Science.gov

Sample records for advanced pathway guidance

  1. Advanced Pathway Guidance Evaluations on a Synthetic Vision Head-Up Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to potentially eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced guidance for commercial and business aircraft. This experiment evaluated the influence of different pathway and guidance display concepts upon pilot situation awareness (SA), mental workload, and flight path tracking performance for Synthetic Vision display concepts using a Head-Up Display (HUD). Two pathway formats (dynamic and minimal tunnel presentations) were evaluated against a baseline condition (no tunnel) during simulated instrument meteorological conditions approaches to Reno-Tahoe International airport. Two guidance cues (tadpole, follow-me aircraft) were also evaluated to assess their influence. Results indicated that the presence of a tunnel on an SVS HUD had no effect on flight path performance but that it did have significant effects on pilot SA and mental workload. The dynamic tunnel concept with the follow-me aircraft guidance symbol produced the lowest workload and provided the highest SA among the tunnel concepts evaluated.

  2. Advances in spacecraft atmospheric entry guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito Manrique, Joel

    In order to advance entry guidance technology two different research areas have been explored with the objective of increasing the reachable landing area and the landing accuracy for future Mars missions. Currently only the northern hemisphere of Mars is available for landing due to its low elevation. Only low elevation landing sites have the necessary atmospheric density to allow landing using current Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology. In order to reach most of the Ancient Highlands, the majority of the southern hemisphere, advanced EDL technology is needed in multiple fields, including entry guidance. The first research area is the definition and applications of reachable and controllable sets for entry. The definition of the reachable and controllable sets provides a framework for the study of the capabilities of an entry vehicle in a given planet. Reachable and controllable sets can be used to comprehensively characterize the envelope of trajectories that a vehicle can fly, the sites it can reach and the entry states that can be accommodated. The sets can also be used for the evaluation of trajectory planning algorithms and to assist in the selection of the entry or landing sites. In essence, the reachable and controllable sets offer a powerful vehicle and trajectory analysis and design framework that allows for better mission design choices. In order to illustrate the use of the sets, they are computed for a representative Mars mission using two different vehicle configurations. The sets characterize the impact of the vehicle configuration on the entry capability. Furthermore, the sets are used to find the best skip-entry trajectory for a return from the Moon mission, highlighting the utility of the sets in atmospheric maneuvers other than entry. The second research area is the development of the components of an entry guidance algorithm that allow high elevation landing and provide as well high landing accuracy. The approach taken follows the

  3. Control Software for Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Embedded software has been developed specifically for controlling an Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS). A Video Guidance Sensor is an optoelectronic system that provides guidance for automated docking of two vehicles. Such a system includes pulsed laser diodes and a video camera, the output of which is digitized. From the positions of digitized target images and known geometric relationships, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. The present software consists of two subprograms running in two processors that are parts of the AVGS. The subprogram in the first processor receives commands from an external source, checks the commands for correctness, performs commanded non-image-data-processing control functions, and sends image data processing parts of commands to the second processor. The subprogram in the second processor processes image data as commanded. Upon power-up, the software performs basic tests of functionality, then effects a transition to a standby mode. When a command is received, the software goes into one of several operational modes (e.g. acquisition or tracking). The software then returns, to the external source, the data appropriate to the command.

  4. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jimmy; Spencer, Susan; Bryan, Tom; Johnson, Jimmie; Robertson, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. The United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport. Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). AVGS has a proven pedigree, based on extensive ground testing and flight demonstrations. The AVGS on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART)mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km. The first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS. units, and the next generation sensor must be updated to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor is being redesigned to update parts and add additional. capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next, Generation AVGS (NGAVGS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities might include greater sensor range, auto ranging, and real-time video output. This paper presents an approach to sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It will also discuss approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, parts selection and test plans for the NGAVGS will be addressed to provide a highly reliable flight qualified sensor. Expanded capabilities through innovative use of existing capabilities will also be

  5. Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) Development Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, Albert S.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was the driving force behind the development of the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor, an active sensor system that provides near-range sensor data as part of an automatic rendezvous and docking system. The sensor determines the relative positions and attitudes between the active sensor and the passive target at ranges up to 300 meters. The AVGS uses laser diodes to illuminate retro-reflectors in the target, a solid-state camera to detect the return from the target, and image capture electronics and a digital signal processor to convert the video information into the relative positions and attitudes. The AVGS will fly as part of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technologies (DART) in October, 2004. This development effort has required a great deal of testing of various sorts at every phase of development. Some of the test efforts included optical characterization of performance with the intended target, thermal vacuum testing, performance tests in long range vacuum facilities, EMI/EMC tests, and performance testing in dynamic situations. The sensor has been shown to track a target at ranges of up to 300 meters, both in vacuum and ambient conditions, to survive and operate during the thermal vacuum cycling specific to the DART mission, to handle EM1 well, and to perform well in dynamic situations.

  6. Orbital Express Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ricky; Heaton, Andy; Pinson, Robin; Carrington, Connie

    2008-01-01

    In May 2007 the first US fully autonomous rendezvous and capture was successfully performed by DARPA's Orbital Express (OE) mission. Since then, the Boeing ASTRO spacecraft and the Ball Aerospace NEXTSat have performed multiple rendezvous and docking maneuvers to demonstrate the technologies needed for satellite servicing. MSFC's Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) is a primary near-field proximity operations sensor integrated into ASTRO's Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture Sensor System (ARCSS), which provides relative state knowledge to the ASTRO GN&C system. This paper provides an overview of the AVGS sensor flying on Orbital Express, and a summary of the ground testing and on-orbit performance of the AVGS for OE. The AVGS is a laser-based system that is capable of providing range and bearing at midrange distances and full six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knowledge at near fields. The sensor fires lasers at two different frequencies to illuminate the Long Range Targets (LRTs) and the Short Range Targets (SRTs) on NEXTSat. Subtraction of one image from the other image removes extraneous light sources and reflections from anything other than the corner cubes on the LRTs and SRTs. This feature has played a significant role for Orbital Express in poor lighting conditions. The very bright spots that remain in the subtracted image are processed by the target recognition algorithms and the inverse-perspective algorithms, to provide 3DOF or 6DOF relative state information. Although Orbital Express has configured the ASTRO ARCSS system to only use AVGS at ranges of 120 m or less, some OE scenarios have provided opportunities for AVGS to acquire and track NEXTSat at greater distances. Orbital Express scenarios to date that have utilized AVGS include a berthing operation performed by the ASTRO robotic arm, sensor checkout maneuvers performed by the ASTRO robotic arm, 10-m unmated operations, 30-m unmated operations, and Scenario 3-1 anomaly recovery. The AVGS performed very

  7. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  8. Robust Neighboring Optimal Guidance for the Advanced Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, David G.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, optimization has become an engineering tool through the availability of numerous successful nonlinear programming codes. Optimal control problems are converted into parameter optimization (nonlinear programming) problems by assuming the control to be piecewise linear, making the unknowns the nodes or junction points of the linear control segments. Once the optimal piecewise linear control (suboptimal) control is known, a guidance law for operating near the suboptimal path is the neighboring optimal piecewise linear control (neighboring suboptimal control). Research conducted under this grant has been directed toward the investigation of neighboring suboptimal control as a guidance scheme for an advanced launch system.

  9. Robust neighboring extremal guidance for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, John; Speyer, Jason L.

    1993-01-01

    With the availability of modern flight computers, realtime neighboring extremal guidance seems feasible. To overcome sensitivity to unknown system parameters and environmental uncertainties, a robust neighboring extremal guidance scheme is proposed. About the optimal trajectory, the accessory problem in the calculus of variations is formed, generating a quadratic cost criterion in the perturbed states and controls. By formulating a disturbance attenuation problem based upon the second variation cost criterion, a differential game is formulated. The game theoretic cost criterion is minimized with respect to the perturbed control but maximized with respect to the unknown parameters in the linearized dynamics. The resulting differential game problem gives rise to a two-point boundary-value problem solved using the sweep method. The sweep method solution provides a linear robust neighboring extremal guidance scheme that is applied to the Advanced Launch System.

  10. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Development and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Lee, Jimmy; Robertson, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) was the primary docking sensor for the Orbital Express mission. The sensor performed extremely well during the mission, and the technology has been proven on orbit in other flights too. Parts obsolescence issues prevented the construction of more AVGS units, so the next generation of sensor was designed with current parts and updated to support future programs. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been tested as a breadboard, two different brassboard units, and a prototype. The testing revealed further improvements that could be made and demonstrated capability beyond that ever demonstrated by the sensor on orbit. This paper presents some of the sensor history, parts obsolescence issues, radiation concerns, and software improvements to the NGAVGS. In addition, some of the testing and test results are presented. The NGAVGS has shown that it will meet the general requirements for any space proximity operations or docking need.

  11. Techniques for developing approximate optimal advanced launch system guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeley, Timothy S.; Speyer, Jason L.

    1991-01-01

    An extension to the authors' previous technique used to develop a real-time guidance scheme for the Advanced Launch System is presented. The approach is to construct an optimal guidance law based upon an asymptotic expansion associated with small physical parameters, epsilon. The trajectory of a rocket modeled as a point mass is considered with the flight restricted to an equatorial plane while reaching an orbital altitude at orbital injection speeds. The dynamics of this problem can be separated into primary effects due to thrust and gravitational forces, and perturbation effects which include the aerodynamic forces and the remaining inertial forces. An analytic solution to the reduced-order problem represented by the primary dynamics is possible. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman or dynamic programming equation is expanded in an asymptotic series where the zeroth-order term (epsilon = 0) can be obtained in closed form.

  12. Advanced Video Guidance Sensor and Next Generation Autonomous Docking Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granade, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, NASA's interest in spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations has grown. Additional instrumentation is needed to improve manned docking operations' safety, as well as to enable telerobotic operation of spacecraft or completely autonomous rendezvous and docking. To address this need, Advanced Optical Systems, Inc., Orbital Sciences Corporation, and Marshall Space Flight Center have developed the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) under the auspices of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) program. Given a cooperative target comprising several retro-reflectors, AVGS provides six-degree-of-freedom information at ranges of up to 300 meters for the DART target. It does so by imaging the target, then performing pattern recognition on the resulting image. Longer range operation is possible through different target geometries. Now that AVGS is being readied for its test flight in 2004, the question is: what next? Modifications can be made to AVGS, including different pattern recognition algorithms and changes to the retro-reflector targets, to make it more robust and accurate. AVGS could be coupled with other space-qualified sensors, such as a laser range-and-bearing finder, that would operate at longer ranges. Different target configurations, including the use of active targets, could result in significant miniaturization over the current AVGS package. We will discuss these and other possibilities for a next-generation docking sensor or sensor suite that involve AVGS.

  13. Advanced Guidance and Control for Hypersonics and Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hall, Charles E.; Mulqueen, John A.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety, reliability, and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV), whether it is fully rocket-powered or has air- breathing components. This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies could have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where t h i s technology applies, and the costs and time associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is the point where we can look to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AWC, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality. There are a number of approaches to AG&C that have the potential for achieving the desired goals. For some of these methods, we compare the results of tests designed to demonstrate the achievement of the goals. Tests up to now have been focused on rocket-powered vehicles; application to hypersonic air-breathers is planned. We list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, briefly describe an automated test scoring method, and display results of the tests. Some of the technology components have reached the maturity level where they are ready for application to a new vehicle concept, while others are not far along in development.

  14. Simulation and ground testing with the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, Albert S.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS), an active sensor system that provides near-range 6-degree-of-freedom sensor data, has been developed as part of an automatic rendezvous and docking system for the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART). The sensor determines the relative positions and attitudes between the active sensor and the passive target at ranges up to 300 meters. The AVGS uses laser diodes to illuminate retro-reflectors in the target, a solid-state imager to detect the light returned from the target, and image capture electronics and a digital signal processor to convert the video information into the relative positions and attitudes. The development of the sensor, through initial prototypes, final prototypes, and three flight units, has required a great deal of testing at every phase, and the different types of testing, their effectiveness, and their results, are presented in this paper, focusing on the testing of the flight units. Testing has improved the sensor's performance.

  15. Advances in Targeting Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    McCubrey, James A.; Steelman, Linda S.; Chappell, William H.; Sun, Lin; Davis, Nicole M.; Abrams, Stephen L.; Franklin, Richard A.; Cocco, Lucio; Evangelisti, Camilla; Chiarini, Francesca; Martelli, Alberto M.; Libra, Massimo; Candido, Saverio; Ligresti, Giovanni; Malaponte, Grazia; Mazzarino, Maria C.; Fagone, Paolo; Donia, Marco; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Polesel, Jerry; Talamini, Renato; Bäsecke, Jörg; Mijatovic, Sanja; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Milella, Michele; Tafuri, Agostino; Dulińska-Litewka, Joanna; Laidler, Piotr; D'Assoro, Antonio B.; Drobot, Lyudmyla; Umezawa, Kazuo; Montalto, Giuseppe; Cervello, Melchiorre; Demidenko, Zoya N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant advances have occurred in both our understanding of the complexity of signal transduction pathways as well as the isolation of specific inhibitors which target key components in those pathways. Furthermore critical information is being accrued regarding how genetic mutations can affect the sensitivity of various types of patients to targeted therapy. Finally, genetic mechanisms responsible for the development of resistance after targeted therapy are being discovered which may allow the creation of alternative therapies to overcome resistance. This review will discuss some of the highlights over the past few years on the roles of key signaling pathways in various diseases, the targeting of signal transduction pathways and the genetic mechanisms governing sensitivity and resistance to targeted therapies. PMID:23455493

  16. The Hedgehog Signalling Pathway in Cell Migration and Guidance: What We Have Learned from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Sofia J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration and guidance are complex processes required for morphogenesis, the formation of tumor metastases, and the progression of human cancer. During migration, guidance molecules induce cell directionality and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. Expression of these molecules has to be tightly regulated and their signals properly interpreted by the receiving cells so as to ensure correct navigation. This molecular control is fundamental for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved and known to be crucial for normal cellular growth and differentiation throughout the animal kingdom. The relevance of Hh signaling for human disease is emphasized by its activation in many cancers. Here, I review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of the Hh pathway in cell migration and guidance during Drosophila development and discuss its implications for human cancer origin and progression. PMID:26445062

  17. ADVANCES IN INDOOR AIR VAPOR INTRUSION: GUIDANCE AND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ongoing efforts between the Office of Research and Development and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response have included technical guidance support, field demonstration activities, data analysis, and technology transfer activities in evaluating the impacts of vapor intru...

  18. Advanced Guidance and Control Project for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this project are to significantly reduce the time and cost associated with guidance and control design for reusable launch vehicles, and to increase their safety and reliability. Success will lead to reduced cycle times during vehicle design and to reduced costs associated with flying to new orbits, with new payloads, and with modified vehicles. Success will also lead to more robustness to unforeseen circumstances in flight thereby enhancing safety and reducing risk. There are many guidance and control methods available that hold some promise for improvement in the desired areas. Investigators are developing a representative set of independent guidance and control methods for this project. These methods are being incorporated into a high-fidelity off is being conducted across a broad range of flight requirements. The guidance and control methods that perform the best will have demonstrated the desired qualities.

  19. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Low Risk Rendezvous and Docking Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jimmy; Carrington, Connie; Spencer, Susan; Bryan, Thomas; Howard, Ricky T.; Johnson, Jimmie

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is being built and tested at MSFC. This paper provides an overview of current work on the NGAVGS, a summary of the video guidance heritage, and the AVGS performance on the Orbital Express mission. This paper also provides a discussion of applications to ISS cargo delivery vehicles, CEV, and future lunar applications.

  20. 78 FR 70624 - Guidance on Supervisory Concerns and Expectations Regarding Deposit Advance Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...; Withdrawal of Proposed Guidance on Deposit-Related Consumer Credit Products,'' 78 FR 25353 (April 20, 2013... Credit Classification and Account Management Policy,'' 65 FR 36903 (June 12, 2000). This policy is... Concerns and Expectations Regarding Deposit Advance Products'' (Guidance), which addresses safe and...

  1. Pathways of Transport Protein Evolution: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Vincent H.; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Silverio, Abe; Chan, Henry; Gomolplitinant, Kenny M.; Povolotsky, Tatyana L.; Orlova, Ekaterina; Sun, Eric I.; Welliver, Carl H.; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    We herein report recent advances in our understanding of transport protein evolution. The Drug-Metabolite Transporter (DMT) superfamily (TC# 2.A.7) arose from a 2TMS precursor to give 4TMS proteins which then added one and duplicated to give 10. The proposed pathway is 2 –> 4 –> 5 –> 10. This superfamily provides a rare example where all proposed topological intermediates in this evolutionary pathway have been identified in current protein databases. Another family, the Oligopeptide Transporter (OPT) family (TC# 2.A.67), also started with a 2 TMS peptide precursor, but it followed the pathway: Only 16 and 17 TMS OPT family members have been identified in current databases. The TRIC family of K+ channels, characterized in animals, arose via the pathway: where the seventh TMS was added c-terminally to the 6 TMS precursor that resulted from a 3 TMS duplication. Surprisingly, animal TRIC channels proved to have numerous 7 TMS homologues in prokaryotes, none of which had been identified previously. We found that two families of integral membrane proteins gave rise to multiple current topological types. Members of the SdpC killer factor immunity protein family, SdpI (TC# 9.A.32) probably arose via the pathway: while members of the Heme Handling Protein (HHP) Family (TC# 9.B.14) arose via the pathway: Predictions are also made for an evolutionary pathway giving rise to the seven topological types of P-type ATPases so far identified in the P-ATPase superfamily. Finally, the ubiquitous CDF carriers (TC# 1.A.4) of 6TMSs probably gave rise to CRAC channels of 4TMSs by loss of the first two TMSs an unusual example of retroevolution. PMID:21194372

  2. Approximate optimal guidance for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeley, T. S.; Speyer, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time guidance scheme for the problem of maximizing the payload into orbit subject to the equations of motion for a rocket over a spherical, non-rotating earth is presented. An approximate optimal launch guidance law is developed based upon an asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton - Jacobi - Bellman or dynamic programming equation. The expansion is performed in terms of a small parameter, which is used to separate the dynamics of the problem into primary and perturbation dynamics. For the zeroth-order problem the small parameter is set to zero and a closed-form solution to the zeroth-order expansion term of Hamilton - Jacobi - Bellman equation is obtained. Higher-order terms of the expansion include the effects of the neglected perturbation dynamics. These higher-order terms are determined from the solution of first-order linear partial differential equations requiring only the evaluation of quadratures. This technique is preferred as a real-time, on-line guidance scheme to alternative numerical iterative optimization schemes because of the unreliable convergence properties of these iterative guidance schemes and because the quadratures needed for the approximate optimal guidance law can be performed rapidly and by parallel processing. Even if the approximate solution is not nearly optimal, when using this technique the zeroth-order solution always provides a path which satisfies the terminal constraints. Results for two-degree-of-freedom simulations are presented for the simplified problem of flight in the equatorial plane and compared to the guidance scheme generated by the shooting method which is an iterative second-order technique.

  3. Approximate optimal guidance for the advanced launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. S.; Speyer, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    A real-time guidance scheme for the problem of maximizing the payload into orbit subject to the equations of motion for a rocket over a spherical, non-rotating earth is presented. An approximate optimal launch guidance law is developed based upon an asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton - Jacobi - Bellman or dynamic programming equation. The expansion is performed in terms of a small parameter, which is used to separate the dynamics of the problem into primary and perturbation dynamics. For the zeroth-order problem the small parameter is set to zero and a closed-form solution to the zeroth-order expansion term of Hamilton - Jacobi - Bellman equation is obtained. Higher-order terms of the expansion include the effects of the neglected perturbation dynamics. These higher-order terms are determined from the solution of first-order linear partial differential equations requiring only the evaluation of quadratures. This technique is preferred as a real-time, on-line guidance scheme to alternative numerical iterative optimization schemes because of the unreliable convergence properties of these iterative guidance schemes and because the quadratures needed for the approximate optimal guidance law can be performed rapidly and by parallel processing. Even if the approximate solution is not nearly optimal, when using this technique the zeroth-order solution always provides a path which satisfies the terminal constraints. Results for two-degree-of-freedom simulations are presented for the simplified problem of flight in the equatorial plane and compared to the guidance scheme generated by the shooting method which is an iterative second-order technique.

  4. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  5. Optimal guidance law development for an advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Leung, Martin S. K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a real-time guidance approach for launch vehicles ascent to orbit injection. Various analytical approaches combined with a variety of model order and model complexity reduction have been investigated. Singular perturbation methods were first attempted and found to be unsatisfactory. The second approach based on regular perturbation analysis was subsequently investigated. It also fails because the aerodynamic effects (ignored in the zero order solution) are too large to be treated as perturbations. Therefore, the study demonstrates that perturbation methods alone (both regular and singular perturbations) are inadequate for use in developing a guidance algorithm for the atmospheric flight phase of a launch vehicle. During a second phase of the research effort, a hybrid analytic/numerical approach was developed and evaluated. The approach combines the numerical methods of collocation and the analytical method of regular perturbations. The concept of choosing intelligent interpolating functions is also introduced. Regular perturbation analysis allows the use of a crude representation for the collocation solution, and intelligent interpolating functions further reduce the number of elements without sacrificing the approximation accuracy. As a result, the combined method forms a powerful tool for solving real-time optimal control problems. Details of the approach are illustrated in a fourth order nonlinear example. The hybrid approach is then applied to the launch vehicle problem. The collocation solution is derived from a bilinear tangent steering law, and results in a guidance solution for the entire flight regime that includes both atmospheric and exoatmospheric flight phases.

  6. Advanced entry guidance algorithm with landing footprint computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, James Aaron

    The design and performance evaluation of an entry guidance algorithm for future space transportation vehicles is presented. The algorithm performs two functions: on-board trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. The planned longitudinal path is followed by tracking drag acceleration, as is done by the Space Shuttle entry guidance. Unlike the Shuttle entry guidance, lateral path curvature is also planned and followed. A new trajectory planning function for the guidance algorithm is developed that is suitable for suborbital entry and that significantly enhances the overall performance of the algorithm for both orbital and suborbital entry. In comparison with the previous trajectory planner, the new planner produces trajectories that are easier to track, especially near the upper and lower drag boundaries and for suborbital entry. The new planner accomplishes this by matching the vehicle's initial flight path angle and bank angle, and by enforcing the full three-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with control derivative limits. Insights gained from trajectory optimization results contribute to the design of the new planner, giving it near-optimal downrange and crossrange capabilities. Planned trajectories and guidance simulation results are presented that demonstrate the improved performance. Based on the new planner, a method is developed for approximating the landing footprint for entry vehicles in near real-time, as would be needed for an on-board flight management system. The boundary of the footprint is constructed from the endpoints of extreme downrange and crossrange trajectories generated by the new trajectory planner. The footprint algorithm inherently possesses many of the qualities of the new planner, including quick execution, the ability to accurately approximate the vehicle's glide capabilities, and applicability to a wide range of entry conditions. Footprints can be generated for orbital and suborbital entry conditions using a pre

  7. Advanced Imaging for Biopsy Guidance in Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Ramakrishna, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate glioma sampling is required for diagnosis and establishing eligibility for relevant clinical trials. MR-based perfusion and spectroscopy sequences supplement conventional MR in noninvasively predicting the areas of highest tumor grade for biopsy. We report the case of a patient with gliomatosis cerebri and multifocal patchy enhancement in whom the combination of advanced and conventional imaging attributes successfully guided a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:27014538

  8. 78 FR 70552 - Guidance on Supervisory Concerns and Expectations Regarding Deposit Advance Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Deposit Advance Products,'' 78 FR 25268 (April 20, 2013). Several commenters stated they believed the FDIC... Management Policy,'' 65 FR 36903 (June 12, 2000). This policy is addressed more fully in the ``Credit Quality... Products'' (Guidance), which addresses safe and sound banking practices and consumer protection...

  9. Advances in Orion's On-Orbit Guidance and Targeting System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarritt, Sara K.; Fill, Thomas; Robinson, Shane

    2015-01-01

    NASA's manned spaceflight programs have a rich history of advancing onboard guidance and targeting technology. In order to support future missions, the guidance and targeting architecture for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle must be able to operate in complete autonomy, without any support from the ground. Orion's guidance and targeting system must be sufficiently flexible to easily adapt to a wide array of undecided future missions, yet also not cause an undue computational burden on the flight computer. This presents a unique design challenge from the perspective of both algorithm development and system architecture construction. The present work shows how Orion's guidance and targeting system addresses these challenges. On the algorithm side, the system advances the state-of-the-art by: (1) steering burns with a simple closed-loop guidance strategy based on Shuttle heritage, and (2) planning maneuvers with a cutting-edge two-level targeting routine. These algorithms are then placed into an architecture designed to leverage the advantages of each and ensure that they function in concert with one another. The resulting system is characterized by modularity and simplicity. As such, it is adaptable to the on-orbit phases of any future mission that Orion may attempt.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  11. X-Ray Calibration Facility/Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. A. S.; Howard, R. T.; Watson, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The advanced video guidance sensor was tested in the X-Ray Calibration facility at Marshall Space Flight Center to establish performance during vacuum. Two sensors were tested and a timeline for each are presented. The sensor and test facility are discussed briefly. A new test stand was also developed. A table establishing sensor bias and spot size growth for several ranges is detailed along with testing anomalies.

  12. Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Advanced (Non-Light Water) Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, Mark; Kinsey, Jim

    2015-03-01

    In July 2013, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a joint initiative to address a key portion of the licensing framework essential to advanced (non-light water) reactor technologies. The initiative addressed the “General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,” Appendix A to10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 50, which were developed primarily for light water reactors (LWRs), specific to the needs of advanced reactor design and licensing. The need for General Design Criteria (GDC) clarifications in non-LWR applications has been consistently identified as a concern by the industry and varied stakeholders and was acknowledged by the NRC staff in their 2012 Report to Congress1 as an area for enhancement. The initiative to adapt GDC requirements for non-light water advanced reactor applications is being accomplished in two phases. Phase 1, managed by DOE, consisted of reviews, analyses and evaluations resulting in recommendations and deliverables to NRC as input for NRC staff development of regulatory guidance. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed this technical report using technical and reactor technology stakeholder inputs coupled with analysis and evaluations provided by a team of knowledgeable DOE national laboratory personnel with input from individual industry licensing consultants. The DOE national laboratory team reviewed six different classes of emerging commercial reactor technologies against 10 CFR 50 Appendix A GDC requirements and proposed guidance for their adapted use in non-LWR applications. The results of the Phase 1 analysis are contained in this report. A set of draft Advanced Reactor Design Criteria (ARDC) has been proposed for consideration by the NRC in the establishment of guidance for use by non-LWR designers and NRC staff. The proposed criteria were developed to preserve the underlying safety bases expressed by the original GDC, and recognizing that advanced reactors may take

  13. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Flight Heritage and Current Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2009-03-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is the latest in a line of sensors that have flown four times in the last 10 years. The NGAVGS has been under development for the last two years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998.

  14. Advanced MR Imaging of the Visual Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Duong, Timothy; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

    2015-08-01

    Vision is one of our most vital senses, deriving from the eyes as well as structures deep within the intracranial compartment. MR imaging, through its wide selection of sequences, offers an array of structural and functional imaging tools to interrogate this intricate system. This review describes several advanced MR imaging sequences and explores their potential clinical applications as well as areas for further development. PMID:26208415

  15. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  16. Learning guide for the terminal configured vehicle advanced guidance and control system mode select panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. A.; Callahan, R.

    1981-01-01

    This learning guide is designed to assist pilots in taking the PLATO presimulator training course on the advanced guidance and control system mode select panel. The learning guide is divided into five sections. The first section, the introduction, presents the course goals, prerequisites, definition of PLATO activities, and a suggested approach to completing the course. The remaining four sections present the purpose, learning activities and summary of each lesson of the AGCS PLATO course, which consists of (1) AGCS introduction; (2) lower order modes; (3) higher order modes; and (4) an arrival route exercise.

  17. Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.; Krupp, Don R.; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of these methods and compare the results. We briefly introduce the various methods under test, list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, show an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and display results of the tests. Results are shown for the algorithms that have entered testing so far.

  18. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Flight Heritage and Current Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is the latest in a line of sensors that have flown four times in the last 10 years. The NGAVGS has been under development for the last two years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. This paper presents the flight heritage and results of the sensor technology, some hardware trades for the current sensor, and discusses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the various NGAVGS development units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

  19. Axonal guidance signaling pathway interacting with smoking in modifying the risk of pancreatic cancer: a gene- and pathway-based interaction analysis of GWAS data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the best established modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Genetic factors that underlie smoking-related pancreatic cancer have previously not been examined at the genome-wide level. Taking advantage of the existing Genome-wide association study (GWAS) genotype and risk factor data from the Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium, we conducted a discovery study in 2028 cases and 2109 controls to examine gene–smoking interactions at pathway/gene/single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level. Using the likelihood ratio test nested in logistic regression models and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA), we examined 172 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, 3 manually curated gene sets, 3 nicotine dependency gene ontology pathways, 17 912 genes and 468 114 SNPs. None of the individual pathway/gene/SNP showed significant interaction with smoking after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Six KEGG pathways showed nominal interactions (P < 0.05) with smoking, and the top two are the pancreatic secretion and salivary secretion pathways (major contributing genes: RAB8A, PLCB and CTRB1). Nine genes, i.e. ZBED2, EXO1, PSG2, SLC36A1, CLSTN1, MTHFSD, FAT2, IL10RB and ATXN2 had P interaction < 0.0005. Five intergenic region SNPs and two SNPs of the EVC and KCNIP4 genes had P interaction < 0.00003. In IPA analysis of genes with nominal interactions with smoking, axonal guidance signaling (P=2.12×10−7) and α-adrenergic signaling (P=2.52×10−5) genes were significantly overrepresented canonical pathways. Genes contributing to the axon guidance signaling pathway included the SLIT/ROBO signaling genes that were frequently altered in pancreatic cancer. These observations need to be confirmed in additional data set. Once confirmed, it will open a new avenue to unveiling the etiology of smoking-associated pancreatic cancer. PMID:24419231

  20. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  1. Finite element method for optimal guidance of an advanced launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.; Calise, Anthony J.; Leung, Martin

    1992-01-01

    A temporal finite element based on a mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle is summarized for optimal control problems. The resulting weak Hamiltonian finite element method is extended to allow for discontinuities in the states and/or discontinuities in the system equations. An extension of the formulation to allow for control inequality constraints is also presented. The formulation does not require element quadrature, and it produces a sparse system of nonlinear algebraic equations. To evaluate its feasibility for real-time guidance applications, this approach is applied to the trajectory optimization of a four-state, two-stage model with inequality constraints for an advanced launch vehicle. Numerical results for this model are presented and compared to results from a multiple-shooting code. The results show the accuracy and computational efficiency of the finite element method.

  2. A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal guidance of an advanced launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Calise, Anthony J.; Bless, Robert R.; Leung, Martin

    1989-01-01

    A temporal finite-element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is presented for optimal control problems. The mixed form of this principle contains both states and costates as primary variables, which are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple shape functions. Time derivatives of the states and costates do not appear in the governing variational equation; the only quantities whose time derivatives appear therein are virtual states and virtual costates. Numerical results are presented for an elementary trajectory optimization problem; they show very good agreement with the exact solution along with excellent computational efficiency and self-starting capability. The feasibility of this approach for real-time guidance applications is evaluated. A simplified model for an advanced launch vehicle application that is suitable for finite-element solution is presented.

  3. Orbital Express Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Ground Testing, Flight Results and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, Robin M.; Howard, Richard T.; Heaton, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    Orbital Express (OE) was a successful mission demonstrating automated rendezvous and docking. The 2007 mission consisted of two spacecraft, the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) and the Next Generation Serviceable Satellite (NEXTSat) that were designed to work together and test a variety of service operations in orbit. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor, AVGS, was included as one of the primary proximity navigation sensors on board the ASTRO. The AVGS was one of four sensors that provided relative position and attitude between the two vehicles. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for the AVGS software and testing (especially the extensive ground testing), flight operations support, and analyzing the flight data. This paper briefly describes the historical mission, the data taken on-orbit, the ground testing that occurred, and finally comparisons between flight data and ground test data for two different flight regimes.

  4. Support and Guidance from Families, Friends, and Teachers in Latino Early Adolescents' Math Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azmitia, Margarita; Cooper, Catherine R.; Brown, Jane R.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study linked concepts of familism and social capital to investigate emotional support and educational guidance from parents, siblings, friends, and teachers in predicting Latino early adolescents' math grades during their transition from elementary school to junior high. Thirty-one Latino youth were interviewed twice and their…

  5. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Orbital Express and the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Pinson, Robin M.; Carrington, Connie L.; Lee, James E.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Robertson, Bryan A.; Spencer, Susan H.; Johnson, Jimmie E.

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express (OE) mission performed the first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the United States on May 5-6, 2007 with the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) acting as one of the primary docking sensors. Since that event, the OE spacecraft performed four more rendezvous and docking maneuvers, each time using the AVGS as one of the docking sensors. The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) AVGS is a nearfield proximity operations sensor that was integrated into the Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture Sensor System (ARCSS) on OE. The ARCSS provided the relative state knowledge to allow the OE spacecraft to rendezvous and dock. The AVGS is a mature sensor technology designed to support Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) operations. It is a video-based laser-illuminated sensor that can determine the relative position and attitude between itself and its target. Due to parts obsolescence, the AVGS that was flown on OE can no longer be manufactured. MSFC has been working on the next generation of AVGS for application to future Constellation missions. This paper provides an overview of the performance of the AVGS on Orbital Express and discusses the work on the Next Generation AVGS (NGAVGS).

  6. An advanced arrangement of the combined propulsion, levitation and guidance system of superconducting Maglev

    SciTech Connect

    Fujie, Junji

    1999-09-01

    The PLG (combined Propulsion, Levitation and Guidance) method was proposed for a more favorable Maglev ground coil system, combining the functions of propulsion, levitation, and guidance of the vehicle into one coil. Research and development is currently being conducted on this method. In this paper, the characteristics of a newly-structured system for the PLG method is examined. The discussed characteristics include propulsion, levitation-guidance, vehicle dynamics in the cases of problems with the superconducting magnets, and the magnetic field on board the vehicle.

  7. The combination of transcriptomics and informatics identifies pathways targeted by miR-204 during neurogenesis and axon guidance

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Ivan; Merella, Stefania; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose Manuel; Migliore, Chiara; Lazarevic, Dejan; Carrella, Sabrina; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Avellino, Raffaella; Davidson, Nathan Paul; Emmett, Warren; Sanges, Remo; Bockett, Nicholas; Van Heel, David; Meroni, Germana; Bovolenta, Paola; Stupka, Elia; Banfi, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate organogenesis is critically sensitive to gene dosage and even subtle variations in the expression levels of key genes may result in a variety of tissue anomalies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are fundamental regulators of gene expression and their role in vertebrate tissue patterning is just beginning to be elucidated. To gain further insight into this issue, we analysed the transcriptomic consequences of manipulating the expression of miR-204 in the Medaka fish model system. We used RNA-Seq and an innovative bioinformatics approach, which combines conventional differential expression analysis with the behavior expected by miR-204 targets after its overexpression and knockdown. With this approach combined with a correlative analysis of the putative targets, we identified a wider set of miR-204 target genes belonging to different pathways. Together, these approaches confirmed that miR-204 has a key role in eye development and further highlighted its putative function in neural differentiation processes, including axon guidance as supported by in vivo functional studies. Together, our results demonstrate the advantage of integrating next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to investigate miRNA biology and provide new important information on the role of miRNAs in the control of axon guidance and more broadly in nervous system development. PMID:24895435

  8. Advances in mechanisms and signaling pathways of carbon nanotube toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Ma, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed into new materials with a variety of industrial and commercial applications. In contrast, the physicochemical properties of CNT at the nanoscale render them the potency to generate toxic effects. Indeed, the potential health impacts of CNT have drawn a great deal of attention in recent years, owing to their identified toxicological and pathological consequences including cytotoxicity, inflammation, fibrosis, genotoxicity, tumorigenesis, and immunotoxicity. Understanding the mechanisms by which CNT induce toxicity and pathology is thus urgently needed for accurate risk assessment of CNT exposure in humans, and for safe and responsible development and commercialization of nanotechnology. Here, we summarize and discuss recent advances in this area with a focus on the molecular interactions between CNT and mammalian systems, and the signaling pathways important for the development of CNT toxicity such as the NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome, TGF-β1, MAPK, and p53 signaling cascades. With the current mechanistic evidence summarized in this review, we expect to provide new insights into CNT toxicology at the molecular level and offer new clues to the prevention of health effects resulting from CNT exposure. Moreover, we disclose questions and issues that remain in this rapidly advancing field of nanotoxicology, which would facilitate ascertaining future research directions. PMID:25676622

  9. Advances in Breast Cancer: Pathways to Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Grushko, Tatyana A.; Nanda, Rita; Huo, Dezheng

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease caused by the progressive accumulation of multiple gene mutations combined with epigenetic dysregulation of critical genes and protein pathways. There is substantial interindividual variability in both the age at diagnosis and phenotypic expression of the disease. With an estimated 1,152,161 new breast cancer cases diagnosed worldwide per year, cancer control efforts in the postgenome era should be focused at both population and individual levels to develop novel risk assessment and treatment strategies that will further reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. The discovery that mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers has radically transformed our understanding of the genetic basis of breast cancer, leading to improved management of high-risk women. A better understanding of tumor host biology has led to improvements in the multidisciplinary management of breast cancer, and traditional pathologic evaluation is being complemented by more sophisticated genomic approaches. A number of genomic biomarkers have been developed for clinical use, and increasingly, pharmacogenetic end points are being incorporated into clinical trial design. For women diagnosed with breast cancer, prognostic or predictive information is most useful when coupled with targeted therapeutic approaches, very few of which exist for women with triple-negative breast cancer or those with tumors resistant to chemotherapy. The immediate challenge is to learn how to use the molecular characteristics of an individual and their tumor to improve detection and treatment, and ultimately to prevent the development of breast cancer. The five articles in this edition of CCR Focus highlight recent advances and future directions on the pathway to individualized approaches for the early detection, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. PMID:19088015

  10. Advancing Ambitions: The Role of Career Guidance in Supporting Social Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Tristram; Matheson, Jesse; Watts, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Career guidance describes activities that support individuals in learning about education and employment, and in planning for their future lives, learning, and work. These activities contribute to social mobility, which helps people discover and access opportunities that might exist outside of their immediate networks. Changes in funding and in…

  11. The Primary Flight Display and Its Pathway Guidance: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.; Hardy, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    In two experiments carried out in a high fidelity general aviation flight simulator, 42 instrument rated pilots flew a pathway-in-the-sky (tunnel) display through a series of multi-leg curved stepdown approaches through mountainous terrain. Both experiments examined how properties of the tunnel influenced flight path tracking performance, traffic awareness, terrain awareness and workload (assessed both by subjective and secondary task performance measures). Experiment 1, flown in simulated VMC, compared high and low intensity tunnels, with a less cluttered follow-me-airplane (FMA). The results revealed that both tunnels supported better flight path tracking than the FMA, because of the availability of more preview information. Increasing tunnel intensity, while reducing subjective workload, had no benefit on tracking, and degraded traffic detection performance. In Experiment 2, flown mostly in IMC, the low intensity tunnel was flown with a large (10 inch x 8 inch) and small (8 inch x 6.5 inch) display, representing a geometric field of view (GFOV) of either 30 degrees or 60 degrees. Most measures of flight path tracking performance favored the smaller display, and particularly the 60 degree GFOV, which presented a smaller appearing tunnel, and a wider range of terrain depiction. The larger GFOV also supported better terrain awareness, and yielded a lower secondary task assessment of workload. In both experiments, the final landing approach was terminated by a runway obstruction, and the tunnel guided pilots on a missed approach. In nearly all cases, pilots failed to notice an air hazard that lay in the missed approach path, but was only depicted in the outside view.

  12. IRE-1/XBP-1 pathway of the unfolded protein response is required for properly localizing neuronal UNC-6/Netrin for axon guidance in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Taro; Ogura, Ken-ichi; Goshima, Yoshio

    2015-03-01

    During developing nervous system, neurons project axons to their targets precisely. In this process, axon guidance molecules provide positional information to the axons. Therefore, the spatially and temporally controlled localization of the axon guidance molecules is required for the proper structure formation of the complex nervous system. In C. elegans, UNC-6/Netrin is a secreted protein that elicits both attractive and repulsive response in axon guidance. UNC-6/Netrin secreted from ventral cells may establish a concentration gradient from the ventral to the dorsal side of the animal, thus providing dorso-ventral positional information. However, the mechanisms specifying positional information of UNC-6/Netrin are largely unknown. Here, we show that the ire-1/xbp-1 pathway of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is required for axonal distribution of UNC-6/Netrin in the ventral neurons. In addition, the ire-1/xbp-1 pathway is also required for dorso-ventral axon guidance mediated by UNC-6/Netrin. Our results suggest that the ire-1/xbp-1 pathway of the UPR is crucial for establishing positional information of UNC-6/Netrin. We propose that the proper secretion of UNC-6/Netrin from the ventral neurons requires the activity of IRE-1. PMID:25469499

  13. An approach to optimal guidance of an advanced launch vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Martin S.; Calise, Anthony J.

    1990-01-01

    An approximate solution for the maximum payload trajectory of a two-stage launch vehicle using a regular perturbation technique is presented. A zero-order solution for a two-stage vehicle based on a flat-earth approximation and negligible atmospheric effects is obtained in closed form. High-order correction terms are obtained from the solution of nonhomogeneous, first-order linear differential equations by quadrature. This promises the capability for an onboard optimal guidance law implementation.

  14. Application of the adverse outcome pathway framework - advances and challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework, while not new in concept, has gained attention in recent years as a set of organizing principles and tools that can help facilitate greater use of mechanistic or pathway-based data in risk assessment and regulatory decision-making. Reg...

  15. Advancing adverse outcome pathways for integrated toxicology and regulatory applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent regulatory efforts in many countries have focused on a toxicological pathway-based vision for human health assessments relying on in vitro systems and predictive models to generate the toxicological data needed to evaluate chemical hazard. A pathway-based vision is equally...

  16. Computer-based written emotional disclosure: the effects of advance or real-time guidance and moderation by Big 5 personality traits.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonathan A; Lumley, Mark A; Latsch, Deborah V; Oberleitner, Lindsay M S; Carty, Jennifer N; Radcliffe, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Standard written emotional disclosure (WED) about stress, which is private and unguided, yields small health benefits. The effect of providing individualized guidance to writers may enhance WED, but has not been tested. This trial of computer-based WED compared two novel therapist-guided forms of WED - advance guidance (before sessions) and real-time guidance (during sessions, through instant messaging) - to both standard WED and control writing; it also tested Big 5 personality traits as moderators of guided WED. Young adult participants (n = 163) with unresolved stressful experiences were randomized to conditions, had three, 30-min computer-based writing sessions, and were reassessed six weeks later. Contrary to hypotheses, real-time guidance WED had poorer outcomes than the other conditions on several measures, and advance guidance WED also showed some poorer outcomes. Moderator analyses revealed that participants with low baseline agreeableness, low extraversion, or high conscientiousness had relatively poor responses to guidance. We conclude that providing guidance for WED, especially in real-time, may interfere with emotional processing of unresolved stress, particularly for people whose personalities have poor fit with this interactive form of WED. PMID:24266598

  17. Real-time approximate optimal guidance laws for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speyer, Jason L.; Feeley, Timothy; Hull, David G.

