitalized School-Age Children and Their Parents in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Ming-Gon John; Chan, Hiu Nam Helena

    2003-01-01

    A study identified major concerns of 23 hospitalized children (grades PreK-9) and their parents, including the interruption of the child's pace of academic study, his/her health condition and fears of medical treatment and therapy, his/her loneliness in the ward, and time management problems. Recommendations for hospital schoolteachers are…

  18. Positive Consequences of Institutionalization: Solidarity Between Elderly Parents and Their Middle-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristen Falde; Bengtson, Vern L.

    This research questions the frequent observation that elderly persons in long-term care institutions are isolated from their families, and that institutionalization is the final step in the breakdown of family relations. Data consisted of open-ended interviews with institutionalized elderly parents and with the child most involved with the parent…

  19. Parental Contributions to the Delay of Gratification in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Beth S.; Londhe, Rucha; Britner, Preston A.

    2013-01-01

    Delay of gratification in young children has been linked to long-term behavioral and academic outcomes. This study explored parent behavior during a laboratory paradigm as possible associates of delay ability. The sample consisted of 50 two- and three-year-old children and their primary caregivers. A newly created laboratory task, the gift delay…

  20. Parental Perspectives on Alcohol Use among School-Aged Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Research on alcohol misuse and abuse indicates that it can cause many personal health and family problems. This study investigated whether Ghanaian parents would reward their children with alcohol if they sent the children to buy alcoholic drinks and whether they would favor legislation banning children from using alcohol. Also addressed in this…

  1. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    PubMed

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  2. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity Effects on Parent-Child Discrepancy Using Identical Item Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlston, David L.; Ogles, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective assessment of child and adolescent behavioral and emotional symptoms is traditionally obtained from multiple sources. However, a substantial body of research indicates that parental and child reports provide significant amounts of contradicting diagnostic information. Although a large and growing body of research attempts to identify…

  3. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  4. IDEA Special Education Mediation. A Guide for Parents of Children & Youth (Ages 3-21)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This information guide was designed to assist in resolving special education disputes, as well as to provide dispute resolution options for parents or school district staff when communications are difficult or there is a dispute that cannot be resolved. Mediation is a voluntary process that (1) brings people together to resolve their…

  5. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  6. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction. PMID:25387669

  7. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-12-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80 ± 5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31 ± 1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  8. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-09-19

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  9. Lack of association of CFD polymorphisms with advanced age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jiexi; Chen, Yuhong; Tong, Zongzhong; Zhou, Xinrong; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Kevin; Hughes, Guy; Kasuga, Daniel; Bedell, Matthew; Lee, Clara; Ferreyra, Henry; Kozak, Igor; Haw, Weldon; Guan, Jean; Shaw, Robert; Stevenson, William; Weishaar, Paul D.; Nelson, Mark H.; Tang, Luosheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible central vision loss worldwide. Research has linked AMD susceptibility with dysregulation of the complement cascade. Typically, complement factor H (CFH), complement factor B (CFB), complement component 2 (C2), and complement component 3 (C3) are associated with AMD. In this paper, we investigated the association between complement factor D (CFD), another factor of the complement system, and advanced AMD in a Caucasian population. Methods Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1683564, rs35186399, rs1683563, rs3826945, rs34337649, and rs1651896, across the region covering CFD, were chosen for this study. One hundred and seventy-eight patients with advanced AMD and 161 age-matched normal controls were genotyped. Potential positive signals were further tested in another independent 445 advanced AMD patients and 190 controls. χ2 tests were performed to compare the allele frequencies between case and control groups. Results None of the six SNPs of CFD was found to be significantly associated with advanced AMD in our study. Conclusions Our findings suggest that CFD may not play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to AMD because no association was found between the six SNPs analyzed in the CFD region and advanced AMD. PMID:21139680

  10. Relationship of decrease in fecundity with advancing age to structural changes in mouse endometrium

    PubMed Central

    SHIMIZU, KIYOSHI; YAMADA, JINZO

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between decrease in fecundity and structural changes in the antimesometrial endometrium of the mouse. Fecundity was calculated as the number of animals showing a placental sign/number of copulated animals ×100 (%). Structural changes in the endometrium were examined by electron microscopy. A negative correlation between age and fecundity was found. Fecundity was 50% at 7 mo of age. At this age, amorphous material appeared in the region between the basement membrane deep to the luminal epithelium and the subepithelial cells. This material was sometimes attached to the basement membrane. It increased in amount with advancing age, as fecundity decreased. The structure of the uterine luminal epithelial cells did not alter with age. The results indicated that decrease in fecundity with advancing age is correlated with the appearance of amorphous material beneath the basal lamina of the endometrial epithelium. It is suggested that this could impair communication between the luminal epithelium and the endometrial stroma, which plays an important role in implantation. PMID:10697293

  11. Younger Dryas Age advance of Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H. ); Hendy, C.H. )

    1994-06-03

    A corrected radiocarbon age of 11,050 [+-] 14 years before present for an advance of the Franz Josef Glacier to the Waiho Loop terminal moraine on the western flank of New Zealand's Southern Alps shows that glacier advance on a South Pacific island was synchronous with initiation of the Younger Dryas in the North Atlantic region. Hence, cooling at the beginning of the Younger Dryas probably reflects global rather than regional forcing. The source for Younger Dryas climatic cooling may thus lie in the atmosphere rather than in a North Atlantic thermohaline switch. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Influences of age, gender, and parents' educational level in knowledge, behavior and preferences regarding noise, from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to loud sound during leisure activities for long periods of time is an important area to implement preventive health education, especially among young people. The aim was to identify the relations among awareness about the damaging effects of loud levels of sounds, previous exposures do loud sounds, preferences-related to sound levels and knowledge about hearing protection with age, gender, and their parent's educational level among children. Prospective cross-sectional. Seven hundred and forty students (5-16 years old) and 610 parents participated in the study. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and linear regression. About 86.5% of the children consider that loud sounds damage the ears and 53.7% dislike noisy places. Children were previously exposed to parties and concerts with loud music, Mardi Gras, firecrackers and loud music at home or in the car and loud music with earphones. About 18.4% of the younger children could select the volume of the music, versus 65.3% of the older ones. Children have poor information about hearing protection and do not have hearing protection device. Knowledge about the risks related to exposures to loud sounds and about strategies to protect their hearing increases with age, but preference for loud sounds and exposures to it increases too. Gender and parents' instructional level have little influence on the studied variables. Many of the children's recreational activities are noisy. It is possible that the tendency of increasing preference for loud sounds with age might be a result of a learned behavior. PMID:25387530

  13. Influences of age, gender, and parents' educational level in knowledge, behavior and preferences regarding noise, from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to loud sound during leisure activities for long periods of time is an important area to implement preventive health education, especially among young people. The aim was to identify the relations among awareness about the damaging effects of loud levels of sounds, previous exposures do loud sounds, preferences-related to sound levels and knowledge about hearing protection with age, gender, and their parent's educational level among children. Prospective cross-sectional. Seven hundred and forty students (5-16 years old) and 610 parents participated in the study. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and linear regression. About 86.5% of the children consider that loud sounds damage the ears and 53.7% dislike noisy places. Children were previously exposed to parties and concerts with loud music, Mardi Gras, firecrackers and loud music at home or in the car and loud music with earphones. About 18.4% of the younger children could select the volume of the music, versus 65.3% of the older ones. Children have poor information about hearing protection and do not have hearing protection device. Knowledge about the risks related to exposures to loud sounds and about strategies to protect their hearing increases with age, but preference for loud sounds and exposures to it increases too. Gender and parents' instructional level have little influence on the studied variables. Many of the children's recreational activities are noisy. It is possible that the tendency of increasing preference for loud sounds with age might be a result of a learned behavior.

  14. Trajectories of Externalizing Behavior from Age 2 to Age 9: Relations with Gender, Temperament, Ethnicity, Parenting, and Rater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jennifer L.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of children's externalizing behavior were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling of data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. According to ratings by both mothers and caregivers/teachers when children were 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 years old, externalizing behavior declined with age. However, mothers rated…

  15. Parental presence in the dental operatory-parent's point of view.

    PubMed

    Arathi, R; Ashwini, R

    1999-12-01

    Parental presence in the dental operatory is considered a controversial issue and majority of dentists prefer mothers not to be present in the operatory while the child receives dental care. Very few studies have focussed on the parental' point of view. The present study was carried out to find out the attitudes of parents towards being present determine in the operatory during dental procedure and also to determine if willingness to be present was influenced by variables like age, sex, order of the child among siblings and previous dental behavior. Data was collected from 1350 parents using a questionnaire designed by the authors. In the present study, 78.3% of parents expressed their willingness to be present with the child during dental procedures. The study also showed that parents of younger children were more likely to be willing to be present in the operatory and as age advanced, the percentage of parents willing to be present in the operatory decreased.

  16. Microsurgical varicocelectomy for infertile couples with advanced female age: natural history in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jeanne H; Bowles, Ben; Kamal, Khaled M; Jarvi, Keith; Zini, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Varicocele represents the most common cause of male infertility, and most reports indicate that varicocelectomy has a beneficial effect on male fertility and pregnancy outcome. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are an alternative to varicocelectomy for the management of couples with a varicocele. The age of the female partner is important in the decision-making process; however, the true influence of female age on pregnancy outcome following varicocelectomy or ART in these couples is unknown. We evaluated the outcomes of 2 cohorts of infertile men with a varicocele and a female partner 35 years of age or older; one group selected varicocelectomy and the other a nonsurgical approach. We reviewed a group of consecutive infertile men who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 110). We also reviewed a consecutive group of men with varicoceles who elected not to have surgery and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 94). The outcome measures included changes in semen parameters, pregnancy rates (assisted and unassisted), and use of ART. The surgical and nonsurgical groups had comparable semen parameters and female ages. Mean sperm concentration and motility increased significantly after varicocelectomy (P < .05). At a mean of 30 months follow-up, 35% of couples in the surgical group achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 6% achieved a pregnancy via ART (20% of this group attempted ART). In the nonsurgical group, 25% achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 16% achieved a pregnancy with ART (40% of this group attempted ART). This study on the natural history of infertile men with varicocele and advanced female age suggests that the surgical and nonsurgical approaches offer comparable pregnancy outcome (combined assisted and unassisted pregnancy rates are about 40%). Overall, these data suggest that varicocelectomy is an acceptable option for couples with advanced female age

  17. Bone Formation is Affected by Matrix Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Mostafa, Ahmed Jenan; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2016-10-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Although previous evidence shows that the accumulation of AGEs in bone matrix may impose significant effects on bone cells, the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation in vivo is still poorly understood. To address this issue, this study used a unique rat model with autograft implant to investigate the in vivo response of bone formation to matrix AGEs. Fluorochrome biomarkers were sequentially injected into rats to label the dynamic bone formation in the presence of elevated levels of matrix AGEs. After sacrificing animals, dynamic histomorphometry was performed to determine mineral apposition rate (MAR), mineralized surface per bone surface (MS/BS), and bone formation rate (BFR). Finally, nanoindentation tests were performed to assess mechanical properties of newly formed bone tissues. The results showed that MAR, MS/BS, and BFR were significantly reduced in the vicinity of implant cores with high concentration of matrix AGEs, suggesting that bone formation activities by osteoblasts were suppressed in the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In addition, MAR and BFR were found to be dependent on the surrounding environment of implant cores (i.e., cortical or trabecular tissues). Moreover, MS/BS and BFR were also dependent on how far the implant cores were away from the growth plate. These observations suggest that the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation is dependent on the biological milieu around the implants. Finally, nanoindentation test results indicated that the indentation modulus and hardness of newly formed bone tissues were not affected by the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In summary, high concentration of matrix AGEs may slow down the bone formation process in vivo, while imposing little effects on bone mineralization.

  18. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals. PMID:26575814

  19. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals.

  20. Advancing maternal age and trisomy screening: the practice challenges of facilitating choice and gaining consent.

    PubMed

    Birt, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies such as Trisomy 13, 18 and 21 (Patau's, Edward's and Down's syndrome respectively) is offered to all pregnant women in the first two trimesters.This article explores the varying considerations of consent for this type of screening, particularly in relation to women of advancing age who are at increased risk of carrying a pregnancy affected by a trisomy. The practical challenges or barriers of gaining valid, meaningful informed consent are discussed. PMID:26753259

  1. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  2. Changes in splicing factor expression are associated with advancing age in man.

    PubMed

    Holly, Alice C; Melzer, David; Pilling, Luke C; Fellows, Alexander C; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harries, Lorna W

    2013-09-01

    Human ageing is associated with decreased cellular plasticity and adaptability. Changes in alternative splicing with advancing age have been reported in man, which may arise from age-related alterations in splicing factor expression. We determined whether the mRNA expression of key splicing factors differed with age, by microarray analysis in blood from two human populations and by qRT-PCR in senescent primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Potential regulators of splicing factor expression were investigated by siRNA analysis. Approximately one third of splicing factors demonstrated age-related transcript expression changes in two human populations. Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) transcript expression correlated with splicing factor expression in human microarray data. Senescent primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells also demonstrated alterations in splicing factor expression, and changes in alternative splicing. Targeted knockdown of the ATM gene in primary fibroblasts resulted in up-regulation of some age-responsive splicing factor transcripts. We conclude that isoform ratios and splicing factor expression alters with age in vivo and in vitro, and that ATM may have an inhibitory role on the expression of some splicing factors. These findings suggest for the first time that ATM, a core element in the DNA damage response, is a key regulator of the splicing machinery in man.

  3. Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David

    2016-02-01

    We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.

  4. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  5. Aging parents' caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography. PMID:25763170

  6. Aging parents' caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography.

  7. Managing the screen-viewing behaviours of children aged 5–6 years: a qualitative analysis of parental strategies

    PubMed Central

    Jago, R; Zahra, J; Edwards, M J; Kesten, J M; Solomon-Moore, E; Thompson, J L; Sebire, S J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study used qualitative methods to: (1) examine the strategies that were used by parents of children aged 5–6 years to manage screen viewing; (2) identify key factors that affect the implementation of the strategies and (3) develop suggestions for future intervention content. Design Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 5–6 years participating in a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive and deductive content analysis. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Setting Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in the greater Bristol area (UK). Participants 53 parents of children aged 5–6 years. Results Parents reported that for many children, screen viewing was a highly desirable behaviour that was difficult to manage, and that parents used the provision of screen viewing as a tool for reward and/or punishment. Parents managed screen viewing by setting limits in relation to daily events such as meals, before and after school, and bedtime. Screen-viewing rules were often altered depending on parental preferences and tasks. Inconsistent messaging within and between parents represented a source of conflict at times. Potential strategies to facilitate reducing screen viewing were identified, including setting screen-viewing limits in relation to specific events, collaborative rule setting, monitoring that involves mothers, fathers and the child, developing a family-specific set of alternative activities to screen viewing and developing a child's ability to self-monitor their own screen viewing. Conclusions Managing screen viewing is a challenge for many parents and can often cause tension in the home. The data presented in this paper provide key suggestions of new approaches that could be incorporated into behaviour change programmes to reduce child screen viewing. PMID:26932143

  8. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children: Niños Activos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Latino children are at high risk of becoming obese. Physical activity (PA) can help prevent obesity. Parents can influence children’s PA through parenting practices. This study aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) sociodemographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived environmental, and (4) objectively measured environmental factors, to PA parenting practices. Methods A cross-sectional sample of Latino parents (n = 240) from Harris County, TX in 2011–2012 completed validated questionnaires to assess PA parenting practices, acculturation, familism, perception of their neighborhood environment, and demographics. Home addresses were mapped and linked to Census block-level crime and traffic data. Distance to the closest park was mapped by GIS. Regression models were built in a hierarchical step-wise fashion. Results Combined models showed R2 of 6.8% to 38.9% for different parenting practices. Significant correlations included sociodemographic variables with having outdoor toys available, psychological control, and promotion of inactivity. Cultural factors correlated with PA safety concern practices. Perceived environmental attributes correlated with five of seven parenting practices, while objectively-measured environmental attributes did not significantly correlate with PA parenting practices. Conclusion Interventions promoting PA among Latino preschoolers may need to address the social-ecological context in which families live to effectively promote PA parenting, especially parents’ perceptions of neighborhoods. PMID:25011669

  9. Translating Advances from the Basic Biology of Aging into Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work are needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trials paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measuring effects on short-term, clinically relevant outcomes, as opposed to long-term outcomes such as healthspan or lifespan, and developing biomarkers and outcome measures acceptable to regulatory agencies will be important. Research funding is a major roadblock, as is lack of investigators with combined expertise in the basic biology of aging, clinical geriatrics, and conducting investigational new drug clinical trials. Options are reviewed for developing a path from the bench to the bedside for interventions that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:23237984

  10. [Effects of a rich emotionally-satisfying childbirth experience of mothers on their later parental attitudes and behavior in school-age children].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kota; Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki; Kaga, Makiko; Misago, Chizuru; Takehara, Kenji; Inagaki, Masumi

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a rich, emotionally-satisfying childbirth experience (CBE) of mothers on the behavior of school-age children using longitudinal data measured from immediately to 7 years and 6 months after birth. The results of structural equation modeling revealed the following: 1) giving birth in a midwifery center enhances emotional satisfaction with CBE, 2) a rich CBE of mothers was associated with parental warmth, 3) parental warmth during early childhood increased prosocial behavior and reduced behavioral problems in school-age children, and 4) temperamentally difficulty in early childhood were linked to later behavioral problems in school-age children. Thus, a rich CBE and parental warmth were suggested to be factors contributing to the good behavior of school-age children. PMID:23012865

  11. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span.

