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Sample records for advanced photon source

  1. The Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, John N.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996.

  2. The advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, J.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996.

  3. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Gibbson, Murray

    2016-07-12

    An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

  4. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-07-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics.

  5. Status of the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents general information on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and then breaks down the APS project into three categories: accelerator systems, experimental facilities, and conventional facilities. The accelerator systems consist of the 7 GeV APS positron storage ring and a 7 GeV positron injector. The experimental facilities include 20 undulator radiation sources and the x-ray beamline components necessary to transport their extraordinarily intense x-ray beams outside the accelerator enclosure. Also included are x-ray beamline components for 20 bending magnet radiation sources. The conventional facilities consist of the accelerator enclosures, a 35,300 m{sup 2} experimental hall to house the x-ray beamlines, an office building for the APS staff and lab/office facilities for the research groups which will construct and operate the first 40 beamlines. APS users are described, and the properties of synchrotron radiation are discussed.

  6. The Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Lenkszus, F.R.; Kraimer, M.R.; Arnold, N.D.; Daly, R.T.; Gunderson, G.R.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.; Anderson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is a 7-GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible and expandable control system. The control system must be capable of operating the APS storage ring alone, and in conjunction with its injector synchrotron for filling, as well as operating both storage ring and injection facilities as machines with separate missions. The control system design is based on the (now classic) precepts of high-performance workstations as operators consoles, distributed microprocessors to control equipment interfacing and preprocess data, and an interconnecting network. The current design includes about 45 distributed microprocessors and five console systems, which may consist of one or more workstations. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Renewal of the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.

    2008-12-31

    To ensure that state-of-the-art hard x-ray tools are available for US scientists and engineers who are solving key problems in energy, environment, technology development and human health, the nation's unique high-energy x-ray source needs a major renewal of its capabilities. The Advanced Photon Source renewal program responds to key scientific needs driven by our user community. The renewal encompasses many innovations in beamlines and accelerator capabilities, each of which will transform our tools and allow new problems to be solved. In particular the APS renewal dramatically expands two compelling avenues for research. Through x-ray imaging, we can illuminate complex hierarchical structures from the molecular level to the macroscopic level, and study how they change in time and in response to stimuli. Images will facilitate understanding how proteins fit together to make living organisms, contribute to development of lighter, higher-strength alloys for fuel-efficient transportation and advance the use of biomass for alternative fuels. Hard x-rays are also especially suited to the study of real materials, under realistic conditions and in real-time. The advances proposed in this area would help develop more efficient catalysts, enhance green manufacturing, point the way to artificial light-harvesting inspired by biology and help us develop more efficient lighting. The scope of the renewal of our {approx}$1.5B facility is estimated to be {approx}$350M over five years. It is vital that the investment begin as soon as possible. The renewed APS would complement other national investments such as the National Synchrotron Light Source-II and would keep the U.S. internationally competitive.

  8. ANL Advanced Photon Source crotch absorber design

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M. ); Gonczy, J.D.; Howell, J.W.; Niemann, R.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The ANL 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source storage ring crotch absorber will be subjected to a very high photon loading power density, approximately 750 W/mm{sup 2} at normal incidence. To accommodate this high heat load, two designs were studied: one is a V-type compound angle absorber and the other is a horizontally rotated plate absorber. For both models, thermal and structural analyses have been carried out using 3-D finite element analysis. The analysis indicates that the V-type compound angle absorber controlled the peak temperatures effectively within the given geometric constraints. Test samples made of GlidCop Al 15 (alumina dispersion strengthened copper) were evaluated with an electron beam welder. The predicted and measured temperatures were in reasonable agreement. The overall absorber design includes a perforated screen in the positron beam area of the storage ring vacuum chamber to reduce rf impedance and to provide pumping access for the high local gas load. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Status of the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerig, R. E.; Gibson, J. M.; Mills, D. M.; Ruzicka, W. G.; Young, L.; Zholents, A.

    2011-09-01

    In the fall of 2010, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will enter its fifteenth year of user operations. During fiscal year 2009, the APS delivered X-ray beam to the scientific community 97.7% of scheduled hours (availability) and with a mean time between faults of 77.5 h. The APS remains the most prolific source worldwide of structure deposits in the Protein Data Bank (1433 in 2009) and a leader in the field of high-pressure research, among others. However, to maintain its position as a state-of-the-art facility for hard X-ray science, it will be necessary to refresh and improve the APS X-ray source and beamlines. We are presently on the path to do that through the APS Upgrade Project. The US Department of Energy Office of Science has formally approved the start of this project with the issuance of Critical Decision-0, Approve of Mission Need. The APS staff, in collaboration with our user community, is now in the process of developing a Conceptual Design Report that documents the proposed scope of the APS Upgrade Project. Components of the Upgrade plan will be presented as well as science highlights from the past year.

  10. The Advanced Photon Source list of parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bizek, H.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that stores positrons in a storage ring. The choice of positrons as accelerating particles was motivated by the usual reason: to eliminate the degradation of the beam caused by trapping of positively charged dust particles or ions. The third-generation synchrotron radiation sources are designed to have low beam emittance and many straight sections for insertion devices. The parameter list is comprised of three basic systems: the injection system, the storage ring system, and the experimental facilities system. The components of the injection system are listed according to the causal flow of positrons. Below we briefly list the individual components of the injection system, with the names of people responsible for managing these machines in parentheses: the linac system; electron linac-target-positron linac (Marion White); low energy transport line from linac to the PAR (Michael Borland); positron accumulator ring or PAR (Michael Borland); low energy transport line from PAR to injector synchrotron (Michael Borland); injector synchrotron (Stephen Milton); high energy transport line from injector synchrotron to storage ring (Stephen Milton). The storage ring system, managed by Glenn Decker, uses the Chasman-Green lattice. The APS storage ring, 1104 m in circumference, has 40 periodic sectors. Six are used to house hardware and 34 serve as insertion devices. Another 34 beamlines emit radiation from bending magnets. The experimental facilities system`s parameters include parameters for both an undulator and a wiggler.

  11. The Advanced Photon Source event system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source, like many other facilities, requires a means of transmitting timing information to distributed control system 1/0 controllers. The APS event system provides the means of distributing medium resolution/accuracy timing events throughout the facility. It consists of VME event generators and event receivers which are interconnected with 10OMbit/sec fiber optic links at distances of up to 650m in either a star or a daisy chain configuration. The systems event throughput rate is 1OMevents/sec with a peak-to-peak timing jitter down to lOOns depending on the source of the event. It is integrated into the EPICS-based A.PS control system through record and device support. Event generators broadcast timing events over fiber optic links to event receivers which are programmed to decode specific events. Event generators generate events in response to external inputs, from internal programmable event sequence RAMS, and from VME bus writes. The event receivers can be programmed to generate both pulse and set/reset level outputs to synchronize hardware, and to generate interrupts to initiate EPICS record processing. In addition, each event receiver contains a time stamp counter which is used to provide synchronized time stamps to EPICS records.

  12. The Advanced Photon Source injection timing system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source consists of five accelerators. The injection timing system provides the signals required to cause a bunch emitted from the electron gun to navigate through intermediate accelerators to a specific bucket (1 out of 1296) within the storage ring. Two linacs and a positron accumulator ring operate at 60Hz while a booster synchrotron ramps and injects into the storage ring at 2Hz. The distributed, modular VME/VXI-based injection timing system is controlled by two EPICS-based input/output controllers (IOCs). Over 40 VME/VXI cards have been developed to implement the system. Card types range from 352MHz VXI timing modules to VME-based fiber optic fanouts and logic translators/drivers. All timing is distributed with fiber optics. Timing references are derived directly from machine low-level rf of 9.77MHz and 352MHz. The timing references provide triggers to programmable delay generators. Three grades of timing are provided. Precision timing is derived from commercial digital delay generators, intermediate precision timing is obtained from VXI 8-channel digital delay generators which provide timing with 25ns peak-to-peak jitter, and modest precision timing is provided by the APS event system. The timing system is fully integrated into the APS EPICS-based control system.

  13. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  14. Science at the Speed of Light: Advanced Photon Source

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those x-rays.

  15. Science at the Speed of Light: Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2009-06-03

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those x-rays.

  16. Atomic physics at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne`s 7-GeV synchrotron light source (APS) is expected to commence operations for research early in FY 1996. The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Research Center (BESSRC) is likewise expected to start its research programs at that time. As members of the BESSRC CAT (Collaborative Access Team), we are preparing, together with atomic physicists from the University of Western Michigan, the University of Tennessee, and University of Notre Dame, to initiate a series of atomic physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of the APS, especially its high brilliance for photon energies extending from about 3 keV to more than 50 keV. Most of our early work will be conducted on an undulator beam line and we are thus concentrating on various aspects of that beam line and its associated experimental areas. Our group has undertaken responsibilities in such areas as hutch design, evaluation of undulator performance, user policy, interfacing and instrumentation, etc. Initial experiments will probably utilize existing apparatus. We are, however, planning to move rapidly to more sophisticated measurements involving, for example, ion-beam targets, simultaneous laser excitation, and the spectroscopy of emitted photons.

  17. Investigations of magnetic overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Yu, S.-W.; Butterfield, M.T.; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, G.D.

    2010-08-27

    Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy, including spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source. Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

  18. Investigations of Magnetic Overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S; Butterfield, M T

    2009-06-26

    Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XMCD-ABS) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES), including Spin-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SRPES), at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

  19. Nuclear resonant scattering beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.; Sturhahn, W.

    1993-09-01

    The principal and engineering aspects of a dedicated synchrotron radiation beamline under construction at the Advanced Photon Source for nuclear resonant scattering purposes are explained. The expected performance in terms of isotopes to be studied, flux, and timing properties is discussed.

  20. Sixth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. The actions taken at the 1994 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented here.

  1. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2004-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is the Western Hemisphere's most brilliant source of x-rays. This 3rd-generation 7-GeV synchrotron source can accomodate 34 insertion device ports, of which 30 are committed, and 24 are currently operating. In Fiscal Year 2002, we had 2767 unique users carry out at least one experiment at the source, of which 35research in materials science or condensed matter physics. Techniques commonly used by condensed matter scientists include single-crystal and powder diffraction, high-pressure studies, inelastic scattering, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, magnetic scattering and fluctuation spectroscopy. Access to the Advanced Photon Source can be either as a general user (www.aps.anl.gov) or as a partner user. Proposals from general users are encouraged, and beamtime is granted based on competitive review. Our capacity to accomodate more general users continues to increase. Typically, partner users build specialized equipment which is made available to general users. Many of our sectors have been built and operated by external Collaborative Access Teams, which support general users who enter through the APS centralized system. With the help of partnerships, the APS continues to evolve state-of-the-art beamlines of interest to condensed matter scientists, in areas such as inelastic scattering and nano-imaging. The Advanced Photon Source is closely connected with the new Center for Nanoscale Materials User Facility at Argonne. In this talk I will present notable examples of recent condensed matter physics experiments which utilized the unique capabilities of existing beamlines, and discuss future beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source.

  2. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  3. The Advanced Photon Source looks to the future.

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner, R. B; Gerig, R. E.; Gibson, J. M.; Gluskin, E.; Long, G. G.; Mills, D. M.; Ruzicka, W. G.

    2007-11-11

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is in its 12th year since producing first light. With an eye on the next 10 years, facility management have developed plans that address priorities for new and/or improved beamlines over the next 5-10 years with a strong evolution toward a greater number of dedicated beamlines. In addition, options, including an energy-recovery linac, are being evaluated for a planned upgrade of the APS.

  4. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Lienert, U.; Li, S.; Hefferan, C.; Lind, J.; Suter, R.; Bernier, J.; Barton, N.; Brandes, M.; Mills, M.; Miller, M.; Jakobsen, B.; Pantleon, W.

    2012-02-28

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ during thermomechanical loading. Case studies demonstrate the mapping of grain boundary topology, the evaluation of stress tensors of individual grains during tensile deformation and comparison to a finite element modeling simulation, and the characterization of evolving dislocation structure. Complementary information is obtained by post mortem electron microscopy on the same sample volume previously investigated by HEDM.

  5. A Renewal Plan for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Fischetti, Robert F.; Fuoss, Paul H.; Gerig, Rodney E.; Maclean, John F.; Mills, Dennis M.; Srajer, George; Keane, Denis T.; Neumann, Dan A.

    2010-06-23

    With coordination from the APS Renewal Steering Committee (the members of which are the co-authors of this paper), staff and users of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory are in the process of developing a renewal plan for the facility. The renewal is a coordinated upgrade of the accelerator, beamlines, and associated technical structure that will enable users of the APS to address key scientific challenges in the coming decades. The cost of the renewal is estimated to be from $300M to $400M and to take approximately six years from start to finish.

  6. Results from the Advanced Photon Source SASE FEL project

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, S.

    2000-07-05

    Measurements of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) at 530 nm were made at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low-energy undulator test line facility (LEUTL). Exponential growth of the optical signal as a function of distance was measured and compared to theoretical estimates. SASE was first observed using a beam generated from a photocathode rf gun system. It was later repeated using beam from a thermonic rf gun system. Following a brief description of the LEUTL facility, they present their results and initial analysis.

  7. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Patterson, D.; Wang, X.

    1995-07-01

    Principal diagnostics systems have been installed and nearly all have been commissioned on the subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility. Data have been obtained on beam position, beam profile, current, beam loss rate, and synchrotron radiation monitors on both injector rings and most recently the main 7-GeV storage ring. Results for the 150- to 450-MeV electron beams in the accumulator ring, up to 7 GeV in the injector synchrotron, and 4.5 to 7 GeV in the SR will be presented.

  8. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hartog, P.D.; Grimmer, J.; Xu, S.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Wiemerslage, G.

    1997-08-01

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured.

  9. The Advanced Photon Source pulsed deflecting cavity RF system.

    SciTech Connect

    Cours, A.; DiMonte, N. P.; Smith, T. L.; Waldschmidt, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source Deflecting Cavity System for producing short X-ray pulses uses two multi-cell, S-band cavities to apply a deflecting voltage to the stored electron beam ahead of an undulator that supports a beamline utilizing picosecond X-rays. Two additional multi-cell cavities are then used to cancel out the perturbation and restore the electron beam to its nominal orbit. The pulsed rf system driving the deflecting cavities is described. Design tradeoffs are discussed with emphasis on topology considerations and digital control loops making use of sampling technology in a manner consistent with the present state of the art.

  10. Poster session: Fifth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), which is currently under construction as a national user facility at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation synchrotron x-ray source, one of only three in the world. It is expected to produce x-rays that are 10,000 times brighter than any currently produced elsewhere for use in research in a wide range of scientific areas. Users from industry, national laboratories, universities, and business will be able to come to the APS to conduct research either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATS) or as Independent Investigators. Principal users will be members of CATS, which will be building and operating all of the beamlines present in the first phase of APS beamline development. The first set of CATs has been selected through a competitive proposal process involving peer scientific review, thorough technical evaluation, and significant management oversight by the APS. This document is a compilation of posters presented at the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source, held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 14--15, 1992. All CATs whose scientific cases were approved by the APS Proposal Evaluation Board are included. In addition, this document contains a poster from the Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Research and Instrumentation at the Illinois Institute of Technology.

  11. Poster session: Fifth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), which is currently under construction as a national user facility at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation synchrotron x-ray source, one of only three in the world. It is expected to produce x-rays that are 10,000 times brighter than any currently produced elsewhere for use in research in a wide range of scientific areas. Users from industry, national laboratories, universities, and business will be able to come to the APS to conduct research either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATS) or as Independent Investigators. Principal users will be members of CATS, which will be building and operating all of the beamlines present in the first phase of APS beamline development. The first set of CATs has been selected through a competitive proposal process involving peer scientific review, thorough technical evaluation, and significant management oversight by the APS. This document is a compilation of posters presented at the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source, held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 14--15, 1992. All CATs whose scientific cases were approved by the APS Proposal Evaluation Board are included. In addition, this document contains a poster from the Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Research and Instrumentation at the Illinois Institute of Technology.

  12. Vacuum chamber thermal protection for the APS (Advanced Photon Source)

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.; Crosbie, E.A.; Kim, S.; Wehrle, R.; Yoon, M.

    1989-01-01

    The addition of undulators and wigglers into synchrotron storage rings created new problems in terms of protecting the integrity of the ring vacuum chamber. If the photon beam from these devices were missteered into striking an inadequately cooled section of the storage ring vacuum chamber, the structural strength might be reduced sufficiently that the vacuum envelope could be penetrated, resulting in long downtime of the storage ring. The new generation of high-energy synchrotron light sources will produce photon beams of such high power density that cooling of the vacuum chamber will not prevent a potential penetration of the vacuum envelope, and other methods of preventing this occurrence will be required. Since active methods will be used to ensure that the beams are delivered to beam lines for users during normal operation, there is a need for passive protection methods during non-routine operation, such as turning on new beam lines, injection, etc., when the active systems may be disabled. In addition, the passive methods could prevent the problem from arising and provide the rapid time response necessary for the highest power beams, a property that might not be easily and reliably provided by active methods during the early operation of these machines. This paper summarizes the results of a task group that studied the problem and outlines passive methods of protection for the Advanced Photon Source (APS). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Man-machine interface builders at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is constructing a 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source for use as a synchrotron radiation source in basic and applied research. The controls and computing environment for this accelerator complex includes graphical operator interfaces to the machine based on Motif, X11, and PHIGS/PEX. Construction and operation of the control system for this accelerator relies upon interactive interface builder and diagram/editor type tools, as well as a run-time environment for the constructed displays which communicate with the physical machine via network connections. This paper discusses our experience with several commercial CUI builders, the inadequacies found in these, motivation for the development of an application- specific builder, and design and implementation strategies employed in the development of our own Man-Machine Interface builder. 5 refs.

  14. Man-machine interface builders at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.

    1991-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory is constructing a 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source for use as a synchrotron radiation source in basic and applied research. The controls and computing environment for this accelerator complex includes graphical operator interfaces to the machine based on Motif, X11, and PHIGS/PEX. Construction and operation of the control system for this accelerator relies upon interactive interface builder and diagram/editor type tools, as well as a run-time environment for the constructed displays which communicate with the physical machine via network connections. This paper discusses our experience with several commercial CUI builders, the inadequacies found in these, motivation for the development of an application- specific builder, and design and implementation strategies employed in the development of our own Man-Machine Interface builder. 5 refs.

  15. Proceedings of the Advanced Photon Source renewal workshop.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Mills, D. M.; Kobenhavns Univ.; Northwestern Univ.; Stony Brook Univ.; Univ. of Pennsylvania; Notre Dame Univ.; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Connecticut; Diamond Light Source Ltd.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; North Dakota State Univ.; Washington State Univ.; ORNL; Univ. of Illinois; NIH

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in March 2008, Advanced Photon Source (APS) management engaged users, facility staff, the distinguished members of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, and other outside experts in crafting a renewal plan for this premier synchrotron x-ray research facility. It is vital that the investment in the APS renewal begin as soon as possible in order to keep this important U.S. facility internationally competitive. The APS renewal plan encompasses innovations in the beamlines and the x-ray source that are needed for major advances in science - advances that promise to further extend the impact of x-ray science on energy research, technology development, materials innovation, economic competitiveness, health, and far-reaching fundamental knowledge. A planning milestone was the APS Renewal Workshop held on October 20-21, 2008. Organized by the APS Renewal Steering Committee, the purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum where leading researchers could present the broad outlines of forward-looking plans for science at the APS in all major disciplines serviced by x-ray techniques. Two days of scientific presentations, discussions, and dialogue involved more than 180 scientists representing 41 institutions. The scientific talks and breakout/discussion sessions provided a forum for Science Team leaders to present the outlines of forward-looking plans for experimentation in all the major scientific disciplines covered by photon science. These proceedings comprise the reports from the Science Teams that were commissioned by the APS Renewal Steering Committee, having been edited by the Science Teams after discussion at the workshop.

  16. (Overview of RF systems for the advanced photon source)

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is being built by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) near Chicago. The APS is a 7-GeV positron storage ring from which x-ray beams of energies from a few keV to hundreds of keV are emitted as the positrons pass through ring bending magnets and also through special magnets called wigglers and undulators. The present schedule is to be operational in 1995. The energy emitted from the positron beam as x-rays is replaced through a radio-frequency accelerating system operating at 352 MHz at a maximum power level of 3 MW. The RF system will be described as well as several lower-power systems at frequencies of 0.8 MHz, 117 MHz and 2.8 GHz. The associated control electronics (phase shifters amplitude control, automatic tuning control, etc.) as well as the computer control architecture will also be described.

  17. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  18. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  19. Radiation doses to insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Semones, E.J.; Job, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    Dose measurements made on and around the insertion devices (IDs) at the Advanced Photon Source are reported. Attempts are made to compare these dose rates to dose rates that have been reported to cause radiation-induced demagnetization, but comparisons are complicated by such factors as the particular magnet material and the techniques used in its manufacture, the spectrum and type of radiation, and the demagnetizing field seen by the magnet. The spectrum of radiation at the IDs. It has almost no effect on the dose to the downstream ends of the IDs, however, since much of the radiation travels through the ID vacuum chamber and cannot be readily shielded. Opening the gaps of the IDs during injection and at other times also helps decrease the radiation exposure.

  20. Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Experiments with radioactive samples at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Veluri, V. R.; Justus, A.; Glagola, B.; Rauchas, A.; Vacca, J.

    2000-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a national synchrotron-radiation light source research facility. The 7 GeV electron Storage Ring is currently delivering intense high brilliance x-ray beams to a total of 34 beamlines with over 120 experiment stations to members of the international scientific community to carry out forefront basic and applied research in several scientific disciplines. Researchers come to the APS either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATs) or as Independent Investigators (IIs). Collaborative Access Teams comprise large number of investigators from universities, industry, and research laboratories with common research objectives. These teams are responsible for the design, construction, finding, and operation of beamlines. They are the owners of their experimental enclosures (''hutches'') designed and built to meet their specific research needs. Fig. 1 gives a plan view of the location of the Collaborative Access Teams by Sector and Discipline. In the past two years, over 2000 individual experiments were conducted at the APS facility. Of these, about 60 experiments involved the use of radioactive samples, which is less than 3% of the total. However, there is an increase in demand for experiment stations to accommodate the use of radioactive samples in different physical forms embedded in various matrices with activity levels ranging from trace amounts of naturally occurring radionuclides to MBq (mCi) quantities including transuranics. This paper discusses in some detail the steps in the safety review process for experiments involving radioactive samples and how ALARA philosophy is invoked at each step and implemented.

  2. Insertion device operating experience at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmer, John; Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed in the 7 GeV electron storage ring; 28 of these devices, most of which are 3.3 cm period undulators, use two horizontal permanent magnet structures positioned over a straight vacuum chamber. A support and drive mechanism allows the vertical gap between the magnet structures to be varied, thus changing the x-ray energy produced by the ID [J. Viccaro, Proc. SPIE 1345, 28 (1990); E. Gluskin, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 189 (1998)]. Most of these IDs use a drive scheme with two stepper motors, one driving each end through a mechanism synchronizing the upper and lower magnet structures. Our experience in almost 5 yr of operating this system will be discussed. All of the IDs are in continuous operation for approximately 10 weeks at a time. Reliability of operation is of paramount importance, as access to the storage ring for servicing of a single ID inhibits operation for all users. Our experience in achieving highly reliable ID operation is reviewed. Accuracy of operation and repeatability over time are also vital. To this end, these devices use absolute optical linear encoders with submicron resolution for primary position feedback. Absolute rotary encoders are used as a backup to the linear encoders. The benefits and limitations of each type of encoder, and our experience dealing with radiation and electrical noise are reviewed. The insertion devices operate down to gaps as small as 8.5 mm, with clearance over the vacuum chamber as small as 200 μm. The vacuum chamber has a minimum wall thickness of only 1 mm. A number of levels of safeguards are used to prevent contact between the magnet structure and the vacuum chamber. These safeguards and their evolution after gaining operational experience are presented.

  3. Proceedings of the fourth users meeting for the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Fourth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held on May 7--8, 1991 at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project; critical issues for APS operation; advances in synchrotron radiation applications; users perspectives, and funding perspectives. The actions taken at the 1991 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented.

  4. Proceedings of the fourth users meeting for the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Fourth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held on May 7--8, 1991 at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project; critical issues for APS operation; advances in synchrotron radiation applications; users perspectives, and funding perspectives. The actions taken at the 1991 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented.

  5. Modeling RF Feedback in Elegant for Bunch-Lengthening Studies for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Berenc, Tim; Borland, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The proposed Advanced Photon Source (APS) multibend achromat (MBA) lattice includes a passive bunchlengthening cavity to alleviate lifetime and emittance concerns. Feedback in the main radio-frequency (rf) system affects the overall impedance presented to the beam in this double rf system. To aid beam stability studies, a realistic model of rf feedback has been developed and implemented in elegant and Pelegant.

  6. Proceedings of the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held on October 14--15, 1992, at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, funding opportunities, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. In addition, the 15 Collaborative Access Teams that have been approved to date participated in a poster session, and several vendors displayed their wares. The actions taken at the 1992 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented.

  7. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    During the past decade, synchrotron radiation emitted by circulating electron beams has come into wide use as a powerful, versatile source of x-rays for probing the structure of matter and for studying various physical processes. Several synchrotron radiation facilities with different designs and characteristics are now in regular operation throughout the world, with recent additions in this country being the 0.8-GeV and 2.5-GeV rings of NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, none of the operating facilities has been designed to use a low-emittance, high-energy stored beam, together with modern undulator devices, to produce a large number of hard x-ray beams of extremely high brilliance. This document is a proposal to the Department of Energy to construct and operate high-energy synchrotron radiation facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We have now chosen to set the design energy of this facility at 7.0 GeV, with the capability to operate at up to 7.5 GeV.

  8. Soft x-ray spectroscopy undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, K.J.; Xu, Z.; Moore, J.F.; Gluskin, E.

    1997-09-01

    Construction of the high-resolution soft x ray spectroscopy undulator beamline, 2ID-C, at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been completed. The beamline, one of two soft x ray beamlines at the APS, will cover the photon energy range from 500 to 3,000 eV, with a maximum resolving power between 7,000 and 14,000. The optical design is based on a spherical grating monochromator (SGM) giving both high resolution and high flux throughput. Photon flux is calculated to be approximately 10{sup 12}--10{sup 13} photons per second with a beam size of approximately 1 x 1 mm{sup 2} at the sample.

  9. Proceedings of the third users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The Third Users Meetings for the Advanced Photon Source, held on October 12--13, 1989, at Argonne National Laboratory, brought together scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories to review the status of the facility and make plans for its use. The presentations documented in these proceedings include overviews of the project status and the user access policy; updates on several fundamental research efforts that make use of synchrotron radiation; reports on insertion-device R D and beam line design activities; cost and manpower estimates for beam line construction; and a panel discussion on strategies for developing and managing Collaborative Access Teams. The actions taken at the 1989 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented.

  10. Evaluation of Power Supply and Alignment Tolerances for the Advanced Photons Source Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sajaev, V.

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid seven-bend-achromat lattice that features very strong focusing elements and provides an electron beam with very low emittance has been proposed for the Advanced Photon Source upgrade [1,2]. In order to be able to maintain stable operation, tight tolerances are required for various types of errors. Here we describe evaluation of the effects of various errors including magnet power supplies, alignment, and vibration.

  11. Support systems for optics in the experiment stations at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Barraza, J.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Support systems have been designed for optics in the experiment stations of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. These systems utilize modular precision positioning slides and stages arranged in 3-point kinematic mount fashion for optimum mechanical stability. Through the use of novel configurations, these systems can achieve large linear motions, six degree-of-freedom motion, and large load capacities without sacrificing valuable experimental station space. This paper will discuss the designs and specifications of the positioning systems developed.

  12. Superconducting Cavity Design for Short-Pulse X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Waldschmidt, R. Nassiri, G. Cheng, R.A. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting cavities have been analyzed for the short-pulse x-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Due to the strong damping requirements in the APS storage ring, single-cell superconducting cavities have been designed. The geometry has been optimized for lower-order and higher-order mode damping, reduced peak surface magnetic fields, and compact size. The integration of the cavity assembly, with dampers and waveguide input coupler, into a cryomodule will be discussed.

  13. Development of grating-based x-ray Talbot interferometry at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, Shashidhara; Xiao Xianghui; Wojcik, Michael J.; Divan, Ralu; Butler, Leslie G.; Ham, Kyungmin; Fezzaa, Kamel; Erdmann, Mark; Wen, Han H.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Macrander, Albert T.; De Carlo, Francesco; Mancini, Derrick C.; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2012-07-31

    We report on the ongoing effort to develop hard x-ray Talbot interferometry at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, USA. We describe the design of the interferometer and preliminary results obtained at 25 keV using a feather and a phantom sample lithographically fabricated of gold. We mention the future developmental goals and applications of this technique as a metrology tool for x-ray optics and beam wavefront characterization.

  14. Dose measurements of bremsstrahlung-produced neutrons from thick targets at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Job, P. K.

    1998-09-16

    Bremsstrahlung is produced in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring when the positron beam interacts with the storage-ring components or with the residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum. This bremsstrahlung has an energy range of zero to 7.0 GeV, which is the maximum energy of the positron beam. Bremsstrahlung photons of sufficient high energy can interact with beamline components such as beam stops and collimators, generating neutrons of varying energies. This paper presents the results of simultaneous measurements, conducted at the Advanced Photon Source, of bremsstrahlung and the corresponding photoneutron production from thick targets of iron, copper, tungsten and lead, which allow one to correlate photoneutron dose rates from these metals as a function of bremsstrahlung power. The average photoneutron dose equivalent rates, normalized to the bremsstrahlung power, are measured as 2.7 {+-} 0.5 rem/h/W for iron, 3.2 {+-} 0.5 rem/h/W for copper, 3.9 {+-} 0.5 rem/h/W for tungsten, and 4.6 {+-} 0.8 rem/h/W for lead targets. These are measured at 80 cm lateral from the center of the targets, perpendicular to the photon beam direction.

  15. One-way data transfer for PLC to VME status reporting at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    The Personnel Safety System for the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will use a large number of Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to replace conventional relay logic. PLCs allow for the design of a very advanced safety system that can handle a large number of I/O points. Certain situations Require monitoring of the safety system from various locations around the storage ring via EPICS OPI (operator interface)consoles. This presentation covers the method of choice for transferring data from the Personnel Safety System into an EPICS database. Specifics on PLC ladder design, EPICS database design, and hardware selection are also discussed.

  16. A next-generation in-situ nanoprobe beamline for the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maser, Jörg; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Harder, Ross; Jacobsen, Chris; Liu, Wenjun; Murray, Conal; Preissner, Curt; Roehrig, Chris; Rose, Volker; Shu, Deming; Vine, David; Vogt, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is currently developing a suite of new hard x-ray beamlines, aimed primarily at the study of materials and devices under real conditions. One of the flagship beamlines of the APS Upgrade is the In-Situ Nanoprobe beamline (ISN beamline), which will provide in-situ and operando characterization of advanced energy materials and devices under change of temperature and gases, under applied fields, in 3D. The ISN beamline is designed to deliver spatially coherent x-rays with photon energies between 4 keV and 30 keV to the ISN instrument. As an x-ray source, a revolver-type undulator with two interchangeable magnetic structures, optimized to provide high brilliance throughout the range of photon energies of 4 keV - 30 keV, will be used. The ISN instrument will provide a smallest hard x-ray spot of 20 nm using diffractive optics, with sensitivity to sub-10 nm sample structures using coherent diffraction. Using nanofocusing mirrors in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry, the ISN will also provide a focus of 50 nm with a flux of 8·1011 Photons/s at a photon energy of 10 keV, several orders of magnitude larger than what is currently available. This will allow imaging of trace amounts of most elements in the periodic table, with a sensitivity to well below 100 atoms for most metals in thin samples. It will also enable nanospectroscopic studies of the chemical state of most materials relevant to energy science. The ISN beamline will be primarily used to study inorganic and organic photovoltaic systems, advanced batteries and fuel cells, nanoelectronics devices, and materials and systems diesigned to reduce the environmental impact of combustion.

  17. Potential and challenges of upgrading the Advanced Photon Source to an Energy Recovery Linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.; Decker, G.; Nassiri, A.; Sun, Y.-e; White, M.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third generation synchrotron radiation source operating at 7 GeV that has been in operation for over 10 years. In that time, the emittance has been improved from 8 nm to the present value of 3.1 nm, which is close to the practical minimum. Recently, APS undertook an intensive exploration of potential upgrades, including options for a replacement storage ring or Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) injector. Our conclusion was that only the ERL would provide a dramatically new capability. This paper discusses the potential performance available from an ERL upgrade to the APS and reviews the challenges of delivering this performance.