    1989-01-01

    An approach to optimal ascent guidance for a launch vehicle is developed using an expansion technique. The problem is to maximize the payload put into orbit subject to the equations of motion of a rocket over a rotating spherical earth. It is assumed that the thrust and gravitational forces dominate over the aerodynamic forces. It is shown that these forces can be separated by a small parameter epsilon, where epsilon is the ratio of the atmospheric scale height to the radius of the earth. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman or dynamic programming equation is expanded in a series where the zeroth-order term (epsilon = 0) can be obtained in closed form. The zeroth-order problem is that of putting maximum payload into orbit subject to the equations of motion of a rocket in a vacuum over a flat earth. The neglected inertial and aerodynamic terms are included in higher order terms of the expansion, which are determined from the solution of first-order linear partial differential equations requiring only quadrature integrations. These quadrature integrations can be performed rapidly, so that real-time approximate optimization can be used to construct the launch guidance law.

  18. Systemic treatment approaches in her2-negative advanced breast cancer—guidance on the guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Joy, A.A.; Ghosh, M.; Fernandes, R.; Clemons, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advancements in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer, many patients still develop disease recurrence; others present with de novo metastatic disease. For most patients with advanced breast cancer, the primary treatment intent is noncurative—that is, palliative—in nature. The goals of treatment should therefore focus on maximizing symptom control and extending survival. Treatments should be evaluated on an individualized basis in terms of evidence, but also with full respect for the wishes of the patient in terms of acceptable toxicity. Given the availability of extensive reviews on the roles of endocrine therapy and her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)–targeted therapies for advanced disease, we focus here mainly on treatment guidelines for the non-endocrine management of her2-negative advanced breast cancer in a Canadian health care context. PMID:25848337

  19. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M. R.; Haves, P.; McDonald, S. C.; Torcellini, P.; Hansen, D.; Holmberg, D. R.; Roth, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  20. A dynamic care pathway to coordinate the use of advanced therapy in diabetic foot ulceration.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, P; Haycocks, S; Bielby, A; Milne, J

    2009-10-01

    The non-coordinated use of advanced therapies is not clinically or cost effective. A care pathway for the sequential use of these interventions on complex wounds provides a more restructured approach, and helped improve patient outcomes. PMID:19816383

  1. Feasibility study of advanced technology hov systems. Volume 3. Benefit implications of alternative policies for including hov lanes in route guidance networks. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Chira-Chavala, T.; Lin, W.H.

    1992-12-01

    This study aims to investigate whether it would be beneficial to include HOV lanes in route guidance networks when high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lanes exist on the corridors. This is an important policy issue for a number of reasons. First, HOV lanes are integral parts of many urban corridors in the U.S., and there is no compelling reason at this time to exclude them from route-guidance networks. Second, HOVs share same roadways with single-occupancy-vehicles (SOVs) outside HOV lanes, thus congestion outside HOV lanes also affects HOVs. Therefore, HOVs can conceivably benefit from having route guidance information to guide their journey. Third, evidence suggests that HOV lanes are a good public policy, thus it appears desirable to continue to provide travel-time advantages to HOVs over SOVs even when advanced route guidance technologies become available.

  2. Using 3D printed models for planning and guidance during endovascular intervention: a technical advance

    PubMed Central

    Itagaki, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing applications in medicine have been limited due to high cost and technical difficulty of creating 3D printed objects. It is not known whether patient-specific, hollow, small-caliber vascular models can be manufactured with 3D printing, and used for small vessel endoluminal testing of devices. Manufacture of anatomically accurate, patient-specific, small-caliber arterial models was attempted using data from a patient’s CT scan, free open-source software, and low-cost Internet 3D printing services. Prior to endovascular treatment of a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms, a 3D printed model was used preoperatively to test catheter equipment and practice the procedure. A second model was used intraoperatively as a reference. Full-scale plastic models were successfully produced. Testing determined the optimal puncture site for catheter positioning. A guide catheter, base catheter, and microcatheter combination selected during testing was used intraoperatively with success, and the need for repeat angiograms to optimize image orientation was minimized. A difficult and unconventional procedure was successful in treating the aneurysms while preserving splenic function. We conclude that creation of small-caliber vascular models with 3D printing is possible. Free software and low-cost printing services make creation of these models affordable and practical. Models are useful in preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance. PMID:26027767

  3. Using 3D printed models for planning and guidance during endovascular intervention: a technical advance.

    PubMed

    Itagaki, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing applications in medicine have been limited due to high cost and technical difficulty of creating 3D printed objects. It is not known whether patient-specific, hollow, small-caliber vascular models can be manufactured with 3D printing, and used for small vessel endoluminal testing of devices. Manufacture of anatomically accurate, patient-specific, small-caliber arterial models was attempted using data from a patient's CT scan, free open-source software, and low-cost Internet 3D printing services. Prior to endovascular treatment of a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms, a 3D printed model was used preoperatively to test catheter equipment and practice the procedure. A second model was used intraoperatively as a reference. Full-scale plastic models were successfully produced. Testing determined the optimal puncture site for catheter positioning. A guide catheter, base catheter, and microcatheter combination selected during testing was used intraoperatively with success, and the need for repeat angiograms to optimize image orientation was minimized. A difficult and unconventional procedure was successful in treating the aneurysms while preserving splenic function. We conclude that creation of small-caliber vascular models with 3D printing is possible. Free software and low-cost printing services make creation of these models affordable and practical. Models are useful in preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance. PMID:26027767

  4. Lipid advanced glycosylation: pathway for lipid oxidation in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bucala, R; Makita, Z; Koschinsky, T; Cerami, A; Vlassara, H

    1993-01-01

    To address potential mechanisms for oxidative modification of lipids in vivo, we investigated the possibility that phospholipids react directly with glucose to form advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) that then initiate lipid oxidation. Phospholipid-linked AGEs formed readily in vitro, mimicking the absorbance, fluorescence, and immunochemical properties of AGEs that result from advanced glycosylation of proteins. Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid residues, as assessed by reactive aldehyde formation, occurred at a rate that paralleled the rate of lipid advanced glycosylation. Aminoguanidine, an agent that prevents protein advanced glycosylation, inhibited both lipid advanced glycosylation and oxidative modification. Incubation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with glucose produced AGE moieties that were attached to both the lipid and the apoprotein components. Oxidized LDL formed concomitantly with AGE-modified LDL. Of significance, AGE ELISA analysis of LDL specimens isolated from diabetic individuals revealed increased levels of both apoprotein- and lipid-linked AGEs when compared to specimens obtained from normal, nondiabetic controls. Circulating levels of oxidized LDL were elevated in diabetic patients and correlated significantly with lipid AGE levels. These data support the concept that AGE oxidation plays an important and perhaps primary role in initiating lipid oxidation in vivo. PMID:8341651

  5. Advanced Data Visualization in Astrophysics: The X3D Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Owen, Chris I.; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-02-01

    Most modern astrophysical data sets are multi-dimensional; a characteristic that can nowadays generally be conserved and exploited scientifically during the data reduction/simulation and analysis cascades. However, the same multi-dimensional data sets are systematically cropped, sliced, and/or projected to printable two-dimensional diagrams at the publication stage. In this article, we introduce the concept of the “X3D pathway” as a mean of simplifying and easing the access to data visualization and publication via three-dimensional (3D) diagrams. The X3D pathway exploits the facts that (1) the X3D 3D file format lies at the center of a product tree that includes interactive HTML documents, 3D printing, and high-end animations, and (2) all high-impact-factor and peer-reviewed journals in astrophysics are now published (some exclusively) online. We argue that the X3D standard is an ideal vector for sharing multi-dimensional data sets because it provides direct access to a range of different data visualization techniques, is fully open source, and is a well-defined standard from the International Organization for Standardization. Unlike other earlier propositions to publish multi-dimensional data sets via 3D diagrams, the X3D pathway is not tied to specific software (prone to rapid and unexpected evolution), but instead is compatible with a range of open-source software already in use by our community. The interactive HTML branch of the X3D pathway is also actively supported by leading peer-reviewed journals in the field of astrophysics. Finally, this article provides interested readers with a detailed set of practical astrophysical examples designed to act as a stepping stone toward the implementation of the X3D pathway for any other data set.

  6. Strategies of dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: image guidance and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chi, Alexander; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Welsh, James S; Tse, William; Monga, Manish; Oduntan, Olusola; Almubarak, Mohammed; Rogers, John; Remick, Scot C; Gius, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose in the setting of chemo-radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been historically limited by the risk of normal tissue toxicity and this has been hypothesized to correlate with the poor results in regard to local tumor recurrences. Dose escalation, as a means to improve local control, with concurrent chemotherapy has been shown to be feasible with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in early phase studies with good clinical outcome. However, the potential superiority of moderate dose escalation to 74 Gy has not been shown in phase III randomized studies. In this review, the limitations in target volume definition in previous studies; and the factors that may be critical to safe dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC, such as respiratory motion management, image guidance, intensity modulation, FDG-positron emission tomography incorporation in the treatment planning process, and adaptive radiotherapy, are discussed. These factors, along with novel treatment approaches that have emerged in recent years, are proposed to warrant further investigation in future trials in a more comprehensive and integrated fashion. PMID:24999451

  7. Development of a Technical Basis and Guidance for Advanced SMR Function Allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Ronal Farris; April Whaley; Heather Medema

    2013-09-01

    This report presents the results from three key activities for FY13 that influence the definition of new concepts of operations for advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMR: a) the development of a framework for the analysis of the functional environmental, and structural attributes, b) the effect that new technologies and operational concepts would have on the way functions are allocated to humans or machines or combinations of the two, and c) the relationship between new concepts of operations, new function allocations, and human performance requirements.

  8. Extending enhanced-vision capabilities by integration of advanced surface movement guidance and control systems (A-SMGCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Peter; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Korn, Bernd; Ludwig, T.

    2001-08-01

    DLR has set up a number of projects to increase flight safety and economics of aviation. Within these activities one field of interest is the development and validation of systems for pilot assistance in order to increase the situation awareness of the aircrew. All flight phases ('gate-to-gate') are taken into account, but as far as approaches, landing and taxiing are the most critical tasks in the field of civil aviation, special emphasis is given to these operations. As presented in previous contributions within SPIE's Enhanced and Synthetic Vision Conferences, DLR's Institute of Flight Guidance has developed an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) as a tool assisting especially approach and landing by improving the aircrew's situational awareness. The combination of forward looking imaging sensors (such as EADS's HiVision millimeter wave radar), terrain data stored in on-board databases plus information transmitted from ground or other aircraft via data link is used to help pilots handling these phases of flight especially under adverse weather conditions. A second pilot assistance module being developed at DLR is the Taxi And Ramp Management And Control - Airborne System (TARMAC-AS), which is part of an Advanced Surface Management Guidance and Control System (ASMGCS). By means of on-board terrain data bases and navigation data a map display is generated, which helps the pilot performing taxi operations. In addition to the pure map function taxi instructions and other traffic can be displayed as the aircraft is connected to TARMAC-planning and TARMAC-communication, navigation and surveillance modules on ground via data-link. Recent experiments with airline pilots have shown, that the capabilities of taxi assistance can be extended significantly by integrating EVS- and TARMAC-AS-functionalities. Especially an extended obstacle detection and warning coming from the Enhanced Vision System increases the safety of ground operations. The presented paper gives an overview

  9. Research Advances on Pathways of Nickel-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongrui; Chen, Lian; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of nickel (Ni) are harmful to humans and animals. Ni targets a number of organs and produces multiple toxic effects. Apoptosis is important in Ni-induced toxicity of the kidneys, liver, nerves, and immune system. Apoptotic pathways mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Fas, and c-Myc participate in Ni-induced cell apoptosis. However, the exact mechanism of apoptosis caused by Ni is still unclear. Understanding the mechanism of Ni-induced apoptosis may help in designing measures to prevent Ni toxicity. PMID:26703593

  10. Real-time manned simulation of advanced terminal area guidance concepts for short-haul operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Obrien, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    A real-time simulation was conducted of three-dimensional area navigation and four-dimensional area navigation equipped (STOL) aircraft operating in a high-density terminal area traffic environment. The objectives were to examine the effects of 3D RNAV and 4D RNAV equipped aircraft on the terminal area traffic efficiency, and to examine the performance of an air traffic control system concept and associated controller display proposed for use with advanced RNAV systems. Three types of STOL aircraft were simulated each with different performance capabilities. System performance was measured in both the 4D mode and in a 3D mode; the 3D mode, used as a baseline, was simply the 4D mode less any time specification. The results show that communications workload in the 4D mode was reduced by about 35 percent compared to the 3D, while 35 percent more traffic was handled with the 4D. Aircraft holding time in the 4D mode was only 30 percent of that required in the 3D mode. In addition, the orderliness of traffic was improved significantly in the 4D mode.

  11. Hedgehog pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Silapunt, Sirunya; Chen, Leon; Migden, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinomas (laBCCs) with large, aggressive, destructive, and disfiguring tumors, or metastatic disease is challenging. Dysregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved Hh pathway inhibitors (HPIs) that exhibit antitumor activity in advanced BCC with an acceptable safety profile. Common adverse effects include muscle spasms, dysgeusia, alopecia, fatigue, nausea and weight loss. PMID:27583029

  12. Hedgehog pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Silapunt, Sirunya; Chen, Leon; Migden, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinomas (laBCCs) with large, aggressive, destructive, and disfiguring tumors, or metastatic disease is challenging. Dysregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved Hh pathway inhibitors (HPIs) that exhibit antitumor activity in advanced BCC with an acceptable safety profile. Common adverse effects include muscle spasms, dysgeusia, alopecia, fatigue, nausea and weight loss. PMID:27583029

  13. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  14. Recent advances in the heterologous expression of microbial natural product biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Ongley, Sarah E; Bian, Xiaoying; Neilan, Brett A; Müller, Rolf

    2013-08-01

    The heterologous expression of microbial natural product biosynthetic pathways coupled with advanced DNA engineering enables optimisation of product yields, functional elucidation of cryptic gene clusters, and generation of novel derivatives. This review summarises the recent advances in cloning and maintenance of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters for heterologous expression and the efforts fundamental for discovering novel natural products in the post-genomics era, with a focus on polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases (NRPS). PMID:23832108

  15. The Drosophila neurogenin Tap functionally interacts with the Wnt-PCP pathway to regulate neuronal extension and guidance

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liqun; Hu, Shu; Okray, Zeynep; Ren, Xi; De Geest, Natalie; Claeys, Annelies; Yan, Jiekun; Bellefroid, Eric; Quan, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The neurogenin (Ngn) transcription factors control early neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth in mammalian cortex. In contrast to their proneural activity, their function in neurite growth is poorly understood. Drosophila has a single predicted Ngn homolog, Tap, of unknown function. Here we show that Tap is not a proneural protein in Drosophila but is required for proper axonal growth and guidance of neurons of the mushroom body, a neuropile required for associative learning and memory. Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Tap inhibits excessive axonal growth by fine regulation of the levels of the Wnt signaling adaptor protein Dishevelled. PMID:27385016

  16. The Drosophila neurogenin Tap functionally interacts with the Wnt-PCP pathway to regulate neuronal extension and guidance.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liqun; Hu, Shu; Okray, Zeynep; Ren, Xi; De Geest, Natalie; Claeys, Annelies; Yan, Jiekun; Bellefroid, Eric; Hassan, Bassem A; Quan, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-08-01

    The neurogenin (Ngn) transcription factors control early neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth in mammalian cortex. In contrast to their proneural activity, their function in neurite growth is poorly understood. Drosophila has a single predicted Ngn homolog, Tap, of unknown function. Here we show that Tap is not a proneural protein in Drosophila but is required for proper axonal growth and guidance of neurons of the mushroom body, a neuropile required for associative learning and memory. Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Tap inhibits excessive axonal growth by fine regulation of the levels of the Wnt signaling adaptor protein Dishevelled. PMID:27385016

  17. Effect of Image-Guidance Frequency on Geometric Accuracy and Setup Margins in Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Jane; Bezjak, Andrea; Hope, Andrew; Panzarella, Tony; Li, Winnie; Cho, John B.C.; Craig, Tim; Brade, Anthony; Sun, Alexander; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the relative effectiveness of five image-guidance (IG) frequencies on reducing patient positioning inaccuracies and setup margins for locally advanced lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Daily cone-beam computed tomography data for 100 patients (4,237 scans) were analyzed. Subsequently, four less-than-daily IG protocols were simulated using these data (no IG, first 5-day IG, weekly IG, and alternate-day IG). The frequency and magnitude of residual setup error were determined. The less-than-daily IG protocols were compared against the daily IG, the assumed reference standard. Finally, the population-based setup margins were calculated. Results: With the less-than-daily IG protocols, 20-43% of fractions incurred residual setup errors {>=}5 mm; daily IG reduced this to 6%. With the exception of the first 5-day IG, reductions in systematic error ({Sigma}) occurred as the imaging frequency increased and only daily IG provided notable random error ({sigma}) reductions ({Sigma} = 1.5-2.2 mm, {sigma} = 2.5-3.7 mm; {Sigma} = 1.8-2.6 mm, {sigma} = 2.5-3.7 mm; and {Sigma} = 0.7-1.0 mm, {sigma} = 1.7-2.0 mm for no IG, first 5-day IG, and daily IG, respectively. An overall significant difference in the mean setup error was present between the first 5-day IG and daily IG (p < .0001). The derived setup margins were 5-9 mm for less-than-daily IG and were 3-4 mm with daily IG. Conclusion: Daily cone-beam computed tomography substantially reduced the setup error and could permit setup margin reduction and lead to a reduction in normal tissue toxicity for patients undergoing conventionally fractionated lung radiotherapy. Using first 5-day cone-beam computed tomography was suboptimal for lung patients, given the inability to reduce the random error and the potential for the systematic error to increase throughout the treatment course.

  18. Advanced booster guidance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a summary of work done under Grant NAG1-946 for the period 19 December 1988 through 15 August 1992. Most of the technical work is described in the paper produced, including the NASA Contractor Report 4393 - 'Optimal Control Problems with Switching Points'. In the following pages we present a list of the papers along with a brief abstract. The technical work during the last months of the grant has not yet been submitted for publication so we present a summary of that work in an Appendix.

  19. The MADD-3 LAMMER Kinase Interacts with a p38 MAP Kinase Pathway to Regulate the Display of the EVA-1 Guidance Receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Serena A; Rajendran, Luckshika; Bagg, Rachel; Barbier, Louis; van Pel, Derek M; Moshiri, Houtan; Roy, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    The proper display of transmembrane receptors on the leading edge of migrating cells and cell extensions is essential for their response to guidance cues. We previously discovered that MADD-4, which is an ADAMTSL secreted by motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, interacts with an UNC-40/EVA-1 co-receptor complex on muscles to attract plasma membrane extensions called muscle arms. In nematodes, the muscle arm termini harbor the post-synaptic elements of the neuromuscular junction. Through a forward genetic screen for mutants with disrupted muscle arm extension, we discovered that a LAMMER kinase, which we call MADD-3, is required for the proper display of the EVA-1 receptor on the muscle's plasma membrane. Without MADD-3, EVA-1 levels decrease concomitantly with a reduction of the late-endosomal marker RAB-7. Through a genetic suppressor screen, we found that the levels of EVA-1 and RAB-7 can be restored in madd-3 mutants by eliminating the function of a p38 MAP kinase pathway. We also found that EVA-1 and RAB-7 will accumulate in madd-3 mutants upon disrupting CUP-5, which is a mucolipin ortholog required for proper lysosome function. Together, our data suggests that the MADD-3 LAMMER kinase antagonizes the p38-mediated endosomal trafficking of EVA-1 to the lysosome. In this way, MADD-3 ensures that sufficient levels of EVA-1 are present to guide muscle arm extension towards the source of the MADD-4 guidance cue. PMID:27123983

  20. The MADD-3 LAMMER Kinase Interacts with a p38 MAP Kinase Pathway to Regulate the Display of the EVA-1 Guidance Receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Serena A.; Rajendran, Luckshika; Bagg, Rachel; van Pel, Derek M.; Moshiri, Houtan; Roy, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The proper display of transmembrane receptors on the leading edge of migrating cells and cell extensions is essential for their response to guidance cues. We previously discovered that MADD-4, which is an ADAMTSL secreted by motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, interacts with an UNC-40/EVA-1 co-receptor complex on muscles to attract plasma membrane extensions called muscle arms. In nematodes, the muscle arm termini harbor the post-synaptic elements of the neuromuscular junction. Through a forward genetic screen for mutants with disrupted muscle arm extension, we discovered that a LAMMER kinase, which we call MADD-3, is required for the proper display of the EVA-1 receptor on the muscle’s plasma membrane. Without MADD-3, EVA-1 levels decrease concomitantly with a reduction of the late-endosomal marker RAB-7. Through a genetic suppressor screen, we found that the levels of EVA-1 and RAB-7 can be restored in madd-3 mutants by eliminating the function of a p38 MAP kinase pathway. We also found that EVA-1 and RAB-7 will accumulate in madd-3 mutants upon disrupting CUP-5, which is a mucolipin ortholog required for proper lysosome function. Together, our data suggests that the MADD-3 LAMMER kinase antagonizes the p38-mediated endosomal trafficking of EVA-1 to the lysosome. In this way, MADD-3 ensures that sufficient levels of EVA-1 are present to guide muscle arm extension towards the source of the MADD-4 guidance cue. PMID:27123983

  1. Evaluation of Flying Qualities and Guidance Displays for an Advanced Tilt-Wing STOL Transport Aircraft in Final Approach and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Chad R.; Franklin, James A.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    2002-01-01

    A piloted simulation was performed on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center to evaluate flying qualities of a tilt-wing Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) transport aircraft during final approach and landing. The experiment was conducted to assess the design s handling qualities, and to evaluate the use of flightpath-centered guidance for the precision approach and landing tasks required to perform STOL operations in instrument meteorological conditions, turbulence, and wind. Pilots rated the handling qualities to be satisfactory for all operations evaluated except those encountering extreme crosswinds and severe windshear; even in these difficult meteorological conditions, adequate handling qualities were maintained. The advanced flight control laws and guidance displays provided consistent performance and precision landings.

  2. Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Catherine; Rae, Jessica Caverly; Goyak, Katy O.; Minsavage, Gary; Westmoreland, Carl; Andersen, Melvin; Avigan, Mark; Duché, Daniel; Harris, Georgina; Hartung, Thomas; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Kleensang, Andre; Landesmann, Brigitte; Martos, Suzanne; Matevia, Marilyn; Toole, Colleen; Rowan, Andrew; Schultz, Terry; Seed, Jennifer; Senior, John; Shah, Imran; Subramanian, Kalyanasundaram; Vinken, Mathieu; Watkins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary A workshop sponsored by the Human Toxicology Project Consortium (HTPC), “Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action” brought together experts from a wide range of perspectives to inform the process of pathway development and to advance two prototype pathways initially developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center (JRC): liver-specific fibrosis and steatosis. The first half of the workshop focused on the theory and practice of pathway development; the second on liver disease and the two prototype pathways. Participants agreed pathway development is extremely useful for organizing information and found that focusing the theoretical discussion on a specific AOP is helpful. It is important to include several perspectives during pathway development, including information specialists, pathologists, human health and environmental risk assessors, and chemical and product manufacturers, to ensure the biology is well captured and end use is considered. PMID:24535319

  3. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  4. Flying primates? Megabats have the advanced pathway from eye to midbrain.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, J D

    1986-03-14

    The pattern of connections between the retina and midbrain has been determined with electrophysiological and neuroanatomical methods in bats representing the two major subdivisions of the Chiroptera. Megachiropteran fruit bats (megabats), Pteropus spp., were found to have an advanced retinotectal pathway with a vertical hemidecussation of the kind previously found only in primates. In contrast, the microchiropteran bat Macroderma gigas has the "ancestral" or symplesiomorphous pattern of retinotectal connections so far found in all vertebrates except primates. In addition to linking primates and megachiropteran bats, these findings suggest that flight may have evolved twice among the mammals. PMID:3945827

  5. Role of the extra-geniculate pathway in visual guidance. II. Effects of lesioning the pulvinar-lateral posterior thalamic complex in the cat.

    PubMed

    Fabre-Thorpe, M; Viévard, A; Buser, P

    1986-01-01

    Eight cats were trained to perform a paw movement towards a moving target. The target was a lever which moved at a variable speed across an aperture situated in front of the animal, from left to right or right to left at random, but only once per trial. The animals were trained until performances stabilized in terms of precision (correct movements versus misguided ones) and speed (response time distribution of correctly guided movements). Then they underwent bilateral electrolytic lesions restricted to the pulvinar nucleus (4 cats) or to the lateral posterior nucleus (4 cats). Pre- and postoperative performances were compared. The results showed a clear difference between the two nuclei; postoperative performances after pulvinar lesion were in the preoperative range, both for precision and response time, thus allowing this group to be considered as a control lesion group. On the other hand, a marked impairment in visual guidance followed lateral posterior lesions. This deficit affected both the precision and the speed of the response, with all cats showing a tendency to increase the response time of their efficient movements. This impairment disappeared progressively except for one animal, whose lesion was especially large. We suggest that the nucleus lateral posterior is involved in the control of visually guided movements; and its role as a component of the tecto-thalamo-cortical pathway is discussed. PMID:3720888

  6. Advanced basal cell carcinoma, the hedgehog pathway, and treatment options – role of smoothened inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fecher, Leslie A; Sharfman, William H

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer and its incidence is rising worldwide. Ultraviolet radiation exposure, including tanning bed use, as well as host factors play a role in its development. The majority of cases are treated and cured with local therapies including surgery. Yet, the health care costs of diagnosis and treatment of BCCs in the US is substantial. In the United States, the cost of nonmelanoma skin cancer care in the Medicare population is estimated to be US$426 million per year. While rare, locally advanced BCCs that can no longer be controlled with surgery and/or radiation, and metastatic BCCs do occur and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Vismodegib (GDC-0449), a smoothened inhibitor targeted at the hedgehog pathway, is the first US Food and Drug Association (FDA)-approved agent in the treatment of locally advanced, unresectable, and metastatic BCCs. This class of agents appears to be changing the survival rates in advanced BCC patients, but appropriate patient selection and monitoring are important. Multidisciplinary assessments are essential for the optimal care and management of these patients. For some patients with locally advanced BCC, treatment with a hedgehog inhibitor may eliminate the need for an excessively disfiguring or morbid surgery. PMID:26604681

  7. Development and installation of an advanced beam guidance system on Viking`s 2.4 megawatt EB furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Motchenbacher, C.A.; Grosse, I.A.

    1994-12-31

    Viking Metallurgical is a manufacturer of titanium alloy and superalloy seamless ring forgings for the aerospace industry. For more than 20 years Viking has used electron beam cold hearth melting to recover titanium alloy scrap and to produce commercially pure titanium ingot for direct forging. In the 1970`s Viking pioneered electron beam cold hearth melting and in 1983 added a two-gun, 2.4 MW furnace. As part of Vikings efforts to improve process control we have commissioned and installed a new electron beam guidance system. The system is capable of generating virtually unlimited EB patterns resulting in improved melt control.

  8. Advancements in Orthopedic Intervention: Retrograde Drilling and Bone Grafting of Osteochondral Lesions of the Knee Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Seebauer, Christian J.; Bail, Hermann J.; Rump, Jens C. Walter, Thula Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M.

    2010-12-15

    Computer-assisted surgery is currently a novel challenge for surgeons and interventional radiologists. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided procedures are still evolving. In this experimental study, we describe and assess an innovative passive-navigation method for MRI-guided treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. A navigation principle using a passive-navigation device was evaluated in six cadaveric knee joint specimens for potential applicability in retrograde drilling and bone grafting of osteochondral lesions using MRI guidance. Feasibility and accuracy were evaluated in an open MRI scanner (1.0 T Philips Panorama HFO MRI System). Interactive MRI navigation allowed precise drilling and bone grafting of osteochondral lesions of the knee. All lesions were hit with an accuracy of 1.86 mm in the coronal plane and 1.4 mm the sagittal plane. Targeting of all lesions was possible with a single drilling. MRI allowed excellent assessment of correct positioning of the cancellous bone cylinder during bone grafting. The navigation device and anatomic structures could be clearly identified and distinguished throughout the entire drilling procedure. MRI-assisted navigation method using a passive navigation device is feasible for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee under MRI guidance and allows precise and safe drilling without exposure to ionizing radiation. This method may be a viable alternative to other navigation principles, especially for pediatric and adolescent patients. This MRI-navigated method is also potentially applicable in many other MRI-guided interventions.

  9. Guidance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author shares and comments on early childhood educators' use of guidance to foster young children's development and learning. He defines guidance as the commitment a teacher makes to teaching children how to solve their problems, rather than punishing them for having problems they haven't yet learned how to solve. The focus of…

  10. Cancer of the Pancreas: Molecular Pathways and Current Advancement in Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Polireddy, Kishore; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers among all malignances, with a median overall survival of <1 year and a 5-year survival of ~5%. The dismal survival rate and prognosis are likely due to lack of early diagnosis, fulminant disease course, high metastasis rate, and disappointing treatment outcome. Pancreatic cancers harbor a variety of genetic alternations that render it difficult to treat even with targeted therapy. Recent studies revealed that pancreatic cancers are highly enriched with a cancer stem cell (CSC) population, which is resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, and therefore escapes chemotherapy and promotes tumor recurrence. Cancer cell epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly associated with metastasis, generation of CSCs, and treatment resistance in pancreatic cancer. Reviewed here are the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer, the major signaling pathways regulating pancreatic cancer EMT and CSCs, and the advancement in current clinical and experimental treatments for pancreatic cancer. PMID:27471566

  11. Degradation pathways of lamotrigine under advanced treatment by direct UV photolysis, hydroxyl radicals, and ozone.

    PubMed

    Keen, Olya S; Ferrer, Imma; Michael Thurman, E; Linden, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Lamotrigine is recently recognized as a persistent pharmaceutical in the water environment and wastewater effluents. Its degradation was studied under UV and ozone advanced oxidation treatments with reaction kinetics of lamotrigine with ozone (≈4 M(-1)s(-1)), hydroxyl radical [(2.1 ± 0.3) × 10(9)M(-1)s(-1)] and by UV photolysis with low and medium pressure mercury vapor lamps [quantum yields ≈0 and (2.7 ± 0.4)× 10(-4) respectively] determined. All constants were measured at pH 6 and at temperature ≈20°C. The results indicate that lamotrigine is slow to respond to direct photolysis or oxidation by ozone and no attenuation of the contaminant is expected in UV or ozone disinfection applications. The compound reacts rapidly with hydroxyl radicals indicating that advanced oxidation processes would be effective for its treatment. Degradation products were identified under each treatment process using accurate mass time-of-flight spectrometry and pathways of decay were proposed. The main transformation pathways in each process were: dechlorination of the benzene ring during direct photolysis; hydroxyl group addition to the benzene ring during the reaction with hydroxyl radicals; and triazine ring opening after reaction with ozone. Different products that form in each process may be to a varying degree less environmentally stable than the parent lamotrigine. In addition, a novel method of ozone quenching without addition of salts is presented. The new quenching method would allow subsequent mass spectrometry analysis without a solid phase extraction clean-up step. The method involves raising the pH of the sample to approximately 10 for a few seconds and lowering it back and is therefore limited to applications for which temporary pH change is not expected to affect the outcome of the analysis. PMID:25150682

  12. Advanced glycation end-products: a common pathway in diabetes and age-related erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Neves, D

    2013-08-01

    Reactive derivatives of non-enzymatic glucose-protein condensation reactions integrate a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts called advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Numerous studies have investigated the role of the AGEs in cardiovascular system; however, its contribution to erectile dysfunction (ED) that is an early manifestation of cardiovascular disease has been less intensively investigated. This review summarizes the most recent advances concerning AGEs effects in the cavernous tissue of the penis and in ED onset, particularly on diabetes and aging, conditions that not only favor AGEs formation, but also increase risk of developing ED. The specific contribution of AGE on intra- and extracellular deposition of insoluble complexes, interference in activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase, NO bioavailability, endothelial-dependent vasodilatation, as well as molecular pathways activated by receptor of AGEs are presented. Finally, the interventional actions that prevent AGEs formation, accumulation or activity in the cavernous tissue and that include nutritional pattern modulation, nutraceuticals, exercise, therapeutic strategies (statins, anti-diabetics, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-5, anti-hypertensive drugs) and inhibitors of AGEs formation and crosslink breakers, are discussed. From this review, we conclude that despite the experiments conducted in animal models pointing to the AGE/RAGE axis as a potential interventional target with respect to ED associated with diabetes and aging, the clinical data have been very disappointing and, until now, did not provide evidence of benefits of treatments directed to AGE inactivation. PMID:23822116

  13. Practical Guidance on How to Handle Levodopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel Therapy of Advanced PD in a Movement Disorder Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich; Clausen, Jesper; Gregerslund, Mie Manon

    2012-01-01

    Continuous dopaminergic delivery is recognized for the capacity to ameliorate symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In advanced PD the short comings of orally administered Levodopa/Carbidopa include fluctuations resulting in unstable effect and dyskinesia. Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel, LCIG, (Duodopa®, Abbott Laboratories) is delivered continuously through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with the inner tube placed in the duodenum by means of a device (CADD legacy Duodopa pump (CE 0473)). The therapy implies continuous dopaminergic delivery directly to the duodenum and is therefore unaffected by gastric emptying and represents a major adjuvant in the treatment of advanced PD with significant improvement in motor and non-motor symptoms. The aim of this paper is to suggest the prerequisites for a LCIG clinic and propose a feasible set-up and lean organization of a movement disorder clinic. Secondly, the paper proposes practical handling of patients in LCIG treatment for advanced PD based on experience and initiation of LCIG treatment and follow-up in forty patients. PMID:22848335

  14. Equivalent Activities of Repulsive Axon Guidance Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hong; Yoshikawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Receptors on the growth cone at the leading edge of elongating axons play critical guidance roles by recognizing cues via their extracellular domains and transducing signals via their intracellular domains, resulting in changes in direction of growth. An important concept to have emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a major guidance mechanism. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are likely to be qualitative differences in the signals they transduce. However, the nature of these possible differences is unknown. By creating chimeras using the extracellular and intracellular domains of three different Drosophila repulsive receptors, Unc5, Roundabout (Robo), and Derailed (Drl) and expressing them in defined cells within the embryonic nervous system, we examined the responses elicited by their intracellular domains systematically. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative differences in growth cone response or axon growth, suggesting that, despite their highly diverged sequences, each intracellular domain elicits repulsion via a common pathway. In terms of the signaling pathway(s) used by the repulsive receptors, mutations in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio strongly enhance the repulsive activity of all three intracellular domains, suggesting that repulsion by Unc5, Robo, and Drl, and perhaps repulsion in general, involves Trio activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A prevailing concept that has emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a guidance mechanism for steering axons to their appropriate targets. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are differences in the signals that they transduce. However, this has never been tested directly. We have used the advanced genetics of Drosophila to compare directly the outputs of different repulsive receptors. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative

  15. The Pathways to Advancement Project: How States Can Expand Postsecondary Educational Opportunities for Working Adults. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Christopher; Strawn, Julie; Roberts, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    The Pathways to Advancement initiative was launched by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) to help governors and their policy advisors examine options and develop strategies for expanding working adults' access to and completion of postsecondary education. In September 2003, the NGA Center issued a request for…

  16. A new paradigm in optimal missile guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert W.

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation investigates advanced concepts in terminal missile guidance. The terminal phase of missile guidance usually lasts less than ten seconds and calls for very accurate maneuvering to ensure intercept. Technological advancements have produced increasingly sophisticated threats that greatly reduce the effectiveness of traditional approaches to missile guidance. Because of this, terminal missile guidance is, and will remain, an important and active area of research. The complexity of the problem and the desire for an optimal solution has resulted in researchers focusing on simplistic, usually linear, models. The fruit of these endeavors has resulted in some of the world's most advanced weapons systems. Even so, the resulting guidance schemes cannot possibly counter the evolving threats that will push the system outside the linear envelope for which they were designed. The research done in this dissertation greatly extends previous research in the area of optimal missile guidance. Herein it is shown that optimal missile guidance is fundamentally a pairing of an optimal guidance strategy and an optimal control strategy. The optimal guidance strategy is determined from a missile's information constraints, which are themselves largely determined from the missile's sensors. The optimal control strategy is determined by the missile's control constraints, and works to achieve a specified guidance strategy. This dichotomy of missile guidance is demonstrated by showing that missiles having different control constraints utilize the same guidance strategy so long as the information constraints are the same. This concept has hitherto been unrecognized because of the difficulty in developing an optimal control for the nonlinear set of equations that result from control constraints. Having overcome this difficulty by indirect means, evidence of the guidance strategy paradigm emerged. The guidance strategy paradigm is used to develop two advanced guidance laws. The new

  17. Computerized pathway elucidation for hydroxyl radical-induced chain reaction mechanisms in aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Crittenden, John

    2009-04-15

    The radical reaction mechanism that is involved in advanced oxidation processes is complex. An increasing number of trace contaminants and stringent drinking water standards call for a rule-based model to provide insight to the mechanism of the processes. A model was developed to predict the pathway of contaminant degradation and byproduct formation during advanced oxidation. The model builds chemical molecules as graph objects, which enables mathematic abstraction of chemicals and preserves chemistry information. The model algorithm enumerates all possible reaction pathways according to the elementary reactions (built as reaction rules) established from experimental observation. The method can predict minor pathways that could lead to toxic byproducts so that measures can be taken to ensure drinking water treatment safety. The method can be of great assistance to water treatment engineers and chemists who appreciate the mechanism of treatment processes. PMID:19475958

  18. Internet Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Frank X.

    1999-01-01

    States that children need proper guidance and boundaries to reap the benefits of the Internet. Focuses on two issues: how parents can protect their children from the Internet's potential dangers and how they can help their children use the Internet to get work done. Includes suggestions for teachers to help parents meet these challenges. (VWC)

  19. GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defn: Guidance Document - A peer-reviewed document stating overarching principles and practices to be followed (also includes handbook documents).

    Therapeutic targeting of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway: novel targeted therapies and advances in the treatment of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the USA, and more effective treatment of CRC is therefore needed. Advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this malignancy have led to the development of novel molecule-targeted therapies. Among the most recent classes of targeted therapies being developed are inhibitors targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. As one of the most frequently deregulated pathways in several human cancers, including CRC, aberrant PI3K signaling plays an important role in the growth, survival, motility and metabolism of cancer cells. Targeting this pathway therefore has considerable potential to lead to novel and more effective treatments for CRC. Preclinical and early clinical studies have revealed the potential efficacy of drugs that target PI3K signaling for the treatment of CRC. However, a major challenge that remains is to study these agents in phase III clinical trials to see whether these early successes translate into better patient outcomes. In this review we focus on providing an up-to-date assessment of our current understanding of PI3K signaling biology and its deregulation in the molecular pathogenesis of CRC. Advances in available agents and challenges in targeting the PI3K signaling pathway in CRC treatment will be discussed and placed in the context of the currently available therapies for CRC. PMID:22973417

    1. Kinetics and pathways of ibuprofen degradation by the UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process.

      PubMed

      Xiang, Yingying; Fang, Jingyun; Shang, Chii

      2016-03-01

      The UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP), which forms reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals (HO) and reactive chlorine species (RCS) such as chlorine atoms (Cl) and Cl2(-), is being considered as an alternative to the UV/H2O2 AOP for the degradation of emerging contaminants. This study investigated the kinetics and pathways of the degradation of a recalcitrant pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP)-ibuprofen (IBP)-by the UV/chlorine AOP. The degradation of IBP followed the pseudo first-order kinetics. The first-order rate constant was 3.3 times higher in the UV/chlorine AOP than in the UV/H2O2 AOP for a given chemical molar dosage at pH 6. The first-order rate constant decreased from 3.1 × 10(-3) s(-1) to 5.5 × 10(-4) s(-1) with increasing pH from 6 to 9. Both HO and RCS contributed to the degradation, and the contribution of RCS increased from 22% to 30% with increasing pH from 6 to 9. The degradation was initiated by HO-induced hydroxylation and Cl-induced chlorine substitution, and sustained through decarboxylation, demethylation, chlorination and ring cleavage to form more stable products. Significant amounts of chlorinated intermediates/byproducts were formed from the UV/chlorine AOP, and four chlorinated products were newly identified. The yield of total organic chlorine (TOCl) was 31.6 μM after 90% degradation of 50 μM IBP under the experimental conditions. The known disinfection by-products (DBPs) comprised 17.4% of the TOCl. The effects of water matrix in filtered drinking water on the degradation were not significant, demonstrating the practicality of the UV/chlorine AOP for the control of some refractory PPCPs. However, the toxicity of the chlorinated products should be further assessed. PMID:26748208

    2. Guidance and control, 1993; Annual Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference, 16th, Keystone, CO, Feb. 6-10, 1993

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Culp, Robert D. (Editor); Bickley, George (Editor)

      1993-01-01

      Papers from the sixteenth annual American Astronautical Society Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference are presented. The topics covered include the following: advances in guidance, navigation, and control; control system videos; guidance, navigation and control embedded flight control systems; recent experiences; guidance and control storyboard displays; and applications of modern control, featuring the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) performance enhancement study.

    3. Adverse Outcome Pathways and Extrapolation Tools to Advance the Three Rs in Ecotoxicology

      EPA Science Inventory

      Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for identifying and organizing predictive and causal linkages between cellular-level responses and endpoints conventionally considered in ecological risk assessment (e.g., effects on survival, growth/development, and repro...