  12. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  13. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Nation, Daniel A.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Dev, Sheena I.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Salmon, David P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs) previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors), advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor). This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus), and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25071567

  14. Parental problem-solving abilities and the association of sickle cell disease complications with health-related quality of life for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Lamia P; Daniel, Lauren C; Smith, Kelsey; Renée Robinson, M; Patterson, Chavis A

    2014-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current analysis sought to explore parent problem-solving abilities/skills as a moderator between SCD complications and HRQOL to evaluate applicability to pediatric SCD. At baseline, 83 children ages 6-12 years and their primary caregiver completed measures of child HRQOL. Primary caregivers also completed a measure of social problem-solving. A SCD complications score was computed from medical record review. Parent problem-solving abilities significantly moderated the association of SCD complications with child self-report psychosocial HRQOL (p = .006). SCD complications had a direct effect on parent proxy physical and psychosocial child HRQOL. Enhancing parent problem-solving abilities may be one approach to improve HRQOL for children with high SCD complications; however, modification of parent perceptions of HRQOL may require direct intervention to improve knowledge and skills involved in disease management.

  15. A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carme; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Monleon, Toni; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Sunyer, Jordi; Figueroa, Cecilia; Pichini, Simona; Vall, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS exposure at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of age determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in age related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain). Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of age, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM) 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01) and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99) compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48). Maternal self-reported ETS exposure in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, most of the children considered non-exposed by their mothers had detectable levels of cotinine above 1 ng/mL in their urine. Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS exposure during the 4-year follow-up period occurred. PMID:18254964

  16. Association of advanced age with concentrations of uraemic toxins in CKD.

    PubMed

    Rroji, Merita; Eloot, Sunny; Dhondt, Annemie; Van Biesen, Wim; Glorieux, Griet; Neirynck, Nathalie; Vandennoortgate, Nele; Liabeuf, Sophie; Massy, Ziad; Vanholder, Raymond

    2016-02-01

    To our knowledge, there are no studies on advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) analysing the impact of ageing on serum concentrations of uraemic toxins while adjusting for renal function. Knowledge of this feature, however, could influence prognostic assessment and therapeutic decision-making, e.g. about when to start dialysis or how intensive it should be. Indeed, the slowing down of metabolism with age may result in lower uraemic toxin concentrations, hence reducing their toxic effects. In this case, a later start of dialysis or less intensive dialysis may become justified in an already fragile population that might enjoy a better quality of life without a survival disadvantage with conservative treatment. We assessed the impact of advancing age on uraemic solute concentrations [blood, urea, nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, creatinine, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA), β2-microglobulin and a large array of protein-bound solutes] by matching 126 maintenance haemodialysis patients subdivided into two age-groups, younger vs. older (using the median as cut-off: 72 years). Concentrations were compared after age stratification and were matched with patient and dialysis characteristics. In addition, 93 non-dialysed CKD patients (median as cut-off: 70 years), with a comparable average estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between younger and older age-groups, were analysed. In haemodialysis patients, carboxy-methyl-furanpropionic acid (CMPF) levels were markedly higher and BUN and uric acid borderline lower in the older age-group. All other solutes showed no difference. At multifactor analysis, the concentration of several uraemic toxins was associated with residual renal function and protein intake in the overall haemodialysis group and the younger group, but the association with most solutes, especially those protein-bound, was lost in the older age-group. No differences were found in non-dialysed CKD patients. It was concluded that in this

  17. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jonathan; Xu, Beibei; Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J.; Martinez, Maria Elena; Le, Quynh-Thu; Mell, Loren K.; Murphy, James D.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  18. Gestational age and newborn size according to parental social mobility: an intergenerational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Loret de Mola, Christian; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the associations between socioeconomic trajectories from birth to adulthood and gestational age and birth size in the next generation, using linked data from two population-based birth cohorts carried out in a Brazilian city. By comparing socioeconomic trajectories of mothers and fathers, we attempted to identify-specific effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic trajectory on offspring birth weight, birth length, head circumference and gestational age at birth. Methods 2 population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in 1982 and 2004 in Pelotas (Brazil); 156 mothers and 110 fathers from the earlier cohort had children in 2004. Gestational age and birth length, weight and head circumference were measured. Analyses were carried out separately for mothers and fathers. Mediation analyses assessed the role of birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI). Results Among mothers, but not for fathers, childhood poverty was strongly associated with smaller size in the next generation (about 400 g in weight and 1.5 cm in height) and shorter gestations (about 2 weeks). Adult poverty did not play a role. For mothers, the associations with gestational age, birth length and weight—but not with head circumference—persisted after adjusting for maternal birth weight and for the height and weight of the grandmother. Maternal birth weight did not mediate the observed associations, but high maternal BMI in adulthood was partly responsible for the association with gestational age. Conclusions Strong effects of early poverty on gestational age and birth size in the next generation were observed among mothers, but not among fathers. These findings suggest a specific maternal effect of socioeconomic trajectory, and in particular of early poverty on offspring size and duration of pregnancy. PMID:26109560

  19. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  20. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation. PMID:26569300

  1. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-12

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  2. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs wound healing in advanced age by reducing neovascularization and fibroblast function

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Duscher, Dominik; Rustad, Kristine C.; Kosaraju, Revanth; Rodrigues, Melanie; Whittam, Alexander J.; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is characterized by impairments in wound healing, and evidence is accumulating that this may be due in part to a concomitant increase in oxidative stress. Extended exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal death via the destructive oxidation of intra-cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD/SOD3) is a prime antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space that eliminates ROS. Here, we demonstrate that reduced SOD3 levels contribute to healing impairments in aged mice. These impairments include delayed wound closure, reduced neovascularization, impaired fibroblast proliferation and increased neutrophil recruitment. We further establish that SOD3 KO and aged fibroblasts both display reduced production of TGF-β1, leading to decreased differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that wound healing impairments in ageing are associated with increased levels of ROS, decreased SOD3 expression and impaired extracellular oxidative stress regulation. Our results identify SOD3 as a possible target to correct age-related cellular dysfunction in wound healing. PMID:26663425

  3. Predicting Parental Monitoring Behaviours for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Parents of School-Aged Children: An Application of the Integrative Behavioural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housely, Alexandra; Branscum, Paul; Cheney, Marshall; Hofford, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to identify theory-based psychosocial and environmental determinants of parental monitoring practices related to child sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Design: Cross-sectional design. Method: Data were obtained from a convenience sample of parents (n = 270) with children attending an after-school…

  4. Stellar age spreads in clusters as imprints of cluster-parent clump densities

    SciTech Connect

    Parmentier, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Pfalzner, S.

    2014-08-20

    It has recently been suggested that high-density star clusters have stellar age distributions much narrower than that of the Orion Nebula Cluster, indicating a possible trend of narrower age distributions for denser clusters. We show this effect to likely arise from star formation being faster in gas with a higher density. We model the star formation history of molecular clumps in equilibrium by associating a star formation efficiency per free-fall time, ε{sub ff}, to their volume density profile. We focus on the case of isothermal spheres and we obtain the evolution with time of their star formation rate. Our model predicts a steady decline of the star formation rate, which we quantify with its half-life time, namely, the time needed for the star formation rate to drop to half its initial value. Given the uncertainties affecting the star formation efficiency per free-fall time, we consider two distinct values: ε{sub ff} = 0.1 and ε{sub ff} = 0.01. When ε{sub ff} = 0.1, the half-life time is of the order of the clump free-fall time, τ{sub ff}. As a result, the age distributions of stars formed in high-density clumps have smaller full-widths at half-maximum than those of stars formed in low-density clumps. When the star formation efficiency per free-fall time is 0.01, the half-life time is 10 times longer, i.e., 10 clump free-fall times. We explore what happens if the duration of star formation is shorter than 10τ{sub ff}, that is, if the half-life time of the star formation rate cannot be defined. There, we build on the invariance of the shape of the young cluster mass function to show that an anti-correlation between the clump density and the duration of star formation is expected. We therefore conclude that, regardless of whether the duration of star formation is longer than the star formation rate half-life time, denser molecular clumps yield narrower star age distributions in clusters. Published densities and stellar age spreads of young clusters and star

  5. Stellar Age Spreads in Clusters as Imprints of Cluster-parent Clump Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, G.; Pfalzner, S.; Grebel, E. K.

    2014-08-01

    It has recently been suggested that high-density star clusters have stellar age distributions much narrower than that of the Orion Nebula Cluster, indicating a possible trend of narrower age distributions for denser clusters. We show this effect to likely arise from star formation being faster in gas with a higher density. We model the star formation history of molecular clumps in equilibrium by associating a star formation efficiency per free-fall time, epsilonff, to their volume density profile. We focus on the case of isothermal spheres and we obtain the evolution with time of their star formation rate. Our model predicts a steady decline of the star formation rate, which we quantify with its half-life time, namely, the time needed for the star formation rate to drop to half its initial value. Given the uncertainties affecting the star formation efficiency per free-fall time, we consider two distinct values: epsilonff = 0.1 and epsilonff = 0.01. When epsilonff = 0.1, the half-life time is of the order of the clump free-fall time, τff. As a result, the age distributions of stars formed in high-density clumps have smaller full-widths at half-maximum than those of stars formed in low-density clumps. When the star formation efficiency per free-fall time is 0.01, the half-life time is 10 times longer, i.e., 10 clump free-fall times. We explore what happens if the duration of star formation is shorter than 10τff, that is, if the half-life time of the star formation rate cannot be defined. There, we build on the invariance of the shape of the young cluster mass function to show that an anti-correlation between the clump density and the duration of star formation is expected. We therefore conclude that, regardless of whether the duration of star formation is longer than the star formation rate half-life time, denser molecular clumps yield narrower star age distributions in clusters. Published densities and stellar age spreads of young clusters and star-forming regions

  6. Parent-reported eating and leisure-time activity selection patterns related to energy balance in preschool-and school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children’s eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well-visit. Setting Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants One hundred seventy-four children: 49% preschool-aged, 54% female, 28% Hispanic, and 34% overweight/at risk for overweight. Variables Measured Parent-reported eating/leisure-time behaviors. Height/weight from medical records. Analysis Analyses of covariance/Chi-square tests; significance at P ≤ 0.05. Results By parents’ report, preschool-aged children consumed more servings/day of low-fat dairy (2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 1.7 ± 1.5; P <.01), fewer servings/day of sweetened drinks (1.4 ± 1.9 vs. 2.2 ± 2.6; P <.01), and watched fewer hours/day of weekend TV (2.3 ± 1. 3 vs. 2.7 ± 1.3; P <.05) than school-aged children. Fewer preschool-aged children consumed salty (14.0% vs. 26.1%; P <.05) and sweet (16.3% vs. 29.5%; P <.05) snack foods daily, and a greater percentage regularly consumed dinner with a parent (93.0% vs. 80.7%; P <.05), as assessed by parent report. Conclusions and Implications Parent-reported children’s eating/leisure-time patterns that may influence energy balance were less healthy in the school-aged children. However, most children did not meet recommendations, irrespective of age/weight. Interventions for meeting recommendations should start with families with preschool-aged children. Future research should focus on identifying factors that might be contributing to increased reporting of problematic food and leisure-time activity patterns in school-aged children. PMID:19161916

  7. Academic Achievement and Aging out of Care: Foster Parents' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Foster children experience multiple barriers and challenges that, amongst other issues, prevent them from achieving academically. At the age of 18, foster youth are forced out of the Department of Children and Families care, leading many of them to become homeless or to return to the homes from which they were displaced. Scholarly literature and…

  8. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  9. Protein-bound advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) as bioactive amino acid derivatives in foods.

    PubMed

    Henle, T

    2005-12-01

    The Maillard reaction or nonenzymatic browning is of outstanding importance for the formation of flavour and colour of heated foods. Corresponding reactions, also referred to as "glycation", are known from biological systems, where the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) shall play an important pathophysiological role in diabetes and uremia. In this review, pathways leading to the formation of individual protein-bound lysine and arginine derivatives in foods are described and nutritional consequences resulting from this posttranslational modifications of food proteins are discussed. PMID:15997413

  10. Community Reaction to Older-age Parental AIDS Caregivers and their Families: Evidence from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Knodel, John; Williams, Nathalie; Kim, Sovan Kiry; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2010-01-01

    Accounts of community reaction to persons with HIV/AIDS and their families typically focus only on negative reactions stemming from stigmatization with little acknowledgement of variation over time and across settings. To usefully guide local interventions, a broader view is needed that also encompasses attitudes and actions stemming from sympathy and friendship. We examine community reaction in Cambodia to families from the perspective of parents of adults who died of AIDS or currently receive antiretroviral therapy. Survey evidence and open-ended interviews reveal a mixture of reactions with respect to social relations, interactions with local officials, gossip, business patronage, funeral participation, and orphaned grandchildren. Positive support is often dominant and reactions typically improve substantially over time. Misplaced fears of contagion through casual contact underlie most negative reactions. Moral condemnation or blame is not evident as a source of negative reactions. Overall a sufficiently supportive atmosphere likely exists in many localities to facilitate community based efforts to mitigate the epidemic's impact on affected families. PMID:20161630

  11. Learning to bypass the central bottleneck: declining automaticity with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Maquestiaux, François; Laguë-Beauvais, Maude; Ruthruff, Eric; Hartley, Alan; Bherer, Louis

    2010-03-01

    Does advancing age reduce the ability to bypass the central bottleneck through task automatization? To answer this question, the authors asked 12 older adults and 20 young adults to first learn to perform an auditory-vocal task (low vs. high pitch) in 6 single-task sessions. Their dual-task performance was then assessed with a psychological refractory period paradigm, in which the highly practiced auditory-vocal task was presented as Task 2, along with an unpracticed visual-manual Task 1. Converging evidence indicated qualitative differences in dual-task performance with age: Whereas the vast majority of young adults bypassed the bottleneck, at most 1 of the 12 older adults was able to do so. Older adults are either reluctant to bypass the bottleneck (as a matter of strategy) or have lost the ability to automatize task performance. PMID:20230138

  12. Identifying Moderators of the Link Between Parent and Child Anxiety Sensitivity: The Roles of Gender, Positive Parenting, and Corporal Punishment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rebecca A; Weems, Carl F

    2015-07-01

    A substantial body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of anxiety problems and research has now begun to examine the links between parenting, parent anxiety sensitivity and their child's anxiety sensitivity. However, the extant literature has provided mixed findings as to whether parent anxiety sensitivity is associated with child anxiety sensitivity, with some evidence suggesting that other factors may influence the association. Theoretically, specific parenting behaviors may be important to the development of child anxiety sensitivity and also in understanding the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. In this study, 191 families (n = 255 children and adolescents aged 6-17 and their parents) completed measures of child anxiety sensitivity (CASI) and parenting (APQ-C), and parents completed measures of their own anxiety sensitivity (ASI) and their parenting (APQ-P). Corporal punishment was associated with child anxiety sensitivity and the child's report of their parent's positive parenting behaviors moderated the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. The child's gender was also found to moderate the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity, such that there was a positive association between girls' and their parents anxiety sensitivity and a negative association in boys. The findings advance the understanding of child anxiety sensitivity by establishing a link with corporal punishment and by showing that the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity may depend upon the parenting context and child's gender.

  13. Ameliorating the impact of teen-age pregnancy on parent and child.

    PubMed

    Bell, C A; Casto, G; Daniels, D S

    1983-01-01

    The increase in teen-age pregnancy creates a growing population of young mothers unable to care adequately for themselves or their children. Responding to budget cuts in Utah, the authors report on a program that combines the resources of an agency and a university program to teach mothers child care and self-sufficiency, promotes the healthy development of their children, and gives field training to social work students.