  18. X-ray Laue Diffraction Microscopy in 3D at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Zschack, P.; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Ice, Gene E; Larson, Ben C

    2011-01-01

    Studies of materials on mesoscopic length-scales require a penetrating structural probe with submicron point-to-point spatial resolution. The principle research activities at beamline 34-ID-E of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) involve development of exciting new micro-/nano-diffraction techniques for characterization and microscopy in support of both applied engineering and fundamental materials research. Taking advantage of the high brightness of the source, advanced focusing mirrors, a novel depth profiling technique, and high-speed area detectors, three-dimensional scanning Laue diffraction microscopy provides detailed local structural information of crystalline materials, such as crystallographic orientation, orientation gradients, and strain tensors. It is general and applicable to single-crystal, polycrystalline, composite, deformed, and functionally graded materials. Applications include 3D diffraction investigations for a diverse and growing user community with interests in materials deformation, electro-migration, recrystallization, fatigue, solid-solution precipitation, high-pressure environments, and condensed matter physics.

  19. Vacuum system development status for the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wherle, R.; Nielson, R.; Kim, S.

    1989-01-01

    The status of the design and fabrication of a prototype sector of the storage ring vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source is described. The 26.5-m-long prototype sector will be assembled within a full-scale magnet and tunnel mockup to study interspacial component relationships for maintenance, as well as the vacuum system operational performance. Each completed vacuum section is mounted as an integral part of the modular structure that contains the magnets and magnet power supplies on a common base. Unique automatic machine welding designs and techniques are employed in the fabrication of the aluminium vacuum chambers from extrusions. Special chamber bending procedures and measurements checks are used to maintain the required flatness of the insider chamber light gap surfaces. Photo-electron yields due to low-energy photons in the narrow channel gap of the vacuum chamber and their potential effects on the overall outgassing rate are found to be negligible. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Impedance measurement of vacuum chamber components for the Advance Photon Source(APS) Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sangroula, M.; Lindberg, R.; Lill, R.; Sun, X.

    2017-01-01

    The proposed Advance Photon Source Upgrade (APS-U) employs a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice to increase the photon brightness by two to three orders of magnitude. One of the main design challenges of the upgrade is to minimize rf heating and collective instabilities associated with the impedance of small-aperture vacuum components. As part of this effort, my research focuses on impedance measurement and simulation of various MBA vacuum components. Here, we present the summary of the impedance contributions for the APS-U and describe our planned impedance measurement technique, including some measurement results for the non-evaporative getter (NEG)-coated copper chamber and simulation results for other critical components using a novel Goubau line (G-line) set up.

  1. Simulation Study of Injection Performance for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, A.; Sajaev, V.

    2015-01-01

    A vertical on-axis injection scheme has been proposed for the hybrid seven-bend-achromat (H7BA) [1] Advanced Photon Source upgrade (APSU) lattice. In order to evaluate the injection performance, various errors, such as injection beam jitter, optical mismatch and errors, and injection element errors have been investigated and their significance has been discovered. Injection efficiency is then simulated under different error levels. Based on these simulation results, specifications and an error-budget for individual systems have been defined.

  2. Aperture coupling measurement in a test chamber for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Kustom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Aperture coupling measurements have been made using two identical rectangular chambers. A common wall between them has holes of various size, thickness, shape and number. The transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave, which propagates in one rectangular chamber, couples through the aperture and radiates into the other chamber. The measured results are compared with the diffraction model and used to estimate the coupling impedance of a circulating beam. The results of these measurements was applied to the detailed design of some of the vacuum components in the Advanced Photon Source.

  3. Aperture coupling measurement in a test chamber for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Kustom, R.L.

    1992-05-01

    Aperture coupling measurements have been made using two identical rectangular chambers. A common wall between them has holes of various size, thickness, shape and number. The transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave, which propagates in one rectangular chamber, couples through the aperture and radiates into the other chamber. The measured results are compared with the diffraction model and used to estimate the coupling impedance of a circulating beam. The results of these measurements was applied to the detailed design of some of the vacuum components in the Advanced Photon Source.

  4. Development and Operating Experience of a Short-Period Superconducting Undulator at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Harkay, K.; Abliz, M.; Boon, L.; Borland, M.; Capatina, D.; Collins, J.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Dooling, J.; Doose, C.; Emery, L.; Fuerst, J.; Gagliano, J.; Hasse, Q.; Jaski, M.; Kasa, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kustom, R.; Lang, J.; Liu, J.; Moog, E.; Robinson, D.; Sajaev, V.; Schroeder, K.; Sereno, N.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Skiadopoulos, D.; Smith, M.; Sun, X.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I.; Vella, A.; Xiao, A.; Xu, J.; Zholents, A.; Gluskin, E.; Lev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Syrovatin, V.; Tsukanov, V.; Makarov, A.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Potratz, D.

    2015-04-29

    A decade-long effort at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on development of superconducting undulators culminated in December 2012 with the installation of the first superconducting undulator "SCU0" into Sector 6 of the APS storage ring. The device was commissioned in January 2013 and has been in user operation since. This paper presents the magnetic and cryogenic design of the SCU0 together with the results of stand-alone cold tests. The initial commissioning and characterization of SCU0 as well as its operating experience in the APS storage ring are described.

  5. Development and operating experience of a short-period superconducting undulator at the Advanced Photon Source

    DOE PAGES

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Harkay, K.; Abliz, M.; ...

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a decade-long effort at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on development of superconducting undulators culminated in December 2012 with the installation of the first superconducting undulator “SCU0” into Sector 6 of the APS storage ring. The device was commissioned in January 2013 and has been in user operation since. This paper presents the magnetic and cryogenic design of the SCU0 together with the results of stand-alone cold tests. The initial commissioning and characterization of SCU0 as well as its operating experience in the APS storage ring are described.

  6. Crab Cavity and Cryomodule Prototype Development for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H; Ciovati, G; Clemens, W A; Henry, J; Kneisel, P; Kushnick, P; Macha, K; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Slack, G; Turlington, L; Nassiri, R; Waldschmidt, G J; Wu, G

    2011-03-01

    We review the single-cell, superconducting crab cavity designs for the short-pulse x-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The 'on-cell' waveguide scheme is expected to have a more margin for the impedance budget of the APS storage ring, as well as offering a more compact design compared with the original design consisting of a low order mode damping waveguide on the beam pipe. We will report recent fabrication progress, cavity test performance on original and alternate prototypes, and concept designs and analysis for various cryomodule components.

  7. Development and operating experience of a short-period superconducting undulator at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Harkay, K.; Abliz, M.; Boon, L.; Borland, M.; Capatina, D.; Collins, J.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Dooling, J.; Doose, C.; Emery, L.; Fuerst, J.; Gagliano, J.; Hasse, Q.; Jaski, M.; Kasa, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kustom, R.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, J.; Moog, E.; Robinson, D.; Sajaev, V.; Schroeder, K.; Sereno, N.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Skiadopoulos, D.; Smith, M.; Sun, X.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I.; Vella, A.; Xiao, A.; Xu, J.; Zholents, A.; Gluskin, E.; Lev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Syrovatin, V.; Tsukanov, V.; Makarov, A.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Potratz, D.

    2015-04-01

    A decade-long effort at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on development of superconducting undulators culminated in December 2012 with the installation of the first superconducting undulator "SCU0" into Sector 6 of the APS storage ring. The device was commissioned in January 2013 and has been in user operation since. This paper presents the magnetic and cryogenic design of the SCU0 together with the results of stand-alone cold tests. The initial commissioning and characterization of SCU0 as well as its operating experience in the APS storage ring are described.

  8. Fabrication and assembly of a superconducting undulator for the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Hasse, Quentin; Fuerst, J. D.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Doose, C.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Skiadopoulos, D.

    2014-01-29

    A prototype superconducting undulator magnet (SCU0) has been built at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has successfully completed both cryogenic performance and magnetic measurement test programs. The SCU0 closed loop, zero-boil-off cryogenic system incorporates high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads, cryocoolers, a LHe reservoir supplying dual magnetic cores, and an integrated cooled beam chamber. This system presented numerous challenges in the design, fabrication, and assembly of the device. Aspects of this R and D relating to both the cryogenic and overall assembly of the device are presented here. The SCU0 magnet has been installed in the APS storage ring.

  9. A 2 m inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer at CMC-XOR, Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. P.; Coburn, D. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Gog, T.; Casa, D. M.; Kodituwakku, C. N.; Sinn, H.; X-Ray Science Division; BNL; Univ. of Toronto

    2007-07-01

    The design and commissioning of an inelastic X-ray scattering instrument at CMC-XOR at the Advanced Photon Source is reported. The instrument features a 2 m vertical-scattering arm with a novel counterweight design to reduce the twisting moment as the arm is moved in the scattering plane. A Ge(733) spherical analyzer was fabricated and an overall resolution of 118 meV (FWHM) was obtained with a Si(444) monochromator and a Si(111) pre-monochromator. Early results from a representative cuprate, La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, are reported.

  10. Construction, commissioning and operational experience of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.; Arnold, N.; Berg, W.

    1996-10-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator system consists of a 200 MeV, 2856 MHz S-Band electron linac and a 2-radiation-thick tungsten target followed by a 450 MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past year to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies and to provide beam for the user experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described and its operation and performance are discussed.

  11. Design of the beam shut-off current monitor upgrade for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Pietryla, A.; Decker, G.

    2000-05-05

    Plans to eliminate the positron accumulator ring (PAR) from the Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector complex have created the need for a device to limit the allowable beam charge injected into the APS injector synchrotrons. The beam shut-off current monitor (BESOCM) was chosen to provide this function. This new application of the BESOCM provided the opportunity to explore new design philosophies. Two design goals were to de-emphasize reliance on external signals and to become insensitive to timing variations. Both of these goals were accomplished by deriving the trigger directly from the beam. This paper will discuss the features of the new BESOCM design and present data demonstrating its function.

  12. Optimization and modeling studies for obtaining high injection efficiency at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, L.; APS Operations Division

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the optics of the Advanced Photon Source storage ring has evolved to a lower equilibrium emittance (2.5 nm-rad) at the cost of stronger sextupoles and stronger nonlinearities, which have reduced the injection efficiency from the virtual 100% of the high emittance mode. Over the years we have developed a series of optimizations, measurements, and modeling studies of the injection process, which allows us to obtain or maintain low injection losses. The above will be described along with the injection configuration.

  13. RF Design of Normal Conducting Deflecting Structures for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Borland, Michael; Waldschmidt, Geoff; /Argonne

    2007-11-07

    Use of normal conducting deflecting structures for production of short x-ray pulses is now under consideration at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source (APS). The structures have to produce up to 4 MV maximum deflection per pair of structures with a 1 kHz repetition rate. At the same time, the structures should not cause deterioration of beam properties in the APS ring. Following these requirements, we proposed 2815 MHz standing wave deflecting structures with heavy wakefield damping. In this paper we discuss design considerations and present our current design.

  14. RF design of normal conducting deflecting structures for the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, V.; Borland, M.; Waldschmidt, G.; Accelerator Systems Division; SLAC

    2007-08-01

    Use of normal conducting deflecting structures for production of short X-ray pulses is now under consideration at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source (APS). The structures have to produce up to 4 MV maximum deflection per pair of structures with a 1 kHz repetition rate. At the same time, the structures should not cause deterioration of beam properties in the APS ring. Following these requirements, we proposed 2815 MHz standing wave deflecting structures with heavy wakefield damping. In this paper we discuss design considerations and present our current design.

  15. Multipacting study of the RF window at the Advanced Photon Source (APS).

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J. J.

    1999-04-20

    Multipacting current can cause breakdowns in high power rf components such as input couplers, waveguide windows, and higher-order mode (HOM) dampers. To understand and prevent the loss of a ceramic window or an input coupler in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring rf cavity, the multipacting phenomenon is being investigated experimentally. This paper begins with a description of simple model, presents a hardware design, and concludes with measurement of multipacting. Multipacting is explored in conjunction with conditioning the cavities and interaction with the stored beam.

  16. A double-multilayer monochromator using a modular design for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    A novel double-multilayer monochromator has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source X-ray undulator beamline at Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator consists of two ultra high-vacuum (UHV) compatible modular vessels, each with a sine-bar driving structure and a water-cooled multilayer holder. A high precision Y-Z stage is used to provide compensating motion for the second multilayer from outside the vacuum chamber so that the monochromator can fix the output monochromatic beam direction and angle during the energy scan in a narrow range. The design details for this monochromator are presented in this paper.

  17. Progress towards top-up mode operations at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, L.; Borland, M.

    1999-10-26

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV, third-generation synchrotron radiation source. To provide a more stable beam for users, in September 1998 the authors began commissioning a new operating mode called top-up. In this mode, the beam current does not decay but is maintained at a high level using frequent injection, while photon shutters are open and photon beams are delivered to users. The exhaustive analysis for top-up safety will be reviewed as well as the hardware and software required for top-up operation. Operational experience so far includes testing aspects of top-up injection, delivering beam to X-ray users for a few hours with fractional current stability of 0.001, and routinely providing beam to users by refilling the ring to 100 mA every 12 hours with shutters open. Top-up performance issues encountered are short-lived orbit and emittance transients during the injection event, which appear in user experiments as X-ray beam brightness dips. Planned system modifications to reduce these beam transients are described. The main operational issue left for continuous top-up injection will then be sharing the injector system with other operations.

  18. Beam-induced radiation heating on the superconducting undulator at the advanced photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In January 2013 the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a 7 GeV synchrotron X-ray source, commissioned a Superconducting Undulator (SCU). The superconducting magnet is thermally isolated from the beam vacuum chamber, which absorbs the beam-induced heating. Previous beam induced heat load studies at other laboratories had not included a robust calculation of radiation heating from the upstream dipole magnet. The mitigation of the radiation heating mechanism, and production of photoelectrons to seed an electron cloud was studied for this thesis. An analytical model was developed to predict the radiation heat load on the SCU chamber. This model was benchmarked with ray tracings and simulations. Results from this synchrotron radiation model were used to guide the design of the installed SCU beam chamber. A 3D Monte-Carlo simulation on synchrotron radiation on the beam chamber was developed. The model considered the effect of diffuse scattering and complex chamber geometries. It was found that a simulation assuming no photon scattering gave a power that agreed within 0.4% of the analytical model. Comparison between analytical calculations and measured temperature rise on the installed SCU show the analytical model agrees with the measured temperature rise within 20%. Previous models of similar superconducting devices in accelerators have reached at best 200% difference between the measured and modeled heat load. The beam heat load model presented in this thesis represents a significant improvement in modeling of superconducting devices in high energy particle accelerators. In addition to heating the SCU chamber, absorbed photons produce photoelectrons which seed electron clouds, another source of beam induced heating. Measurements of the technical aluminum samples show peaks in the quantum efficiency for photon energies equal to the K edges of oxygen, carbon, and aluminum. These results can be added to electron cloud simulation codes to improve simulation results.

  19. Advanced Photon Source experimental beamline Safety Assessment Document: Addendum to the Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Safety Assessment Document (APS-3.2.2.1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Assessment Document (SAD) addresses commissioning and operation of the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Purpose of this document is to identify and describe the hazards associated with commissioning and operation of these beamlines and to document the measures taken to minimize these hazards and mitigate the hazard consequences. The potential hazards associated with the commissioning and operation of the APS facility have been identified and analyzed. Physical and administrative controls mitigate identified hazards. No hazard exists in this facility that has not been previously encountered and successfully mitigated in other accelerator and synchrotron radiation research facilities. This document is an updated version of the APS Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). During the review of the PSAR in February 1990, the APS was determined to be a Low Hazard Facility. On June 14, 1993, the Acting Director of the Office of Energy Research endorsed the designation of the APS as a Low Hazard Facility, and this Safety Assessment Document supports that designation.

  20. Development and Performance of Superconducting Undulators at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gluskin, Efim

    2015-05-04

    Several years ago, an article in SRN [1] with the same title as this article summarized the decade-long development of superconducting undulators (SCUs) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The article presented those developments leading to the point when the first prototype, called SCU0 and intended for installation at the APS, was under fabrication. SCU0 was built in 2012, its cryogenic performance has been extensively tested, and detailed magnet measurements of the device have been conducted. After verification that SCU0 met all of the technical requirements for APS insertion devices, it was installed in the APS storage ring in January 2013, commissioned in a record short time (two weeks), and became a routinely used source of hard X-rays at the APS Sector 6 ID beamline.

  1. Vibration considerations in the design of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a new synchrotron radiation facility being built at Argonne National Laboratory, will provide the world's most brilliant X-ray beams for research in a wide range of technical fields. Successful operation of the APS requires an extremely stable positron closed orbit. Vibration of the storage ring quadrupole magnets, even in the submicron range, can lead to distortion of the positron closed orbit and to potentially unacceptable beam emittance growth, which results in degraded performance. This paper presents an overview of the technical approach used to minimize vibration response, beginning at the conceptual stage, through design and construction, and on to successful operation. Acceptance criteria relating to maximum allowable quadrupole magnet vibration are discussed. Soil properties are used to determine resonant frequencies of foundations and to predict attenuation characteristics. Two sources are considered to have the potential to excite the foundation: far-field sources, which are produced external to the facility, and near-field sources, which are produced within the facility. Measurements of ambient ground motion, monitored to determine far- field excitation, are presented. Ambient vibration was measured at several operating facilities within Argonne to gain insight on typical near-field excitation sources. Discussion covers the dynamic response characteristics of a prototypic magnet support structure to various excitations, including ambient floor motion, coolant flow, and magnet power. 19 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Design and Application of CVD Diamond Windows for X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Jaski, Yifei; Cookson, David

    2007-01-19

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  3. Proceedings of the second users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The second national users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory -- held March 9--10, 1988, at Argonne -- brought scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories together to review the status of the facility and expectations for its use. Presented papers and status reports in these proceedings include the current status of the APS with respect to accelerator systems, experimental facilities, and conventional facilities; scientific papers on frontiers in synchrotron applications summaries of reports on workshops held by users in certain topical groups; reports in research and development activities in support of the APS at other synchrotron facilities; and noted from a discussion of APS user access policy. In addition, actions taken by the APS Users Organization and its Executive Committee are documented in this report.

  4. Proceedings of the first users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The first national users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory - held November 13-14, 1986, at Argonne - brought together scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories to exchange information on the design of the facility and expectations for its use. Presented papers and potential participating research team (PRT) plans are documented in these proceedings. Topics covered include the current status of the project, an overview of the APS conceptual design, scientific opportunities offered by the facility for synchrotron-radiation-related research, current proposals and funding mechanisms for beam lines, and user policies. A number of participants representing universities and private industry discussed plans for the possible formation of PRTs to build and use beam lines at the APS site. The meeting also provided an opportunity for potential users to organize their efforts to support and guide the facility's development.

  5. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.; Experimental Facilities Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  6. Alternate Lattice Design for Advanced Photon Source Multi-Bend Achromat Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; Borland, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A 67-pm hybrid-seven-bend achromat (H7BA) lattice is proposed for a futureAdvanced Photon Source (APS)multibend- achromat (MBA) upgrade. This lattice requires use of a swap-out (on-axis) injection scheme. Alternate lattice design work has also been performed to achieve better beam dynamics performance than the nominal APS MBA lattice, in order to allow beam accumulation. One of such alternate H7BA lattice designs, which still targets a very low emittance of 76 pm, is discussed in this paper. With these lattices, existing APS injector complex can be employed without the requirement of a very high charge operation. Studies show that an emittance below 76 pm can be achieved with the employment of reverse bends in an alternate lattice. We discuss the predicted performance and requirements for these lattices and compare them to the nominal lattice.

  7. Design of a miniature hydraulic compression load frame for microdiffraction tests at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Varma, R.; Krasnicki, S.; Sinha, S.

    1999-10-11

    In support of the x-ray synchrotrons radiation multidiffraction project of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have designed and fabricated a miniature hydraulic compression load frame with 20000 N load capacity for metal specimen tests at the APS. The compact design allows the load frame to sit on the center of a 6-circle goniometer with six degrees of freedom and maximum solid angle accessibility for the incoming x-ray beam and diffraction beam detectors. A set of compact precision stages with submicron resolution has been designed for the load frame positioning to compensate the sample internal elastic and/or plastic deformation during the loading process. The system design, specifications, and test results are presented.

  8. Design of a Quasi-waveguide Multicell Deflecting Cavity for the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, A.; Gonin, I.; Awida, M.; Khabiboulline, T.; Yakovlev, V.; Zholents, A.

    This paper reports the design of a 2815 MHz Quasi-waveguide Multicell Resonator (called QMiR) being considered as a transverse RF deflecting cavity for the Advanced Photon Source's (APS) Short Pulse X-ray project. QMiR forms a trapped dipole mode inside a beam vacuum chamber, while High Order Modes (HOM) are heavily loaded. This results in a sparse HOM spectrum, makes HOM couplers unnecessary and allows simplifying the cavity mechanical design. The form of electrodes is optimized for producing 2 MV of deflecting voltage and keeping low peak surface electric and magnetic fields of 54 MV/m and 75 mT respectively. Results of detailed EM analysis, including HOM damping, thermal and mechanical calculations for proposed QMiR cavity are presented.

  9. Development of GUS for control applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Borland, M.; Kirchman, J.; Decker, G.; Kim, K.

    1994-08-01

    A script-based interpretive shell GUS (General Purpose Data Acquisition for Unix Shell) has been developed for application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control. The primary design objective of GUS is to provide a mechanism for efficient data flow among modularized objects called Data Access Modules (DAMs). GUS consists of four major components: user interface, kernel, built-in command module, and DAMS. It also incorporates the Unix shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. At this time, DAMs have been written for device access through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), data I/O for SDDS (Self-Describing Data Set) files, matrix manipulation, graphics display, digital signal processing, and beam position feedback system control. The modular and object-oriented construction of GUS will facilitate addition of more DAMs with other functions in the future.

  10. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Chang, J.

    1997-09-01

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National laboratory, has many advantages. A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows one to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper.

  11. MAGNET DESIGNS FOR THE MULTI-BEND ACHROMAT LATTICE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jaski, M.; Liu, J.; Jain, A.; Spataro, C; Harding, D. J.; Kashikhin, V.; Lopes, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is currently investigating replacing the existing two-bend 7 GeV lattice with a 6 GeV seven-bend achromat magnet lattice in order to achieve a low electron beam emittance [1]. This new lattice requires 1320 magnets, of which there are nine types. These include high strength quadrupoles (gradient up to ~97 T/m), sextupoles with second derivative of field up to ~7000 T/m2, longitudinal gradient dipoles with field ratio of up to 5, and transverse gradient dipoles with gradients of ~50 T/m and central field of ~0.6 T. These field requirements and the limited space available pose several design challenges. This paper presents a summary of magnet designs for the various magnet types developed through a collaboration of APS with FNAL and BNL.

  12. A new hydrostatic leveling system developed for the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Kivioja, L. A.

    1998-09-18

    As a result of the calibration tests performed with the first prototype units using the new measurement principle, we believe that the described leveling method is stable and accurate to the micron level with a sufficiently large range for the expected elevation changes of the support girders used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although long-term studies with this system have not been conducted, we believe that after installation this system requires little or no servicing for long periods of time. The methods described in this paper cover only the elevation changes of individual vessels. However, changes in the tilt of a girder must also be known. Therefore, a combination of tiltmeters in conjunction with this hydrostatic level system (HLS) would be most suitable for measuring the tilt and elevation changes of the APS girders.

  13. Status of magnet power supply development for the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, D.

    1989-01-01

    To simplify installation and speed testing of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring magnets, vacuum chambers and magnet power supplies, a modular approach was developed. All but the dipole magnets are independently controlled. Pulse width modulated dc-to-dc converters are used to power the individual magnets, with 12-pulse power supplies providing the raw dc to the converters. A magnet support base is the heart of a module and may hold as many as 7 magnets with 8 individually powered coils. The dc-to-dc converters are part of each magnet base module. This paper will show the modular approach which is used for the storage ring magnet systems and will give the test results of the prototype topology for the dc-to-dc converters that are being built and tested to power 680 quadrupole and sextupole magnets. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. DESIGN, PROTOTYPE AND MEASUREMENT OF A SINGLE-CELL DEFLECTING CAVITY FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang, Guangfeng Cheng, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Larry Turlington, Alireza Nassiri, Geoff Waldschmidt

    2009-05-01

    After the design optimization of a squashed elliptical shape, single-cell, superconducting (SC) deflecting cavity at 2.815 GHz, a copper prototype has been bench measured to determine its rf properties and the effectiveness of waveguide damping of parasitic modes [1]. RF cold tests were also performed at 2K on niobium single-cell and two-cell prototype cavities. Details of impedance calculation using wakefiled analysis of the single-cell cavity are shown to meet the strict 200 mA beam stability requirement of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Lab where a total of 16 single-cell cavities will be divided into two cryomodule. The design of higher-order mode (HOM) waveguide damping, the simulations of the Lorenz force detuning, and the prototype of on-cell damping are presented.

  15. Status of the Advanced Photon Source and its accelerator control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Kraimer, K.M.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), its control system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) tools being used to implement this control system. The status of the physical plant and each of the accelerators as well as detailed descriptions of the software tools used to build the accelerator control system are presented. The control system uses high-performance graphic workstations and the X-windows graphical user interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high-performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  16. UHV seal studies for the advanced photon source storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Gonczy, J.D.; Ferry, R.J.; Niemann, R.C.; Roop, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring Vacuum Chambers (SRVC) are constructed of aluminum. The chamber design incorporates aluminum alloy 2219-T87 Conflat flanges welded to an aluminum alloy 6063-T5 extruded chamber body. Vacuum connections to the aluminum Conflat chamber flanges are by means of 304 stainless steel Conflat flanges. To evaluate the Conflat seal assemblies relative to vacuum bake cycles, a Conflat Bake Test Assembly (CBTA) was constructed, and thermal cycling tests were performed between room temperature and 150{degrees}C on both stainless steel to aluminum Conflat assemblies and aluminum to aluminum Conflat assemblies. A Helicoflex Bake Test Assembly (HBTA) was similarly constructed to evaluate Helicoflex seals. Both Conflat and Helicoflex seals were studied in a SRVC Sector String Test arrangement of five SRVC sections. The CBTA, HBTA and SRVC tests and their results are reported. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Performance Prediction for a Hockey-Puck Silicon Crystal Monochromator at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zunping; Rosenbaum, Gerd; Navrotski, Gary

    2014-03-01

    One of the Key Performance Parameters of the upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is the increase of the storage ring current from 100 to 150 mA. In order to anticipate the impact of this increased heat load on the X-ray optics of the beamlines, the APS has implemented a systematic review, by means of finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics, of the thermal performance of the different types of monochromators installed at the highest-heat-load insertion device beamlines. We present here simulations of the performance of a directly liquid nitrogen-cooled silicon crystal, the hockey-puck design. Calculations of the temperature and slope error at multiple ring currents under multiple operational conditions, including the influence of power, cooling, and diffraction surface thickness are included.

  18. Annex to 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Annex to the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report updates the Conceptual Design Report of 1987 (CDR-87) to include the results of further optimization and changes of the design during the past year. The design changes can be summarized as affecting three areas: the accelerator system, conventional facilities, and experimental systems. Most of the changes in the accelerator system result from inclusion of a positron accumulator ring (PAR), which was added at the suggestion of the 1987 DOE Review Committee, to speed up the filling rate of the storage ring. The addition of the PAR necessitates many minor changes in the linac system, the injector synchrotron, and the low-energy beam transport lines. 63 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Spatially Resolved Elemental Analysis, Spectroscopy and Diffraction at the GSECARS Sector at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Stephen R.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew; Rivers, Mark L.; Eng, Peter; Lefticariu, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    X-ray microprobes (XRM) coupled with high-brightness synchrotron X-ray facilities are powerful tools for environmental biogeochemistry research. One such instrument, the XRM at the Geo Soil Enviro Center for Advanced Radiation Sources Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL) was recently improved as part of a canted undulator geometry upgrade of the insertion device port, effectively doubling the available undulator beam time and extending the operating energy of the branch supporting the XRM down to the sulfur K edge (2.3 keV). Capabilities include rapid, high-resolution, elemental imaging including fluorescence microtomography, microscale X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy including sulfur K edge capability, and microscale X-ray diffraction. These capabilities are advantageous for (i) two-dimensional elemental mapping of relatively large samples at high resolution, with the dwell times typically limited only by the count times needed to obtain usable counting statistics for low concentration elements, (ii) three-dimensional imaging of internal elemental distributions in fragile hydrated specimens, such as biological tissues, avoiding the need for physical slicing, (iii) spatially resolved speciation determinations of contaminants in environmental materials, and (iv) identification of contaminant host phases. In this paper, we describe the XRM instrumentation, techniques, applications demonstrating these capabilities, and prospects for further improvements associated with the proposed upgrade of the APS.

  20. High-resolution x-ray imaging for microbiology at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Maser, J.; Schneegurt, M. A.; Cai, Z.; Ilinski, P. P.; Kulpa, C. F.; Legnini, D. G.; Nealson, K. H.; Pratt, S. T.; Rodrigues, W.; Tischler, M. L.; Yun, W.

    1999-11-02

    Exciting new applications of high-resolution x-ray imaging have emerged recently due to major advances in high-brilliance synchrotrons sources and high-performance zone plate optics. Imaging with submicron resolution is now routine with hard x-rays: the authors have demonstrated 150 run in the 6--10 keV range with x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons radiation facility. This has fueled interest in using x-ray imaging in applications ranging from the biomedical, environmental, and materials science fields to the microelectronics industry. One important application they have pursued at the APS is a study of the microbiology of bacteria and their associated extracellular material (biofilms) using fluorescence microanalysis. No microscopy techniques were previously available with sufficient resolution to study live bacteria ({approx}1 {micro}m x 4 {micro}m in size) and biofilms in their natural hydrated state with better than part-per-million elemental sensitivity and the capability of determining g chemical speciation. In vivo x-ray imaging minimizes artifacts due to sample fixation, drying, and staining. This provides key insights into the transport of metal contaminants by bacteria in the environment and potential new designs for remediation and sequestration strategies.

  1. Front-end equipment protection system at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, N.; Hawkins, J.; Travis, D.; Laurence, G.

    1996-09-01

    The front-end Equipment Protection System (FE-EPS) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a high reliability, fail-safe single-chain interlock and control system. It consists of an Allen-Bradley PLC-5/30 processor, local and remote I/O racks, monitoring and control panels, serial communication links, and field devices. Each front end is equipped with a dedicated EPS. The system monitors a variety of sensors (e.g., vacuum, cooling water, temperature, pneumatic pressure), and controls front-end (FE) photon shutters and UHV valves. The main functions of the FE-EPS are to guard the integrity of the storage ring vacuum against vacuum excursions in the FE and beam transport line, as well as to protect the front-end and beamline components from being damaged by synchrotron radiation. The FE-EPS interfaces to six other APS interlock and control systems. Information about FE interlocks and devices is displayed on UNIX machines using the EPICS software tool kit. The system design is presented.

  2. 7-GeV advanced photon source beamline initiative: Conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The DOE is building a new generation 6-7 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source known as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility, to be completed in FY 1996, can provide 70 x-ray sources of unprecedented brightness to meet the research needs of virtually all scientific disciplines and numerous technologies. The technological research capability of the APS in the areas of energy, communications and health will enable a new partnership between the DOE and US industry. Current funding for the APS will complete the current phase of construction so that scientists can begin their applications in FY 1996. Comprehensive utilization of the unique properties of APS beams will enable cutting-edge research not currently possible. It is now appropriate to plan to construct additional radiation sources and beamline standard components to meet the excess demands of the APS users. In this APS Beamline Initiative, 2.5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on four straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional four bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these eight x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build standard beamline components to meet scientific and technological research demands of the Collaborative Access Teams. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Beamline Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Beamline Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  3. Measurement of gas bremsstrahlung from the insertion device beamlines of the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Magill, S.

    1997-03-01

    High energy electron storage rings generate energetic bremsstrahlung photons through radiative interaction of the electrons (or positrons) with the residual gas molecules inside the storage ring. The resulting radiation exits at an average emittance angle of (m{sub 0}c{sub 2}/E) radian with respect to the electron beam path, where m{sub 0}c{sup 2} is the rest mass of E the electron and E its kinetic energy. Thus, at straight sections of the storage rings, moving electrons will produce a narrow and intense monodirectional photon beam. At synchrotron radiation facilities, where beamlines are channeled out of the storage ring, a continuous gas bremsstrahlung spectrum, with a maximum energy of the electron beam, will be present. There are a number of compelling reasons that a measurement of the bremsstrahlung characteristics be conducted at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although the number of residual gas molecules present in the storage ring at typical nTorr vacuum is low, because of the long straight paths of the electrons in the storage ring at APS, significant production of bremsstrahlung will be produced. This may pose a radiation hazard. It is then imperative that personnel be shielded from dose rates due to this radiation. There are not many measurements available for gas bremsstrahlung, especially for higher electron beam energies. The quantitative estimates of gas bremsstrahlung from storage rings as evaluated by Monte Carlo codes also have several uncertainties. They are in general calculated for air at atmospheric pressure, the results of which are then extrapolated to typical storage ring vacuum values (of the order of 10{sup -9} Torr). Realistically, the actual pressure profile can vary inside the narrow vacuum chamber. Also, the actual chemical composition of the residual gas inside the storage ring is generally different from that of air.