    4. Recent advances in understanding of meiosis initiation and the apomictic pathway in plants.

      PubMed

      Wang, Chung-Ju R; Tseng, Ching-Chih

      2014-01-01

      Meiosis, a specialized cell division to produce haploid cells, marks the transition from a sporophytic to a gametophytic generation in the life cycle of plants. In angiosperms, meiosis takes place in sporogenous cells that develop de novo from somatic cells in anthers or ovules. A successful transition from the mitotic cycle to the meiotic program in sporogenous cells is crucial for sexual reproduction. By contrast, when meiosis is bypassed or a mitosis-like division occurs to produce unreduced cells, followed by the development of an embryo sac, clonal seeds can be produced by apomixis, an asexual reproduction pathway found in 400 species of flowering plants. An understanding of the regulation of entry into meiosis and molecular mechanisms of apomictic pathway will provide vital insight into reproduction for plant breeding. Recent findings suggest that AM1/SWI1 may be the key gene for entry into meiosis, and increasing evidence has shown that the apomictic pathway is epigenetically controlled. However, the mechanism for the initiation of meiosis during sexual reproduction or for its omission in the apomictic pathway still remains largely unknown. Here we review the current understanding of meiosis initiation and the apomictic pathway and raised several questions that are awaiting further investigation. PMID:25295051

    5. Recent advances in understanding of meiosis initiation and the apomictic pathway in plants

      PubMed Central

      Wang, Chung-Ju R.; Tseng, Ching-Chih

      2014-01-01

      Meiosis, a specialized cell division to produce haploid cells, marks the transition from a sporophytic to a gametophytic generation in the life cycle of plants. In angiosperms, meiosis takes place in sporogenous cells that develop de novo from somatic cells in anthers or ovules. A successful transition from the mitotic cycle to the meiotic program in sporogenous cells is crucial for sexual reproduction. By contrast, when meiosis is bypassed or a mitosis-like division occurs to produce unreduced cells, followed by the development of an embryo sac, clonal seeds can be produced by apomixis, an asexual reproduction pathway found in 400 species of flowering plants. An understanding of the regulation of entry into meiosis and molecular mechanisms of apomictic pathway will provide vital insight into reproduction for plant breeding. Recent findings suggest that AM1/SWI1 may be the key gene for entry into meiosis, and increasing evidence has shown that the apomictic pathway is epigenetically controlled. However, the mechanism for the initiation of meiosis during sexual reproduction or for its omission in the apomictic pathway still remains largely unknown. Here we review the current understanding of meiosis initiation and the apomictic pathway and raised several questions that are awaiting further investigation. PMID:25295051

    6. Oxidative stress, redox signaling pathways, and autophagy in cachectic muscles of male patients with advanced COPD and lung cancer.

      PubMed

      Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Rodriguez, Diego A; Lloreta, Josep; Ausin, Pilar; Pascual-Guardia, Sergio; Broquetas, Joan; Roca, Josep; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

      2015-02-01

      Muscle dysfunction and wasting are predictors of mortality in advanced COPD and malignancies. Redox imbalance and enhanced protein catabolism are underlying mechanisms in COPD. We hypothesized that the expression profile of several biological markers share similarities in patients with cachexia associated with either COPD or lung cancer (LC). In vastus lateralis of cachectic patients with either LC (n=10) or advanced COPD (n=16) and healthy controls (n=10), markers of redox balance, inflammation, proteolysis, autophagy, signaling pathways, mitochondrial function, muscle structure, and sarcomere damage were measured using laboratory and light and electron microscopy techniques. Systemic redox balance and inflammation were also determined. All subjects were clinically evaluated. Compared to controls, in both cachectic groups of patients, a similar expression profile of different biological markers was observed in their muscles: increased levels of muscle protein oxidation and ubiquitination (p<0.05, both), which positively correlated (r=0.888), redox-sensitive signaling pathways (NF-κB and FoxO) were activated (p<0.05, all), fast-twitch fiber sizes were atrophied, muscle structural abnormalities and sarcomere disruptions were significantly greater (p<0.05, both). Structural and functional protein levels were lower in muscles of both cachectic patient groups than in controls (p<0.05, all). However, levels of autophagy markers including ultrastructural autophagosome counts were increased only in muscles of cachectic COPD patients (p<0.05). Systemic oxidative stress and inflammation levels were also increased in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.005, both). Oxidative stress and redox-sensitive signaling pathways are likely to contribute to the etiology of muscle wasting and sarcomere disruption in patients with respiratory cachexia: LC and COPD. PMID:25464271

    7. The Historical Evolution of Chinese Languages and Scripts. Pathways to Advanced Skills Series. Volume 8

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Youguang, Zhou

      2003-01-01

      This bilingual text by Zhou Youguang (in Chinese) with English translation by Zhang Liqing makes it easier for English speakers to gain advanced level skills in East Asian languages. It also exposes learners at or above intermediate skill levels to the vocabulary and discourses of academic disciplines and provides entries into discussions with…

    8. Serum From Advanced Heart Failure Patients Promotes Angiogenic Sprouting and Affects the Notch Pathway in Human Endothelial Cells.

      PubMed

      Pannella, Micaela; Caliceti, Cristiana; Fortini, Francesca; Aquila, Giorgio; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Pannuti, Antonio; Fortini, Cinzia; Morelli, Marco Bruno; Fucili, Alessandro; Francolini, Gloria; Voltan, Rebecca; Secchiero, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Ferracin, Manuela; Hrelia, Silvana; Miele, Lucio; Rizzo, Paola

      2016-12-01

      It is unknown whether components present in heart failure (HF) patients' serum provide an angiogenic stimulus. We sought to determine whether serum from HF patients affects angiogenesis and its major modulator, the Notch pathway, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In cells treated with serum from healthy subjects or from patients at different HF stage we determined: (1) Sprouting angiogenesis, by measuring cells network (closed tubes) in collagen gel. (2) Protein levels of Notch receptors 1, 2, 4, and ligands Jagged1, Delta-like4. We found a higher number of closed tubes in HUVECs treated with advanced HF patients serum in comparison with cells treated with serum from mild HF patients or controls. Furthermore, as indicated by the reduction of the active form of Notch4 (N4IC) and of Jagged1, advanced HF patients serum inhibited Notch signalling in HUVECs in comparison with mild HF patients' serum and controls. The circulating levels of NT-proBNP (N-terminal of the pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide), a marker for the detection and evalutation of HF, were positively correlated with the number of closed tubes (r = 0.485) and negatively with Notch4IC and Jagged1 levels in sera-treated cells (r = -0.526 and r = -0.604, respectively). In conclusion, we found that sera from advanced HF patients promote sprouting angiogenesis and dysregulate Notch signaling in HUVECs. Our study provides in vitro evidence of an angiogenic stimulus arising during HF progression and suggests a role for the Notch pathway in it. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2700-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26987674

    9. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1982-01-01

      The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

    10. Advances of the interleukin-21 signaling pathway in immunity and angiogenesis

      PubMed Central

      YUAN, MING-JIE; WANG, TAO

      2016-01-01

      Interleukin-21 (IL-21) and its receptor (IL-21R) are broadly expressed on human B cells, activated T cells and other myeloid cells. IL-21 cooperates with IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β to regulate T-cell differentiation. IL-21-mediated human B cell and dendritic cells differentiation requires signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and also induces B-cell apoptosis dependents on the Toll-like receptor signal. Recently, in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that IL-21/IL-21R regulate angiogenesis through STAT3. IL-21 signaling pathways are complex due to its cooperation with other transcriptional factors, such as interferon regulatory factor 4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The Janus kinase-STAT pathway has been the most extensively studied. With the increase in the understanding of IL-21 biology in the context of each specific disease or pathological condition, IL-21 could be a new therapeutic target for immune-related disease.

    11. Recent advances in the Suf Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathway: Beyond the Proteobacteria

      PubMed Central

      Outten, F. Wayne

      2014-01-01

      Fe-S clusters play critical roles in cellular function throughout all three kingdoms of life. Consequently, Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems are present in most organisms. The Suf (sulfur formation) system is the most ancient of the three characterized Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathways, which also include the Isc and Nif systems. Much of the first work on the Suf system took place in Gram-negative Proteobacteria used as model organisms. These early studies led to a wealth of biochemical, genetic, and physiological information on Suf function. From those studies we have learned that SufB functions as an Fe-S scaffold in conjunction with SufC (and in some cases SufD). SufS and SufE together mobilize sulfur for cluster assembly and SufA traffics the complete Fe-S cluster from SufB to target apo-proteins. However, recent progress on the Suf system in other organisms has opened up new avenues of research and new hypotheses about Suf function. This review focuses primarily on the most recent discoveries about the Suf pathway and where those new models may lead the field. PMID:25447545

    12. Targeting receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways with nanoparticles: rationale and advances

      PubMed Central

      Xu, Shi; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z.; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

      2012-01-01

      Targeting of drugs and their carrier systems by using receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways was in its nascent stages 25 years ago. In the intervening years, an explosion of knowledge focused on design and synthesis of nanoparticulate delivery systems as well as elucidation of the cellular complexity of what was previously-termed receptor-mediated endocytosis has now created a situation when it has become possible to design and test the feasibility of delivery of highly specific nanoparticle drug carriers to specific cells and tissue. This review outlines the mechanisms governing the major modes of receptor-mediated endocytosis used in drug delivery and highlights recent approaches using these as targets for in vivo drug delivery of nanoparticles. The review also discusses some of the inherent complexity associated with the simple shift from a ligand-drug conjugate versus a ligand-nanoparticle conjugate, in terms of ligand valency and its relationship to the mode of receptor-mediated internalization. PMID:23026636

    13. Combining natural and man-made DNA tracers to advance understanding of hydrologic flow pathway evolution

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Dahlke, H. E.; Walter, M. T.; Lyon, S. W.; Rosqvist, G. N.

      2014-12-01

      Identifying and characterizing the sources, pathways and residence times of water and associated constituents is critical to developing improved understanding of watershed-stream connections and hydrological/ecological/biogeochemical models. To date the most robust information is obtained from integrated studies that combine natural tracers (e.g. isotopes, geochemical tracers) with controlled chemical tracer (e.g., bromide, dyes) or colloidal tracer (e.g., carboxilated microspheres, tagged clay particles, microorganisms) applications. In the presented study we explore how understanding of sources and flow pathways of water derived from natural tracer studies can be improved and expanded in space and time by simultaneously introducing man-made, synthetic DNA-based microtracers. The microtracer used were composed of polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres into which short strands of synthetic DNA and paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are incorporated. Tracer experiments using both natural tracers and the DNA-based microtracers were conducted in the sub-arctic, glacierized Tarfala (21.7 km2) catchment in northern Sweden. Isotopic hydrograph separations revealed that even though storm runoff was dominated by pre-event water the event water (i.e. rainfall) contributions to streamflow increased throughout the summer season as glacial snow cover decreased. This suggests that glaciers are a major source of the rainwater fraction in streamflow. Simultaneous injections of ten unique DNA-based microtracers confirmed this hypothesis and revealed that the transit time of water traveling from the glacier surface to the stream decreased fourfold over the summer season leading to instantaneous rainwater contributions during storm events. These results highlight that integrating simultaneous tracer injections (injecting tracers at multiple places at one time) with traditional tracer methods (sampling multiple times at one place) rather than using either approach in isolation can

    14. National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

      PubMed

      Green, Carmen R; Cowan, Penney; Elk, Ronit; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Rasmussen, Angela L

      2015-06-16

      The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome was cosponsored by the NIH Office of Disease Prevention and the Trans-NIH Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Working Group. A multidisciplinary working group developed the agenda, and an Evidence-based Practice Center prepared an evidence report through a contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to facilitate the discussion. During the 1.5-day workshop, invited experts discussed the body of evidence and attendees had the opportunity to comment during open discussions. After weighing evidence from the evidence report, expert presentations, and public comments, an unbiased, independent panel prepared a draft report that identified research gaps and future research priorities. The report was posted on the NIH Office of Disease Prevention Web site for 4 weeks for public comment. PMID:26075757

    15. The low-abundance transcriptome reveals novel biomarkers, specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes associated with advanced gastric cancer.

      PubMed

      Bizama, Carolina; Benavente, Felipe; Salvatierra, Edgardo; Gutiérrez-Moraga, Ana; Espinoza, Jaime A; Fernández, Elmer A; Roa, Iván; Mazzolini, Guillermo; Sagredo, Eduardo A; Gidekel, Manuel; Podhajcer, Osvaldo L

      2014-02-15

      Studies on the low-abundance transcriptome are of paramount importance for identifying the intimate mechanisms of tumor progression that can lead to novel therapies. The aim of the present study was to identify novel markers and targetable genes and pathways in advanced human gastric cancer through analyses of the low-abundance transcriptome. The procedure involved an initial subtractive hybridization step, followed by global gene expression analysis using microarrays. We observed profound differences, both at the single gene and gene ontology levels, between the low-abundance transcriptome and the whole transcriptome. Analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome led to the identification and validation by tissue microarrays of novel biomarkers, such as LAMA3 and TTN; moreover, we identified cancer type-specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes, such as IRS2, IL17, IFNγ, VEGF-C, WISP1, FZD5 and CTBP1 that were not detectable by whole transcriptome analyses. We also demonstrated that knocking down the expression of CTBP1 sensitized gastric cancer cells to mainstay chemotherapeutic drugs. We conclude that the analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome provides useful insights into the molecular basis and treatment of cancer. PMID:23907728

    16. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings.

      PubMed

      Kietzman, Kathryn G; Troy, Lisa M; Green, Carmen R; Wallace, Steven P

      2016-01-01

      Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research. PMID:26849290

    17. Systems biology and brain activity in neuronal pathways by smart device and advanced signal processing

      PubMed Central

      Castellani, Gastone; Intrator, Nathan; Remondini, Daniel

      2014-01-01

      Contemporary biomedicine is producing large amount of data, especially within the fields of “omic” sciences. Nevertheless, other fields, such as neuroscience, are producing similar amount of data by using non-invasive techniques such as imaging, functional magnetic resonance and electroencephalography. Nowadays a big challenge and a new research horizon for Systems Biology is to develop methods to integrate and model this data in an unifying framework capable to disentangle this amazing complexity. In this paper we show how methods from genomic data analysis can be applied to brain data. In particular the concept of pathways, networks and multiplex are discussed. These methods can lead to a clear distinction of various regimes of brain activity. Moreover, this method could be the basis for a Systems Biology analysis of brain data and for the integration of these data in a multivariate and multidimensional framework. The feasibility of this integration is strongly dependent from the feature extraction method used. In our case we used an “alphabet” derived from a multi-resolution analysis that is capable to capture the most relevant information from these complex signals. PMID:25206359

    18. Degradation of ciprofloxacin in water by advanced oxidation process: kinetics study, influencing parameters and degradation pathways.

      PubMed

      Sayed, Murtaza; Ismail, M; Khan, Sanaullah; Tabassum, Safia; Khan, Hasan M

      2016-03-01

      Gamma-radiation-induced degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) in aqueous solution and the factors affecting the degradation process have been investigated. The results showed that CIP (4.6 mg/L) was almost completely degraded at an absorbed dose of 870 Gy. The kinetic studies of aqueous solutions containing 4.6, 10, 15 and 17.9 mg/L indicated that the decomposition of CIP by gamma irradiation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and the decay constant (k) decreased from 5.9  ×  10(-3) to 1.6  ×  10(-3) Gy(-1) with an increase in CIP initial concentration from 4.6 to 17.9 mg/L. The effect of saturation of CIP solution with N2, N2O or air on radiation-induced degradation of CIP was also investigated. The effects of radical scavengers, such as t-BuOH and i-PrOH, showed the role of reactive radicals towards degradation of CIP in the order of [Formula: see text]. The apparent second-order rate constant of [Formula: see text] with CIP was calculated to be 2.64 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The effects of solution pH as well as natural water contaminants, such as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], on CIP degradation by gamma-irradiation were also investigated. Major degradation products, including organic acids, were identified using UPLC-MS/MS and IC, and degradation pathways have been proposed. PMID:26208491

    19. Advancing health literacy measurement: a pathway to better health and health system performance.

      PubMed

      Pleasant, Andrew

      2014-12-01

      The concept of health literacy initially emerged and continues to gain strength as an approach to improving health status and the performance of health systems. Numerous studies clearly link low levels of education, literacy, and health literacy with poor health, poor health care utilization, increased barriers to care, and early death. However, theoretical understandings and methods of measuring the complex social construct of health literacy have experienced a continual evolution that remains incomplete. As a result, the seemingly most-cited definition of health literacy proposed in the now-decade-old Institute of Medicine report on health literacy is long overdue for updating. Such an effort should engage a broad and diverse set of health literacy researchers, practitioners, and members of the public in creating a definition that can earn broad consensus through validation testing in a rigorous scientific approach. That effort also could produce the basis for a new universally applicable measure of health literacy. Funders, health systems, and policymakers should reconsider their timid approach to health literacy. Although the field and corresponding evidence base are not perfect, health literacy-especially when combined with a focus on prevention and integrative health-is one of the most promising approaches to advancing public health. PMID:25491583

    20. Advancing Health Literacy Measurement: A Pathway to Better Health and Health System Performance

      PubMed Central

      Pleasant, Andrew

      2014-01-01

      The concept of health literacy initially emerged and continues to gain strength as an approach to improving health status and the performance of health systems. Numerous studies clearly link low levels of education, literacy, and health literacy with poor health, poor health care utilization, increased barriers to care, and early death. However, theoretical understandings and methods of measuring the complex social construct of health literacy have experienced a continual evolution that remains incomplete. As a result, the seemingly most-cited definition of health literacy proposed in the now-decade-old Institute of Medicine report on health literacy is long overdue for updating. Such an effort should engage a broad and diverse set of health literacy researchers, practitioners, and members of the public in creating a definition that can earn broad consensus through validation testing in a rigorous scientific approach. That effort also could produce the basis for a new universally applicable measure of health literacy. Funders, health systems, and policymakers should reconsider their timid approach to health literacy. Although the field and corresponding evidence base are not perfect, health literacy—especially when combined with a focus on prevention and integrative health—is one of the most promising approaches to advancing public health. PMID:25491583

    1. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis

      PubMed Central

      Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

      2016-01-01

      Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70 000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

    2. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

      PubMed

      Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

      2016-05-01

      Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

    3. Advanced oxidative protein products induced human keratinocyte apoptosis through the NOX-MAPK pathway.

      PubMed

      Sun, Baihui; Ding, Ruoting; Yu, Wenlin; Wu, Yanhong; Wang, Bulin; Li, Qin

      2016-07-01

      Impaired wound healing is a major diabetes-related complication. Keratinocytes play an important role in wound healing. Multiple factors have been proposed that can induce dysfunction in keratinocytes. The focus of present research is at a more specific molecular level. We investigated the role of advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) in inducing human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell apoptosis and the cellular mechanism underlying the proapoptotic effect of AOPPs. HaCaT cells were treated with increasing concentrations of AOPP-human serum albumin or for increasing time durations. The cell viability was measured using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide method, and flow cytometry was used to assess the rate of cell apoptosis. A loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed through a confocal laser scanning microscope system, and the level of ROS generation was determined using a microplate reader. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)4, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and apoptosis-related downstream protein interactions were investigated using the Western blot analysis. We found that AOPPs triggered HaCaT cell apoptosis and MMP loss. After AOPP treatment, intracellular ROS generation increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Proapoptotic proteins, such as Bax, caspase 9/caspase 3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 were activated, whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was downregulated. AOPPs also increased NOX4, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that extracellular AOPP accumulation triggered NOX-dependent ROS production, which activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, and induced HaCaT cell apoptosis by activating caspase 3 and PARP-1. PMID:27155970

    4. Elementary School Guidance Bibliography.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Biasco, Frank

      This bibliography lists articles and books dealing with elementary school guidance. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author. No annotations are given. Approximately 70 titles are given, covering most phases of elementary guidance. (KJ)

    5. Unified powered flight guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

      1973-01-01

      A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

    6. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study. Volume 2: Appendices

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1982-01-01

      The integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport is reported. Supplementary technical data on the following topics are included: (1) 1990's avionics technology assessment; (2) function criticality assessment; (3) flight deck system for total control and functional features list; (4) criticality and reliability assessment of units; (5) crew procedural function task analysis; and (6) recommendations for simulation mechanization.

    7. Microfluidic control of axonal guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gu, Ling; Black, Bryan; Ordonez, Simon; Mondal, Argha; Jain, Ankur; Mohanty, Samarendra

      2014-10-01

      The precision of axonal pathfinding and the accurate formation of functional neural circuitry are crucial for an organism during development as well as during adult central and peripheral nerve regeneration. While chemical cues are believed to be primarily responsible for axonal pathfinding, we hypothesize that forces due to localized fluid flow may directly affect neuronal guidance during early organ development. Here, we report direct evidence of fluid flow influencing axonal migration, producing turning angles of up to 90°. Microfluidic flow simulations indicate that an axon may experience significant bending force due to cross-flow, which may contribute to the observed axonal turning. This method of flow-based guidance was successfully used to fasciculate one advancing axon onto another, showcasing the potential of this technique to be used for the formation of in vitro neuronal circuits.

    8. Entry Guidance for the Reusable Launch Vehicle

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lu, Ping

      1999-01-01

      The X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator is a half-scale prototype developed to test the key technologies needed for a full-scale single-stage reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The X-33 is a suborbital vehicle that will be launched vertically, and land horizontally. The goals of this research were to develop an alternate entry guidance scheme for the X-33 in parallel to the actual X-33 entry guidance algorithms, provide comparative and complementary study, and identify potential new ways to improve entry guidance performance. Toward these goals, the nominal entry trajectory is defined by a piecewise linear drag-acceleration-versus-energy profile, which is in turn obtained by the solution of a semi-analytical parameter optimization problem. The closed-loop guidance is accomplished by tracking the nominal drag profile with primarily bank-angle modulation on-board. The bank-angle is commanded by a single full-envelope nonlinear trajectory control law. Near the end of the entry flight, the guidance logic is switched to heading control in order to meet strict conditions at the terminal area energy management interface. Two methods, one on ground-track control and the other on heading control, were proposed and examined for this phase of entry guidance where lateral control is emphasized. Trajectory dispersion studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the entry guidance algorithms against a number of uncertainties including those in propulsion system, atmospheric properties, winds, aerodynamics, and propellant loading. Finally, a new trajectory-regulation method is introduced at the end as a promising precision entry guidance method. The guidance principle is very different and preliminary application in X-33 entry guidance simulation showed high precision that is difficult to achieve by existing methods.

    9. Functional Proteomic Analysis of Advanced Serous Ovarian Cancer using Reverse Phase Protein Array: TGFβ Pathway Signaling Indicates Response to Primary Chemotherapy

      PubMed Central

      Carey, Mark S.; Agarwal, Roshan; Gilks, Blake; Swenerton, Kenneth; Kalloger, Steve; Santos, Jennifer; Ju, Zhenlin; Lu, Yiling; Zhang, Fan; Coombes, Kevin; Miller, Dianne; Huntsman, David; Mills, Gordon B.; Hennessy, Bryan T

      2010-01-01

      Purpose: Using Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) we measured protein expression associated with response to primary chemotherapy in patients with advanced-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Experimental Design: Tumor samples were obtained from forty-five patients with advanced high-grade serous cancers from the Gynecology Tumor Bank at the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Treatment consisted of platinum-based chemotherapy following debulking surgery. Protein lysates were prepared from fresh frozen tumor samples and 80 validated proteins from signaling pathways implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis were measured by RPPA. Normalization of Ca-125 by the 3rd cycle of chemotherapy was chosen as the primary outcome measure of chemotherapy response. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis to identify protein predictors of Ca-125 normalization, and Cox regression to test for the association between protein expression and PFS. A significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was used. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 56.8 years. EGFR, YKL-40 and several TGFβ pathway proteins (c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, JNK phosphorylated at residues 183 and 185, PAI-1, Smad3, TAZ) showed significant associations with Ca-125 normalization on univariate testing. On multivariate analysis, EGFR (p < 0.02), JNK (p < 0.01), and Smad3 (p < 0.04) were significantly associated with normalization of Ca-125. Contingency table analysis of pathway-classified proteins revealed that the selection of TGFβ pathway proteins was unlikely due to false discovery (p < 0.007, Bonferroni-adjusted). Conclusion: TGFβ pathway signaling likely plays an important role as a marker or mediator of chemoresistance in advanced serous ovarian cancer. On this basis, future studies to develop and validate a useful predictor of treatment failure are warranted. PMID:20460476

    10. Autonomous landing guidance program

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Brown, John A.

      1996-05-01

      The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

    11. Stressor Identification Guidance Document

      EPA Science Inventory

      EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance doc...

    12. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

      1998-01-01

      A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

    13. Evaluating Guidance Activities.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sanborn, Marshall P.

      This report discusses one of the consistent problems in school counseling and guidance-that of furnishing concrete evidence concerning the effects of counseling and guidance activities on the development of children. The following causal factors are discussed: (1) the difficulty of pinning down abstractly stated goals in an operational manner at…

    14. Corporate information management guidance

      SciTech Connect

      1997-08-01

      At the request of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Information Management (IM) Council, IM representatives from nearly all Headquarters (HQ) organizations have been meeting over the past year as the Corporate Guidance Group (CGG) to develop useful and sound corporate information management (IM) guidance. The ability of the Department`s IM community to develop such unified guidance continues to be critical to the success of future Departmental IM planning processes and the establishment of a well-coordinated IM environment between Headquarters and field organizations. This report, with 26 specific corporate IM guidance items documented and unanimously agreed to, as well as 12 items recommended for further development and 3 items deferred for future consideration, represents a highly successful effort by the IM community. The effort has proven that the diverse DOE organizations can put aside individual preferences and work together towards a common and mutually beneficial goal. In examining most areas and issues associated with information management in the Department, they have developed specific, far-reaching, and useful guidance. The IM representatives recommend that the documented guidance items provided in this report and approved by the DOE IM Council be followed by all IM organizations. The representatives also strongly recommend that the guidance process developed by the CGG be the single process for developing corporate IM guidance.

    15. Ascent Guidance Comparisons

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hanson, John M.; Shrader, M. Wade; Cruzen, Craig A.

      1995-01-01

      This paper contains results from ascent guidance studies conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The studies include investigation of different guidance schemes for a variety of potential launch vehicles. Criteria of a successful ascent guidance scheme are low operations cost, satisfaction of load indicator constraints, and maximization of performance. Results show that open-loop designs as a function of altitude or velocity are preferable to designs that are functions of time. Optimized open-loop trajectories can increase performance while maintaining load indicators within limits. Closed-loop atmospheric schemes that involve linear tangent steering or feedback of velocity terms for trajectory modification did not yield any improvement. Early release of vacuum closed-loop guidance, including use during solid rocket booster operation, yields some improvements. Evaluation of a closed-loop optimization scheme for flying through the atmosphere shows no advantages over open-loop optimization. Dispersion study results for several potential guidance schemes and launch vehicles are included in the paper and are not a discriminator between guidance schemes. The primary cost driver is mission operations philosophy, not choice of guidance scheme. More autonomous guidance schemes can help in movement towards a philosophy that would reduce operations costs.

    16. Guidance for Total Development.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Van Hoose, William H.

      Elementary guidance, deriving much of its content from the developmental phenomena of middle childhood, is viewed as the maximization of human potentiality in the total range of the population. Included in the list of elementary school guidance objectives are (1) aiding academic development, (2) helping children develop health self-concepts, (3)…

    17. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

      1992-01-01

      The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

    18. Shuttle entry guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

      1978-01-01

      This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

    19. Cone beam CT guidance provides superior accuracy for complex needle paths compared with CT guidance

      PubMed Central

      Braak, S J; Fütterer, J J; van Strijen, M J L; Hoogeveen, Y L; de Lange, F; Schultze Kool, L J

      2013-01-01

      Objective: To determine the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) guidance and CT guidance in reaching small targets in relation to needle path complexity in a phantom. Methods: CBCT guidance combines three-dimensional CBCT imaging with fluoroscopy overlay and needle planning software to provide real-time needle guidance. The accuracy of needle positioning, quantified as deviation from a target, was assessed for inplane, angulated and double angulated needle paths. Four interventional radiologists reached four targets along the three paths using CBCT and CT guidance. Accuracies were compared between CBCT and CT for each needle path and between the three approaches within both modalities. The effect of user experience in CBCT guidance was also assessed. Results: Accuracies for CBCT were significantly better than CT for the double angulated needle path (2.2 vs 6.7 mm, p<0.001) for all radiologists. CBCT guidance showed no significant differences between the three approaches. For CT, deviations increased with increasing needle path complexity from 3.3 mm for the inplane placements to 4.4 mm (p=0.007) and 6.7 mm (p<0.001) for the angulated and double angulated CT-guided needle placements, respectively. For double angulated needle paths, experienced CBCT users showed consistently higher accuracies than trained users [1.8 mm (range 1.2–2.2) vs 3.3 mm (range 2.1–7.2) deviation from target, respectively; p=0.003]. Conclusion: In terms of accuracy, CBCT is the preferred modality, irrespective of the level of user experience, for more difficult guidance procedures requiring double angulated needle paths as in oncological interventions. Advances in knowledge: Accuracy of CBCT guidance has not been discussed before. CBCT guidance allows accurate needle placement irrespective of needle path complexity. For angulated and double-angulated needle paths, CBCT is more accurate than CT guidance. PMID:23913308

    20. Guidance of Nonlinear Nonminimum-Phase Dynamic Systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Devasia, Santosh

      1997-01-01

      The first two years research work has advanced the inversion-based guidance theory for: (1) systems with non-hyperbolic internal dynamics; (2) systems with parameter jumps; (3) systems where a redesign of the output trajectory is desired; and (4) the generation of recovery guidance maneuvers.

    1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 282 - Guidance

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidance A Appendix A to Part 282 National... PROCEDURES FOR SETTLING PERSONNEL AND GENERAL CLAIMS AND PROCESSING ADVANCE DECISION REQUESTS Pt. 282, App. A Appendix A to Part 282—Guidance (a) Submitting a claim. The procedures a claimant must follow to submit...

    2. Phase I Study of Oral Rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a Dual Inhibitor of the PI3K and Plk1 Pathways, in Adult Patients with Advanced Solid Malignancies

      PubMed Central

      Bowles, Daniel W.; Diamond, Jennifer R.; Lam, Elaine T.; Weekes, Colin D.; Astling, David P.; Anderson, Ryan T.; Leong, Stephen; Gore, Lia; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Vogler, Brian W.; Keysar, Stephen B.; Freas, Elizabeth; Aisner, Dara L.; Ren, Chen; Tan, Aik-Chook; Wilhelm, Francois; Maniar, Manoj; Eckhardt, S. Gail; Messersmith, Wells A.; Jimeno, Antonio

      2014-01-01

      Purpose To determine the pharmacokinetics (PK), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and antitumor activity of an oral formulation of rigosertib, a dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) pathway inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Experimental Design Patients with advanced solid malignancies received rigosertib twice daily continuously in 21-day cycles. Doses were escalated until intolerable grade ≥ 2 toxicities, at which point the previous dose level was expanded to define the MTD. All patients were assessed for safety, PK, and response. Urinary PK were performed at the MTD. Archival tumors were assessed for potential molecular biomarkers with multiplex mutation testing. A subset of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) underwent exome sequencing. Results Forty-eight patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy at 5 dose levels. Rigosertib exposure increased with escalating doses. Dose-limiting toxicities were hematuria and dysuria. The most common grade ≥2 drug-related toxicities involved urothelial irritation. The MTD is 560 mg twice daily. Activity was seen in head and neck SCCs (1 complete response, 1 partial response) and stable disease for ≥ 12 weeks was observed in 8 additional patients. Tumors experiencing ≥partial response had PI3K pathway activation, inactivated p53, and unique variants in ROBO3 and FAT1, two genes interacting with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Conclusions The recommended phase II dose of oral rigosertib is 560 mg twice daily given continuously. Urinary toxicity is the dose-limiting and most common toxicity. Alterations in PI3K, p53, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling should be investigated as potential biomarkers of response in future trials. PMID:24493827

    3. Aeroassist flight experiment guidance, navigation and control

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brand, Timothy J.; Engel, Albert G.

      1986-01-01

      The Aeroassist Flight Experiment scheduled for the early 1990's will demonstrate the use of a low L/D lifting brake using aerodynamic drag to return a spacecraft from a high energy to a low earth orbit. The experimental vehicle will be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle Orbiter. This paper reviews some of the challenges, problems, and solutions encountered to date during guidance system development, with emphasis on technology advances which will benefit an operational Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV). Key factors to be discussed include guidance alternatives, aerodynamic modeling, navigation requirements, the impact of atmospheric uncertainties, and flight profile alternatives considered during initial planning.

    4. Comprehensive Guidance Programs That Work.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gysbers, Norman C.; And Others

      This monograph describes how the comprehensive guidance model is transforming elementary-secondary school guidance and counseling programs in schools across the country. It incorporates the ideas and experiences of 12 guidance program developers in the actual use of the comprehensive guidance model in diverse school and cultural settings. The book…

    5. Video-Guidance Design for the DART Rendezvous Mission

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ruth, Michael; Tracy, Chisholm

      2004-01-01

      NASA's Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission will validate a number of different guidance technologies, including state-differenced GPS transfers and close-approach video guidance. The video guidance for DART will employ NASA/Marshall s Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS). This paper focuses on the terminal phase of the DART mission that includes close-approach maneuvers under AVGS guidance. The closed-loop video guidance design for DART is driven by a number of competing requirements, including a need for maximizing tracking bandwidths while coping with measurement noise and the need to minimize RCS firings. A range of different strategies for attitude control and docking guidance have been considered for the DART mission, and design decisions are driven by a goal of minimizing both the design complexity and the effects of video guidance lags. The DART design employs an indirect docking approach, in which the guidance position targets are defined using relative attitude information. Flight simulation results have proven the effectiveness of the video guidance design.

    6. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

      SciTech Connect

      OHARA,J.; BROWN,W.; STUBLER,W.; HIGGINS,J.; WACHTEL,J.; PERSENSKY,J.J.

      2000-07-30

      The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ``Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1.

    7. Human Genetic Disorders of Axon Guidance

      PubMed Central

      Engle, Elizabeth C.

      2010-01-01

      This article reviews symptoms and signs of aberrant axon connectivity in humans, and summarizes major human genetic disorders that result, or have been proposed to result, from defective axon guidance. These include corpus callosum agenesis, L1 syndrome, Joubert syndrome and related disorders, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, Kallmann syndrome, albinism, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1, Duane retraction syndrome, and pontine tegmental cap dysplasia. Genes mutated in these disorders can encode axon growth cone ligands and receptors, downstream signaling molecules, and axon transport motors, as well as proteins without currently recognized roles in axon guidance. Advances in neuroimaging and genetic techniques have the potential to rapidly expand this field, and it is feasible that axon guidance disorders will soon be recognized as a new and significant category of human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20300212

    8. Computer-based first-principles kinetic modeling of degradation pathways and byproduct fates in aqueous-phase advanced oxidation processes.

      PubMed

      Guo, Xin; Minakata, Daisuke; Niu, Junfeng; Crittenden, John

      2014-05-20

      In this study, a computer-based first-principles kinetic model is developed to predict the degradation mechanisms and fates of intermediates and byproducts produced during aqueous-phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for various organic compounds. The model contains a rule-based pathway generator to generate the reaction pathways, a reaction rate constant estimator to estimate the reaction rate constant for each reaction generated, a mechanistic reduction module to reduce the generated mechanisms, an ordinary differential equations generator and solver to solve the generated mechanisms and calculate the concentration profiles for all species, and a toxicity estimator to estimate the toxicity of major species and calculate time-dependent profiles of relative toxicity (i.e., concentration of species divided by toxicity value). We predict concentration profiles of acetone and trichloroethylene and their intermediates and byproducts in photolysis with hydrogen peroxide (i.e., UV/H2O2) and validate with experimental observations. The predicted concentration profiles for both parent compounds are consistent with experimental data. The calculated profiles of 96-h green algae chronic toxicity show that the overall toxicity decreases during the degradation process. These generated mechanisms also provide detailed and quantitative insights into the pathways for the formation and consumption of important intermediates and byproducts produced during AOPs. Our approach is sufficiently general to be applied to a wide range of contaminants. PMID:24749836

    9. Vocational Guidance and the Labour Market: Guidance to Transform or Guidance to Domesticate?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kann, Ulla

      1988-01-01

      Explores the conflict in guidance arising from the desire to consider the needs of society while guaranteeing individual freedom of choice. Discusses the theoretical basis of vocational guidance. Gives examples of "domestication" and "transformation" approaches to guidance and discusses the consequences of viewing guidance as a change strategy.(KO)

    10. Advanced glycation end-products induced VEGF production and inflammatory responses in human synoviocytes via RAGE-NF-κB pathway activation.

      PubMed

      Chen, Ying-Ju; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Wang, Ching-Chia; Yang, Ting-Hua; Lan, Kuo-Cheng; Chao, Sung-Chuan; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen; Liu, Shing-Hwa

      2016-05-01

      Aging and diabetes are known to be the major cause to affect the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been observed to accumulate in various organs especially in joint tissue and do damage to the joint tissue during aging and diabetes. Synovial angiogenesis and inflammation are observed across the full range of OA severity. The signaling pathway of AGEs on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and inflammatory responses in synoviocytes are still unclear. Here, we investigated the role of receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and the signaling pathway involved in AGEs-induced VEGF production and inflammatory responses in human synoviocytes. Human synoviocytes were cultured and treated with AGEs (25-100 µg/ml). AGEs significantly induced the protein expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and VEGF and the productions of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), VEGF, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) in human synoviocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, AGEs markedly activated the phosphorylations of IκB kinase (IKK)α/β, IκBα, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB-p65 proteins in human synoviocytes in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with neutralizing antibody for RAGE statistically significantly decreased the AGEs-induced increase in COX-2, VEGF, PGE2, IL-6, and MMP13 and AGEs-activated NF-κB pathway activation. Taken together, these findings indicate that AGEs are capable of inducing VEGF production and inflammatory responses via RAGE-NF-κB pathway activation in human synoviocytes. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:791-800, 2016. PMID:26497299

    11. Upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibition: MEK inhibitor followed by a BRAF inhibitor in advanced melanoma patients.

      PubMed

      Goldinger, Simone M; Zimmer, Lisa; Schulz, Carsten; Ugurel, Selma; Hoeller, Christoph; Kaehler, Katharina C; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hassel, Jessica C; Becker, Juergen; Hauschild, Axel; Dummer, Reinhard

      2014-01-01

      BRAF-mutant melanoma can be successfully treated by BRAF kinase inhibitors (BRAFi) and MEK kinase inhibitors (MEKi). However, the administration of BRAFi followed by MEKi did not generate promising response rate (RR). The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the time to progression (TTP) with a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway upstream inhibition strategy in BRAF mutated melanoma patients. BRAF mutation positive metastatic melanoma patients were identified within the Dermatology Cooperative Oncology Group (DeCOG) network and were treated first with a MEKi and upon progression with a selective BRAFi. A total of 23 melanoma patients (six females, 17 males, aged 47-80 years) were retrospectively analysed for TTP. The total median TTP was 8.9 months. The median TTP for MEKi was 4.8 (1.2-23.2) and subsequent for BRAFi 4.5 (1.2-15.7) months, respectively. A higher RR for MEKi (39%, nine partial responses and 0 complete responses) than previously reported was observed. Our analysis suggests that the reversed inhibition of the MAPK pathway is feasible in BRAF mutated melanoma. The median TTP (8.9 months) is close to the promising BRAF- and MEKi combination therapy (median progression-free survival (PFS) 9.4 months). The total treatment duration of the MAPK inhibition when a MEKi is administered first is similar compared to the reversed sequence, but TTP shifts in favour to the MEKi. This approach is feasible with reasonable tolerability. This clinical investigation encourages further studies in prospective clinical trials to define the optimal treatment schedule for the MAPK pathway inhibition and should be accompanied by molecular monitoring using repeated biopsies. PMID:24183461

    12. The joint DoD/NASA advanced launch system. Pathway to low-cost, highly operable space transportation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wolfe, Malcolm G.

      In response to changing needs, a major change in U.S. space transportation policy has occurred in the last few years. The joint Department of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Launch System program (ALS) intends to respond to this change in policy. The program, initiated in July 1987, completed Phase I at the end of August 1988 and is currently in Phase II. The ALS is cost optimized, rather than performance optimized, and will utilize advanced technology and innovative management and design approaches to achieve an ambitious congressionally mandated cost goal of $300/lb to low Earth orbit by the year 2005. The technological innovations will directly benefit other U.S. space transportation programs, such as the commercial programs and the National Aero Space Plane (NASP).

    13. Exploring Goals. Career Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

      Materials contained in this career guidance unit are designed to enable senior high school students to relate their abilities scores from the Developed Abilities Performance (DAP) instrument to actual vocational areas and Long Range [occupational] Goals (LRG) for later indepth study. The length of the unit is six 55-minute periods. Instructional…

    14. Regulatory guidance document

      SciTech Connect

      1994-05-01

      The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

    15. Differentiating Classroom Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Akos, Patrick; Cockman, Caroline R.; Strickland, Cindy A.

      2007-01-01

      To differentiate is to make different, distinct, or specialized (Costello, 1994). Differentiation has become popular in education as an instructional philosophy aimed at equitably meeting the learning needs of all students in the classroom. Differentiated planning and delivery of classroom guidance is also necessary for appropriate school…

    16. The Counseling & Guidance Curriculum.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ediger, Marlow

      Counseling and guidance services are vital in any school curriculum. Counselors may themselves be dealing with students of diverse abilities and handicaps. Counselors may have to work with students affected by drug addiction, fetal alcohol syndrome, homelessness, poverty, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and divorce. Students may present…

    17. Primary Guidance Activities.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hauck, Ruth, Comp.

      Designed for the primary grades, the guidance activities in this document cover thirty-three topical areas: capabilities, changes, cooperation, criticism, differences, family, feelings, free time, friends, following directions, handicaps, honesty, improving environment, kindness, patience, paying attention, problem solving, rejection,…

    18. Developmental Guidance Program Implementation.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Vernon, Ann; Strub, Richard

      This packet of materials was developed for workshops provided to teams of school counselors and administrators for the purpose of developing knowledge and competencies in the delivery of a comprehensive, sequential, developmental guidance program. Section I contains a rationale, definition, and description of program components. In section II…

    19. Quality in Careers Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Plant, Peter

      This paper examines quality issues in career guidance, counseling, and information services in Europe and elsewhere from a range of different perspectives related to economic, ethical, and/or effectiveness criteria. Selected examples from the European Union member states, Canada, and the United States are used to illustrate how quality is…

    20. Vocational Development and Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tennyson, W. Wesley; And Others

      The vocational education volume considers questions of career development, the role of guidance in the school, vocational training, the relation of self-concept to vocational choice, and occupational information. Twenty-six papers deal with theories of vocational behavior, the success of vocational education programs, and testing information.…

    1. Canonical wnt signaling is required for commissural axon guidance

      PubMed Central

      Avilés, Evelyn C.