  14. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan; Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustav

    2009-09-01

    Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable current research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The 2005 survey, based on the same children, now 6-8 years of age, also asked if, during the intervening period, the child had been diagnosed with Autism, Asperger's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome. From a total of 4779 eligible children, 72 (60 boys, 12 girls) were identified with parentally reported autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other background factors and the ASD diagnosis indicated five statistically significant variables: (1) maternal smoking; (2) male sex; (3) economic problems in the family; (4) condensation on windows, a proxy for low ventilation rate in the home; (5) PVC flooring, especially in the parents' bedroom. In addition, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD 5 years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH

  15. Successful Aging: Advancing the Science of Physical Independence in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Woods, Adam J.; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W.; Carter, Christy S.; Clark, David J.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Corbett, Duane B.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Foster, Thomas C.; Gundermann, David M.; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T.; Mutchie, Heather L.; Perri, Michael G.; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Solberg, Laurence M.; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘Successful Aging’ has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. The domain in which consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  16. Biological Effects Induced by Specific Advanced Glycation End Products in the Reconstructed Skin Model of Aging.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Hervé; Zucchi, Hélène; Dai, Zhenyu; Sell, David R; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M; Asselineau, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the aging skin. To understand the biological effects of individual AGEs, skin reconstructed with collagen selectively enriched with N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), N(ɛ)-(carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL), methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), or pentosidine was studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of α6 integrin at the dermal epidermal junction by CEL and CML (p<0.01). Laminin 5 was diminished by CEL and MG-H1 (p<0.05). Both CML and CEL induced a robust increase (p<0.01) in procollagen I. In the culture medium, IL-6, VEGF, and MMP1 secretion were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by MG-H1. While both CEL and CML decreased MMP3, only CEL decreased IL-6 and TIMP1, while CML stimulated TIMP1 synthesis significantly (p<0.05). mRNA expression studies using qPCR in the epidermis layer showed that CEL increased type 7 collagen (COL7A1), β1, and α6 integrin, while CML increased only COL7A1 (p<0.05). MG-H1-modified collagen had no effect. Importantly, in the dermis layer, MMP3 mRNA expression was increased by both CML and MG-H1. CML also significantly increased the mRNAs of MMP1, TIMP1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (p<0.05). Mixed effects were present in CEL-rich matrix. Minimally glycoxidized pentosidine-rich collagen suppressed most mRNAs of the genes studied (p<0.05) and decreased VEGF and increased MCP1 protein expression. Taken together, this model of the aging skin suggests that a combination of AGEs tends to counterbalance and thus minimizes the detrimental biological effects of individual AGEs. PMID:26309782

  17. Factors Influencing the Prognosis of Octogenarians with Aortic Stenosis in the Advanced Aging Societies.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuai; Yamaguchi, Kazuto; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Saki; Nakashima, Ryuma; Sugamori, Takashi; Endo, Akihiro; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The recognition of clinical symptoms is critical to developing an effective therapeutic strategy for aortic valve stenosis (AS). Although AS is common, little is known about the factors influencing the natural history of AS patients who are 80 years of age older in advanced aging societies. We investigated the natural history and indications for valve procedures in AS patients of 80 years of age or older. Methods The medical records of 108 consecutive AS patients (moderate grade or higher) who are 80 years of age or older (mean age, 84.2±3.9 years; female, 65 patients) were reviewed to investigate their symptoms, the development of congestive heart failure, the incidence of referral for aortic valve replacement and death. The median duration of follow-up was 9 months (interquartile range, 2 to 25 months). Results The probability of remaining free of events (valve replacement and death) was 29±13% in all patients. There was no significant difference in the aortic valve area of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (0.85±0.28 cm(2) vs. 0.88±0.25 cm(2), p=0.59). The aortic valve (AV) velocity and AV area index were predictors of subsequent cardiac events (p<0.05). Conclusion The severity of AS was the only factor to affect the prognosis of AS patients who were 80 years old of age or older. It is necessary to frequently monitor the subjective symptoms of such patients and to objectively measure the AV area. PMID:27580533

  18. Indirect Effects of the Family Check-Up on School-Age Academic Achievement Through Improvements in Parenting in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that the impact of the Family Check-Up on parent use of positive behavior support would indirectly improve academic achievement scores at school age. The study included a sample of 731 high-risk families recruited from Women, Infant, and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program settings in 3 geographically distinct areas. The results demonstrated that changes in positive parenting between the child ages of 2 and 3 were associated with higher scores on children’s school-age academic achievement, as measured by the Woodcock–Johnson III (W-J) Academic Skills composite. Moreover, structural equation modeling revealed that random assignment to the intervention was associated with higher levels of children’s academic achievement at age 5 and age 7.5 indirectly, through greater increases in parents’ use of positive behavior support in intervention families than in control families. Results are discussed with respect to the potential of a brief parenting intervention for improving parenting practices that promote academic achievement up to 5 years later. The results have promising implications for efforts to promote child adaptation in the school environment. PMID:24319295

  19. Alterations in Mouse Hypothalamic Adipokine Gene Expression and Leptin Signaling following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury and with Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Bigford, Gregory E.; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie C.; Nash, Mark S.; Bethea, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in an accelerated trajectory of several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and related aging characteristics, however the molecular mechanisms that are activated have not been explored. Adipokines and leptin signaling are known to play a critical role in neuro-endocrine regulation of energy metabolism, and are now implicated in central inflammatory processes associated with CVD. Here, we examine hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling in response to chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age. We demonstrate significant changes in fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF), resistin (Rstn), long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) and suppressor of cytokine-3 (SOCS3) gene expression following chronic SCI and with advanced age. LepRb and Jak2/stat3 signaling is significantly decreased and the leptin signaling inhibitor SOCS3 is significantly elevated with chronic SCI and advanced age. In addition, we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the uncoupled protein response (UPR) as a biological hallmark of leptin resistance. We observe the activation of the ER stress/UPR proteins IRE1, PERK, and eIF2alpha, demonstrating leptin resistance in chronic SCI and with advanced age. These findings provide evidence for adipokine-mediated inflammatory responses and leptin resistance as contributing to neuro-endocrine dysfunction and CVD risk following SCI and with advanced age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to SCI and age related CVD may provide insight that will help direct specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:22815920

  20. (Positive) power to the child: The role of children's willing stance toward parents in developmental cascades from toddler age to early preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J

    2015-11-01

    In a change from the once-dominant view of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, children are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. However, these newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts, parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months and longitudinally stable; (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months; and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology as well as for prevention and intervention.

  1. (Positive) Power to the Child: The Role of Children's Willing Stance toward Parents in Developmental Cascades from Toddler Age to Early Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to once dominant views of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, they are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. But those newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months, and longitudinally stable, (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months, and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology, and for prevention and intervention. PMID:26439058

  2. (Positive) power to the child: The role of children's willing stance toward parents in developmental cascades from toddler age to early preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J

    2015-11-01

    In a change from the once-dominant view of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, children are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. However, these newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts, parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months and longitudinally stable; (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months; and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology as well as for prevention and intervention. PMID:26439058

  3. Effect of parents occupational exposures on risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C. )

    1989-06-01

    Epidemiologic research on the effects of parental occupational exposures on fetal development has been limited. The National Natality and Fetal Mortality surveys obtained applicable data of probability samples of live births and fetal deaths which occurred in the US in 1980 among married women. Analyses were conducted for case groups of stillbirths (2,096 mothers, 3,170 fathers), preterm deliveries (<37 weeks completed gestation) (363 mothers, 552 fathers), and small-for gestational-age infants (218 mothers, 371 fathers) compared with controls. Occupational exposures were defined by industry of employment and by imputed exposures based on a job-exposure linkage system. For stillbirth, maternal work in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industry and lead exposure and paternal employment in the textile industry had the largest odds ratios. Preterm birth was most strongly associated with maternal lead exposure, corroborating previous findings. Twofold increased risk of preterm delivery was found with paternal employment in the glass, clay, and stone; textile; and mining industries. Paternal exposures to x-rays and polyvinyl alcohol were associated with 1.5-fold increase in risk. The occupation of the mother was not associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant, in contrast to paternal employment in the art and textile industries. Several toxic agents were associated with risk elevation of 1.3 or greater for fathers, most notably benzene.

  4. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  5. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  6. Making It Visible: An Exploration of How Adult Education Participation Informs Parent Involvement in Education for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connections between adult education participation and parent involvement in children's education--connections identified during an exploratory case study of parents transitioning into the workforce in compliance with welfare requirements. Data sources included interviews with parents, adult educators, and elementary…

  7. A Parent's Guide to Services for Children, from Birth to Three Years of Age, with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This booklet introduces parents to "Tennessee's Early Intervention System" (TEIS). This system is funded through the Tennessee Department of Education. Through TEIS parents can get answers about their baby's growth and development and find the special services their child may need. Parents can also use this system to determine which other services…

  8. Work-Family Conflict: An Exploration of the Differential Effects of a Dependent Childs Age on Working Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Colette; McCarthy, Alma

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this article is to explore the impact of life cycle stage, specifically parenting stage, on work-family conflict among working parents to determine whether discernible differences are evident among those individuals at the early stage of their parenting cycle compared with those with older children.…

  9. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents' Restriction of Screen Time among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents ("N" =…

  10. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD2 TaqIA) Interacts with Maternal Parenting in Predicting Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility and Age Differences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Yanmiao; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Most gene-environment interaction research on depression has largely focused on negative environment and to a lesser extent on positive environment. Moreover, to date few studies have directly examined G × E at different periods in development, particularly during early adolescence. The present study addressed these issues by examining the concurrent and prospective longitudinal effects of maternal parenting, DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, and their interaction on adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of 1026 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 11.33 ± 0.47 years at T1, 50.3% girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study from age 11 to 13. Results indicated that maternal positive and negative parenting significantly concurrently predicted adolescent depressive symptoms at all three waves, whereas TaqIA polymorphism had no main effect on depressive symptoms. TaqIA polymorphism interacted with negative parenting in predicting concurrent depressive symptoms at age 11 and 12. A1 carriers were more susceptible to negative parenting compared to A2A2 homozygotes, such that adolescents carrying A1 alleles experiencing high negative parenting reported more depressive symptoms but fared better when experiencing low negative parenting. However, the interaction became nonsignificant at age 13, indicating the interaction of TaqIA polymorphism and maternal parenting may vary with development. Also, there was no G × E effect on longitudinal change in depression. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and shed light on the potential for dynamic change in gene-environment interactions over development.

  11. Source of Parental Reports of Child Height and Weight During Phone Interviews and Influence on Obesity Prevalence Estimates Among Children Aged 3–17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective We compared parental reports of children’s height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. Methods In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3–17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. Results About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (<10 years of age) vs. 6% of older children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available. PMID:23277659

  12. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Daniel O.; Dobolyi, David G.; Isaacs, David A.; Roman, Olivia C.; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Donahue, Manus J.; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H.; Landman, Bennett A.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Rane, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson’s Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2nd, or 3rd order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  13. Recent Demographic Developments in France: Relatively Low Mortality at Advanced Ages

    PubMed Central

    Prioux, France; Barbieri, Magali

    2013-01-01

    France had 65.3 million inhabitants as of 1 January 2012, including 1.9 million in the overseas départements. The population is slightly younger than that of the European Union as a whole. Population growth continues at the same rate, mainly through natural increase. There are now more African than European immigrants living in France. Fertility was practically stable in 2011 (2.01 children per woman), but the lifetime fertility of the 1971–1972 cohorts reached a historic low in metropolitan France (1.99 children per woman), nevertheless remaining among the highest in Europe. Abortion levels remained stable and rates among young people are no longer increasing. The marriage rate is falling and the divorce rate has stabilized (46.2 divorces per 100 marriages in 2011). The risk of divorce decreases with age, but has greatly increased among the under-70s over the last decade. Life expectancy at birth (78.4 years for men, 85.0 for women) has continued to increase at the same rate, mainly thanks to progress at advanced ages. Among European countries, France has the lowest mortality in the over-65 age group, but it ranks less well for premature mortality. PMID:24285939

  14. The influence of offspring's sex and age at parents' divorce on the intergenerational transmission of divorce, Norwegian first marriages 1980-2003.

    PubMed

    Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Engelhardt, Henriette

    2009-07-01

    Whether a couple remain married or divorce has repeatedly been shown to be of importance for the marital stability of their children. This paper addresses the related question of whether the intergenerational transmission of divorce is contingent on the age at which parents divorced and the sex of the spouse who experienced the parents' divorce. Using a population-wide data-set on Norwegian first marriages followed from 1980 to 2003, we find that the intergenerational transmission hypothesis holds also for Norway, that this relationship is stronger for women than for men, and that there is a negative age gradient in the transmission effect for women. The experience of multiple family transitions, such as a parent's remarriage or a second divorce, does not affect couples' divorce risk.

  15. Sociodemographic, home environment and parental influences on total and device-specific screen viewing in children aged 2 years and below: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Si Ning; Teh, Long Hua; Tay, Wei Rong; Anantharaman, Saradha; van Dam, Rob M; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chua, Hwee Ling; Wong, Pey Gein; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate total and device-specific screen viewing (SV) and its determinants in children aged 2 years and below. Design Cross-sectional study conducted in February 2014. Setting Well-child clinics in Singapore national polyclinics. Participants Parents of children (Singapore citizens or permanent residents) aged 2 years and below were enrolled during routine clinic visits. Out of 794 eligible parent–child dyads, 725 (91.3%) provided informed consent and were included in the analysis. Main outcome measures Device-specific information on SV and determinants was ascertained using interviewer-administered survey questionnaires. The prevalence and duration of aggregate and device-specific SV were reported. Associations with potential determinants were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of daily SV and SV ≥2 h/day constituted 53.5% and 16.3%, respectively. The majority of children aged 18–24 months (88.2%) engaged in daily SV. TVs and mobile devices were the most commonly used screen devices, followed by computers and video consoles. In multivariable analysis, younger child age, Chinese ethnicity and setting rules on time of SV were strongly and consistently associated with lower levels of any SV and SV ≥2 h/day. Parental knowledge of SV recommendations and less parental SV were additionally associated with lower levels of SV ≥2 h/day. The number of screen devices was not associated with children's SV. Conclusions In contrast to recommendations, SV prevalence in children aged less than 2 years is high and appears to increase steadily across age groups. TVs and mobile devices are most frequently used. Improving parental knowledge of SV recommendations, reducing parental SV and especially the implementation of strict rules on SV time could be successful strategies to reduce SV in young children. PMID

  16. Identifying Moderators of the Link between Parent and Child Anxiety Sensitivity: The Roles of Gender, Positive Parenting, and Corporal Punishment

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rebecca A.; Weems, Carl F.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of anxiety problems and research has now begun to examine the links between parenting, parent anxiety sensitivity and their child’s anxiety sensitivity. However, the extant literature has provided mixed findings as to whether parent anxiety sensitivity is associated with child anxiety sensitivity, with some evidence suggesting that others factors may influence the association. Theoretically, specific parenting behaviors may be important to the development of child anxiety sensitivity and also in understanding the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. In this study, 191 families (n = 255 children and adolescents aged 6–17 and their parents) completed measures of child anxiety sensitivity (CASI) and parenting (APQ-C), and parents completed measures of their own anxiety sensitivity (ASI) and their parenting (APQ-P). Corporal punishment was associated with child anxiety sensitivity and the child’s report of their parent’s positive parenting behaviors moderated the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. The child’s gender was also found to moderate the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity, such that there was a positive association between girls and parent anxiety sensitivity and a negative association in boys. The findings advance the understanding of child anxiety sensitivity by establishing a link with corporal punishment and by showing that the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity may depend upon the parenting context and child’s gender. PMID:25301177

  17. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? 286.150 Section 286.150... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized...

  18. I Don't Feel Good: A Guide to Childhood Complaints and Diseases. Suggestions for Teachers, Parents, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammers, Jane W.

    This handbook discusses the most common childhood conditions that teachers, parents, and caregivers see in children between the ages of 4 and 10; describes signs and symptoms of over 30 common childhood health problems; provides practical strategies for getting children back to the well state once they are ill; and offers guidance as to when…

  19. Digital Game Playing and Direct and Indirect Aggression in Early Adolescence: The Roles of Age, Social Intelligence, and Parent-Child Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Rimpela, Arja

    2007-01-01

    The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression,…

  20. Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

  1. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  2. Age 21 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Discussion Paper No. 1245-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Mann, Emily A.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted the first cost-benefit analysis of a federally financed, comprehensive early childhood program. The Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers are located in public schools and provide educational and family support services to low-income children from ages 3 to 9. Using data from a cohort of children born in 1980 who participate in the…

  3. A Selective Intervention Program for Inhibited Preschool-Aged Children of Parents with an Anxiety Disorder: Effects on Current Anxiety Disorders and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Edwards, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of early intervention for preschool-aged children at risk of anxiety disorders is investigated. Brief early intervention delivered through parents can reduce anxiety and associated risk and may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety in some young children.

  4. "Does AIDS Hurt?": Educating Young Children about AIDS. Suggestions for Parents, Teachers, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia; Villarreal, Sylvia

    This document gives parents, teachers, and others basic information and suggested guidelines for teaching children aged 10 and younger about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These topics concerning AIDS and young children are discussed: (1) talking with young children about AIDS; (2) things to keep in mind when talking with children,…

  5. Patchwork Quilt or Seamless Day? Parent, Teacher and Child Care Staff Views on Early Childhood Education Programs for Kindergarten-Age Children in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura C.