  4. Investigation of low-frequency beam motion at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Decker, G.; Doose, C.; Hogrefe, R.; Mangra, D.; Merl, R.; Milton, S.

    1996-09-01

    The storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source has relatively tight tolerance requirements for beam stability. The tolerances of the rms beam motion in the insertion device straight sections are set to be less than 4.4 {mu}m and 17 {mu}m in the vertical and horizontal planes, respectively, in a bandwidth of 4{endash}50 Hz. Sources of beam motions have been investigated for mechanical vibrations of the magnets and vacuum chambers induced by ground motion and water systems and for power supply ripple. Horizontal beam motions in a bandwidth of 9{endash}12 Hz have been significantly reduced by inserting viscoelastic damping pads between the girder supports and pedestals, and by welding the magnet cooling headers to the ceiling of the storage ring tunnel. Current ripple of S1A sextupoles has been identified as a source of beam motion in a bandwidth of 5{endash}8 Hz. The eddy current induced by the ripple field in the sextupole produced a vertical dipole field to drive the beam horizontally. After modification of the sextupole power supplies, the beam stability requirements have now been met even without activating the feedback system. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. A high-throughput x-ray microtomography system at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuxin; De Carlo, Francesco; Mancini, Derrick C.; McNulty, Ian; Tieman, Brian; Bresnahan, John; Foster, Ian; Insley, Joseph; Lane, Peter; von Laszewski, Gregor

    2001-04-01

    A third-generation synchrotron radiation source provides enough brilliance to acquire complete tomographic data sets at 100 nm or better resolution in a few minutes. To take advantage of such high-brilliance sources at the Advanced Photon Source, we have constructed a pipelined data acquisition and reconstruction system that combines a fast detector system, high-speed data networks, and massively parallel computers to rapidly acquire the projection data and perform the reconstruction and rendering calculations. With the current setup, a data set can be obtained and reconstructed in tens of minutes. A specialized visualization computer makes rendered three-dimensional (3D) images available to the beamline users minutes after the data acquisition is completed. This system is capable of examining a large number of samples at sub-{mu}m 3D resolution or studying the full 3D structure of a dynamically evolving sample on a 10 min temporal scale. In the near future, we expect to increase the spatial resolution to below 100 nm by using zone-plate x-ray focusing optics and to improve the time resolution by the use of a broadband x-ray monochromator and a faster detector system.

  6. High-throughput real-time x-ray microtomography at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carlo, Francesco; Albee, Paul B.; Chu, Yong S.; Mancini, Derrick C.; Tieman, Brian; Wang, Steve Y.

    2002-01-01

    It is now possible for large volumes of synchrotron- radiation-generated micro-tomography data to be produced at gigabyte-per-minute rates, especially when using currently available CCD cameras at a high-brightness source, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Recent improvements in the speed of our detectors and stages, combined with increased photon flux supplied by a newly installed double multilayer monochromator, allow us to achieve these data rates on a bending magnet beamline. Previously, most x-ray microtomography experiments have produced data at comparatively lower rates, and often the data were analyzed after the experiment. The time needed to generate complete data sets meant putting off analysis to the completion of a run, thus preventing the user from evaluating the usefulness of a data set and consequently impairing decision making during data acquisition as to how to proceed. Thus, the ability to provide to a tomography user a fully reconstructed data set in few minutes is one of the major problems to be solved when dealing with high-throughput x- ray tomography. This is due to the complexity of the data analysis that involves data preprocessing, sinogram generation, 3D reconstruction, and rendering. At the APS, we have developed systems and techniques to address this issue. We present a method that uses a cluster-based, parallel- computing system based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Among the advantages of this approach are the portability, ease-of-use, and low cost of the system. The combination of high-speed, online analysis with high- throughput acquisition allows us to acquire and reconstruct a 512x512x512-voxel sample with a few microns resolution in less than ten minutes.

  7. Canted Undulator Upgrade for GeoSoilEnviroCARS Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Stephen

    2013-02-02

    Support for the beamline component of the canted undulator upgrade of Sector 13 (GeoSoilEnviroCARS; managed and operated by the University of Chicago) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory) was received from three agencies (equally divided): NASA-SRLIDAP (now LARS), NSF-EAR-IF (ARRA) and DOE-Single Investigator Small Group (SISGR). The associated accelerator components (undulators, canted front end) were provided by the APS using DOE-ARRA funding. The intellectual merit of the research enabled by the upgrade lies in advancing our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials; the processes they control; and the processes that produce them. The upgrade will facilitate scientific advances in the following areas: high pressure mineral physics and chemistry, non-crystalline and nano-crystalline materials at high pressure, chemistry of hydrothermal fluids, reactions at mineral-water interfaces, biogeochemistry, oxidation states of magmas, flow dynamics of fluids and solids, and cosmochemistry. The upgrade, allowing the microprobe to operate 100% of the time and the high pressure and surface scattering and spectroscopy instruments to receive beam time increases, will facilitate much more efficient use of the substantial investment in these instruments. The broad scientific community will benefit by the increase in the number of scientists who conduct cutting-edge research at GSECARS. The user program in stations 13ID-C (interface scattering) and 13ID-D (laser heated diamond anvil cell and large volume press) recommenced in June 2012. The operation of the 13ID-E microprobe station began in the Fall 2012 cycle (Oct.-Dec 2012). The upgraded canted beamlines double the amount of undulator beam time at Sector 13 and provide new capabilities including extended operations of the X-ray microprobe down to the sulfur K edge and enhanced brightness at high energy. The availability of the upgraded beamlines will advance the

  8. Process strategies for ultra-deep x-ray lithography at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, D. C.; Moldovan, N.; Divan, R.; De Carlo, F.; Yaeger, J.; Experimental Facilities Division

    2001-01-01

    For the past five years, we have been investigating and advancing processing capabilities for deep x-ray lithography (DXRL) using synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), with an emphasis on ultra-deep structures (1mm to 1cm thick). The use of higher-energy x-rays has presented many challenges in developing optimal lithographic techniques for high-aspect ratio structures: mask requirements, resist preparation, exposure, development, and post-processing. Many problems are more severe for high-energy exposure of thicker films than for sub-millimeter structures and affect resolution, processing time, adhesion, damage, and residue. A number of strategies have been created to overcome the challenges and limitations of ultra-deep x-ray lithography (UDXRL), that have resulted in the current choices for mask, substrate, and process flow at the APS. We describe our current process strategies for UDXRL, how they address the challenges presented, and their current limitations. We note especially the importance of the process parameters for use of the positive tone resist PMMA for UDXRL, and compare to the use of negative tone resists such as SU-8 regarding throughput, resolution, adhesion, damage, and post-processing.

  9. Thermal buckling parametric analysis for a diamond disk for a x-ray beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.; Kuzay, T.M.; Sheng, I.C.

    1996-09-01

    A thermal buckling analysis for a diamond disk in the commissioning window assembly designed for x-ray beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source is presented. The analytical solution together with associated numerical analysis help to predict the critical temperature of the diamond disk before a thermal buckle occurs. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Environmental assessment of the proposed 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    The potential environmental impacts of construction and operation of a 6- to 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source known as the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory were evaluated. Key elements considered include on- and off-site radiological effects; socioeconomic effects; and impacts to aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna, wetlands, water and air quality, cultural resources, and threatened or endangered species. Also incorporated are the effects of decisions made as a result of the preliminary design (Title I) being prepared. Mitigation plans to further reduce impacts are being developed. These plans include coordination with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and other responsible agencies to mitigate potential impacts to wetlands. This mitigation includes providing habitat of comparable ecological value to assure no net loss of wetlands. These mitigation actions would be permitted and monitored by COE. A data recovery plan to protect cultural resources has been developed and approved, pursuant to a Programmatic Agreement among the US Department of Energy, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Illinois State Historic Preservation Office. Applications for National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and air emissions permits have been submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), respectively. 71 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of Computed Tomography of Mock Uranium Fuel Rods at the Advanced Photon Source

    DOE PAGES

    Hunter, James F.; Brown, Donald William; Okuniewski, Maria

    2015-06-01

    This study discusses a multi-year effort to evaluate the utility of computed tomography at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) as a tool for non-destructive evaluation of uranium based fuel rods. The majority of the data presented is on mock material made with depleted uranium which mimics the x-ray attenuation characteristics of fuel rods while allowing for simpler handling. A range of data is presented including full thickness (5mm diameter) fuel rodlets, reduced thickness (1.8mm) sintering test samples, and pre/post irradiation samples (< 1mm thick). These data were taken on both a white beam (bending magnet) beamline and a high energy,more » monochromatic beamline. This data shows the utility of a synchrotron type source in the evealuation of manufacturing defects (pre-irradiation) and lays out the case for in situ CT of fuel pellet sintering. Finally, in addition data is shown from small post-irradiation samples and a case is made for post-irradiation CT of larger samples.« less

  12. A Four-Motor Insertion Device Control System at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, M.; Smith, M.; Grimmer, J.; Merritt, M.

    2004-05-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron with major emphasis on insertion device (ID) sources. In the storage ring there are 35 straight sections, each about five meters in length, for possible insertion devices. Most of the insertion devices at the APS are 2.4 meters long. Currently there are 27 undulators installed in 25 straight sections. Twenty-two of the undulators are the original design fabricated by STI Optronics, which used two motors, one for each end of the device. A synchronizing mechanism between the upper and lower magnetic arrays was also used at each end. Recently, the APS has designed a new gap-separation mechanism for all new undulators. The new design is based on four independent motors, one driving each end of each magnetic array of the device. The control system of choice at the APS is EPICS. The control system is designed to be transparent to the user of the beamline who routinely operates the device. The differences between the two-motor and the four-motor versions of the ID control system are performed at low levels and are transparent. All devices have feedback and safeguard redundancy in the form of linear and rotary encoders and multiple-stage limit switches. This paper will discuss in detail the design philosophy and the implementation of the four-motor insertion device control system. This control system has been in operation for about three years.

  13. Evaluation of Computed Tomography of Mock Uranium Fuel Rods at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, James F.; Brown, Donald William; Okuniewski, Maria

    2015-06-01

    This study discusses a multi-year effort to evaluate the utility of computed tomography at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) as a tool for non-destructive evaluation of uranium based fuel rods. The majority of the data presented is on mock material made with depleted uranium which mimics the x-ray attenuation characteristics of fuel rods while allowing for simpler handling. A range of data is presented including full thickness (5mm diameter) fuel rodlets, reduced thickness (1.8mm) sintering test samples, and pre/post irradiation samples (< 1mm thick). These data were taken on both a white beam (bending magnet) beamline and a high energy, monochromatic beamline. This data shows the utility of a synchrotron type source in the evealuation of manufacturing defects (pre-irradiation) and lays out the case for in situ CT of fuel pellet sintering. Finally, in addition data is shown from small post-irradiation samples and a case is made for post-irradiation CT of larger samples.

  14. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  15. Performance of the beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.

    1996-09-01

    Performance measurement and analysis of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics are reported. The results indicate a BPM resolution of 0.16 μmṡmA/√Hz in terms of the single-bunch current and BPM bandwidth. For the miniature insertion device (ID) BPM, the result was 0.1 μmṡmA/√Hz. The improvement is due to the 3.6 times higher position sensitivity (in the vertical plane), which is partially canceled by the lower button signal by a factor of 2.3. The minimum single-bunch current required was roughly 0.03 mA. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion has measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Implications of the BPM resolution limit on the global and local orbit feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed.

  16. Dynamic Initiator Experiments using IMPULSE (Impact system for Ultrafast Synchrotron Experiments) at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Nathaniel; Jensen, Brian; Ramos, Kyle; Iverson, Adam; Martinez, Michael; Liechty, Gary; Fezzaa, Kamel; Clarke, Steven

    2015-06-01

    We have successfully imaged, for the first time, the operation of copper slapper initiators that are used to initiate high explosive detonators. These data will aid in model development and calibration in order to provide a robust predictive capability and as a design tool in future applications. The initiation system consists of a copper bridge fixed to a parylene flyer. The copper bridge functions when a capacitor is discharged causing current to flow through the narrow bridge. As this happens, a plasma forms due to the high current densities and ohmic heating, which launches the parylene flyer that impacts a high explosive pellet producing detonation. Unlike traditional measurements, x-ray phase contrast imaging can see ``inside'' the process providing unique information with nanosecond time resolution and micrometer spatial resolution. The team performed experiments on the IMPULSE system at the Advanced Photon Source to obtain high resolution, in situ images of this process in real-time. From these images, researchers can examine the formation of the plasma instabilities and their interaction with the flyer, determine the flyer velocity, and obtain crucial information on the spatial distribution of mass and density gradients in the plasma and flyer.

  17. Design of the vacuum system for the elliptical multipole wiggler at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Hartog, P.; Grimmer, J.; Klippert, T.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Xu, S.

    1996-09-01

    A vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW) that will operate at a pressure of 10-9 Torr with a storage ring current of 100 mA at 7.0 GeV has been designed and is being fabricated. The major part of the system is a stainless steel chamber with a 66.6 mm by 19.6 mm rectangular cross section. The length of the vacuum chamber is 3100 mm, and the wall thickness is 1.2 mm. Two versions of the vacuum chamber will be produced: with and without distributed nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumping. The version with NEG pumping will have slides on the top and bottom walls to accommodate sintered plates available from SAES. To activate these plates, the entire vacuum chamber will be baked from the outside up to a temperature of 350° C-450 °C. Provision for the baking is included in the design of the vacuum system, its support, and in the EMW itself. The complexity introduced into the design by the need for external activation of the NEG plates is eliminated in the design of the second version of the chamber. In this chamber, a sufficiently low outgassing rate may be achieved by extensive surface cleaning and baking in a vacuum furnace (10-6 Torr) up to a temperature of 950 ° C as has been achieved at the ESRF. Both versions are being pursued in parallel.

  18. Conceptual Design of Front Ends for the Advanced Photon Source Multi-bend Achromats Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Jaski, Y.; Westferro, F.; Lee, S. H.; Yang, B.; Abliz, M.; Ramanathan, M.

    2016-07-27

    The proposed Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade from a double-bend achromats (DBA) to multi-bend achromats (MBA) lattice with ring energy change from 7 GeV to 6 GeV and beam current from 100 mA to 200 mA poses new challenges for front ends. All front ends must be upgraded to fulfill the following requirements: 1) handle the high heat load from two insertion devices in either inline or canted configuration, 2) include a clearing magnet in the front end to deflect and dump any electrons in case the electrons escape from the storage ring during swap-out injection with the safety shutters open, 3) incorporate the next generation x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) into the front end to meet the new stringent beam stability requirements. This paper presents the evaluation of the existing APS front ends and standardizes the insertion device (ID) front ends into two types: one for the single beam and one for the canted beams. The conceptual design of high heat load front end (HHLFE) and canted undulator front end (CUFE) for APS MBA upgrade is presented.

  19. Time-Resolved Research at the Advanced Photon Source Beamline 7-ID

    SciTech Connect

    Dufresne, Eric M.; Adams, Bernhard; Arms, Dohn A.; Chollet, Matthieu; Li, Yuelin; Walko, Donald A.; Wang Jin; Landahl, Eric C.

    2010-06-23

    The Sector 7 undulator beamline (7-ID) of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is dedicated to time-resolved x-ray research and is capable of ultrafast measurements on the order of 100 ps. Beamline 7-ID has a laser laboratory featuring a Ti:Sapphire system (average power of 2.5 W, pulse duration <50 fs, repetition rate 1-5 kHz) that can be synchronized to the bunch pattern of the storage ring. The laser is deliverable to x-ray enclosures, which contain diffractometers, as well as motorized optical tables for table-top experiments. Beamline 7-ID has a single APS Undulator A and uses a diamond (111) double-crystal monochromator, providing good energy resolution over a range of 6-24 keV. Available optics include Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors to microfocus the x-ray beam. A variety of time-resolved diffraction and spectroscopy research is available at 7-ID, with experiments being done in the atomic, molecular, optical, chemistry, and solid state (bulk and surface) fields.

  20. Time-Resolved Research at the Advanced Photon Source Beamline 7-ID

    SciTech Connect

    Dufresne, Eric M.; Adams, Bernhard; Arms, Dohn A.; Chollet, Matthieu; Landahl, Eric C.; Li, Yuelin; Walko, Donald A.; Wang, Jin

    2010-08-02

    The Sector 7 undulator beamline (7-ID) of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is dedicated to time-resolved x-ray research and is capable of ultrafast measurements on the order of 100 ps. Beamline 7-ID has a laser laboratory featuring a Ti:Sapphire system (average power of 2.5W, pulse duration <50 fs, repetition rate 1-5 kHz) that can be synchronized to the bunch pattern of the storage ring. The laser is deliverable to x-ray enclosures, which contain diffractometers, as well as motorized optical tables for table-top experiments. Beamline 7-ID has a single APS Undulator A and uses a diamond (111) double-crystal monochromator, providing good energy resolution over a range of 6-24 keV. Available optics include Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors to microfocus the x-ray beam. A variety of time-resolved diffraction and spectroscopy research is available at 7-ID, with experiments being done in the atomic, molecular, optical, chemistry, and solid state (bulk and surface) fields.

  1. Vacuum chamber of the injector synchrotron for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Benaroya, R.; Dortwegt, R.

    1991-01-01

    The 40 chambers of the 368 m, 7-GeV injector synchrotron of the Advanced Photon Source are made from 1 mm-thick, 316LN stainless steel tubing. Tubes are cold-drawn to an elliptical shape with inside major and minor axes of 6 cm and 3.7 cm, respectively. This results in a thin metallic chamber without corrugations, which allows maximum beam space in the magnets and withstands atmospheric pressure. Sections of the chamber are bent to match the radius of curvature (33.3 m) of the beam over the entire effective length of the dipole magnets. A modified orbital welder is used to join sections of tubing. The chambers and the pumping system required to achieve a pressure of 10{sup {minus}9} Torr are described. A straight section of chamber tubing was tested under external pressure up to 60 psig. At 15 psig, the resulting deflection at the minor half axis was 0.2mm and a maximum compressive stress of 13,500 psi was measured. Tube deformation remained in the elastic region up to {approximately}38 psig. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  3. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA.

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, J.; Job, P. K.; Rauchas, A.; Justus, A.; Veluri, V. R.

    2000-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step.

  4. Guide to beamline radiation shielding design at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.; Haeffner, D.R.; Alp, E.E.; Davey, S.C.; Dejus, R.J.; Hahn, U.; Lai, B.; Randall, K.J.; Shu, D.

    1993-11-01

    This document is concerned with the general requirements for radiation shielding common to most Advanced Photon Source (APS) users. These include shielding specifications for hutches, transport, stops, and shutters for both white and monochromatic beams. For brevity, only the results of calculations are given in most cases. So-called {open_quotes}special situations{close_quotes} are not covered. These include beamlines with white beam mirrors for low-pass energy filters ({open_quotes}pink beams{close_quotes}), extremely wide band-pass monochromators (multilayers), or novel insertion devices. These topics are dependent on beamline layout and, as such, are not easily generalized. Also, many examples are given for {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} hutches or other beamline components. If a user has components that differ greatly from those described, particular care should be taken in following these guidelines. Users with questions on specific special situations should address them to the APS User Technical Interface. Also, this document does not cover specifics on hutch, transport, shutter, and stop designs. Issues such as how to join hutch panels, floor-wall interfaces, cable feed-throughs, and how to integrate shielding into transport are covered in the APS Beamline Standard Components Handbook. It is a {open_quotes}living document{close_quotes} and as such reflects the improvements in component design that are ongoing. This document has the following content. First, the design criteria will be given. This includes descriptions of some of the pertinent DOE regulations and policies, as well as brief discussions of abnormal situations, interlocks, local shielding, and storage ring parameters. Then, the various sources of radiation on the experimental floor are discussed, and the methods used to calculate the shielding are explained (along with some sample calculations). Finally, the shielding recommendations for different situations are given and discussed.

  5. Status report on the long-term stability of the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.

    1998-09-21

    Table 1 summarizes the average elevation changes and standard deviations as well as the points with the largest changes for each year. On average, hardly any settlements can be detected; however, local changes of +2.90 mm to {minus}2.31 mm have been measured. Looking at the low and high points, the settlement process is slowing down over time. Overall, the settlements observed match the expectations for this type of construction. To date no major realignment of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring has been necessary. The particle beam tracks with the settlements of the floor as long as these changes occur in a smooth fashion and not as sudden discontinuities [5]. From Figures 6 through 8 it is also apparent that settlements affect larger areas in the storage ring and experiment hall that impact the location of the source point as well as the location of the beamline user equipment. The limiting apertures of the insertion device chambers will make realignment of the APS storage ring a necessity at some point in the future. Currently simulations and machine studies we underway to provide an estimate of tolerable settlement limits before a realignment of certain sections of the storage ring would be required. In conclusion, the APS has been constructed on solid ground with an excellent foundation. Only small settlement changes are being observed; so far they are not impacting the operation of the accelerator. We are continuing to monitor deformations of the APS floor in anticipation of a future realignment of the accelerator components.

  6. A quasi-realtime x-ray microtomography system at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    DeCarlo, F.; Foster, I.; Insley, J.; Kesselman, C.; Lane, P.; Mancini, D.; McNulty, I.; Su, M.; Tieman, B.; Wang, Y.; von Laszewski, G.

    1999-07-16

    The combination of high-brilliance x-ray sources, fast detector systems, wide-bandwidth networks, and parallel computers can substantially reduce the time required to acquire, reconstruct, and visualize high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic datasets. A quasi-realtime computed x-ray microtomography system has been implemented at the 2-BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. With this system, a complete tomographic data set can be collected in about 15 minutes. Immediately after each projection is obtained, it is rapidly transferred to the Mathematics and Computing Sciences Division where preprocessing and reconstruction calculations are performed concurrently with the data acquisition by a SGI parallel computer. The reconstruction results, once completed, are transferred to a visualization computer that performs the volume rendering calculations. Rendered images of the reconstructed data are available for viewing back at the beamline experiment station minutes after the data acquisition was complete. The fully pipelined data acquisition and reconstruction system also gives us the option to acquire the tomographic data set in several cycles, initially with coarse then with fine angular steps. At present the projections are acquired with a straight-ray projection imaging scheme using 5-20 keV hard x rays in either phase or amplitude contrast mode at a 1-10 pm resolution. In the future, we expect to increase the resolution of the projections to below 100 nm by using a focused x-ray beam at the 2-ID-B beamline and to reduce the combined acquisition and computation time to the 1 min scale with improvements in the detectors, network links, software pipeline, and computation algorithms.

  7. Design and analysis of a photon/safety shutter for CARS sector 14 ID beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schildkamp, W.; Jaski, Y.; Navrotski, G.

    1996-09-01

    A photon/safety shutter capable of stopping bremsstrahlung, white, pink, and monochromatic radiation from the APS wiggler and undulator sources is described. The shutter consists of two individually actuated but redundant block assemblies. Each block consists of a water-cooled, OFHC block thermal absorber followed by a tungsten block to stop both synchrotron and bremsstrahlung rays. The design presented here is inexpensive and spatially compact. Fatigue analysis and ANSYS thermal and stress analysis are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. The Poisson alignment reference system implementation at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Feier, I.

    1998-09-21

    The Poisson spot was established using a collimated laser beam from a 3-mW diode laser. It was monitored on a quadrant detector and found to be very sensitive to vibration and air disturbances. Therefore, for future work we strongly recommend a sealed vacuum tube in which the Poisson line may be propagated. A digital single-axis feedback system was employed to generate an straight line reference (SLR) on the X axis. Pointing accuracy was better than 8 {+-} 2 microns at a distance of 5 m. The digital system was found to be quite slow with a maximum bandwidth of 47 {+-} 9 Hz. Slow drifts were easily corrected but any vibration over 5 Hz was not. We recommend an analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high bandwidth and smooth operation of the kinematic mirror. Although the Poisson alignment system (PAS) at the Advanced Photon Source is still in its infancy, it already shows great promise as a possible alignment system for the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL). Since components such as wigglers and quadruples will initially be aligned with respect to each other using conventional means and mounted on some kind of rigid rail, the goal would be to align six to ten such rails over a distance of about 30 m. The PAS could be used to align these rails by mounting a sphere at the joint between two rails. These spheres would need to be in a vacuum pipe to eliminate the refractive effects of air. Each sphere would not be attached to either rail but instead to a flange connecting the vacuum pipes of each rail. Thus the whole line would be made up of straight, rigid segments that could be aligned by moving the joints. Each sphere would have its own detector, allowing the operators to actively monitor the position of each joint and therefore the overall alignment of the system.

  9. High Pressure Research in the Large-Volume Press at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

    2013-05-01

    We present an overview of current status of high-pressure research using large-volume presses (LVP) at both GSECARS (Sector 13) and HPCAT (Sector 16) at the third-generation synchrotron facility of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory. These combined facilities provide a wide range of research capabilities for the high pressure community. The 230 ton Paris-Edinburgh device (jointly developed by HPCAT and GSECARS, with partial support from COMPRES) at the bending magnet (BM) beamline 16-BM-B has been used primarily for studies on liquids and glasses. We use the multi-angle energy-dispersive diffraction technique to probe structures of non-crystalline materials, and ultrasonic and falling sphere techniques to measure elasticity and viscosity of these materials. These capabilities allow us to examine the close link between structure and physical properties of non-crystalline metarials. The 1000 ton system at the insertion device (ID) beamline 13-ID-D is used extensively for acoustic velocity measurement for solids and melts. The newly developed DDIA-30 module, when used in a double-stage apparatus with sintered diamond anvils, can generate pressures in excess of 40 GPa routinely. DDIA-30 can also be used as a deformation device for larger samples or higher pressure experiments. The 250 ton system at beamline 13-BM-D as just been upgraded and can accommodate a variety of LVP techniques. Among them the D-DIA and the high-pressure x-ray tomography microscope (HPXTM) are at high demand. The D-DIA has been used for deformation at mantle conditions in both ductile and brittle regime, with acoustic emission detection. The HPXTM has been used to study volumetric properties of glasses and melts as well as 3D microstructure imaging under pressure. Latest scientific results will be highlighted.

  10. Standards and the design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.P.; Knott, M.J.; Lenkszus, F.R.; Kraimer, M.R.; Daly, R.T.; Arnold, N.D.; Anderson, M.D.; Anderson, J.B.; Zieman, R.C.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.; Vong, F.C.; Nawrocki, G.J.; Gunderson, G.R.; Karonis, N.T.; Winans, J.R.

    1991-12-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. In the conceptual stage the control system design group faced the challenges that face all control system designers: to force the machine designers to quantify and codify the system requirements, to protect the investment in hardware and software from rapid obsolescence, and to find methods of quickly incorporating new generations of equipment and replace of obsolete equipment without disrupting the exiting system. To solve these and related problems, the APS control system group made an early resolution to use standards in the design of the system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. The system will use high performance graphic workstations using an X-Windows Graphical User Interface at the operator interface level. It connects to VME-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  11. Standards and the design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.P.; Knott, M.J.; Lenkszus, F.R.; Kraimer, M.R.; Daly, R.T.; Arnold, N.D.; Anderson, M.D.; Anderson, J.B.; Zieman, R.C.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.; Vong, F.C.; Nawrocki, G.J.; Gunderson, G.R.; Karonis, N.T.; Winans, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. In the conceptual stage the control system design group faced the challenges that face all control system designers: to force the machine designers to quantify and codify the system requirements, to protect the investment in hardware and software from rapid obsolescence, and to find methods of quickly incorporating new generations of equipment and replace of obsolete equipment without disrupting the exiting system. To solve these and related problems, the APS control system group made an early resolution to use standards in the design of the system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. The system will use high performance graphic workstations using an X-Windows Graphical User Interface at the operator interface level. It connects to VME-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  12. Explosive bonding and its application in the Advanced Photon Source front-end and beamline components design

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Li, Y.; Ryding, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Brasher, D.

    1994-12-01

    Explosive bonding is a bonding method in which the controlled energy of a detonating explosive is used to create a metallurgical bonding between two or more similar or dissimilar materials. Since 1991, a number of explosive-bonding joints have been designed for high-thermal-load ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) compatible components in the Advanced Photon Source. A series of standardized explosive bonded joint units has also been designed and tested, such as: oxygen-free copper (OFHC) to stainless-steel vacuum joints for slits and shutters, GlidCop to stainless-steel vacuum joints for fixed masks, and GlidCop to OFHC thermal and mechanical joints for shutter face-plates, etc. The design and test results for the explosive bonding units to be used in the Advanced Photon Source front ends and beamlines will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Sequential x-ray diffraction topography at 1-BM x-ray optics testing beamline at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Stoupin, Stanislav Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Liu, Zunping; Lang, Keenan; Huang, Xianrong; Wieczorek, Michael; Kasman, Elina; Hammonds, John; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2016-07-27

    We report progress on implementation and commissioning of sequential X-ray diffraction topography at 1-BM Optics Testing Beamline of the Advanced Photon Source to accommodate growing needs of strain characterization in diffractive crystal optics and other semiconductor single crystals. The setup enables evaluation of strain in single crystals in the nearly-nondispersive double-crystal geometry. Si asymmetric collimator crystals of different crystallographic orientations were designed, fabricated and characterized using in-house capabilities. Imaging the exit beam using digital area detectors permits rapid sequential acquisition of X-ray topographs at different angular positions on the rocking curve of a crystal under investigation. Results on sensitivity and spatial resolution are reported based on experiments with high-quality Si and diamond crystals. The new setup complements laboratory-based X-ray topography capabilities of the Optics group at the Advanced Photon Source.

  14. Phase contrast medical imaging with compact X-ray sources at the Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics (MAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coan, P.; Gruener, F.; Glaser, C.; Schneider, T.; Bravin, A.; Reiser, M.; Habs, D.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, the excellence cluster "Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics" (MAP) is presented. One of the aims of the project is the development of innovative X-ray-based diagnostics imaging techniques to be implemented at an ultra-compact high-energy and high-brilliance X-ray source. The basis of the project and the developments towards the clinical application of phase contrast imaging applied to mammography and cartilage studies will be presented and discussed.

  15. 2-ps Hard X-Ray Streak Camera Measurements at Sector 7 Beamline of the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chollet, M.; Ahr, B.; Walko, D.A.; Rose-Petruck, C.; Adams, B.

    2011-08-02

    A hard X-ray streak camera capable of 2-ps time resolution is in operation at the Sector 7 beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. It is used for laser-pump, X-ray probe experiments using the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser system installed on the beamline. This streak camera, combined with standardized and prealigned experimental setups, can perform time-resolved liquid-phase absorption spectroscopy, reflectivity, and diffraction experiments.

  16. The role of plasma evolution and photon transport in optimizing future advanced lithography sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2013-08-28

    Laser produced plasma (LPP) sources for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons are currently based on using small liquid tin droplets as target that has many advantages including generation of stable continuous targets at high repetition rate, larger photons collection angle, and reduced contamination and damage to the optical mirror collection system from plasma debris and energetic particles. The ideal target is to generate a source of maximum EUV radiation output and collection in the 13.5 nm range with minimum atomic debris. Based on recent experimental results and our modeling predictions, the smallest efficient droplets are of diameters in the range of 20–30 μm in LPP devices with dual-beam technique. Such devices can produce EUV sources with conversion efficiency around 3% and with collected EUV power of 190 W or more that can satisfy current requirements for high volume manufacturing. One of the most important characteristics of these devices is in the low amount of atomic debris produced due to the small initial mass of droplets and the significant vaporization rate during the pre-pulse stage. In this study, we analyzed in detail plasma evolution processes in LPP systems using small spherical tin targets to predict the optimum droplet size yielding maximum EUV output. We identified several important processes during laser-plasma interaction that can affect conditions for optimum EUV photons generation and collection. The importance and accurate description of modeling these physical processes increase with the decrease in target size and its simulation domain.

  17. Single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel

    2005-05-01

    The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information.

  18. Non-destructive characterization of engineering materials using high energy x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jun-Sang; Okasinksi, John; Chatterjee, Kamalika; Chen, Yiren; Almer, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    High energy X-rays can penetrate large components and samples made from engineering alloys. Brilliant synchrotron sources like the Advanced Photon Source (APS) combined with unique experimental setups are increasingly allowing scientists and engineers to non-destructively characterize the state of materials across a range of length scales. In this article, some of the new developments at the APS, namely the high energy diffraction microscopy technique for grain-by-grain maps and aperture-based techniques for aggregate maps, are described.