      2015-01-01

      ABSTRACT Morphogens have been identified as guidance cues for postcrossing commissural axons in the spinal cord. Shh has a dual effect on postcrossing commissural axons: a direct repellent effect mediated by Hhip as a receptor, and an indirect effect by shaping a Wnt activity gradient. Wnts were shown to be attractants for postcrossing commissural axons in both chicken and mouse embryos. In mouse, the effects of Wnts on axon guidance were concluded to depend on the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Canonical Wnt signaling was excluded based on the absence of axon guidance defects in mice lacking Lrp6 which is an obligatory coreceptor for Fzd in canonical Wnt signaling. In the loss‐of‐function studies reported here, we confirmed a role for the PCP pathway in postcrossing commissural axon guidance also in the chicken embryo. However, taking advantage of the precise temporal control of gene silencing provided by in ovo RNAi, we demonstrate that canonical Wnt signaling is also required for proper guidance of postcrossing commissural axons in the developing spinal cord. Thus, axon guidance does not seem to depend on any one of the classical Wnt signaling pathways but rather involve a network of Wnt receptors and downstream components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 190–208, 2016 PMID:26014644

    2. Guidance assistance, autonomous guidance and assisted distance guidance in precision agriculture

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gomez Gil, Jaime

      The present doctoral thesis analyses the potential of technological advances in electronics, telematics and communications for their application in agriculture. Research has been carried out and some prototypes have been developed in four stages: In a first phase, it has been carried out the analysis and development of guidance assistance devices. It has been carried out the development of a microcontroller based device which has been patented by the author of this thesis and later, has been developed and commercialized by the company GMV Sistemas. In a second phase, it has been developed a module of distance guidance which allows the remote driving of an agricultural tractor. There have been made the mechanical modifications in a tractor and the necessary hardware has been installed in order to allow the remote control of the tractor steering. The laptop receives the guidance instructions by means of wireless communication from the computer installed in the base. In a third phase, there have been developed two autonomous guidance systems, one by means of GPS and the other by means of Computer Vision, using as base the platform developed in the previous phase. It is incorporated a module of path generation from the plot outline. With this trajectory, the tractor is able to do most of the farming work in a plot without the participation of the driver. The last phase has been developed at the same time than the previous ones and it is located in Precision Agriculture. In this phase it has been carried out the performance of a centrifugal spreader of fertilizer and it has been developed an application for the generation in a precise way of fertilizer maps. The carried out studies have produced real developments implanted on the machinery of the author's farm. The development of the work has been carried out on a software platform with modules which are intercommunicated between them, because a large part of the developed applications have a common base of work. This

    3. [Advances in the research of effects of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway on vital organ function and its mechanism].

      PubMed

      Li, X H; Yao, Y M

      2016-07-20

      Serious major burns, trauma and surgical stress can easily develop into sepsis, and further result in septic shock or even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The mechanism of MODS is complicated, including excessive inflammation, immune dysfunction, coagulation disorder, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Recent studies have demonstrated that the nervous system could significantly and quickly suppress systemic inflammatory response via the vagus nerve, which might improve multiple organ damage following acute injury. This article is to brief our understanding concerning the structure characteristics of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and its effects on vital organ function and the regulatory mechanism, which might be of great significance to seek a novel way for interventional strategy of MODS. PMID:27464633

    4. Proteomic analysis reveals tanshinone IIA enhances apoptosis of advanced cervix carcinoma CaSki cells through mitochondria intrinsic and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways.

      PubMed

      Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Rau, Kun-Ming

      2013-12-01

      Cervix cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, whereas paclitaxel, the first line chemotherapeutic drug used to treat cervical cancer, shows low chemosensitivity on the advanced cervical cancer cell line. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) exhibited strong growth inhibitory effect on CaSki cells (IC50 = 5.51 μM) through promoting caspase cascades with concomitant upregulating the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK signaling. Comprehensive proteomics revealed the global protein changes and the network analysis implied that Tan IIA treatment would activate ER stress pathways that finally lead to apoptotic cell death. Moreover, ER stress inhibitor could alleviate Tan IIA caused cell growth inhibition and ameliorate C/EBP-homologous protein as well as apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediated cell death. The therapeutic interventions targeting the mitochondrial-related apoptosis and ER stress responses might be promising strategies to conquer paclitaxel resistance. PMID:24167031

    5. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End-Products and Activation of the SCAP/SREBP Lipogenetic Pathway Occur in Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Skeletal Muscle

      PubMed Central

      Mastrocola, Raffaella; Collino, Massimo; Nigro, Debora; Chiazza, Fausto; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Aragno, Manuela; Minetto, Marco A.

      2015-01-01

      Aim of this study was to investigate whether advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulate in skeletal myofibers of two different animal models of diabesity and whether this accumulation could be associated to myosteatosis. Male C57Bl/6j mice and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were divided into three groups and underwent 15 weeks of dietary manipulation: standard diet-fed C57 group (C57, n = 10), high-fat high-sugar diet-fed C57 group (HFHS, n = 10), and standard diet-fed ob/ob group (OB/OB, n = 8). HFHS mice and OB/OB mice developed glycometabolic abnormalities in association with decreased mass of the gastrocnemius muscle, fast-to-slow transition of muscle fibers, and lipid accumulation (that occurred preferentially in slow compared to fast fibers). Moreover, we found in muscle fibers of HFHS and OB/OB mice accumulation of AGEs that was preferential for the lipid-accumulating cells, increased expression of the lipogenic pathway SCAP/SREBP, and co-localisation between AGEs and SCAP-(hyper)expressing cells (suggestive for SCAP glycosylation). The increased expression of the SCAP/SREBP lipogenic pathway in muscle fibers is a possible mechanism underlying lipid accumulation and linking myosteatosis to muscle fiber atrophy and fast-to-slow transition that occur in response to diabesity. PMID:25750996

    6. The Impact on Future Guidance Programs of Current Developments in Computer Science, Telecommunications, and Biotechnology.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mitchell, Lynda K.; Hardy, Philippe L.

      The purpose of this chapter is to envision how the era of technological revolution will affect the guidance, counseling, and student support programs of the future. Advances in computer science, telecommunications, and biotechnology are discussed. These advances have the potential to affect dramatically the services of guidance programs of the…

    7. Multimode guidance project low frequency ECM simulator: Hardware description

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kaye, H. M.

      1982-10-01

      The Multimode Guidance(MMG) Project, part of the Army/Navy Area Defense SAM Technology Prototyping Program, was established to conduct a feasibility demonstration of multimode guidance concepts. Prototype guidance units for advanced, long range missiles are being built and tested under MMG Project sponsorship. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has been designated as Government Agent for countermeasures for this project. In support of this effort, a family of computer-controlled ECM simulators is being developed for validation of contractor's multimode guidance prototype designs. The design of the Low Frequency ECM Simulator is documented in two volumes. This report, Volume A, describes the hardware design of the simulator; Volume B describes the software design. This computer-controlled simulator can simulate up to six surveillance frequency jammers in B through F bands and will be used to evaluate the performance of home-on-jamming guidance modes in multiple jammer environments.

    8. [Guidance for education on medicines in school].

      PubMed

      Kito, Hideaki

      2013-01-01

      To promote the education on medicines in school, guidance is, as a rule, to be given in the health education of the Subject, "Health and Physical Education" indicated as a curriculum standard in lower and upper secondary school, and in the health guidance, which carry out in Special Activities and Integrated Studies, etc. Guidance is mainly carried by the teacher for health and physical in health education and school nurse teacher (yogo teacher) in health guidance. In health education we have only limited school hours, and generally use the text book. Some teachers feel resistance to teach medicines because of needs on the special knowledge, however teachers should deal with medicines based on curriculum standard. School pharmacist is a member of school, and has a special knowledge for medicines, and he/she can support teachers as a provider of teaching materials, an adviser, and for a guest teacher. It is important for school pharmacist to understand the contents indicated in curriculum standard and to use glossary to be able to understand for children. In the guidance of health, it is not necessary to teach based on curriculum standard, and it can deal with advanced contents on medicines. However it is important to understand for children what are appropriate contents according to the development stage. To use the packages and instructions for medicines provided at home are good materials for children to have interest the medicines in their guidance. The objectives of education on medicines enable children to cultivate practical abilities for the maintenance and improvement of health. PMID:24292178

    9. Hyperoside Downregulates the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and Promotes Proliferation in ECV304 Cells via the c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNK) Pathway Following Stimulation by Advanced Glycation End-Products In Vitro

      PubMed Central

      Zhang, Zhengyu; Sethiel, Mosha Silas; Shen, Weizhi; Liao, Sentai; Zou, Yuxiao

      2013-01-01

      Hyperoside is a major active constituent in many medicinal plants which are traditionally used in Chinese medicines for their neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. In this study, quiescent ECV304 cells were treated in vitro with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the presence or absence of hyperoside. The results demonstrated that AGEs induced c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation and apoptosis in ECV304 cells. Hyperoside inhibited these effects and promoted ECV304 cell proliferation. Furthermore, hyperoside significantly inhibited RAGE expression in AGE-stimulated ECV304 cells, whereas knockdown of RAGE inhibited AGE-induced JNK activation. These results suggested that AGEs may promote JNK activation, leading to viability inhibition of ECV304 cells via the RAGE signaling pathway. These effects could be inhibited by hyperoside. Our findings suggest a novel role for hyperoside in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. PMID:24252909

    10. Needed Concepts in Elementary Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Warner, Tom, Ed.

      School administrators and developmental guidance is the topic of the first speech. Developmental guidance, concerned with personalizing the educational experience, should be available to each child to gain self-understanding. Major responsibilities of the elementary guidance department are pupil appraisal, consultation, and developmental…

    11. New Interpretations of Guidance Role

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kerlan, Julius H.; Ryan, Charles W.

      1972-01-01

      A panoramic view of Guidance Division general sessions and workshops covering some exemplary career guidance programs, as well as such topics as career choice, leadership, evaluation, and program development and management. Presented at the Guidance division session of the American Vocational Association 1971 annual meeting. (Editor/MU)

    12. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

      2003-01-01

      There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies (ITAGCT) has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future reusable vehicle concepts.

    13. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Space Vehicles

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

      2004-01-01

      There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (or any space vehicle that enters an atmosphere) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future vehicle concepts.

    14. Trajectory shaping rendezvous guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Klumpp, A. R.

      The Space Station will bring a great increase in rendezvous traffic. Formerly, rendezvous has been expensive in terms of time and crew involvement. Multiple trajectory adjustments on separate orbits have been required to meet safety, lighting, and geometry requirements. This paper describes a new guidance technique in which the approach trajectory is shaped by a sequence of velocity increments in order to satisfy multiple constraints within a single orbit. The approach phase is planned before the mission, leaving a group of free parameters that are optimized by onboard guidance. Fuel penalties are typically a few percent, compared to unshaped Hohmann transfers, and total fuel costs can be less than those of more time-consuming ways of meeting the same requirements.

    15. Environmental guidance regulatory bulletin

      SciTech Connect

      1997-01-31

      This document describes the background on expanding public participation in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and DOE`s response. The bulletin also describes the changes made by the final rule to existing regulations, guidance provided by EPA in the preamble and in the revised RCRA Public Participation Manual, the relationship between public participation and environmental justice, and DOE`s recent public participation and environmental justice initiatives.

    16. A parallel genome-wide mRNA and microRNA profiling of the frontal cortex of HIV patients with and without HIV-associated dementia shows the role of axon guidance and downstream pathways in HIV-mediated neurodegeneration

      PubMed Central

      2012-01-01

      Background HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is the most common dementia type in young adults less than 40 years of age. Although the neurotoxins, oxidative/metabolic stress and impaired activity of neurotrophic factors are believed to be underlying reasons for the development of HAD, the genomic basis, which ultimately defines the virus-host interaction and leads to neurologic manifestation of HIV disease is lacking. Therefore, identifying HIV fingerprints on the host gene machinery and its regulation by microRNA holds a great promise and potential for improving our understanding of HAD pathogenesis, its diagnosis and therapy. Results A parallel profiling of mRNA and miRNA of the frontal cortex autopsies from HIV positive patients with and without dementia was performed using Illumina Human-6 BeadChip and Affymetrix version 1.0 miRNA array, respectively. The gene ontology and pathway analysis of the two data sets showed high concordance between miRNA and mRNAs, revealing significant interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways in HAD brains. Moreover, the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs identified in this study, in particular miR-137, 153 and 218, based on which most correlations were built cumulatively targeted neurodegeneration related pathways, implying their future potential in diagnosis, prognosis and possible therapies for HIV-mediated and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, this relationship between DE miRNAs and DE mRNAs was also reflected in correlation analysis using Bayesian networks by splitting-averaging strategy (SA-BNs), which revealed 195 statistically significant correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs according to Pearson’s correlation test (P<0.05). Conclusions Our study provides the first evidence on unambiguous support for intrinsic functional relationship between mRNA and miRNA in the context of HIV-mediated neurodegeneration, which shows that neurologic manifestation in HIV patients possibly

    17. Pathways From Religion to Advance Care Planning: Beliefs About Control Over Length of Life and End-of-Life Values

      PubMed Central

      Garrido, Melissa M.

      2013-01-01

      Purpose of the Study: To evaluate the extent to which religious affiliation and self-identified religious importance affect advance care planning (ACP) via beliefs about control over life length and end-of-life values. Design and Methods: Three hundred and five adults aged 55 and older from diverse racial and socioeconomic groups seeking outpatient care in New Jersey were surveyed. Measures included discussion of end-of-life preferences; living will (LW) completion; durable power of attorney for healthcare (DPAHC) appointment; religious affiliation; importance of religion; and beliefs about who/what controls life length, end-of-life values, health status, and sociodemographics. Results: Of the sample, 68.9% had an informal discussion and 46.2% both discussed their preferences and did formal ACP (LW and/or DPAHC). Conservative Protestants and those placing great importance on religion/spirituality had a lower likelihood of ACP. These associations were largely accounted for by beliefs about God’s controlling life length and values for using all available treatments. Implications: Beliefs and values about control account for relationships between religiosity and ACP. Beliefs and some values differ by religious affiliation. As such, congregations may be one nonclinical setting in which ACP discussions could be held, as individuals with similar attitudes toward the end of life could discuss their treatment preferences with those who share their views. PMID:23161430

    18. High-mobility group box 1 inhibits HCO(3)(-) absorption in medullary thick ascending limb through a basolateral receptor for advanced glycation end products pathway.

      PubMed

      Good, David W; George, Thampi; Watts, Bruns A

      2015-10-15

      High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecule implicated in mediating kidney dysfunction in sepsis and sterile inflammatory disorders. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein released extracellularly in response to infection or injury, where it interacts with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and other receptors to mediate inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated that LPS inhibits HCO(3)(-) absorption in the medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL) through a basolateral TLR4-ERK pathway (Watts BA III, George T, Sherwood ER, Good DW. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 301: C1296-C1306, 2011). Here, we examined whether HMGB1 could inhibit HCO(3)(-) absorption through the same pathway. Adding HMGB1 to the bath decreased HCO(3)(-) absorption by 24% in isolated, perfused rat and mouse MTALs. In contrast to LPS, inhibition by HMGB1 was preserved in MTALs from TLR4(-/-) mice and was unaffected by ERK inhibitors. Inhibition by HMGB1 was eliminated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antagonist FPS-ZM1 and by neutralizing anti-RAGE antibody. Confocal immunofluorescence showed expression of RAGE in the basolateral membrane domain. Inhibition of HCO(3)(-) absorption by HMGB1 through RAGE was additive to inhibition by LPS through TLR4 and to inhibition by Gram-positive bacterial molecules through TLR2. Bath amiloride, which selectively prevents inhibition of MTAL HCO(3)(-) absorption mediated through Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 (NHE1), eliminated inhibition by HMGB1. We conclude that HMGB1 inhibits MTAL HCO(3)(-) absorption through a RAGE-dependent pathway distinct from TLR4-mediated inhibition by LPS. These studies provide new evidence that HMGB1-RAGE signaling acts directly to impair the transport function of renal tubules. They reveal a novel paradigm for sepsis-induced renal tubule dysfunction, whereby exogenous pathogen-associated molecules and endogenous damage-associated molecules act directly and independently to inhibit MTAL HCO(3)(-) absorption through

    19. Pathway Design Effects on Synthetic Vision Head-Up Displays

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

      2004-01-01

      NASA s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. This experiment evaluated the influence of different tunnel and guidance concepts upon pilot situation awareness (SA), mental workload, and flight path tracking performance for Synthetic Vision display concepts using a Head-Up Display (HUD). Two tunnel formats (dynamic, minimal) were evaluated against a baseline condition (no tunnel) during simulated IMC approaches to Reno-Tahoe International airport. Two guidance cues (tadpole, follow-me aircraft) were also evaluated to assess their influence on the tunnel formats. Results indicated that the presence of a tunnel on an SVS HUD had no effect on flight path performance but that it did have significant effects on pilot SA and mental workload. The dynamic tunnel concept with the follow-me aircraft guidance symbol produced the lowest workload and provided the highest SA among the tunnel concepts evaluated.

    20. FasL expression in cardiomyocytes activates the ERK1/2 pathway, leading to dilated cardiomyopathy and advanced heart failure.

      PubMed

      Huby, Anne-Cecile; Turdi, Subat; James, Jeanne; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Purevjav, Enkhsaikhan

      2016-02-01

      Increase in the apoptotic molecule Fas ligand (FasL) in serum and cardiomyocytes has been shown to be associated with progressive dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of FasL-related deterioration of heart function remain obscure. The aim of the present study is to determine roles of myocardial FasL in the activation of alternative pathways such as extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), inflammation or fibrosis and to identify effective treatments of progressive DCM and advanced CHF. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of FasL were investigated and treated with an ERK1/2 inhibitor (U-0126), losartan (los), prednisolone (pred) or placebo. Morpho-histological and molecular studies were subsequently performed. FasL mice showed significantly higher mortality compared with wild-type (WT) littermates due to DCM and advanced CHF. Prominent perivascular and interstitial fibrosis, increased interleukin secretion and diffuse CD3-positive cell infiltration were evident in FasL hearts. Up-regulation of the short form of Fas-associated death domain (FADD)-like interleukin 1β-converting enzyme (FLICE) inhibitory protein (s-FLIP), RIP (receptor-interacting protein) and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was determined in the myocardium, whereas expression of ERK1/2, periostin (Postn) and osteopontin increased in cardiac fibroblasts. U-0126 and los increased CHF survival by 75% compared with pred and placebo groups. U-0126 had both anti-fibrotic and anti-apoptotic effects, whereas los reduced fibrosis only. Myocardial FasL expression in mice activates differential robust fibrotic, apoptotic and inflammatory responses via ERK1/2 in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts inducing DCM and CHF. Blocking the ERK1/2 pathway prevented progression of FasL-induced DCM and CHF by reducing fibrosis, inflammation

    1. Connecting the eye to the brain: the molecular basis of ganglion cell axon guidance

      PubMed Central

      Oster, S F; Sretavan, D W

      2003-01-01

      In the past several years, a great deal has been learnt about the molecular basis through which specific neural pathways in the visual system are established during embryonic development. This review provides a framework for understanding the principles of retinal ganglion cell axon guidance, and introduces some of the families of axon guidance molecules involved. In addition, the potential relevance of retinal axon guidance to human visual developmental disorders, and to retinal axon regeneration, is discussed. PMID:12714414

    2. Station-keeping guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gustafson, D. E.; Kriegsman, B. A.

      1972-01-01

      The station-keeping guidance system is described, which is designed to automatically keep one orbiting vehicle within a prescribed zone fixed with respect to another orbiting vehicle. The active vehicle, i.e. the one performing the station-keeping maneuvers, is referred to as the shuttle. The other passive orbiting vehicle is denoted as the workshop. The passive vehicle is assumed to be in a low-eccentricity near-earth orbit. The primary navigation sensor considered is a gimballed tracking radar located on board the shuttle. It provides data on relative range and range rate between the two vehicles. Also measured are the shaft and trunnion axes gimbal angles. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is provided on board the orbiter. The IMU is used at all times to provide an attitude reference for the vehicle. The IMU accelerometers are used periodically to monitor the velocity-correction burns applied to the shuttle during the station-keeping mode. The guidance system is capable of station-keeping the shuttle in any arbitrary position with respect to the workshop by periodically applying velocity-correction pulses to the shuttle.

    3. Guidance of Nonlinear Systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Meyer, George

      1997-01-01

      The paper describes a method for guiding a dynamic system through a given set of points. The paradigm is a fully automatic aircraft subject to air traffic control (ATC). The ATC provides a sequence of way points through which the aircraft trajectory must pass. The way points typically specify time, position, and velocity. The guidance problem is to synthesize a system state trajectory which satisfies both the ATC and aircraft constraints. Complications arise because the controlled process is multi-dimensional, multi-axis, nonlinear, highly coupled, and the state space is not flat. In addition, there is a multitude of possible operating modes, which may number in the hundreds. Each such mode defines a distinct state space model of the process by specifying the state space coordinatization, the partition of the controls into active controls and configuration controls, and the output map. Furthermore, mode transitions must be smooth. The guidance algorithm is based on the inversion of the pure feedback approximations, which is followed by iterative corrections for the effects of zero dynamics. The paper describes the structure and modules of the algorithm, and the performance is illustrated by several example aircraft maneuvers.

    4. Bilinear tangent yaw guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brusch, R. G.

      1979-01-01

      This paper presents a parametric yaw steering law which has been used to provide closed-loop yaw guidance for the launch of the HEAO (High Energy Astronomy Observatory) satellite mission using the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle. This bilinear tangent steering law provides near optimal yaw steering for maneuvers requiring insertion into orbits with a specified inclination and node. Bilinear tangent steering is shown to be optimal in both the pitch and yaw planes when a uniform gravitational field is assumed. The conditions under which the general bilinear tangent laws degenerate into linear tangent and constant attitude laws are presented. The flight computer implementation of these laws in a rotating coordinate system using real-time integration of the equations of motion is detailed. Explicit solution of the parametric guidance equations requires the inflight solution of (2x2) two-point boundary value problems in the pitch and yaw planes. Excellent results are obtained even for very large (greater than 50 deg) out-of-plane steering angles.

    5. Partial stabilization-based guidance.

      PubMed

      Shafiei, M H; Binazadeh, T

      2012-01-01

      A novel nonlinear missile guidance law against maneuvering targets is designed based on the principles of partial stability. It is demonstrated that in a real approach which is adopted with actual situations, each state of the guidance system must have a special behavior and asymptotic stability or exponential stability of all states is not realistic. Thus, a new guidance law is developed based on the partial stability theorem in such a way that the behaviors of states in the closed-loop system are in conformity with a real guidance scenario that leads to collision. The performance of the proposed guidance law in terms of interception time and control effort is compared with the sliding mode guidance law by means of numerical simulations. PMID:21963401

    6. Taken out of Context: Piecing Together College Guidance Information in Urban High Schools

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Shamsuddin, Shomon

      2016-01-01

      Information and guidance about college is critical for students to pursue postsecondary education. However, students attending urban schools often have less information and less access to information about college pathways than their peers at wealthy suburban schools. High school counselors are a primary source of college guidance but little is…

    7. Advanced Glycation End-Products Induce Connective Tissue Growth Factor-Mediated Renal Fibrosis Predominantly through Transforming Growth Factor β-Independent Pathway

      PubMed Central

      Zhou, Guihua; Li, Cai; Cai, Lu

      2004-01-01

      Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) play a critical role in diabetic nephropathy by stimulating extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a potent inducer of ECM synthesis and increases in the diabetic kidneys. To determine the critical role of CTGF in AGE-induced ECM accumulation leading to diabetic nephropathy, rats were given AGEs by intravenous injection for 6 weeks. AGE treatment induced a significant renal ECM accumulation, as shown by increases in periodic acid-Schiff-positive materials, fibronectin, and type IV collagen (Col IV) accumulation in glomeruli, and a mild renal dysfunction, as shown by increases in urinary volume and protein content. AGE treatment also caused significant increases in renal CTGF and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 mRNA and protein expression. Direct exposure of rat mesangial cells to AGEs in vitro significantly induced increases in fibronectin and Col IV production, which could be completely prevented by pretreatment with anti-CTGF antibody. AGE treatment also significantly increased both TGF-β1 and CTGF mRNA expression; however, inhibition of TGF-β1 mRNA expression by shRNA or neutralization of TGF-β1 protein by anti-TGF-β1 antibody did not significantly prevent AGE-increased expression of CTGF mRNA and protein. These results suggest that AGE-induced CTGF expression, predominantly through a TGF-β1-independent pathway, plays a critical role in renal ECM accumulation leading to diabetic nephropathy. PMID:15579446

    8. GUIDANCE FOR EVALUATING LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS FROM CLOSED OR ABANDONED FACILITIES

      EPA Science Inventory

      This document provides guidance to Superfund remedial project managers, on scene coordinators, facility owners, and potentially responsible parties for conducting an air pathway analysis for landfill gas (LFG) emissions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    9. Beyond Discipline to Guidance: A Primer on the Guidance Alternative.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gartrell, Dan

      As early childhood teachers apply principles of guidance rather than punishment in their classrooms, they face the challenge of avoiding a slippage into traditional discipline practices and transcending the punitive aspects of discipline. Guidance is designed to teach children democratic life skills and therefore goes beyond discipline. Teachers…

    10. Endangerment assessment guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1985-11-22

      The directive clarifies the requirement that an endangerment assessment be developed to support all administrative and judicial enforcement actions under Section 106 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Section 7003 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Before taking enforcement action under these provisions to abate the hazards or potential hazards at a site, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must be able to properly document and justify its assertion that an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health or welfare or the environment may exist. The endangerment assessment provides this documentation and justification. The endangerment assessment is not necessary to support Section 104 actions. It also provides guidance on the content, timing, level of detail, format, and resources required for the preparation of endangerment assessments.

    11. Analysis of the coexisting pathways for NO and N2O formation in Chernozem using the (15)N-tracer SimKIM-Advanced model.

      PubMed

      Stange, Claus Florian; Spott, Oliver; Russow, Rolf

      2013-01-01

      The nitrogen (N) cycle consists of a variety of microbial processes. These processes often occur simultaneously in soils, but respond differently to local environmental conditions due to process-specific biochemical restrictions (e.g. oxygen levels). Hence, soil nitrogen cycling (e.g. soil N gas production through nitrification and denitrification) is individually affected through these processes, resulting in the complex and highly dynamic behaviour of total soil N turnover. The development and application of methods that facilitate the quantification of individual contributions of coexisting processes is a fundamental prerequisite for (i) understanding the dynamics of soil N turnover and (ii) implementing these processes in ecosystem models. To explain the unexpected results of the triplet tracer experiment (TTE) of Russow et al. (Role of nitrite and nitric oxide in the processes of nitrification and denitrification in soil: results from (15)N tracer experiments. Soil Biol Biochem. 2009;41:785-795) the existing SimKIM model was extended to the SimKIM-Advanced model through the addition of three separate nitrite subpools associated with ammonia oxidation, oxidation of organic nitrogen (Norg), and denitrification, respectively. For the TTE, individual treatments with (15)N ammonium, (15)N nitrate, and (15)N nitrite were conducted under oxic, hypoxic, and anoxic conditions, respectively, to clarify the role of nitric oxide as a denitrification intermediate during N2O formation. Using a split nitrite pool, this analysis model explains the observed differences in the (15)N enrichments in nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) which occurred in dependence on different oxygen concentrations. The change from oxic over hypoxic to anoxic conditions only marginally increased the NO and N2O release rates (1.3-fold). The analysis using the model revealed that, under oxic and hypoxic conditions, Norg-based N2O production was the dominant pathway, contributing to 90 and 50

    12. Guidance for the New Millenium?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      McLaren, David J.

      1996-01-01

      Reviews the "Guidance Arrangements" consultation document issued with "Higher Still" (proposed new Scottish upper secondary curricula). Argues that the paper ignores the full implications for educational change in Higher Still and misses the opportunity for timely modernization of school guidance. Advocates a cross-curricular model of guidance…

    13. Push drill guidance indication apparatus

      SciTech Connect

      Bockhorst, R.W.; Elenburg, J.H.

      1984-06-05

      The present invention relates to a program controlled apparatus for providing rapid calibration and update of sensor parameters in a push drill guidance apparatus which is remotely controllable from microprocessor circuitry. A special calibration program is set into nonvolatile memory for coaction with the control processor to compute sensor parameters for storage and recall during normal programmed guidance operation.

    14. Guidance in the Secondary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kumar, V. Jurist Lional

      2010-01-01

      Secondary School Students face a lot of problems in their body as well as in mind due to puberty that tends to adolescence stage. Adolescence has peculiar characters of their own. They need proper Guidance and Counselling to tackle their own problems. Guidance is described as a counselling service to assist the individual in achieving self…

    15. Discussing Diverse Perspectives on Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Shareef, Intisar

      2005-01-01

      Ideas about discipline and guidance get extremely complex when they intersect with culture and oppression. Some groups of people who are targets of racism have to protect their children from the oppressive practices of racist individuals and institutions. Their methods of guidance and discipline may be different from those of groups for whom…

    16. Automated Guidance for Student Inquiry

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gerard, Libby F.; Ryoo, Kihyun; McElhaney, Kevin W.; Liu, Ou Lydia; Rafferty, Anna N.; Linn, Marcia C.

      2016-01-01

      In 4 classroom experiments we investigated uses for technologies that automatically score student generated essays, concept diagrams, and drawings in inquiry curricula. We used the automatic scores to assign typical and research-based guidance and studied the impact of the guidance on student progress. Seven teachers and their 897 students…

    17. Guidance: Agent of the Counterculture.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Patouillet, Raymond A.; Marin, Roselyn L.

      1979-01-01

      This article was an introduction to a convention program presented at the Florida Personnel and Guidance Association Convention (Tampa, Nov., 1977) by Raymond Patouillet, shortly before his sudden death. It encapsulates his guidance philosophy, his understanding of the human condition, and his faith in the crucial role of the caring profession.…

    18. Innovative Approaches to Career Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Freeman, Andrew R.

      A key part of a broad-based approach to career education in Australian schools is vocational/career guidance. Various vocational guidance programs have been developed for specific groups in Australian society, including work experience, caravans, and micrographics technology for the handicapped; pre-employment courses and a family education center…

    19. Marxist Guidance: A Dialectic Lesson

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Drapela, Victor J.

      1971-01-01

      Based on primary sources published in the Soviet Bloc, this article compares the stated goals of Marxist guidance with actual outcomes, and identifies the foundations of guidance in the Soviet Bloc in terms of Marxist philosophy and social doctrine. Current symptoms of ideological unrest in socialist society as exemplified by the suppressed reform…

    20. Signaling from axon guidance receptors.

      PubMed

      Bashaw, Greg J; Klein, Rüdiger

      2010-05-01

      Determining how axon guidance receptors transmit signals to allow precise pathfinding decisions is fundamental to our understanding of nervous system development and may suggest new strategies to promote axon regeneration after injury or disease. Signaling mechanisms that act downstream of four prominent families of axon guidance cues--netrins, semaphorins, ephrins, and slits--have been extensively studied in both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. Although details of these signaling mechanisms are still fragmentary and there appears to be considerable diversity in how different guidance receptors regulate the motility of the axonal growth cone, a number of common themes have emerged. Here, we review recent insights into how specific receptors for each of these guidance cues engage downstream regulators of the growth cone cytoskeleton to control axon guidance. PMID:20452961

    1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects cardiomyocytes from advanced oxidation protein product-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway

      PubMed Central

      ZHANG, HUA; XIONG, ZHOUYI; WANG, JIAO; ZHANG, SHUANGSHUANG; LEI, LEI; YANG, LI; ZHANG, ZHEN

      2016-01-01

      Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major event in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Currently, no single effective treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy exists. The present study investigated whether advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) have a detrimental role in the survival of cardiomyocytes and if glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts a cardioprotective effect under these circumstances. The present study also aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of AOPPs in the presence or absence of GLP-1, and the viability and apoptotic rate were detected using a cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, a phosphatidylino-sitol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, was employed to illustrate the mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of GLP-1. The expression levels of the apoptotic-associated proteins, Akt, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were measured by western blotting. It was revealed that GLP-1 significantly attenuated AOPP-induced cell toxicity and apoptosis. AOPPs inactivated the phosphorylation of Akt, reduced the phosphorylation of Bad, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, increased the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-3 in H9c2 cells. GLP-1 reversed the above changes induced by AOPPs and the protective effects of GLP-1 were abolished by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the present data suggested that GLP-1 protected cardiomyocytes against AOPP-induced apoptosis, predominantly via the PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. These results provided a conceivable mechanism for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and rendered a novel application of GLP-1 exerting favorable cardiac effects for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26717963

    2. Advanced glycation end-products induce skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction in diabetic mice via a RAGE-mediated, AMPK-down-regulated, Akt pathway.

      PubMed

      Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Yang, Rong-Sen; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Yang, Ting-Hua; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Liu, Shing-Hwa

      2016-02-01

      Diabetic myopathy, a less studied complication of diabetes, exhibits the clinical observations characterized by a less muscle mass, muscle weakness and a reduced physical functional capacity. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), known to play a role in diabetic complications, has been identified in ageing human skeletal muscles. However, the role of AGEs in diabetic myopathy remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of AGEs on myogenic differentiation and muscle atrophy in vivo and in vitro. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of alagebrium chloride (Ala-Cl), an inhibitor of AGEs. Muscle fibre atrophy and immunoreactivity for AGEs, Atrogin-1 (a muscle atrophy marker) and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expressions were markedly increased in human skeletal muscles from patients with diabetes as compared with control subjects. Moreover, in diabetic mice we found increased blood AGEs, less muscle mass, lower muscular endurance, atrophic muscle size and poor regenerative capacity, and increased levels of muscle AGE and receptor for AGE (RAGE), Atrogin-1 and phosphorylated AMPK, which could be significantly ameliorated by Ala-Cl. Furthermore, in vitro, AGEs (in a dose-dependent manner) reduced myotube diameters (myotube atrophy) and induced Atrogin-1 protein expression in myotubes differentiated from both mouse myoblasts and primary human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells. AGEs exerted a negative regulation of myogenesis of mouse and human myoblasts. Ala-Cl significantly inhibited the effects of AGEs on myotube atrophy and myogenesis. We further demonstrated that AGEs induced muscle atrophy/myogenesis impairment via a RAGE-mediated AMPK-down-regulation of the Akt signalling pathway. Our findings support that AGEs play an important role in diabetic myopathy, and that an inhibitor of AGEs may offer a therapeutic strategy for managing the dysfunction of muscle due to diabetes or ageing. PMID:26586640

    3. RH Packaging Program Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Washington TRU Solutions LLC

      2008-01-12

      The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

    4. RH Packaging Program Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Washington TRU Solutions LLC

      2006-11-07

      The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

    5. The nature of protein folding pathways.

      PubMed

      Englander, S Walter; Mayne, Leland

      2014-11-11

      How do proteins fold, and why do they fold in that way? This Perspective integrates earlier and more recent advances over the 50-y history of the protein folding problem, emphasizing unambiguously clear structural information. Experimental results show that, contrary to prior belief, proteins are multistate rather than two-state objects. They are composed of separately cooperative foldon building blocks that can be seen to repeatedly unfold and refold as units even under native conditions. Similarly, foldons are lost as units when proteins are destabilized to produce partially unfolded equilibrium molten globules. In kinetic folding, the inherently cooperative nature of foldons predisposes the thermally driven amino acid-level search to form an initial foldon and subsequent foldons in later assisted searches. The small size of foldon units, ∼ 20 residues, resolves the Levinthal time-scale search problem. These microscopic-level search processes can be identified with the disordered multitrack search envisioned in the "new view" model for protein folding. Emergent macroscopic foldon-foldon interactions then collectively provide the structural guidance and free energy bias for the ordered addition of foldons in a stepwise pathway that sequentially builds the native protein. These conclusions reconcile the seemingly opposed new view and defined pathway models; the two models account for different stages of the protein folding process. Additionally, these observations answer the "how" and the "why" questions. The protein folding pathway depends on the same foldon units and foldon-foldon interactions that construct the native structure. PMID:25326421

    6. The Consequences of Fading Instructional Guidance on Delayed Performance: The Case of Financial Services Training

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kissane, Mark; Kalyuga, Slava; Chandler, Paul; Sweller, John

      2008-01-01

      Empirical studies within a cognitive load framework have determined that for novice learners, worked examples provide appropriate levels of instructional guidance. As learners advance in specific subject domains, worked examples should be gradually replaced by practice problems with limited guidance. This study compared performance, both…

    7. Uprated fine guidance sensor study

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1984-01-01

      Future orbital observatories will require star trackers of extremely high precision. These sensors must maintain high pointing accuracy and pointing stability simultaneously with a low light level signal from a guide star. To establish the fine guidance sensing requirements and to evaluate candidate fine guidance sensing concepts, the Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly was used as the reference optical system. The requirements review was separated into three areas: Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), Fine Guidance Sensing and astrometry. The results show that the detectors should be installed directly onto the focal surface presented by the optics. This would maximize throughput and minimize point stability error by not incoporating any additional optical elements.

    8. Safety assessment guidance in the International Atomic Energy Agency RADWASS Program

      SciTech Connect

      Vovk, I.F.; Seitz, R.R.

      1995-12-31

      The IAEA RADWASS programme is aimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and standards for the safe management of waste and formulating the guidelines necessary for their application. A large portion of this programme has been devoted to safety assessments for various waste management activities. Five Safety Guides are planned to be developed to provide general guidance to enable operators and regulators to develop necessary framework for safety assessment process in accordance with international recommendations. They cover predisposal, near surface disposal, geological disposal, uranium/thorium mining and milling waste, and decommissioning and environmental restoration. The Guide on safety assessment for near surface disposal is at the most advanced stage of preparation. This draft Safety Guide contains guidance on description of the disposal system, development of a conceptual model, identification and description of relevant scenarios and pathways, consequence analysis, presentation of results and confidence building. The set of RADWASS publications is currently undergoing in-depth review to ensure a harmonized approach throughout the Safety Series.

    9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

      2003-08-25

      The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

    10. Video guidance sensor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Howard, Richard

      1991-01-01

      A Martin-Marietta study comparing the application of laser, video, or RF sensors was conducted in 1982. The study concluded that video was the most attractive sensor (the video also could be used for operator monitoring). The Retro-Reflector field Tracker from the Solar Array Flight Experiment was chosen as a 'first generation' sensor and integrated with guidance algorithms for evaluation on the air-bearing vehicle. Results indicated that this sensor was not applicable for the noise environment posed by the multi-layer insulation used on most spacecraft. A 'second generation' sensor was developed to be used with a modified RMS target. This sensor utilized two sets of laser diodes to acquire three optically filtered targets. The targets were illuminated first with a 780 nanometer diode, followed by illumination with a 830 nm diode. The second digitized picture was subtracted from the first to get a low-noise image. The centroids of the retroreflectors were used then to uniquely derive target attitude and range. The sensor presently operates to 80 feet and within +/- 40 degrees in pitch and yaw. Sensor operability is a concern if the sun is within a +/- 40 degree cone angle to the target. The present sensor performance characteristics are less than 1 percent range error and less than 1 degree angle error. Future sensor development is anticipated to extend the operating range to 150 feet and reduce the cone angle of sensor inoperability to within +/- 10 degrees of direct sunlight. Performance improvements also are anticipated. TRW currently is developing a system that utilizes dual cameras with simultaneous diode illumination. Although further development is being pursued, the basic system has proven sound, and the sensor is essentially ready for application.

    11. Somatic Copy Number Abnormalities and Mutations in PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway Have Prognostic Significance for Overall Survival in Platinum Treated Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Tumors

      PubMed Central

      Bellmunt, Joaquim; Werner, Lillian; Leow, Jeffrey J.; Mullane, Stephanie A.; Fay, André P.; Riester, Markus; Van Hummelen, Paul; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Choueiri, Toni K.; Van Allen, Eliezer; Rosenberg, Jonathan

      2015-01-01

      Background An integrative analysis was conducted to identify genomic alterations at a pathway level that could predict overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients and Methods DNA and RNA were extracted from 103 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) invasive high-grade UC samples and were screened for mutations, copy number variation (CNV) and gene expression analysis. Clinical data were available from 85 cases. Mutations were analyzed by mass-spectrometry based on genotyping platform (Oncomap 3) and genomic imbalances were detected by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. Regions with threshold of log2 ratio ≥0.4, or ≤0.6 were defined as either having copy number gain or loss and significantly recurrent CNV across the set of samples were determined using a GISTIC analysis. Expression analysis on selected relevant UC genes was conducted using Nanostring. To define the co-occurrence pattern of mutations and CNV, we grouped genomic events into 5 core signal transduction pathways: 1) TP53 pathway, 2) RTK/RAS/RAF pathway, 3) PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, 4) WNT/CTNNB1, 5) RB1 pathway. Cox regression was used to assess pathways abnormalities with survival outcomes. Results 35 samples (41%) harbored mutations on at least one gene: TP53 (16%), PIK3CA (9%), FGFR3 (2%), HRAS/KRAS (5%), and CTNNB1 (1%). 66% of patients had some sort of CNV. PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway alteration (mutations+CNV) had the greatest impact on OS (p=0.055). At a gene level, overexpression of CTNNB1 (p=0.0008) and PIK3CA (p=0.02) were associated with shorter OS. Mutational status on PIK3CA was not associated with survival. Among other individually found genomic alterations, TP53 mutations (p=0.07), mTOR gain (p=0.07) and PTEN overexpression (p=0.08) have a marginally significant negative impact on OS. Conclusions Our study suggests that targeted therapies focusing on the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway genomic

    12. Ascent Guidance for a Winged Boost Vehicle. M.S. Thesis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Corvin, Michael Alexander

      1988-01-01

      The objective of the advanced ascent guidance study was to investigate guidance concepts which could contribute to increased autonomy during ascent operations in a winged boost vehicle such as the proposed Shuttle II. The guidance scheme was required to yield near a full-optimal ascent in the presence of vehicle system and environmental dispersions. The study included consideration of trajectory shaping issues, trajectory design, closed loop and predictive adaptive guidance techniques and control of dynamic pressure by throttling. An extensive ascent vehicle simulation capability was developed for use in the study.

    13. GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ON ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS

      EPA Science Inventory

      This guidance provides recommendations intended to assist in the development, evaluation and application of high quality environmental models that the Environmental Protection Agency uses to address environmental problems and to support regulatory activities. These guidelines wi...

    14. Controls and guidance research

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Homaifar, Abdollah; Dunn, Derome; Song, Yong-Duan; Lai, Steven H.-Y.

      1992-01-01

      The objectives of the control group are concentrated on research and education. The control problem of the hypersonic space vehicle represents an important and challenging issue in aerospace engineering. The work described in this report is part of our effort in developing advanced control strategies for such a system. In order to achieve the objectives stated in the NASA-CORE proposal, the tasks were divided among the group based upon their educational expertise. Within the educational component we are offering a Linear Systems and Control course for students in electrical and mechanical engineering. Also, we are proposing a new course in Digital Control Systems with a corresponding laboratory.

    15. Development of a Tactical Guidance Research and Evaluation System (TGRES)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.

      1989-01-01

      The development of a simulation tool for tactical guidance research and the evaluation of systems performance in a tactically significant environment is described. The objective of the tool is to provide a means by which researchers can explore and exploit enhancements to airplane agility. The completed tool will include high-fidelity batch and piloted simulation capabilities, an advanced tactical guidance logic and a user-friendly interface. While the tool is being developed for the purpose of studying airplane agility, its modularity should make it easily adaptable to the analysis of other technologies and thus be of interest to a number of potential users.