    2003-01-01

    Examined parent, teacher, and child care staff views on coordination between part-day school and child care. Found some key differences among the groups in priorities for programs for kindergarten-age children. Devised arguments in favor of small-scale demonstration programs to expand provision of child care services and for rigorous evaluation of…

  6. Parent Training Interventions for Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children Aged 5 to 18 Years. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2012:2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwi, Morris; Jones, Hannah; Thorgaard, Camilla; York, Ann; Dennis, Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that are present before the age of seven years, seen in a range of situations, inconsistent with the child's developmental level and causing social or academic impairment. Parent training…

  7. Sources of Variability in Language Development of Children with Cochlear Implants: Age at Implantation, Parental Language, and Early Features of Children's Language Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szagun, Gisela; Schramm, Satyam A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relative influence of age at implantation, parental expansions, and child language internal factors on grammatical progress in children with cochlear implants (CI). Data analyses used two longitudinal corpora of spontaneous speech samples, one with twenty-two and one with twenty-six children,…

  8. Cable aging and condition monitoring of radiation resistant nano-dielectrics in advanced reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Kidder, Michelle; Polyzos, Georgios; Leonard, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  9. Clinical profile of patients with advanced age and inflammatoric dilated cardiomyopathy on endomyocardial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Chen, Ting-Hui; Schmidt, Andreas; Saenger, Joerg; Lauer, Bernward

    2015-01-01

    Background Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is an important tool when patients with inflammatoric cardiomyopathy (DCMi) are evaluated. We aimed to assess the clinical profile of elderly patients with DCMi on EMB. Methods Retrospective study of all consecutive patients hospitalized from January 2007 to December 2011 with clinical suspicion of DCMi undergoing EMB. Patients with evidence of DCMi on EMB (Group 1 ≥ 70 years, n = 85; Group 3 < 70 years; n = 418) were compared to patients of the same age group without evidence of DCMi on EMB (Group 2 ≥ 70 years, n = 45; Group 4 < 70 years; n = 147). Results Among 24,275 patients treated at our institution during the study period, 695 had clinical suspicion of DCMi and underwent EMB; 503 (2.1%) patients had DCMi on EMB. There were more male patients in Group 1, mean age was 74 ± 2.8 years, mean ejection fraction was 38% ± 14%. On presentation, signs of hemodynamic compromise (NYHA functional class III/IV, low cardiac output/index, and low cardiac power index) were more frequent in Group 1. EMB revealed viral genome in 78% of the patients, parvovirus B19 (PVB) was frequently encountered in both age groups (Group 1: 69.4% vs. Group 2: 59.6%); detection of more than one viral genome was more frequent in Group 1 (21.2% vs. 11.2%; P = 0.02) whereas the extent of immune response was significantly lower in individuals with advanced age. Conclusions In patients ≥ 70 years with DCMi on EMB signs of hemodynamic compromise, detection of multiple viral genomes together with an overall lower extent of immune response were more frequently observed. PMID:26788036

  10. Marfanoid habitus, inguinal hernia, advanced bone age, and distinctive facial features: a new collagenopathy?

    PubMed

    Mégarbané, André; Hanna, Nadine; Chouery, Eliane; Jalkh, Nadine; Mehawej, Cybel; Boileau, Catherine

    2012-05-01

    We report on two sibs, a girl, and a boy, with tall stature, long, and triangular faces, prominent foreheads with high frontal hairlines, telecanthus, downward slanting of the palpebral fissures, ptosis of the eyelids, everted lower eyelids, large ears, long noses, full, and everted vermilions, highly arched and narrow palates, tooth crowding, thin and long uvulae, coloboma of the alae, hyperextensible joints, long digits, positive thumb signs, flat feet, slightly diminished muscle strength, myopia, astigmatia, inguinal hernia, and vesical diverticula. Total body X-rays showed the presence of advanced bone age in both sibs and bilateral hallux valgus in the girl. Array-CGH did not reveal any pathological CNV. Molecular analysis of FBN1, FBN2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and CHST14 gene was normal, and SNP linkage analysis excluded more candidate genes. Differential diagnoses and the possibility that we might be reporting on a hitherto unreported syndrome are discussed.

  11. An Approximately 4.35 Ga Ar-Ar Age for GRA 8 and the Complex Chronology of its Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2010-01-01

    GRA06128 and GRA06129 (hereafter GRA 8 and GRA 9) are partial melts of a parent body of approximately chondritic composition. We reported a conventional Sm-147-Nd-143 isochron age of 4.559+/-0.096 Ga and a 146 Sm-142Nd model age of 4.549+/-0.036 for combined data for the two rocks. Plagioclase plus whole rock and leachate (approx.phosphate) samples gave a secondary Sm-147-Nd-143 age of 3.4+/-0.4 Ga. An Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.460+/-0.028 Ga was interpreted as dating metamorphism in GRA 9. We report Ar-39-Ar-40 ages in the range approx.4344-4366 Ma for GRA 8, establishing similar but different Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for the two rocks, consistent with their different Sr-isotopic systematics, and discuss these ages in the context of the complex sequence of events that affected these samples.

  12. Age of the crowfoot advance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. A glacial event coeval with the Younger Dryas oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, M.A.; Rutter, N.W. ); Osborn, G. )

    1994-05-01

    A suite of sediment core samples was recovered from two lakes, Crowfoot and Bow lakes, that are adjacent to the Crowfoot moraine type locality, to identify and radiocarbon date sediments related to the Crowfoot advance. The Crowfoot moraine system, widely recognized throughout northwestern North America, represents a glacial advance that is post-Wisconsin and pre-Mazama tephra in age. An interval of inorganic sediments bracketed by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of ca. 11,330 and 10,100 [sup 14]C yr B.P. is associated with the Crowfoot moraine. The Crowfoot advance is therefore approximately synchronous with the European Younger Dryas cold event (ca. 11,000-10,000 [sup 14]C yr B.P.). Furthermore, the termination of the Crowfoot advance also appears to have been abrupt. These findings illustrate that the climatic change responsible for the European Younger Dryas event extended beyond the northern Atlantic basin and western Europe. Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) depressions associated with the Crowfoot advance are similar to those determined for the Little Ice Age advance, whereas Younger Dryas ELA depressions in Europe significantly exceed Little Ice Age ELA depressions. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years, and possible mediating effects of availability and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Totland, Torunn H; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Andersen, Lene F

    2013-09-14

    The present study examined the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake over 20 months, and possible mediating effects of adolescents' availability and accessibility of soft drinks at home. A total of 866 adolescents, with data on two time points in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-9), were included in the analyses. Data on intake and determinants of soft drinks were collected from adolescents and both parents by questionnaires. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated the total and direct effects of parental education on adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years. In order to investigate prospective relationships, two models were set up to measure the (1) prediction and (2) change in consumption over 20 months. Possible mediation effects of availability and perceived accessibility at home were further examined in both models. The results showed that a lower level of parental education predicted a higher intake of soft drinks among adolescents after 20 months, and that higher perceived accessibility of soft drinks reported by adolescents and mothers explained 39 % of the total effect. No relationship was observed between parental education and the change in adolescents' intake of soft drinks over 20 months. Interventions aimed at families with low parental education should target the perceived accessibility of soft drinks at home in order to diminish social differences in adolescents' soft drink consumption.

  14. Parent Interview Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

  15. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  16. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests. PMID:26065331

  17. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie A; Allen, Matthew S; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-04-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n=12, mean age: 24 years) and healthy old (n=11, 71 years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults' dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults.

  18. Children's Callous-Unemotional Traits Moderate Links between Their Positive Relationships with Parents at Preschool Age and Externalizing Behavior Problems at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Yoon, Jeung Eun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Growing research on children's traits as moderators of links between parenting and developmental outcomes has shown that variations in positivity, warmth, or responsiveness in parent-child relationships are particularly consequential for temperamentally difficult or biologically vulnerable children. But very few studies have…

  19. Lysozyme enhances renal excretion of advanced glycation endproducts in vivo and suppresses adverse age-mediated cellular effects in vitro: a potential AGE sequestration therapy for diabetic nephropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, F.; Cai, W.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Vlassara, H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lysozyme (LZ), a host-defense protein, contains an 18 amino-acid domain with high affinity binding for sugar-derived proteins or lipids, called advanced glycation endproducts (AGE), that are implicated in diabetes- and age-dependent complications (DC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A) The effects of LZ on AGE- removal were tested in vivo. LZ was injected (200 ug/day, i.p., X2 weeks) in non-obese diabetic (NOD), db/db (+/+) mice, and non-diabetic, AGE-infused Sprague-Dawley rats. B) LZ: AGE interactions with macrophage-like T1B-183 cells (Mf) and mesangial cells (MC) were tested in vitro. RESULTS: A) In NOD mice, LZ reduced the elevated basal serum AGE (sAGE) (p < 0.05), enhanced urinary AGE (uAGE) excretion by approximately 2-fold (p < 0.01), while it reduced albuminuria (UA), p < 0.005. In db/db mice, LZ infusion also reduced the elevated sAGE (p < 0.05), doubled uAGE excretion (p < 0.05), and decreased UA (p < 0.01). In addition, LZ maintained normal sAGE in normal rats infused with AGE-BSA, as it doubled the urinary AGE (uAGE) clearance (p < 0.01). B) LZ stimulated the uptake and degradation of (125) I-labeled AGE-BSA and (25) I-human serum AGE by Mf, while suppressing AGE-induced TNFalpha and IGF-I production. In MC, LZ suppressed the AGE-promoted PDGF-B, alpha1 type IV collagen, and tenascin mRNA levels, and restored the AGE-suppressed expression and activity of MMP-9, but not MMP-2. CONCLUSION: LZ may act to: a) accelerate renal in-vivo AGE clearance, b) suppress macrophage and mesangial cell- specific gene activation in vitro, and c) improve albuminuria due to diabetes. These data suggest that LZ by sequestering AGEs may protect against diabetic renal damage. PMID:11788787

  20. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P<.05); higher parent education (P<.03), lower Parenting Stress (P=.001), and fewer children in the home (P<.01) were associated with lower Internalizing behavior in very preterm children, after adjusting for neonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  1. Association of NCAM1 Polymorphisms with Autism and Parental Age at Conception in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aihua; Li, Yan; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been reported to be involved in the development of the central nervous system and its mRNA level might decrease in the serum of autistic patients. However, there was no evidence of the association of the NCAM1 gene polymorphisms with autism. In the present study, we enrolled 237 children with autism and 451 healthy control subjects. Then, we used the direct DNA sequencing for genotyping five tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NCAM1 gene. Results: By using case–control association analyses, we found that three SNPs at the NCAM1 gene were associated with autism (rs4937786, p=0.015; rs12418058, p=0.0076; rs1436109, p=0.0023). Two of them remained significant after the Bonferroni multiple testing correction (rs12418058, pcorrcted=0.038; rs1436109, pcorrcted=0.012). Moreover, two of the SNPs were associated with the parental age at conception in autism (rs12418058, p=0.037; rs1436109, p=0.01). Conclusion: These results showed that NCAM1 might play an important role in the pathogenesis of autism. PMID:25137309

  2. Student characteristics and behaviors at age 12 predict occupational success 40 years later over and above childhood IQ and parental socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-09-01

    Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental socioeconomic status (SES), childhood intelligence, and student characteristics and behaviors (inattentiveness, school entitlement, responsible student, sense of inferiority, impatience, pessimism, rule breaking and defiance of parental authority, and teacher-rated studiousness) on 2 important real-life outcomes (i.e., occupational success and income). The longitudinal sample consisted of N = 745 persons who participated in 1968 (M = 11.9 years, SD = 0.6; 49.9% female) and 2008 (M = 51.8 years, SD = 0.6; 53.3% female). Regression analyses and path analyses were conducted to evaluate the direct and indirect effects (via education) of the predictors on career success. The results revealed direct and indirect influences of student characteristics (responsible student, rule breaking and defiance of parental authority, and teacher-rated studiousness) across the life span on career success after adjusting for differences in parental SES and IQ at age 12. rd

  3. Advanced life events (ALEs) that impede aging-in-place among seniors.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Lee A; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Sunkara, Priya; Forcucci, Chris; Campbell, Dianne; Mitzen, Phyllis; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wishes of many seniors to age-in-place in their own homes, critical events occur that impede their ability to do so. A gap exists as to what these advanced life events (ALEs) entail and the planning that older adults perceive is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify seniors' perceptions and planning toward ALEs that may impact their ability to remain in their own home. We conducted focus groups with 68 seniors, age ≥65 years (mean age 73.8 years), living in the community (rural, urban, and suburban), using open-ended questions about perceptions of future heath events, needs, and planning. Three investigators coded transcriptions using constant comparative analysis to identify emerging themes, with disagreements resolved via consensus. Subjects identified five ALEs that impacted their ability to remain at home: (1) Hospitalizations, (2) Falls, (3) Dementia, (4) Spousal Loss, and (5) Home Upkeep Issues. While recognizing that ALEs frequently occur, many subjects reported a lack of planning for ALEs and perceived that these ALEs would not happen to them. Themes for the rationale behind the lack of planning emerged as: uncertainty in future, being too healthy/too sick, offspring influences, denial/procrastination, pride, feeling overwhelmed, and financial concerns. Subjects expressed reliance on offspring for navigating future ALEs, although many had not communicated their needs with their offspring. Overcoming the reasons for not planning for ALEs is crucial, as being prepared for future home needs provides seniors a voice in their care while engaging key supporters (e.g., offspring). PMID:26952382

  4. Female reproductive dysfunction during ageing: role of methylglyoxal in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in ovaries of reproductively-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Tatone, C; Carbone, M C; Campanella, G; Festuccia, C; Artini, P G; Talesa, V; Focarelli, R; Amicarelli, F

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction with ageing has been so far extensively characterized in terms of depletion of ovarian follicles and reduced ability to produce gametes competent for fertilization. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. In the present study we addressed the hypothesis that methylglyoxal (MG), a major precursor of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGE), may contribute to molecular damage occurring during ovarian ageing. Our results showed that the biochemical activity of glyoxalase 1, the main component of the MG scavenging system, is significantly decreased in ovaries from reproductively-aged mice in comparison with the young group. This effect was associated with decreased expression at protein and RNA level of this enzyme and increased intraovarian level of MG. MG-arginine adducts argpyrimidine as detected with a specific antibody was found to accumulate with ageing in specific ovarian compartments. Separation of ovarian proteins by 2D gels and Western blotting revealed an approximate 30-fold increase in the extent of protein glycation in aged ovaries along with the appearance of eight argpyrimidine modified proteins exclusive for the aged group. In conclusion, the present results show that impaired MG detoxification causing relevant damage to the ovarian proteome might be one of the mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing and/or ageing-like ovarian diseases.

  5. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report.

  6. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report. PMID:26164121

  7. Parental Reactions to Toddlers' Negative Emotions and Child Negative Emotionality as Correlates of Problem Behavior at the Age of Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Parent-reported reactions to children's negative emotions and child negative emotionality were investigated as correlates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Children (N = 107) and their parents participated in a short-term longitudinal study of social development. Mothers and fathers independently completed questionnaires assessing…

  8. Low-Income Parents: How Do Working Conditions Affect Their Opportunity To Help School-Age Children at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymann, S. Jody; Earle, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Examined the working conditions faced by parents who has at least one child in need of help for educational or behavioral problems using data for 1,878 families from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child Survey. Data show that low-income parents often lack the paid leave and flexibility they need to help children with…

  9. The Separate Spheres of Online Health: Gender, Parenting, and Online Health Information Searching in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Michael J.; Cotten, Shelia R.; Drentea, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore how parental status, gender, and their interaction influence a variety of aspects of searching for online health information. Drawing on nationally representative survey data, the results show that in a number of ways parenting and gender have separate but significant influences on the following: online…

  10. Predicting Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intentions of College-Aged Males: An Examination of Parents' and Son's Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Mira L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Krieger, Janice L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine male students' and their parents' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine communication in relation to males' willingness to discuss the vaccine with their health care provider and the likelihood of being vaccinated. Participants: Dyads (n = 111) of students and parents. Methods: Participants completed a HPV vaccine survey based…

  11. Raising the Leaving Learning Age: Are the Public Convinced? A Survey of Parents and Teenagers. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve-Smith, Frank; Marshall, Liz; Munoz, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    This research explores the attitudes of parents and teenagers towards the proposals in the "Raising expectations" Green Paper. It is based on a public opinion poll of 920 parents and 380 teenagers in the United Kingdom, which ran between 30 March and 10 April 2007. The results were analysed by Learning and Skills Network statisticians. It begins…

  12. Cost-Utility Analyses of Cataract Surgery in Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore the cost-utility of cataract surgery in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for age-related cataract and with a history of advanced AMD at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, were included in the study. All of the participants underwent successful phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and utility value elicited by time trade-off method from patients at 3-month postoperative time were compared with those before surgery. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in a lifetime were calculated at a 3% annual discounted rate. Costs per QALY gained were calculated using the bootstrap method, and probabilities of being cost-effective were presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA in the operated eye increased from 1.37 ± 0.5 (Snellen, 20/469) to 0.98 ± 0.25 (Snellen, 20/191) (p < 0.001); BCVA in the weighted average from both eyes (=75% better eye + 25% worse eye) was changed from 1.13 ± 0.22 (Snellen, 20/270) to 0.96 ± 0.17 (Snellen, 20/182) (p < 0.001). Utility values from both patients and doctors increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Patients gained 1.17 QALYs by cataract surgery in their lifetime. The cost per QALY was 8835 Chinese yuan (CNY) (1400 U.S. dollars [USD]). It is cost-effective at the threshold of 115,062 CNY (18,235 USD) per QALY in China recommended by the World Health Organization. The cost per QALY varied from 7045 CNY (1116 USD) to 94,178 CNY (14,925 USD) in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Visual acuity and quality of life assessed by utility value improved significantly after surgery

  13. Dating the Little Ice Age Advance of Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, Using Pro-glacial Lake Sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, H. A.; Briner, J. P.; Csatho, B. M.