  19. Non-Destructive Characterization of Engineering Materials Using High-Energy X-rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Jun-Sang; Okasinski, John; Chatterjee, Kamalika; ...

    2017-05-30

    High energy X-rays can penetrate large components and samples made from engineering alloys. Brilliant synchrotron sources like the Advanced Photon Source (APS) combined with unique experimental setups are increasingly allowing scientists and engineers to non-destructively characterize the state of materials across a range of length scales. In this article, some of the new developments at the APS, namely the high energy diffraction microscopy technique for grain-by-grain maps and aperture-based techniques for aggregate maps, are described.

  20. Effects of construction and alignment errors on the orbit functions of the advanced photon source storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bizek, H.; Crosbie, E.; Lessner, E.; Teng, L.; Wirsbinski, J.

    1991-01-01

    The orbit functions for the Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring have been studied using the simulation code RACETRACK. Non-linear elements are substituted into the storage ring lattice to simulate the effects of construction and alignment errors in the quadrupole, dipole, and sextupole magnets. The effects of these errors on the orbit distortion, dispersion, and beta functions are then graphically analyzed to show the rms spread of the functions across several machines. The studies show that the most significant error is displacement of the quadrupole magnets. Further studies using a 3 bump correction routine show that these errors can be corrected to acceptable levels. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. High-pressure Experimental Studies on Geo-liquids Using Synchrotron Radiation at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanbin; Shen, Guoyin

    2014-12-23

    Here, we review recent progress in studying silicate, carbonate, and metallic liquids of geological and geophysical importance at high pressure and temperature, using the large-volume high-pressure devices at the third-generation synchrotron facility of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. These integrated high-pressure facilities now offer a unique combination of experimental techniques that allow researchers to investigate structure, density, elasticity, viscosity, and interfacial tension of geo-liquids under high pressure, in a coordinated and systematic fashion. Moreover, we describe experimental techniques, along with scientific highlights. Future developments are also discussed.

  2. The Advanced LIGO photon calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, S.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Kandhasamy, S.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, T. D.; Anders, E. H.; Berliner, J.; Betzwieser, J.; Cahillane, C.; Canete, L.; Conley, C.; Daveloza, H. P.; De Lillo, N.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Izumi, K.; Kissel, J. S.; Mendell, G.; Quetschke, V.; Rodruck, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Schwinberg, P. B.; Sottile, A.; Wade, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; West, M.; Savage, R. L.

    2016-11-01

    The two interferometers of the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) recently detected gravitational waves from the mergers of binary black hole systems. Accurate calibration of the output of these detectors was crucial for the observation of these events and the extraction of parameters of the sources. The principal tools used to calibrate the responses of the second-generation (Advanced) LIGO detectors to gravitational waves are systems based on radiation pressure and referred to as photon calibrators. These systems, which were completely redesigned for Advanced LIGO, include several significant upgrades that enable them to meet the calibration requirements of second-generation gravitational wave detectors in the new era of gravitational-wave astronomy. We report on the design, implementation, and operation of these Advanced LIGO photon calibrators that are currently providing fiducial displacements on the order of 1 0-18m /√{Hz } with accuracy and precision of better than 1%.

  3. The Wakefield Effects of Pulsed Crab Cavities at the Advanced Photon Source for Short-X-ray Pulse Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.-C.; Waldschmidt, G.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    In recent years we have explored the application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Zholents' crab-cavity based scheme for production of short x-ray pulses. As a near-term project, the APS has elected to pursue a pulsed system using room-temperature cavities. The cavity design has been optimized to heavily damp parasitic modes while maintaining large shunt impedance for the deflecting dipole mode. We evaluated a system consisting of three crab cavities as an impedance source and determined their effect on the single- and multi-bunch instabilities. In the single-bunch instability we used the APS impedance model as the reference system in order to predict the overall performance of the ring when the crab cavities are installed in the future. For multi-bunch instabilities we used a realistic fill pattern, including hybrid-fill, and tracked multiple bunches where each bunch was treated as soft in distribution.

  4. Design and Development of a Robot-Based Automation System for Cryogenic Crystal Sample Mounting at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Preissner, C.; Nocher, D.; Han, Y.; Barraza, J.; Lee, P.; Lee, W.-K.; Cai, Z.; Ginell, S.; Alkire, R.; Lazarski, K.; Schuessler, R.; Joachimiak, A.

    2004-05-12

    X-ray crystallography is the primary method to determine the 3D structures of complex macromolecules at high resolution. In the years to come, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and similar 3rd-generation synchrotron sources elsewhere will become the most powerful tools for studying atomic structures of biological molecules. One of the major bottlenecks in the x-ray data collection process is the constant need to change and realign the crystal sample. This is a very time- and manpower-consuming task. An automated sample mounting system will help to solve this bottleneck problem. We have developed a novel robot-based automation system for cryogenic crystal sample mounting at the APS. Design of the robot-based automation system, as well as its on-line test results at the Argonne Structural Biology Center (SBC) 19-BM experimental station, are presented in this paper.

  5. Status of the Short-Pulse X-ray Project (SPX) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nassiri, R; Berenc, G; Borland, M; Bromberek, D J; Chae, Y -C; Decker, G; Emery, L; Fuerst, J D; Grelick, A E; Horan, D; Lenkszus, F; Lill, R M; Sajaev, V; Smith, T L; Waldschmidt, G J; Wu, G; Yang, B X; Zholents, A; Byrd, J M; Doolittle, L R; Huang, G; Cheng, G; Ciovati, G; Henry, J; Kneisel, P; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Turlington, L; Wang, H

    2011-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source Upgrade project (APS-U) at Argonne includes implementation of Zholents’* deflecting cavity scheme for production of short x-ray pulses. This is a joint project between Argonne National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This paper describes performance characteristics of the proposed source and technical issues related to its realization. Ensuring stable APS storage ring operation requires reducing quality factors of these modes by many orders of magnitude. These challenges reduce to those of the design of a single-cell SC cavity that can achieve the desired operating deflecting fields while providing needed damping of all these modes. The project team is currently prototyping and testing several promising designs for single-cell cavities with the goal of deciding on a winning design in the near future. Here

  6. Multi-objective direct optimization of dynamic acceptance and lifetime for potential upgrades of the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.; Sajaev, V.; Emery, L.; Xiao, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2010-08-24

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7 GeV storage ring light source that has been in operation for well over a decade. In the near future, the ring may be upgraded, including changes to the lattice such as provision of several long straight sections (LSS). Because APS beamlines are nearly fully built out, we have limited freedom to place LSSs in a symmetric fashion. Arbitrarily-placed LSSs will drastically reduce the symmetry of the optics and would typically be considered unworkable. We apply a recently-developed multi-objective direct optimization technique that relies on particle tracking to compute the dynamic aperture and Touschek lifetime. We show that this technique is able to tune sextupole strengths and select the working point in such a way as to recover the dynamic and momentum acceptances. We also show the results of experimental tests of lattices developed using these techniques.

  7. Optical design of the Short Pulse Soft X-ray Spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, R.; Keavney, D. J.; Borland, M.; Young, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Short Pulse X-ray facility planned for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade will provide two sectors with photon beams having picosecond pulse duration. The Short Pulse Soft X-ray Spectroscopy (SPSXS) beamline will cover the 150–2000 eV energy range using an APS bending magnet. SPSXS is designed to take full advantage of this new timing capability in addition to providing circular polarized radiation. Since the correlation between time and electron momentum is in the vertical plane, the monochromator disperses in the horizontal plane. The beamline is designed to maximize flux and preserve the time resolution by minimizing the number of optical components. The optical design allows the pulse duration to be varied from 1.5 to 100 ps full width at half-maximum (FWHM) without affecting the energy resolution, and the resolution to be changed with minimal effect on the pulse duration. More than 109 photons s−1 will reach the sample with a resolving power of 2000 and a pulse duration of ∼2 ps for photon energies between 150 and 1750 eV. The spot size expected at the sample position will vary with pulse duration and exit slit opening. At 900 eV and at a resolving power of 2000 the spot will be ∼10 µm × 10 µm with a pulse duration of 2.3 ps FWHM. PMID:23765311

  8. The advanced photon source X-ray transmitting beam-position-monitor tests at the national synchrotron light source X-25 beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, D.; Collins, J. T.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T. M.

    1994-08-01

    A synthetic-diamond-based X-ray transmitting beam-position monitor has been studied using focused white beam at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-25 wiggler beamline. Of particular interest are the possibilities to design an integral window and filter/photon beam-position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source high-heat-flux insertion-device beamlines. The preliminary measurements were taken using two synthetic-diamond blade samples with different thicknesses and cooling configurations. The monitor (consisting of a vacuum vessel, an ion pump, a water-cooling base, a blade mounting block, and electric feedthroughs) was mounted on a three-dimensional ( x, y, φ) stepping-motor-driven stage with a 0.064-μm stepping size and a 0.1-μm linear encoder resolution. An infrared camera system was used to monitor and record the diamond blade surface temperature field through a sapphire window and test results are presented.

  9. Advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, R. C.

    1983-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a new synchrotron radiation source which was proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The ALS will be a key component in a major new research facility, the National Center for Advanced Materials. The ALS will consist of an electron linear accelerator, a booster synchrotron, a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring, and a number of photon beam lines. Most of all photon beam lines will originate from wiggler and undulator magnets placed in the 12 long straight sections of the ALS. A very low electron beam emittance will provide photon beams of unsurpassed spectral brilliance from specially-designed undulators, and a high radiofrequency will produce very short pulse lengths.

  10. Preliminary thermo-mechanical analysis of the second phase photon shutters for insertion device beamline front ends at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Sheng, I.C.A.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-09-01

    The photon shutters (PS) on the insertion device front end of the beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are designed to fully intercept powerful 7-GeV undulator radiation. Traditional materials (oxygen-free copper and Glidcop) are used in their construction. Initially, the APS proposes to operate the storage ring at 100 mA. In later phases of operation, the APS will operate the storage ring at 300 mA. The heat flux from the undulators is enormous. For example, in the later phase of the project, the first photon shutter (PS1) placed at a distance of 17 m from the Undulator A source will be subjected to 1400 W/mm{sup 2} at normal incidence with a total power of 11.4 kW. The PS uses an enhanced heat transfer mechanism developed at Argonne National Laboratory, which increases the convective heat transfer coefficient to about 3 W/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} {degrees}C with single phase water as the coolant. To be able to handle the expected three-fold increase in the intense heat flux, some low-Z materials (such as beryllium or graphite), which can absorb the x-rays through their thickness, are now considered as the facing material on the absorber base plate of the PS. Our analysis of PSI indicates that the face plate made of either graphite or beryllium retains its integrity in most of the cases. The maximum effective stress of the absorber plate (made of annealed OFHC) exceeds the yield strength (50 MPa) except in the case of an absorber with a 10-mm graphite face plate.

  11. RF Conditioning of the Photo-Cathode RF Gun at the Advanced Photon Source - NWA RF Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T. L.; DiMonte, N.; Nassiri, A.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A.

    2015-01-01

    A new S-band Photo-cathode (PC) gun was recently installed and RF conditioned at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Injector Test-stand (ITS) at Argonne National Lab (ANL). The APS PC gun is a LCLS type gun fabricated at SLAC [1]. The PC gun was delivered to the APS in October 2013 and installed in the APS ITS in December 2013. At ANL, we developed a new method of fast detection and mitigation of the guns internal arcs during the RF conditioning process to protect the gun from arc damage and to RF condition more efficiently. Here, we report the results of RF measurements for the PC gun and an Auto-Restart method for high power RF conditioning.

  12. The COMPRES/GSECARS gas-loading system for diamond anvil cells at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Mark; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Kubo, Atsushi; Pullins, Clayton; Holl, Christopher M.; Jacobsen, Steven D.

    2008-11-18

    We have designed and constructed a new system for loading gases at high pressure into diamond anvil cells at pressures up to 200 MPa. The gases are used either as quasi-hydrostatic pressure media surrounding the sample or as the sample itself. The diamond cell is sealed using a clamping mechanism, which permits nearly any type of diamond anvil cell to be used. Online ruby fluorescence and video imaging systems allow in situ monitoring of the pressure and gasket deformation as the cell is sealed, resulting in a very high success rate in loading cells. The system includes interlocks and computer control that allow it to be safely and easily operated by visiting users at the Advanced Photon Source. We present preliminary X-ray diffraction data on volume compression of single-crystal magnesium oxide (MgO) in helium up to 110 GPa.

  13. Superconducting Multi-Cell Deflecting Cavity for Short-Pulse X-Ray Generation at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Waldschmidt, L.H. Morrison, R. Nassiri, R.A. Rimmer, K. Tian, H. Wang

    2009-05-01

    A superconducting multi-cell cavity for the production of short x-ray pulses at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been explored as an alternative to a single-cell cavity design in order to improve the packing factor and potentially reduce the number of high-power RF systems and low-level RF controls required. The cavity will operate at 2815 MHz in the APS storage ring and will require heavy damping of parasitic modes to maintain stable beam operation. Novel on-cell dampers, attached directly to the cavity body, have been utilized by taking advantage of the magnetic field null on the equatorial plane in order to enhance damping. Design issues and simulation results will be discussed.

  14. High-power Waveguide Dampers for the Short-Pulse X-Ray Project at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G J; Liu, J; Middendorf, M E; Nassiri, A; Smith, T L; Wu, G; Henry, J; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Wiseman, M

    2012-07-01

    High-power waveguide dampers have been designed and prototyped for the Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) cavities at the Advanced Photon Source. The cavities will operate at 2.815 GHz and utilize the TM110 dipole mode. As a result, higher-order (HOM) and lower-order mode (LOM) in-vacuum dampers have been designed to satisfy the demanding broadband damping requirements in the APS storage ring. The SPX single-cell cavity consists of two WR284 waveguides for damping the HOMs and one WR284 waveguide for primarily damping the LOM where up to 2kW will be dissipated in the damping material. The damper designs and high-power experimental results will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Design and performance of a compact collimator on GM/CA-CAT at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2007-09-01

    A new macromolecular crystallographic facility developed by The General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a part of the Biosciences Division (BIO), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility consists of three beamlines: two lines based on the first "hard" dual canted undulators and one bending magnet beamline [1]. Several compact collimator systems have been developed for the purpose of background reduction in macromolecular crystallography experiments. The apparatus consists of a tube collimator, pinhole and kinematics mount. This paper will present a series of compact collimator designs and crystallographic applications based on experimental requirements [2]. We also describe the magnet-based kinematic mounting structures [3] developed as a collimator holder.

  16. Planned Use of Pulsed Crab Cavities for Short X-Ray Pulse Generation at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, Michael; Carwardine, J.; Chae, Y.; Emery, L.; Den Hartog, Patric; Harkay, K.C.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Nassiri, A.; Sajaev, V.; Sereno, Nicholas S.; Waldschmidt, G.; Yang, B.X.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2007-11-06

    Recently, we have explored application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Zholents'[1] crab cavity scheme for production of short x-ray pulses. We assumed use of superconducting (SC) cavities in order to have a continuous stream of crabbed bunches and flexibility of operating modes. The challenges of the SC approach are related to the size, cost, and development time of the cavities and associated systems. A good case can be made [2] for a pulsed system using room-temperature cavities. APS has elected to pursue such a system in the near term, with the SC-based system planned for a later date. This paper describes the motivation for the pulsed system and gives an overview of the planned implementation and issues. Among these are overall configuration options and constraints, cavity design options, frequency choice, cavity design challenges, tolerances, instabilities, and diagnostics plans.

  17. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the white-beam slits for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. Due to the powerful x-ray heat flux emitted by the undulator, it is difficult to control the thermal distortion within the desired range of 1-2 microns. We analyzed many conceptual designs in an attempt to minimize the thermal distortion of the slits. Even with 1-mm-thick, low-Z material (graphite) coated on the heating surface of a traditional slit, the maximum thermal distortion is over 25 microns. A three-piece slit was then designed to satisfy the requirements. It consists of one large block, two tungsten knife edges, and an OFHC cooling tube (filled with copper mesh) brazed inside the large block. The thermal distortion at the knife edges of this three-piece slit has a relative displacement of less than 2 microns.

  18. Self-amplified spontaneous emission saturation at the Advanced Photon Source free-electron laser (abstract) (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moog, E. R.; Milton, S. V.; Arnold, N. D.; Benson, C.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Dejus, R. J.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Gluskin, E.; Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O.; Nassiri, A.; Sajaev, V.; Soliday, R.; Tieman, B. J.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Wiemerslage, G.; Yang, B. X.

    2002-03-01

    Today, many bright photon beams in the ultraviolet and x-ray wavelength range are produced by insertion devices installed in specially designed third-generation storage rings. There is the possibility of producing photon beams that are orders of magnitude brighter than presently achieved at synchrotron sources, by using self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) free-electron laser (FEL) project was built to explore the SASE process in the visible through vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range. While the understanding gained in these experiments will guide future work to extend SASE FELs to shorter wavelengths, the APS FEL itself will become a continuously tunable, bright light source. Measurements of the SASE process to saturation have been made at 530 and 385 nm. A number of quantities were measured to confirm our understanding of the SASE process and to verify that saturation was reached. The intensity of the FEL light was measured versus distance along the FEL, and was found to flatten out at saturation. The statistical variation of the light intensity was found to be wide in the exponential gain region where the intensity is expected to be noisy, and narrower once saturation was reached. Absolute power measurements compare well with GINGER simulations. The FEL light spectrum at different distances along the undulator line was measured with a high-resolution spectrometer, and the many sharp spectral spikes at the beginning of the SASE process coalesce into a single peak at saturation. The energy spread in the electron beam widens markedly after saturation due to the number of electrons that transfer a significant amount of energy to the photon beam. Coherent transition radiation measurements of the electron beam as it strikes a foil provide additional confirmation of the microbunching of the electron beam. The quantities measured confirm that saturation was indeed reached. Details are

  19. Simulating single photons with realistic photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Zhen; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-12-01

    Quantum information processing provides remarkable advantages over its classical counterpart. Quantum optical systems have been proved to be sufficient for realizing general quantum tasks, which, however, often rely on single-photon sources. In practice, imperfect single-photon sources, such as a weak-coherent-state source, are used instead, which will inevitably limit the power in demonstrating quantum effects. For instance, with imperfect photon sources, the key rate of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol will be very low, which fortunately can be resolved by utilizing the decoy-state method. As a generalization, we investigate an efficient way to simulate single photons with imperfect ones to an arbitrary desired accuracy when the number of photonic inputs is small. Based on this simulator, we can thus replace the tasks that involve only a few single-photon inputs with the ones that make use of only imperfect photon sources. In addition, our method also provides a quantum simulator to quantum computation based on quantum optics. In the main context, we take a phase-randomized coherent state as an example for analysis. A general photon source applies similarly and may provide some further advantages for certain tasks.

  20. Upgrade of IMCA-CAT Bending Magnet Beamline 17-BM for Macromolecular Crystallography at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, I.; Huang, R.; Graber, T.; Meron, M.; Muir, J.L.; Lavender, W.; Battaile, K.; Mulichak, A.M.; Keefe, L.J.

    2007-05-15

    Pharmaceutical research depends on macromolecular crystallography as a tool in drug design and development. To solve the de novo three-dimensional atomic structure of a protein, it is essential to know the phases of the X-rays scattered by a protein crystal. Experimental phases can be obtained from multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiments. Dedicated to macromolecular crystallography, the IMCA-CAT bending magnet beamline at sector 17 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was upgraded to provide the energy resolution required to successfully perform synchrotron radiation-based MAD phasing of protein crystal structures. A collimating mirror was inserted into the beam path upstream of a double-crystal monochromator, thus increasing the monochromatic beam throughput in a particular bandwidth without sacrificing the energy resolution of the system. The beam is focused horizontally by a sagittally bent crystal and vertically by a cylindrically bent mirror, delivering a beam at the sample of 130 {micro}m (vertically) x 250 {micro}m (horizontally) FWHM. As a result of the upgrade, the beamline now operates with an energy range of 7.5 x 17.5 keV, delivers 8 x 10{sup +11} photons/sec at 12.398 keV at the sample, and has an energy resolution of {delta}E/E = 1.45 x 10{sup -4} at 10 keV, which is suitable for MAD experiments.

  1. Upgrade of IMCA-CAT Bending Magnet Beamline 17-BM for Macromolecular Crystallography at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, I.; Huang, R.; Muir, J. L.; Battaile, K.; Mulichak, A. M.; Keefe, L. J.; Graber, T.; Meron, M.; Lavender, W.

    2007-01-19

    Pharmaceutical research depends on macromolecular crystallography as a tool in drug design and development. To solve the de novo three-dimensional atomic structure of a protein, it is essential to know the phases of the X-rays scattered by a protein crystal. Experimental phases can be obtained from multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiments. Dedicated to macromolecular crystallography, the IMCA-CAT bending magnet beamline at sector 17 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was upgraded to provide the energy resolution required to successfully perform synchrotron radiation-based MAD phasing of protein crystal structures. A collimating mirror was inserted into the beam path upstream of a double-crystal monochromator, thus increasing the monochromatic beam throughput in a particular bandwidth without sacrificing the energy resolution of the system. The beam is focused horizontally by a sagittally bent crystal and vertically by a cylindrically bent mirror, delivering a beam at the sample of 130 {mu}m (vertically) x 250 {mu}m (horizontally) FWHM. As a result of the upgrade, the beamline now operates with an energy range of 7.5x17.5 keV, delivers 8 x 10+11 photons/sec at 12.398 keV at the sample, and has an energy resolution of {delta}E/E = 1.45 x 10-4 at 10 keV, which is suitable for MAD experiments.

  2. Field configuration of beam excited modes in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, S. O.; Kustom, R. L.; Uslenghi, P. L.E.

    1994-05-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is in the process of building a positron accelerator and storage ring, the Advanced Photo source (APS). The RF system for the APS storage ring uses 16 cylindrical TM010-like, reentrant cavities operating at 351.93 MHz to resupply energy lost by the beam due to synchrotron radiation. The stored beam will have approximately 60 bunches, 5 mA per bunch, for a total beam current of 300 mA. Calculations of the threshold current for coupled-bench instabilities in the storage ring have indicated that several beam-induced higher-order modes (HOMs) will reduce the threshold for beam stability and therefore should be damped. Previous data taken using a pillbox cavity showed that it is likely that some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study investigates the electric and magnetic field configuration of each HOM present in the waveguide. A pillbox and a prototype storage ring cavity, together with various WR2300 waveguide components, are used to obtain the measurements needed for the determination of the mode configuration of the HOMs at the frequencies of interest. To avoid the development of beam instabilities due to the existence of these HOMs in the rf cavity, damping of the modes will be required. The HOMs present in the rf cavity coupling into the loop coupler and traveling through the coupler into the waveguide, may allow damping of some of the HOMs by insertion of dampers into the waveguide adjacent to each cavity.

  3. RF impedance measurement status for the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Kustom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Beam-coupling impedances (Z) for the 7-GeV APS storage ring have been numerically estimated. In order to confirm these calculations, the wire method with a synthetic pulse technique was used to measure the beam coupling impedance of various vacuum components around the main storage ring. A section of the beam+antechambers, a vacuum isolation valve with and without the RF shielding screen, an insertion device, and a photon absorber were used as a device under test (DUT) to obtain the results. The results were compared with the computer simulations and the Z or k-dependence on bunch lengths was studied.

  4. RF impedance measurement status for the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Kustom, R.L.

    1992-05-01

    Beam-coupling impedances (Z) for the 7-GeV APS storage ring have been numerically estimated. In order to confirm these calculations, the wire method with a synthetic pulse technique was used to measure the beam coupling impedance of various vacuum components around the main storage ring. A section of the beam+antechambers, a vacuum isolation valve with and without the RF shielding screen, an insertion device, and a photon absorber were used as a device under test (DUT) to obtain the results. The results were compared with the computer simulations and the Z or k-dependence on bunch lengths was studied.

  5. Projection x-ray topography system at 1-BM x-ray optics test beamline at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Stoupin, Stanislav Liu, Zunping; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Lang, Keenan; Goetze, Kurt; Sullivan, Joseph; Macrander, Albert; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2016-07-27

    Projection X-ray topography of single crystals is a classic technique for the evaluation of intrinsic crystal quality of large crystals. In this technique a crystal sample and an area detector (e.g., X-ray film) collecting intensity of a chosen crystallographic reflection are translated simultaneously across an X-ray beam collimated in the diffraction scattering plane (e.g., [1, 2]). A bending magnet beamline of a third-generation synchrotron source delivering x-ray beam with a large horizontal divergence, and therefore, a large horizontal beam size at a crystal sample position offers an opportunity to obtain X-ray topographs of large crystalline samples (e.g., 6-inch wafers) in just a few exposures. Here we report projection X-ray topography system implemented recently at 1-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. A selected X-ray topograph of a 6-inch wafer of 4H-SiC illustrates capabilities and limitations of the technique.

  6. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of aluminum and copper cleaning procedures for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.A.; McDowell, M.W.; Noonan, J.R. )

    1994-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), presently under construction, will produce x rays of unprecedented brightness. The storage ring where the x rays will be produced will be constructed from an extruded 6063 aluminum alloy, while transition pieces (flanges, etc.) will be made from a 2219 aluminum alloy. In addition, cooled photon absorbers will be placed in strategic locations throughout the ring to intercept the majority of the unused high power-density radiation. These will be made of either CDA-101 (OFHC) copper or glidcop (a dispersion strengthened copper alloy). Before any of these components can be assembled they must be cleaned to remove surface contaminants so that the ultrahigh vacuum ([lt]0.1 nTorr) necessary for successful operation can be achieved. Many recipes for cleaning aluminum and copper exist; however, most of them involve the use of chemicals that present safety and/or environmental concerns. We have undertaken an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the effects of a variety of commercially available cleaners on the surface cleanliness of aluminum and copper. Several important results have been identified in this study. A simple alkaline detergent in an ultrasonic bath cleans aluminum alloys as effectively as the more aggressive cleaning solutions. The detergent can be used at 65 [degree]C to clean the 6063 alloy and at 50 [degree]C to clean the 2219 alloy. A citric acid based cleaner was found to be effective at cleaning copper, although the surface oxidizes rapidly. To date, we have been unable to find a universal cleaning procedure, i.e., one that is optimal for cleaning both Al and Cu.

  7. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R D.

  8. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  9. Momentum-resolved resonant and nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Gog, T.; Seidler, G. T.; Casa, D. M.; Upton, M. H.; Kim, J.; Shvydko, Y.; Stoupin, S.; Nagle, K. P.; Balasubramanian, M.; Gordon, R. A.; Fister, T. T.; Heald, S. M.; Toellner, T.; Hill, J. P.; Coburn, D. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Said, A. H.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Yavas, H.; Burns, C. A.; Sinn, H.

    2009-11-01

    The study of electronic excitations by inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) has a rich history. Very early IXS work, for example, provided seminal demonstrations of the validity of relativistic kinematics and the quantum hypothesis and of Fermi-Dirac statistics. While there have been many important results in the interim, it has been the development of the third generation light sources together with continuing innovations in the manufacture and implementation of dispersive X-ray optics that has led to the rapid growth of IXS studies of electronic excitations.

  10. Calibration of Fast Fiber-Optic Beam Loss Monitors for the Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Superconducting Undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Dooling, J.; Harkay, K.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Sajaev, V.; Xiao, A.; Vella, Andrea K.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the calibration and use of fast fiber-optic (FO) beam loss monitors (BLMs) in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring (SR). A superconducting undulator prototype (SCU0) has been operating in SR Sector 6 (“ID6”) since the beginning of CY2013, and another undulator SCU1 (a 1.1-m length undulator that is three times the length of SCU0) is scheduled for installation in Sector 1 (“ID1”) in 2015. The SCU0 main coil often quenches during beam dumps. MARS simulations have shown that relatively small beam loss (<1 nC) can lead to temperature excursions sufficient to cause quenchingwhen the SCU0windings are near critical current. To characterize local beam losses, high-purity fused-silica FO cables were installed in ID6 on the SCU0 chamber transitions and in ID1 where SCU1 will be installed. These BLMs aid in the search for operating modes that protect the SCU structures from beam-loss-induced quenching. In this paper, we describe the BLM calibration process that included deliberate beam dumps at locations of BLMs. We also compare beam dump events where SCU0 did and did not quench.

  11. Thermal management and prototype testing of Compton scattering X-ray beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Yang, B. X.; Collins, J. T.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are key elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade. In the next-generation XBPMs for the canted-undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0 mrad, the lower beam power (<10 kW) per undulator allows us to explore lower-cost solutions based on Compton scattering from a diamond placed edge-on to the x-ray beam. Because of the high peak power density of the x-ray beams, this diamond experiences high temperatures and has to be clamped to a water-cooled heat spreader using thermal interface materials (TIMs), which play a key role in reducing the temperature of the diamond. To evaluate temperature changes through the interface via thermal simulations, the thermal contact resistance (TCR) of TIMs at an interface between two solid materials under even contact pressure must be known. This paper addresses the TCR measurements of several TIMs, including gold, silver, pyrolytic graphite sheet, and 3D graphene foam. In addition, a prototype of a Compton-scattering XBPM with diamond blades was installed at APS Beamline 24-ID-A in May 2015 and has been tested. This paper presents the design of the Compton-scattering XBPM, and compares thermal simulation results obtained for the diamond blade of this XBPM by the finite element method with in situ empirical measurements obtained by using reliable infrared technology.

  12. Progress on the Development of the Next Generation X-ray Beam Position Monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.; Yang, B.X.; Decker, G.; Sereno, N.; Ramanathan, M.

    2016-07-27

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are ke y elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The next generat ion XBPMs for high heat load front ends (HHL FEs) have been designed to meet these requirements by utilizing Cu K-edge x-ray fluorescence (XRF) from a pair of copper absorbers and have been installed at the front ends (FEs) of the APS. Com missioning data showed a significant performance improvement over the existing photoemission-based XBPMs. While a similar design concept can be applied for the canted undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0-mrad, the lower beam power (< 10 kW) per undulator allows us to explore lower-cost solutions based on Compton scat tering from the diamond blades placed edge-on to the x- ray beam. A prototype of the Compton scattering XBPM system was i nstalled at 24-ID-A in May 2015. In this report, the design and test results for XRF-based XBPM and Compton scattering based XBPM are presented. Ongoing research related to the development of the next generation XBPMs on thermal contac t resistance of a joint between two solid bodies is also discussed

  13. Thermo-mechanical analysis of a user filter assembly for undulator/wiggler operations at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.; Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Dejus, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a thermo-mechanical study of a beamline filter (user filter) for undulator/wiggler operations. It is deployed in conjunction with the current commissioning window assembly on the APS insertion device (ID) front ends. The beamline filter at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will eventually be used in windowless operations also. Hence survival and reasonable life expectancy of the filters under intense insertion device (ID) heat flu are crucial to the beamline operations. To accommodate various user requirements, the filter is configured to be a multi-choice type and smart to allow only those filter combinations that will be safe to operate with a given ring current and beamline insertion device gap. However, this paper addresses only the thermo-mechanical analysis of individual filter integrity and safety in all combinations possible. The current filter design is configured to have four filter frames in a cascade with each frame holding five filters. This allows a potential 625 total filter combinations. Thermal analysis for all of these combinations becomes a mammoth task considering the desired choices for filter materials (pyrolitic graphite and metallic filters), filter thicknesses, undulator gaps, and the beam currents. The paper addresses how this difficult task has been reduced to a reasonable effort and computational level. Results from thermo-mechanical analyses of the filter combinations are presented both in tabular and graphical format.

  14. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.; Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities.

  15. Design of the commissioning filter/mask/window assembly for undulator beamline front ends at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1995-10-20

    A compact filter/mask/window assembly has been designed for undulator beamline commissioning activity at the Advanced Photon Source beamlines. The assembly consists of one 300-{mu}m graphite filter, one 127-{mu}m CVD diamond filter and two 250-{mu}m beryllium windows. A water-cooled Glidcop fixed mask with a 4.5-mm {times} 4.5-mm output optical aperture and a 0.96-mrad {times} 1.6-mrad beam missteering acceptance is a major part in the assembly. The CVD diamond filter which is mounted on the downstream side of the fixed mask is designed to also function as a transmitting x-ray beam position monitor. The sum signal from the latter can be used to monitor the physical condition of the graphite filter and prevent any possible chain reaction damage to the beryllium windows downstream. In this paper, the design concept as well as the detailed structural design of the commissioning window are presented. Further applications of the commissioning window commissioning window components are also discussed.