    16. microRNAs in axon guidance

      PubMed Central

      Iyer, Archana N.; Bellon, Anaïs; Baudet, Marie-Laure

      2014-01-01

      Brain wiring is a highly intricate process in which trillions of neuronal connections are established. Its initial phase is particularly crucial in establishing the general framework of neuronal circuits. During this early step, differentiating neurons extend axons, which reach their target by navigating through a complex environment with extreme precision. Research in the past 20 years has unraveled a vast and complex array of chemotropic cues that guide the leading tip of axons, the growth cone, throughout its journey. Tight regulation of these cues, and of their receptors and signaling pathways, is necessary for the high degree of accuracy required during circuit formation. However, little is known about the nature of regulatory molecules or mechanisms fine-tuning axonal cue response. Here we review recent, and somewhat fragmented, research on the possibility that microRNAs (miRNAs) could be key fine-tuning regulatory molecules in axon guidance. miRNAs appear to shape long-range axon guidance, fasciculation and targeting. We also present several lines of evidence suggesting that miRNAs could have a compartmentalized and differential action at the cell soma, and within axons and growth cones. PMID:24672429

    17. Glypican Is a Modulator of Netrin-Mediated Axon Guidance

      PubMed Central

      Blanchette, Cassandra R.; Perrat, Paola N.; Thackeray, Andrea; Bénard, Claire Y.

      2015-01-01

      Netrin is a key axon guidance cue that orients axon growth during neural circuit formation. However, the mechanisms regulating netrin and its receptors in the extracellular milieu are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, LON-2/glypican, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, modulates UNC-6/netrin signaling and may do this through interactions with the UNC-40/DCC receptor. We show that developing axons misorient in the absence of LON-2/glypican when the SLT-1/slit guidance pathway is compromised and that LON-2/glypican functions in both the attractive and repulsive UNC-6/netrin pathways. We find that the core LON-2/glypican protein, lacking its heparan sulfate chains, and secreted forms of LON-2/glypican are functional in axon guidance. We also find that LON-2/glypican functions from the epidermal substrate cells to guide axons, and we provide evidence that LON-2/glypican associates with UNC-40/DCC receptor–expressing cells. We propose that LON-2/glypican acts as a modulator of UNC-40/DCC-mediated guidance to fine-tune axonal responses to UNC-6/netrin signals during migration. PMID:26148345

    18. Second messenger networks for accurate growth cone guidance.

      PubMed

      Akiyama, Hiroki; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki

      2015-04-01

      Growth cones are able to navigate over long distances to find their appropriate target by following guidance cues that are often presented to them in the form of an extracellular gradient. These external cues are converted into gradients of specific signaling molecules inside growth cones, while at the same time these internal signals are amplified. The amplified instruction is then used to generate asymmetric changes in the growth cone turning machinery so that one side of the growth cone migrates at a rate faster than the other side, and thus the growth cone turns toward or away from the external cue. This review examines how signal specification and amplification can be achieved inside the growth cone by multiple second messenger signaling pathways activated downstream of guidance cues. These include the calcium ion, cyclic nucleotide, and phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways. PMID:24285606

    19. Resources for Guidance Program Improvement. Volume 2.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Frenza, Mary C., Comp.; and Others

      This guide, for guidance personnel and teachers, is designed to provide ready access to current, practical programs, activities, and references for improving guidance programs. The resources are organized in four sections representing areas of basic concern for guidance personnel. Section 1 presents selected portions of guidance programs from…

    20. Information Paper 18: Guidance in Secondary Schools.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ashton, Terry

      1986-01-01

      Traces impetus for introduction of structured guidance into Scottish secondary schools. Identifies 1968 "Orange Paper" as first attempt to set out rationale for guidance. Describes how guidance is organized; outlines tasks of guidance teachers; and presents current developments, training requirements, and trends. (NEC)

    1. Books for Professionals: Discipline and Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      King, Margaret A.

      1994-01-01

      Reviews two books that promote a view of discipline as teaching and guidance. "Guiding Young Children" (Verna Hildebrand) offers specific child guidance techniques and a discussion of general issues affecting child guidance. "Constructive Guidance and Discipline: Preschool and Primary Education" (Majorie V. Fields and Cindy Boesser) focuses on…

    2. Measuring Client Progression in Adult Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hearne, Lucy

      2007-01-01

      Currently, in the field of guidance, relevant stakeholders including guidance practitioners, educators and policy makers, have identified progression for adults in education and employment as one of the key outcomes of educational guidance. Lifelong guidance is now inextricably linked with lifelong learning as a mechanism to enhance individual…

    3. HFE Process Guidance and Standards for potential application to updating NRC guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Jacques Hugo; J. J. Persensky

      2012-07-01

      The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews and evaluates the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of these guidance documents to ensure that they remain state-of-the-art design evaluation tools. Thus, the NRC has initiated a project with BNL to update the NRC guidance to remain current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology. INL supported Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) to update the detailed HFE review criteria contained in NUREG-0711 and NUREG-0700 based on (1) feedback obtained from end users, (2) the results of NRC research and development efforts supporting the NRC staff’s HFE safety reviews, and (3) other material the project staff identify as applicable to the update effort. INL submitted comments on development plans and sections of NUREGs 0800, 0711, and 0700. The contractor prepared the report attached here as the deliverable for this work.

    4. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      1997-04-01

      The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

    5. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

      1991-01-01

      The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

    6. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

      SciTech Connect

      Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

      2008-06-06

      Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p < 10{sup -53}) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    7. [Psychotherapeutically Competent Child Guidance-General Framework and Legal Foundations].

      PubMed

      Menne, Klaus

      2015-01-01

      Assistances in education are pedagogical and therapeutic benefits connected with it. For child guidance as an assistance in education therefore psychotherapeutic competence is constitutive. The article describes the professional and legal framework of a psychotherapy in child guidance. It specifies on the one hand the composition of the multi disciplinary team (including child and youth psychotherapists and psychological psychotherapists) and the additional therapeutic qualifications acquired by the skilled employees. On the other hand it traces the judicial border between a medical psychotherapy with its scientifically recognised psychotherapy procedures and methods and a psychotherapy in child guidance. The applicability of the new law on the rights of patients with its requirements on a contract governing medical treatment (standards of medical specialists, duty to provide information, information provided for self-determination as well as documentation) on child guidance is discussed as well. The author argues for the preservation of psychotherapeutic competence in child guidance as a benefit sui generis and sees precisely in its therapeutic competence its specific contribution to the advancement of the assistances in education. PMID:25609390

    8. Guidance for state attainment plans

      SciTech Connect

      Strait, R.

      1994-06-01

      Title I of the Clean Air act Amendments of 1990 significantly changed requirements for regulatory agencies to prepare state implementation plans that demonstrate attainment of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. State agencies now are required to submit plans that show how they will meet the standards by their attainment date. EPA has published a series of guidance documents to assist states in preparing their plans. In addition, the agency is developing software to assist states in projecting emissions and tracking reductions. This article summarizes the guidance documents and software program.

    9. Recent Events in Guidance, Navigation and Control

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Polites, Michael E.; Bullman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

      2001-01-01

      This article summarizes recent events in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in space, weapons and missiles, and aircraft. The section on space includes recent developments with the following NASA spacecraft and space vehicles: Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, Deep Space 1, Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Earth Observer-1, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the International Space Station, X-38, and X-40A. The section on weapons and missiles includes recent developments with the following missiles: Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile, Storm Shadow/Scalp EG precision standoff missile, Hellfire missile, AIM-120C Advanced medium-range air-to-air missile, Derby missile, Arrow 2, and the Standard Missile SM-3. The section on aircraft includes recent developments with the following aircraft: Joint Strike Fighter, X-31, V-22, Couger/SUDer Puma Mk. 2, Predator B 001, and the Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle.

    10. Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance.

      PubMed

      Valdés, Pablo A; Roberts, David W; Lu, Fa-Ke; PhD; Golby, Alexandra

      2016-03-01

      Biomedical optics is a broadly interdisciplinary field at the interface of optical engineering, biophysics, computer science, medicine, biology, and chemistry, helping us understand light-tissue interactions to create applications with diagnostic and therapeutic value in medicine. Implementation of biomedical optics tools and principles has had a notable scientific and clinical resurgence in recent years in the neurosurgical community. This is in great part due to work in fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors leading to reports of significant improvement in maximizing the rates of gross-total resection. Multiple additional optical technologies have been implemented clinically, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, and advanced quantitative methods, including quantitative fluorescence and lifetime imaging. Here we present a clinically relevant and technologically informed overview and discussion of some of the major clinical implementations of optical technologies as intraoperative guidance tools in neurosurgery. PMID:26926066

    11. Enhancements to an Atmospheric Ascent Guidance Algorithm

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Dukeman, Greg A.

      2003-01-01

      Enhancements to an advanced ascent guidance algorithm for rocket-powered launch vehicles are described. A general method has been developed for conveniently and efficiently handling the common case of (asymmetric) launch vehicles with unbalanced thrust and aerodynamic moments. The new part of this development concerns the treatment of endo-atmospheric flight. An alternative method for handing the transversality conditions has been developed that eliminates the need for a priori elimination of the constant multipliers that adjoin the terminal state constraints to the performance index. As a result, new constraints can be formulated and implemented with relative ease. The problem of burn-coast-burn trajectory optimization is treated using a modified multiple shooting technique.

    12. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

      SciTech Connect

      R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

      1995-06-01

      This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

    13. Theater As A Guidance Technique

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wolpert, William

      1973-01-01

      Guidance-drama activity provides (a) crisp definitions of selected issues; (b) potent modeling from the characters in the play, the students actively engaged in the play, and the students involved in the discussions that follow the play; and (c) a technique for peer-led discussions on sensitive issues. This article gives precise definition to the…

    14. Humanizing Education Through Guidance Counseling.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Accola, W. V.

      A computerized information retrieval system has been designed to support the secondary school counseling effort. The system, entitled Total Guidance Information Support System (TGISS), runs on an IBM System/360 Model 65 facility and uses the IBM 2848 Display Control Unit. The software consists of an interactive communications program developed in…

    15. THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

      EPA Science Inventory

      THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

      Susan M. Cormier, ORD/NRMRL, Susan B. Norton, ORD/NCEA, Glenn W. Suter, II ORD/NCEA, William Swietlik, OW lOST

      Science Question(s):

      MYP Science Question: How can multiple and possibly related causes of biological ...

    16. Reading Guidance: Death and Grief.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Alice Gullen

      1989-01-01

      Gives guidelines for the librarian using reading guidance (similar to bibliotherapy). Provides a nine-item annotated bibliography of novels for children and adolescents on the subject of death and grief. Appends an embryo list of categories suitable for content analysis of any file librarians might wish to keep on books suitable for use in this…

    17. The revised HSE fatigue guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Stacey, A.; Sharp, J.V.

      1995-12-31

      Fatigue cracking has been a principal cause of damage to North Sea structures and consequently considerable attention has been given to the development of guidance for the prediction of fatigue performance. The fatigue guidance of the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) was recently revised and published, following a significant offshore industry review in the period 1987 to 1990, and is based on the results of a considerable amount of research and development work on the fatigue behavior of welded tubular and plated joints. As a result of this review, the revised fatigue guidance incorporates several new clauses and recommendations. The revised recommendations apply to joint classification, basic design S-N curves for welded joints and cast or forged steel components, the thickness effect, the effects of environment and the treatment of low and high stress ranges. Additionally, a new appendix on the derivation of stress concentration factors is included. The new clauses cover high strength steels, bolts and threaded connectors, moorings, repaired joints and the use of fracture mechanics analysis. This paper presents an overview of the revisions to the fatigue guidance, the associated background technical information and aspects of the fatigue behavior of offshore structures which are considered to require further investigation. 67 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

    18. Career Guidance in Singapore Schools.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tan, Esther

      2002-01-01

      Reviews the history and stages of development for career guidance in Singapore schools. Asserts that to meet the challenges of the new millennium, there is a need to train professional career counselors, develop indigenous resource materials, and promote a new concept of career development among students. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)

    19. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

      1997-01-01

      Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

    20. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Kirkpatrick, T.D.

      1995-01-01

      This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

    1. Mechanisms of Ephrin Receptor Protein Kinase-Independent Signaling in Amphid Axon Guidance in Caenorhabditis elegans

      PubMed Central

      Grossman, Emily N.; Giurumescu, Claudiu A.; Chisholm, Andrew D.

      2013-01-01

      Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands are key conserved regulators of axon guidance and can function in a variety of signaling modes. Here we analyze the genetic and cellular requirements for Eph signaling in a Caenorhabditis elegans axon guidance choice point, the ventral guidance of axons in the amphid commissure. The C. elegans Eph receptor EFN-1 has both kinase-dependent and kinase-independent roles in amphid ventral guidance. Of the four C. elegans ephrins, we find that only EFN-1 has a major role in amphid axon ventral guidance, and signals in both a receptor kinase-dependent and kinase-independent manner. Analysis of EFN-1 and EFN-1 expression and tissue-specific requirements is consistent with a model in which VAB-1 acts in amphid neurons, interacting with EFN-1 expressed on surrounding cells. Unexpectedly, left-hand neurons are more strongly affected than right-hand neurons by loss of Eph signaling, indicating a previously undetected left–right asymmetry in the requirement for Eph signaling. By screening candidate genes involved in Eph signaling, we find that the Eph kinase-independent pathway involves the ABL-1 nonreceptor tyrosine kinase and possibly the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Overexpression of ABL-1 is sufficient to rescue EFN-1 ventral guidance defects cell autonomously. Our results reveal new aspects of Eph signaling in a single axon guidance decision in vivo. PMID:23979582

    2. Pathways toward high-performance perovskite solar cells: review of recent advances in organo-metal halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Song, Zhaoning; Watthage, Suneth C.; Phillips, Adam B.; Heben, Michael J.

      2016-04-01

      Organo-metal halide perovskite-based solar cells have been the focus of intense research over the past five years, and power conversion efficiencies have rapidly been improved from 3.8 to >21%. This article reviews major advances in perovskite solar cells that have contributed to the recent efficiency enhancements, including the evolution of device architecture, the development of material deposition processes, and the advanced device engineering techniques aiming to improve control over morphology, crystallinity, composition, and the interface properties of the perovskite thin films. The challenges and future directions for perovskite solar cell research and development are also discussed.

    3. Engineering Guidance: A Human Resource Development.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Snarponis, Joseph M.; Prien, John D.

      1979-01-01

      Describes the role of The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) in providing guidance activities for students. Discusses structional organization, goals, and guidance activities for engineering and technical and professional societies. (MA)

    4. Activity Group Guidance: A Developmental Approach

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hillman, Bill W.; And Others

      1975-01-01

      Illustrates the content, process, and group dynamics of Activity Group Guidance. Describes and evaluates a comprehensive Activity Group Guidance program. Gives specific suggestions to counselors who wish to start Activity Groups. (Author)

    5. Boston and New England: Advancing the Revolution in Geographic Education in a Region of Change. Pathways in Geography Series, Title No. 21.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Pikora, Theodore S., Ed.; Young, Stephen S., Ed.

      This collection of essays offers ideas, observations, maps, photographs, and descriptions of Boston (Massachusetts) and New England. The 13 essays in the collection include: (1) "An Introduction to New England and Boston: Advancing the Revolution in Geographic Education in a Region of Change" (Theodore S. Pikora; Stephen S. Young); (2) "An…

    6. Quality Assurance in University Guidance Services

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Simon, Alexandra

      2014-01-01

      In Europe there is no common quality assurance framework for the delivery of guidance in higher education. Using a case study approach in four university career guidance services in England, France and Spain, this article aims to study how quality is implemented in university career guidance services in terms of strategy, standards and models,…

    7. Idaho Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program Model.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

      This handbook describes a series of procedures for establishing school guidance and counseling programs in Idaho based on the Missouri Comprehensive Guidance Program model developed by Dr. Norman Gysbers. It begins with a conceptual framework and moves through the development, evaluation, and refinement steps of setting guidance programs in Idaho…

    8. Computer-Assisted Guidance: Concepts and Practices.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Katz, Martin R.; Shatkin, Laurence

      This report reviews and analyzes the development and status of computer-assisted-guidance (CAG) systems. In terms of eight major topics which are introduced in a discussion of guidance and the computer, the report discusses the capabilities of computers in reference to other resources for guidance and describes and differentiates various CAG…

    9. Optical pattern recognition for missile guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Casasent, D.

      1982-11-01

      Progress on real-time spatial light modulators, image pattern recognition and optical signal processing for missile guidance is documented. A full description of our test and evaluation of the Soviet PRIZ spatial light modulator is included. In image pattern recognition, a unified formulation of four different and new types of synthetic discriminant functions is advanced. These include synthetic discriminant functions for intra and inter-class pattern recognition and multi-class pattern recognition. In the area of image pattern recognition, we also advance new statistical synthetic discriminant function filter concepts and a new principal component synthetic discriminant function. These analyses utilize new performance measures and new image models. Conventional holographic pattern recognition research conducted under AFOSR support is also reviewed. Our new AFOSR optical signal processing research concerns optical matrix-vector processors. Initial research in this area includes fabrication of a fiber-optic microprocessor-based iterative optical processor and its use in adaptive phased array radar processing and for the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix.

    10. Optical guidance vidicon test program

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Eiseman, A. R.; Stanton, R. H.; Voge, C. C.

      1976-01-01

      A laboratory and field test program was conducted to quantify the optical navigation parameters of the Mariner vidicons. A scene simulator and a camera were designed and built for vidicon tests under a wide variety of conditions. Laboratory tests characterized error sources important to the optical navigation process and field tests verified star sensitivity and characterized comet optical guidance parameters. The equipment, tests and data reduction techniques used are described. Key test results are listed. A substantial increase in the understanding of the use of selenium vidicons as detectors for spacecraft optical guidance was achieved, indicating a reduction in residual offset errors by a factor of two to four to the single pixel level.

    11. Teleautonomous guidance for mobile robots

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

      1990-01-01

      Teleautonomous guidance (TG), a technique for the remote guidance of fast mobile robots, has been developed and implemented. With TG, the mobile robot follows the general direction prescribed by an operator. However, if the robot encounters an obstacle, it autonomously avoids collision with that obstacle while trying to match the prescribed direction as closely as possible. This type of shared control is completely transparent and transfers control between teleoperation and autonomous obstacle avoidance gradually. TG allows the operator to steer vehicles and robots at high speeds and in cluttered environments, even without visual contact. TG is based on the virtual force field (VFF) method, which was developed earlier for autonomous obstacle avoidance. The VFF method is especially suited to the accommodation of inaccurate sensor data (such as that produced by ultrasonic sensors) and sensor fusion, and allows the mobile robot to travel quickly without stopping for obstacles.

    12. Guidance molecules in lung cancer

      PubMed Central

      Nasarre, Patrick; Potiron, Vincent; Drabkin, Harry

      2010-01-01

      Guidance molecules were first described in the nervous system to control axon outgrowth direction. They are also widely expressed outside the nervous system where they control cell migration, tissue development and establishment of the vascular network. In addition, they are involved in cancer development, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. This review is primarily focused on their functions in lung cancer and their involvement in lung development is also presented. Five guidance molecule families and their corresponding receptors are described, including the semaphorins/neuropilins/plexins, ephrins and Eph receptors, netrin/DCC/UNC5, Slit/Robo and Notch/Delta. In addition, the possibility to target these molecules as a therapeutic approach in cancer is discussed. PMID:20139699

    13. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition.

      PubMed

      Sekulic, Aleksandar; Von Hoff, Daniel

      2016-02-25

      The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in a majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Vismodegib and sonidegib are targeted inhibitors of Smoothened (SMO). Both drugs are approved for use in locally advanced BCC (laBCC), with vismodegib also approved for metastatic BCC (mBCC). PMID:26919418

    14. The nature of protein folding pathways

      PubMed Central

      Englander, S. Walter; Mayne, Leland

      2014-01-01

      How do proteins fold, and why do they fold in that way? This Perspective integrates earlier and more recent advances over the 50-y history of the protein folding problem, emphasizing unambiguously clear structural information. Experimental results show that, contrary to prior belief, proteins are multistate rather than two-state objects. They are composed of separately cooperative foldon building blocks that can be seen to repeatedly unfold and refold as units even under native conditions. Similarly, foldons are lost as units when proteins are destabilized to produce partially unfolded equilibrium molten globules. In kinetic folding, the inherently cooperative nature of foldons predisposes the thermally driven amino acid-level search to form an initial foldon and subsequent foldons in later assisted searches. The small size of foldon units, ∼20 residues, resolves the Levinthal time-scale search problem. These microscopic-level search processes can be identified with the disordered multitrack search envisioned in the “new view” model for protein folding. Emergent macroscopic foldon–foldon interactions then collectively provide the structural guidance and free energy bias for the ordered addition of foldons in a stepwise pathway that sequentially builds the native protein. These conclusions reconcile the seemingly opposed new view and defined pathway models; the two models account for different stages of the protein folding process. Additionally, these observations answer the “how” and the “why” questions. The protein folding pathway depends on the same foldon units and foldon–foldon interactions that construct the native structure. PMID:25326421

    15. Repulsive guidance molecule B inhibits metastasis and is associated with decreased mortality in non-small cell lung cancer.

      PubMed

      Li, Jin; Ye, Lin; Shi, Xiaoshun; Chen, Jingyi; Feng, Fenglan; Chen, Yaoqi; Xiao, Yiren; Shen, Jianfei; Li, Peng; Jiang, Wen G; He, Jianxing

      2016-03-29

      Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) are co-receptors of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), and might be involved in lung and other cancers. We evaluated repulsive guidance molecule B (RGMB) expression in 165 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors and 22 normal lung tissue samples, and validated the results in an independent series of 131 samples. RGMB was downregulated in NSCLC (P ≤ 0.001), possibly through promoter hypermethylation. Reduced RGMB expression was observed in advanced-stage tumors (P = 0.017) and in tumors with vascular invasion (P < 0.01), and was significantly associated with poor overall survival (39 vs. 62 months, P < 0.001) and with disease-associated patient mortality (P = 0.015). RGMB knockdown promoted cell adhesion, invasion and migration, in both NSCLC cell lines and an in vivo mouse model, which enhanced metastatic potential. Conversely, RGMB overexpression and secretion suppressed cancer progression. The tumor-suppressing effect of RGMB was exerted through inhibition of the Smad1/5/8 pathway. Our results demonstrate that RGMB is an important inhibitor of NSCLC metastasis and that low RGMB expression is a novel predictor or a poor prognosis. PMID:26910889

    16. Repulsive guidance molecule B inhibits metastasis and is associated with decreased mortality in non-small cell lung cancer

      PubMed Central

      Li, Jin; Ye, Lin; Shi, Xiaoshun; Chen, Jingyi; Feng, Fenglan; Chen, Yaoqi; Xiao, Yiren; Shen, Jianfei; Li, Peng; Jiang, Wen G.; He, Jianxing

      2016-01-01

      Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) are co-receptors of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), and might be involved in lung and other cancers. We evaluated repulsive guidance molecule B (RGMB) expression in 165 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors and 22 normal lung tissue samples, and validated the results in an independent series of 131 samples. RGMB was downregulated in NSCLC (P ≤ 0.001), possibly through promoter hypermethylation. Reduced RGMB expression was observed in advanced-stage tumors (P = 0.017) and in tumors with vascular invasion (P < 0.01), and was significantly associated with poor overall survival (39 vs. 62 months, P < 0.001) and with disease-associated patient mortality (P = 0.015). RGMB knockdown promoted cell adhesion, invasion and migration, in both NSCLC cell lines and an in vivo mouse model, which enhanced metastatic potential. Conversely, RGMB overexpression and secretion suppressed cancer progression. The tumor-suppressing effect of RGMB was exerted through inhibition of the Smad1/5/8 pathway. Our results demonstrate that RGMB is an important inhibitor of NSCLC metastasis and that low RGMB expression is a novel predictor or a poor prognosis. PMID:26910889

    17. The Advanced Course in Professional Selling

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Loe, Terry; Inks, Scott

      2014-01-01

      More universities are incorporating sales content into their curriculums, and although the introductory courses in professional sales have much common ground and guidance from numerous professional selling texts, instructors teaching the advanced selling course lack the guidance provided by common academic tools and materials. The resulting…

    18. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mendeck, Gavin F.

      2011-01-01

      The Mars Science Laboratory will be the first Mars mission to attempt a guided entry with the objective of safely delivering the entry vehicle to a survivable parachute deploy state within 12.5 km of the pre-designated parachute deploy coordinates. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control range based on deviations in range, altitude rate, and drag acceleration from a reference trajectory. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Performance tradeoffs between ellipse size and deploy altitude will be presented, along with imposed constraints of entry acceleration and heating. Performance sensitivities to the bank reversal deadbands, heading alignment, attitude initialization error, and entry delivery errors are presented.

    19. Updating the Wnt pathways

      PubMed Central

      Yu, Jia; Virshup, David M.

      2014-01-01

      In the three decades since the discovery of the Wnt1 proto-oncogene in virus-induced mouse mammary tumours, our understanding of the signalling pathways that are regulated by the Wnt proteins has progressively expanded. Wnts are involved in an complex signalling network that governs multiple biological processes and cross-talk with multiple additional signalling cascades, including the Notch, FGF (fibroblast growth factor), SHH (Sonic hedgehog), EGF (epidermal growth factor) and Hippo pathways. The Wnt signalling pathway also illustrates the link between abnormal regulation of the developmental processes and disease manifestation. Here we provide an overview of Wnt-regulated signalling cascades and highlight recent advances. We focus on new findings regarding the dedicated Wnt production and secretion pathway with potential therapeutic targets that might be beneficial for patients with Wnt-related diseases. PMID:25208913

    20. 76 FR 14660 - Public Comment on the Development of Final Guidance for Evaluating the Vapor Intrusion to Indoor...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-03-17

      ... was released in November 2002 (67 FR 71169), and a docket was established for public comments: Docket... Air Pathway From Contaminated Groundwater and Soils (Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance) AGENCY... Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Pathway from Contaminated Groundwater and Soil (Subsurface Vapor...

    1. Apollo LM guidance computer software for the final lunar descent.

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Eyles, D.

      1973-01-01

      In all manned lunar landings to date, the lunar module Commander has taken partial manual control of the spacecraft during the final stage of the descent, below roughly 500 ft altitude. This report describes programs developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, MIT, for use in the LM's guidance computer during the final descent. At this time computational demands on the on-board computer are at a maximum, and particularly close interaction with the crew is necessary. The emphasis is on the design of the computer software rather than on justification of the particular guidance algorithms employed. After the computer and the mission have been introduced, the current configuration of the final landing programs and an advanced version developed experimentally by the author are described.

    2. Optimal guidance law development for an advanced launch system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Calise, Anthony J.; Hodges, Dewey H.

      1990-01-01

      A regular perturbation analysis is presented. Closed-loop simulations were performed with a first order correction including all of the atmospheric terms. In addition, a method was developed for independently checking the accuracy of the analysis and the rather extensive programming required to implement the complete first order correction with all of the aerodynamic effects included. This amounted to developing an equivalent Hamiltonian computed from the first order analysis. A second order correction was also completed for the neglected spherical Earth and back-pressure effects. Finally, an analysis was begun on a method for dealing with control inequality constraints. The results on including higher order corrections do show some improvement for this application; however, it is not known at this stage if significant improvement will result when the aerodynamic forces are included. The weak formulation for solving optimal problems was extended in order to account for state inequality constraints. The formulation was tested on three example problems and numerical results were compared to the exact solutions. Development of a general purpose computational environment for the solution of a large class of optimal control problems is under way. An example, along with the necessary input and the output, is given.

    3. Optimal guidance law development for an advanced launch system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Calise, Anthony J.; Hodges, Dewey H.; Leung, Martin S.; Bless, Robert R.

      1991-01-01

      The proposed investigation on a Matched Asymptotic Expansion (MAE) method was carried out. It was concluded that the method of MAE is not applicable to launch vehicle ascent trajectory optimization due to a lack of a suitable stretched variable. More work was done on the earlier regular perturbation approach using a piecewise analytic zeroth order solution to generate a more accurate approximation. In the meantime, a singular perturbation approach using manifold theory is also under current investigation. Work on a general computational environment based on the use of MACSYMA and the weak Hamiltonian finite element method continued during this period. This methodology is capable of the solution of a large class of optimal control problems.

    4. Opioid-induced constipation: advances and clinical guidance.

      PubMed

      Nelson, Alfred D; Camilleri, Michael

      2016-03-01

      Currently opioids are the most frequently used medications for chronic noncancer pain. Opioid-induced constipation is the most common adverse effect associated with prolonged use of opioids, having a major impact on quality of life. There is an increasing need to treat opioid-induced constipation. With the recent approval of medications for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, there are several therapeutic approaches. This review addresses the clinical presentation and diagnosis of opioid-induced constipation, barriers to its diagnosis, effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract, differential tolerance to opiates in different gastrointestinal organs, medications approved and in development for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, and a proposed clinical management algorithm for treating opioid-induced constipation in patients with noncancer pain. PMID:26977281

    5. 78 FR 25268 - Proposed Guidance on Deposit Advance Products

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-04-30

      ... Classification and Account Management Policy, Federal Register Vol. 65, No. 113, June 12, 2000. This policy is... the adequacy of capital, reliance on fee income, and adequacy of the allowance for loan and lease... relationships with third-parties will also be assessed. Credit Quality: The Uniform Retail Credit...

    6. Opioid-induced constipation: advances and clinical guidance

      PubMed Central

      Nelson, Alfred D.; Camilleri, Michael

      2016-01-01

      Currently opioids are the most frequently used medications for chronic noncancer pain. Opioid-induced constipation is the most common adverse effect associated with prolonged use of opioids, having a major impact on quality of life. There is an increasing need to treat opioid-induced constipation. With the recent approval of medications for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, there are several therapeutic approaches. This review addresses the clinical presentation and diagnosis of opioid-induced constipation, barriers to its diagnosis, effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract, differential tolerance to opiates in different gastrointestinal organs, medications approved and in development for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, and a proposed clinical management algorithm for treating opioid-induced constipation in patients with noncancer pain. PMID:26977281

    7. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on advanced glycation endproduct-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: possible roles of Rho kinase- and AMP kinase-mediated nuclear factor κB signaling pathways.

      PubMed

      Tang, Song-Tao; Zhang, Qiu; Tang, Hai-Qin; Wang, Chang-Jiang; Su, Huan; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Hua-Qing; Wang, Yuan

      2016-07-01

      Interaction between advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) as well as downstream pathways leads to vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been reported to attenuate endothelial dysfunction in the models of atherosclerosis. However, whether GLP-1 exerts protective effects on aortic endothelium in diabetic animal model and the underlying mechanisms are still not well defined. Experimental diabetes was induced through administration with combination of high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, including controls, diabetes, diabetes + sitagliptin (30 mg/kg/day), diabetes + exenatide (3 μg/kg/12 h). Eventually, endothelial damage, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, were measured. After 12 weeks administration, diabetic rats received sitagliptin and exenatide showed significant elevation of serum NO level and reduction of ET-1 as well as inflammatory cytokines levels. Moreover, sitagliptin and exenatide significantly inhibited aortic oxidative stress level and improved aortic endothelial function in diabetic rats. Importantly, these drugs inhibited the protein expression level in AGE/RAGE-induced RhoA/ROCK/NF-κB/IκBα signaling pathways and activated AMPK in diabetic aorta. Finally, the target proteins of p-eNOS, iNOS, and ET-1, which reflect endothelial function, were also changed by these drugs. Our present study indicates that sitagliptin and exenatide administrations can improve endothelial function in diabetic aorta. Of note, RAGE/RhoA/ROCK and AMPK mediated NF-κB signaling pathways may be the intervention targets of these drugs to protect aortic endothelium. PMID:26758998

    8. U.S. Department Of Energy Advanced Small Modular Reactor R&D Program: Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) Pathway

      SciTech Connect

      Holcomb, David Eugene; Wood, Richard Thomas

      2013-01-01

      Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although the recent progress in constructing new plants has spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, development of advanced reactor concepts, such as Generation IV designs and small modular reactors, introduces different plant conditions (e.g., higher temperatures, different coolants, etc.) and unique plant configurations (e.g., multiunit plants with shared systems, balance of plant architectures with reconfigurable co-generation options) that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve industry goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of modern ICHMI technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, several DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements within their respective research portfolios. This paper describes current

    9. In visual search, guidance by surface type is different than classic guidance

      PubMed Central

      Wolfe, Jeremy M; Reijnen, Ester; Van Wert, Michael J.; Kuzmova, Yoana

      2009-01-01

      Visual search for targets among distractors is more efficient if attention can be guided to targets by attributes like color. In real-world search, we guide attention using information about surfaces. (e.g., paintings are on walls). We compare “classic” color guidance to surface guidance in “scenes” of cubes. When a target can lie on one of many surfaces, color guidance is effective but surface guidance is not (Exp. 1-3). Surface guidance works when cued surfaces are coplanar (Exp. 4) or few in number (Exp. 5). We speculate that surface guidance is slow and limited to very few surfaces at one time. PMID:19236891

    10. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

      2003-01-01

      This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

    11. Family planning methods: new guidance.

      PubMed

      1996-10-01

      Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775

    12. Aerocapture Guidance Algorithm Comparison Campaign

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rousseau, Stephane; Perot, Etienne; Graves, Claude; Masciarelli, James P.; Queen, Eric

      2002-01-01

      The aerocapture is a promising technique for the future human interplanetary missions. The Mars Sample Return was initially based on an insertion by aerocapture. A CNES orbiter Mars Premier was developed to demonstrate this concept. Mainly due to budget constraints, the aerocapture was cancelled for the French orbiter. A lot of studies were achieved during the three last years to develop and test different guidance algorithms (APC, EC, TPC, NPC). This work was shared between CNES and NASA, with a fruitful joint working group. To finish this study an evaluation campaign has been performed to test the different algorithms. The objective was to assess the robustness, accuracy, capability to limit the load, and the complexity of each algorithm. A simulation campaign has been specified and performed by CNES, with a similar activity on the NASA side to confirm the CNES results. This evaluation has demonstrated that the numerical guidance principal is not competitive compared to the analytical concepts. All the other algorithms are well adapted to guaranty the success of the aerocapture. The TPC appears to be the more robust, the APC the more accurate, and the EC appears to be a good compromise.

    13. 77 FR 8884 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Quality Considerations in Demonstrating Biosimilarity to a...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2012-02-15

      ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Quality Considerations in... abbreviated licensure pathway under section 351(k) of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) (42 U.S.C. 262(k... application (i.e., a facility in which the proposed biological product is ] manufactured, processed,...

    14. 75 FR 13562 - Revised Draft Guidance for Industry on Pharmacokinetics in Patients With Impaired Renal Function...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2010-03-22

      ... 15, 1998 (63 FR 27094), FDA announced the availability of a guidance entitled ``Pharmacokinetics in... its metabolites, changes in renal metabolism can also occur. Renal impairment can also adversely affect some pathways of hepatic and/or gut drug metabolism and has been associated with other...

    15. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

      2003-01-01

      The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 micrograms/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

    16. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

      The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 μg/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

    17. Energy angular momentum closed-loop guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Patera, Russell P.

      2015-03-01

      A novel guidance algorithm for launch vehicle ascent to the desired mission orbit is proposed. The algorithm uses total specific energy and orbital angular momentum as new state vector parameters. These parameters are ideally suited for the ascent guidance task, since the guidance algorithm steers the launch vehicle along a pre-flight optimal trajectory in energy angular momentum space. The guidance algorithm targets apogee, perigee, inclination and right ascension of ascending node. Computational complexities are avoided by eliminating time in the guidance computation and replacing it with angular momentum magnitude. As a result, vehicle acceleration, mass, thrust, length of motor burns, and staging times are also eliminated from the pitch plane guidance calculations. The algorithm does not involve launch vehicle or target state propagation, which results in minimal computational effort. Proof of concept of the new algorithm is presented using several numerical examples that illustrate performance results.

    18. Collective cell migration: guidance principles and hierarchies.

      PubMed

      Haeger, Anna; Wolf, Katarina; Zegers, Mirjam M; Friedl, Peter

      2015-09-01

      Collective cell migration results from the establishment and maintenance of collective polarization, mechanocoupling, and cytoskeletal kinetics. The guidance of collective cell migration depends on a reciprocal process between cell-intrinsic multicellular organization with leader-follower cell behavior and results in mechanosensory integration of extracellular guidance cues. Important guidance mechanisms include chemotaxis, haptotaxis, durotaxis, and strain-induced mechanosensing to move cell groups along interfaces and paths of least resistance. Additional guidance mechanisms steering cell groups during specialized conditions comprise electrotaxis and passive drift. To form higher-order cell and tissue structures during morphogenesis and cancer invasion, these guidance principles act in parallel and are integrated for collective adaptation to and shaping of varying tissue environments. We review mechanochemical and electrical inputs and multiparameter signal integration underlying collective guidance, decision making, and outcome. PMID:26137890

    19. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

      SciTech Connect

      Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

      2007-06-30

      This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition from normal high

    20. Virtual Ultrasound Guidance for Inexperienced Operators

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Caine, Timothy; Martin, Davis

      2012-01-01

      Medical ultrasound or echocardiographic studies are highly operator-dependent and generally require lengthy training and internship to perfect. To obtain quality echocardiographic images in remote environments, such as on-orbit, remote guidance of studies has been employed. This technique involves minimal training for the user, coupled with remote guidance from an expert. When real-time communication or expert guidance is not available, a more autonomous system of guiding an inexperienced operator through an ultrasound study is needed. One example would be missions beyond low Earth orbit, in which the time delay inherent with communication will make remote guidance impractical.

    1. Pharmacokinetics of Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor Vismodegib (GDC-0449) in Patients with Locally Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors: the Role of Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein Binding

      PubMed Central

      Graham, Richard A.; Lum, Bert L.; Cheeti, Sravanthi; Jin, Jin Yan; Jorga, Karin; Von Hoff, Daniel D.; Rudin, Charles M.; Reddy, Josina C.; Low, Jennifer A.; LoRusso, Patricia M.

      2013-01-01

      Purpose In a phase I trial for patients with refractory solid tumors, hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib (GDC-0449) showed little decline in plasma concentrations over 7 days after a single oral dose and nonlinearity with respect to dose and time after single and multiple dosing. We studied the role of GDC-0449 binding to plasma protein alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) to better understand these unusual pharmacokinetics. Experimental Design Sixty-eight patients received GDC-0449 at 150 (n = 41), 270 (n = 23), or 540 (n = 4) mg/d, with pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling at multiple time points. Total and unbound (dialyzed) GDC-0449 plasma concentrations were assessed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, binding kinetics by surface plasmon resonance–based microsensor, and AAG levels by ELISA. Results A linear relationship between total GDC-0449 and AAG plasma concentrations was observed across dose groups (R2 = 0.73). In several patients, GDC-0449 levels varied with fluctuations in AAG levels over time. Steady-state, unbound GDC-0449 levels were less than 1% of total, independent of dose or total plasma concentration. In vitro, GDC-0449 binds AAG strongly and reversibly (KD = 13 μmol/L) and human serum albumin less strongly (KD = 120 μmol/L). Simulations from a derived mechanistic PK model suggest that GDC-0449 pharmacokinetics are mediated by AAG binding, solubility-limited absorption, and slow metabolic elimination. Conclusions GDC-0449 levels strongly correlated with AAG levels, showing parallel fluctuations of AAG and total drug over time and consistently low, unbound drug levels, different from previously reported AAG-binding drugs. This PK profile is due to high-affinity, reversible binding to AAG and binding to albumin, in addition to solubility-limited absorption and slow metabolic elimination properties. PMID:21300760

    2. Chebulic acid prevents hepatic fibrosis induced by advanced glycation end-products in LX-2 cell by modulating Nrf2 translocation via ERK pathway.

      PubMed

      Koo, Yun-Chang; Pyo, Min Cheol; Nam, Mi-Hyun; Hong, Chung-Oui; Yang, Sung-Yong; Lee, Kwang-Won

      2016-08-01

      Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are formed during normal aging, and at an accelerated rate in metabolic syndrome patients. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be caused by the AGEs in plasma, while glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (glycer-AGEs) are significantly higher in the serum of NASH patients. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of chebulic acid, isolated from Terminalia chebula Retz., in the inhibition of glycer-AGEs induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and collagen accumulation using the LX-2 cell line. Chebulic acid significantly inhibited the induction of ROS and accumulation of collagen proteins by glycer-AGEs. ERK phosphorylation and total nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein expression were induced by chebulic acid in a dose-dependent manner. Chebulic acid was also found to induce translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus, which was attenuated by inhibition of ERK phosphorylation through treatment with PD98059. Following translocation of Nrf2, chebulic acid induced the protein expressions of catalytic subunit of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthesis. Collagen accumulation was also significantly reduced by chebulic acid treatment. The observed effects of chebulic acid were all inhibited by PD98059 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that chebulic acid prevents the glycer-AGEs-induced ROS formation of LX-2 cells and collagen accumulation by ERK-phosphorylation-mediated Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which causes upregulation of antioxidant protein production. PMID:27021876

    3. 78 FR 48175 - Retrospective Review of Draft Guidance Documents Issued Before 2010; Withdrawal of Guidances

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-08-07

      ... ``Administrative Practices and Procedures; Good Guidance Practices'' (GGP) (65 FR 56468; September 19, 2000). The... manufacturing practice (cGMP) compliance specific to manufacturing, processing, and dose unit sampling and... following guidances: 1. ``Manufacturing, Processing, or Holding Active Pharmaceutical...

    4. Can coffee improve image guidance?

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wirz, Raul; Lathrop, Ray A.; Godage, Isuru S.; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica; Russell, Paul T.; Webster, Robert J.

      2015-03-01

      Anecdotally, surgeons sometimes observe large errors when using image guidance in endonasal surgery. We hypothesize that one contributing factor is the possibility that operating room personnel might accidentally bump the optically tracked rigid body attached to the patient after registration has been performed. In this paper we explore the registration error at the skull base that can be induced by simulated bumping of the rigid body, and find that large errors can occur when simulated bumps are applied to the rigid body. To address this, we propose a new fixation method for the rigid body based on granular jamming (i.e. using particles like ground coffee). Our results show that our granular jamming fixation prototype reduces registration error by 28%-68% (depending on bump direction) in comparison to a standard Brainlab reference headband.

    5. Endangerment assessment guidance. Final report

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1985-10-21

      The directive clarifies the requirement that an endangerment assessment be developed to support all administrative and judicial enforcement actions under Section 106 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Section 7003 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Before taking enforcement action under these provisions to abate the hazards or potential hazards at a site, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must be able to properly document and justify its assertion that an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health or welfare or the environment may exist. The endangerment assessment provides the documentation and justification. The endangerment assessment is not necessary to support Section 104 actions. It also provides guidance on the content, timing, level of detail, format, and resources required for the preparation of endangerment assessments.