    2009-05-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet's (GIS) largest and fastest outlet glacier, Jakobshavn Isbrae, is one of the most significant contributors to GIS mass loss, draining an estimated 6.5% of the GIS area (Rignot and Kanagaratnam, 2006). Jakobshavn Isbrae has retreated significantly since the Little Ice Age (LIA, ca. 1250- 1900; Csatho et al., 2008), and continues to exhibit rapid changes in velocity and ice calving front position (Joughin et al., 2004). However, it is unknown for how long Jakobshavn Isbrae was at or near its extensive LIA position because there is a lack of chronological control on the LIA advance phase. We collected sediment cores from lakes just beyond the LIA margin to constrain the time when the advancing glacier's silt-laden meltwater entered the lake basins. Sediment cores from South Oval and Ice Boom lakes (informal names), which no longer receive glacial meltwater from Jakobshavn Isbrae because it has retreated out of their catchments, contain gyttja/glacial-silt/gyttja sequences that represent their non-glacial/pro-glacial/non-glacial histories. One additional site, ice-dammed Lake Morten (informal name), completely drained sometime between 1985 and 2001 AD. Outcrops of laminated sediments in the lake basin overly an intact tundra landscape. Four AMS radiocarbon dates from macrofossils immediately below the LIA sediments from the three lake basins reveal that Jakobshavn Isbrae reached its LIA maximum extent between 530±10 and 370±60 cal yr BP (1400-1640 AD). Furthermore, the continuous nature of the LIA-sediment units in all sites indicates that Jakobshavn Isbrae remained at or near its LIA maximum position between 1400-1640 AD and into the 20th century. Finally, pre-LIA organic-rich sediments at all sites continue uninterrupted down to basal sediments deposited during regional deglaciation in the Early Holocene. AMS radiocarbon ages on macrofossils from basal sediments at all sites range from 7220±40 to 8130±60 cal yr BP. We therefore interpret

  14. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

    PubMed

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lynch, John W; Smithers, Lisa G

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  15. Intergenerational conflicts may help explain parental absence effects on reproductive timing: a model of age at first birth in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background. Parental absences in childhood are often associated with accelerated reproductive maturity in humans. These results are counterintuitive for evolutionary social scientists because reductions in parental investment should be detrimental for offspring, but earlier reproduction is generally associated with higher fitness. In this paper we discuss a neglected hypothesis that early reproduction is often associated with parental absence because it decreases the average relatedness of a developing child to her future siblings. Family members often help each other reproduce, meaning that parents and offspring may find themselves in competition over reproductive opportunities. In these intergenerational negotiations offspring will have less incentive to help the remaining parent rear future half-siblings relative to beginning reproduction themselves. Method. We illustrate this “intergenerational conflict hypothesis” with a formal game-theoretic model. Results. We show that when resources constrain reproductive opportunities within the family, parents will generally win reproductive conflicts with their offspring, i.e., they will produce more children of their own and therefore delay existing offsprings’ reproduction. This is due to the asymmetric relatedness between grandparents and grandchildren (r = .25), compared to siblings (r = 0.5), resulting in greater incentives for older siblings to help rear younger siblings than for grandparents to help rear grandchildren. However, if a parent loses or replaces their partner, the conflict between the parent and offspring becomes symmetric since half siblings are as related to one another as grandparents are to grandchildren. This means that the offspring stand to gain more from earlier reproduction when their remaining parent would produce half, rather than full, siblings. We further show that if parents senesce in a way that decreases the quality of their infant relative to their offspring’s infant, the

  16. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lynch, John W.; Smithers, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into ‘easy’ and ‘difficult’. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  17. Important aspects of care and assistance for children 0-7 years of age being treated for cancer. Parent and nurse perceptions.

    PubMed

    von Essen, Louise; Enskär, Karin; Haglund, Kristina; Hedström, Mariann; Skolin, Inger

    2002-11-01

    Aspects of care and assistance that are important for children aged 0-7 years who are being treated for cancer were examined. Parents ( N=57) and nurses ( N=59) were asked: "What caring aspects are important in ensuring that your child/the child feels cared for?" and "What help, if any, does your child/the child need outside the hospital?". Data were analysed by content analysis. The following aspects of care were identified: amusement, clinical competence, continuity, emotional support, family participation, honest communication, information, participation in decision making, satisfaction of basic needs, social competence, the parents are well cared for, and time. Parents most frequently mentioned social competence and amusement, while nurses most frequently mentioned continuity and information. The following aspects of assistance were identified: accessible care, amusement, emotional support, family life, meeting friends, normal life, practical support, rehabilitation and school support. At least a third of the children did not need any assistance, according to parents and nurses. Parents most frequently mentioned family life, meeting friends and practical support. Nurses most frequently mentioned normal life and family life. Taken together, the results indicate that not only a family but many more people need to be involved to help children with cancer to be cured not only in a biological but also a psychosocial sense.

  18. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  19. The roles of puberty and age in explaining the diminished effectiveness of parental buffering of HPA reactivity and recovery in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Doom, Jenalee R; Hostinar, Camelia E; VanZomeren-Dohm, Adrienne A; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-09-01

    Parental support is a powerful regulator of stress and fear responses for infants and children, but recent evidence suggests it may be an ineffective stress buffer for adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this developmental shift are not well-understood. The goal of the present study was to examine the independent and joint contributions of pubertal status and chronological age in explaining this shift. A sample of 75 typically developing youth (M age=12.95 years, SD=0.70, range=11.7-14.6 years; 37 females) was recruited to complete a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-M) in the laboratory. Participants were recruited in such a way as to disentangle pubertal stage and chronological age by phone screening for markers of pubertal stage and then recruiting roughly equal numbers of younger and older, pre/early and mid/late pubertal youth who were then randomly assigned within groups to condition. The TSST-M was used as the stressor and youth prepared either with their parent or stranger (parent condition: N=39). Pubertal stage was confirmed by the Petersen Pubertal Development Scale at the time of testing and treated, along with chronological age, as a continuous variable in the analyses. The results revealed an interaction of pubertal stage and support condition for cortisol reactivity to the TSST-M such that preparing for the speech with the parent became a less potent buffer of the HPA axis as pubertal stage increased. Age did not interact with condition in predicting cortisol reactivity. In contrast, the parent's presence during speech preparation decreased in its effectiveness to hasten recovery of the HPA axis as children got older, but pubertal stage was not predictive of recovery rate. These patterns were specific to cortisol and were not observed with salivary alpha-amylase levels or subjective stress ratings for the task. These analyses suggest that the switch away from using parents as social buffers may be the result of neurobiological mechanisms

  20. Temperamental Emotionality in Preschool-Aged Children and Depressive Disorders in Parents: Associations in a Large Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Durbin, C. Emily

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have long hypothesized that there are temperamental vulnerabilities to depressive disorders. Despite the fact that individual differences in temperament should be evident in early childhood, most studies have focused on older youth and adults. We hypothesized that if early childhood temperament is a risk factor for depressive disorders, it should be associated with better-established risk markers, such parental depression. Hence, we examined the associations of laboratory-assessed positive emotionality (PE), negative emotionality (NE), and behavioral inhibition (BI) with semi-structured interview-based diagnoses of parental depressive disorders in a community sample of 536 three-year old children. Children with higher levels of NE and BI had higher probabilities of having a depressed parent. However, both main effects were qualified by interactions with child PE. At high and moderate, but not low, levels of child PE, greater NE and BI were associated with higher rates of parental depression. Conversely, at low, but not high and moderate, levels of child NE, low PE was associated with a higher rate of parental depression. Child temperament was not associated with parental anxiety and substance use disorders. These findings indicate that laboratory-assessed temperament in young children is associated with parental depressive disorders, however the relations are complex and it is important to consider interactions between temperament dimensions rather than focusing exclusively on main effects. PMID:20677836

  1. Preparation of Trainers of Volunteer Parent Service Providers (Including Parents) for Vermont's School-Age Learners with Severe Developmental Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaver-Reid, Mary Ellen; And Others

    The report describes Volunteers for Families (VFF), a 3-year project to develop a statewide (Vermont) network of trained volunteers to advocate for and to provide and coordinate services to, families of school-age learners (ages 3-21) with severe developmental disabilities. A three-phase process for establishing a VFF program is outlined,…

  2. Bone Aging by Advanced Glycation End Products: A Multiscale Mechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganeko, K; Masaki, C; Shibata, Y; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Miyazaki, T; Hosokawa, R

    2015-12-01

    The quality and quantity of mandibular bone are essential prerequisites for osseointegrated implants. Only the Hounsfield unit on preoperative computed tomography is currently used as a clinical index. Nevertheless, a considerable mismatch occurs between bone quality and the Hounsfield unit. Loss of bone toughness during aging has been accepted based on empirical evidence, but this concept is unlikely evidence based at the level of mechanical properties. Nonenzymatic bone matrix cross-links associated with advanced glycation end products predominate as a consequence of aging. Thus, loss of tissue integrity could diminish the bone toughening mechanism. Here, we demonstrate an impaired bone toughening mechanism caused by mimicking aging in rabbits on a methionine-rich diet, which enabled an enhanced nonenzymatically cross-linked bone matrix. A 3-point bending test revealed a greater reduction in femoral fracture resistance in rabbits on a methionine-rich diet, despite higher maximum and normalized breaking forces (287.3 N and 88.1%, respectively), than in rabbits on a normal diet (262.2 N and 79.7%, respectively). In situ nanoindentation on mandibular cortical bone obtained from rabbits on a methionine-rich diet did not enable strain rate-dependent stiffening and consequent large-dimensional recovery during rapid loading following constant displacement after a rapid-load indentation test as compared with those in rabbits on a normal diet. Such nanoscale structure-function relationships dictate resistance to cracking propagation at the material level and allow for the overall bone toughening mechanism to operate under large external stressors. The strain-dependent stiffening was likely associated with strain-energy transfer to the superior cross-linked bone matrix network of the normal diet, while the reduction in the enzymatically cross-linked matrix in bone samples from rabbits on a methionine-rich diet likely diminished the intrinsic bone toughening mechanism. The

  3. Digital Game Playing and Direct and Indirect Aggression in Early Adolescence: The Roles of Age, Social Intelligence, and Parent-Child Communication.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Rimpelä, Arja

    2007-04-01

    The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression, especially at age 10, but only among boys. The moderating role of social intelligence was substantiated among older boys: game violence was associated with indirect aggression among those with high level of social intelligence. Further, as hypothesized, digital game playing was associated with direct aggression especially when parent-child communication was poor, but only among boys. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual and situational factors as moderators of the link between game violence and aggression.

  4. [Assessment of psychopathology in preschool age children through the Early Childhood Inventory-4 (ECI-4): agreement among parents and teachers].

    PubMed

    Viñas Poch, Ferrán; Jané Ballabriga, María Claustre; Canals Sans, Josepa; Esparó Hidalgo, Griselda; Ballespí Solà, Sergi; Doménech-Llaberia, Edelmira

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the level of agreement among parents and teachers as informants in each one of the dimensions or diagnostic categories of the Early Childhood Inventory-4 (ECI-4). Moreover, the effect of health problems in parents in the description and appraisal of behaviour of a sample of 204 students of preschool (3-6 years) of various socioeconomic profiles is analyzed. The results indicate that parents tend to value the symptoms with greater severity, and higher agreement was observed when informing about developmental disorders. PMID:18674447

  5. Altered serum glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end product (AGE) and soluble AGE receptor levels indicate carbonyl stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mayu; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Katsuta, Narimasa; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Yuto; Higa, Motoyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nishimon, Shohei; Sannohe, Takahiro; Hotta, Yuri; Hanzawa, Ryo; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Shibata, Nobuto; Gohda, Tomohito; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Arai, Heii

    2015-04-23

    Recent cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that measurements of peripheral blood carbonyl stress markers such as the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and the reactive carbonyl-detoxifying B6 vitamin pyridoxal could be used as therapeutic biological markers in subpopulations of schizophrenia patients. Glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGE) have strong neurotoxicity, and soluble receptors for AGEs (sRAGE) may ameliorate the effects of AGEs. In the present study, we measured Glycer-AGEs and sRAGE levels to determine their potential as diagnostic, therapeutic, or clinical biological markers in patients with schizophrenia. After enrollment of 61 admitted Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia and 39 healthy volunteers, 54 patients were followed up from the acute stage to remission. Serum biomarkers were measured in blood samples taken before breakfast using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and Glycer-AGEs were significantly higher and sRAGE levels were significantly lower in patients with acute schizophrenia than in healthy controls. Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios were also higher in schizophrenia patients and were stable during the clinical course. Furthermore, discriminant analyses confirmed that Glycer-AGEs and Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios are significant diagnostic markers for schizophrenia, and distinguished between patients and healthy controls in 70.0% of cases. However, these markers of carbonyl stress were not correlated with clinical features, including disease severity, or with daily chlorpromazine doses. These data indicate the potential of Glycer-AGEs, RAGEs, and their relative ratios as diagnostic markers for patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  7. The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Marshall, Victor; House, James; Lantz, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The sociology of aging draws on a broad array of theoretical perspectives and social theories from several disciplines, but rarely has it developed its own theories or theoretical perspectives. We build on past work to further advance and empirically test a model of mental health framed in terms of structural theorizing and situated within the…

  8. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  9. Adolescents' and parents' conceptions of parental authority.

    PubMed

    Smetana, J G

    1988-04-01

    This study assessed adolescents' and parents' conceptions of parental authority. Subjects were 102 children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade (age range = 10.2-18.3 years) from 2-parent families and their parents. They were divided into 4 groups according to children's grade level. Subjects were presented with 15 items pertaining to family transgressions (4 moral, 4 conventional, 3 personal, and 4 multifaceted, containing conventional and personal components). For each act, subjects were asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. As expected, all family members treated both moral and conventional issues as more legitimately subject to parental jurisdiction than multifaceted and personal issues. With increasing age of the adolescent, both parents and children became less likely to reason about the multifaceted and personal issues as conventional and sort them as contingent on parental authority; they became more likely to reason about and sort them as under the adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Adolescents at all ages, however, were more likely to reason about the multifaceted and personal issues as personal and sort them as under personal jurisdiction than were parents. Parents were more likely to reason conventionally and sort them as contingent on parental authority than were adolescents. These findings are discussed in terms of research on adolescent development, individuation, and social-cognitive development.

  10. Parenting Stress and Autism: The Role of Age, Autism Severity, Quality of Life and Problem Behaviour of Children and Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McStay, Rebecca L.; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Scheeren, Anke; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander

    2014-01-01

    While stress is a common experience for parents caring for a child with a developmental disability, current measures fail to distinguish between general stress in parents and the demands of parenting and perceptions of parenting skills (parenting stress). This study examined differences in "parenting stress" reported by parents of…

  11. Advancing Paternal Age Is Associated with Deficits in Social and Exploratory Behaviors in the Offspring: A Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Jonathan; Fernandes, Cathy; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring. Methods C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group) were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young) and 10 months (old), and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group). Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring. Principal Findings The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02) and exploratory (p = 0.02) behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity. Conclusions Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors. PMID:20041141

  12. Effects of advancing age on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of the female white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Steger, R W; Peluso, J J; Huang, H H; Hodson, C A; Leung, F C; Meites, J; Sacher, G

    1980-08-01

    Peromyscus leucopus, with an average lifespan of 48 months, showed unchanged levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, and pituitary LH and prolactin, between the ages of 12 and 48 months. Hypothalamic LH-releasing hormone (LHRH), norepinephrine and dopamine also remained unchanged with advancing age. Ovarian and uterine weight decreased with age, although the changes in uterine weight were not statistically significant. These data indicate that the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remains intact with increasing age, accounting for the maintenance of fertility in these animals. The lack of significant changes in these parameters is in very marked contrast to those in the aging laboratory mouse and rat, which show derangements in their reproductive systems midway through their lifespans.

  13. Physiological responses and RPE during underwater treadmill walking in women of middle and advanced age.

    PubMed

    Shono, T; Fujishima, K; Hotta, N; Ogaki, T; Ueda, T; Otoki, K; Teramoto, K; Shimizu, T

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological responses and RPE during water walking using the Flowmill, which has a treadmill at the base of a water flume, in order to obtain basic data for prescribing water walking for people of middle and advanced age. Twenty healthy female volunteers with an age of 59.1 +/- 5.2 years took part in this study. They belonged to the same swimming club and regularly swam and exercised in water. Walking in water took place in the Flowmill. Subjects completed four consecutive bouts of 4 min duration at progressively increasing speeds (20, 30, 40 and 50 m/min) with 1 min rest between each bout. In addition, water velocity was adjusted to the walking speed of each bout. Subjects were instructed to swing both arms in order to maintain their balance during walking in water. The water depth was to the level of the xiphoid process and the water temperature was 30.31 +/- 0.08 degrees C. Both heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) increased exponentially as walking speed increased. HR was 125 +/- 15 bpm, and VO2 was 18.10 +/- 2.72 ml/kg.min-1 during walking in water at 50 m/min, which was the highest speed. The exercise intensity at this speed was equivalent to 5.2 +/- 0.8 Mets. The relationship between HR and VO2 during walking in water showed a highly significant linear relationship in each subject. There was also a highly significant linear relationship in the mean HR and VO2 of all subjects. Blood lactate concentration (LA) measured at rest and immediately after each bout was 1.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/l at rest, 1.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l at 20 m/min, 1.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/l at 30 m/min, 1.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/l at 40 m/min, and 2.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/l at 50 m/min. LA at 50 m/min was significantly higher than at rest and at the other speeds. The relationship between HR and RPE during walking in water showed a highly significant linear relationship. The relationship between walking speed and energy expenditure calculated from VO2 and the respiratory exchange

  14. Advancing knowledge gained from sediment budgets through sediment age dating and fingerprinting in small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A.; Gellis, A.; Harvey, J. W.; Hupp, C. R.; Larsen, L.; Noe, G. B.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schenk, E.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamics and long-term trajectories of fine sediment generally remain poorly quantified in rivers, which have implications for nutrient and contaminant transport and remediation strategies. Here we focus on two streams within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Difficult Run and Accotink Creek. These streams have varying degrees of urbanization and diverse best management practices, making possible a comparison of sediment sources, sinks, and residence times to illuminate how land management impacts fine sediment transport. Bank erosion and floodplain accumulation in Difficult Run has been previously determined and is ongoing in Accotink Creek. Current work advances sediment budgets by quantifying the role of in-channel fine sediment storage in the bed and margins. To understand the relative storage timescales for various geomorphic features (floodplain, in-channel, etc.) and develop age distributions, sediment is dated using radionuclides of varying half-lives such as Pb-210, Cs-137, Be-7, bomb radiocarbon, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). To determine the source of sediment that is transported in suspension, sediment fingerprinting has been completed in Difficult Run and initiated in Accotink Creek. Furthermore, the present study furthers our understanding of fine sediment dynamics by fingerprinting sources of stored sediment and evaluating how they evolve over storm events and stream size. For this, we sampled sediment in storage zones before and after storm events of a specified magnitude to determine their chemical signatures with respect to various source-tracking elements and isotopes. This study represents the first such work to integrate sediment dating, sediment fingerprinting and an analysis of storage zones to understand fine sediment dynamics and long-term trajectories.