  16. White beam slits and pink beam slits for the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.; Jaski, Y.; Maser, J.; Powers, T.; Schmidt, O.; Rossi, E.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of slit has been designed for use in the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The design incorporates monolithic GlidCop slit bodies mounted to commercially available x-y drive systems. Long, tapered apertures with adjacent water-cooling channels intercept the x-ray beam, removing the high heat load produced by two collinear APS undulators. The apertures are L-shaped and provide both horizontal and vertical slits. The beam-defining edges, positioned at the end of the tapered surfaces, consist of two sets of tungsten blades. These blades produce an exit beam with sharp corners and assure a clean cut-off for the white beam edges. The slit assembly is designed to allow overlap of the slit edges to stop the beam. The white beam slit design accommodates 3100 W of total power with a peak power density of 763 W/mm2. The pink beam slit design accommodates 400 W of total power with a peak power density of 180 W/mm2. Detailed thermal analyses were performed to verify the slits accuracy under full beam loading. The new concept allows beamline operations to 180 mA with a simplified design approach.

  17. White Beam Slits and Pink Beam Slits for the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.; Jaski, Y.; Powers, T.; Schmidt, O.; Rossi, E.; Maser, J.

    2007-01-19

    A new type of slit has been designed for use in the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The design incorporates monolithic GlidCop slit bodies mounted to commercially available x-y drive systems. Long, tapered apertures with adjacent water-cooling channels intercept the x-ray beam, removing the high heat load produced by two collinear APS undulators. The apertures are L-shaped and provide both horizontal and vertical slits. The beam-defining edges, positioned at the end of the tapered surfaces, consist of two sets of tungsten blades. These blades produce an exit beam with sharp corners and assure a clean cut-off for the white beam edges. The slit assembly is designed to allow overlap of the slit edges to stop the beam.The white beam slit design accommodates 3100 W of total power with a peak power density of 763 W/mm2. The pink beam slit design accommodates 400 W of total power with a peak power density of 180 W/mm2. Detailed thermal analyses were performed to verify the slits' accuracy under full beam loading. The new concept allows beamline operations to 180 mA with a simplified design approach.

  18. Design analysis of a composite L5-80 slit for x-ray beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1996-12-31

    White-beam slits are precision high-heat-load devices used on beamlines of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to trim and shape the incoming x-rays beam before the beam is transmitted to other optical components. At the APS, the insertion devices that generate the x-ray are very powerful. For example, the heat flux associated with an x- ray beam generated by Undulator A will be on the order of 207 W/mm{sup 2} at the L5-80 slit location (about 27.5 m away from the insertion device) at normal incidence. The total power is about 5.3 kW. The optical slits with micron-level precision are very challenging to design under such heat flux and total power considerations. A novel three-metal composite slit has been designed to meet the diverse thermal, structural, and precision requirements. A closed form solution, and a commercial code, ANSYS, have been used for the analysis of the optimized design for the slit set.

  19. Time-resolved X-ray scattering program at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rodricks, B.

    1994-08-01

    The Time-Resolved Scattering Program`s goal is the development of instruments and techniques for time-resolved studies. This entails the development of wide bandpass and focusing optics, high-speed detectors, mechanical choppers, and components for the measurement and creation of changes in samples. Techniques being developed are pump-probe experiments, single-bunch scattering experiments, high-speed white and pink beam Laue scattering, and nanosecond to microsecond synchronization of instruments. This program will be carried out primarily from a white-beam, bend-magnet source, experimental station, 1-BM-B, that immediately follows the first optics enclosure (1-BM-A). This paper will describe the experimental station and instruments under development to carry out the program.

  20. The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.

  1. Short x-ray pulse generation using deflecting cavities at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Sajaev, V.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Emery, L.; Harkay, K.; Nassiri, A.; Shastri, S.; Waldschmidt, G.; Yang, B.; Anfinrud, P.; Dolgashev, V.; NIH; SLAC

    2007-11-11

    Storage-ring-based third-generation light sources can provide intense radiation pulses with durations as short as 100 ps. However, there is growing interest within the synchrotron radiation user community in performing experiments with much shorter X-ray pulses. Zholents et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 425 (1999) 385] recently proposed using RF orbit deflection to generate sub-ps X-ray pulses. In this scheme, two deflecting cavities are used to deliver a longitudinally dependent vertical kick to the beam. An optical slit can then be used to slice out a short part of the radiation pulse. Implementation of this scheme is planned for one APS beamline in the near future. In this paper, we summarize our feasibility study of this method and the expected X-ray beam parameters. We find that a pulse length of less than two picoseconds can be achieved.

  2. Short X-ray pulse generation using deflecting cavities at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajaev, V.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Emery, L.; Harkay, K.; Nassiri, A.; Shastri, S.; Waldschmidt, G.; Yang, B.; Anfinrud, P.; Dolgashev, V.

    2007-11-01

    Storage-ring-based third-generation light sources can provide intense radiation pulses with durations as short as 100 ps. However, there is growing interest within the synchrotron radiation user community in performing experiments with much shorter X-ray pulses. Zholents et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 425 (1999) 385] recently proposed using RF orbit deflection to generate sub-ps X-ray pulses. In this scheme, two deflecting cavities are used to deliver a longitudinally dependent vertical kick to the beam. An optical slit can then be used to slice out a short part of the radiation pulse. Implementation of this scheme is planned for one APS beamline in the near future. In this paper, we summarize our feasibility study of this method and the expected X-ray beam parameters. We find that a pulse length of less than two picoseconds can be achieved.

  3. X-ray Optics Testing Beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Macrander, Albert; Erdmann, Mark; Kujala, Naresh; Stoupin, Stanislav; Marathe, Shashidhara; Shi, Xianbo; Wojcik, Michael; Nocher, Daniel; Conley, Raymond; Sullivan, Joseph; Goetze, Kurt A.; Maser, Jorg; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2016-07-27

    Beamline 1-BM at the APS has been reconfigured in part for testing of synchrotron optics with both monochromatic and white beams. Operational since 2013, it was reconfigured to accommodate users of the APS as well as users from other DOE facilities. Energies between 6 and 28 keV are available. The beamline was reconfigured to remove two large mirrors and to provide a 100 mm wide monochromatics beam at 54 m from the source. In addition a custom white beam shutter was implemented for topography exposures as short as 65 millisec over the full available horizontal width. Primary agendas include both white beam and monochromatic beam topography, Talbot grating interferometry, and tests of focusing optics. K-B mirrors, MLLs, and FZPs have been characterized. Measurements of the spatial coherence lengths on the beamline were obtained with Talbot interferometry. Topography data has been reported.

  4. X-ray optics testing beamline 1-BM at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Macrander, Albert Erdmann, Mark; Kujala, Naresh; Stoupin, Stanislav; Marathe, Shashidhara; Shi, Xianbo; Wojcik, Michael; Nocher, Dan; Conley, Raymond; Sullivan, Joseph; Goetze, Kurt; Maser, Jorg; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2016-07-27

    Beamline 1-BM at the APS has been reconfigured in part for testing of synchrotron optics with both monochromatic and white beams. Operational since 2013, it was reconfigured to accommodate users of the APS as well as users from other DOE facilities. Energies between 6 and 28 keV are available. The beamline was reconfigured to remove two large mirrors and to provide a 100 mm wide monochromatic beam at 54 m from the source. In addition a custom white beam shutter was implemented for topography exposures as short as 65 millisec over the full available horizontal width. Primary agendas include both white beam and monochromatic beam topography, Talbot grating interferometry, and tests of focusing optics. K-B mirrors, MLLs, and FZPs have been characterized. Measurements of the spatial coherence lengths on the beamline were obtained with Talbot interferometry. Topography data has been reported.

  5. Profile Coating for KB Mirror Applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A.; Ice, G.; Tischler, J.

    2002-01-01

    For microfocusing x-ray mirrors, an ellipse shape is desirable for aberration-free optics. However, it is difficult to polish elliptical mirrors to x-ray quality smoothness. A differential coating method to convert a cylindrical mirror to an elliptical one has been previously reported The differential coating was obtained by varying the sputter source power while the mirror was passed through. Here we report a new method of profile coating to achieve the same goal more effectively. In the profile coating, the sputter source power is kept constant, while the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed. The mask is placed very close to the substrate level (within 1.0 mm) on a shield-can over the sputter gun. Four-inch-diameter Si wafers were coated through a 100-mm-long by 152-mm-wide aperture on the top of the shield-can. The thickness distribution was then obtained using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y translation stages. A model has been developed to fit the measured thickness distribution of stationary growth. The relative thickness weightings are then digitized at every point 1 mm apart for the entire open area of the aperture. When the substrate is moving across the shield-can during a deposition, the film thickness is directly proportional to the length of the opening on the can along the moving direction. By equating the summation of relative weighting to the required relative thickness at the same position, the length of the opening at that position can be determined. By repeating the same process for the whole length of the required profile, a contour can be obtained for a desired thickness profile. The contoured mask is then placed on the opening of the shield-can. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth-rate calibration. The mirror coating profile is determined from the ideal surface figure of a focus ellipse and that obtained

  6. Profile coating for KB mirror applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chian; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, Albert T.; Ice, Gene E.; Tischler, J. Z.

    2002-12-01

    For microfocusing x-ray mirrors, an ellipse shape is desirable for aberration-free optics. However, it is difficult to polish elliptical mirrors to x-ray quality smoothness. A differential coating method to convert a cylindrical mirror to an elliptical one has been previously reported The differential coating was obtained by varying the sputter source power while the mirror was passed through. Here we report a new method of profile coating to achieve the same goal more effectively. In the profile coating, the sputter source power is kept constant, while the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed. The mask is placed very close to the substrate level (within 1.0 mm) on a shield-can over the sputter gun. Four-inch-diameter Si wafers were coated through a 100-mm-long by 152-mm-wide aperture on the top of the shield-can. The thickness distribution was then obtained using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y translation stages. A model has been developed to fit the measured thickness distribution of stationary growth. The relative thickness weightings are then digitized at every point 1 mm apart for the entire open area of the aperture. When the substrate is moving across the shield-can during a deposition, the film thickness is directly proportional to the length of the opening on the can along the moving direction. By equating the summation of relative weighting to the required relative thickness at the same position, the length of the opening at that position can be determined. By repeating the same process for the whole length of the required profile, a contour can be obtained for a desired thickness profile. The contoured mask is then placed on the opening of the shield-can. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth-rate calibration. The mirror coating profile is determined from the ideal surface figure of a focus ellipse and that obtained

  7. Guidelines for beamline and front-end radiation shielding design at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, P.; X-Ray Science Division

    2008-09-11

    Shielding for the APS will be such that the individual radiation worker dose will be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The ALARA goals for the APS are to keep the total of the work-related radiation exposure (exposure coming from other than natural or medical sources) as far below 500 person-mrem per year, collective total effective dose equivalent, as reasonably achievable. For an individual APS radiation worker, the goal is to keep the maximum occupational total effective dose equivalent of any one employee as far below 200 mrem/yr as reasonably achievable. The ALARA goal for APS beamline scientists is to keep the total of the work-related radiation exposure (exposure coming from other than natural or medical sources) as far below 100 person-mrem per year, collective total effective dose equivalent, as reasonably achievable. For an individual APS beamline scientist, the goal is to keep the maximum occupational total effective dose equivalent of any one scientist as far below 50 mrem/yr as reasonably achievable. The dose is actively monitored by the radiation monitors on the storage ring wall in each sector and by the frequent area surveys performed by the health physics personnel. For cases in which surveys indicate elevated hourly dose rates that may impact worker exposure, additional local shielding is provided to reduce the radiation field to an acceptable level. Passive area monitors are used throughout the facility to integrate doses in various areas. The results are analyzed for trends of increased doses, and shielding in these areas is evaluated and improved, as appropriate. The APS policy for on-site nonradiation workers in the vicinity of the APS facilities requires that the average nonradiation worker dose be below 0.2 mSv/yr (20 mrem/yr). In addition, the dose at the site boundary from all pathways is required to be below 0.1 mSv/yr (10 mrem/yr). For future modifications of the facility, the doses shall be evaluated and additional shielding

  8. Perovskite photonic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-05-01

    The field of solution-processed semiconductors has made great strides; however, it has yet to enable electrically driven lasers. To achieve this goal, improved materials are required that combine efficient (>50% quantum yield) radiative recombination under high injection, large and balanced charge-carrier mobilities in excess of 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, free-carrier densities greater than 1017 cm-3 and gain coefficients exceeding 104 cm-1. Solid-state perovskites are -- in addition to galvanizing the field of solar electricity -- showing great promise in photonic sources, and may be the answer to realizing solution-cast laser diodes. Here, we discuss the properties of perovskites that benefit light emission, review recent progress in perovskite electroluminescent diodes and optically pumped lasers, and examine the remaining challenges in achieving continuous-wave and electrically driven lasing.

  9. Thermo-mechanical analysis of fixed mask 1 for the Advanced Photon Source insertion device front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Shu, D.; Sheng, I.C.A.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-10-01

    The first fixed mask (FM1) is one of the critical elements on the insertion device front ends of the beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The heat flux from the APS undulators is enormous. For example, FM1 placed at a distance of 16 m from the Undulator A source will be subjected to 519 W/mm{sup 2} at normal incidence with a total power of 3.8 kW. Due to a high localized thermal gradient on this component, inclined geometry (1.5{degree}) is used in the design to spread the footprint of the x-ray beam. A box-cone-shape geometry was designed due to the limited space available in the front end. The box shape is a highly constrained geometry, which induces larger stress levels than would occur in a plate or a tube. In order to handle the expected higher stress and the stress concentration at the corners, a single Glidcop block (rather than copper) was used in the construction. The FM1 uses an enhanced heat transfer mechanism developed at Argonne National Laboratory, which increases the convective heat transfer coefficient to about 3 W/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}C with single-phase water as the coolant. The authors simulated the location of the x-ray beam in several places to cover the worst possible case. The maximum temperature (about 180{degree}C) occurs when the beam hits the center of horizontal surface. The maximum effective stress (about 313 MPa) occurs when the x-ray beam hits about the corners.

  10. Thermal management and prototype testing of Compton scattering X-ray beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, S. H.; Yang, B. X.; Collins, J. T.; ...

    2017-02-07

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are key elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade. In the next-generation XBPMs for the canted-undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0 mrad, the lower beam power (<10 kW) per undulator allows us to explore lower-cost solutions based on Compton scattering from a diamond placed edge-on to the x-ray beam. Because of the high peak power density of the x-ray beams, this diamond experiences high temperatures and has to be clamped to a water-cooled heat spreader using thermal interface materials (TIMs),more » which play a key role in reducing the temperature of the diamond. To evaluate temperature changes through the interface via thermal simulations, the thermal contact resistance (TCR) of TIMs at an interface between two solid materials under even contact pressure must be known. This paper addresses the TCR measurements of several TIMs, including gold, silver, pyrolytic graphite sheet, and 3D graphene foam. In addition, a prototype of a Compton-scattering XBPM with diamond blades was installed at APS Beamline 24-ID-A in May 2015 and has been tested. This study presents the design of the Compton-scattering XBPM, and compares thermal simulation results obtained for the diamond blade of this XBPM by the finite element method with in situ empirical measurements obtained by using reliable infrared technology.« less

  11. The BioCAT undulator beamline 18ID: a facility for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Fischetti, R; Stepanov, S; Rosenbaum, G; Barrea, R; Black, E; Gore, D; Heurich, R; Kondrashkina, E; Kropf, A J; Wang, S; Zhang, Ke; Irving, T C; Bunker, G B

    2004-09-01

    The 18ID undulator beamline of the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL, USA, is a high-performance instrument designed for, and dedicated to, the study of partially ordered and disordered biological materials using the techniques of small-angle X-ray scattering, fiber diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The beamline and associated instrumentation are described in detail and examples of the representative experimental results are presented.

  12. Compact Photon Source Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyarenko, Pavel V.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2016-04-01

    We describe options for the production of an intense photon beam at the CEBAF Hall D Tagger facility, needed for creating a high-quality secondary K 0 L delivered to the Hall D detector. The conceptual design for the Compact Photon Source apparatus is presented.

  13. Environmental Assessment for Enhanced Operations of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory-East, Argonne, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-06-27

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with continued and enhanced operation of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), including modifications, upgrades, and new facilities, at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois. This proposed action is needed to meet DOE's mission of sponsoring cutting-edge science and technology. Continued operation would include existing research activities. In 2002, 23 user teams had beamlines in use in 28 sectors of the experiment hall, and approximately 2,000 individual users visited annually (see Section 3.1.1). Enhanced scientific capabilities would include research on Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) materials in an existing area originally constructed for such work, and would not require new construction or workforce (see Section 3.1.2). A new experimental unit, the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), would be constructed along the west side of the APS facility and would be used for bench-scale research in nanoscience (see Section 3.1.3). Under the No Action Alternative, current APS operations would continue. However, initiation of BSL-3 research would not occur, and the proposed CNM research facility would not be constructed. The environmental consequences of the Proposed Action are minor. Potential effects to the environment are primarily related to ecological effects during construction and operation of the proposed CNM and human health effects during BSL-3 activities. The potential ecological effects of construction and operation of the CNM would be impacts of stormwater runoff into a restored wetland to the north of the CNM. DOE would minimize stormwater impacts during construction of the CNM by ensuring adequate erosion control before and during construction. Stormwater impacts would be minimized during operation of the CNM by

  14. A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, L.; Lai, B.; Yun, W.; Ilinski, P.; Legnini, D.; Maser, J.; Rodrigues, W.

    1999-11-02

    A hard x-ray scanning microprobe based on zone plate optics and undulator radiation, in the energy region from 6 to 20 keV, has reached a focal spot size (FWHM) of 0.15 {micro}m (v) x 0.6 {micro}m (h), and a photon flux of 4 x 10{sup 9} photons/sec/0.01%BW. Using a slit 44 meters upstream to create a virtual source, a circular beam spot of 0.15 {micro}m in diameter can be obtained with a photon flux of one order of magnitude less. During fluorescence mapping of trace elements in a single human ovarian cell, the microprobe exhibited an imaging sensitivity for Pt (L{sub a} line) of 80 attograms/{micro}m{sup 2} for a count rate of 10 counts per second. The x-ray microprobe has been used to map crystallographic strain and multiquantum well thickness in micro-optoelectronic devices produced with the selective area growth technique.

  15. The dedicated high-resolution grazing-incidence X-ray scattering beamline 8-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhang; Li, Xuefa; Strzalka, Joseph; Sprung, Michael; Sun, Tao; Sandy, Alec R; Narayanan, Suresh; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Wang, Jin

    2012-07-01

    As an increasingly important structural-characterization technique, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) has found wide applications for in situ and real-time studies of nanostructures and nanocomposites at surfaces and interfaces. A dedicated beamline has been designed, constructed and optimized at beamline 8-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source for high-resolution and coherent GIXS experiments. The effectiveness and applicability of the beamline and the scattering techniques have been demonstrated by a host of experiments including reflectivity, grazing-incidence static and kinetic scattering, and coherent surface X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. The applicable systems that can be studied at 8-ID-E include liquid surfaces and nanostructured thin films.

  16. Development of X-ray facilities for materials research at the Advanced Photon Source. Final technical report for period AUGUST 15, 1996 - AUGUST 14, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2000-09-01

    The P.I. and his research team successfully used the funds from the DOE Instrumentation grant entitled, 'Development of X-Ray Facilities for Materials Research at the Advanced Photon Source,' to design, build, test, and commission a customized surface science x-ray scattering spectroscopy chamber. This instrumentation, which is presently in use at an APS x-ray undulator beam line operated by the DuPont-Northwestern-Dow Collaborative Access Team, is used for x-ray measurements of surface, interface, thin film and nano-structures.

  17. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system using artificial intelligence methods for the Advanced Photon Source insertion-device beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Ding, H.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Haeffner, D.; Ramanathan, M.

    1997-09-01

    At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), each insertion device (ID) beamline front-end has two XBPMs to monitor the X-ray beam position for both that vertical and horizontal directions. Performance challenges for a conventional photoemission type X-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) during operations are contamination of the signal from the neighboring bending magnet sources and the sensitivity of the XBPM to the insertion device (ID) gap variations. Problems are exacerbated because users change the ID gap during their operations, and hence the percentage level of the contamination in the front end XBPM signals varies. A smart XBPM system with a high speed digital signal processor has been built at the Advanced Photon Source for the ID beamline front ends. The new version of the software, which uses an artificial intelligence method, provides a self learning and self-calibration capability to the smart XBPM system. The structure of and recent test results with the system are presented in this paper.

  18. Optical design of the short pulse x-ray imaging and microscopy time-angle correlated diffraction beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, R.; Dufresne, E. M.; Borland, M.; Beno, M. A.; Young, L.; Kim, K.-J.; Evans, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    The short pulse x-ray imaging and microscopy beamline is one of the two x-ray beamlines that will take full advantage of the short pulse x-ray source in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade. A horizontally diffracting double crystal monochromator which includes a sagittally focusing second crystal will collect most of the photons generated when the chirped electron beam traverses the undulator. A Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system after the monochromator will deliver to the sample a beam which has an approximately linear correlation between time and vertical beam angle. The correlation at the sample position has a slope of 0.052 ps/μrad extending over an angular range of 800 μrad for a cavity deflection voltage of 2 MV. The expected time resolution of the whole system is 2.6 ps. The total flux expected at the sample position at 10 keV with a 0.9 eV energy resolution is 5.7 × 1012 photons/s at a spot having horizontal and vertical full width at half maximum of 33 μm horizontal by 14 μm vertical. This new beamline will enable novel time-dispersed diffraction experiments on small samples using the full repetition rate of the APS.

  19. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    PubMed Central

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400

  20. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; de Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-11-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources.

  1. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the white-beam slits for a wiggler/undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.; Tcheskidov, V.; Sheng, A.

    1994-09-01

    A set of precision, vertical, white-beam slits has been designed for an undulator/wiggler beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The slit, a knife-edge-type precision device, is required to have very small thermal distortion during operation with beam. The traditional slit consists of a cooling block and an OFHC cooling channel inside the block. Our design consists of one large block and an OFHC cooling tune (filler with copper mesh) brazed inside the large block. This design will accommodate the x-ray source from both undulators and wigglers. Due to the powerful x-ray heat flux coming from APS Undulator A, it is an exceedingly difficult problem to reduce the thermal distortion to less than 50 microns as required by some users.

  2. Gas gun shock experiments with single-pulse x-ray phase contrast imaging and diffraction at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, S. N.; Jensen, B. J.; Hooks, D. E.; Fezzaa, K.; Ramos, K. J.; Yeager, J. D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Shimada, T.

    2012-07-01

    The highly transient nature of shock loading and pronounced microstructure effects on dynamic materials response call for in situ, temporally and spatially resolved, x-ray-based diagnostics. Third-generation synchrotron x-ray sources are advantageous for x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) and diffraction under dynamic loading, due to their high photon fluxes, high coherency, and high pulse repetition rates. The feasibility of bulk-scale gas gun shock experiments with dynamic x-ray PCI and diffraction measurements was investigated at the beamline 32ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source. The x-ray beam characteristics, experimental setup, x-ray diagnostics, and static and dynamic test results are described. We demonstrate ultrafast, multiframe, single-pulse PCI measurements with unprecedented temporal (<100 ps) and spatial (˜2 μm) resolutions for bulk-scale shock experiments, as well as single-pulse dynamic Laue diffraction. The results not only substantiate the potential of synchrotron-based experiments for addressing a variety of shock physics problems, but also allow us to identify the technical challenges related to image detection, x-ray source, and dynamic loading.

  3. Gas gun shock experiments with single-pulse x-ray phase contrast imaging and diffraction at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Luo, S N; Jensen, B J; Hooks, D E; Fezzaa, K; Ramos, K J; Yeager, J D; Kwiatkowski, K; Shimada, T

    2012-07-01

    The highly transient nature of shock loading and pronounced microstructure effects on dynamic materials response call for in situ, temporally and spatially resolved, x-ray-based diagnostics. Third-generation synchrotron x-ray sources are advantageous for x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) and diffraction under dynamic loading, due to their high photon fluxes, high coherency, and high pulse repetition rates. The feasibility of bulk-scale gas gun shock experiments with dynamic x-ray PCI and diffraction measurements was investigated at the beamline 32ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source. The x-ray beam characteristics, experimental setup, x-ray diagnostics, and static and dynamic test results are described. We demonstrate ultrafast, multiframe, single-pulse PCI measurements with unprecedented temporal (<100 ps) and spatial (∼2 μm) resolutions for bulk-scale shock experiments, as well as single-pulse dynamic Laue diffraction. The results not only substantiate the potential of synchrotron-based experiments for addressing a variety of shock physics problems, but also allow us to identify the technical challenges related to image detection, x-ray source, and dynamic loading.

  4. Operation of beam line facilities for real-time x-ray studies at Sector 7 of the advanced photon source. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Roy

    2003-09-10

    This Final Report documents the research accomplishments achieved in the first phase of operations of a new Advanced Photon Source beam line (7-ID MHATT-CAT) dedicated to real-time x-ray studies. The period covered by this report covers the establishment of a world-class facility for time-dependent x-ray studies of materials. During this period many new and innovative research programs were initiated at Sector 7 with support of this grant, most notably using a combination of ultrafast lasers and pulsed synchrotron radiation. This work initiated a new frontier of materials research: namely, the study of the dynamics of materials under extreme conditions of high intensity impulsive laser irradiation.

  5. The Advanced Light Source: Technical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1984-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation source consisting of a 50-MeV linear accelerator, a 1.3-GeV 'booster' synchrotron, a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring, and a number of photon beam lines, as shown in Figure 1. As an introduction to a detailed description of the Advanced Light Source, this section provides brief discussions on the characteristics of synchrotron radiation and on the theory of storage rings. Appendix A contents: Introduction to Synchrotron-Radiation Sources; Storage Ring; Injection System; Control System; Insertion Devices; Photon Beam Lines; and References.

  6. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Using Different Photon Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Ahmed, Mohammad; Bertozzi, William; Hunt, Alan W.; Johnson, James; Jones, James L.; Korbly, Steve; Reedy, Edward; Seipel, Heather; Stave, Sean; Watson, Scott; Weller, Henry

    2008-11-14

    Abstract–Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a photon-based active interrogation approach that provides isotope-specific signatures that can be used to detect and characterize samples. As NRF systems are designed to address specific appli¬cations, an obvious first question to address is the type of photon source to be employed for the application. Our collaboration has conducted a series of NRF measurements using different photon sources to begin to examine this issue. The measurements were designed to be as similar as possible to facilitate a straightforward comparison of the different sources. Measurements were conducted with a high-duty factor electron accelerator using bremsstrahlung photons, with a pulsed linear accelerator using bremsstrahlung photons, and with a narrow bandwidth photon source using Compton backscattered photons. We present our observations on the advantages and disadvantages of each photon source type. Issues such as signal rate, the signal-to-noise ratio, and absorbed dose are discussed.

  7. X-ray micro-diffraction studies on biological samples at the BioCAT Beamline 18-ID at the Advanced Photon Source

    PubMed Central

    Barrea, R. A.; Antipova, O.; Gore, D.; Heurich, R.; Vukonich, M.; Kujala, N. G.; Irving, T. C.; Orgel, J. P. R. O.

    2014-01-01

    The small source sizes of third-generation synchrotron sources are ideal for the production of microbeams for diffraction studies of crystalline and non-crystalline materials. While several such facilities have been available around the world for some time now, few have been optimized for the handling of delicate soft-tissue specimens under cryogenic conditions. Here the development of a new X-ray micro-diffraction instrument at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline 18-ID at the Advanced Photon Source, and its use with newly developed cryo-diffraction techniques for soft-tissue studies, are described. The combination of the small beam sizes delivered by this instrument, the high delivered flux and successful cryo-freezing of rat-tail tendon has enabled us to record data to better than 4 Å resolution. The ability to quickly raster scan samples in the beam allows selection of ordered regions in fibrous samples for markedly improved data quality. Examples of results of experiments obtainable using this instrument are presented. PMID:25178013

  8. X-ray micro-diffraction studies on biological samples at the BioCAT Beamline 18-ID at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Barrea, R A; Antipova, O; Gore, D; Heurich, R; Vukonich, M; Kujala, N G; Irving, T C; Orgel, J P R O

    2014-09-01

    The small source sizes of third-generation synchrotron sources are ideal for the production of microbeams for diffraction studies of crystalline and non-crystalline materials. While several such facilities have been available around the world for some time now, few have been optimized for the handling of delicate soft-tissue specimens under cryogenic conditions. Here the development of a new X-ray micro-diffraction instrument at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline 18-ID at the Advanced Photon Source, and its use with newly developed cryo-diffraction techniques for soft-tissue studies, are described. The combination of the small beam sizes delivered by this instrument, the high delivered flux and successful cryo-freezing of rat-tail tendon has enabled us to record data to better than 4 Å resolution. The ability to quickly raster scan samples in the beam allows selection of ordered regions in fibrous samples for markedly improved data quality. Examples of results of experiments obtainable using this instrument are presented.

  9. Photonic Crystal Fiber Based Entangled Photon Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    shifted-fiber ( DSF ) and a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) can be cooled at the liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). The advantage of the HNLF is a larger......signal for one of the photon-pair generated in four-wave mixing process. χ : the Kerr nonlinearity. k : wave vector. DSF : dispersion shifted fiber

  10. RF Measurements on DXRL (Deep X-ray Li-thog-ra-phy)-Fabricated mmWave Accelerating Cavity Structures at the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J. J.; Kang, Y. W.

    1997-05-01

    Recently rf structures have been proposed for frequencies in the mmwave (30--300 GHz) range. This miniaturization is feasible with a 3-D micromachining process known as LIGA (German acronym for lithographe, galvanoformung, und abformung) or DXRL (deep x-ray lithography).(J.J. Song, et. al, ``LIGA-Fabrication of mmWave Accelerating Cavity Structures at the Advanced Photon Source (APS),'' these proceedings.) A 32-cell 108-GHz constant-impedance cavity and a 66-cell 94-GHz constant-gradient cavity were fabricated using DXRL micromachining with the synchrotron radiation sources at NSLS and APS. Their eventual application could be parts of linear accelerators, microwave undulators, or free-electron lasers. Radiofrequency measurement on the structures was performed by the bead-perturbation method with e-beam sputtered aluminum beads. The form factor of the bead was measured with the pillbox cavity and compared with the calculation. This paper will describe the rf measur! ement on the mmwave cavity structure.

  11. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2011-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  12. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2013-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  13. Focusing, collimation and flux throughput at the IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, Irina; Huang, Rong; Graber, Timothy; Meron, Mati; Muir, J. Lewis; Lavender, William; Battaile, Kevin; Mulichak, Anne M.; Keefe, Lisa J.

    2009-09-02

    The IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline was upgraded with a collimating mirror in order to achieve the energy resolution required to conduct high-quality multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD/SAD) experiments without sacrificing beamline flux throughput. Following the upgrade, the bending-magnet beamline achieves a flux of 8 x 10{sup 11} photons s{sup -1} at 1 {angstrom} wavelength, at a beamline aperture of 1.5 mrad (horizontal) x 86 {mu}rad (vertical), with energy resolution (limited mostly by the intrinsic resolution of the monochromator optics) {delta}E/E = 1.5 x 10{sup -4} (at 10 kV). The beamline operates in a dynamic range of 7.5-17.5 keV and delivers to the sample focused beam of size (FWHM) 240 {micro}m (horizontally) x 160 {micro}m (vertically). The performance of the 17-BM beamline optics and its deviation from ideally shaped optics is evaluated in the context of the requirements imposed by the needs of protein crystallography experiments. An assessment of flux losses is given in relation to the (geometric) properties of major beamline components.

  14. Scanned-beam x-ray source technology for photon backscatter imaging technique of mine detection: advanced technology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchanowski, Charlotte M.; Moler, Robert B.; Shope, Steve L.

    1995-06-01

    A very high power, state-of-the-art, scanning x-ray source has been developed for use with an x-ray backscatter system that detects and images buried land mines. This paper describes the distinctive qualities of the x-ray source technology necessary to prove the feasibility of the mine detection technique in the field. The imaging system requires that an x-ray beam, having a nominal illumination area on the ground of two centimeters by two centimeters, sweeps across a width of three meters in a time of 15 milliseconds or less. The source must produce an integrated flux of 106 x-rays (min) at 120 kVp (min) for each pixel. The source technology is based on a plasma-focused electrom beam operating up to 140 kilovolts with a current of 0.7 ampere. The electrom beam is magnetically shaped to form a thin ellipse with dimensions of approximately one millimeter by ten millimeters. The scanner is designed to run continuously with target temperature of 160 degrees F (max). The overall design allows the scanner to run with operational and auxilary power generators in the field. A unique 400 hertz, 440 volt, 3-phase, SCR-controlled, low energy storage DC source, with low ripple and 1% voltage regulation, supplies the scanner with 100 kilowatts of power at up to 160 kilovolts. The uniqueness of the mine detection technique and scanner design limits radiation hazards: 1) focusing and tight collimation minimizes stray x-rays; 2) the x-rays travel directly into the ground and are mostly absorbed; 3) radiation leakage from the source is not permitted; and 4) backscatter radiation is strongly localized around the irradiation area, is directed upward, and has a small angular distribution.