    6. Longwall Guidance and Control Development

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1982-01-01

      The longwall guidance and control (G&C) system was evaluated to determine which systems and subsystems lent themselves to automatic control in the mining of coal. The upper coal/shale interface was identified as the reference for a vertical G&C system, with two sensors (the natural backgound and the sensitized pick) being used to locate and track this boundary. In order to insure a relatively smooth recession surface (roof and floor of the excavated seam), a last and present cut measuring instrument (acoustic sensor) was used. Potentiometers were used to measure elevations of the shearer arms. The intergration of these components comprised the vertical control system (pitch control). Yaw and roll control were incorporated into a face alignment system which was designed to keep the coal face normal to its external boundaries. Numerous tests, in the laboratory and in the field, have confirmed the feasibility of automatic horizon control, as well as determining the face alignment.

    7. Orion Cislunar Guidance and Navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      D'Souza, Christopher; Crain, Timothy; Clark, Fred C.

      2007-01-01

      The Orion vehicle is being designed to provide nominal crew transport to the lunar transportation stack in low Earth orbit, crew abort prior during transit to the moon, and crew return to Earth once lunar orbit is achieved. Design of guidance and navigation algorithms to perform maneuvers in support of these functions is dependent on the support provided by navigation infrastructure, the performance of the onboard GN&C system, and the choice of trajectory maneuver methodology for outbound and return mission phases. This paper documents the preliminary integrated analyses performed by members of the Orion Orbit GN&C System team investigating the navigation update accuracy of a modern equivalent to the Apollo era ground tracking network and the expected onboard dispersion and navigation errors during a lunar mission using a linear covariance error analysis technique.

    8. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Program

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hinkel, Heather; Tamblyn, Scott; Jackson, William L.; Foster, Chris; Brazzel, Jack; Manning, Thomas R.; Clark, Fred; Spehar, Pete; Barrett, Jim D.; Milenkovic, Zoran

      2011-01-01

      The Rendezvous and Proximity Operations Program (RPOP) is real-time guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) domain piloting-aid software that provides 3D Orbiter graphics and runs on the Space Shuttle's Criticality-3 Payload and General Support Computer (PGSC) in the crew cockpit. This software provides the crew with Situational Awareness during the rendezvous and proximity operations phases of flight. RPOP can be configured from flight to flight, accounting for mission-specific flight scenarios and target vehicles, via initialization load (I-load) data files. The software provides real-time, automated, closed-loop guidance recommendations and the capability to integrate the crew s manual backup techniques. The software can bring all relative navigation sensor data, including the Orbiter's GPC (general purpose computer) data, into one central application to provide comprehensive situational awareness of the rendezvous and proximity operations trajectory. RPOP also can separately maintain trajectory estimates (past, current, and predicted) based on certain data types and co-plot them, in order to show how the various navigation solutions compare. RPOP s best estimate of the relative trajectory is determined by a relative Kalman filter processing data provided by the sensor suite s most accurate sensor, the trajectory control sensor (TCS). Integrated with the Kalman filter is an algorithm that identifies the reflector that the TCS is tracking. Because RPOP runs on PC laptop computers, the development and certification lifecycles are more agile, flexible, and cheaper than those that govern the Orbiter FSW (flight software) that runs in the GPC. New releases of RPOP can be turned around on a 3- to 6-month template, from new Change Request (CR) to certification, depending on the complexity of the changes.

    9. 78 FR 56752 - Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-09-13

      ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors... and operate integral pressurized water reactors (iPWR). This guidance applies to environmental reviews... purchase copies of public documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555...

    10. Vehicle health management for guidance, navigation and control systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Radke, Kathleen; Frazzini, Ron; Bursch, Paul; Wald, Jerry; Brown, Don

      1993-01-01

      The objective of the program was to architect a vehicle health management (VHM) system for space systems avionics that assures system readiness for launch vehicles and for space-based dormant vehicles. The platforms which were studied and considered for application of VHM for guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) included the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), the Horizontal Landing-20/Personnel Launch System (HL-20/PLS), the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO). This set was selected because dormancy and/or availability requirements are driving the designs of these future systems.

    11. Micro guidance and control synthesis: New components, architectures, and capabilities

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mettler, Edward; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

      1993-01-01

      New GN&C (guidance, navigation and control) system capabilities are shown to arise from component innovations that involve the synergistic use of microminiature sensors and actuators, microelectronics, and fiber optics. Micro-GN&C system and component concepts are defined that include micro-actuated adaptive optics, micromachined inertial sensors, fiber-optic data nets and light-power transmission, and VLSI microcomputers. The thesis is advanced that these micro-miniaturization products are capable of having a revolutionary impact on space missions and systems, and that GN&C is the pathfinder micro-technology application that can bring that about.

    12. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

      SciTech Connect

      1991-09-01

      EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

    13. Vocational Guidance Requests within the International Scene

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Goodman, Jane; Gillis, Sarah

      2009-01-01

      This article summarizes the work of a diverse group of researchers and practitioners from 5 continents on "Vocational Guidance Requests Within the International Scene" presented in the discussion group at a symposium of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance, the Society for Vocational Psychology, and the National…

    14. Behavioral mechanisms of mammalian sperm guidance

      PubMed Central

      Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Boryshpolets, Sergii; Eisenbach, Michael

      2015-01-01

      In mammals, sperm guidance in the oviduct appears essential for successful sperm arrival at the oocyte. Hitherto, three different potential sperm guidance mechanisms have been recognized: thermotaxis, rheotaxis, and chemotaxis, each of them using specific stimuli – a temperature gradient, fluid flow, and a chemoattractant gradient, respectively. Here, we review sperm behavioral in these mechanisms and indicate commonalities and differences between them. PMID:25999361

    15. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

      EPA Science Inventory

      This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

    16. 45 CFR 1235.2 - Implementation guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-10-01

      ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implementation guidance. 1235.2 Section 1235.2... SERVICE LOCALLY GENERATED CONTRIBUTIONS IN OLDER AMERICAN VOLUNTEER PROGRAMS § 1235.2 Implementation guidance. ACTION's implementation of section 224 of the DVSA is based on fundamental principles...

    17. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has... Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintain lists of guidance documents that apply to the centers'...

    18. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has... Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintain lists of guidance documents that apply to the centers'...

    19. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has... Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintain lists of guidance documents that apply to the centers'...

    20. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has... Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintain lists of guidance documents that apply to the centers'...

    1. Educational Guidance for Adults. Identifying Competences.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Oakeshott, Martin

      A brief study conducted for the Further Education Unit, Great Britain, defined the competencies associated with educational guidance for adults. The objective was to develop a qualification for educational guidance workers with adults. The project provided an example of applying a competence model to a "higher level" interpersonal field of work.…

    2. Learners' Needs in College-Based Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Further Education Unit, London (England).

      Recent Further Education Unit (FEU) research has provided clear evidence of technical college students' needs for career and educational guidance throughout their program of study. Inhouse technical college guidance services to individuals and institutions offer a number of benefits to both students receiving the services and the institutions…

    3. Guidance Counsellor Strategies for Handling Bullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Power-Elliott, Michleen; Harris, Gregory E.

      2012-01-01

      The purpose of this exploratory-descriptive study was to examine how guidance counsellors in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador would handle a specific verbal-relational bullying incident. Also of interest was guidance counsellor involvement and training in bullying programmes and Positive Behaviour Supports. Data for this study was…

    4. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-03-12

      ...The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) is announcing the availability of a document prepared by CPSC staff titled, ``Strong Sensitizer Guidance.'' This guidance document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding how CPSC staff would assess whether a substance and/or product containing that substance should be......

    5. Career Guidance in the Elementary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Phyllis E.; Rost, Paul

      1973-01-01

      Three practical ideas that can be implemented in elementary schools are given: (1) a guidance committee (composed of representatives from each grade level and an administrator) to facilitate involvement in the school guidance program; (2) field trips to introduce students to the world of work and to establish motivations for learning subject…

    6. Social Benefits of Career Guidance. NICEC Briefing.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Killeen, John; Watts, Tony; Kidd, Jenny

      Social benefits can be thought of as aggregates of individual benefits, though with possible "snowball" effects. Potential social benefits of career guidance fall into the following two main categories: reducing social exclusion and enhancing social development. Guidance is a way of making the structure of society work, by linking individual needs…

    7. Career Guidance in Wales: Retrospect and Prospect

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Clark, Mike; Talbot, John

      2006-01-01

      Deregulation of the LEA Careers Service followed by the establishment of the National Assembly for Wales in 1999 led, through consultation, to the establishment of a bi-lingual all-age career guidance service under the banner of Careers Wales. The article traces the history of career guidance in Wales from 1974, showing how it has taken a very…

    8. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Robertson, Peter J.

      2013-01-01

      Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

    9. Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Herr, Edwin L., Ed.; Pinson, Nancy M., Ed.

      This book provides educators, counselors, policy makers, and community members with information about the state of the art of federal and state policy in guidance and counseling. The two chapters in part 1, Overview, are: "Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling: An Introduction", by Edwin L. Herr and Nancy M. Pinson; and "A Counselor…

    10. The Internationalization of Educational and Vocational Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Savickas, Mark L.; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; Herr, Edwin L.

      2005-01-01

      The authors identify and discuss the main themes from the discourse on the internationalization of educational and vocational guidance at the 2004 "Symposium on International Perspectives on Career Development," co sponsored by the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance and the National Career Development Association.…

    11. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-09-18

      ... authorized in the Act and available under the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail program. This guidance... qualifies States to receive grants for high-speed rail only. Response: Operational information about all... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...

    12. Getting Closer: Workplace Guidance for Lifelong Learning

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Plant, Peter; Turner, Bob

      2005-01-01

      The purposes of this article are twofold. First, it considers the policy links between guidance and lifelong learning, highlighting in particular the implications of findings from a recent study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Secondly, it critically compares two approaches to workplace guidance about…

    13. New Tools for Guidance in Business Education.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Shimberg, Benjamin

      Several recently developed measurement instruments, the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), the Comparative Guidance and Placement Program (CGP), the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (DD), the Ohio Vocational Interest Survey (OVIS), and the Gordon Occupational Check List, are considered in connection with guidance testing for occupational…

    14. Career Guidance in the Elementary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Leonard, George E.

      1971-01-01

      The purpose of this column is to discuss, describe and disseminate information regarding career guidance principles and practices in the elementary schools. Specifically the activities of the Developmental Career Guidance Projects in inner city Detroit are described. The activities emphasize action involvement of children while didactic learning…

    15. Elementary School Guidance Work Conference. Conference Report.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Herr, Edwin L.; Hershberger, James K.

      In October, 1967, 100 invited participants representing all aspects of guidance, education, school administration, counselor education, psychology, and interested government agencies in Pennsylvania met for three days to listen, think, discuss, and hopefully develop some recommendations for those who want a better program of elementary guidance.…

    16. Preparation of Occupational Guidance Counselors. Final Report.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Occupational Research Unit.

      The project had three goals: to increase the supply of elementary counselors in North Carolina, to provide guidance services to seventeen elementary schools in a satisfactory manner so the program would be adopted after expiration of the project, and to provide systematic guidance services for children in grades one through six. Four full time…

    17. Atmospheric Ascent Guidance for Rocket-Powered Launch Vehicles

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Dukeman, Greg A.

      2002-01-01

      An advanced ascent guidance algorithm for rocket- powered launch vehicles is developed. This algorithm cyclically solves the calculus-of-variations two-point boundary-value problem starting at vertical rise completion through main engine cutoff. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in a simple open-loop mode until high dynamic pressure (including the critical max-Q) portion of the trajectory is over, at which time guidance operates under the assumption of negligible aerodynamic acceleration (i.e., vacuum dynamics). The initial costate guess is corrected based on errors in the terminal state constraints and the transversality conditions. Judicious approximations are made to reduce the order and complexity of the state/costate system. Results comparing guided launch vehicle trajectories with POST open-loop trajectories are given verifying the basic formulation of the algorithm. Multiple shooting is shown to be a very effective numerical technique for this application. In particular, just one intermediate shooting point, in addition to the initial shooting point, is sufficient to significantly reduce sensitivity to the guessed initial costates. Simulation results from a high-fidelity trajectory simulation are given for the case of launch to sub-orbital cutoff conditions as well as launch to orbit conditions. An abort to downrange landing site formulation of the algorithm is presented.

    18. Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bejczy, A. K.

      1975-01-01

      Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

    19. An adaptive guidance algorithm for aerospace vehicles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bradt, J. E.; Hardtla, J. W.; Cramer, E. J.

      The specifications for proposed space transportation systems are placing more emphasis on developing reusable avionics subsystems which have the capability to respond to vehicle evolution and diverse missions while at the same time reducing the cost of ground support for mission planning, contingency response and verification and validation. An innovative approach to meeting these goals is to specify the guidance problem as a multi-point boundary value problen and solve that problem using modern control theory and nonlinear constrained optimization techniques. This approach has been implemented as Gamma Guidance (Hardtla, 1978) and has been successfully flown in the Inertial Upper Stage. The adaptive guidance algorithm described in this paper is a generalized formulation of Gamma Guidance. The basic equations are presented and then applied to four diverse aerospace vehicles to demonstrate the feasibility of using a reusable, explicit, adaptive guidance algorithm for diverse applications and vehicles.

    20. Advanced glycation end‑products affect the cytoskeletal structure of rat glomerular endothelial cells via the Ras‑related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 signaling pathway.

      PubMed

      Lan, Lei; Han, Yongsheng; Ren, Wei; Jiang, Jielong; Wang, Peng; Hu, Zhao

      2015-06-01

      The present study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms leading to the production of advanced glycation end‑products (AGEs) and their effect on the morphology and function of rat glomerular capillary endothelial cells (GECs). Primary rat GECs were treated with AGE‑modified human serum albumin (AGE‑HSA) and divided into groups according to AGE concentration and treatment time. The structure and distribution of cytoskeletal protein F‑actin and the cortical actin binding protein, cortactin, were analyzed using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. As the Ras‑related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) signaling pathway was previously identified to be involved in mediating the contraction of endothelial actin‑myosin activity, Rac1 was examined subsequent to treatment of the cells with the Rac1 agonist 2'‑O‑methyladenosine‑3',5'‑cyclic monophosphate (O‑Me‑cAMP) for 1 h using a pull‑down assay. Cell permeability was determined by the leakage rate of a fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescent marker protein. AGE‑HSA treatment resulted in alterations in the structure and distribution of F‑actin and cortactin in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner, while no effect was observed with HSA alone. The effect of AGE on the cytoskeleton was inhibited by the addition of O‑Me‑cAMP. AGE‑HSA significantly reduced the level of Rac1 activity (P<0.05); however, no effect was observed on total protein levels. Furthermore, AGE‑HSA treatment led to a significant increase in the permeability of endothelial cells (P<0.01), which was inhibited by O‑Me‑cAMP (P<0.01). The Rac1 signaling pathway is thus suggested to serve an important function in mediating AGE‑induced alterations in GEC morphology and function. PMID:25672514

    1. Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations. Volume 3: Guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1973-01-01

      Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations are presented. The space-shuttle mission includes three relatively distinct guidance phases which are discussed; atmospheric boost, which is characterized by an adaptive guidance law; extra-atmospheric activities; and re-entry activities, where aerodynamic surfaces are the principal effectors. Guidance tasks include pre-maneuver targeting and powered flight guidance, where powered flight is defined to include the application of aerodynamic forces as well as thruster forces. A flow chart which follows guidance activities throughout the mission from the pre-launch phase through touchdown is presented. The main guidance programs and subroutines used in each phase of a typical rendezvous mission are listed. Detailed software requirements are also presented.

    2. Numerical Skip-Entry Guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Tigges, Michael; Crull, Timothy; Rea, Jeremy; Johnson, Wyatt

      2006-01-01

      This paper assesses a preliminary guidance and targeting strategy for accomplishing Skip-Entry (SE) flight during a lunar return-capsule entry flight. One of the primary benefits of flying a SE trajectory is to provide the crew with continuous Continental United States (CONUS) landing site access throughout the lunar month. Without a SE capability, the capsule must land either in water or at one of several distributed land sites in the Southern Hemisphere for a significant portion of a lunar month using a landing and recovery scenario similar to that employed during the Apollo program. With a SE trajectory, the capsule can land either in water at a site in proximity to CONUS or at one of several distributed landing sites within CONUS, thereby simplifying the operational requirements for crew retrieval and vehicle recovery, and possibly enabling a high degree of vehicle reusability. Note that a SE capability does not require that the vehicle land on land. A SE capability enables a longer-range flight than a direct-entry flight, which permits the vehicle to land at a much greater distance from the Entry Interface (EI) point. This does not exclude using this approach to push the landing point to a water location in proximity of CONUS and utilizing water or airborne recovery forces.

    3. Optofluidic control of axonal guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gu, Ling; Ordonez, Simon; Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

      2013-03-01

      Significant efforts are being made for control on axonal guidance due to its importance in nerve regeneration and in the formation of functional neuronal circuitry in-vitro. These include several physical (topographic modification, optical force, and electric field), chemical (surface functionalization cues) and hybrid (electro-chemical, photochemical etc) methods. Here, we report comparison of the effect of linear flow versus microfluidic flow produced by an opticallydriven micromotor in guiding retinal ganglion axons. A circularly polarized laser tweezers was used to hold, position and spin birefringent calcite particle near growth cone, which in turn resulted in microfluidic flow. The flow rate and resulting shear-force on axons could be controlled by a varying the power of the laser tweezers beam. The calcite particles were placed separately in one chamber and single particle was transported through microfluidic channel to another chamber containing the retina explant. In presence of flow, the turning of axons was found to strongly correlate with the direction of flow. Turning angle as high as 90° was achieved. Optofluidic-manipulation can be applied to other types of mammalian neurons and also can be extended to stimulate mechano-sensing neurons.

    4. [Recipients adverse reactions: guidance supports].

      PubMed

      Bazin, A

      2010-12-01

      Since 1994, adverse effects of transfusion transmitted to the French haemovigilance network are registered on "e-fit", the database of the French agency for the safety of health products (Afssaps). In order to improve their analysis, guidance supports have been made by Afssaps working groups. Each support deals with a blood transfusion side effect and is composed of five parts including pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic criteria, management recommendations, etiologic investigations and rules of filing the notification form on e-fit. The major characteristics of sheets published or soon-to-be published are presented: transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection, non-haemolytic febrile reaction, allergic reaction, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, hypotensive transfusion reaction, alloimmunization, erythrocyte incompatibility reaction and hemosiderosis. These new supports give relevant guidelines allowing a better analysis and evaluation of recipients' adverse reactions, particularly their diagnosis, gravity and accountability. They could also initiate studies in European and international haemovigilance and transfusion networks. PMID:21051267

    5. 78 FR 54949 - Major Project Financial Plan Guidance

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-09-06

      ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Major Project Financial Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Major Project Financial Plan Guidance outlining the procedures the FHWA will follow when reviewing and approving Financial Plans. The proposed Major Project Financial Plan Guidance incorporates changes...

    6. Optimal guidance law in quantum mechanics

      SciTech Connect

      Yang, Ciann-Dong Cheng, Lieh-Lieh

      2013-11-15

      Following de Broglie’s idea of a pilot wave, this paper treats quantum mechanics as a problem of stochastic optimal guidance law design. The guidance scenario considered in the quantum world is that an electron is the flight vehicle to be guided and its accompanying pilot wave is the guidance law to be designed so as to guide the electron to a random target driven by the Wiener process, while minimizing a cost-to-go function. After solving the stochastic optimal guidance problem by differential dynamic programming, we point out that the optimal pilot wave guiding the particle’s motion is just the wavefunction Ψ(t,x), a solution to the Schrödinger equation; meanwhile, the closed-loop guidance system forms a complex state–space dynamics for Ψ(t,x), from which quantum operators emerge naturally. Quantum trajectories under the action of the optimal guidance law are solved and their statistical distribution is shown to coincide with the prediction of the probability density function Ψ{sup ∗}Ψ. -- Highlights: •Treating quantum mechanics as a pursuit-evasion game. •Reveal an interesting analogy between guided flight motion and guided quantum motion. •Solve optimal quantum guidance problem by dynamic programming. •Gives a formal proof of de Broglie–Bohm’s idea of a pilot wave. •The optimal pilot wave is shown to be a wavefunction solved from Schrödinger equation.

    7. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Considerations for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony

      2015-01-01

      The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Guidance, navigation, and control of NTP may have some unique but manageable characteristics.

    8. ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance System Window Manager Analysis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Whalen, Mike W.; Innis, John D.; Miller, Steven P.; Wagner, Lucas G.

      2006-01-01

      Recent advances in modeling languages have made it feasible to formally specify and analyze the behavior of large system components. Synchronous data flow languages, such as Lustre, SCR, and RSML-e are particularly well suited to this task, and commercial versions of these tools such as SCADE and Simulink are growing in popularity among designers of safety critical systems, largely due to their ability to automatically generate code from the models. At the same time, advances in formal analysis tools have made it practical to formally verify important properties of these models to ensure that design defects are identified and corrected early in the lifecycle. This report describes how these tools have been applied to the ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance Window Manager being developed by Rockwell Collins Inc. This work demonstrates how formal methods can be easily and cost-efficiently used to remove defects early in the design cycle.

    9. Advanced Glycation End Products Affect Osteoblast Proliferation and Function by Modulating Autophagy Via the Receptor of Advanced Glycation End Products/Raf Protein/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (RAGE/Raf/MEK/ERK) Pathway.

      PubMed

      Meng, Hong-Zheng; Zhang, Wei-Lin; Liu, Fei; Yang, Mao-Wei

      2015-11-20

      The interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor of AGEs (RAGE) is associated with the development and progression of diabetes-associated osteoporosis, but the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we found that AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) induced a biphasic effect on the viability of hFOB1.19 cells; cell proliferation was stimulated after exposure to low dose AGE-BSA, but cell apoptosis was stimulated after exposure to high dose AGE-BSA. The low dose AGE-BSA facilitates proliferation of hFOB1.19 cells by concomitantly promoting autophagy, RAGE production, and the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway activation. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of AGE-BSA on the function of hFOB1.19 cells. Interestingly, the results suggest that the short term effects of low dose AGE-BSA increase osteogenic function and decrease osteoclastogenic function, which are likely mediated by autophagy and the RAGE/Raf/MEK/ERK signal pathway. In contrast, with increased treatment time, the opposite effects were observed. Collectively, AGE-BSA had a biphasic effect on the viability of hFOB1.19 cells in vitro, which was determined by the concentration of AGE-BSA and treatment time. A low concentration of AGE-BSA activated the Raf/MEK/ERK signal pathway through the interaction with RAGE, induced autophagy, and regulated the proliferation and function of hFOB1.19 cells. PMID:26472922

    10. Core needle biopsy guidance based on EMOCT imaging (Conference Presentation)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Park, Jesung; Maguluri, Gopi

      2016-03-01

      We present a novel method, based on encoder mapping OCT imaging, for real-time guidance of core biopsy procedures. This method provides real-time feedback to the interventional radiologist, such that he/she can reorient the needle during the biopsy and sample the most representative area of the suspicious mass that is being investigated. This aspect is very important for tailoring therapy to the specific cancer based on biomarker analysis, which will become one of the next big advances in our search for the optimal cancer therapy. To enable individualized treatment, the genetic constitution and the DNA repair status in the affected areas is needed for each patient. Thus, representative sampling of the tumor is needed for analyzing various biomarkers, which are used as a tool to personalize cancer therapy. The encoder-based OCT enables samping of large size masses and provides full control on the imaging probe, which is passed through the bore of the biopsy guidance needle. The OCT image is built gradually, based on the feedback of an optical encoder which senses the incremental movement of the needle with a few microns resolution. Tissue mapping is independent of the needle speed, while it is advanced through the tissue. The OCT frame is analyzed in real-time and tissue cellularity is reported in a very simple manner (pie chart). Our preliminary study on a rabbit model of cancer has demonstrated the capability of this technology for accurately differentiating between viable cancer and heterogeneous or necrotic tissue.

    11. Aeroassist flight experiment guidance Quiet Time

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Striepe, Scott A.; Suit, William T.

      1988-01-01

      The science experiments for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) will be greatly enhanced by taking measurements with no Reaction Control System (RCS) contamination just before perigee. Methods of modifying the AFE guidance to accomplish this are discussed. Several methods that could give up to 30 seconds of quiet time were investigated and the results of these guidance modifications shown. A 20 second quiet time is definitely possible and a 30 second quiet time may be possible if the guidance can be inactive past perigee. Some of the most significant being the criterion for determining if the mission is threatened. A limited follow-on test program is outlined.

    12. Navigating through 'a labyrinth' of guidance.

      PubMed

      Pearson, Susan

      2014-09-01

      Devising a strategy to deliver safe water to thousands of outlets spread across numerous buildings is always going to be a challenge, so how do you navigate your way through a bewildering labyrinth of sometimes contradictory guidance documents? Is there, in fact, simply too much guidance? Posing this question at a recent one-day conference on waterborne infections in healthcare facilities, Paul Nolan, authorised water engineer (AE), and operations manager for PFI provider, Lend Lease, took delegates through a review of the latest guidance and regulations, as Susan Pearson reports. PMID:25282983

    13. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-07-20

      ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use... Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use.'' This guidance document describes a means by which focused ultrasound stimulator systems for aesthetic use may comply with...

    14. Travel guidance system for vehicles

      SciTech Connect

      Takanabe, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Ito, K.; Fujinami, H.

      1987-02-24

      A travel guidance system is described for vehicles including: a heading sensor for detecting a direction of movement of a vehicle; a distance sensor for detecting a distance traveled by the vehicle; a map data storage medium preliminarily storing map data; a control unit for receiving a heading signal from the heading sensor and a distance signal from the distance sensor to successively compute a present position of the vehicle and for generating video signals corresponding to display data including map data from the map data storage medium and data of the present position; and a display having first and second display portions and responsive to the video signals from the control unit to display on the first display portion a map and a present portion mark, in which: the map data storage medium comprises means for preliminarily storing administrative division name data and landmark data; and the control unit comprises: landmark display means for: (1) determining a landmark closest to the present position, (2) causing a position of the landmark to be displayed on the map and (3) retrieving a landmark massage concerning the landmark from the storage medium to cause the display to display the landmark message on the second display portion; division name display means for retrieving the name of an administrative division to which the present position belongs from the storage medium and causing the display to display a division name message on the second display portion; and selection means for selectively actuating at least one of the landmark display means and the division name display means.

    15. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-01-01

      ...)); RUS Bulletin 1794A-601 provides guidance in preparing the ER for proposed actions which require EAs... (§ 1794.22(b)) and EAs (§ 1794.23(b)). A copy of this bulletin is available upon request by contacting...

    16. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-01-01

      ...)); RUS Bulletin 1794A-601 provides guidance in preparing the ER for proposed actions which require EAs... (§ 1794.22(b)) and EAs (§ 1794.23(b)). A copy of this bulletin is available upon request by contacting...

    17. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-01-01

      ...)); RUS Bulletin 1794A-601 provides guidance in preparing the ER for proposed actions which require EAs... (§ 1794.22(b)) and EAs (§ 1794.23(b)). A copy of this bulletin is available upon request by contacting...

    18. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-01-01

      ...)); RUS Bulletin 1794A-601 provides guidance in preparing the ER for proposed actions which require EAs... (§ 1794.22(b)) and EAs (§ 1794.23(b)). A copy of this bulletin is available upon request by contacting...

    19. Delta launch vehicle inertial guidance system (DIGS)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Duck, K. I.

      1973-01-01

      The Delta inertial guidance system, part of the Delta launch vehicle improvement effort, has been flown on three launches and was found to perform as expected for a variety of mission profiles and vehicle configurations.

    20. 21 CFR 316.50 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ... USE ORPHAN DRUGS Availability of Information § 316.50 Guidance documents. FDA's Office of Orphan... Federal Register. A request for a copy of the list should be directed to the Office of Orphan...

    1. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ... Analysis, Stop 1522, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20250-1522. (b) Water and waste program... appropriate State Director. State Directors may provide supplemental guidance to meet state and local laws...

    2. SU-E-J-185: A Systematic Review of Breathing Guidance in Radiation Oncology and Radiology

      SciTech Connect

      Pollock, S; Keall, P; Keall, R

      2015-06-15

      Purpose: The advent of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has led to dramatic improvements in the accuracy of treatment delivery in radiotherapy. Such advancements have highlighted the deleterious impact tumor motion can have on both image quality and radiation treatment delivery. One approach to reducing tumor motion is the use of breathing guidance systems during imaging and treatment. A review of such research had not yet been performed, it was therefore our aim to perform a systematic review of breathing guidance interventions within the fields of radiation oncology and radiology. Methods: Results of online database searches were filtered in accordance to a set of eligibility criteria. The search, filtration, and analysis of articles were conducted in accordance with the PRISMAStatement reporting standard (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) utilizing the PICOS approach (Participants, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study design). Participants: Cancer patients, healthy volunteers. Intervention: Biofeedback breathing guidance systems. Comparison: No breathing guidance of the same breathing type. Outcome: Regularity of breathing signal and anatomic/tumor motion, medical image quality, radiation treatment margins and coverage, medical imaging and radiation treatment times. Study design: Quantitative and controlled prospective or retrospective trials. Results: The systematic search yielded a total of 479 articles, which were filtered down to 27 relevant articles in accordance to the eligibility criteria. The vast majority of investigated outcomes were significantly positively impacted by the use of breathing guidance; however, this was dependent upon the nature of the breathing guidance system and study design. In 25/27 studies significant improvements from the use of breathing guidance were observed. Conclusion: The results found here indicate that further clinical studies are warranted which quantify more comprehensively the

    3. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2012-03-09

      ...: Norovirus Serological Reagents.'' This guidance document describes a means by which norovirus serological... by following the recommendations in the guidance document or by some other means that...

    4. Soil screening guidance: User`s guide

      SciTech Connect

      1996-04-01

      The Soil Screening Guidance is a tool that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed to help standardize and accelerate the evaluation and cleanup of contaminated soils at sites on the National Priorities List (NPL) with future residential land use. This guidance provides a methodology for environmental science/engineering professionals to calculate risk-based, site-specific, soil screening levels (SSLs) for contaminants in soil that may be used to identify areas needing further investigation at NPL sites.

    5. A Comparison of Two Skip Entry Guidance Algorithms

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rea, Jeremy R.; Putnam, Zachary R.

      2007-01-01

      The Orion capsule vehicle will have a Lift-to-Drag ratio (L/D) of 0.3-0.35. For an Apollo-like direct entry into the Earth's atmosphere from a lunar return trajectory, this L/D will give the vehicle a maximum range of about 2500 nm and a maximum crossrange of 216 nm. In order to y longer ranges, the vehicle lift must be used to loft the trajectory such that the aerodynamic forces are decreased. A Skip-Trajectory results if the vehicle leaves the sensible atmosphere and a second entry occurs downrange of the atmospheric exit point. The Orion capsule is required to have landing site access (either on land or in water) inside the Continental United States (CONUS) for lunar returns anytime during the lunar month. This requirement means the vehicle must be capable of flying ranges of at least 5500 nm. For the L/D of the vehicle, this is only possible with the use of a guided Skip-Trajectory. A skip entry guidance algorithm is necessary to achieve this requirement. Two skip entry guidance algorithms have been developed: the Numerical Skip Entry Guidance (NSEG) algorithm was developed at NASA/JSC and PredGuid was developed at Draper Laboratory. A comparison of these two algorithms will be presented in this paper. Each algorithm has been implemented in a high-fidelity, 6 degree-of-freedom simulation called the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES). NASA and Draper engineers have completed several monte carlo analyses in order to compare the performance of each algorithm in various stress states. Each algorithm has been tested for entry-to-target ranges to include direct entries and skip entries of varying length. Dispersions have been included on the initial entry interface state, vehicle mass properties, vehicle aerodynamics, atmosphere, and Reaction Control System (RCS). Performance criteria include miss distance to the target, RCS fuel usage, maximum g-loads and heat rates for the first and second entry, total heat load, and control

    6. SRNL ALL-PATHWAYS APPLICATION

      SciTech Connect

      Koffman, L; Elmer Wilhite, E; Leonard Collard, L

      2007-05-29

      The Environmental Analysis and Performance Modeling group of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs performance assessments of the Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level waste facilities to meet the requirements of DOE Order 435.1. One of the performance objectives in the DOE Order is that the radiological dose to representative members of the public shall not exceed 25 mrem in a year total effective dose equivalent from all exposure pathways, excluding radon. Analysis to meet this performance objective is generally referred to as all-pathways analysis. SRNL performs detailed transient groundwater transport analysis for the waste disposal units, which has been used as input for the groundwater part of all-pathways analysis. The desire to better integrate all-pathways analysis with the groundwater transport analysis lead to the development of a software application named the SRNL All-Pathways Application. Another requirement of DOE Order 435.1 is to assess the impact of nuclear waste disposal on water resources, which SRS has interpreted for groundwater protection as meeting the EPA regulations for radionuclides in drinking water. EPA specifies four separate criteria as part of their implementation guidance for radionuclides, which are specified as maximum contaminant levels (MCL). (1) Beta/gamma emitters have a combined dose limit of 4 mrem/year. (2) Alpha emitters have a combined concentration limit of 15 pCi/L (called gross alpha), excluding uranium and radon, but including radium-226. (3) Combined radium-226 and radium-228 have a concentration limit of 5 pCi/L. (4) Isotopes of uranium have a combined concentration limit of 30 {micro}g/L. The All-Pathways Application was designed to be an easy-to-use software application that utilizes transient concentration results from groundwater transport analysis to (1) calculate the groundwater part of all-pathways dose and to (2) evaluate the four EPA criteria for groundwater protection.

    7. Molecular pathways in dystonia

      PubMed Central

      Bragg, D. Cristopher; Armata, Ioanna A.; Nery, Flavia C.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Sharma, Nutan

      2011-01-01

      The hereditary dystonias comprise a set of diseases defined by a common constellation of motor deficits. These disorders are most likely associated with different molecular etiologies, many of which have yet to be elucidated. Here we discuss recent advances in three forms of hereditary dystonia, DYT1, DYT6 and DYT16, which share a similar clinical picture: onset in childhood or adolescence, progressive spread of symptoms with generalized involvement of body regions and a steady state affliction without treatment. Unlike DYT1, the genes responsible for DYT6 and DYT16 have only recently been identified, with relatively little information about the function of the encoded proteins. Nevertheless, recent data suggest that these proteins may fit together within interacting pathways involved in dopaminergic signaling, transcriptional regulation, and cellular stress responses. This review focuses on these molecular pathways, highlighting potential common themes among these dystonias which may serve as areas for future research. PMID:21134457

    8. Mushroom body defect is required in parallel to Netrin for midline axon guidance in Drosophila

      PubMed Central

      Cate, Marie-Sophie; Gajendra, Sangeetha; Alsbury, Samantha; Raabe, Thomas; Tear, Guy; Mitchell, Kevin J.

      2016-01-01

      The outgrowth of many neurons within the central nervous system is initially directed towards or away from the cells lying at the midline. Recent genetic evidence suggests that a simple model of differential sensitivity to the conserved Netrin attractants and Slit repellents is insufficient to explain the guidance of all axons at the midline. In the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord, many axons still cross the midline in the absence of the Netrin genes (NetA and NetB) or their receptor frazzled. Here we show that mutation of mushroom body defect (mud) dramatically enhances the phenotype of Netrin or frazzled mutants, resulting in many more axons failing to cross the midline, although mutations in mud alone have little effect. This suggests that mud, which encodes a microtubule-binding coiled-coil protein homologous to NuMA and LIN-5, is an essential component of a Netrin-independent pathway that acts in parallel to promote midline crossing. We demonstrate that this novel role of Mud in axon guidance is independent of its previously described role in neural precursor development. These studies identify a parallel pathway controlling midline guidance in Drosophila and highlight a novel role for Mud potentially acting downstream of Frizzled to aid axon guidance. PMID:26893348

    9. Mushroom body defect is required in parallel to Netrin for midline axon guidance in Drosophila.

      PubMed

      Cate, Marie-Sophie; Gajendra, Sangeetha; Alsbury, Samantha; Raabe, Thomas; Tear, Guy; Mitchell, Kevin J

      2016-03-15

      The outgrowth of many neurons within the central nervous system is initially directed towards or away from the cells lying at the midline. Recent genetic evidence suggests that a simple model of differential sensitivity to the conserved Netrin attractants and Slit repellents is insufficient to explain the guidance of all axons at the midline. In the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord, many axons still cross the midline in the absence of the Netrin genes (NetA and NetB) or their receptor frazzled. Here we show that mutation of mushroom body defect (mud) dramatically enhances the phenotype of Netrin or frazzled mutants, resulting in many more axons failing to cross the midline, although mutations in mud alone have little effect. This suggests that mud, which encodes a microtubule-binding coiled-coil protein homologous to NuMA and LIN-5, is an essential component of a Netrin-independent pathway that acts in parallel to promote midline crossing. We demonstrate that this novel role of Mud in axon guidance is independent of its previously described role in neural precursor development. These studies identify a parallel pathway controlling midline guidance in Drosophila and highlight a novel role for Mud potentially acting downstream of Frizzled to aid axon guidance. PMID:26893348

    10. A midline switch of receptor processing regulates commissural axon guidance in vertebrates

      PubMed Central

      Nawabi, Homaira; Briançon-Marjollet, Anne; Clark, Christopher; Sanyas, Isabelle; Takamatsu, Hyota; Okuno, Tatsusada; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Bozon, Muriel; Takeshima, Kaori; Yoshida, Yutaka; Moret, Frédéric; Abouzid, Karima; Castellani, Valérie

      2010-01-01

      Commissural axon guidance requires complex modulations of growth cone sensitivity to midline-derived cues, but underlying mechanisms in vertebrates remain largely unknown. By using combinations of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we uncovered a molecular pathway controlling the gain of response to a midline repellent, Semaphorin3B (Sema3B). First, we provide evidence that Semaphorin3B/Plexin-A1 signaling participates in the guidance of commissural projections at the vertebrate ventral midline. Second, we show that, at the precrossing stage, commissural neurons synthesize the Neuropilin-2 and Plexin-A1 Semaphorin3B receptor subunits, but Plexin-A1 expression is prevented by a calpain1-mediated processing, resulting in silencing commissural responsiveness. Third, we report that, during floor plate (FP) in-growth, calpain1 activity is suppressed by local signals, allowing Plexin-A1 accumulation in the growth cone and sensitization to Sema3B. Finally, we show that the FP cue NrCAM mediates the switch of Plexin-A1 processing underlying growth cone sensitization to Sema3B. This reveals pathway-dependent modulation of guidance receptor processing as a novel mechanism for regulating guidance decisions at intermediate targets. PMID:20159958

    11. A midline switch of receptor processing regulates commissural axon guidance in vertebrates.

      PubMed

      Nawabi, Homaira; Briançon-Marjollet, Anne; Clark, Christopher; Sanyas, Isabelle; Takamatsu, Hyota; Okuno, Tatsusada; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Bozon, Muriel; Takeshima, Kaori; Yoshida, Yutaka; Moret, Frédéric; Abouzid, Karima; Castellani, Valérie

      2010-02-15

      Commissural axon guidance requires complex modulations of growth cone sensitivity to midline-derived cues, but underlying mechanisms in vertebrates remain largely unknown. By using combinations of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we uncovered a molecular pathway controlling the gain of response to a midline repellent, Semaphorin3B (Sema3B). First, we provide evidence that Semaphorin3B/Plexin-A1 signaling participates in the guidance of commissural projections at the vertebrate ventral midline. Second, we show that, at the precrossing stage, commissural neurons synthesize the Neuropilin-2 and Plexin-A1 Semaphorin3B receptor subunits, but Plexin-A1 expression is prevented by a calpain1-mediated processing, resulting in silencing commissural responsiveness. Third, we report that, during floor plate (FP) in-growth, calpain1 activity is suppressed by local signals, allowing Plexin-A1 accumulation in the growth cone and sensitization to Sema3B. Finally, we show that the FP cue NrCAM mediates the switch of Plexin-A1 processing underlying growth cone sensitization to Sema3B. This reveals pathway-dependent modulation of guidance receptor processing as a novel mechanism for regulating guidance decisions at intermediate targets. PMID:20159958

    12. 76 FR 61098 - Guidance for 1-Hour SO2

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-10-03

      ...Notice is hereby given that the EPA has posted its draft non- binding guidance titled, ``Guidance for 1-Hour SO2 NAAQS SIP Submissions'' on its Web site. The EPA invites public comments on this guidance document during the comment period specified below, and plans to issue an updated version of the guidance after reviewing timely submitted...

    13. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

      2015-01-01

      Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

    14. Earlier Guidance Opportunities: Priorities for the 1970's.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Nemec, William E., Ed.

      "Earlier Guidance Opportunities (EGO): Priorities for the 1970's" was the topic for this Ohio Elementary Guidance Conference. In his keynote address entitled "New Perspectives on the Guidance of Younger Children - Can We Afford to Delay Vocational Guidance?" Dr. George E. Hill used EGO to say, "Education Gives Opportunity,""Ego's Grow on…

    15. Launch flexibility using NLP guidance and remote wind sensing

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

      1990-01-01

      This paper examines the use of lidar wind measurements in the implementation of a guidance strategy for a nonlinear programming (NLP) launch guidance algorithm. The NLP algorithm uses B-spline command function representation for flexibility in the design of the guidance steering commands. Using this algorithm, the guidance system solves a two-point boundary value problem at each guidance update. The specification of different boundary value problems at each guidance update provides flexibility that can be used in the design of the guidance strategy. The algorithm can use lidar wind measurements for on pad guidance retargeting and for load limiting guidance steering commands. Examples presented in the paper use simulated wind updates to correct wind induced final orbit errors and to adjust the guidance steering commands to limit the product of the dynamic pressure and angle-of-attack for launch vehicle load alleviation.

    16. Behavior guidance techniques in Pediatric Dentistry: attitudes of parents of children with disabilities and without disabilities.

      PubMed

      de Castro, Alessandra Maia; de Oliveira, Fabiana Sodré; de Paiva Novaes, Myrian Stella; Araújo Ferreira, Danielly Cunha

      2013-01-01

      This study compared the parental acceptance of pediatric behavior guidance techniques (BGT). Forty parents of children without disabilities (Group A) and another 40 parents of children with disabilities (Group B) were selected. Each BGT was explained by a single examiner and it was presented together with a photograph album. After that parents evaluated the acceptance in: totally unacceptable, somewhat acceptable, acceptable, and totally acceptable. Results indicated that in Group A, the BGT based on communicative guidance was accepted by most participants. In Group B, just one mother considered totally unacceptable the voice control method and other two, tell-show-do. For both groups, the general anesthesia was the less accepted BGT. There was statistically significant difference in acceptance for protective stabilization with a restrictive device in Group B. Children's parents with and without disabilities accepted behavioral guidance techniques, but basic techniques showed higher rates of acceptance than advanced techniques. PMID:23980553

    17. 78 FR 37231 - Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-06-20

      ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``ANDAs: Stability Testing of Drug Substances and Products.'' FDA is recommending generic drug manufacturers follow the stability testing recommendations in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidances Q1A (R2) through Q1E. The use of these ICH recommendations will......