  15. The Roles of Puberty and Age in Explaining the Diminished Effectiveness of Parental Buffering of HPA Reactivity and Recovery in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Hostinar, Camelia E.; VanZomeren-Dohm, Adrienne A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Parental support is a powerful regulator of stress and fear responses for infants and children, but recent evidence suggests it may be an ineffective stress buffer for adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this developmental shift are not well-understood. The goal of the present study was to examine the independent and joint contributions of pubertal status and chronological age in explaining this shift. A sample of 75 typically-developing youth (M age = 12.95 years, SD = 0.70, range = 11.7–14.6 years; 37 females) was recruited to complete a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-M) in the laboratory. Participants were recruited in such a way as to disentangle pubertal stage and chronological age by phone screening for markers of pubertal stage and then recruiting roughly equal numbers of younger and older, pre/early and mid/late pubertal youth who were then randomly assigned within groups to condition. The TSST-M was used as the stressor and youth prepared either with their parent or stranger (parent condition: N = 39). Pubertal stage was confirmed by the Petersen Pubertal Development Scale at the time of testing and treated, along with chronological age, as a continuous variable in the analyses. The results revealed an interaction of pubertal stage and support condition for cortisol reactivity to the TSST-M such that preparing for the speech with the parent became a less potent buffer of the HPA axis as pubertal stage increased. Age did not interact with condition in predicting cortisol reactivity. In contrast, the parent’s presence during speech preparation decreased in its effectiveness to hasten recovery of the HPA axis as children got older, but pubertal stage was not predictive of recovery rate. These patterns were specific to cortisol and were not observed with salivary alpha-amylase levels or subjective stress ratings for the task. These analyses suggest that the switch away from using parents as social buffers may be the result of neurobiological

  16. Parent Health Beliefs, Social Determinants of Health, and Child Health Services Utilization among US School-Age Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Katharine Elizabeth; Lindly, Olivia Jasmine; Sinche, Brianna Kathleen; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Objective Substantial variation exists in ASD care by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status; however, the role of parent health beliefs in this variation is poorly understood. Study goals were to (1) examine variation in parent beliefs about ASD prognosis and treatment according to social determinants of health (SDH) and (2) assess whether this variation was associated with variable health services utilization, among 1420 children with special health care needs (CSHCN) having autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods We used linked data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Treatment and the 2009/10 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed variation in parent beliefs according to race/ethnicity, household income, and parent educational attainment. Further analyses assessed whether variation in beliefs was associated with use of psychotropic medication, traditional therapy, or complementary/alternative therapy for ASD. Results Parents of lower educational attainment or who had lower income were more likely to think that their child’s condition was a mystery. Near-poor families were less likely to feel they had the power to change the child’s condition. Parents of minority children were more likely than white children to view their child’s condition as temporary. However, these differences in beliefs only had modest associations with variation in use of the health services analyzed. Conclusions Some SDH-related variation exists in health beliefs among parents of children with ASD, but these differences may not be the main factors accounting for ASD health care disparities. PMID:25741947

  17. [Support for families with a parent diagnosed with cancer and children under the age of five--delineation of a counselling concept].

    PubMed

    Dörr, Peggy; Führer, Daniel; Wiefel, Andreas; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Koch, Gabriele; von Klitzing, Kai; Romer, Georg; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Weschenfelder-Stachwitz, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Parents of infants and young children, who have been diagnosed with cancer wish to protect their child from the emotional strains of their illness. They wonder, what the child can understand about the illness and how it is able to process or assimilate the experience of the illness. In fact, infants and young children are particularly sensitive to the degree of emotional burden and the mental state of their parents and will experience varying degrees of insecurity due to even small changes in their relationship with their parents. On the basis of psychological development parameters specific to this age group as well as scientific findings on risk and protection factors an integrated interaction based counseling approach was developed. Within this approach, support for the communication between parent and child in view of the specific strains of their illness, both non-verbal and in the child's early stages of verbal communication, is central. In the present article the counselling concept is described and illustrated by case studies. Application and limits are discussed. PMID:22950335

  18. U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages for the Stillwater Complex and its associated sills and dikes, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: identification of a parent magma?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Premo, W.R.; Helz, R.T.; Zientek, M.L.; Langston, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Seven analyses from two samples of the Lower Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, yielded a U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of 2705??4 Ma. A more precise age of 2704??1 Ma is obtained if we regress only five of seven analyses. In either case, the age is in very good agreement with the previously reported Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of 2701??8 Ma for a gabbro from the Lower Banded series. Noncumulate mafic sills and dikes that immediately underlie the Stillwater Complex are separated into five compositional groups. U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 gabbronorite (2711??1 Ma) and a group 3 mafic norite (2703??10Ma) are comparable to previously reported U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 diabase (2713??3 Ma) and a group 4 high-Ti norite (2712??3 Ma). Mineral separates from group 2 yielded a four-point Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 2704??25 Ma, and separates from group 6 yielded a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 2706??64 Ma. These results indicate that groups 1 and 4 of the associated sills and dikes are perhaps slightly older than the complex and that groups 2,3, and 6 may be coeval with it, supporting the idea that these three groups are the best candidates for a Stillwater parent magma. -from Authors

  19. The Universal Tuition Tax Credit: Advancing Excellence through Parental Choice and Empowerment. A Sutherland Institute Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, David F.; Maxfield, Richard; Miller, Maxwell A.; Bischoff, Jim

    This study examined the possible benefits to Utah of a Universal Tuition Tax Credit (UTTC), a credit that would make it possible for parents, both low-income and moderate-income, to choose a nonpublic school for their child if they want to. The UTTC would have a positive effect on the per-student revenues available for public school systems as…

  20. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Smetana, J G

    1995-04-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.

  1. A Review of the Literature on the Social and Environmental Factors Which Influence Children (Aged 3-5 Years) to Be Obese/Overweight and the Accuracy of Parental Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, Julie; Keeney, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review the previously published literature on the social and environmental factors which influence children (aged 3-5 years) to be obese/overweight and the accuracy of parental perceptions. Obesity levels are on the increase in today's society and habits are being passed from parents to children, with family…

  2. The impact of prenatal parental tobacco smoking on risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, M A; Cirillo, P M; Krigbaum, N Y; Cohn, B A

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that parental smoking is associated with risk of offspring obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify whether parental tobacco smoking during gestation was associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. This is a prospective study of 44- to 54-year-old daughters (n = 1801) born in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort between 1959 and 1967. Their mothers resided near Oakland California, were members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and reported parental tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview. Daughters reported physician diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and provided blood samples for hemoglobin A1C measurement. Prenatal maternal smoking had a stronger association with daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal paternal smoking, and the former persisted after adjustment for parental race, diabetes and employment (aRR = 2.4 [95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.1] P < 0.01 and aRR = 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-3.0] P = 0.05, respectively). Estimates of the effect of parental smoking were unchanged when further adjusted by daughters' birth weight or current body mass index (BMI). Maternal smoking was also significantly associated with self-reported type 2 diabetes diagnosis (2.3 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-5.0] P < 0.05). Having parents who smoked during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus among adult daughters, independent of known risk factors, providing further evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures independent of birth weight and current BMI may contribute to adult diabetes mellitus. While other studies seek to confirm our results, caution toward tobacco smoking by or proximal to pregnant women is warranted in diabetes mellitus prevention efforts.

  3. Social and Non-Social Behavioral Inhibition in Preschool-Age Children: Differential Associations with Parent-Reports of Temperament and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Margaret W.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Durbin, C. Emily

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) has generally been treated as a unitary construct and assessed by combining ratings of fear, vigilance, and avoidance to both novel social and non-social stimuli. However, there is evidence suggesting that BI in social contexts is not correlated with BI in non-social contexts. The present study examined the distinction between social and non-social BI in a community sample of 559 preschool-age children using a laboratory assessment of child temperament, a diagnostic interview, and parent-completed questionnaires. Social and non-social BI were not significantly correlated and exhibited distinct patterns of associations with parent reports of temperament and anxiety symptoms. This study suggests that BI is heterogeneous, and that distinguishing between different forms of BI may help account for the variation in trajectories and outcomes exhibited by high BI children. PMID:21479511

  4. Parent's Journal. [Videotape Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Parent's Journal is a set of 16 videotapes for parents of prenatal, infant, and toddler-age children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on the life stories and experiences of capable mothers and…

  5. A Nanoindentation Study on Grain-Boundary Contributions to Strengthening and Aging Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced 12Cr Ferritic Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jae-il; Shim, Sang Hoon; Komazaki, Shin-ichi; Honda, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Nanoindentation experiments and microstructural analysis were performed on advanced 12% Cr ferritic steel having extremely fine and complex martensitic microstructures, to answer unsolved questions on the contributions of grain boundaries to strengthening and aging degradation mechanisms in both as-tempered and thermally aged steels. Interesting features of the experimental results led us to suggest that among several high angle boundaries, block boundary is most effective in enhancing the macroscopic strength in as-tempered virgin sample, and that a decrease in matrix strength rather than reduction in grain-boundary strengthening effect is primarily responsible for the macroscopic softening behavior observed during thermal exposure.

  6. Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, S; Takeuchi, M; Inagaki, Y; Nakamura, K; Imaizumi, T

    2003-01-01

    Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is essentially involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications via various metabolic derangements. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, especially focusing on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) system. Several types of AGE inhibitors and their therapeutic implications in diseases, including diabetic microangiopathy, will be discussed in the next review article. PMID:15224502

  7. An Approximately 4.35 Ga Ar-Ar Age for GRA 8 and the Complex Chronology of its Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2010-01-01

    GRA06128 and GRA06129 (hereafter GRA 8 and GRA 9) are partial melts of a parent body of approximately chondritic composition. We reported a conventional SM-147Sm-ND_143 isochron age of 4.559 +/-.096 Ga and a SM-146-142Nd model age of 4.549 +/- 0.036 for combined data for the two rocks. Plagioclase plus whole rock and leachate (approximately phosphate) samples gave a secondary SM-147-ND-143 age of 3.4 +/-0.4 Ga. An Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.460+/-0.028 Ga was interpreted by as dating metamorphism in GRA 9. We report Ar-39-Ar-40 ages in the range approximately 4344-4366 Ma for GRA 8, establishing similar but different Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for the two rocks, consistent with their different Sr-istopic systematics, and discuss these ages in the context of the complex sequence of events that affected these samples

  8. Brief report: Changes in parent-adolescent joint activities between 2002 and 2014 in the Czech Republic, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    PubMed

    Vokacova, Jana; Badura, Petr; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Hanus, Radek

    2016-08-01

    Joint family activities (JFA) are linked to healthy adolescent development. The aim of the present study is to report time trends in JFA between 2002 and 2014. The sample concerned 16 396 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.4% boys) from the 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014 surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The overall changes in JFA were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, there was a slight increase in four out of the six selected JFA in 2014. In particular, the likelihood of engaging in joint active activities (sports and walks) increased in the 2002-2014 period. Conversely, nowadays adolescents watch TV with their parents less frequently. Moreover, families today do not eat together as often as in 2002, which might have negative consequences for healthy adolescent development. Adolescents aged 11 get involved in JFA more than their older counterparts.

  9. Brief report: Changes in parent-adolescent joint activities between 2002 and 2014 in the Czech Republic, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    PubMed

    Vokacova, Jana; Badura, Petr; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Hanus, Radek

    2016-08-01

    Joint family activities (JFA) are linked to healthy adolescent development. The aim of the present study is to report time trends in JFA between 2002 and 2014. The sample concerned 16 396 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.4% boys) from the 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014 surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The overall changes in JFA were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, there was a slight increase in four out of the six selected JFA in 2014. In particular, the likelihood of engaging in joint active activities (sports and walks) increased in the 2002-2014 period. Conversely, nowadays adolescents watch TV with their parents less frequently. Moreover, families today do not eat together as often as in 2002, which might have negative consequences for healthy adolescent development. Adolescents aged 11 get involved in JFA more than their older counterparts. PMID:27244479

  10. The Hours We Can't Be Home: Developing a School Age Child Care Program. A Handbook for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Carole L.; And Others

    This handbook suggests to parents ways to plan, develop, and implement an after school child care program. Following a description of the initial child care needs assessment in the community, guidance for deciding the appropriate program type and step-by-step administrative instructions for establishing the program as a business are given. The…

  11. Ages & Stages Questionnaires[R], Third Edition (ASQ-3[TM]): A Parent-Completed Child-Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Jane; Bricker, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Now enhanced and updated based on extensive user feedback and a new, unparalleled research sample of more than 12,000 children, ASQ-3 is the most accurate, cost-effective, and parent-friendly way to identify children from one month to 5 1/2 years with developmental delays. ASQ-3 offers more than any other screening system: (1) Recommended by the…

  12. Age Appropriate Play: The First Four Years. Volume 1-3 Facilitator's Guide with Parent and Caregiver Handouts. [Videotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzban, Vicki

    Based on the view that play builds the foundation for lifelong learning, this 3-volume set of videotapes (in English and Spanish versions) with accompanying facilitators guide depicts a wide variety of parents/caregivers playing with infants and toddlers to highlight the importance of playing and interacting in ways that support and expand…

  13. Piaget: A Handbook for Parents and Teachers of Children in the Age of Discovery--Preschool Through Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Victoria; Peterson, Rosemary

    This handbook, primarily for parents and teachers of preschool through third grade children, provides some insights into Piaget's theories about how children think and learn and presents ideas for using Piagetian-type activities and games in the home or classroom. (The handbook does not attempt to give a comprehensive analysis of Piaget's theory…

  14. Parental Reports of Global Physical Health at Ages 3 and 6 Predict Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms 17 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikkonen, Katri; Schubert, Carla; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    Research studies testing longitudinal relations between childhood physical health measures and adulthood sub-clinical depressive symptoms are rare. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, longitudinal relations of parental reports of the global physical health of the child (1 = good, 2 = moderately good, 3 = average/not good) and of…

  15. Sex Role Identification and Parental Rearing Practice: Determinants of Type A Behavior in College Age Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbey, M. Marlyne; Davis, James

    Type A behavior is an epidemiological construct whose major features are aggressiveness, hostility, a sense of time urgency, and competitiveness; these features are considered measures of coronary-prone behavior in men and women. To determine a possible relationship between sex role orientation, parenting behavior, and Type A behavior, college…

  16. Prediction of Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation Skills of 4-5 Age Group Children with Parent-Child Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine whether personal attributes, family characteristics of the child and parent-child relations predict children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills. The study was conducted with relational screening model, one of the screening models. Study sample included 423 children between the…

  17. Parental migration patterns and risk of depression and anxiety disorder among rural children aged 10–18 years in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Min; Gao, Jing; Liang, Zenzen; Wang, Youjie; Du, Yukai; Stallones, Lorann

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the prevalence of depression and anxiety in left-behind children, and to identify patterns of parents’ migration and relative factors associated with depression and anxiety risk in this population. Setting A cross-sectional survey using a school-based sample was conducted in Puyang, Hebei, North China in December 2012. Participants 2283 students aged 10–18 years. Main outcome measures Parental migration status, depression and anxiety disorder. Results 61.2% of participants were left-behind children. The prevalence rate of depression among left-behind children with both parents migrating (14.2%) was higher than that of children with one parent migrating (11.7%) and no parent migrating (12.6%). The prevalence rate of anxiety disorder for children with no parent migrating (25.1%) was higher than that for children living with one or neither parent (22.2% and 22.0%). The risk factors for depression were low-level social support (OR=3.46, 95% CI 2.00 to 6.01), average academic performance (OR=2.37, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.3) and low academic performance (OR=3.01, 95% CI 1.92 to 4.72), staying up late (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.39), having difficulty falling asleep (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.82) and being an only child (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.89). The factors associated with anxiety disorder were being female (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.66), being in high school (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.36), physical abuse (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.15), having difficulty falling asleep (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.10) and low-level social support (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.28) and middle-level social support (OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.56). Conclusions Parents’ migration was not associated with depression and anxiety in rural children aged 10–18 years, but academic performance at school, sleep problems and lack of social support were associated with depression and anxiety. PMID:26715475

  18. The Possible Mechanism of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Shun-Yao; Ko, Hshin-An; Chu, Kuo-Hsiung; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Chi, Tzong-Cherng; Chen, Hong-I; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chang, Shu-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been modified by β and γ-secretase that cause amyloid deposits (plaques) in neuronal cells. Glyceraldhyde-derived AGEs has been identified as a major source of neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In a previous study, we demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs increase APP and Aβ via ROS. Furthermore, the combination of AGEs and Aβ has been shown to enhance neurotoxicity. In mice, APP expression is increased by tail vein injection of AGEs. This evidence suggests a correlation between AGEs and the development of AD. However, the role played by AGEs in the pathogenesis of AD remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that AGEs up-regulate APP processing protein (BACE and PS1) and Sirt1 expression via ROS, but do not affect the expression of downstream antioxidant genes HO-1 and NQO-1. Moreover, we found that AGEs increase GRP78 expression and enhance the cell death-related pathway p53, bcl-2/bax ratio, caspase 3. These results indicate that AGEs impair the neuroprotective effects of Sirt1 and lead to neuronal cell death via ER stress. Our findings suggest that AGEs increase ROS production, which stimulates downstream pathways related to APP processing, Aβ production, Sirt1, and GRP78, resulting in the up-regulation of cell death related pathway. This in-turn enhances neuronal cell death, which leads to the development of AD. PMID:26587989