  15. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  16. Impact of Pressure Regulation of Cryogenic Fluids and EPICS EPID Feedback on the Monochromatic Beam Position Stability of the 7ID Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Dufresne, Eric M.; Arms, Dohn A.; Landahl, Eric C.; Walko, Donald A.

    2007-01-19

    The first crystal mount of the double-crystal Si (111) cryogenically cooled monochromator of the 7ID beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is slightly sensitive to pressure variations in the cryogenic lines. Pressure variations during a liquid nitrogen cryocooler fill every 4 hours move the beam by tens of microns. Pressure variations due to the cryocooler closed-loop pressure control with a heater element (around 0.3 psi) move the beam by 5 microns every 15 seconds. We have recently stabilized the coolant pressure with a simple pressure regulator that is in use at many beamlines of the APS. This paper shows the improvements in beam position stability made using this simple yet effective pressure-regulation circuit. We also recently added beam-position feedback to the second-crystal Bragg angle of the monochromator. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Enhanced Proportional-Integral-Differential (EPID) feedback record implementation resulted in an additional improvement of the standard deviation of the beam position to 0.5 {mu}m.

  17. Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Shi, Xianbo; Marathe, Shashidhara; Benda, Erika; Wojcik, Michael J.; Lang, Keenan; Xu, Ruqing; Liu, Wenjun; Macrander, Albert T.; Tischler, Jon Z.

    2016-05-15

    We developed a portable X-ray grating interferometer setup as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 1-BM. The interferometer can be operated in phase-stepping, Moiré, or single-grating harmonic imaging mode with 1-D or 2-D gratings. All of the interferometer motions are motorized; hence, it is much easier and quicker to switch between the different modes of operation. A novel aspect of this new instrument is its designed portability. While the setup is designed to be primarily used as a standard tool for testing optics at 1-BM, it could be potentially deployed at other APS beamlines for beam coherence and wavefront characterization or imaging. The design of the interferometer system is described in detail and coherence measurements obtained at the APS 34-ID-E beamline are presented. The coherence was probed in two directions using a 2-D checkerboard, a linear, and a circular grating at X-ray energies of 8 keV, 11 keV, and 18 keV.

  18. Status of RF deflecting cavity design for the generation of short x-ray pulses in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.C.; Harkay, K.; Horan, D.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is exploring the possibility of using radio frequency deflection to generate x-ray radiation pulses on the order of 1 pico-second (Delta t - 70%) or less. This scheme is based on a proposal by A. Zholents et al. that relies on manipulating the transverse momentum of the electrons in a bunch by using an rf deflecting cavity to induce a longitudinally dependent vertical deflection of the beam. The beam will then travel through a number of undulators before arriving at a second set of deflecting cavities where the deflection is reversed such that the remainder of the storage ring is largely unperturbed. Considerable effort has been expended on the design of a superconducting rf deflecting cavity operating in the S-band at 2.8 GHz to address fundamental design issues including cavity geometry, deflecting voltage, rf power coupling, tuning, and damping of higher-order and lower-order modes. In this paper we present simulation results and analysis of an optimized superconducting rf deflecting cavity design for the APS storage ring.

  19. Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM.

    PubMed

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Shi, Xianbo; Marathe, Shashidhara; Benda, Erika; Wojcik, Michael J; Lang, Keenan; Xu, Ruqing; Liu, Wenjun; Macrander, Albert T; Tischler, Jon Z

    2016-05-01

    We developed a portable X-ray grating interferometer setup as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 1-BM. The interferometer can be operated in phase-stepping, Moiré, or single-grating harmonic imaging mode with 1-D or 2-D gratings. All of the interferometer motions are motorized; hence, it is much easier and quicker to switch between the different modes of operation. A novel aspect of this new instrument is its designed portability. While the setup is designed to be primarily used as a standard tool for testing optics at 1-BM, it could be potentially deployed at other APS beamlines for beam coherence and wavefront characterization or imaging. The design of the interferometer system is described in detail and coherence measurements obtained at the APS 34-ID-E beamline are presented. The coherence was probed in two directions using a 2-D checkerboard, a linear, and a circular grating at X-ray energies of 8 keV, 11 keV, and 18 keV.

  20. Use of the high-energy x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source to investigate the interactions between metals and bacteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Kemner, K. M.; Lai, B.; Maser, J.; Schneegurt, M. A.; Cai, Z.; Ilinski, P. P.; Kulpa, C. F.; Legnini, D. G.; Nealson, K. H.; Pratt, S. T.; Rodrigues, W.; Tischler, M. L.; Yun, W.

    1999-09-30

    Understanding the fate of heavy-metal contaminants in the environment is of fundamental importance in the development and evaluation of effective remediation and sequestration strategies. Among the factors influencing the transport of these contaminants are their chemical separation and the chemical and physical attributes of the surrounding medium. Bacteria and the extracellular material associated with them are thought to play a key role in determining a contaminant's speciation and thus its mobility in the environment. In addition, the microenvironment at and adjacent to actively metabolizing cell surfaces can be significantly different from the bulk environment. Thus, the spatial distribution and chemical separation of contaminants and elements that are key to biological processes must be characterized at micron and submicron resolution in order to understand the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that determine a contaminant's macroscopic fate. Hard X-ray microimaging is a powerful technique for the element-specific investigation of complex environmental samples at th needed micron and submicron resolution. An important advantage of this technique results from the large penetration depth of hard X-rays in water. This advantage minimizes the requirements for sample preparation and allows the detailed study of hydrated samples. This paper presents results of studies of the spatial distribution of naturally occurring metals and a heavy-metal contaminant (Cr) in and near hydrated bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) in the early stages of biofilm development, performed at the Advanced Photon Source Sector 2 X-ray microscopy beamline.

  1. MM-Wave Cavity/Klystron Developments Using Deep X-Ray Lithography at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Mancini, D.C.; Nassiri, A.; Lai, B.; Jongwaard, E.N.; Caryotakis, G.; Feinerman, A.D.; White, V.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-10-25

    Recent microfabrication technologies based on LIGA (German acronym for Lithographe, Galvanoformung, und Abformung) have been applied to build high-aspect-ratio, metallic or dielectric, planar structures suitable for high-frequency rf cavity structures. The cavity structures would be used as parts of linear accelerators, microwave undulators, and mm-wave amplifiers. The microfabrication process includes manufacturing of precision x-ray masks, exposure of positive resist by x-rays through the mask, resist development, and electroforming of the final microstructure. Prototypes of a 32-cell, 108-GHz constant impedance cavity and a 66-cell, 94-GHz constant-gradient cavity were fabricated using the synchrotron radiation sources at APS. Preliminary design parameters for a 91-GHz modulator klystron along with an overview of the new technology are discussed.

  2. Photonic crystal light-emitting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Aurélien; Benisty, Henri; Weisbuch, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) are periodically structured optical media offering the opportunity for spontaneous emission (SpE) to be strongly controlled in spatial terms (directions) or in absolute terms (rates). We discuss the application of this concept for practical light-emitting sources, summarizing the principles and actual merits of various approaches based on two- and three-dimensional PhCs. We take into consideration the numerous constraints on real-world light-emitting structures and materials. The various mechanisms through which modified photonic bands and band gaps can be used are first revisited in view of their use in light sources. We then present an in-depth discussion of planar emitters and enhanced extraction of light thanks to grating diffraction. Applications to conventional III-V semiconductors and to III-nitrides are reviewed. Comparison with random surface roughening reveals some common physical limitations. Some advanced approaches with complex structures or etched active structures are also discussed. Finally, the most promising mechanism to enhance the SpE rate, the Purcell effect, is considered. Its implementation, including through plasmonic effects, is shown to be effective only for very specific sources. We conclude by outlining the mix of physics and material parameters needed to grasp the relevant issues.

  3. Single-Ion Two-Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, F.; Rotter, D.; Mukherjee, M.; Gerber, S.; Blatt, R.

    2007-11-02

    A single trapped ion is converted into a pseudo-two-photon source by splitting its resonance fluorescence, delaying part of it and by recombining both parts on a beam splitter. A destructive two-photon interference is observed with a contrast reaching 83(5)%. The spectral brightness of our two-photon source is quantified and shown to be comparable to parametric down-conversion devices.

  4. Understanding Titan's Atmospheric Isotope Inventory through Laboratory Photolysis Experiments using Vacuum Ultraviolet Photons from Advanced Light Source Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.

    2015-12-01

    Titan, Saturn's planet-like moon with a thick atmosphere consists mainly of N2 (98.4 %) and CH4 (1.4%). It is debated whether the N2 is primordial, or the NH3, which later converted to N2 by physic-chemical processes and, if NH3 is primordial, what is the source of that material: Saturnian-subnebula or the comets? N2 is enriched in 15N (14N/15N = 160 compared to 272 for Earth) and in geochemical terminology, d15Nair = 700 ‰ (parts per thousand with respect to ambient air). On the same scale the solar wind and Jupiter's atmosphere are ~ -400 ‰ (depleted in 15N). The comets (NH3 and HCN) and insoluble organic matter in meteorites are also enriched in 15N in the range up to a few thousand ‰. On the contrary, the carbon isotopic ratio in CH4 in Titan is similar to the other solar system bodies (12C/13C~ 89). We have performed extensive low temperature (80 K) photodissociation of N2 and CO (in presence of H2) at VUV wavelengths to measure the isotopic fractionation in the products. The integrated instantaneous fractionation in the product NH3 is about 1000 ‰ over the N2 dissociation regime (80-100 nm), which arise due to quantum mechanical selection rules. CO2 and CH4, the products of CO photodissociation, show contradictory results for two elements. While product O (trapped in CO2) is enriched by few thousand ‰, there is no significant C isotopic enrichment in CH4. These laboratory measurements along with the measurements by Cassini-Huygens spacecraft constrain the origin of volatiles in Titan's atmosphere and indicate that Titan accreted comet-like NH3 and CH4, which are the 1st generation photolysis products (of the remaining materials after the formation of gas giants) in the solar nebula. Later, NH3 converted to N2 in a bulk fashion (within Titan) and retained mostly identical isotopic composition. 15N enrichment measured in HCN in the present day atmosphere (d15Nair > 1500 ‰), is possibly from the 2nd generation N2 photolysis in Titan's modern

  5. On-chip entangled photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E.

    2016-11-22

    Various technologies pertaining to an on-chip entangled photon source are described herein. A light source is used to pump two resonator cavities that are resonant at two different respective wavelengths and two different respective polarizations. The resonator cavities are coupled to a four-wave mixing cavity that receives the light at the two wavelengths and outputs polarization-entangled photons.

  6. The advanced neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.; Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th} {approx} 8 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}2} {center dot}s{sup {minus}1}) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research.

  7. The Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th} {approx} 9{center dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -2}{center dot}s{sup -1}) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Versatile source of polarization-entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Maser, A.; Wiegner, R.; Schilling, U.; Thiel, C.; Zanthier, J. von

    2010-05-15

    We propose a method for the generation of a large variety of entangled states, encoded in the polarization degrees of freedom of N photons, within the same experimental setup. Starting with uncorrelated photons, emitted from N arbitrary single-photon sources, and using linear optical tools only, we demonstrate the creation of all symmetric states (e.g., GHZ and W states), as well as all symmetric and nonsymmetric total angular momentum eigenstates of the N-qubit compound.

  9. Advanced components for microwave photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves; Gunnarsson, Ola; Popov, Mikhail; Margulis, Walter; Petermann, Ingemar; Berlemont, David; Carlsson, Fredrik

    2003-04-01

    This persentation gives an overveiw of the field of microwave photonics with an emphasis on new fiber based devices which we belive have a real practical potential. Microwave photonics can be considered as the fruitful meeting point bewteen optics and microwave engineering, where optoelectronic devices and systems are used both for processing at microwave rates and for signal handling in microwave systems. The use of specialty fibers, glass poling and naturally fiber Bragg gratings opens new perspectives for the realization of low-cost devices with appropriate functionality. The application field for optical microwave transmission and processing spans from radar technology to cable TV and mobile communications systems. Over the last few years very much attention has been directed towards radio-over-fiber systems for the next-generation mobile communications infrastructure as well as hybrid fiber radio for picocell systems at 60 GHz or above. As a matter of fact, the higher the microwave frequencies, the greater are the similarities with the optical carrier and the more there is to be gained by processing the microwave signal in the optical domain. Other important application examples are beamforming networks for phased array antennas and subcarrier processing for routing in optical networks.

  10. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  11. Compact Photon Source for Polarized Target Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, Gabriel; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    High energy photon beams are one of the tools of choice in nuclear and particle physics. However, most of the current techniques used for producing such beams have substantial drawbacks that limit their usefulness (low intensity, large beam size, mixed electron-photon beams). In this presentation we will outline the design of a Compact Photon Source (CPS) capable of providing narrow ( 1 mm) untagged photon beams of an intensity suitable for carrying out polarized target experiments. Compared with existing technology the CPS will provide a substantial (10-100) increase in the figure-of-merit. While optimized for a Wide Angle Compton Scattering experiment proposed at JLab, the source described here can be used in a variety of photon-induced physics experiments as well as for industrial applications.

  12. Advanced Light Source elliptical wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Minamihara, Y.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Schlueter, R.

    1995-02-01

    A 3.5-m-long elliptical wiggler, optimized to produce elliptically polarized light in the 50 eV to 10 keV range, is currently under design and construction at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Calculations of spectral performance show that the flux of circularly polarized photons exceeds 1013 photons/s over the 50 eV to 10 keV operating range for current of 0.4 A and 1.5 GeV electron energy. This device features vertical and horizontal magnetic structures of 14 and 141/2 periods, respectively. The period length is 20.0 cm. The vertical structure is a hybrid permanent magnet design with tapered pole tips that produce a peak field of 2.0 T. The horizontal structure is an iron core electromagnetic design, shifted longitudinally 1/4 period, that is tucked between the upper and lower vertical magnetic structure sections. A maximum peak oscillating field of 0.095 T at a frequency up to 1 Hz will be achieved by excitation of the horizontal poles with a trapezoidal current waveform. The vacuum chamber is an unconventional design that is removable from the magnetic structure, after magnetic measurements, for UHV processing. The chamber is fabricated from non-magnetic stainless steel to minimize the effects of eddy currents. Device design is presented.

  13. Advances and new functions of VCSEL photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2014-11-01

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was born in Japan. The 37 years' research and developments opened up various applications including datacom, sensors, optical interconnects, spectroscopy, optical storages, printers, laser displays, laser radar, atomic clock and high power sources. A lot of unique features have been already proven, such as low power consumption, a wafer level testing and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly and they are now key devices in local area networks based on multi-mode optical fibers. Optical interconnections in data centers and supercomputers are attracting much interest. In this paper, the advances on VCSEL photonics will be reviewed. We present the high-speed modulation of VCSELs based on a coupled cavity structure. For further increase in transmission capacity per fiber, the wavelength engineering of VCSEL arrays is discussed, which includes the wavelength stabilization and wavelength tuning based on a micro-machined cantilever structure. We also address a lateral integration platform and new functions, including high-resolution beam scanner, vortex beam creation and large-port free space wavelength selective switch with a Bragg reflector waveguide.

  14. Enhancement of Single-Photon Sources with Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaginov, M. Y.; Bogdanov, S.; Vorobyov, V. V.; Lagutchev, A. S.; Kildishev, A. V.; Akimov, A. V.; Boltasseva, A.; Shalaev, V. M.

    2015-06-01

    Scientists are looking for new, breakthrough solutions that can greatly advance computing and networking systems. These solutions will involve quantum properties of matter and light as promised by the ongoing experimental and theoretical work in the areas of quantum computation and communication. Quantum photonics is destined to play a central role in the development of such technologies due to the high transmission capacity and outstanding low-noise properties of photonic information channels. Among the vital problems to be solved in this direction, are efficient generation and collection of single photons. One approach to tackle these problems is based on engineering emission properties of available single-photon sources using metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially engineered structures with sub-wavelength features whose optical properties go beyond the limitations of conventional materials. As promising single-photon sources, we have chosen nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond, which are capable to operate stably in a single-photon regime at room temperature in a solid state environment. In this chapter, we report both theoretical and experimental studies of the radiation from a nanodiamond single NV center placed near a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). In particular, we derive the reduction of excited-state lifetime and the enhancement of collected single-photon emission rate and compare them with the experimental observations. These results could be of great impact for future integrated quantum sources, especially owing to a CMOS-compatible approach to HMM synthesis.

  15. Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; de Tullio, Corrado; Troia, Benedetto; La Notte, Mario; Giannoccaro, Giovanni; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection. PMID:23202223

  16. Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Passaro, Vittorio M N; de Tullio, Corrado; Troia, Benedetto; La Notte, Mario; Giannoccaro, Giovanni; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2012-11-09

    Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection.

  17. Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Dousse, Adrien; Suffczyński, Jan; Beveratos, Alexios; Krebs, Olivier; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Bloch, Jacqueline; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale

    2010-07-08

    A source of triggered entangled photon pairs is a key component in quantum information science; it is needed to implement functions such as linear quantum computation, entanglement swapping and quantum teleportation. Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs can be obtained through parametric conversion in nonlinear optical media or by making use of the radiative decay of two electron-hole pairs trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot. Today, these sources operate at a very low rate, below 0.01 photon pairs per excitation pulse, which strongly limits their applications. For systems based on parametric conversion, this low rate is intrinsically due to the Poissonian statistics of the source. Conversely, a quantum dot can emit a single pair of entangled photons with a probability near unity but suffers from a naturally very low extraction efficiency. Here we show that this drawback can be overcome by coupling an optical cavity in the form of a 'photonic molecule' to a single quantum dot. Two coupled identical pillars-the photonic molecule-were etched in a semiconductor planar microcavity, using an optical lithography method that ensures a deterministic coupling to the biexciton and exciton energy states of a pre-selected quantum dot. The Purcell effect ensures that most entangled photon pairs are emitted into two cavity modes, while improving the indistinguishability of the two optical recombination paths. A polarization entangled photon pair rate of 0.12 per excitation pulse (with a concurrence of 0.34) is collected in the first lens. Our results open the way towards the fabrication of solid state triggered sources of entangled photon pairs, with an overall (creation and collection) efficiency of 80%.

  18. Linear-optic heralded photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, Thiago; Amaral, Gustavo C.; Temporão, Guilherme P.; von der Weid, Jean Pierre

    2015-09-01

    We present a heralded photon source based only on linear optics and weak coherent states. By time-tuning a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer fed with frequency-displaced coherent states, the output photons can be synchronously heralded following sub-Poisson statistics, which is indicated by the second-order correlation function [ g2(0 )=0.556 ]. The absence of phase-matching restrictions makes the source widely tunable, with 100-nm spectral tunability on the telecom bands. The technique presents yield comparable to state-of-the-art spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based sources, with high coherence and fiber-optic quantum communication compatibility.

  19. Broadband source of polarization entangled photons.

    PubMed

    Fraine, A; Minaeva, O; Simon, D S; Egorov, R; Sergienko, A V

    2012-06-01

    A broadband source of polarization entangled photons based on type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion from a chirped PPKTP crystal is presented. With numerical simulation and experimental evaluation, we report a source of broadband polarization entangled states with a bandwidth of approximately 125 nm for use in quantum interferometry. The technique has the potential to become a basis for the development of flexible broadband sources with designed spectral properties.

  20. Nonclassical light sources for silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajoni, Daniele; Galli, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    Quantum photonics has recently attracted a lot of attention for its disruptive potential in emerging technologies like quantum cryptography, quantum communication and quantum computing. Driven by the impressive development in nanofabrication technologies and nanoscale engineering, silicon photonics has rapidly become the platform of choice for on-chip integration of high performing photonic devices, now extending their functionalities towards quantum-based applications. Focusing on quantum Information Technology (qIT) as a key application area, we review recent progress in integrated silicon-based sources of nonclassical states of light. We assess the state of the art in this growing field and highlight the challenges that need to be overcome to make quantum photonics a reliable and widespread technology.

  1. Photon statistics of various radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Toshiya

    1998-02-01

    Recent successful experimental demonstrations of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in the infra-red region of the spectrum and project proposals for the production of XUV/X-ray SASE radiation have revitalized the interest in the statistical properties of FEL radiation. In this paper, after a review of photon statistics is given, those from various types of radiation including non-classical light are compared. Predicted photon statistics (or lack thereof) from a FEL oscillator, an amplifier, coherent spontaneous emission (CSE), SASE and high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) are summarized. Different schemes of experimental methods to measure photon statistics are examined, and the experiment carried out at the National Synchroton Light Source (NSLS) to measure the photon statistics of wiggler spontaneous emission is described.

  2. Narrow bandwidth Thomson photon source and diagnostic development using laser-plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Tsai, Hai-En; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Friedman, Alex; Grote, David; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Nakamura, Kei; Quiter, Brian J.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Steinke, Sven; Swanson, Kelly; Toth, Csaba; Vay, Jean-Luc; Vetter, Kai; Zhang, Yigong; Leemans, Wim

    2017-03-01

    Compact, high-quality photon sources at MeV energies are being developed based on Laser-Plasma Accelerators (LPAs), and these sources at the same time provide precision diagnostics of beam evolution to support LPA development. We review design of experiments and laser capabilities to realize a photon source, integrating LPA acceleration for compactness, control of scattering to increase photon flux, and electron deceleration to mitigate beam dump size. These experiments are developing a compact photon source system with the potential to enable new monoenergetic photon applications currently restricted by source size, including nuclear nonproliferation. Diagnostic use of the energy-angle spectra of Thomson scattered photons is presented to support development of LPAs to meet the needs of advanced high yield/low-energy-spread photon sources and future high energy physics colliders.

  3. Experimental quantum teleportation and multiphoton entanglement via interfering narrowband photon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jian; Zhang Han; Peng Chengzhi; Chen Zengbing; Bao Xiaohui; Chen Shuai; Pan Jianwei

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, we report a realization of synchronization-free quantum teleportation and narrowband three-photon entanglement through interfering narrowband photon sources. Since both the single-photon and the entangled photon pair utilized are completely autonomous, it removes the requirement of high-demanding synchronization techniques in long-distance quantum communication with pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources. The frequency linewidth of the three-photon entanglement realized is on the order of several MHz, which matches the requirement of atomic ensemble based quantum memories. Such a narrowband multiphoton source will have applications in some advanced quantum communication protocols and linear optical quantum computation.

  4. A diamond nanowire single-photon source.

    PubMed

    Babinec, Thomas M; Hausmann, Birgit J M; Khan, Mughees; Zhang, Yinan; Maze, Jeronimo R; Hemmer, Philip R; Loncar, Marko

    2010-03-01

    The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time will allow new technologies such as secure communication through quantum cryptography. Devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated, but none has combined a high single-photon flux with stable, room-temperature operation. Luminescent centres in diamond have recently emerged as a stable alternative, and, in the case of nitrogen-vacancy centres, offer spin quantum bits with optical readout. However, these luminescent centres in bulk diamond crystals have the disadvantage of low photon out-coupling. Here, we demonstrate a single-photon source composed of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in a diamond nanowire, which produces ten times greater flux than bulk diamond devices, while using ten times less power. This result enables a new class of devices for photonic and quantum information processing based on nanostructured diamond, and could have a broader impact in nanoelectromechanical systems, sensing and scanning probe microscopy.

  5. Hyperentangled photon sources in semiconductor waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongpeng; Helt, L. G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Torres, Juan P.; Sipe, J. E.; Helmy, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering which allows for simultaneous modal phase matching with the pump beam in a higher-order mode. Paired photons generated in each process are cross polarized and guided by different guiding mechanisms, which produces entanglement in both polarization and spatial mode. Theoretical analysis shows that the output quantum state has a high quality of hyperentanglement by spectral filtering with a bandwidth of a few nanometers, while off-chip compensation is not needed. This technique offers a path to realize an electrically pumped hyperentangled photon source.

  6. Time resolved small angle X-ray scattering experiments performed on detonating explosives at the advanced photon source: Calculation of the time and distance between the detonation front and the x-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsen, R. L.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Watkins, E. B.; Firestone, M. A.; Podlesak, D. W.; Jensen, B. J.; Ringstrand, B. S.; Huber, R. C.; Mang, J. T.; Johnson, C. E.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Willey, T. M.; Hansen, D. W.; May, C. M.; Hodgin, R. L.; Bagge-Hansen, M.; van Buuren, A. W.; Lauderbach, L. M.; Jones, A. C.; Graber, T. J.; Sinclair, N.; Seifert, S.; Gog, T.

    2017-03-01

    Time resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments on detonating explosives have been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source Dynamic Compression Sector. The purpose of the experiments is to measure the SAXS patterns at tens of ns to a few μs behind the detonation front. Corresponding positions behind the detonation front are of order 0.1-10 mm. From the scattering patterns, properties of the explosive products relative to the time behind the detonation front can be inferred. This report describes how the time and distance from the x-ray probe location to the detonation front is calculated, as well as the uncertainties and sources of uncertainty associated with the calculated times and distances.

  7. Time resolved small angle X-ray scattering experiments performed on detonating explosives at the advanced photon source: Calculation of the time and distance between the detonation front and the x-ray beam

    DOE PAGES

    Gustavsen, Richard L.; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Watkins, Erik Benjamin; ...

    2017-03-10

    Time resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments on detonating explosives have been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source Dynamic Compression Sector. The purpose of the experiments is to measure the SAXS patterns at tens of ns to a few μs behind the detonation front. Corresponding positions behind the detonation front are of order 0.1–10 mm. From the scattering patterns, properties of the explosive products relative to the time behind the detonation front can be inferred. Lastly, this report describes how the time and distance from the x-ray probe location to the detonation front is calculated, as wellmore » as the uncertainties and sources of uncertainty associated with the calculated times and distances.« less

  8. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Arjen

    2017-03-01

    With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB) by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT's IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  9. Characterization of a Spontaneous Parametric Downconversion Source for Use in Single Photon Tests of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Preston; McDonld, Jackson; Harrington, Jason; Smith, R. Seth

    2014-03-01

    During the past year, a quantum optics laboratory was constructed and tested at Francis Marion University. A spontaneous parametric downconversion source was used to create pairs of correlated photons for use in single photon tests of quantum mechanics. Photons from a spontaneous parametric downconversion source were detected with single photon counting modules that were purchased through the Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPHA). The effect of pump polarization on the output intensity was studied. Coincidences between pairs of correlated photons were counted and plotted as a function of the angle between the single photon detectors, in order to perform a test of Conservation of Momentum. The laboratory will be used to perform single photon tests of quantum mechanics, including the Grangier experiment, single photon interference, quantum state measurement, and tests of local realism.

  10. Characterization of photon statistics in a single-photon source via variable attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui

    2009-10-15

    We propose a simple but effective scheme for characterizing photon-number statistics of a practical single-photon source. In this scheme, the variable attenuation method which frequently appears in decoy state quantum cryptography is utilized here to enhance the estimation of photon-number statistics. A much stricter bound for vacuum and single-photon proportions is obtained and this result, in turn, is shown to be applicable to the unconditional secure quantum cryptographic communication with single-photon devices.

  11. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  12. The Status of the Taiwan Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. C.; Wang, J. P.; Chen, J. R.; Hsu, K. T.; Wang, C.; Yang, Y. W.; Luo, G. H.; Chen, C. T.; Liang, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    NSRRC has been operating a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS), for over 15 years and has established a large user community. For the future development of synchrotron radiation research in Taiwan, a feasibility study report to construct a 3.0 GeV low-emittance storage ring, the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), was issued in July 2005. The government approval of the TPS project was obtained in December 2007 and the machine will be built at current site of NSRRC. The project has progressed steadily since and reached several major milestones now: the architect firm has finished the site plan and civil design, the accelerator design has been fixed, and purchase of long-lead items begins its course. The TPS storage ring has a circumference of 518.4 meters with a concentric booster of 496.8 meters. The storage ring adopted a 24-cell double-bend structure with a 1.6 nm-rad natural emittance. There are six 12-m and eighteen 7-m ID straights. For user research, five new beamlines have been selected for the Phase I operations: the micro protein crystallography, the materials sub-micron diffraction, the inelastic soft x-ray scattering, the coherent x-ray scattering, and the nano probe beamlines. The civil construction is getting ready to start. The commissioning of the TPS storage ring is targeted for 2013.

  13. Advances in photon counting for bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Martin B.; Powell, Ralph

    1998-11-01

    Photon counting systems were originally developed for astronomy, initially by the astronomical community. However, a major application area is in the study of luminescent probes in living plants, fishes and cell cultures. For these applications, it has been necessary to develop camera system capability at very low light levels -- a few photons occasionally -- and also at reasonably high light levels to enable the systems to be focused and to collect quality images of the object under study. The paper presents new data on MTF at extremely low photon flux and conventional ICCD illumination, counting efficiency and dark noise as a function of temperature.

  14. Advanced tests of nonlocality with entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Bradley G.

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen questioned whether quantum mechanics can be complete, as it seemingly does not adhere to a natural view of reality: local realism, which is the notion that an event can only be influenced by events in the past lightcone, and can only influence events in the future lightcone. This question sparked a philosophical debate that lasted for three decades, until John Bell demonstrated that not only are quantum mechanics and local realism philosophically incompatible, but they predict different statistical results for an appropriate set of measurements on entangled particles, which changed the debate to a scientific discussion. Since then, Bell inequality violations have occurred in a plethora of systems, hinting that local realism is indeed wrong. However, every experiment had imperfections that complicated the interpretation -- the experiments had so-called "loopholes" which allowed local realism to persist. In this manuscript, we present our work in using optimized sources of entangled photons to perform the long-sought loophole-free Bell test. This landmark experiment invalidates local realism to the best that science will allow. Beyond answering questions on reality, these Bell tests have a important application in generating provably-secure private random numbers, which then can be used as a seed for cryptographic applications. Not only do we demonstrate that nonlocality must exist, but we begin an experimental exploration in an attempt to understand and quantify this nonlocality. We do so by considering all theories that obey no-signaling (or relativistic causality). In our experiments, we observe the counter-intuitive feature of measuring more nonlocality with less entangled states. We also place a bound on the predictive power of any theory that obeys relativistic causality. And finally, we are able to measure quantum correlations only attainable through complex qubits. This work merely begins to probe the quantum boundary

  15. Status of the advanced neutron source. [Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Research reactors in the United States are becoming more and more outdated, at a time when neutron scattering is being recognized as an increasingly important technique in areas vital to the US scientific and technological future. The last US research reactor was constructed over 25 years ago, whereas new facilities have been built or are under construction in Japan, Russia and, especially, Western Europe, which now has a commanding lead in this important field. Concern over this situation in the early 1980's by a number of organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences, led to a recommendation that design work start urgently on an advanced US neutron research facility. This recommendation is realized in the Advanced Neutron Source Project. The centerpiece of the Advanced Neutron Source will be a new research reactor of unprecedented flux (>7.5 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}), equipped with a wide variety of state-of-the-art spectrometers and diffractometers on hot, thermal, and cold neutron beams. Very cold and ultracold neutron beams will also be provided for specialized experiments. This paper will discuss the current status of the design and the plans for scattering instrumentation. 5 refs.

  16. Room Temperature Source of Single Photons of Definite Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Lukishova, S.G.; Schmid, A.W.; Knox, R.; Freivald, P.; Bissel, L.J.; Boyd, R.W.; Stroud, Jr., C.R.; Marshall, K.L.

    2007-02-12

    A definite polarization in fluorescence from single emitters (dye molecules) at room temperature is demonstrated. A planar-aligned, nematic liquid-crystal host provides definite alignment of single dye molecules in a preferred direction. Well-defined polarized fluorescence from single-emitters (single photon source) is important for applications in photonic quantum information. Polarized single-photon sources based on single-emitters, for example, are key hardware elements both for absolutely secure quantum communication and quantum computation systems.

  17. Direct fiber-coupled single photon source based on a photonic crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Byeong-Hyeon Lee, Chang-Min; Lim, Hee-Jin; Schlereth, Thomas W.; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2015-08-24

    A single photon source plays a key role in quantum applications such as quantum computers and quantum communications. Epitaxially grown quantum dots are one of the promising platforms to implement a good single photon source. However, it is challenging to realize an efficient single photon source based on semiconductor materials due to their high refractive index. Here we demonstrate a direct fiber coupled single photon source with high collection efficiency by employing a photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide and a tapered micro-fiber. To confirm the single photon nature, the second-order correlation function g{sup (2)}(τ) is measured with a Hanbury Brown-Twiss setup. The measured g{sup (2)}(0) value is 0.15, and we can estimate 24% direct collection efficiency from a quantum dot to the fiber.