    18. Raising the Profile of Career Guidance: Educational and Vocational Guidance Practitioner

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hiebert, Bryan

      2009-01-01

      In 2007 the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG) launched the Educational and Vocational Guidance Practitioner credential (EVGP) as one means of formally acknowledging the knowledge, skills, and personal attributes that practitioners need in order to provide quality career development services to clients. This…

    19. FACILITATING LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT, TOWARD A THEORY FOR ELEMENTARY GUIDANCE. MINNESOTA GUIDANCE SERIES.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      GRAMS, ARMIN

      A THEORY UPON WHICH ELEMENTARY GUIDANCE PROGRAMS CAN BE SOUNDLY DESIGNED IS PRESENTED. A MAJOR THEME IS THAT PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OR GOOD ADJUSTMENT IS RELATED TO LEARNED, INDIVIDUAL COMPETENCIES SUCH AS COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION IN DEPTH WITH OTHERS. THE APPROPRIATE CONCERN OF GUIDANCE THEN BECOMES TO FOSTER THESE COMPETENCIES, THUS…

    20. Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures; Federal Guidance Report No. 14

      EPA Science Inventory

      Federal Guidance Report No. 14 provides federal facilities that use diagnostic and interventional x-ray equipment with updated recommendations for keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable without compromising the quality of patient care, This guidance is an update of Federal...

    1. Lumbar Catheter Placement Using Paramedian Approach Under Fluoroscopic Guidance

      PubMed Central

      Qureshi, Adnan I.; Khan, Asif A.; Malik, Ahmed A.; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Herial, Nabeel A.; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Suri, M. Fareed K.

      2016-01-01

      Background Lumbar catheter placement under fluoroscopic guidance may reduce the rate of technical failures and associated complications seen with insertion guided by manually palpable landmarks. Methods We reviewed our experience with 43 attempted lumbar catheter placements using paramedian approach under fluoroscopic guidance and ascertained rates of technical success, and clinical events. Results Among the 43 patients, 18, 1, and 1 patients were on aspirin (with dipyrimadole in 2), clopidogrel, and combination of both, respectively. Lumbar catheter placement was successful in 42 of 43 attempted placements. Floroscopic guidance was critical in three patients; one patient had severe cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) depletion (empty thecal sac phenomenon) following pituitary surgery leading to no cerebrospinal fluid return despite correct placement confirmation under fluoroscopy. Two patients had spinal needle placement at the junction between epidural and cerebrospinal fluid spaces (junctional position) leading to cerebrospinal fluid return but inability to introduce the lumbar catheter. After confirmation of position by the injection of contrast or radiographic landmarks the needle was advanced by indenting the subcutaneous tissue or reinserting at a spinal level above the first insertion. The lumbar catheter remained in position over a mean period (±standard deviation) of 4.1(±2.3) days. Improvement in hydrocephalus was seen in two patients with intracranial mass lesions. One patient developed cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the insertion track following removal of catheter and required skin suturing at the site of insertion. Conclusions We observed a high technical success rate with low rate of complications even in patients with intracranial mass lesions, those on ongoing antiplatelet medications or in whom insertion would not be possible guided by manually palpable landmarks. PMID:26958156

    2. A CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATING GUIDANCE FOR EVALUATING LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS FROM CLOSED OR ABANDONED FACILITIES--SOUTH KINGSTOWN, RHODE ISLAND

      EPA Science Inventory

      The report describes a case study that applies EPA/600/R-05/123a, the guidance for conducting air pathway analyses of landfill gas emissions that are of interest to superfund remedial project managers, on-scene coordinators, facility owners, and potentially responsible parties. T...

    3. Measuring Integrated Socioemotional Guidance at School: Factor Structure and Reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire (SEG-Q)

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jacobs, Karen; Struyf, Elke

      2013-01-01

      Socioemotional guidance of students has recently become an integral part of education, however no instrument exists to measure integrated socioemotional guidance. This study therefore examines the factor structure and reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire and…

    4. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      1996-05-01

      This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While the requirements in DOE-STD-6002-96 are generally applicable to a wide range of fusion facilities, this Standard, DOE-STD-6003-96, is concerned mainly with the implementation of those requirements in large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This Standard is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment as opposed to regulation by other regulatory agencies. As the need for guidance involving other types of fusion facilities or other regulatory environments emerges, additional guidance volumes should be prepared. The concepts, processes, and recommendations set forth here are for guidance only. They will contribute to safety at magnetic fusion facilities.

    5. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

      2011-01-01

      Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

    6. Method for continuous guidance of endoscopy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Merritt, Scott A.; Rai, Lav; Gibbs, Jason D.; Yu, Kun-Chang; Higgins, William E.

      2007-03-01

      Previous research has indicated that use of guidance systems during endoscopy can improve the performance and decrease the skill variation of physicians. Current guidance systems, however, rely on computationally intensive registration techniques or costly and error-prone electromagnetic (E/M) registration techniques, neither of which fit seamlessly into the clinical workflow. We have previously proposed a real-time image-based registration technique that addresses both of these problems. We now propose a system-level approach that incorporates this technique into a complete paradigm for real-time image-based guidance in order to provide a physician with continuously-updated navigational and guidance information. At the core of the system is a novel strategy for guidance of endoscopy. Additional elements such as global surface rendering, local cross-sectional views, and pertinent distances are also incorporated into the system to provide additional utility to the physician. Phantom results were generated using bronchoscopy performed on a rapid prototype model of a human tracheobronchial airway tree. The system has also been tested in ongoing live human tests. Thus far, ten such tests, focused on bronchoscopic intervention of pulmonary patients, have been run successfully.

    7. Constrained reconstructions for 4D intervention guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kuntz, J.; Flach, B.; Kueres, R.; Semmler, W.; Kachelrieß, M.; Bartling, S.

      2013-05-01

      Image-guided interventions are an increasingly important part of clinical minimally invasive procedures. However, up to now they cannot be performed under 4D (3D + time) guidance due to the exceedingly high x-ray dose. In this work we investigate the applicability of compressed sensing reconstructions for highly undersampled CT datasets combined with the incorporation of prior images in order to yield low dose 4D intervention guidance. We present a new reconstruction scheme prior image dynamic interventional CT (PrIDICT) that accounts for specific image features in intervention guidance and compare it to PICCS and ASD-POCS. The optimal parameters for the dose per projection and the numbers of projections per reconstruction are determined in phantom simulations and measurements. In vivo experiments in six pigs are performed in a cone-beam CT; measured doses are compared to current gold-standard intervention guidance represented by a clinical fluoroscopy system. Phantom studies show maximum image quality for identical overall doses in the range of 14 to 21 projections per reconstruction. In vivo studies reveal that interventional materials can be followed in 4D visualization and that PrIDICT, compared to PICCS and ASD-POCS, shows superior reconstruction results and fewer artifacts in the periphery with dose in the order of biplane fluoroscopy. These results suggest that 4D intervention guidance can be realized with today’s flat detector and gantry systems using the herein presented reconstruction scheme.

    8. Concordant Signaling Pathways Produced by Pesticide Exposure in Mice Correspond to Pathways Identified in Human Parkinson's Disease

      PubMed Central

      Gollamudi, Seema; Johri, Ashu; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Yang, Lichuan; Elemento, Olivier; Beal, M. Flint

      2012-01-01

      Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which the etiology of 90 percent of the patients is unknown. Pesticide exposure is a major risk factor for PD, and paraquat (PQ), pyridaben (PY) and maneb (MN) are amongst the most widely used pesticides. We studied mRNA expression using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) in the ventral midbrain (VMB) and striatum (STR) of PQ, PY and paraquat+maneb (MNPQ) treated mice, followed by pathway analysis. We found concordance of signaling pathways between the three pesticide models in both the VMB and STR as well as concordance in these two brain areas. The concordant signaling pathways with relevance to PD pathogenesis were e.g. axonal guidance signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as well as pathways not previously linked to PD, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, human embryonic stem cell pluripotency and role of macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelial cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Human PD pathways previously identified by expression analysis, concordant with VMB pathways identified in our study were axonal guidance signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, IL-6 signaling, ephrin receptor signaling, TGF-β signaling, PPAR signaling and G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Human PD pathways concordant with the STR pathways in our study were Wnt/β-catenin signaling, axonal guidance signaling and G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (Ppard) and G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) were common genes in VMB and STR identified by network analysis. In conclusion, the pesticides PQ, PY and MNPQ elicit common signaling pathways in the VMB and STR in mice, which are concordant with known signaling pathways identified in human PD, suggesting that these pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic PD. The analysis of these networks and pathways may therefore lead to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis, and potential novel therapeutic targets. PMID:22563483

    9. The Career Pathways How-To Guide

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jenkins, Davis; Spence, Christopher

      2006-01-01

      Career pathways is a series of connected education and training programs and support services that enable individuals to secure employment within a specific industry or occupational sector, and to advance over time to successively higher levels of education and employment in that sector. Career pathways are distinct from most educational efforts…

    10. Biomaterials for the Development of Peripheral Nerve Guidance Conduits

      PubMed Central

      Nectow, Alexander R.; Marra, Kacey G.

      2012-01-01

      Currently, surgical treatments for peripheral nerve injury are less than satisfactory. The gold standard of treatment for peripheral nerve gaps >5 mm is the autologous nerve graft; however, this treatment is associated with a variety of clinical complications, such as donor site morbidity, limited availability, nerve site mismatch, and the formation of neuromas. Despite many recent advances in the field, clinical studies implementing the use of artificial nerve guides have yielded results that are yet to surpass those of autografts. Thus, the development of a nerve guidance conduit, which could match the effectiveness of the autologous nerve graft, would be beneficial to the field of peripheral nerve surgery. Design strategies to improve surgical outcomes have included the development of biopolymers and synthetic polymers as primary scaffolds with tailored mechanical and physical properties, luminal “fillers” such as laminin and fibronectin as secondary internal scaffolds, surface micropatterning, stem cell inclusion, and controlled release of neurotrophic factors. The current article highlights approaches to peripheral nerve repair through a channel or conduit, implementing chemical and physical growth and guidance cues to direct that repair process. PMID:21812591

    11. Quantifying mechanical force in axonal growth and guidance

      PubMed Central

      Athamneh, Ahmad I. M.; Suter, Daniel M.

      2015-01-01

      Mechanical force plays a fundamental role in neuronal development, physiology, and regeneration. In particular, research has shown that force is involved in growth cone-mediated axonal growth and guidance as well as stretch-induced elongation when an organism increases in size after forming initial synaptic connections. However, much of the details about the exact role of force in these fundamental processes remain unknown. In this review, we highlight: (1) standing questions concerning the role of mechanical force in axonal growth and guidance; and (2) different experimental techniques used to quantify forces in axons and growth cones. We believe that satisfying answers to these questions will require quantitative information about the relationship between elongation, forces, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport, signaling, substrate adhesion, and stiffness contributing to directional growth advance. Furthermore, we address why a wide range of force values have been reported in the literature, and what these values mean in the context of neuronal mechanics. We hope that this review will provide a guide for those interested in studying the role of force in development and regeneration of neuronal networks. PMID:26441530

    12. Simulation evaluation of a low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system adapted for a helmet-mounted display

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Swenson, Harry N.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Dearing, Munro G.

      1992-01-01

      A computer aiding concept for low-altitude helicopter flight was developed and evaluated in a real-time piloted simulation. The concept included an optimal control trajectory-generation algorithm based upon dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and advanced navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. The pilot evaluation was conducted at NASA ARC moving base Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) by pilots representing NASA, the U.S. Army, the Air Force, and the helicopter industry. The pilots manually tracked the trajectory generated by the algorithm utilizing the HMD symbology. The pilots were able to satisfactorily perform the tracking tasks while maintaining a high degree of awareness of the outside world.

    13. VTOL shipboard letdown guidance system analysis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.

      1983-01-01

      Alternative letdown guidance strategies are examined for landing of a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off line computer simulation of shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. The touchdown performance of a nominal constant rate of descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes. Analysis of ship motion time histories indicates the existence of an alternating sequence of quiescent and rough motions called lulls and swells. A real time algorithms lull/swell classification based upon ship motion pattern features is developed. The classification algorithm is used to command a go/no go signal to indicate the initiation and termination of an acceptable landing window. Simulation results show that such a go/no go pattern based letdown guidance strategy improves touchdown performance.

    14. Connecting with guidance counselors to enhance recruitment into nursing of minority teens.

      PubMed

      Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Sackett, Kay; Whistler, M Patricia

      2008-01-01

      The purpose of this article was to describe the design, implementation, and outcomes of one strategy used to promote careers in nursing among minority high-school-aged teens-namely, a workshop for guidance counselors in a large urban school system. All guidance counselors in an urban inner city school system were invited to attend a workshop on careers in nursing as part of their monthly continuing education requirements. Thirty-nine (39%) participated in the half-day workshop held at a school of nursing. Most informative were the guidance counselor comments about perceptions of nursing careers that create barriers to recruitment. Guidance counselors reported that (a) many students and parents view nursing as a "dangerous field," (b) negative stereotypes about nursing persist, (c) many students do not plan for the prerequisites for baccalaureate entrance, (d) nursing is perceived as a "narrow" field with few opportunities for advancement, and (e) there is a preference of 2-year programs to get "quick income" over baccalaureate programs and long-term career planning. Faculty and students addressed these issues. Faculty collaboration with guidance counselors is an excellent mechanism to uncover barriers to minority recruitment at the local level. Nursing recruitment activities should be tailored to address these community concerns. In the last 4 years, 24 students from the targeted high school system were offered admission to the University at Buffalo and of this group 17 enrolled in nursing. PMID:19022212

    15. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

      PubMed

      Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

      2015-07-01

      Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

    16. Development of mining guidance and control systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1979-01-01

      New fundamental interface sensor concepts were identified and investigated including tabulation of the physical and performance characteristics of two new interface detector concepts: - natural background radiation and magnetic spin resonance. Studies of guidance and control techniques for the longwall miner identified three basic systems for use in automated/remote controlled longwall mining. The following projects were initiated: system study which will more completely define the longwall guidance and control system design concepts; integration of the various control functions (vertical, yaw, and roll); and hardware technical requirements.

    17. Virtual Ultrasound Guidance for Inexperienced Operators

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Caine, Timothy; Martin, David

      2012-01-01

      Medical ultrasound or echocardiographic studies are highly operator-dependent and generally require lengthy training and internship to perfect. To obtain quality echocardiographic images in remote environments, such as on-orbit, remote guidance of studies has been employed. This technique involves minimal training for the user, coupled with remote guidance from an expert. When real-time communication or expert guidance is not available, a more autonomous system of guiding an inexperienced operator through an ultrasound study is needed. One example would be missions beyond low Earth orbit in which the time delay inherent with communication will make remote guidance impractical. The Virtual Ultrasound Guidance system is a combination of hardware and software. The hardware portion includes, but is not limited to, video glasses that allow hands-free, full-screen viewing. The glasses also allow the operator a substantial field of view below the glasses to view and operate the ultrasound system. The software is a comprehensive video program designed to guide an inexperienced operator through a detailed ultrasound or echocardiographic study without extensive training or guidance from the ground. The program contains a detailed description using video and audio to demonstrate equipment controls, ergonomics of scanning, study protocol, and scanning guidance, including recovery from sub-optimal images. The components used in the initial validation of the system include an Apple iPod Classic third-generation as the video source, and Myvue video glasses. Initially, the program prompts the operator to power-up the ultrasound and position the patient. The operator would put on the video glasses and attach them to the video source. After turning on both devices and the ultrasound system, the audio-video guidance would then instruct on patient positioning and scanning techniques. A detailed scanning protocol follows with descriptions and reference video of each view along with

    18. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

      PubMed Central

      Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

      2015-01-01

      Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

    19. Ship motion pattern directed VTOL letdown guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.; Paulk, C. H., Jr.

      1983-01-01

      This paper examines ship motion pattern directed letdown guidance strategies for landing a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off-line computer simulation of the shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. A sum of seventy sinusoids representation is used to model the ship motion time histories. The touchdown performance of a nonimal constant-rate-of-descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes.

    20. CNES Approaching Guidance Experiment within FFIORD

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Berges, Jean-Claude; Cayeux, Philippe; Gaudel-Vacaresse, Angelique; Meyssignac, Benoit

      2007-01-01

      This article outlines the relative orbit control (guidance algorithm and its preliminary performance tests evaluation) that will be tested by the CNES Team on FFIORD (Formation Flying In Orbit Ranging Demonstration) onboard PRISMA mission. After a brief summary of the PRISMA mission context, the paper provides a full description of the rendezvous function involved in the approaching guidance experiment. This FFIORD onboard function is detailed in terms of on-board algorithmic method (basic algorithm and enhanced alternative), sensibility analysis used to construct maneuver plans and preliminary tests results.

    1. POTW sludge sampling and analysis guidance document

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1989-08-01

      In view of the variability of municipal sludge quality, appropriate procedures must be followed to collect and analyze samples that accurately represent each POTW's sludge quality. The manual was developed to provide that guidance to POTW operators, engineers, managers, chemists and permit writers. It was intended to provide guidance in developing and implementing a sampling and analysis program, to gather information on sludge quality and determine compliance with permit conditions. The manual is based on current, state-of-the-art field and laboratory practices and therefore is recommended for all sludge sampling and analysis programs.

    2. Aerospace plane guidance using geometric control theory

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Van Buren, Mark A.; Mease, Kenneth D.

      1990-01-01

      A reduced-order method employing decomposition, based on time-scale separation, of the 4-D state space in a 2-D slow manifold and a family of 2-D fast manifolds is shown to provide an excellent approximation to the full-order minimum-fuel ascent trajectory. Near-optimal guidance is obtained by tracking the reduced-order trajectory. The tracking problem is solved as regulation problems on the family of fast manifolds, using the exact linearization methodology from nonlinear geometric control theory. The validity of the overall guidance approach is indicated by simulation.

    3. Ascent guidance algorithm using lidar wind measurements

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

      1990-01-01

      The formulation of a general nonlinear programming guidance algorithm that incorporates wind measurements in the computation of ascent guidance steering commands is discussed. A nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm that is designed to solve a very general problem has the potential to address the diversity demanded by future launch systems. Using B-splines for the command functional form allows the NLP algorithm to adjust the shape of the command profile to achieve optimal performance. The algorithm flexibility is demonstrated by simulation of ascent with dynamic loading constraints through a set of random wind profiles with and without wind sensing capability.

    4. Reactome from a WikiPathways Perspective.

      PubMed

      Bohler, Anwesha; Wu, Guanming; Kutmon, Martina; Pradhana, Leontius Adhika; Coort, Susan L; Hanspers, Kristina; Haw, Robin; Pico, Alexander R; Evelo, Chris T

      2016-05-01

      Reactome and WikiPathways are two of the most popular freely available databases for biological pathways. Reactome pathways are centrally curated with periodic input from selected domain experts. WikiPathways is a community-based platform where pathways are created and continually curated by any interested party. The nascent collaboration between WikiPathways and Reactome illustrates the mutual benefits of combining these two approaches. We created a format converter that converts Reactome pathways to the GPML format used in WikiPathways. In addition, we developed the ComplexViz plugin for PathVisio which simplifies looking up complex components. The plugin can also score the complexes on a pathway based on a user defined criterion. This score can then be visualized on the complex nodes using the visualization options provided by the plugin. Using the merged collection of curated and converted Reactome pathways, we demonstrate improved pathway coverage of relevant biological processes for the analysis of a previously described polycystic ovary syndrome gene expression dataset. Additionally, this conversion allows researchers to visualize their data on Reactome pathways using PathVisio's advanced data visualization functionalities. WikiPathways benefits from the dedicated focus and attention provided to the content converted from Reactome and the wealth of semantic information about interactions. Reactome in turn benefits from the continuous community curation available on WikiPathways. The research community at large benefits from the availability of a larger set of pathways for analysis in PathVisio and Cytoscape. The pathway statistics results obtained from PathVisio are significantly better when using a larger set of candidate pathways for analysis. The conversion serves as a general model for integration of multiple pathway resources developed using different approaches. PMID:27203685

    5. Reactome from a WikiPathways Perspective

      PubMed Central

      Bohler, Anwesha; Wu, Guanming; Pradhana, Leontius Adhika; Hanspers, Kristina; Haw, Robin; Pico, Alexander R.

      2016-01-01

      Reactome and WikiPathways are two of the most popular freely available databases for biological pathways. Reactome pathways are centrally curated with periodic input from selected domain experts. WikiPathways is a community-based platform where pathways are created and continually curated by any interested party. The nascent collaboration between WikiPathways and Reactome illustrates the mutual benefits of combining these two approaches. We created a format converter that converts Reactome pathways to the GPML format used in WikiPathways. In addition, we developed the ComplexViz plugin for PathVisio which simplifies looking up complex components. The plugin can also score the complexes on a pathway based on a user defined criterion. This score can then be visualized on the complex nodes using the visualization options provided by the plugin. Using the merged collection of curated and converted Reactome pathways, we demonstrate improved pathway coverage of relevant biological processes for the analysis of a previously described polycystic ovary syndrome gene expression dataset. Additionally, this conversion allows researchers to visualize their data on Reactome pathways using PathVisio’s advanced data visualization functionalities. WikiPathways benefits from the dedicated focus and attention provided to the content converted from Reactome and the wealth of semantic information about interactions. Reactome in turn benefits from the continuous community curation available on WikiPathways. The research community at large benefits from the availability of a larger set of pathways for analysis in PathVisio and Cytoscape. The pathway statistics results obtained from PathVisio are significantly better when using a larger set of candidate pathways for analysis. The conversion serves as a general model for integration of multiple pathway resources developed using different approaches. PMID:27203685

    6. Micropylar pollen tube guidance and burst: adapted from defense mechanisms?

      PubMed

      Dresselhaus, Thomas; Márton, Mihaela L

      2009-12-01

      After the first description of fertilization in flowering plants some 125 years ago (Strasburger E: Neue-Untersuchungen über den Befruchtungsvorgang bei den Phanerogamen als Grundlage für eine Theorie der Zeugung. Gustav Fischer; 1884), we are finally beginning to understand the various molecular mechanisms leading to sperm delivery and discharge inside the hidden micropylar region of the female gametophyte (embryo sac). The last phase of pollen tube guidance culminating in tube burst and explosive release of tube contents requires extensive crosstalk between both male and female gametophytes. The first molecules identified that play key roles in these processes represent highly polymorphic proteins, similar to major components of the plant innate immune system. Here we summarize recent advances and briefly discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms also in respect to prezygotic barriers of reproductive isolation. PMID:19896414

    7. Functional MR imaging as a new paradigm for image guidance.

      PubMed

      Assumpcao, Lia; Choti, Michael; Pawlik, Timothy M; Gecshwind, Jean-Francois; Kamel, Ihab R

      2009-11-01

      Guidance and monitoring of locoregional minimally invasive treatment for primary or secondary liver tumor are critical to ensuring success and efficacy of therapy. In this article, we review advanced MR imaging techniques, including MR spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion MR imaging, which can provide essential in vivo physiologic and metabolic information. These innovative imaging techniques can provide potential additional criteria to assess tumor response in addition to the accepted yet often limited Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria, which are based on decrease of tumor size and lesion enhancement, respectively. In this article, we also discuss the role of tumor size and enhancement in addition to apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings after radiofrequency ablation (RFA), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and radioembolization. PMID:19048335

    8. Advancing molecular-guided surgery through probe development and testing in a moderate cost evaluation pipeline

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Hull, Sally M.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason; Hoopes, Jack; Roberts, David W.; Strong, Theresa V.; Draney, Daniel; Feldwisch, Joachim

      2015-03-01

      Molecular guided oncology surgery has the potential to transform the way decisions about resection are done, and can be critically important in areas such as neurosurgery where the margins of tumor relative to critical normal tissues are not readily apparent from visual or palpable guidance. Yet there are major financial barriers to advancing agents into clinical trials with commercial backing. We observe that development of these agents in the standard biological therapeutic paradigm is not viable, due to the high up front financial investment needed and the limitations in the revenue models of contrast agents for imaging. The hypothesized solution to this problem is to develop small molecular biologicals tagged with an established fluorescent reporter, through the chemical agent approval pathway, targeting a phase 0 trials initially, such that the initial startup phase can be completely funded by a single NIH grant. In this way, fast trials can be completed to de-risk the development pipeline, and advance the idea of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) reporters into human testing. As with biological therapies the potential successes of each agent are still moderate, but this process will allow the field to advance in a more stable and productive manner, rather than relying upon isolated molecules developed at high cost and risk. The pathway proposed and tested here uses peptide synthesis of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-binding Affibody molecules, uniquely conjugated to IRDye 800CW, developed and tested in academic and industrial laboratories with well-established records for GMP production, fill and finish, toxicity testing, and early phase clinical trials with image guidance.

    9. Advancing Molecular-Guided Surgery through probe development and testing in a moderate cost evaluation pipeline

      PubMed Central

      Pogue, Brian W; Paulsen, Keith D; Hull, Sally M.; Samkoe, Kimberly S.; Gunn, Jason; Hoopes, Jack; Roberts, David W.; Strong, Theresa V.; Draney, Daniel; Feldwisch, Joachim

      2015-01-01

      Molecular guided oncology surgery has the potential to transform the way decisions about resection are done, and can be critically important in areas such as neurosurgery where the margins of tumor relative to critical normal tissues are not readily apparent from visual or palpable guidance. Yet there are major financial barriers to advancing agents into clinical trials with commercial backing. We observe that development of these agents in the standard biological therapeutic paradigm is not viable, due to the high up front financial investment needed and the limitations in the revenue models of contrast agents for imaging. The hypothesized solution to this problem is to develop small molecular biologicals tagged with an established fluorescent reporter, through the chemical agent approval pathway, targeting a phase 0 trials initially, such that the initial startup phase can be completely funded by a single NIH grant. In this way, fast trials can be completed to de-risk the development pipeline, and advance the idea of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) reporters into human testing. As with biological therapies the potential successes of each agent are still moderate, but this process will allow the field to advance in a more stable and productive manner, rather than relying upon isolated molecules developed at high cost and risk. The pathway proposed and tested here uses peptide synthesis of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-binding Affibody molecules, uniquely conjugated to IRDye 800CW, developed and tested in academic and industrial laboratories with well-established records for GMP production, fill & finish, toxicity testing, and early phase clinical trials with image guidance. PMID:25914500

    10. An analysis of physical guidance as reinforcement for noncompliance.

      PubMed

      Kern, Lee; Delaney, Beth A; Hilt, Alexandra; Bailin, Deborah E; Elliot, Christina

      2002-09-01

      Physical guidance is a strategy commonly used for noncompliance. In two experiments, we evaluated reinforcing effects of physical guidance. Experiment 1 include three individuals with developmental disabilities who were noncompliant with tasks. Anecdotal observations indicated physical contact was highly reinforcing, and a functional analysis identified attention as a reinforcer for problem behavior. Two conditions compared physical guidance following noncompliance and no physical guidance following noncompliance. Results showed noncompliance increased for all three participants when physical guidance followed noncompliance. The second experiment empirically evaluated the function of noncompliance prior to examining the effect of physical guidance on noncompliance. A functional analysis, conducted with two participants, indicated noncompliance served an escape function for one and an attention function for the other. Comparisons of physical guidance and no physical guidance indicated physical guidance resulted in decreased noncompliance for the participant with an escape function but increased noncompliance for the participant with an attention function. PMID:12205825

    11. Signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy.

      PubMed

      Kawanami, Daiji; Matoba, Keiichiro; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

      2016-10-01

      Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), however, specific treatment for DN has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying DN to develop cause-related therapeutic strategy. To date, various factors such as hemodynamic changes and metabolic pathways have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of DN. Excessive glucose influx activates cellular signaling pathways, including the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, advanced glycation end-products (AGE), polyol pathway, hexosamine pathway and oxidative stress. These factors interact with one another, thereby facilitating inflammatory processes, leading to the development of glomerulosclerosis under diabetic conditions. In addition to metabolic pathways, Rho-kinase, an effector of small-GTPase binding protein Rho, has been implicated as an important factor in the pathogenesis of DN. A number of studies have demonstrated that Rho-kinase plays key roles in the development of DN by inducing endothelial dysfunction, mesangial excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production, podocyte abnormality, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In this review article, we describe our current understanding of the signaling pathways in DN. PMID:27094540

    12. Advanced glycation end products upregulate lysyl oxidase and endothelin-1 in human aortic endothelial cells via parallel activation of ERK1/2-NF-κB and JNK-AP-1 signaling pathways.

      PubMed

      Adamopoulos, Christos; Piperi, Christina; Gargalionis, Antonios N; Dalagiorgou, Georgia; Spilioti, Eliana; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

      2016-04-01

      Endothelial dysfunction involves deregulation of the key extracellular matrix (ECM) enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) and the vasoconstrictor protein, endothelin-1 (ET-1), whose gene expression can be modulated by the transcriptional activators nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) present an aggravating factor of endothelial dysfunction which upon engagement to their receptor RAGE induce upregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), leading to NF-κB and AP-1 potentiation. We hypothesized that AGEs could induce NF-κΒ- and AP-1-dependent regulation of LOX and ET-1 expression via the AGE/RAGE/MAPK signaling axis. Western blot, real-time qRT-PCR, FACS analysis and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays were employed in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) following treatment with AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) to investigate the signaling pathway towards this hypothesis. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of AGEs, RAGE, LOX and ET-1 expression was conducted in aortic endothelium of a rat experimental model exposed to high- or low-AGE content diet. HAECs exposed to AGE-BSA for various time points exhibited upregulation of LOX and ET-1 mRNA levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Exposure of HAECs to AGE-BSA also showed specific elevation of phospho(p)-ERK1/2 and p-JNK levels in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. AGE administration significantly increased NF-κΒ- and AP-1-binding activity to both LOX and ET-1 cognate promoter regions. Moreover, LOX and ET-1 overexpression in rat aortic endothelium upon high-AGE content diet confirmed the functional interrelation of these molecules. Our findings demonstrate that AGEs trigger NF-κΒ- and AP-1-mediated upregulation of LOX and ET-1 via the AGE/RAGE/MAPK signaling cascade in human endothelial cells, thus contributing to distorted endothelial homeostasis by impairing endothelial barrier function, altering ECM biomechanical properties

    13. Pinocembrin protects against β-amyloid-induced toxicity in neurons through inhibiting receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-independent signaling pathways and regulating mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis

      PubMed Central

      2012-01-01

      Background It is known that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interaction between Aβ and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated in neuronal degeneration associated with this disease. Pinocembrin, a flavonoid abundant in propolis, has been reported to possess numerous biological activities beneficial to health. Our previous studies have demonstrated that pinocembrin has neuroprotective effects on ischemic and vascular dementia in animal models. It has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China for clinical use in stroke patients. Against this background, we investigated the effects of pinocembrin on cognitive function and neuronal protection against Aβ-induced toxicity and explored its potential mechanism. Methods Mice received an intracerebroventricular fusion of Aβ25-35. Pinocembrin was administrated orally at 20 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day for 8 days. Behavioral performance, cerebral cortex neuropil ultrastructure, neuronal degeneration and RAGE expression were assessed. Further, a RAGE-overexpressing cell model and an AD cell model were used for investigating the mechanisms of pinocembrin. The mechanisms underlying the efficacy of pinocembrin were conducted on target action, mitochondrial function and potential signal transduction using fluorescence-based multiparametric technologies on a high-content analysis platform. Results Our results showed that oral administration of pinocembrin improved cognitive function, preserved the ultrastructural neuropil and decreased neurodegeneration of the cerebral cortex in Aβ25-35-treated mice. Pinocembrin did not have a significant effect on inhibiting Aβ1-42 production and scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, pinocembrin significantly inhibited the upregulation of RAGE transcripts and protein expression both in vivo and in vitro, and also markedly depressed the activation of

    14. SRNL All-Pathways Application

      SciTech Connect

      Koffman, Larry D.; Wilhite, Elmer L.; Collard, Leonard B.

      2008-01-15

      The Environmental Analysis and Performance Modeling group of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs performance assessments of the Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level waste facilities to meet the requirements of DOE Order 435.1. One of the performance objectives in the DOE Order is that the radiological dose to representative members of the public shall not exceed 25 mrem in a year total effective dose equivalent from all exposure pathways, excluding radon. Analysis to meet this performance objective is generally referred to as all-pathways analysis. SRNL performs detailed transient groundwater transport analysis for the waste disposal units, which has been used as input for the groundwater part of all-pathways analysis. The desire to better integrate all-pathways analysis with the groundwater transport analysis lead to the development of a software application named the SRNL All-Pathways Application. Another requirement of DOE Order 435.1 is to assess the impact of nuclear waste disposal on water resources, which SRS has interpreted for groundwater protection as meeting the EPA regulations for radionuclides in drinking water. EPA specifies four separate criteria as part of their implementation guidance for radionuclides, which are specified as maximum contaminant levels (MCL). 1. Beta/gamma emitters have a combined dose limit of 4 mrem/year. 2. Alpha emitters have a combined concentration limit of 15 pCi/L (called gross alpha), excluding uranium and radon, but including radium-226. 3. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 have a concentration limit of 5 pCi/L. 4. Isotopes of uranium have a combined concentration limit of 30 {mu}g/L. The All-Pathways Application was designed to be an easy-to-use software application that utilizes transient concentration results from groundwater transport analysis to (1) calculate the groundwater part of all-pathways dose and to (2) evaluate the four EPA criteria for groundwater protection. An application has been developed

    15. Apollo experience report guidance and control systems: Primary guidance, navigation, and control system development

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Holley, M. D.; Swingle, W. L.; Bachman, S. L.; Leblanc, C. J.; Howard, H. T.; Biggs, H. M.

      1976-01-01

      The primary guidance, navigation, and control systems for both the lunar module and the command module are described. Development of the Apollo primary guidance systems is traced from adaptation of the Polaris Mark II system through evolution from Block I to Block II configurations; the discussion includes design concepts used, test and qualification programs performed, and major problems encountered. The major subsystems (inertial, computer, and optical) are covered. Separate sections on the inertial components (gyroscopes and accelerometers) are presented because these components represent a major contribution to the success of the primary guidance, navigation, and control system.

    16. A Workable Program of Career Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hunt, Myrtle E.

      1974-01-01

      Seven observations made by a career education team (a counselor, an occupational specialist, and classroom teachers) provided the basis for establishing career guidance goals. The goals were devoloped around the accepted elements of career education and implemented in a teacher-counselor shared accountability effort in Florida's Pinellas County.…

    17. Guidance for performing site inspections under CERCLA

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1992-09-01

      This guidance presents EPA`s site inspection (SI) strategy. The strategy discusses procedural guidelines to investigate potential Superfund (CERCLA) sites for evaluation pursuant to the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), revised in accordance with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The HRS is the primary means by which EPA evaluates sites for superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL).

    18. Career Guidance and the Kuder Interest Inventories.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

      The manual suggests various uses the guidance counselor can make of the Kuder interest surveys. Written by a counselor, the guide presents suggestions that reflect considerable experience with the Kuder tests. Guidelines for introducing, administering, and interpreting the instrument are included along with suggestions for ways to involve the…

    19. Advisory List of Instructional Media Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

      A bibliography of materials relevant to the competency-based guidance curriculum of the North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction is presented in this document. Books for students, books for teacher/counselor use, filmstrips (sound), and videocassettes are listed. Grade ranges are provided for each item, although use of the materials…

    20. Guidance and control of flight vehicles

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Breakwell, J. V.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.; Franklin, G. F.

      1971-01-01

      Progress reports on guidance and attitude control mechanisms of different flight vehicles are presented. The vehicles considered include orbiting spacecraft, supersonic aircraft, and general aviation aircraft. Data also cover orbital transfer using low thrust, automatic landing logic for aircraft, optimal and three dimensional turns for supersonic aircraft, and orbital rendezvous.

    1. Prevocational Exploration Guidance. Competency Based Curriculum.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Harrington, Fred; And Others

      This competency-based curriculum for prevocational exploration in West Virginia provides experiences at grades 9 and 10 related to exploring careers and educational programs for those careers. The guidance units are designed to assist the counselor in providing activities that relate to ongoing hands-on activities in prevocational business,…

    2. 75 FR 76011 - Annual Guidance Agenda

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2010-12-07

      .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of September 19, 2000 (65 FR 56468), FDA issued... existing guidance documents (65 FR 56468 at 56477; 21 CFR 10.115(f)(5)). The Agency is neither bound by... Administration, and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, (Compliance Policy Guide...

    3. Guidance and Counseling Research in New Zealand.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Small, J. J.

      This review of guidance and counseling research includes reports of hypothesis testing based on hard data and behavioral analysis designs, reports of surveys and evaluations, and comments and recommenda- tions from reflections on experience and survey findings. The materials, originating from New Zealand between 1970 and 1979, are classified on…

    4. 21 CFR 601.29 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-04-01

      ... for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintains a list of guidance documents that apply to the... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... Manufacturers Assistance (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug...

    5. 21 CFR 314.445 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Miscellaneous Provisions § 314.445 Guidance... comply with certain requirements of this part. (b) The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research...

    6. 21 CFR 601.29 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-04-01

      ... for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintains a list of guidance documents that apply to the... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... Manufacturers Assistance (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug...

    7. 21 CFR 314.445 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Miscellaneous Provisions § 314.445 Guidance... comply with certain requirements of this part. (b) The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research...

    8. 21 CFR 314.445 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Miscellaneous Provisions § 314.445 Guidance... comply with certain requirements of this part. (b) The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research...

    9. 21 CFR 314.445 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Miscellaneous Provisions § 314.445 Guidance... comply with certain requirements of this part. (b) The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research...

    10. 21 CFR 601.29 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-04-01

      ... for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintains a list of guidance documents that apply to the... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... Manufacturers Assistance (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug...

    11. 21 CFR 601.29 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-04-01

      ... for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintains a list of guidance documents that apply to the... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... Manufacturers Assistance (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug...

    12. 21 CFR 314.445 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Miscellaneous Provisions § 314.445 Guidance... comply with certain requirements of this part. (b) The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research...

    13. Museum Personnel's Opinions on Mobile Guidance Systems

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Yoshimura, Hirokazu; Sekiguchi, Hiromi; Yabumoto, Yoshitaka

      2007-01-01

      While opinions from the general public are certainly important, opinions from the museum staff are also necessary to improve user service systems. this article introduces two groups of museum staff who have evaluated the usability of mobile guidance systems in Japanese museums. One group is the research team who used the PDA system in the National…

    14. IUS guidance algorithm gamma guide assessment

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bray, R. E.; Dauro, V. A.

      1980-01-01

      The Gamma Guidance Algorithm which controls the inertial upper stage is described. The results of an independent assessment of the algorithm's performance in satisfying the NASA missions' targeting objectives are presented. The results of a launch window analysis for a Galileo mission, and suggested improvements are included.

    15. Vocational Guidance for Women, 1910-1940.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Rossiter, Margaret W.

      The kinds of vocational guidance available to women from 1910 to 1940 are discussed in this paper. As the number of women college graduates increased in the 1890s and especially in the first decade of the 20th century, concern also grew for what all these trained women would do to earn a living after they graduated and before they married (if they…

    16. Middle School Students' Guidance and Counseling Needs

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kesici, Sahin

      2007-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to determine the guidance and counseling needs of middle school (i.e., sixth, seventh, and eighth grades) students from their points of views by using qualitative research techniques. In addition, while collecting the data, semi-structured interview technique is used as a method of data collection. The study was…

    17. Occupational Information. A Career Guidance View.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wolfbein, Seymour L.

      This book deals not with the administrative or information searching processes related to the guidance function of providing occupational information, but with the substantive information itself. It presents a contemporary view of values, trends, and principles, derived primarily from statistical information describing the current world of work.…

    18. 78 FR 53792 - Draft Guidance for Reciprocity

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-08-30

      ... COMMISSION Draft Guidance for Reciprocity AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request... for reciprocity. The NRC is requesting public comment on draft NUREG-1556, Volume 19, Revision 1...@nrc.gov . The draft NUREG-1556, Volume 19, Revision 1, is available under ADAMS Accession...

    19. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEMONSTRATION GUIDANCE PROJECT.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      WRIGHTSTONE, J. WAYNE; AND OTHERS

      THE PURPOSE WAS TO IDENTIFY ABLE STUDENTS FROM DISADVANTAGED URBAN AREAS AND TO STIMULATE THEM THROUGH CULTURAL EXPERIENCES, SPECIAL CLASSES, AND GUIDANCE TO SEEK HIGHER EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GOALS. A PRIMARY OBJECTIVE WAS TO REFINE THE METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR PREDICTION OF ACADEMIC POTENTIAL, THROUGH APTITUDE TESTING, ACHIEVEMENT TESTING,…

    20. Modern control theory for Army missile guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Travassos, R. H.; Levari, H.; Gupta, N. K.

      1982-11-01

      A Singular perturbation guidance law has been developed for medium-range surface-to-air missiles. This guidance law is a significant extension of a previously developed guidance law for short-range missiles; in medium-range intercepts, the problem of energy management should be addressed in addition to homing guidance. The mathematical formulation has been simplified by introducing separation of time scales. Target Trajectory Estimation: A recursive algorithm for estimation of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model parameters from noisy samples has been developed. Application of this algorithm to parameter estimation problems has exhibited its fast convergence and unbiasedness in the presence of noise, even with short data records. The algorithm has two versions, a Recursive Maximum Likelihood (RML) form and a Recursive Prediction Error (RPE) form, both of which possess a parallel structure that makes them highly suitable for parallel-processing implementation. Adaptive autopilots: Lattice-form algorithms have been developed for fast, recursive identification and control of time-varying systems. These algorithms have excellent numerical properties and a modular structure that makes them suitable for on-board real-time implementation.

    1. Career Guidance Policy: An International Review

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Watts, A. G.

      2005-01-01

      The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Bank, and the European Commission have conducted reviews of the career guidance policies and practices in 37 countries. The 37 country studies, together with the 3 synthesis reports and a number of other commissioned papers, constitute the largest database on career guidance…

    2. Self-Awareness. Level One. Career Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Fiendach, Nancy; And Others

      Materials contained in this career guidance unit are designed to develop in five-and six-year-old children an awareness of their senses and the related body organs, likenesses and differences, and self-control. The nineteen activities included in the unit vary in length from twenty to sixty minutes; the entire unit requires approximately ten hours…

    3. 77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2012-08-14

      ... grants authorized in the Act and available under the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail program. This... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan...

    4. Precision standoff guidance antenna accuracy evaluation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Irons, F. H.; Landesberg, M. M.

      1981-02-01

      This report presents a summary of work done to determine the inherent angular accuracy achievable with the guidance and control precision standoff guidance antenna. The antenna is a critical element in the anti-jam single station guidance program since its characteristics can limit the intrinsic location guidance accuracy. It was important to determine the extent to which high ratio beamsplitting results could be achieved repeatedly and what issues were involved with calibrating the antenna. The antenna accuracy has been found to be on the order of 0.006 deg. through the use of a straightforward lookup table concept. This corresponds to a cross range error of 21 m at a range of 200 km. This figure includes both pointing errors and off-axis estimation errors. It was found that the antenna off-boresight calibration is adequately represented by a straight line for each position plus a lookup table for pointing errors relative to broadside. In the event recalibration is required, it was found that only 1% of the model would need to be corrected.