  19. Comprehensive analyses of how tubule occlusion and advanced glycation end-products diminish strength of aged dentin

    PubMed Central

    Shinno, Yuko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Saito, Mitsuru; Uemura, Reo; Arino, Masumi; Marumo, Keishi; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    In clinical dentistry, since fracture is a major cause of tooth loss, better understanding of mechanical properties of teeth structures is important. Dentin, the major hard tissue of teeth, has similar composition to bone. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of human dentin not only in terms of mineral density but also using structural and quality parameters as recently accepted in evaluating bone strength. Aged crown and root dentin (age ≥ 40) exhibited significantly lower flexural strength and toughness than young dentin (age < 40). Aged dentin, in which the dentinal tubules were occluded with calcified material, recorded the highest mineral density; but showed significantly lower flexural strength than young dentin. Dentin with strong alignment of the c-axis in hydroxyapatite exhibited high fracture strength, possibly because the aligned apatite along the collagen fibrils may reinforce the intertubular dentin. Aged dentin, showing a high advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) level in its collagen, recorded low flexural strength. We first comprehensively identified significant factors, which affected the inferior mechanical properties of aged dentin. The low mechanical strength of aged dentin is caused by the high mineral density resulting from occlusion of dentinal tubules and accumulation of AGEs in dentin collagen. PMID:26797297

  20. Satisfaction with life during pregnancy and early motherhood in first-time mothers of advanced age: a population-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The trend to delay motherhood to the age of 30 and beyond is established in most high-income countries but relatively little is known about potential effects on maternal emotional well-being. This study investigates satisfaction with life during pregnancy and the first three years of motherhood in women expecting their first baby at an advanced and very advanced age. Methods The study was based on the National Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data on 18 565 nulliparous women recruited in the second trimester 1999–2008 were used. Four questionnaires were completed: at around gestational weeks 17 and 30, and at six months and three years after the birth. Medical data were retrieved from the national Medical Birth Register. Advanced age was defined as 32–37 years, very advanced age as ≥38 years and the reference group as 25–31 years. The distribution of satisfaction with life from age 25 to ≥40 years was investigated, and the mean satisfaction with life at the four time points was estimated. Logistic regression analyses based on generalised estimation equations were used to investigate associations between advanced and very advanced age and satisfaction with life when controlling for socio-demographic factors. Results Satisfaction with life decreased from around age 28 to age 40 and beyond, when measured in gestational weeks 17 and 30, and at six months and three years after the birth. When comparing women of advanced and very advanced age with the reference group, satisfaction with life was slightly reduced in the two older age groups and most of all in women of very advanced age. Women of very advanced age had the lowest scores at all time points and this was most pronounced at three years after the birth. Conclusion First-time mothers of advanced and very advanced age reported a slightly lower degree of satisfaction with life compared with the reference group of younger

  1. Perinatal conditions and parental age at birth as risk markers for subsequent suicide attempt and suicide: a population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Rasmussen, Finn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2012-09-01

    Restricted fetal growth and young maternal age have been associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour later in life. Research investigating the independent and interacting effects of these risk factors with parental mental health and socio-economic status is scarce. A case-control study was effected through record linkage between Swedish registers. Individuals born 1973-1983 who were hospitalized due to a suicide attempt (n = 17,159) or committed suicide (n = 1,407) were matched to ≤10 controls by sex, month and county of birth. Controlling for parental conditions, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) for suicide attempt were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01-1.25), short birth length (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.08-1.22), short and light for gestational age (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.38), short but not light for gestational age (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI: 1.09, 1.29), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI 1.53-1.80), young fatherhood (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI 1.27-1.39) and multiparity (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.31-1.50). For completed suicide, increased odds ratios were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.16-2.35), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.09-1.90) and young fatherhood (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.02-1.41). There was a synergy effect between teenage motherhood and parental psychiatric inpatient care with regard to suicide attempt in offspring [synergy index = 1.53 (95 % CI 1.27-1.84)]. Low birth weight and length, and short and light for gestational age may increase the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviour, and more research is needed to investigate underlying mechanisms. Public health implications from this study include measures to improve pre- and perinatal parental mental health, particularly in teenage pregnancies.

  2. Preservation of ancient impact ages on the R chondrite parent body: 40Ar/39Ar age of hornblende-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Cosca, M. A.; Morgan, L. E.

    2016-09-01

    The hornblende- and biotite-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840 is a rare kind of meteorite possibly containing outer solar system water stored during metamorphism or postshock annealing deep within an asteroid. Because little is known regarding its age and origin, we determined 40Ar/39Ar ages on hornblende-rich separates of the meteorite, and obtained plateau ages of 4340(±40) to 4380(±30) Ma. These well-defined plateau ages, coupled with evidence for postshock annealing, indicate this meteorite records an ancient shock event and subsequent annealing. The age of 4340-4380 Ma (or 4.34-4.38 Ga) for this and other previously dated R chondrites is much older than most impact events recorded by ordinary chondrites and points to an ancient event or events that predated the late heavy bombardment that is recorded in so many meteorites and lunar samples.

  3. Preservation of ancient impact ages on the R chondrite parent body: 40Ar/39Ar age of hornblende-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Cosca, M. A.; Morgan, L. E.

    2016-07-01

    The hornblende- and biotite-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840 is a rare kind of meteorite possibly containing outer solar system water stored during metamorphism or postshock annealing deep within an asteroid. Because little is known regarding its age and origin, we determined 40Ar/39Ar ages on hornblende-rich separates of the meteorite, and obtained plateau ages of 4340(±40) to 4380(±30) Ma. These well-defined plateau ages, coupled with evidence for postshock annealing, indicate this meteorite records an ancient shock event and subsequent annealing. The age of 4340-4380 Ma (or 4.34-4.38 Ga) for this and other previously dated R chondrites is much older than most impact events recorded by ordinary chondrites and points to an ancient event or events that predated the late heavy bombardment that is recorded in so many meteorites and lunar samples.

  4. Uncommon Sense for Parents with Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riera, Michael

    This guide to parenting high school-age adolescents is intended to help parents restructure the typically adversarial relationship between parent and teenager by replacing the "parent as manager" role with the "parent as consultant" role. The text is question-driven, comprised of a series of responses to questions commonly asked by parents and…

  5. Advanced aging phenotype is revealed by epigenetic modifications in rat liver after in utero malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Delahaye, Fabien; Zhao, Yongmei; Cui, Lingguang; Barzilai, Nir; Einstein, Francine Hughes

    2016-10-01

    Adverse environmental exposures of mothers during fetal period predispose offspring to a range of age-related diseases earlier in life. Here, we set to determine whether a deregulated epigenetic pattern is similar in young animals whose mothers' nutrition was modulated during fetal growth to that acquired during normal aging in animals. Using a rodent model of maternal undernutrition (UN) or overnutrition (ON), we examined cytosine methylation profiles of liver from young female offspring and compared them to age-matched young controls and aged (20-month-old) animals. HELP-tagging, a genomewide restriction enzyme and sequencing assay demonstrates that fetal exposure to two different maternal diets is associated with nonrandom dysregulation of methylation levels with profiles similar to those seen in normal aging animals and occur in regions mapped to genes relevant to metabolic diseases and aging. Functional consequences were assessed by gene expression at 9 weeks old with more significant changes at 6 months of age. Early developmental exposures to unfavorable maternal diets result in altered methylation profiles and transcriptional dysregulation in Prkcb, Pc, Ncor2, and Smad3 that is also seen with normal aging. These Notch pathway and lipogenesis genes may be useful for prediction of later susceptibility to chronic disease.

  6. Advanced aging phenotype is revealed by epigenetic modifications in rat liver after in utero malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Delahaye, Fabien; Zhao, Yongmei; Cui, Lingguang; Barzilai, Nir; Einstein, Francine Hughes

    2016-10-01

    Adverse environmental exposures of mothers during fetal period predispose offspring to a range of age-related diseases earlier in life. Here, we set to determine whether a deregulated epigenetic pattern is similar in young animals whose mothers' nutrition was modulated during fetal growth to that acquired during normal aging in animals. Using a rodent model of maternal undernutrition (UN) or overnutrition (ON), we examined cytosine methylation profiles of liver from young female offspring and compared them to age-matched young controls and aged (20-month-old) animals. HELP-tagging, a genomewide restriction enzyme and sequencing assay demonstrates that fetal exposure to two different maternal diets is associated with nonrandom dysregulation of methylation levels with profiles similar to those seen in normal aging animals and occur in regions mapped to genes relevant to metabolic diseases and aging. Functional consequences were assessed by gene expression at 9 weeks old with more significant changes at 6 months of age. Early developmental exposures to unfavorable maternal diets result in altered methylation profiles and transcriptional dysregulation in Prkcb, Pc, Ncor2, and Smad3 that is also seen with normal aging. These Notch pathway and lipogenesis genes may be useful for prediction of later susceptibility to chronic disease. PMID:27470058

  7. The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa; Marshall, Victor; House, James; Lantz, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The sociology of aging draws on a broad array of theoretical perspectives from several disciplines, but rarely has it developed its own. We build on past work to advance and empirically test a model of mental health framed in terms of structural theorizing and situated within the life course perspective. Whereas most prior research has been based on cross-sectional data, we utilize four waves of data from a nationally representative sample of American adults (Americans' Changing Lives Study) collected prospectively over a 15-year period and find that education, employment and marital status, as well as their consequences for income and health, effectively explain the increase in depressive symptoms after age 65. We also found significant cohort differences in age trajectories of mental health that were partly explained by historical increases in education. We demonstrate that a purely structural theory can take us far in explaining later life mental health. PMID:22081728

  8. [Survival in advanced age--a comparison of short- and long-lived probands of the Bonn gerontologic longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Fooken, I

    1984-01-01

    A comparison between rather short-lived (n = 60) and rather long-lived (n = 88) participants of the initial sample of the Bonn longitudinal study on aging (BOLSA) yielded evidence - with regard to differences in the central tendencies of these two groups - for a variety of determinants of longevity in old age. The statistical analyses included eight constructs or clusters of variables, respectively, that were either empirically or theoretically based and were supposed to have predictive power (intelligence, health status, satisfaction, personality, family involvement, socioeconomic/ecological aspects, coping techniques/dominant themes of life, general social participation). Within each "cluster", it could be referred to several different aspects. Besides defining general characteristics of longevious people, the purpose of the study was to look for differentiating aspects. Thus, a host of evidence was yielded for gender- and cohort-linked differences in the structure and relevance of the included central clusters with regard to "prediction" of advanced longevity in old age.

  9. Sexual risk attitudes and intentions of youth aged 12-14 years: survey comparisons of parent-teen prevention and control groups.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV and teen pregnancy prevention.

  10. Chronic Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces Degenerative Spinal Changes and Hypertrophy in Aging Pre-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E.; Iatridis, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

  11. Detection of galectin-3 and localization of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in human chronic skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Daniel; Elliott, Christopher G; Forbes, Thomas L; Hamilton, Douglas W

    2014-02-01

    The matricellular protein galectin-3 (Gal-3) is upregulated in excisional skin repair in rats where it has been shown to modulate the inflammatory phase of repair. Recent research into kidney pathology has implicated Gal-3 as a receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGE), resulting in the binding and clearance of these molecules. AGEs are thought to contribute to defective skin repair in diabetic patients as well as a result of the normal aging process. However, the distribution and localization of Gal-3 and AGEs has never been performed in human chronic skin wound tissue. Using immunohistochemistry, the localization of Gal-3 and AGEs in tissue isolated from chronic wounds and non-involved skin from the same patient was investigated. Of the 16 patients from which tissue was isolated, 13 had type II diabetes, one had type I diabetes and 2 patients without diabetes were also examined. In non-involved dermis, Gal-3 was detected strongly in the epidermis and in the vasculature. However, at the wound edge and in the wound bed, the level of Gal-3 labelling was greatly reduced in both the epidermis and vasculature. Labelling of serial sections for Gal-3 and AGE demonstrated that where Gal-3 immunoreactivity is reduced in the epidermis and vasculature, there is a concomitant increase in the level of AGE staining. Interestingly, similar labelling patterns were evident in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The results from our study demonstrate an inverse correlation between Gal-3 and AGEs localization, suggesting that Gal-3 may protect against accumulation of AGEs in wound healing.

  12. Impaired skeletal muscle blood flow control with advancing age in humans: attenuated ATP release and local vasodilation during erythrocyte deoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Brett S.; Crecelius, Anne R.; Voyles, Wyatt F.; Dinenno, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Skeletal muscle blood flow is coupled with the oxygenation state of hemoglobin in young adults, whereby the erythrocyte functions as an oxygen sensor and releases ATP during deoxygenation to evoke vasodilation. Whether this function is impaired in humans of advanced age is unknown. Objective To test the hypothesis that older adults demonstrate impaired muscle blood flow and lower intravascular ATP during conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation. Methods and Results We show impaired forearm blood flow (FBF) responses during two conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation (systemic hypoxia and graded handgrip exercise) with age, and this is due to reduced local vasodilation. In young adults, both hypoxia and exercise significantly increased venous [ATP] and ATP effluent (FBF × [ATP]) draining skeletal muscle. In contrast, hypoxia and exercise did not increase [ATP]v in older adults, and both [ATP]v and ATP effluent were substantially reduced compared with young despite similar levels of deoxygenation. Next, we demonstrate that this cannot be explained by augmented extracellular ATP hydrolysis in whole blood with age. Finally, we found that deoxygenation-mediated ATP release from isolated erythrocytes is essentially non-existent in older adults. Conclusions Skeletal muscle blood flow during conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation is markedly reduced in aging humans, and reductions in plasma ATP and erythrocyte-mediated ATP release may be a novel mechanism underlying impaired vasodilation and oxygen delivery during hypoxemia with advancing age. Because aging is associated with elevated risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and exercise intolerance, interventions targeting erythrocyte-mediated ATP release may offer therapeutic potential. PMID:22647875

  13. Parents Want Their Children's Data: DQC's 2015 Parent Poll Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) believes that when parents and educators have the right information to make decisions, students excel. Parents agree, according to a recent survey. DQC's Parent Poll, conducted online by Harris Poll in November 2015, surveyed 1,093 US parents with children ages 5-17 about their attitudes toward data collection and…

  14. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  15. U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages for the Stillwater Complex and its associated sills and dikes, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Identification of a parent magma

    SciTech Connect

    Premo, W.R. ); Helz, R.T. ); Zientek, M.L. ); Langston, R.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Seven analyses from two samples of the Lower Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, yielded a U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of 2,705 {plus minus}4 Ma. A more precise age of 2,704 {plus minus}1 Ma is obtained if the authors regress only five of seven analyses. In either case, the age is in very good agreement with the previously reported Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of 2,701 {plus minus}8 Ma for a gabbro from the Lower Banded series. Noncumulate mafic sills and dikes that immediately underlie the Stillwater Complex are separated into five compositional groups. U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 gabbronorite (2,711 {plus minus}1 Ma) and a group 3 mafic norite (2,703 {plus minus}10 Ma) are comparable to previously reported U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 diabase (2,713 {plus minus}3 Ma) and a group 4 high-Ti norite (2,712 {plus minus}3 Ma). Although group 2 high-Mg gabbronorite and group 6 olivine gabbro have not yet yielded significant amounts of zircon, baddeleyite, or sphene, mineral separates from group 2 yielded a four-point Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 2,704 {plus minus}25 Ma, and separates from group 6 yielded a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 2,706 {plus minus}64 Ma, indicating that these groups are at least contemporaneous with intrusion of the Stillwater Complex. These results indicate that groups 1 and 4 of the associated sills and dikes are perhaps slightly older than the complex and that groups 2, 3, and 6 may be coeval with it, supporting the idea that these three groups are the best candidates for a Stillwater parent magma, a conclusion previously presented on the basis of detailed mineralogic and geochemical evidence.

  16. Effect of aging on the bioavailability and fractionation of arsenic in soils derived from five parent materials in a red soil region of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Zeng, Xibai; Lu, Yahai; Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Li, Lianfang; Wu, Cuixia

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aging time and soil parent materials on the bioavailability and fractionations of arsenic (As) in five red soils were studied. The results indicated that As bioavailability in all soils decreased during aging, especially with a sharp decline occurring in the first 30 days. After aging for 360 days, the highest available As concentration, which accounted for 12.3% of the total, was observed in soils derived from purple sandy shale. While 2.67% was the lowest proportion of the available As in soils derived from quaternary red clay. Furthermore, the best fit of the available As changing with aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model (R(2) = 0.939-0.998, P < 0.05). Notably, Al oxides played a more crucial role (R(2) = 0.89, P<0.05) than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. The non-specially and specially absorbed As constituted the primary forms of available As. PMID:26349069

  17. F1 (CBA×C57) mice show superior hearing in old age relative to their parental strains: hybrid vigor or a new animal model for "golden ears"?