  18. Two-photon interference between disparate sources for quantum networking

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, A. R.; Labonté, L.; Clark, A. S.; Bell, B.; Alibart, O.; Martin, A.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Tanzilli, S.; Rarity, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum networks involve entanglement sharing between multiple users. Ideally, any two users would be able to connect regardless of the type of photon source they employ, provided they fulfill the requirements for two-photon interference. From a theoretical perspective, photons coming from different origins can interfere with a perfect visibility, provided they are made indistinguishable in all degrees of freedom. Previous experimental demonstrations of such a scenario have been limited to photon wavelengths below 900 nm, unsuitable for long distance communication, and suffered from low interference visibility. We report two-photon interference using two disparate heralded single photon sources, which involve different nonlinear effects, operating in the telecom wavelength range. The measured visibility of the two-photon interference is 80 ± 4%, which paves the way to hybrid universal quantum networks. PMID:23783585

  19. Two-photon interference between disparate sources for quantum networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A. R.; Labonté, L.; Clark, A. S.; Bell, B.; Alibart, O.; Martin, A.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Tanzilli, S.; Rarity, J. G.

    2013-06-01

    Quantum networks involve entanglement sharing between multiple users. Ideally, any two users would be able to connect regardless of the type of photon source they employ, provided they fulfill the requirements for two-photon interference. From a theoretical perspective, photons coming from different origins can interfere with a perfect visibility, provided they are made indistinguishable in all degrees of freedom. Previous experimental demonstrations of such a scenario have been limited to photon wavelengths below 900 nm, unsuitable for long distance communication, and suffered from low interference visibility. We report two-photon interference using two disparate heralded single photon sources, which involve different nonlinear effects, operating in the telecom wavelength range. The measured visibility of the two-photon interference is 80 +/- 4%, which paves the way to hybrid universal quantum networks.

  20. Two-photon interference between disparate sources for quantum networking.

    PubMed

    McMillan, A R; Labonté, L; Clark, A S; Bell, B; Alibart, O; Martin, A; Wadsworth, W J; Tanzilli, S; Rarity, J G

    2013-01-01

    Quantum networks involve entanglement sharing between multiple users. Ideally, any two users would be able to connect regardless of the type of photon source they employ, provided they fulfill the requirements for two-photon interference. From a theoretical perspective, photons coming from different origins can interfere with a perfect visibility, provided they are made indistinguishable in all degrees of freedom. Previous experimental demonstrations of such a scenario have been limited to photon wavelengths below 900 nm, unsuitable for long distance communication, and suffered from low interference visibility. We report two-photon interference using two disparate heralded single photon sources, which involve different nonlinear effects, operating in the telecom wavelength range. The measured visibility of the two-photon interference is 80 ± 4%, which paves the way to hybrid universal quantum networks.

  1. Status of the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Jay N.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be a national user facility for the production ofhigh-brightness and partially coherent soft x-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1. 5 GeV with insertion devices in 10 long straight sections and 24 premier bend-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 2 keY will be produced by undulators thereby providing many research opportunities in materials and surface science biology atomic physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bend magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keY. 2.

  2. Research opportunities at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1991-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility based on a low-emittance, 1.5-GeV electron storage ring with ten long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports. Undulators will provide high-brightness radiation at photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes to above 10 keV. Scheduled to begin operations as a US Department of Energy national user facility in the spring of 1993, the ALS will support an extensive research program in which soft X-ray and ultraviolet radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Participating research teams to implement the initial scientific program have been selected.

  3. Advanced Light Source beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1991-10-28

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics.

  4. Quetzalcoatlite: A new octahedral-tetrahedral structure from a 2 x 2 x 40 {micro}m{sup 3} crystal at the Advanced Photon Source-GSE-CARS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, P.C.; Pluth, J.J.; Smith, J.V.; Eng, P.; Steele, I.; Housley, R.M.

    2000-04-01

    The structure of quetzalcoatlite, Zn{sub 6}Cu{sub 3}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 6}(Ag{sub x}Pb{sub y})Cl{sub x+2y}, x + y {le} 2, Z = 1, was solved and refined using data collected at the Advanced Photon Source-GSE-CARS facility, using a 2 x 2 x 40 {micro}m{sup 3} single crystal. Te{sup 6+}O{sub 6} octahedra and Jahn-Teller distorted Cu{sup 2+}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2} octahedra share edges to form layers parallel to (001), and ZnO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} tetrahedra share vertices to form six-member rings parallel to (001). Layers of octahedra and tetrahedra alternate along c, and form a new framework structure by vertex sharing. Channels through the framework parallel to c are occupied by Ag, Pb, and Cl ions. Electron microprobe analysis revealed Ag and Cl overlooked in the original microchemical analysis. Up to one-third of the Ag was substituted by Pb, and a Pb-rich analog may exist.

  5. Twin photon source: spatio-temporal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Joyee; Molina-Terriza, G.; Piro, N.; Dubreuil, L.; Torres, J. P.; Eschner, J.

    2015-09-01

    We propose a method to study and characterize the spatial and temporal properties of degenerate photon pairs emitted in SPDC, using a filtering system combined with temperature variation of the nonlinear crystal. The photons can be distinguished. We relate these to the measured Hong-Ou-Mandel interference dip of the photons, measured in a parallel experiment. The theoretical plots match very well with the experimental results.

  6. Direct generation of photon triplets using cascaded photon-pair sources.

    PubMed

    Hübel, Hannes; Hamel, Deny R; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Ramelow, Sven; Resch, Kevin J; Jennewein, Thomas

    2010-07-29

    Non-classical states of light, such as entangled photon pairs and number states, are essential for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and optical quantum technologies. The most widespread technique for creating these quantum resources is spontaneous parametric down-conversion of laser light into photon pairs. Conservation of energy and momentum in this process, known as phase-matching, gives rise to strong correlations that are used to produce two-photon entanglement in various degrees of freedom. It has been a longstanding goal in quantum optics to realize a source that can produce analogous correlations in photon triplets, but of the many approaches considered, none has been technically feasible. Here we report the observation of photon triplets generated by cascaded down-conversion. Each triplet originates from a single pump photon, and therefore quantum correlations will extend over all three photons in a way not achievable with independently created photon pairs. Our photon-triplet source will allow experimental interrogation of novel quantum correlations, the generation of tripartite entanglement without post-selection and the generation of heralded entangled photon pairs suitable for linear optical quantum computing. Two of the triplet photons have a wavelength matched for optimal transmission in optical fibres, suitable for three-party quantum communication. Furthermore, our results open interesting regimes of non-linear optics, as we observe spontaneous down-conversion pumped by single photons, an interaction also highly relevant to optical quantum computing.

  7. High-Fidelity Down-Conversion Source for Secure Communications Using On-Demand Single Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Tony

    2015-01-01

    AdvR, Inc., has built an efficient, fully integrated, waveguide-based source of spectrally uncorrelated photon pairs that will accelerate research and development (R&D) in the emerging field of quantum information science. Key to the innovation is the use of submicron periodically poled waveguides to produce counter propagating photon pairs, which is enabled by AdvR's patented segmented microelectrode poling technique. This novel device will provide a high brightness source of down-conversion pairs with enhanced spectral properties and low attenuation, and it will operate in the visible to the mid-infrared spectral region. A waveguide-based source of spectrally and spatially pure heralded photons will contribute to a wide range of NASA's advanced technology development efforts, including on-demand single photon sources for high-rate spaced-based secure communications.

  8. Advanced-Retarded Differential Equations in Quantum Photonic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Perez-Leija, Armando; Egusquiza, Iñigo L.; Gräfe, Markus; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Szameit, Alexander; Solano, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    We propose the realization of photonic circuits whose dynamics is governed by advanced-retarded differential equations. Beyond their mathematical interest, these photonic configurations enable the implementation of quantum feedback and feedforward without requiring any intermediate measurement. We show how this protocol can be applied to implement interesting delay effects in the quantum regime, as well as in the classical limit. Our results elucidate the potential of the protocol as a promising route towards integrated quantum control systems on a chip.

  9. Advanced-Retarded Differential Equations in Quantum Photonic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Perez-Leija, Armando; Egusquiza, Iñigo L.; Gräfe, Markus; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Szameit, Alexander; Solano, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    We propose the realization of photonic circuits whose dynamics is governed by advanced-retarded differential equations. Beyond their mathematical interest, these photonic configurations enable the implementation of quantum feedback and feedforward without requiring any intermediate measurement. We show how this protocol can be applied to implement interesting delay effects in the quantum regime, as well as in the classical limit. Our results elucidate the potential of the protocol as a promising route towards integrated quantum control systems on a chip. PMID:28230090

  10. High-yield entangled single photon source

    DOEpatents

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E.

    2016-10-11

    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing photons at respective idler and signal frequencies to facilitate generation of photons at a pump frequency. A strong pump field can be applied at the .omega..sub.i and the .omega..sub.s frequencies, with the generated idler and signal pulses being utilized to generate a photon pair at the .omega..sub.p frequency. Further, the idler pump power can be increased relative to the signal pump power such that the pump power P.sub.i>pump power P.sub.s. Such reversed operation (e.g., .omega..sub.i+.omega..sub.s.fwdarw..omega..sub.p1+.omega..sub.p2) can minimize and/or negate Raman scattering effects. By complying with an energy conservation requirement, the .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.s photons interacting with the material through the four-wave mixing process facilitates the entanglement of the .omega..sub.p1 and .omega..sub.p2 photons. The .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.s photons can be respectively formed in different length waveguides with a delay utilized to facilitate common timing between the .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.s photons.

  11. X-ray micro-Tomography at the Advanced Light Source

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The X-ray micro-Tomography Facility at the Advanced Light Source has been in operation since 2004. The source is a superconducting bend magnet of critical energy 10.5KeV; photon energy coverage is 8-45 KeV in monochromatic mode, and a filtered white light option yields useful photons up to 50 KeV. A...

  12. Experimental demonstration of a predictable single photon source with variable photon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaigu, Aigar; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Chu, Xiao-Liu; Lindner, Sarah; Smid, Marek; Manninen, Albert; Becher, Christoph; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Götzinger, Stephan; Ikonen, Erkki

    2017-04-01

    We present a predictable single-photon source (SPS) based on a silicon vacancy centre in nanodiamond which is optically excited by a pulsed laser. At an excitation rate of 70~\\text{MHz} the source delivers a photon flux large enough to be measured by a low optical flux detector (LOFD). The directly measured photon flux constitutes an absolute reference. By changing the repetition rate of the pulsed laser, we are able to change the photon flux of our SPS in a controllable way which in turn can act as a reference. The advantage of our method is that it does not require precise knowledge of the source efficiency, but the source is calibrated by the LOFD and can be used for detector responsivity characterizations at the few-photon level.

  13. Advances in solid state photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renker, D.; Lorenz, E.

    2009-04-01

    Semiconductor photodiodes were developed in the early `Forties approximately at the time when the photomultiplier tube became a commercial product (RCA 1939). Only in recent years, with the invention of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, have the semiconductor photo detectors reached sensitivity comparable to that of photomultiplier tubes. The evolution started in the `Sixties with the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode, a very successful device, which is still used in many detectors for high energy physics and a large number of other applications like radiation detection and medical imaging. The next step was the development of the avalanche photodiode (APD) leading to a substantial reduction of noise but not yet achieving single photon response. The weakest light flashes that can be detected by the PIN diode need to contain several hundreds of photons. An improvement of the sensitivity by 2 orders of magnitude was achieved by the development of the avalanche photodiode, a device with internal gain. At the end of the millennium, the semiconductor detectors evolved with the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode into highly sensitive devices, which have an internal gain comparable to the gain of photomultiplier tubes and a response to single photons. A review of the semiconductor photo detector design and development, the properties and problems, some applications and a speculative outlook on the future evolution will be presented.

  14. Spectrally dependent fluctuations of thermal photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, K.; Talghader, J.

    2016-07-01

    Many current quantum optical systems, such as microcavities, interact with thermal light through a small number of widely separated modes. Previous theories for photon number fluctuations of thermal light have been primarily limited to special cases that are appropriate for large volumes or distances, such as single modes, many modes, or modes of uniform spectral distribution. Herein, a theory for the general case of spectrally dependent photon number fluctuations is developed for thermal light. The error in variance of prior art is quantitatively derived for an example cavity in the case where photon counting noise dominates. A method to reduce the spectral impact of this variance is described.

  15. The compact photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was retrieved from a failed space launch. The source had been installed in a nanosatellite and was found to be completely operational upon recovery. Comparison of post-recovery and baseline data suggests that there is no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation between photon pairs. We describe the assembly technique for the robust source. Its survival provides strong evidence that it is possible to design rugged quantum optical systems.

  16. Superbend upgrade on the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, D.; Krupnick, J.; Schlueter, R.; Steier, C.; Marks, S.; Wang, B.; Zbasnik, J.; Benjegerdes, R.; Biocca, A.; Bish, P.; Brown, W.; Byrne, W.; Chen, J.; Decking, W.; DeVries, J.; DeMarco, W. R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.; Hull, D.; Jacobson, S.; McDonald, J.; Molinari, P.; Mueller, R.; Nadolski, L.; Nishimura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J. A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Ritchie, A.; Rossi, S.; Salvant, B.; Scarvie, T.; Schmidt, A.; Spring, J.; Taylor, C.; Thur, W.; Timossi, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    2005-02-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation synchrotron light source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). There was an increasing demand for additional high brightness hard X-ray beamlines in the 7-40 keV range, so in August 2001, three 1.3 T normal conducting bending magnets were removed from the storage ring and replaced with 5 T superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV, making them excellent sources of hard X-rays for protein crystallography and other hard X-ray applications. The Superbends did not compromise the performance of the facility in the VUV and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new beam lines, greatly enhancing the facility's capability and capacity in the hard X-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade since the ALS storage ring was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present an overview of the Superbend project, its challenges and the resulting impact on the ALS.

  17. Superbend upgrade of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, D.; Krupnick, J.; Schlueter, R.; Steier, C.; Marks, S.; Wang, B.; Zbasnik, J.; Benjegerdes, R.; Biocca, A.; Bish, P.; Brown, W.; Byrne, W.; Chen, J.; Decking, W.; DeVries, J.; DeMarco, W.R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.; Hull, D.; Jacobson, S.; McDonald, J.; Molinari, P.; Mueller, R.; Nadolski, L.; Nishimura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Richie, A.; Rossi, S.; Salvant, B.; Scarvie, T.; Schmidt,A.; Spring, J.; Taylor, C.; Thur, W.; Timossi, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    2004-05-26

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation synchrotron light source located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). There was an increasing demand at the ALS for additional high brightness hard x-ray beamlines in the 7 to 40 keV range. In response to that demand, the ALS storage ring was modified in August 2001. Three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets were removed and replaced with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV than that of the 1.3 Tesla bends, making them excellent sources of hard x-rays for protein crystallography and other hard x-ray applications. At the same time the Superbends did not compromise the performance of the facility in the VUV and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new beamlines greatly enhancing the facility's capability and capacity in the hard x-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade to the ALS storage ring since it was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present an overview of the Superbend project, its challenges and the resulting impact on the ALS.

  18. Reactivity studies on the advanced neutron source. [Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Redmond, E.L. II; Fletcher, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) with a peak thermal neutron flux of about 8.5 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} is being designed for condensed matter physics, materials science, isotope production, and fundamental physics research. The ANS is a new reactor-based research facility being planned by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet the need for an intense steady-state source of neutrons. The design effort is currently in the conceptual phase. A reference reactor design has been selected in order to examine the safety, performance, and costs associated with this one design. The ANS Project has an established, documented safety philosophy, and safety-related design criteria are currently being established. The purpose of this paper is to present analyses of safety aspects of the reference reactor design that are related to core reactivity events. These analyses include control rod worth, shutdown rod worth, heavy water voiding, neutron beam tube flooding, light water ingress, and single fuel element criticality. Understanding these safety aspects will allow us to make design modifications that improve the reactor safety and achieve the safety related design criteria. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaspro, Alberto

    2001-11-01

    Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy Foundations, Applications, and Advances Edited by Alberto Diaspro Confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy has provided researchers with unique possibilities of three-dimensional imaging of biological cells and tissues and of other structures such as semiconductor integrated circuits. Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances provides clear, comprehensive coverage of basic foundations, modern applications, and groundbreaking new research developments made in this important area of microscopy. Opening with a foreword by G. J. Brakenhoff, this reference gathers the work of an international group of renowned experts in chapters that are logically divided into balanced sections covering theory, techniques, applications, and advances, featuring: In-depth discussion of applications for biology, medicine, physics, engineering, and chemistry, including industrial applications Guidance on new and emerging imaging technology, developmental trends, and fluorescent molecules Uniform organization and review-style presentation of chapters, with an introduction, historical overview, methodology, practical tips, applications, future directions, chapter summary, and bibliographical references Companion FTP site with full-color photographs The significant experience of pioneers, leaders, and emerging scientists in the field of confocal and two-photon excitation microscopy Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances is invaluable to researchers in the biological sciences, tissue and cellular engineering, biophysics, bioengineering, physics of matter, and medicine, who use these techniques or are involved in developing new commercial instruments.

  20. Recent advances in liquid-crystal fiber optics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woliński, T. R.; Siarkowska, A.; Budaszewski, D.; Chychłowski, M.; Czapla, A.; Ertman, S.; Lesiak, P.; Rutkowska, K. A.; Orzechowski, K.; Sala-Tefelska, M.; Sierakowski, M.; DÄ browski, R.; Bartosewicz, B.; Jankiewicz, B.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Mergo, P.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystals over the last two decades have been successfully used to infiltrate fiber-optic and photonic structures initially including hollow-core fibers and recently micro-structured photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). As a result photonic liquid crystal fibers (PLCFs) have been created as a new type of micro-structured fibers that benefit from a merge of "passive" PCF host structures with "active" LC guest materials and are responsible for diversity of new and uncommon spectral, propagation, and polarization properties. This combination has simultaneously boosted research activities in both fields of Liquid Crystals Photonics and Fiber Optics by demonstrating that optical fibers can be more "special" than previously thought. Simultaneously, photonic liquid crystal fibers create a new class of fiber-optic devices that utilize unique properties of the photonic crystal fibers and tunable properties of LCs. Compared to "classical" photonic crystal fibers, PLCFs can demonstrate greatly improved control over their optical properties. The paper discusses the latest advances in this field comprising PLCFs that are based on nanoparticles-doped LCs. Doping of LCs with nanoparticles has recently become a common method of improving their optical, magnetic, electrical, and physical properties. Such a combination of nanoparticles-based liquid crystals and photonic crystal fibers can be considered as a next milestone in developing a new class of fiber-based optofluidic systems.

  1. Simple source for large linear cluster photonic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilnyak, Y.; Aharon, N.; Istrati, D.; Megidish, E.; Retzker, A.; Eisenberg, H. S.

    2017-02-01

    The experimental realization of many-body entangled states is one of the main goals of quantum technology as these states are a key resource for quantum computation and quantum sensing. However, increasing the number of photons in an entangled state has been proved to be a painstakingly hard task. This is a result of the nondeterministic emission of current photon sources and the distinguishability between photons from different sources. Moreover, the generation rate and the complexity of the optical setups hinder scalability. Here we present a scheme that is compact, requires a very modest number of components, and avoids the distinguishability issues by using only one single-photon source. States of any number of photons are generated with the same configuration, with no need for increasing the optical setup. The basic operation of this scheme is experimentally demonstrated, and its sensitivity to imperfections is considered.

  2. Environmental Research At The Advanced Photon Source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of probing molecular-scale chemical and physical structure of environmental samples in their natural and often hydrated state, synchrotron radiation has been a powerful tool for environmental scientists for decades. Thus, the crucial role that a highly ...

  3. Beamline smoothing of the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Zhao, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper outlines a general beamline smoothing concept based on the use of First Principle Component analysis. Bean-dine smoothing is commonly used for the detection of blunders in the positioning of beam elements and to provide a smooth particle beam path with the fewest adjustments to individual beam components. It also provides the data for assessment of the achieved positioning quality.

  4. Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

    1994-03-01

    In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS.

  5. Environmental Research At The Advanced Photon Source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of probing molecular-scale chemical and physical structure of environmental samples in their natural and often hydrated state, synchrotron radiation has been a powerful tool for environmental scientists for decades. Thus, the crucial role that a highly ...

  6. Qubit dephasing due to photon shot noise from coherent and thermal sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, S.; Yan, F.; Kamal, A.; Orlando, T. P.; Oliver, W. D.; Birenbaum, J.; Sears, A.; Hover, D.; Gudmundsen, T.; Yoder, J.

    We investigate qubit dephasing due to photon shot noise in a superconducting flux qubit transversally coupled to a coplanar microwave resonator. Due to the AC Stark effect, photon fluctuations in the resonator cause frequency shifts of the qubit, which in turn lead to dephasing. While this is universally understood, we have made the first quantitative spectroscopy of this noise for both thermal (i.e., residual photons from higher temperature stages) and coherent photons (residual photons from the readout and control pulses). We find that the bandwidth of the shot noise from thermal and coherent photons differ by approximately a factor of two, which we attribute to differences in the correlation time for the two noise sources. By comparing the results with noise spectra measured without any externally applied photons, we conclude that the qubit coherence times in our setup were limited by photon shot noise from thermal radiation, with an average resonator photon population of 0.006. Equipped with this knowledge, we improved the filtering for thermal noise and thereby improved the qubit coherence times by more than a factor of two, with T2 echo times approaching 100 us. From the measured T2 decay, we determine an upper bound on the residual photon population of 0.0004. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT LL under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.

  7. Pure single photons from a trapped atom source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, D. B.; Slodička, L.; Araneda, G.; Lachman, L.; Filip, R.; Hennrich, M.; Blatt, R.

    2016-09-01

    Single atoms or atom-like emitters are the purest source of single photons, they are intrinsically incapable of multi-photon emission. To demonstrate this degree of photon number-state purity we have realized a single-photon source using a single ion trapped at the common focus of high numerical aperture lenses. Our trapped-ion source produces single-photon pulses with {g}2(0)=(1.9+/- 0.2)× {10}-3 without any background subtraction. After subtracting detector dark counts the residual {g}2(0) is less than 3 × 10-4 (95% confidence interval). The multi-photon component of the source light field is low enough that we measure violation of a quantum non-Gaussian state witness, by this characterization the source output is indistinguishable from ideal attenuated single photons. In combination with efforts to enhance collection efficiency from single emitters, our results suggest that single trapped ions are not only ideal stationary qubits for quantum information processing, but promising sources of light for scalable optical quantum networks.

  8. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low enriched uranium (20% {sup 235}U) or medium enriched uranium (35% {sup 235}U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which is currently designed to use uranium enriched to 93% {sup 235}U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology.

  9. Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  10. The Advanced Light Source: A third-generation Synchrotron Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2002-08-14

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the University of California is a ''third-generation'' synchrotron radiation source optimized for highest brightness at ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energies. It also provides world-class performance at hard x-ray photon energies. Berkeley Lab operates the ALS for the United States Department of Energy as a national user facility that is available 24 hours/day around the year for research by scientists from industrial, academic, and government laboratories primarily from the United States but also from abroad.

  11. Single photon sources with single semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Guang-Cun; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Shek, Chan Hung; Huang, Wei

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution, we briefly recall the basic concepts of quantum optics and properties of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) which are necessary to the understanding of the physics of single-photon generation with single QDs. Firstly, we address the theory of quantum emitter-cavity system, the fluorescence and optical properties of semiconductor QDs, and the photon statistics as well as optical properties of the QDs. We then review the localization of single semiconductor QDs in quantum confined optical microcavity systems to achieve their overall optical properties and performances in terms of strong coupling regime, efficiency, directionality, and polarization control. Furthermore, we will discuss the recent progress on the fabrication of single photon sources, and various approaches for embedding single QDs into microcavities or photonic crystal nanocavities and show how to extend the wavelength range. We focus in particular on new generations of electrically driven QD single photon source leading to high repetition rates, strong coupling regime, and high collection efficiencies at elevated temperature operation. Besides, new developments of room temperature single photon emission in the strong coupling regime are reviewed. The generation of indistinguishable photons and remaining challenges for practical single-photon sources are also discussed.

  12. Gallium Nitride UV Single Photon Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-29

    controlled InGaN quantum dots on GaN" – submitted to Journal of crystal growth "Height-controlled InGaN quantum dots and light- emitting diode applications... emitting diodes" – Han et al., Applied Physics Letters, 94, 231123 (2009) “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light- emitting diodes...with indium tin oxide/air hole photonic crystal” – submitted to Optics Express “Enhanced light extraction in light- emitting diodes with photonic

  13. Advanced laser microfabrication of photonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Peter R.; Chen, Kevin P.; Corkum, Paul B.; Naumov, Andrei; Ng, Sandy; Zhang, Jie

    2000-11-01

    The powerful transition from electronic to photonic systems in today's Internet-driven communication industry is driving the development of processes to miniaturize and integrate optical components. New processing and packaging technologies are now required that can precisely shape and assemble transparent optical components to sub-wavelength accuracy. Laser microfabrication technology is beginning to play a role here. Our groups are exploring two extremes in laser technology- ultrafast lasers and very short wavelength F2 lasers- to microstructure optical surfaces and to profile refractive-index structures inside transparent glasses. In this paper, we compare photosensitivity responses, spatial resolution, and processing windows for the deep-ultraviolet and ultrafast laser approaches, and discuss prospects for laser printing and trimming of optical waveguide components and circuits.

  14. A solid state source of photon triplets based on quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnegar, Milad; Huber, Tobias; Predojević, Ana; Dalacu, Dan; Prilmüller, Maximilian; Lapointe, Jean; Wu, Xiaohua; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim; Poole, Philip; Weihs, Gregor; Majedi, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Producing advanced quantum states of light is a priority in quantum information technologies. In this context, experimental realizations of multipartite photon states would enable improved tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics as well as implementations of complex quantum optical networks and protocols. It is favourable to directly generate these states using solid state systems, for simpler handling and the promise of reversible transfer of quantum information between stationary and flying qubits. Here we use the ground states of two optically active coupled quantum dots to directly produce photon triplets. The formation of a triexciton in these ground states leads to a triple cascade recombination and sequential emission of three photons with strong correlations. We record 65.62 photon triplets per minute under continuous-wave pumping, surpassing rates of earlier reported sources. Our structure and data pave the way towards implementing multipartite photon entanglement and multi-qubit readout schemes in solid state devices. PMID:28604705

  15. A solid state source of photon triplets based on quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshnegar, Milad; Huber, Tobias; Predojević, Ana; Dalacu, Dan; Prilmüller, Maximilian; Lapointe, Jean; Wu, Xiaohua; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim; Poole, Philip; Weihs, Gregor; Majedi, Hamed

    2017-06-01

    Producing advanced quantum states of light is a priority in quantum information technologies. In this context, experimental realizations of multipartite photon states would enable improved tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics as well as implementations of complex quantum optical networks and protocols. It is favourable to directly generate these states using solid state systems, for simpler handling and the promise of reversible transfer of quantum information between stationary and flying qubits. Here we use the ground states of two optically active coupled quantum dots to directly produce photon triplets. The formation of a triexciton in these ground states leads to a triple cascade recombination and sequential emission of three photons with strong correlations. We record 65.62 photon triplets per minute under continuous-wave pumping, surpassing rates of earlier reported sources. Our structure and data pave the way towards implementing multipartite photon entanglement and multi-qubit readout schemes in solid state devices.

  16. Quantum Communication with a High-Rate Entangled Photon Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Lekki, John D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.

  17. Recent advances in photonics packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2006-02-01

    There are now over a dozen low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities between that of copper (400 w/m-K) and over 4X copper (1700 W/m-K). Most have low densities. For comparison, traditional low-CTE packaging materials like copper/tungsten have thermal conductivities that are little or no better than that of aluminum (200 W/m-K) and high densities. There are also low-density thermal insulators with low CTEs. Some advanced materials are low cost. Most do not outgas. They have a wide range of electrical properties that can be used to minimize electromagnetic emissions or provide EMI shielding. Several are now in commercial and aerospace applications, including laser diode packages; light-emitting diode (LED) packages; thermoelectric cooler bases, plasma displays; power modules; servers; laptops; heat sinks; thermally conductive, low-CTE printed circuit boards; and printed circuit board cold plates. Advanced material payoffs include: improved thermal performance, reliability, alignment and manufacturing yield; reduced thermal stresses and heating power requirements; simplified thermal design; enablement of hard solder direct attach; weight savings up to 85%; size reductions up to 65%; and lower cost. This paper discusses the large and increasing number of advanced packaging materials, including properties, development status, applications, increasing manufacturing yield, cost, lessons learned and future directions, including nanocomposites.

  18. Quantum teleportation with a quantum dot single photon source.

    PubMed

    Fattal, D; Diamanti, E; Inoue, K; Yamamoto, Y

    2004-01-23

    We report the experimental demonstration of a quantum teleportation protocol with a semiconductor single photon source. Two qubits, a target and an ancilla, each defined by a single photon occupying two optical modes (dual-rail qubit), were generated independently by the single photon source. Upon measurement of two modes from different qubits and postselection, the state of the two remaining modes was found to reproduce the state of the target qubit. In particular, the coherence between the target qubit modes was transferred to the output modes to a large extent. The observed fidelity is 80%, in agreement with the residual distinguishability between consecutive photons from the source. An improved version of this teleportation scheme using more ancillas is the building block of the recent Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn proposal for efficient linear optics quantum computation.

  19. A bright PPKTP waveguide source of polarization entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Fanto, Michael; Tison, Christoper C.; Holwand, Gregory A; Preble, Dr. Stefan F; Alsing, Paul; Smith IV, Amos M

    2015-01-01

    The need for bright efficient sources of entangled photons has been a subject of tremendous research over the last decade. Researchers have been working to increase the brightness and purity to help overcome the spontaneous nature of the sources. Periodic poling has been implemented to allow for the use of crystals that would not normally satisfy the phase matching conditions. Utilizing periodic poling and single mode waveguide confinement of the pump field has yielded extremely large effective nonlinearities in sources easily producing millions of photon pairs. Here we will demonstrate these large nonlinearity effects in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) waveguide as well as characterizing the source purity.

  20. Advanced packaging technology for high frequency photonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, M.G.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    An advanced packaging concept has been developed for optical devices. This concept allows multiple fibers to be coupled to photonic integrated circuits, with no fiber penetration of the package walls. The principles used to accomplish this concept involves a second-order grating to couple light in or out of the photonic circuit, and a binary optic lens which receives this light and focuses it into a single-mode optical fiber. Design, fabrication and electrical/optical measurements of this packaging concept are described.

  1. Towards a quasi-deterministic single-photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, N. A.; Arnold, K. J.; VanDevender, A. P.; Jeffrey, E. R.; Rangarajan, R.; Hosten, O.; Barreiro, J. T.; Altepeter, J. B.; Kwiat, P. G.

    2006-08-01

    A source of single photons allows secure quantum key distribution, in addition, to being a critical resource for linear optics quantum computing. We describe our progress on deterministically creating single photons from spontaneous parametric downconversion, an extension of the Pittman, Jacobs and Franson scheme [Phys. Rev A, v66, 042303 (2002)]. Their idea was to conditionally prepare single photons by measuring one member of a spontaneously emitted photon pair and storing the remaining conditionally prepared photon until a predetermined time, when it would be "deterministically" released from storage. Our approach attempts to improve upon this by recycling the pump pulse in order to decrease the possibility of multiple-pair generation, while maintaining a high probability of producing a single pair. Many of the challenges we discuss are central to other quantum information technologies, including the need for low-loss optical storage, switching and detection, and fast feed-forward control.

  2. Strategies for optical integration of single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Oliver; Schell, Andreas W.; Neumer, Tanja; Shi, Qiang; Kaschke, Johannes; Fischer, Joachim; Wegener, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Single-photon sources based on solid-state emitters, like quantum dots, molecules or defect centers in diamond, are one of the key components for an integrated quantum technology. Here, we will show different strategies used in order to integrate single-photon emitters. Among others, we introduce an hybrid approach using photon emission from defect centers in diamond and laser-written photonic structures. Waveguides, microresonators, and optical antennas can be fabricated and oriented with respect to the single emitters. We describe our general approach before we specifically address the problem of efficient single-photon collection through optical antennas. We discuss the limitations of the method, its potential for scalability as well as its extension towards optical sensing applications.

  3. Sources of GeV Photons and the Fermi Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    This chapter presents the elaborated lecture notes on Sources of GeV Photons and the Fermi Results given by Charles D. Dermer at the 40th Saas-Fee Advanced Course on "Astrophysics at Very High Energies". The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope made important discoveries and established new results in various areas of astrophysics: from our solar system to remote gamma-ray bursts, from pulsar physics to limits on dark matter and Lorentz invariance violations. The author gives a broad overview of these results by discussing GeV instrumentation and the GeV sky as seen by Fermi, the Fermi catalogs on gamma-ray sources, pulsars and active galactic nuclei, relativistic jet physics and blazars, gamma-rays from cosmic rays in the Galaxy, from star-forming galaxies and from clusters of galaxies, the diffuse extra-galactic gamma-ray background, micro-quasars, radio galaxies, the extragalactic background light, gamma-ray bursts, Fermi acceleration, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and black holes.