    5. Bridge over Troubled Water: Guidance Crosses

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Amundson, Norm

      2008-01-01

      This article is based on a keynote presentation at an international conference where the focus was cross-over career guidance. Simon and Garfunkel's popular song, "Bridge over troubled water", was used as a metaphor for exploring the cross-over theme. Some of the concepts under consideration included the working alliance, the importance of a…

    6. Guidance for an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hall, Kenneth R.

      1988-01-01

      The use of atmospheric drag for slowing satellite in high energy, high apogee orbits to a lower energy, lower apogee orbit about the Earth is investigated. The high energy orbit is assumed to intercept the Earth's atmosphere. Guidance for the atmospheric phase of the trajectory may be done using the aerodynamic forces generated by the passage through the atmosphere. This research was concerned with the investigation of several methods of guidance during the atmospheric phase to cause a significant reduction in the final velocity as the vehicle leaves the atmosphere. In addition, the velocity direction was controlled to exit to a desired target orbit. Lastly excess aerodynamic lift was used to effect a plane change between the entry orbit plane and the exit orbit plane to achieve a desired orbit plane. The guidance methods were applied to a 3 degree-of-freedom simulation which included an oblate Earth gravity model and a rotating atmosphere. Simulation results were compared on the basis of speed of computation of the guidance parameters and amount of added velocity necessary to achieve the desired orbit.

    7. Neighboring optimal guidance theory and computer program

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Powers, W. F.

      1974-01-01

      Developments of the linear quadratic optimal control problem are discussed. The theory is applicable to the development of neighboring optimal feedback guidance gains, and is useful as a tool for synthesizing feedback control laws. A computer program which requires only the pertinent matrices of the linear quadratic problem is described.

    8. Guidance on premium payments in CERCLA settlements

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1988-11-17

      The directive provides guidance on the use of premium payments in CERCLA settlements. It describes the key features of a premium payment settlement, considerations regarding timing of the settlement, and the factors to be considered in deciding if a premium should be accepted.

    9. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... Section 1290.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK... ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.7 Additional guidance. (a) A government agency, office, or entity includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act, all current,...

    10. Outcomes from Career Information and Guidance Services.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Maguire, Malcolm; Killeen, John

      Outcomes of guidance can be assessed at these three levels: individual, where they are immediate; organizational, where they are intermediate; or societal, where they are ultimate. They may result in learning outcomes, school effectiveness, economic benefits, or social benefits. Various designs of outcome evaluation are described and…

    11. Athletics Guidance Aims for Level Field

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Samuels, Christina A.

      2013-01-01

      A document from the U.S. Department of Education intended to clarify schools' responsibility to make sure students with disabilities have access to extracurricular sports has drawn sharply different opinions. Disability-rights advocates welcome the guidance, while critics say federal officials are pushing requirements that could place new…

    12. "Telling Tales": Using Narrative in Career Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Reid, Hazel; West, Linden

      2011-01-01

      In this article the authors argue for the importance of narrative-based approaches in career guidance work in an uncertain, unpredictable world. This requires a paradigmatic shift in thinking that can be too difficult, at present, for some practitioners. The article reports on the first phase of a collaborative project with a group of…

    13. A Four-Year Career Guidance Program.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sherrell, C. Eleanor; Spaulding, Barbara G.

      The counseling staff at a suburban, comprehensive, four-year high school in southern California developed and implemented a Career Guidance program for grades nine through twelve. With assistance and cooperation from teachers, students participated in exploration of vocational interests, personal values, and individual aptitudes in Grades 9 and…

    14. Assessing Enterprise Capability: Guidance for Schools

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      National Foundation for Educational Research, 2007

      2007-01-01

      This document offers guidance to schools on how assessment can support enterprise education. It presents the interim findings from research carried out by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) for the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) in secondary schools in England. Enterprise capability is the key outcome of enterprise…

    15. Evaluating Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Programs.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Krumboltz, John D.

      1990-01-01

      Finds the Sampson et al. guidelines for computer-assisted career guidance systems (CE 521 972) comprehensive and self-explanatory, but states that user judgment is still required. Suggests revision of existing standards to take into account the feature-cost analysis method. (SK)

    16. Students' Perceptions of a Compulsory Guidance Program.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Yee, Dianne; Pawlovich, Walter

      1988-01-01

      Investigated students' perceptions of the primary compulsory segment of the career guidance program offered by Swift Current Comprehensive High School. Students reported positive perceptions of the total program and of counselor assistance, particularly of the CHOICES component of the program, with mixed perceptions of the Strong-Campbell Interest…

    17. Laser radar for spacecraft guidance applications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Liebe, C. C.; Abramovici, A.; Bartman, R. K.; Bunker, R. L.; Chapsky, J.; Chu, C. C.; Clouse, D.; Dillon, J. W.; Hausmann, B.; Hemmati, H.; Kornfeld, R. P.; Kwa, C.; Mobasser, S.; Newell, M.; Padgett, C.; Roberts, W. T.; Spiers, G.; Warfield, Z.; Wright, M.

      2003-01-01

      A flight qualified laser radar called LAMP (LAser MaPper) is under development at JPL. LAMP is a guidance and control sensor that can form 3 dimensional images of its field of regard. This paper describes the detailed design of the LAMP sensor.

    18. MR imaging guidance for minimally invasive procedures

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wong, Terence Z.; Kettenbach, Joachim; Silverman, Stuart G.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Morrison, Paul R.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

      1998-04-01

      Image guidance is one of the major challenges common to all minimally invasive procedures including biopsy, thermal ablation, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. This is essential for (1) identifying the target lesion, (2) planning the minimally invasive approach, and (3) monitoring the therapy as it progresses. MRI is an ideal imaging modality for this purpose, providing high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging, capability with no ionizing radiation. An interventional/surgical MRI suite has been developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital which provides multiplanar imaging guidance during surgery, biopsy, and thermal ablation procedures. The 0.5T MRI system (General Electric Signa SP) features open vertical access, allowing intraoperative imaging to be performed. An integrated navigational system permits near real-time control of imaging planes, and provides interactive guidance for positioning various diagnostic and therapeutic probes. MR imaging can also be used to monitor cryotherapy as well as high temperature thermal ablation procedures sing RF, laser, microwave, or focused ultrasound. Design features of the interventional MRI system will be discussed, and techniques will be described for interactive image acquisition and tracking of interventional instruments. Applications for interactive and near-real-time imaging will be presented as well as examples of specific procedures performed using MRI guidance.

    19. The Guidance Counselor and the Instructional Arena.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ediger, Marlow

      This document discusses the role of the guidance counselor in helping with the academic achievement of students. One way to do this is to instruct teachers and principals in some of the basic tenets from educational psychology that can help students feel more positive about themselves. Being unable to meet high curricular standards often leads to…

    20. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has... the Office of Communication, Training, and Manufacturers Assistance (HFM-40), Center for...

    1. NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology Summer Workshop. Volume 3: Navigation, guidance and control panel

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1975-01-01

      User technology requirements are identified in relation to needed technology advancement for future space missions in the areas of navigation, guidance, and control. Emphasis is placed on: reduction of mission support cost by 50% through autonomous operation, a ten-fold increase in mission output through improved pointing and control, and a hundred-fold increase in human productivity in space through large-scale teleoperator applications.

    2. Driving and dementia: a clinical decision pathway

      PubMed Central

      Carter, Kirsty; Monaghan, Sophie; O'Brien, John; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Mosimann, Urs; Taylor, John-Paul

      2015-01-01

      Objective This study aimed to develop a pathway to bring together current UK legislation, good clinical practice and appropriate management strategies that could be applied across a range of healthcare settings. Methods The pathway was constructed by a multidisciplinary clinical team based in a busy Memory Assessment Service. A process of successive iteration was used to develop the pathway, with input and refinement provided via survey and small group meetings with individuals from a wide range of regional clinical networks and diverse clinical backgrounds as well as discussion with mobility centres and Forum of Mobility Centres, UK. Results We present a succinct clinical pathway for patients with dementia, which provides a decision-making framework for how health professionals across a range of disciplines deal with patients with dementia who drive. Conclusions By integrating the latest guidance from diverse roles within older people's health services and key experts in the field, the resulting pathway reflects up-to-date policy and encompasses differing perspectives and good practice. It is potentially a generalisable pathway that can be easily adaptable for use internationally, by replacing UK legislation for local regulations. A limitation of this pathway is that it does not address the concern of mild cognitive impairment and how this condition relates to driving safety. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24865643

    3. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kong, Zhaodan

      Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

    4. Pregnancy Medical Home Care Pathways Improve Quality of Perinatal Care and Birth Outcomes.

      PubMed

      Berrien, Kate; Ollendorff, Arthur; Menard, M Kathryn

      2015-01-01

      The clinical leadership of the Pregnancy Medical Home (PMH) program develops and disseminates clinical pathways to promote evidence-based practice and to improve quality of care and outcomes. PMH pathways represent the first standardized clinical guidance for obstetric providers statewide across all care settings. PMID:26509523

    5. Cocaine-induced expression changes of axon guidance molecules in the adult rat brain.

      PubMed

      Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

      2005-02-01

      Administration of drugs of abuse induces strong molecular adaptations and plasticity within the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, a pathway essential for reward-seeking behavior. Little is known about the specific targets involved in this neuroadaptation process, but there are indications that cocaine and other drugs of abuse share the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines, the primary site of excitatory synapses in the brain. Axon guidance molecules, the very molecular cues that regulate the formation of axon-target connections during development, may mediate these alterations. To test this hypothesis, we investigated mRNA expression changes of 39 axon guidance molecules, including 17 Semaphorins, 12 Ephs, 8 Ephrins, and 2 neuropilins in the mesolimbic dopamine system of cocaine-treated animals under different paradigms by mean of DNA-Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. In all cases, strong changes in gene expression are observed, yielding to up or downregulation of these axon guidance molecules. Our data suggest that cocaine treatment induces activation of a complex program of synaptic rearrangements, which may partly recapitulate the plastic changes occurring during development, and may underlie the important neuroplastic adaptations that occur in the reward- and memory-related brain centers following drug action. We conclude that in some brain regions, exposure to psychomotor-stimulant drugs produce expression changes in axon guidance molecules, which may contribute to cognitive deficits associated with drug abuse. PMID:15691709

    6. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

      MedlinePlus

      ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

    7. Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

      EPA Science Inventory

      The Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis (also referred to as the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance or EJTG) is intended for use by Agency analysts, including risk assessors, economists, and other analytic staff that conduct analyse...

    8. IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE FOR AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR BACTERIA

      EPA Science Inventory

      The Implementation Guidance for Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Bacteria is a guidance document to assist state, territory, and authorized tribal water quality programs in adopting and implementing bacteriological water quality criteria into their water quality standards to pr...

    9. Drosophila melanogaster Hedgehog cooperates with Frazzled to guide axons through a non-canonical signalling pathway.

      PubMed

      Ricolo, Delia; Butí, Elisenda; Araújo, Sofia J

      2015-08-01

      We report that the morphogen Hedgehog (Hh) is an axonal chemoattractant in the midline of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Hh is present in the ventral nerve cord during axonal guidance and overexpression of hh in the midline causes ectopic midline crossing of FasII-positive axonal tracts. In addition, we show that Hh influences axonal guidance via a non-canonical signalling pathway dependent on Ptc. Our results reveal that the Hh pathway cooperates with the Netrin/Frazzled pathway to guide axons through the midline in invertebrates. PMID:25936631

    10. Future advances.

      PubMed

      Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

      2015-01-01

      Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

    11. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-08-15

      ... 52, in the Federal Register on January 11, 2012 (77 FR 1749). The period for submitting comments on... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Guidance (ISG) COL-ISG-025 ``Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction.'' This ISG...

    12. Acid rain compliance: The need for regulatory guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Solomon, B.D.

      1993-07-01

      This article presents a broad view of the need for regulatory guidance when confronting the problem of acid rain. The two major topics addressed are (1) Why is guidance needed and (2) What kind of guidance is needed. Discussion of rate and accounting treatment of allowances, acid rain compliance planning, and allowance trading and energy efficiency are included.

    13. Guidance Services in Adult Education Programs; A Leadership Monograph.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Adult Education.

      This guide provides an in-depth description of guidance and counseling as they relate to adult education. One major theme stressed is that guidance is an integral part of adult education, serving students by facilitating their learning and self-fulfillment. Topics covered are the concept of guidance within adult education and the adult education…

    14. Guidance East and West: A Collection of Occasional Papers.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

      This book contains a collection of 14 papers dealing with guidance and guidance programs in the Philippines, the Republic of China, Japan, and Thailand. An overview of the place of American counselors in international guidance and benefits to counselors and the counseling profession of world-wide contacts is reviewed in the initial paper. Issues…

    15. Research And Innovation In Elementary School Guidance And Counseling

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Keat, Donald B., II

      1973-01-01

      Elementary school teachers were trained in seven guidance learnings over a two-day span so that they could use guidance approaches in their classes. The Guidance Learning Rating Scale was developed to evaluate statements before and after their exposure to confluent education activities. There were significant changes in test scores in the expect…

    16. 21 CFR 10.115 - Good guidance practices.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good guidance practices. 10.115 Section 10.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES General Administrative Procedures § 10.115 Good guidance practices. (a) What are good guidance practices? Good...

    17. Guidance Concept for a Mars Ascent Vehicle First Stage

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Queen, Eric M.

      2000-01-01

      This paper presents a guidance concept for use on the first stage of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The guidance is based on a calculus of variations approach similar to that used for the final phase of the Apollo Earth return guidance. A three degree-of-freedom (3DOF) Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate performance and robustness of the algorithm.

    18. Concept development of automatic guidance for rotorcraft obstacle avoidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cheng, Victor H. L.

      1990-01-01

      The automatic guidance of rotorcraft for obstacle avoidance in nap-of-the-earth flight is studied. A hierarchical breakdown of the guidance components is used to identify the functional requirements. These requirements and anticipated sensor capabilities lead to a preliminary guidance concept, which has been evaluated via computer simulations.

    19. Quality Guidance: A Sectoral Analysis. NICEC Project Report.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Watts, A. G.; Sadler, Jackie

      This report reviews the structure of the guidance field and provides a sector-by-sector analysis of current quality assurance arrangements in the United Kingdom. Part 1 presents an outline of the guidance sector, including some key concepts, structures, and roles. It defines guidance and other terms; discusses the three main categories…

    20. [Guidance and Counseling of the American Indian College Student.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brown, Eddie F.; Fredrick, James

      Problems faced by American Indian college students were described in these 2 guidance and counseling papers. The first paper suggested a plan for a guidance and counseling program. The 3 steps in this plan were a special summer student orientation program for Indians; and "out-reaching" guidance and counseling program where Indian students would…

    1. 2 CFR 182.40 - How is the guidance maintained?

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is the guidance maintained? 182.40 Section 182.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) § 182.40 How is the guidance maintained? The...

    2. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance... (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators of... to disseminate policy and guidance. They shall distribute material under foregoing systems to...

    3. Flight guidance research for recovery from microburst wind shear

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hinton, David A.

      1990-01-01

      Research is in progress to develop flight strategy concepts for avoidance and recovery from microburst wind shears. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of various strategies for recovery from wind shear encountered during the approach-to-landing, examine the associated piloting factors, and evaluate the payoff of forward-look sensing. Both batch and piloted simulations are utilized. The industry-recommended manual recovery technique is used as a baseline strategy. Two advanced strategies were selected for the piloted tests. The first strategy emulates the recovery characteristics shown by prior optimal trajectory analysis, by initially tracking the glideslope, then commanding a shallow climb. The second strategy generates a flight path angle schedule that is a function of airplane energy state and the instantaneous shear strength. All three strategies are tested with reactive sensing only and with forward-look sensing. Piloted simulation tests are in progress. Tentative results indicate that, using only reactive alerts, there appears to be little difference in performance between the various strategies. With forward-look alerts, the advanced guidance strategies appear to have advantages over the baseline strategy. Relatively short forward-look alert times, on the order of 10 or 15 seconds, produce a far greater recovery benefit than optimizing a recovery from a reactive alert.

    4. An Augmentation of G-Guidance Algorithms

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Carson, John M. III; Acikmese, Behcet

      2011-01-01

      The original G-Guidance algorithm provided an autonomous guidance and control policy for small-body proximity operations that took into account uncertainty and dynamics disturbances. However, there was a lack of robustness in regards to object proximity while in autonomous mode. The modified GGuidance algorithm was augmented with a second operational mode that allows switching into a safety hover mode. This will cause a spacecraft to hover in place until a mission-planning algorithm can compute a safe new trajectory. No state or control constraints are violated. When a new, feasible state trajectory is calculated, the spacecraft will return to standard mode and maneuver toward the target. The main goal of this augmentation is to protect the spacecraft in the event that a landing surface or obstacle is closer or further than anticipated. The algorithm can be used for the mitigation of any unexpected trajectory or state changes that occur during standard mode operations

    5. Vocational guidance: A primary function of education

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Röhrs, Hermann

      1992-05-01

      The world of work as part of our dynamic society is the result of a permanent change. This development has an influence on the school and its tasks. Apart from industrialisation there is computerisation which requires, to an important extent, individual judgement and inventiveness on the part of the working population. The school has not only to cope with these changes but has also to try to influence them through vocational orientation and guidance and its continual reform. The aim of the school is the development of a critical sense with the purpose of humanising the whole process. The importance of vocational orientation and guidance is increasing, and they have to become a task of our schools. The topic should therefore also be included in teacher training as well as in further education.

    6. Dynamic contact guidance of migrating cells

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Losert, Wolfgang; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Fourkas, John

      2014-03-01

      We investigate the effects of nanotopographical surfaces on the cell migration and cell shape dynamics of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Amoeboid motion exhibits significant contact guidance along surfaces with nanoscale ridges or grooves. We show quantitatively that nanoridges spaced 1.5 μm apart exhibit the greatest contact guidance efficiency. Using principal component analysis, we characterize the dynamics of the cell shape modulated by the coupling between the cell membrane and ridges. We show that motion parallel to the ridges is enhanced, while the turning, at the largest spatial scales, is suppressed. Since protrusion dynamics are principally governed by actin dynamics, we imaged the actin polymerization of cells on ridges. We found that actin polymerization occurs preferentially along nanoridges in a ``monorail'' like fashion. The ridges then provide us with a tool to study actin dynamics in an effectively reduced dimensional system.

    7. Taxonometric Guidance for Developing Quality Assurance

      SciTech Connect

      Thomadsen, Bruce Lin, She-Woei

      2008-05-01

      A taxonomy is an ordered classification system. In error reduction analysis, an examination of the human failures that lead to an event often uses a taxonomy to classify the failures according to some aspect of their characteristics. These classifications provide insights into the forces that kept the persons involved from achieving their intended actions. They also can provide guidance for changing the situation to prevent failure in the future. For example, the corrective action would be different if a therapist pressed the wrong button because several buttons looked alike or they forgot which button to press. Different types of failures lead to particular types of remediation. Taxonomies can provide guidance in selecting between possible corrective actions.

    8. Video guidance, landing, and imaging systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Rice, R. B.; Moog, R. D.

      1975-01-01

      The adaptive potential of video guidance technology for earth orbital and interplanetary missions was explored. The application of video acquisition, pointing, tracking, and navigation technology was considered to three primary missions: planetary landing, earth resources satellite, and spacecraft rendezvous and docking. It was found that an imaging system can be mechanized to provide a spacecraft or satellite with a considerable amount of adaptability with respect to its environment. It also provides a level of autonomy essential to many future missions and enhances their data gathering ability. The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The techniques developed for acquisition, pointing, and tracking show promise for recognizing and tracking coastlines, rivers, and other constituents of interest. Routines were written and checked for rendezvous, docking, and station-keeping functions.

    9. Practical guidance on undertaking a service evaluation.

      PubMed

      Moule, Pam; Armoogum, Julie; Dodd, Emily; Donskoy, Anne-Laure; Douglass, Emma; Taylor, Julie; Turton, Pat

      2016-07-01

      This article describes the basic principles of evaluation, focusing on the evaluation of healthcare services. It emphasises the importance of evaluation in the current healthcare environment and the requirement for nurses to understand the essential principles of evaluation. Evaluation is defined in contrast to audit and research, and the main theoretical approaches to evaluation are outlined, providing insights into the different types of evaluation that may be undertaken. The essential features of preparing for an evaluation are considered, and guidance provided on working ethically in the NHS. It is important to involve patients and the public in evaluation activity, offering essential guidance and principles of best practice. The authors discuss the main challenges of undertaking evaluations and offer recommendations to address these, drawing on their experience as evaluators. PMID:27380702

    10. Vibrotactile Guidance for Wayfinding of Blind Walkers.

      PubMed

      Flores, German; Kurniawan, Sri; Manduchi, Roberto; Martinson, Eric; Morales, Lourdes M; Sisbot, Emrah Akin

      2015-01-01

      We propose a vibrotactile interface in the form of a belt for guiding blind walkers. This interface enables blind walkers to receive haptic directional instructions along complex paths without negatively impacting users' ability to listen and/or perceive the environment the way some auditory directional instructions do. The belt interface was evaluated in a controlled study with 10 blind individuals and compared to the audio guidance. The experiments were videotaped and the participants' behaviors and comments were content analyzed. Completion times and deviations from ideal paths were also collected and statistically analyzed. By triangulating the quantitative and qualitative data, we found that the belt resulted in closer path following to the expense of speed. In general, the participants were positive about the use of vibrotactile belt to provide directional guidance. PMID:25781953

    11. EPA guidance mental health care of migrants.

      PubMed

      Bhugra, D; Gupta, S; Schouler-Ocak, M; Graeff-Calliess, I; Deakin, N A; Qureshi, A; Dales, J; Moussaoui, D; Kastrup, M; Tarricone, I; Till, A; Bassi, M; Carta, M

      2014-02-01

      Migration is an increasingly commonplace phenomenon for a number of reasons. People migrate from rural to urban areas or across borders for reasons including economic, educational or political. There is increasing recent research evidence from many countries in Europe that indicates that migrants are more prone to certain psychiatric disorders. Because of their experiences of migration and settling down in the new countries, they may also have special needs such as lack of linguistic abilities which must be taken into account using a number of strategies at individual, local and national policy levels. In this guidance document, we briefly present the evidence and propose that specific measures must be taken to improve and manage psychiatric disorders experienced by migrants and their descendants. This improvement requires involvement at the highest level in governments. This is a guidance document and not a systematic review. PMID:24503244

    12. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

      SciTech Connect

      1986-01-01

      The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

    13. Peacekeeper - Guidance system flight readiness review

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Knight, D. S.; Harrington, E. V.

      The Ballistic Missile Office (BMO) has developed and employed a procedure to insure the flight readiness of a Peacekeeper guidance system. The goals of this additional review procedure (over and above acceptance testing) are to minimize the risk of the guidance system failure and/or achieving substantially less than the designed accuracy. The roles, mission and interaction of teams of personnel from seven associate contractors are discussed using flow diagrams. The paper also includes methods used to identify and resolve areas of concern as well as examples of actual concerns discovered. The scope is discused, including both the various technical disciplines involved and the lowest level of build and test areas reviewed. Resulting build and test improvements are shown.

    14. Guidance and justification in particularistic ethics.

      PubMed

      Kihlbom, U

      2000-10-01

      This paper argues that, contrary to a common line of criticism followed by scholars such as Helga Kuhse, a particularistic version of virtue ethics properly elaborated, can provide sound moral guidance and a satisfactory account for moral justification of our opinions regarding, for instance, health care practice. In the first part of the paper, three criteria for comparing normative theories with respect to action-guiding power are outlined, and it is argued that the presented particularistic version of virtue ethics actually can provide more guidance than the universalistic theories followed by Kuhse and others. In the second part of the paper it is claimed that universalist normative theories have serious problems accounting for the role that moral principles are supposed to play in the justification, of moral opinions, whereas the present version of virtue ethics accommodates a plausible alternative idea of justification without invoking moral principles or eschewing objectivity. PMID:11758585

    15. Automatic Brachytherapy Seed Placement Under MRI Guidance

      PubMed Central

      Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Muntener, Michael; Mazilu, Dumitru; Schär, Michael; Stoianovici, Dan

      2011-01-01

      The paper presents a robotic method of performing low dose rate prostate brachytherapy under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The design and operation of a fully automated MR compatible seed injector is presented. This is used with the MrBot robot for transperineal percutaneous prostate access. A new image-registration marker and algorithms are also presented. The system is integrated and tested with a 3T MRI scanner. Tests compare three different registration methods, assess the precision of performing automated seed deployment, and use the seeds to assess the accuracy of needle targeting under image guidance. Under the ideal conditions of the in vitro experiments, results show outstanding image-guided needle and seed placement accuracy. PMID:17694871

    16. 1999 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Highlights

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Polites, Michael E.

      1999-01-01

      This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in guidance, navigation, and control in space, aircraft, and weapons. This article is about 1,200 words long. Information for the article was collected from other NASA Centers, DoD, and industry. All information was previously cleared by the originating organizations. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology, Space News, and similar sources.

    17. Decontaminating breast pump kits: new guidance.

      PubMed

      Oxtoby, Kathy

      Various methods can be used to decontaminate breast pump milk collection kits and items related to infant feeding but they have some drawbacks and risks. In 2015, the Joint Working Group of the Healthcare Infection Society and Infection Prevention Society published guidance to support the safe decontamination of this equipment at home and in hospital. This article summarises its recommendations for health professionals to use and communicate to other groups, such as parents and carers. PMID:27400623

    18. 2000 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Highlights

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Polites, Michael E.

      2000-01-01

      This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in guidance, navigation, and control in space, aircraft, and weapons. This article is about 1,200 words long. Information for the article was collected from other NASA centers, DoD, and industry. All information was previously cleared by the originating organizations. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology, Space News, and similar sources.

    19. Developing guidance for budget impact analysis.

      PubMed

      Trueman, P; Drummond, M; Hutton, J

      2001-01-01

      The role of economic evaluation in the efficient allocation of healthcare resources has been widely debated. Whilst economic evidence is undoubtedly useful to purchasers, it does not address the issue of affordability which is an increasing concern. Healthcare purchasers are concerned not just with maximising efficiency but also with the more simplistic goal of remaining within their annual budgets. These two objectives are not necessarily consistent. This paper examines the issue of affordability, the relationship between affordability and efficiency and builds the case for why there is a growing need for budget impact models to complement economic evaluation. Guidance currently available for such models is also examined and it is concluded that this guidance is currently insufficient. Some of these insufficiencies are addressed and some thoughts on what constitutes best practice in budget impact modelling are suggested. These suggestions include consideration of transparency, clarity of perspective, reliability of data sources, the relationship between intermediate and final end-points and rates of adoption of new therapies. They also include the impact of intervention by population subgroups or indications, reporting of results, probability of re-deploying resources, the time horizon, exploring uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and decision-maker access to the model. Due to the nature of budget impact models, the paper does not deliver stringent methodological guidance on modelling. The intention was to provide some suggestions of best practice in addition to some foundations upon which future research can build. PMID:11456210

    20. Flight evaluation of the terminal guidance system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Sandlin, D. R.

      1981-01-01

      The terminal guidance system (TGS) is avionic equipment which gives guidance along a curved descending flight path to a landing. A Cessna 182 was used as the test aircraft and the TGS was installed and connected to the altimeter, DME, RMI, and gyro compass. Approaches were flown by three different pilots. When the aircraft arrives at the termination point, it is set up on final approach for a landing. The TGS provides guidance for curved descending approaches with guideslopes of 6 deg which required, for experienced pilots, workloads that are approximately the same as for an ILS. The glideslope is difficult to track within 1/2 n.m. of the VOR/DME station. The system permits, for experienced pilots, satisfactory approaches with a turn radius as low as 1/2 n.m. and a glideslope of 6 deg. Turn angles have little relation to pilot workload for curved approaches. Pilot experience is a factor for curved approaches. Pilots with low instrument time have difficulty flying steep approaches with small turn radius. Turbulence increases the pilot workload for curved approaches. The TGS does not correct to a given flight path over the ground nor does it adequately compensate for wind drift.

    1. Aerocapture Guidance Performance for the Neptune Orbiter

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Masciarelli, James P.; Westhelle, Carlos H.; Graves, Claude A.

      2004-01-01

      A performance evaluation of the Hybrid Predictor corrector Aerocapture Scheme (HYPAS) guidance algorithm for aerocapture at Neptune is presented in this paper for a Mission to Neptune and the Neptune moon Triton'. This mission has several challenges not experienced in previous aerocapture guidance assessments. These challengers are a very high Neptune arrival speed, atmospheric exit into a high energy orbit about Neptune, and a very high ballistic coefficient that results in a low altitude acceleration capability when combined with the aeroshell LD. The evaluation includes a definition of the entry corridor, a comparison to the theoretical optimum performance, and guidance responses to variations in atmospheric density, aerodynamic coefficients and flight path angle for various vehicle configurations (ballistic numbers). The benefits of utilizing angle-of-attack modulation in addition to bank angle modulation to improve flight performance is also discussed. The results show that despite large sensitivities in apoapsis targeting, the algorithm performs within the allocated AV budget for the Neptune mission bank angle only modulation. The addition of angle-of-attack modulation with as little as 5 degrees of amplitude significantly improves the scatter in final orbit apoapsis. Although the angle-of-attack modulation complicates the vehicle design, the performance enhancement reduces aerocapture risk and reduces the propellant consumption needed to reach the high energy target orbit for a conventional propulsion system.

    2. EPA guidance on cultural competence training.

      PubMed

      Schouler-Ocak, Meryam; Graef-Calliess, Iris T; Tarricone, Ilaria; Qureshi, Adil; Kastrup, Marianne C; Bhugra, Dinesh

      2015-03-01

      The stress of migration as well as social factors and changes related to the receiving society may lead to the manifestation of psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals after migration. The diversity of cultures, ethnicities, races and reasons for migration poses a challenge for those seeking to understand how illness is experienced by immigrants whose backgrounds differ significantly from their clinicians. Cultural competence represents good clinical practice and can be defined as such that a clinician regards each patient in the context of the patient's own culture as well as from the perspective of the clinician's cultural values and prejudices. The EPA Guidance on cultural competence training outlines some of the key issues related to cultural competence and how to deal with these. It points out that cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant patients and requires knowledge, skills and attitudes which can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. To reach these aims, both individual and organizational competence are needed, as well as teaching competence in terms of educational leadership. The WPA Guidance on Mental Health and Mental Health Care for Migrants and the EPA Guidance on Mental Health Care for Migrants list a series of recommendations for policy makers, service providers and clinicians; these are aimed at improving mental health care for immigrants. The authors of this paper would like to underline these recommendations and, focusing on cultural competency and training, believe that they will be of positive value. PMID:25725596

    3. Reliability history of the Apollo guidance computer

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hall, E. C.

      1972-01-01

      The Apollo guidance computer was designed to provide the computation necessary for guidance, navigation and control of the command module and the lunar landing module of the Apollo spacecraft. The computer was designed using the technology of the early 1960's and the production was completed by 1969. During the development, production, and operational phase of the program, the computer has accumulated a very interesting history which is valuable for evaluating the technology, production methods, system integration, and the reliability of the hardware. The operational experience in the Apollo guidance systems includes 17 computers which flew missions and another 26 flight type computers which are still in various phases of prelaunch activity including storage, system checkout, prelaunch spacecraft checkout, etc. These computers were manufactured and maintained under very strict quality control procedures with requirements for reporting and analyzing all indications of failure. Probably no other computer or electronic equipment with equivalent complexity has been as well documented and monitored. Since it has demonstrated a unique reliability history, it is important to evaluate the techniques and methods which have contributed to the high reliability of this computer.

    4. Guidance, navigation, and control for munitions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ilg, Mark Dean

      The United States Army is currently looking for new methods of guiding munitions, which would allow the military to employ guided munitions in place of traditional munitions. This will give the US Army an edge on the battle field and also allow the use of munitions in areas where traditional mortars and artillery cannot be used, including dense urban environments where collateral damage is not acceptable. In this thesis, an innovative approach to Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) is developed for a spinning projectile that utilizes a single axis canard actuation system. Utilizing the projectiles spin, the controller can provide a full range of aerodynamic forces, over the 360° of rotation, that provides maneuverability using only one actuator. This technique minimizes the need for multiple actuators and maintains the inherent aerodynamic stability provided by the spin. The GN&C system design described in this thesis consists of a tracking regulator for sinusoidally oscillating the canard system, a nonlinear state estimator for attitude measurement, and a guidance law to guide the projectile to a target. By combining the three components, we can demonstrate a closed-loop guidance system that will hit a target accurately at distances normally not achieved by an unguided projectile.

    5. Precision visual guidance for agricultural applicator aircraft

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hartt, Joseph R.; Bletzacker, Frank R.; Forgette, T. J.; Vetter, Alan A.

      1992-07-01

      The in-cockpit swath centerline identifier (SCI) for aerial applicators uses differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) signals to determine precise ground track of an aircraft and provide guidance to the pilot for flying patterns for aerial application of materials such as pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. Cross track distance from the swath centerline is provided by a heads up light bar display while detailed navigation, position, and status information is provided on an alphanumeric display on a panel mounted console. This system provides straight line guidance when executing a swath and turn-in guidance when proceeding from one swath to the next. It provides a record of the swaths which were sprayed and logs all of the associated navigation and operational data, including time. In addition, it provides navigation information from base to the fields, between fields, and return. The SCI eliminates the need for flaggers while providing improved accuracy of application. Reduced exposure to liability and improved quality control results as the position, altitude, time, and spray status are logged for post flight analysis. The SCI has been used in commercial agricultural applications. Demonstrations of the SCI showed better precision than anticipated.

    6. Development of critical-area criteria for protecting Microwave Landing System azimuth and elevation antenna guidance signals

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Dibenedetto, Michael Francis

      This dissertation presents the methodologies used to develop and validate protective zoning requirements for Microwave Landing System (MLS) azimuth and elevation guidance signals. Typically, the aviation community refers to these protective zoning requirements as critical areas. The purpose of defining critical areas about the azimuth and elevation antennas is to protect the radiated guidance signals from multipath errors caused by electromagnetic scattering of these signals by transient vehicles and aircraft. A method for applying the Federal Aviation Administration MLS Mathematic Model to characterize the guidance signal errors caused by interfering aircraft located ahead of the azimuth or elevation antenna is presented. This method was used to generate error-contour plots characterizing the guidance signal errors caused along a standard precision approach profile as a function of interfering aircraft type, location, and orientation. Error budgets were developed, including allocations to the error permitted to be caused by interfering aircraft. Based on these allocations, error-contour plots were analyzed to determine the areas that bound all of the interfering aircraft locations that have the potential to cause guidance-signal error that exceed the allocations. Methods for adapting these criteria to protect non-standard, computed-centerline, and advanced approach procedures are presented. The dissertation provides azimuth and elevation critical-area criteria for basic, computed-centerline, and advanced MLS procedures. Also, it presents the status of critical- area criteria development for Precision Distance Measuring Equipment. The dissertation recommends that validation and refinement of the criteria be performed as indicated by operational experience.

    7. The Advanced Energy Initiative

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Milliken, JoAnn; Joseck, Fred; Wang, Michael; Yuzugullu, Elvin

      The President's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), launched in 2006, addresses the challenges of energy supply and demand facing our Nation by supporting research and development of advanced technologies for transportation and stationary power generation. The AEI portfolio includes clean coal, nuclear and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind) for stationary power generation and advanced battery technologies, cellulosic ethanol as a fuel and hydrogen fuel cells for transportation. These research and development programs are underpinned by comprehensive life-cycle analysis efforts using models such as Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) and Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) to enable a better understanding of the characteristics and trade-offs associated with advanced energy options and to help decision makers choose viable pathways for clean, reliable and affordable energy.

    8. Is Career Guidance for the Individual or for the Market? Implications of EU Policy for Career Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bergmo-Prvulovic, Ingela

      2014-01-01

      This paper explores the essential understanding and underlying perspectives of career implicit in EU career guidance policy in the twenty-first century, as well as the possible implications of these for the future mission of guidance. Career theories, models and concepts that serve career guidance are shaped on the twentieth-century industrial…

    9. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-08-09

      ..., and ease of reading. The draft of this guidance issued on September 28, 2010 (75 FR 59726) and the... supersedes the guidance with the same name that issued on April 3, 2007 (72 FR 15888). II. Significance of...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological...

    10. 76 FR 16425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-03-23

      ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System... Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System.'' This guidance document describes a means by which the ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system may comply with...

    11. 78 FR 12761 - Guidance for Industry: Guidance on the Labeling of Certain Uses of Lecithin Derived From Soy...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-02-25

      ... of May 2, 2006 (71 FR 25844), we announced the availability of a guidance entitled ``Guidance on the... Cosmetic Act; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; withdrawal... 403(w) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,'' dated April 2006, that was announced in...

    12. 75 FR 6209 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration; Guidance for the Use of Bayesian...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2010-02-08

      ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Guidance for the Use of Bayesian Statistics in Medical Device Clinical Trials.'' This guidance summarizes FDA's current thoughts on the appropriate use of Bayesian statistical methods in the design and analysis of medical device clinical...

    13. Guidance of Nonlinear Nonminimum-Phase Dynamic Systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Devasia, Santosh

      1996-01-01

      The research work has advanced the inversion-based guidance theory for: systems with non-hyperbolic internal dynamics; systems with parameter jumps; and systems where a redesign of the output trajectory is desired. A technique to achieve output tracking for nonminimum phase linear systems with non-hyperbolic and near non-hyperbolic internal dynamics was developed. This approach integrated stable inversion techniques, that achieve exact-tracking, with approximation techniques, that modify the internal dynamics to achieve desirable performance. Such modification of the internal dynamics was used (a) to remove non-hyperbolicity which is an obstruction to applying stable inversion techniques and (b) to reduce large preactuation times needed to apply stable inversion for near non-hyperbolic cases. The method was applied to an example helicopter hover control problem with near non-hyperbolic internal dynamics for illustrating the trade-off between exact tracking and reduction of preactuation time. Future work will extend these results to guidance of nonlinear non-hyperbolic systems. The exact output tracking problem for systems with parameter jumps was considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions were derived for the elimination of switching-introduced output transient. While previous works had studied this problem by developing a regulator that maintains exact tracking through parameter jumps (switches), such techniques are, however, only applicable to minimum-phase systems. In contrast, our approach is also applicable to nonminimum-phase systems and leads to bounded but possibly non-causal solutions. In addition, for the case when the reference trajectories are generated by an exosystem, we developed an exact-tracking controller which could be written in a feedback form. As in standard regulator theory, we also obtained a linear map from the states of the exosystem to the desired system state, which was defined via a matrix differential equation.

    14. A neural net approach to space vehicle guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Caglayan, Alper K.; Allen, Scott M.

      1990-01-01

      The space vehicle guidance problem is formulated using a neural network approach, and the appropriate neural net architecture for modeling optimum guidance trajectories is investigated. In particular, an investigation is made of the incorporation of prior knowledge about the characteristics of the optimal guidance solution into the neural network architecture. The online classification performance of the developed network is demonstrated using a synthesized network trained with a database of optimum guidance trajectories. Such a neural-network-based guidance approach can readily adapt to environment uncertainties such as those encountered by an AOTV during atmospheric maneuvers.

    15. Application of partial sliding mode in guidance problem.

      PubMed

      Shafiei, M H; Binazadeh, T

      2013-03-01

      In this paper, the problem of 3-dimensional guidance law design is considered and a new guidance law based on partial sliding mode technique is presented. The approach is based on the classification of the state variables within the guidance system dynamics with respect to their required stabilization properties. In the proposed law by using a partial sliding mode technique, only trajectories of a part of states variables are forced to reach the partial sliding surfaces and slide on them. The resulting guidance law enables the missile to intercept highly maneuvering targets within a finite interception time. Effectiveness of the proposed guidance law is demonstrated through analysis and simulations. PMID:23260528

    16. Optimal guidance and control for investigating aircraft noise-impact reduction

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Stewart, E. C.; Carson, T. M.

      1978-01-01

      A methodology for investigating the reduction of community noise impact is reported. This report is concerned with the development of two models to provide data: a guidance generator and an aircraft control generator suitable for various current and advanced types of aircraft. The guidance generator produces the commanded path information from inputs chosen by an operator from a graphic scope display of a land-use map of the terminal area. The guidance generator also produces smoothing at the junctions of straight-line paths.The aircraft control generator determines the optimal set of the available controls such that the aircraft will follow the commanded path. The solutions for the control functions are given and shown to be dependent on the class of aircraft to be considered, that is, whether the thrust vector is rotatable and whether the thrust vector affects the aerodynamic forces. For the class of aircraft possessing a rotatable thrust vector, the solution is redundant; this redundancy is removed by the additional condition that the noise inpact be minimized. Information from both the guidance generator and the aircraft control generator is used by the footprint program to construct the noise footprint.

    17. The 4-D guidance of STOL aircraft in the terminal area

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Pecsvaradi, T.; Erzberger, H.

      1972-01-01

      Advanced STOL aircraft for the improvement of the nation's air transportation system by the elimination of delays and congestions associated with today's air travel are discussed. A new guidance technique, referred to as 4-D guidance, is being developed for STOL aircraft. The 4-D guidance technique synthesizes complex three-dimensional flight paths from a minimum set of input and files the aircraft along the paths according to a prespecified time schedule. The two major elements of a 4-D guidance system are the trajectory synthesizer and the control law. Inputs to the trajectory synthesizer are the three-dimensional coordinates of way points, the turning radii, the speed ranges, the acceleration limits, and the arrival times at time control way points. First, the three-dimensional trajectory is computed by using circular arcs and straight lines. Then the airspeed profile, compensated for wind, is calculated to achieve the desired arrival times. The synthesized trajectory is stored as a time sequence of reference states which the aircraft is forced to track by using a linear feedback law.

    18. FY2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

      SciTech Connect

      2015-03-01

      The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

    19. 75 FR 17143 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2010-04-05

      ...) ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Powered Muscle Stimulator for Rehabilitation; Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff''; (9) ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Powered Muscle... II Special Controls Guidance Document: Powered Muscle Stimulator for Muscle Conditioning;...

    20. On the design of fuzzified trajectory shaping guidance law.

      PubMed

      Lin, Chun-Liang; Lin, Yu-Ping; Chen, Kai-Ming

      2009-04-01

      Midcourse guidance is commonly designed to save as much energy as possible so that the missile's final speed can be maximized while entering the homing stage. For this purpose, a competitive guidance design should be able to generate an admissible flight trajectory as to bring the interceptor to a superior altitude for a favorable target engagement. In this paper, a new adaptive trajectory shaping guidance scheme based on the adaptive fuzzy inference system, which is capable of generating a variety of trajectories for efficient target interception, is presented. The guidance law is developed with the aim of saving the interceptor's energy conservation while improving performance robustness. Applications of the presented approach have included a variety of mission oriented guidance, such as cruise missile guidance, anti-ballistic missile guidance, etc. PMID:19054508