    PubMed

    Frisina, Robert D; Singh, Ameet; Bak, Matthew; Bozorg, Sara; Seth, Rahul; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2011-09-01

    Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the most common communication problem and third most prevalent chronic medical disorder of the aged. The CBA and C57BL/6 mouse strains are useful for studying features of presbycusis. The CBA loses its hearing slowly, like most humans. Because the C57 develops a rapid, high frequency hearing loss by middle age, it has an "old" ear but a relatively young brain, a model that helps separate peripheral (cochlear) from central (brain) etiologies. This field of sensory neuroscience lacks a good mouse model for the 5-10% of aged humans with normal cochlear sensitivity, but who have trouble perceiving speech in background noise. We hypothesized that F1 (CBA×C57) hybrids would have better hearing than either parental strain. Measurements of peripheral auditory sensitivity supported this hypothesis, however, a rapid decline in the auditory efferent feedback system, did not. Therefore, F1s might be an optimal model for studying cases where the peripheral hearing is quite good in old age; thereby allowing isolation of central auditory changes due to brain neurodegeneration.

  18. Health-related quality of life and cognitive functioning from the perspective of parents of school-aged children with Asperger's Syndrome utilizing the PedsQL.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Heffer, Robert W; Varni, James W

    2009-11-01

    HRQOL as a multidimensional construct has not been previously investigated in children with Asperger's Syndrome. The objective of the present study was to examine the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and PedsQL Cognitive Functioning Scale parent proxy-report versions in school-aged children with Asperger's Syndrome. The PedsQL evidenced no missing responses (0.0%), achieved excellent reliability for the Generic Core Total Scale score (alpha = 0.82) and Cognitive Functioning Scale (alpha = 0.92), distinguished between children with Asperger's Syndrome and a matched sample of healthy children, and was related to similar constructs on the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale. The results demonstrate the initial measurement properties of the PedsQL in school-aged children with Asperger's Syndrome.

  19. Foveal-Sparing Scotomas in Advanced Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunness, Janet S.; Rubin, Gary S.; Zuckerbrod, Abraham; Applegate, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Foveal-sparing scotomas are common in advanced dry macular degeneration (geographic atrophy). Foveal preservation may be present for a number of years. Despite good visual acuity, these patients have reduced reading rates. Magnification may not be effective if the text becomes too large to "fit" within the central spared area. (Contains 2 tables…

  20. Coming of Age: The Advanced Writing Curriculum [and CD-ROM]. CrossCurrents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamoon, Linda K., Ed.; Howard, Rebecca Moore, Ed.; Jamieson, Sandra, Ed.; Schwegler, Robert A., Ed.

    Part book, part CD-ROM, this publication offers new ideas for transforming advanced writing courses. The 33 essays in the publication describe and offer concrete examples of curriculum that incorporates discipline-based theory and history, that situates writers in public discourse, and that fully prepares students for careers as writers. The…

  1. Advancing Telemedicine Services for the Aging Population: The challenge of Interoperability.

    PubMed

    van Velsen, Lex; Solana, Javier; Oude-Nijeweme D'Hollosy, Wendy; Garate-Barreiro, Francisco; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    We reflect on our experiences in two projects in which we developed interoperable telemedicine applications for the aging population. While technically data exchange could be implemented technically, uptake was impeded by a lack of working procedures. We argue that development of interoperable health technology for the aging population should go accompanied by a thorough study into working protocols by consulting all end-users and stakeholders.

  2. [Personality development as a lifelong process and consequences for promoting personality development in advanced age].

    PubMed

    Wolf, E

    1987-01-01

    The paper explains the fact, that personality development mainly depends on the requirements of life activity and derives possibilities for promoting development in old age. These possibilities are primarily seen in forming such life conditions and requirements of activity, which grant latitude for autonomous acting and deciding to the aged as much and as long as possible as well as encourage them to use it, thereby helping them to maintain or regain every kind of autonomy and activity still possible.

  3. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is activated during advanced arterial aging in humans.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alexandre; Atassi, Fabrice; Gaaya, Amira; Leprince, Pascal; Le Feuvre, Claude; Soubrier, Florent; Lompré, Anne-Marie; Nadaud, Sophie

    2011-04-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway was shown to be induced during aging in muscle and in the skin, but the regulation and role of Wnt signaling in the aged vessel have not yet been addressed. While screening for age-related changes in gene expression in the intima/media of human mammary arteries, we observed that the expression of frizzled 4 (Fzd4), a Wnt receptor, and of several targets of the Wnt/β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway [Wnt-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1), versican, osteopontin (SPP1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2), and p21] were modified with age, suggesting an activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In contrast, we did not observe any regulation of forkhead transcription factor (FoxO) target genes. Beta-catenin-activating phosphorylation at position Ser675 was increased in aging mammary arteries, confirming the activation of this pathway. We confirmed in vitro that Wnt3a or Wnt1 treatment of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced β-catenin phosphorylation at Ser675 and WISP1, SPP1, and IGFBP-2 expression. In vitro, Wnt treatment induced proliferation and cyclin D1 expression in VSMC from young (6 weeks old) rats but not in cells from older rats (8 months old), even though low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 and β-catenin phosphorylation, and β-catenin nuclear translocation demonstrated β-catenin activation in both cell types. Beta-catenin silencing demonstrated that Wnt induction of cyclin D1 expression is β-catenin dependent. Altogether, our data show that the Wnt/β-catenin/TCF pathway is activated in aging human mammary artery cells, but fails to induce the proliferation of aging vascular cells. PMID:21108734

  4. The impact of advancing age on postoperative outcomes in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shih, Kevin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Qin, Charles; Kim, John Y

    2015-11-01

    Age has been shown to be an independent predictor of complications in general surgery patients. In contrast, the effect of age on outcomes after plastic surgery has yet to be confirmed or refuted. The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate a possible association between age and postoperative outcomes after plastic surgery. The 2005-2012 NSQIP database was retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing plastic surgery. Patients ≥60 years with procedures under the category of plastic surgery in NSQIP were selected for analysis. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day overall complication rates. Multivariate regression models were constructed to control for potential perioperative confounders. Of the 2,320,920 patients captured in the NSQIP database, 36,819 patients underwent plastic surgery and met inclusion criteria. The incidence of unadjusted overall complications increased with age with an overall complication rate of 9.0% in patients <60 years, 11.6% in patients 60-69 years, 13.2% in patients 70-79 years, and 15.9% in patients 80 or more years (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, age was not independently associated with increased overall complications rates in patients 60-69 years (OR = 1.026; 95% CI = 0.927-1.135; p = 0.619) and 70-79 years (OR = 0.933; 95% CI = 0.797-0.919; p = 0.393), although patients 80 years and older experienced more medical complications (OR = 1.626; 95% CI = 1.218-2.172; p = 0.001). Age is not independently associated with overall worse outcomes in patients undergoing plastic surgery. Medical complications and mortality were more likely in extremes of age (>80 years). Age alone should not be included as a decisional factor in patients <80 years old considering plastic surgery.

  5. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  6. Health at advanced age: social inequality and other factors potentially impacting longevity in nine high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Granados, José A Tapia

    2013-02-01

    This article surveys the evolution of health at advanced age in nine high-income countries over the last three decades, and the variables that might explain that evolution. Life expectancy at age 65 for males and females is used as summary indicator to conceptualize "health at advanced age." A comparison of the nine countries - Canada, Denmark, France, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States - reveals excellent health performance for Japan, which has the greatest proportion of elderly people in the population and also the best health indicators for both males and females; the United States and Denmark perform poorly. Of all nine countries, the United States has the youngest population, the highest income per capita, and the greatest expenditure on health care, but also the highest levels of income inequality and relative poverty, and lacked universal health care coverage during the study period. Experts have considered that these three factors have probably contributed to the poor progress in the health of the elderly in the United States in recent decades. Tobacco consumption appears to be a key influence on the health of the elderly and probably explains to a large extent - with a lag of several decades - the differential evolution of health in these countries.

  7. Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, W. Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18–45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64–0.70% per year in women and 0.80–00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3–4% per year in men and 2.5–3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2–5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass. PMID:22934016

  8. Fitness Consequences of Advanced Ancestral Age over Three Generations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Lummaa, Virpi; Bazykin, Georgii A.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid rise in age at parenthood in contemporary societies has increased interest in reports of higher prevalence of de novo mutations and health problems in individuals with older fathers, but the fitness consequences of such age effects over several generations remain untested. Here, we use extensive pedigree data on seven pre-industrial Finnish populations to show how the ages of ancestors for up to three generations are associated with fitness traits. Individuals whose fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers fathered their lineage on average under age 30 were ~13% more likely to survive to adulthood than those whose ancestors fathered their lineage at over 40 years. In addition, females had a lower probability of marriage if their male ancestors were older. These findings are consistent with an increase of the number of accumulated de novo mutations with male age, suggesting that deleterious mutations acquired from recent ancestors may be a substantial burden to fitness in humans. However, possible non-mutational explanations for the observed associations are also discussed. PMID:26030274

  9. A coming of age: advanced imaging technologies for characterising the developing mouse.

    PubMed

    Norris, Francesca C; Wong, Michael D; Greene, Nicholas D E; Scambler, Peter J; Weaver, Tom; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Mohun, Timothy J; Henkelman, R Mark; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2013-12-01

    The immense challenge of annotating the entire mouse genome has stimulated the development of cutting-edge imaging technologies in a drive for novel information. These techniques promise to improve understanding of the genes involved in embryo development, at least one third of which have been shown to be essential. Aligning advanced imaging technologies with biological needs will be fundamental to maximising the number of phenotypes discovered in the coming years. International efforts are underway to meet this challenge through an integrated and sophisticated approach to embryo phenotyping. We review rapid advances made in the imaging field over the past decade and provide a comprehensive examination of the relative merits of current and emerging techniques. The aim of this review is to provide a guide to state-of-the-art embryo imaging that will enable informed decisions as to which technology to use and fuel conversations between expert imaging laboratories, researchers, and core mouse production facilities.

  10. The Emerging Role of IGF-1 Deficiency in Cardiovascular Aging: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Csiszar, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on cardiovascular protective effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, provides a landscape of molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular alterations in patients and animal models with congenital and adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency, and explores the link between age-related IGF-1 deficiency and the molecular, cellular, and functional changes that occur in the cardiovascular system during aging. Microvascular protection conferred by endocrine and paracrine IGF-1 signaling, its implications for the pathophysiology of cardiac failure and vascular cognitive impairment, and the role of impaired cellular stress resistance in cardiovascular aging considered here are based on emerging knowledge of the effects of IGF-1 on Nrf2-driven antioxidant response. PMID:22451468

  11. I-Xe ages of Campo del Cielo silicates as a record of the complex early history of the IAB parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Kurat, G.

    2013-12-01

    Using in situ laser analyses of a polished thin section from the IAB iron meteorite Campo del Cielo, we identified two silicate grains rich in radiogenic 129*Xe, Cr-diopside, and oligoclase, excavated them from the metal, and irradiated them with thermal neutrons for I-Xe dating. The release profiles of 129*Xe and 128*Xe are consistent with these silicates being diopside and oligoclase, with activation energies, estimated using Arrhenius plots, of ˜201 and ˜171 kcal mole-1, respectively. The 4556.4 ± 0.4 Ma absolute I-Xe age of the more refractory diopside is younger than the 4558.0 ± 0.7 Ma I-Xe age of the less refractory oligoclase. We suggest that separate impact events at different locations and depths on a porous initial chondritic IAB parent body led to the removal of the melt and recrystallization of diopside and oligoclase at the times reflected by their respective I-Xe ages. The diopside and oligoclase grains were later brought into the studied inclusion by a larger scale catastrophic collision that caused breakup and reassembly of the debris, but did not reset the I-Xe ages dating the first events. The metal melt most probably was <1250 °C when it surrounded studied silicate grains. This reassembly could not have occurred earlier than the I-Xe closure in diopside at 4556.4 ± 0.4 Ma.

  12. The Little Six Personality Dimensions From Early Childhood to Early Adulthood: Mean-Level Age and Gender Differences in Parents' Reports.

    PubMed

    Soto, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present research pursues three major goals. First, we develop scales to measure the Little Six youth personality dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity. Second, we examine mean-level age and gender differences in the Little Six from early childhood into early adulthood. Third, we examine the development of more specific nuance traits. We analyze parent reports, made using the common-language California Child Q-Set (CCQ), for a cross-sectional sample of 16,000 target children ranging from 3 to 20 years old. We construct CCQ-Little Six scales that reliably measure each Little Six dimension. Using these scales, we find (a) curvilinear, U-shaped age trends for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, with declines followed by subsequent inclines; (b) monotonic, negative age trends for Extraversion and Activity; (c) higher levels of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness among girls than boys, as well as higher levels of Activity among boys than girls; and (d) gender-specific age trends for Neuroticism, with girls scoring higher than boys by mid-adolescence. Finally, we find that several nuance traits show distinctive developmental trends that differ from their superordinate Little Six dimension. These results highlight childhood and adolescence as key periods of personality development.

  13. A Review and New Look at Ethical Suicide in Advanced Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that suicide is common in old age, but public opinion remains negative. Following a review of theories of suicide and summary of arguments against suicide, constructs argument for why elderly have unique claim to an ethical, unobstructed suicide. Claim rests on their "developmental autonomy," based on experience and wisdom of the elderly.…

  14. Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

  15. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  16. Executive Control at an Early Age: Advance Planning in Solitary Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besevegis, Elias; Neimark, Edith D.

    Questions concerning the ontogeny of the planning process and its role in the regulation of behavior have been markedly absent from the literature. The present study examines the planning done during solitary play by middle-class children from four public nursery schools in Athens, Greece. One hundred preschool children in five age groups (42, 48,…

  17. Heart valve disease in elderly Chinese population: effect of advanced age and comorbidities on treatment decision-making and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kui; Li, Jun; Wan, Yun; Hong, Tao; Lu, Shu-Yang; Guo, Chang-Fa; Wang, Chun-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable proportion of elderly patients with symptomatic severe heart valve disease are treated conservatively despite clear indications for surgical intervention. However, little is known about how advanced age and comorbidities affect treatment decision-making and therapeutic outcomes. Methods Patients (n = 234, mean age: 78.5 ± 3.7 years) with symptomatic severe heart valve disease hospitalized in our center were included. One hundred and fifty-one patients (65%) were treated surgically (surgical group) and 83 (35%) were treated conservatively (conservative group). Factors that affected therapeutic decision-making and treatment outcomes were investigated and long-term survival was explored. Results Isolated aortic valve disease, female sex, chronic renal insufficiency, aged ≥ 80 years, pneumonia, and emergent status were independent factors associated with therapeutic decision-making. In-hospital mortality for the surgical group was 5.3% (8/151). Three patients (3.6%) in the conservative group died during initial hospitalization. Low cardiac output syndrome and chronic renal insufficiency were identified as predictors of in-hospital mortality in the surgical group. Conservative treatment was identified as the single risk factor for late death in the entire study population. The surgical group had better 5-year (77.2% vs. 45.4%, P < 0.0001) and 10-year (34.5% vs. 8.9%, P < 0.0001) survival rates than the conservative group, even when adjusted by propensity score-matched analysis. Conclusions Advanced age and geriatric comorbidities profoundly affect treatment decision-making for severe heart valve disease. Valve surgery in the elderly was not only safe but was also associated with good long-term survival while conservative treatment was unfavorable for patients with symptomatic severe valve disease. PMID:27605940

  18. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns.

    PubMed

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (P<0.05), anti-hypertensive (P<0.05), anti-diabetic drug use (men P<0.05, women P=0.06) and waist circumference for the male cohort (P<0.05), after adjusting for age. Subjects with ABA had spatially extensive gray matter loss in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes (false-discovery-rate-corrected q<0.001). ABA patterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  19. Interaction Between the FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking Is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Nie, Chao; Liu, Xiaomin; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Fengyu; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gregory, Simon G; Gottschalk, William; Lutz, Michael W; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Ming, Qi; Yang, Huanming; Min, Junxia; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Gu, Jun; Hauser, Elizabeth; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at advanced ages. Such a significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p = 0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p = 0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably stronger among those who carry two copies of the FOXO1A minor allele than those who carry one copy. On the basis of previously reported experiments on human cell models concerning FOXO1A-by-tea-compounds interactions, we speculate that results in the present study indicate that tea drinking may inhibit FOXO1A-209 gene expression and its biological functions, which reduces the negative impacts of FOXO1A-209 gene on longevity (as reported in the literature) and offers protection against mortality risk at oldest-old ages. Our empirical findings imply that the health outcomes of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles, and the research on the effects of nutrigenomics interactions could potentially be useful for rejuvenation therapies in the clinic or associated healthy aging intervention programs.

  20. Interaction Between the FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking Is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Nie, Chao; Liu, Xiaomin; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Fengyu; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gregory, Simon G; Gottschalk, William; Lutz, Michael W; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Ming, Qi; Yang, Huanming; Min, Junxia; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Gu, Jun; Hauser, Elizabeth; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at advanced ages. Such a significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p = 0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p = 0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably stronger among those who carry two copies of the FOXO1A minor allele than those who carry one copy. On the basis of previously reported experiments on human cell models concerning FOXO1A-by-tea-compounds interactions, we speculate that results in the present study indicate that tea drinking may inhibit FOXO1A-209 gene expression and its biological functions, which reduces the negative impacts of FOXO1A-209 gene on longevity (as reported in the literature) and offers protection against mortality risk at oldest-old ages. Our empirical findings imply that the health outcomes of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles, and the research on the effects of nutrigenomics interactions could potentially be useful for rejuvenation therapies in the clinic or associated healthy aging intervention programs. PMID:26414954