  4. Gallium Nitride UV Single Photon Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-08

    emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal", Kim et al., Applied Physics Letters, 96, 251103 (2010) "Growth of height-controlled InGaN ...enhanced light- emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN", Cho et al., Nanotechnology, 21, 205201 (2010) “Enhanced light extraction ...34Effect of Mg doping in the barrier of InGaN /GaN multiple quantum well on optical power of light- emitting diodes", Han et al., Applied Physics Letters, 96

  5. Protecting single-photon entanglement with practical entanglement source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Ou-Yang, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is important for quantum communication and quantum information processing. However, SPE is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss a linear optical amplification protocol for protecting SPE. Different from the previous protocols, we exploit the practical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source to realize the amplification, for the ideal entanglement source is unavailable in current quantum technology. Moreover, we prove that the amplification using the entanglement generated from SPDC source as auxiliary is better than the amplification assisted with single photons. The reason is that the vacuum state from SPDC source will not affect the amplification, so that it can be eliminated automatically. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communications.

  6. Efficient room-temperature source of polarized single photons

    DOEpatents

    Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Boyd, Robert W.; Stroud, Carlos R.

    2007-08-07

    An efficient technique for producing deterministically polarized single photons uses liquid-crystal hosts of either monomeric or oligomeric/polymeric form to preferentially align the single emitters for maximum excitation efficiency. Deterministic molecular alignment also provides deterministically polarized output photons; using planar-aligned cholesteric liquid crystal hosts as 1-D photonic-band-gap microcavities tunable to the emitter fluorescence band to increase source efficiency, using liquid crystal technology to prevent emitter bleaching. Emitters comprise soluble dyes, inorganic nanocrystals or trivalent rare-earth chelates.

  7. A silicon carbide room-temperature single-photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletto, S.; Johnson, B. C.; Ivády, V.; Stavrias, N.; Umeda, T.; Gali, A.; Ohshima, T.

    2014-02-01

    Over the past few years, single-photon generation has been realized in numerous systems: single molecules, quantum dots, diamond colour centres and others. The generation and detection of single photons play a central role in the experimental foundation of quantum mechanics and measurement theory. An efficient and high-quality single-photon source is needed to implement quantum key distribution, quantum repeaters and photonic quantum information processing. Here we report the identification and formation of ultrabright, room-temperature, photostable single-photon sources in a device-friendly material, silicon carbide (SiC). The source is composed of an intrinsic defect, known as the carbon antisite-vacancy pair, created by carefully optimized electron irradiation and annealing of ultrapure SiC. An extreme brightness (2×106 counts s-1) resulting from polarization rules and a high quantum efficiency is obtained in the bulk without resorting to the use of a cavity or plasmonic structure. This may benefit future integrated quantum photonic devices.

  8. Calibration of Photon Sources for Brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnders, Alex

    Source calibration has to be considered an essential part of the quality assurance program in a brachytherapy department. Not only it will ensure that the source strength value used for dose calculation agrees within some predetermined limits to the value stated on the source certificate, but also it will ensure traceability to international standards. At present calibration is most often still given in terms of reference air kerma rate, although calibration in terms of absorbed dose to water would be closer to the users interest. It can be expected that in a near future several standard laboratories will be able to offer this latter service, and dosimetry protocols will have to be adapted in this way. In-air measurement using ionization chambers (e.g. a Baldwin—Farmer ionization chamber for 192Ir high dose rate HDR or pulsed dose rate PDR sources) is still considered the method of choice for high energy source calibration, but because of their ease of use and reliability well type chambers are becoming more popular and are nowadays often recommended as the standard equipment. For low energy sources well type chambers are in practice the only equipment available for calibration. Care should be taken that the chamber is calibrated at the standard laboratory for the same source type and model as used in the clinic, and using the same measurement conditions and setup. Several standard laboratories have difficulties to provide these calibration facilities, especially for the low energy seed sources (125I and 103Pd). Should a user not be able to obtain properly calibrated equipment to verify the brachytherapy sources used in his department, then at least for sources that are replaced on a regular basis, a consistency check program should be set up to ensure a minimal level of quality control before these sources are used for patient treatment.

  9. Efficiently heralded silicon ring resonator photon-pair source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidle, Jeffrey A.; Fanto, Michael L.; Tison, Christopher C.; Wang, Zihao; Alsing, Paul M.; Preble, Stefan F.

    2016-05-01

    Presented here are results on a silicon ring resonator photon pair source with a high heralding efficiency. Previous ring resonator sources suffered from an effective 50% loss because, in order to generate the photons, the pump must be able to couple into the resonator which is an effective loss channel. However, in practice the optical loss of the pump can be traded off for a dramatic increase in heralding efficiency. This research found theoretically that the heralding efficiency should increase by a factor of ~ 3:75 with a factor of 10 increase in the required pump power. This was demonstrated experimentally by varying the separation (gap) between the input waveguide and the ring while maintaining a constant drop port gap. The ring (R = 18:5μm, W = 500nm, and H = 220nm) was pumped by a tunable laser (λ ≍ 1550nm). The non-degenerate photons, produced via spontaneous four wave mixing, exited the ring and were coupled to fiber upon which they were filtered symmetrically about the pump. Coincidence counts were collected for all possible photon path combinations (through and drop port) and the ratio of the drop port coincidences to the sum of the drop port and cross term coincidences (one photon from the drop port and one from the through port) was calculated. With a 350nm pump waveguide gap (2:33 times larger than the drop port gap) we confirmed our theoretical predictions, with an observed improvement in heralding efficiency by a factor of ~ 2:61 (96:7% of correlated photons coupled out of the drop port). These results will enable increased photon flux integrated photon sources which can be utilized for high performance quantum computing and communication systems.

  10. Recent Advances in Electron and Positron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, James E

    2000-07-20

    Recent advances in electron and positron sources have resulted in new capabilities driven in most cases by the increasing demands of advanced accelerating systems. Electron sources for brighter beams and for high average-current beams are described. The status and remaining challenges for polarized electron beams are also discussed. For positron sources, recent activity in the development of polarized positron beams for future colliders is reviewed. Finally, a new proposal for combining laser cooling with beam polarization is presented.

  11. Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; De Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-01-29

    Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10(-4) only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system.

  12. Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; de Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10-4 only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system.

  13. Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; De Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10−4 only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system. PMID:26822999

  14. Photon-photon opacity constraints for relativistically expanding gamma-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, M. G.; Harding, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Five bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) have also been detected at higher energies by EGRET. Four are consistent with power-law spectra extending to energies as high as, in the case of GRB930131, 1 GeV. The fifth, and most recent, GRB940217, has a more complex spectrum, with one photon detected at 18 GeV, the most energetic GRB photon detection to date. The optical depth to photon-photon pair production in these sources is extremely large for distances more than about 10pc away if the radiation is emitted isotropically in the observer's frame. This optical depth can be dramatically reduced if the source is moving with a relativstic bulk Lorentz factor Gamma, and recent calculations for this situation have been limited to cases of a beam with opening angle 1 Gamma, or expansions of infinitely thin spherical shells. This paper presents our extension of the pair production otpical depth calculation in relativistically expanding sources to more general geometries, including shells of finite thickness and arbitrary opening angle. We find that the minimum bulk Lorentz factors for the Energy Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) sources to be optically thin, i.e. display no spectral attenuation, is only moderately dependent on the shell thickness and its opening solid angle; these new limits on required velocity for given geometries will aid in placing realistic constraints on GRB source models.

  15. Compton sources for the observation of elastic photon-photon scattering events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micieli, D.; Drebot, I.; Bacci, A.; Milotti, E.; Petrillo, V.; Conti, M. Rossetti; Rossi, A. R.; Tassi, E.; Serafini, L.

    2016-09-01

    We present the design of a photon-photon collider based on conventional Compton gamma sources for the observation of elastic γ γ scattering. Two symmetric electron beams, generated by photocathodes and accelerated in linacs, produce two primary gamma rays through Compton backscattering with two high energy lasers. The elastic photon-photon scattering is analyzed by start-to-end simulations from the photocathodes to the detector. A new Monte Carlo code has been developed ad hoc for the counting of the QED events. Realistic numbers of the secondary gamma yield, obtained by using the parameters of existing or approved Compton devices, a discussion of the feasibility of the experiment and of the nature of the background are presented.

  16. A photonic microwave source for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Cada, Michael; Seregelyi, Joe; Paquet, Stephane; Mihailov, Stephen; Lu, Ping; Bélisle, Claude

    2005-09-01

    Wireless technology is a cost-effective means to bring broadband communications to both mobile users and home consumers; however, deploying next generation, multi-GHz wireless systems is currently too expensive. For these systems, photonic technologies can bring cost reduction as well as an increase in performance, mainly due to the ultra low-loss property of optical fibers. One approach to signal distribution is to capitalise on the vast fibre-optic distribution networks deployed within and between cities. A microwave carrier can be optically deployed from central offices to remote antenna sites using these optical links. This paper will discuss the generation of such a microwave carrier using a dual-wavelength, external-cavity laser (ECL). Two different dual-wavelength ECL's, constructed with fiber-Bragg-gratings (FBG's), have been investigated. One uses a semiconductor gain chip with a dual-FBG acting as an external reflector. The other uses two similar dual-FBG reflectors on each side of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In both cases the wavelength separation between the gratings is 0.25 nm. We will demonstrate that a dual-wavelength emission can be temporarily stabilized in the gain-chip ECL if a specific phase relation, between the external feedback from the FBG's and the residual feedback from the gain chip, is satisfied at both lasing wavelengths. The power of the RF beat signal generated by the dual-wavelength optical signal was typically 25 dB above the noise floor. The 3-dB linewidth of the RF signal was approximately 2 MHz and it can be tuned over a frequency range of 200 MHz. The physical mechanisms underlying the observed laser instability will be briefly discussed.

  17. Experimental investigation towards a periodically pumped single-photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bödefeld, C.; Ebbecke, J.; Toivonen, J.; Sopanen, M.; Lipsanen, H.; Wixforth, A.

    2006-07-01

    Experiments towards a periodically pumped single-photon source are presented. The lateral piezoelectric field of a surface acoustic wave dissociates laser-generated two-dimensional excitons into electrons and holes. These carriers are separated by the wave potential and are transported over macroscopic length scales without recombining. When reaching a stress-induced quantum dot in the quantum well they periodically populate the zero-dimensional states and recombine, emitting single photons periodically in time according to the surface acoustic-wave frequency. We have successfully reduced the number of pumped quantum dots down to 100 and have detected a strong blinking photoluminescence signal. By further reducing the number of quantum dots down to 1 a periodically pumped single photon source could be realized.

  18. Patterning metamaterials for fast and efficient single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, O. A.; Shalaginov, M. Y.; Bogdanov, S.; Guler, U.; Boltasseva, A.; Kildishev, A. V.; Shalaev, V. M.

    2017-02-01

    Solid state quantum emitters are prime candidates to realize fast on-demand single-photon sources. The improvement in photon emission and collection efficiencies for quantum emitters, such as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond, can be achieved by using a near-field coupling to nanophotonic structures. Plasmonic metamaterial structures with hyperbolic dispersion have been previously demonstrated to significantly increase the fluorescence decay rates from NV centers. However, the electromagnetic waves propagating inside the metamaterial must be outcoupled before they succumb to ohmic losses. We propose a nano-grooved hyperbolic metamaterial that improves the collection efficiency from a nanodiamond-based NV center by a factor of 4.3 compared to the case of coupling to a flat metamaterial. Our design can be utilized to achieve highly efficient and fast single-photon sources based on a variety of quantum emitters.

  19. Recent Advances in Biosensing With Photonic Crystal Surfaces: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, B T; Zhang, M; Zhuo, Y; Kwon, L; Race, C

    2016-05-15

    Photonic crystal surfaces that are designed to function as wavelength-selective optical resonators have become a widely adopted platform for label-free biosensing, and for enhancement of the output of photon-emitting tags used throughout life science research and in vitro diagnostics. While some applications, such as analysis of drug-protein interactions, require extremely high resolution and the ability to accurately correct for measurement artifacts, others require sensitivity that is high enough for detection of disease biomarkers in serum with concentrations less than 1 pg/ml. As the analysis of cells becomes increasingly important for studying the behavior of stem cells, cancer cells, and biofilms under a variety of conditions, approaches that enable high resolution imaging of live cells without cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes are providing new tools to biologists who seek to observe individual cells over extended time periods. This paper will review several recent advances in photonic crystal biosensor detection instrumentation and device structures that are being applied towards direct detection of small molecules in the context of high throughput drug screening, photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement as utilized for high sensitivity multiplexed cancer biomarker detection, and label-free high resolution imaging of cells and individual nanoparticles as a new tool for life science research and single-molecule diagnostics.

  20. Fully guided-wave photon pair source for quantum applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergyris, P.; Kaiser, F.; Gouzien, E.; Sauder, G.; Lunghi, T.; Tanzilli, S.

    2017-06-01

    We report a fully guided-wave source of polarisation entangled photons based on a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide mounted in a Sagnac interferometer. We demonstrate the source’s quality by converting polarisation entanglement to postselection-free energy-time entanglement for which we obtain a near-optimal S-parameter of 2.75 ± 0.02, i.e. a violation of the Bell inequality by more than 35 standard deviations. The exclusive use of guided-wave components makes our source compact and stable which is a prerequisite for increasingly complex quantum applications. Additionally, our source offers a great versatility in terms of photon pair emission spectrum and generated quantum state, making it suitable for a broad range of quantum applications such as cryptography and metrology. In this sense, we show how to use our source for chromatic dispersion measurements in optical fibres which opens new avenues in the field of quantum metrology.

  1. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, A.; Moxon, L.; Robinson, A.; Tamura, L.

    2001-04-01

    This is an annual report, detailing activities at the Advanced Light Source for the year 2000. It includes highlights of scientific research by users of the facility as well as information about the development of the facility itself.

  2. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Duque, Theresa; Greiner, Annette; Moxon, Elizabeth; Robinson, Arthur; Tamura, Lori

    2003-06-12

    This annual report of the Advanced Light Source details science highlights and facility improvements during the year. It also offers information on events sponsored by the facility, technical specifications, and staff and publication information.

  3. Applications of circularly polarized photons at the ALS with a bend magnet source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to focus attention on, and to stimulate the scientific exploitation of, the natural polarization properties of bend-magnet synchrotron radiation at the ALS -- for research in biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry. The topics include: The Advanced Light Source; Magnetic Circular Dichroism and Differential Scattering on Biomolecules; Tests of Fundamental Symmetries; High {Tc} Superconductivity; Photoemission from Magnetic and Non-magnetic Solids; Studies of Highly Correlated Systems; and Instrumentation for Photon Transport and Polarization Measurements.

  4. Applications of circularly polarized photons at the ALS with a bend magnet source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to focus attention on, and to stimulate the scientific exploitation of, the natural polarization properties of bend-magnet synchrotron radiation at the ALS -- for research in biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry. The topics include: The Advanced Light Source; Magnetic Circular Dichroism and Differential Scattering on Biomolecules; Tests of Fundamental Symmetries; High {Tc} Superconductivity; Photoemission from Magnetic and Non-magnetic Solids; Studies of Highly Correlated Systems; and Instrumentation for Photon Transport and Polarization Measurements.

  5. A Search for Point Sources of EeV Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Auger Collaboration102, The Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Measurements of air showers made using the hybrid technique developed with the fluorescence and surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory allow a sensitive search for point sources of EeV photons anywhere in the exposed sky. A multivariate analysis reduces the background of hadronic cosmic rays. The search is sensitive to a declination band from -85° to +20°, in an energy range from 1017.3 eV to 1018.5 eV. No photon point source has been detected. An upper limit on the photon flux has been derived for every direction. The mean value of the energy flux limit that results from this, assuming a photon spectral index of -2, is 0.06 eV cm-2 s-1, and no celestial direction exceeds 0.25 eV cm-2 s-1. These upper limits constrain scenarios in which EeV cosmic ray protons are emitted by non-transient sources in the Galaxy.

  6. A search for point sources of EeV photons

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Arqueros, F.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration102; and others

    2014-07-10

    Measurements of air showers made using the hybrid technique developed with the fluorescence and surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory allow a sensitive search for point sources of EeV photons anywhere in the exposed sky. A multivariate analysis reduces the background of hadronic cosmic rays. The search is sensitive to a declination band from –85° to +20°, in an energy range from 10{sup 17.3} eV to 10{sup 18.5} eV. No photon point source has been detected. An upper limit on the photon flux has been derived for every direction. The mean value of the energy flux limit that results from this, assuming a photon spectral index of –2, is 0.06 eV cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, and no celestial direction exceeds 0.25 eV cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. These upper limits constrain scenarios in which EeV cosmic ray protons are emitted by non-transient sources in the Galaxy.

  7. Hyperbolic metamaterial nanoresonators make poor single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelrod, Simon; Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Wong, Herman M. K.; Helmy, Amr S.; Hughes, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    We study the optical properties of quantum dipole emitters coupled to hyperbolic metamaterial nanoresonators using a semianalytical quasinormal mode approach. We show that coupling to metamaterial nanoresonators can lead to significant Purcell enhancements that are nearly an order of magnitude larger than those of plasmonic resonators with comparable geometry. However, the associated single-photon output β -factors are extremely low (around 10%), far smaller than those of comparably sized metallic resonators (70%). Using a quasinormal mode expansion of the photon Green function, we describe how the low β -factors are due to increased Ohmic quenching arising from redshifted resonances, larger quality factors, and stronger confinement of light within the metal. These results explain why hyperbolic metamaterial nanostructures likely make poor choices for single-photon sources.

  8. Review of spent-fuel photon and neutron source spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The calculations of spent-fuel photon and neutron spectra have been significantly improved over the past several years. Methods for performing these computations at ORNL have been implemented in the ORIGEN2 and ORIGEN-S codes and the SAS2 control module of the SCALE system. The codes use photon data for delayed gamma rays, x-rays, spontaneous fission gamma rays, (..cap alpha..,n) reaction gamma rays, bremsstrahlung and decay constants, taken mainly from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Structure File. The data for neutron source strengths and spectral distributions of spontaneous fission and (..cap alpha..,n) reactions were compiled from several different research projects. Brief discussions of the codes, the spectral data and the range of applicability are presented. Also, several examples of spent-fuel photon and neutron spectra are included. 29 refs.

  9. Advanced controls for light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedron, S. G.; Edelen, A. L.; Milton, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present a summary of our team's recent efforts in developing adaptive, artificial intelligence-inspired techniques specifically to address several control challenges that arise in machines/systems including those in particle accelerator systems. These techniques can readily be adapted to other systems such as lasers, beamline optics, etc… We are not at all suggesting that we create an autonomous system, but create a system with an intelligent control system, that can continually use operational data to improve itself and combines both traditional and advanced techniques. We believe that the system performance and reliability can be increased based on our findings. Another related point is that the controls sub-system of an overall system is usually not the heart of the system architecture or design process. More bluntly, often times all of the peripheral systems are considered as secondary to the main system components in the architecture design process because it is assumed that the controls system will be able to "fix" challenges found later with the sub-systems for overall system operation. We will show that this is not always the case and that it took an intelligent control application to overcome a sub-system's challenges. We will provide a recent example of such a "fix" with a standard controller and with an artificial intelligence-inspired controller. A final related point to be covered is that of system adaptation for requirements not original to a system's original design.

  10. Advanced quantum cascade laser transmitter architectures and infrared photonics development

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2004-08-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security and civilian applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors. This paper reports on the current development in infrared photonics that provides a pathway for QCL transmitter miniaturization. This research has produced infrared waveguide-based optical components in chalcogenide glass using both direct-laser writing and holographic exposure techniques. We discuss here the design and fabrication concepts and capabilities required to produce integrated waveguides, waveguide couplers, and other photonic devices.

  11. Plasmonic nanoantenna based triggered single-photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straubel, J.; Filter, R.; Rockstuhl, C.; Słowik, K.

    2016-05-01

    Highly integrated single-photon sources are key components in future quantum-optical circuits. Whereas the probabilistic generation of single photons can routinely be done by now, their triggered generation is a much greater challenge. Here, we describe the triggered generation of single photons in a hybrid plasmonic device. It consists of a lambda-type quantum emitter coupled to a multimode optical nanoantenna. For moderate interaction strengths between the subsystems, the description of the quantum optical evolution can be simplified by an adiabatic elimination of the electromagnetic fields of the nanoantenna modes. This leads to an insightful analysis of the emitter's dynamics, entails the opportunity to understand the physics of the device, and to identify parameter regimes for a desired operation. Even though the approach presented in this work is general, we consider a simple exemplary design of a plasmonic nanoantenna, made of two silver nanorods, suitable for triggered generation of single photons. The investigated device realizes single photons, triggered, potentially at high rates, and using low device volumes.

  12. Temporal correlations of spectrally narrowband photon pair sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kai-Hong; Herrmann, Harald; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-06-01

    We report on theoretical and experimental investigations of time-resolved cross- and auto-correlation measurements of spectrally narrowband photon pairs generated in sources based on parametric down conversion in resonant waveguide structures. We show that time-resolved measurements provide detailed and useful information about the spectral and modal structure of the bi-photon state. The shape of the cross-correlation function is asymmetric with exponential decays determined by the lifetimes of the signal and idler photons in the cavity. The time-resolved auto-correlation has Lorentzian shape. The measured {g}(2)(0) value convoluted with the detector windows and mode beating can be used to characterise the spectral longitudinal mode behaviour. The temporal width of the auto-correlation function is more than two times longer that the cross-correlation time. This reveals that the spectral bandwidth of the single-photon component is much broader than the spectral width of the two-photon component.

  13. Advances in graphene-based optoelectronics, plasmonics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-03-01

    Since the early works on graphene it has been remarked that graphene is a marvelous electronic material. Soon after its discovery, graphene was efficiently utilized in the fabrication of optoelectronic, plasmonic and photonic devices, including graphene-based Schottky junction solar cells. The present work is a review of the progress in the experimental research on graphene-based optoelectronics, plasmonics and photonics, with the emphasis on recent advances. The main graphene-based optoelectronic devices presented in this review are photodetectors and modulators. In the area of graphene-based plasmonics, a review of the plasmonic nanostructures enhancing or tuning graphene-light interaction, as well as of graphene plasmons is presented. In the area of graphene-based photonics, we report progress on fabrication of different types of graphene quantum dots as well as functionalized graphene and graphene oxide, the research on the photoluminescence and fluorescence of graphene nanostructures as well as on the energy exchange between graphene and semiconductor quantum dots. In particular, the promising achievements of research on graphene-based Schottky junction solar cells is presented.

  14. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McBee, M.R.; Chance, C.M. ); Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Peretz, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the advanced neutron source: quality assurance (QA) program; reactor core development; fuel element specification; corrosion loop tests and analyses; thermal-hydraulic loop tests; reactor control concepts; critical and subcritical experiments; material data, structural tests, and analysis; cold source development; beam tube, guide, and instrument development; hot source development; neutron transport and shielding; I C research and development; facility concepts; design; and safety.

  15. Signal acquisition via polarization modulation in single photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Mark D.; Flitney, Adrian P.

    2009-12-01

    A simple model system is introduced for demonstrating how a single photon source might be used to transduce classical analog information. The theoretical scheme results in measurements of analog source samples that are (i) quantized in the sense of analog-to-digital conversion and (ii) corrupted by random noise that is solely due to the quantum uncertainty in detecting the polarization state of each photon. This noise is unavoidable if more than 1 bit per sample is to be transmitted and we show how it may be exploited in a manner inspired by suprathreshold stochastic resonance. The system is analyzed information theoretically, as it can be modeled as a noisy optical communication channel, although unlike classical Poisson channels, the detector’s photon statistics are binomial. Previous results on binomial channels are adapted to demonstrate numerically that the classical information capacity, and thus the accuracy of the transduction, increases logarithmically with the square root of the number of photons, N . Although the capacity is shown to be reduced when an additional detector nonideality is present, the logarithmic increase with N remains.

  16. Signal acquisition via polarization modulation in single photon sources.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Mark D; Flitney, Adrian P

    2009-12-01

    A simple model system is introduced for demonstrating how a single photon source might be used to transduce classical analog information. The theoretical scheme results in measurements of analog source samples that are (i) quantized in the sense of analog-to-digital conversion and (ii) corrupted by random noise that is solely due to the quantum uncertainty in detecting the polarization state of each photon. This noise is unavoidable if more than 1 bit per sample is to be transmitted and we show how it may be exploited in a manner inspired by suprathreshold stochastic resonance. The system is analyzed information theoretically, as it can be modeled as a noisy optical communication channel, although unlike classical Poisson channels, the detector's photon statistics are binomial. Previous results on binomial channels are adapted to demonstrate numerically that the classical information capacity, and thus the accuracy of the transduction, increases logarithmically with the square root of the number of photons, N. Although the capacity is shown to be reduced when an additional detector nonideality is present, the logarithmic increase with N remains.

  17. An all-silicon single-photon source by unconventional photon blockade

    PubMed Central

    Flayac, Hugo; Gerace, Dario; Savona, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The lack of suitable quantum emitters in silicon and silicon-based materials has prevented the realization of room temperature, compact, stable, and integrated sources of single photons in a scalable on-chip architecture, so far. Current approaches rely on exploiting the enhanced optical nonlinearity of silicon through light confinement or slow-light propagation, and are based on parametric processes that typically require substantial input energy and spatial footprint to reach a reasonable output yield. Here we propose an alternative all-silicon device that employs a different paradigm, namely the interplay between quantum interference and the third-order intrinsic nonlinearity in a system of two coupled optical cavities. This unconventional photon blockade allows to produce antibunched radiation at extremely low input powers. We demonstrate a reliable protocol to operate this mechanism under pulsed optical excitation, as required for device applications, thus implementing a true single-photon source. We finally propose a state-of-art implementation in a standard silicon-based photonic crystal integrated circuit that outperforms existing parametric devices either in input power or footprint area. PMID:26061665

  18. An all-silicon single-photon source by unconventional photon blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flayac, Hugo; Gerace, Dario; Savona, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    The lack of suitable quantum emitters in silicon and silicon-based materials has prevented the realization of room temperature, compact, stable, and integrated sources of single photons in a scalable on-chip architecture, so far. Current approaches rely on exploiting the enhanced optical nonlinearity of silicon through light confinement or slow-light propagation, and are based on parametric processes that typically require substantial input energy and spatial footprint to reach a reasonable output yield. Here we propose an alternative all-silicon device that employs a different paradigm, namely the interplay between quantum interference and the third-order intrinsic nonlinearity in a system of two coupled optical cavities. This unconventional photon blockade allows to produce antibunched radiation at extremely low input powers. We demonstrate a reliable protocol to operate this mechanism under pulsed optical excitation, as required for device applications, thus implementing a true single-photon source. We finally propose a state-of-art implementation in a standard silicon-based photonic crystal integrated circuit that outperforms existing parametric devices either in input power or footprint area.

  19. An all-silicon single-photon source by unconventional photon blockade.

    PubMed

    Flayac, Hugo; Gerace, Dario; Savona, Vincenzo

    2015-06-10

    The lack of suitable quantum emitters in silicon and silicon-based materials has prevented the realization of room temperature, compact, stable, and integrated sources of single photons in a scalable on-chip architecture, so far. Current approaches rely on exploiting the enhanced optical nonlinearity of silicon through light confinement or slow-light propagation, and are based on parametric processes that typically require substantial input energy and spatial footprint to reach a reasonable output yield. Here we propose an alternative all-silicon device that employs a different paradigm, namely the interplay between quantum interference and the third-order intrinsic nonlinearity in a system of two coupled optical cavities. This unconventional photon blockade allows to produce antibunched radiation at extremely low input powers. We demonstrate a reliable protocol to operate this mechanism under pulsed optical excitation, as required for device applications, thus implementing a true single-photon source. We finally propose a state-of-art implementation in a standard silicon-based photonic crystal integrated circuit that outperforms existing parametric devices either in input power or footprint area.

  20. The experience of Taiwan photon source commissioning and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. C.; Chen, C. H.; Y Chen, J.; Chiu, M. S.; Chou, P. J.; Huang, C. S.; Fann, Sam; Kuo, C. C.; Y Lee, T.; Liang, C. C.; Luo, G. H.; Tsai, H. J.; Tseng, F. H.

    2017-07-01

    TPS commissioning occurred between August 2014 and March 2016. The experience of phase I (bare lattice 2014.8∼2015.3) and phase II (SRF and insertion devices 2015.9∼2016.3) commissioning will be discussed. The Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) started user operation in March 2016 and delivery of user time has reached 3,211 hours in 2016. Continuous improvements of integrated accelerator performance and future developments are described and discussed.

  1. Quantum key distribution over 120 km using ultrahigh purity single-photon source and superconducting single-photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kazuya; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yorozu, Shinichi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-09-25

    Advances in single-photon sources (SPSs) and single-photon detectors (SPDs) promise unique applications in the field of quantum information technology. In this paper, we report long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) by using state-of-the-art devices: a quantum-dot SPS (QD SPS) emitting a photon in the telecom band of 1.5 μm and a superconducting nanowire SPD (SNSPD). At the distance of 100 km, we obtained the maximal secure key rate of 27.6 bps without using decoy states, which is at least threefold larger than the rate obtained in the previously reported 50-km-long QKD experiment. We also succeeded in transmitting secure keys at the rate of 0.307 bps over 120 km. This is the longest QKD distance yet reported by using known true SPSs. The ultralow multiphoton emissions of our SPS and ultralow dark count of the SNSPD contributed to this result. The experimental results demonstrate the potential applicability of QD SPSs to practical telecom QKD networks.

  2. The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-05-10

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems.

  3. The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems.

  4. The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems. PMID:27161541

  5. Design calculations for the ANS (Advanced Neutron Source) cold source

    SciTech Connect

    Lillie, R.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation procedure, based on discrete ordinates transport methods, that is being used to carry out design calculations for the Advanced Neutron Source cold source is described. Calculated results on the gain in cold neutron flux produced by a liquid deuterium cold source are compared with experimental data and with calculated data previously obtained by P. Ageron et al., at the Institute Max von Laue-Paul Langevin in Grenoble, France. Calculated results are also presented that indicated how the flux of cold neutrons vary with cold source parameters. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Momentum aperture of the advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decking, W.; Robin, D.

    1999-04-01

    This paper shows measurements of the momentum aperture of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) based on Touschek lifetime measurements. The measured data is compared with tracking simulations and a simple model for the apertures will help to explain the observed effects.

  7. Momentum Aperture of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Decking, W.; Robin, D.

    1998-08-01

    This paper shows measurements of the momentum aperture of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) based on Touschek lifetime measurements. The measured data is compared with tracking simulations and a simple model for the apertures will help to explain the observed effects.

  8. Soft x-ray undulator for the Siam Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rugmai, S.; Dasri, T.; Prawanta, S.; Siriwattanapaitoon, S.; Kwankasem, A.; Sooksrimuang, V.; Chachai, W.; Suradet, N.; Juthong, N.; Tancharakorn, S.

    2007-01-19

    An undulator for production of intense soft x-rays has been designed for the Siam Photon Source. The construction of the undulator has been completed. It is now being characterized and prepared for installation. The device, named U60, is a pure permanent magnet planar undulator, consisting of 41 magnetic periods, with 60 mm period length. Utilization of the undulator radiation in the photon energy range of 30 - 900 eV is expected. The design studies of the magnetic structure, including investigation of perturbations arising from the magnetic field of the device, their effects on the SPS storage ring and compensation schemes are described. A magnetic measurement system has been constructed for magnetic characterization of the device. Partial results of magnetic measurements are presented.

  9. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Savoy, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Perera, R. C. C.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), scheduled to be operational in the spring of 1993 as a U.S. Department of Energy national user facility, will be a next-generation source of soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) synchrotron radiation. Undulators will provide the world's brightest synchrotron radiation at photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes above 10 keV. These capabilities will support an extensive research program in a broad spectrum of scientific and technological areas in which XUV radiation is used to study and manipulate matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The ALS will also serve those interested in developing the fabrication technology for microstructures and nanostructures, as well as for characterizing them.

  11. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  12. Recent Advances in III-Nitride UV Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongxing

    2004-03-01

    There is a great need of solid-state ultraviolet (UV) emitters for chemical and biological agent detections and general lighting. The availability of chip-scale UV light sources may also open up new applications for medical research in areas of early disease detection. Although many of the ideas and potentials of III-nitride devices for UV applications have been identified, a transition from basic research to practical device components has not yet been made due to various technological obstacles. Several key issues must be resolved. For example, highly conductive n-type and p-type AlGaN alloys as well as device quality quantum wells (QWs) based on AlGaN or AlInGaN alloys with high Al-contents are indispensable. This presentation will discuss some of the recent progresses in epitaxial growth and fundamental studies of high Al content III-nitride alloys. Novel techniques for obtaining highly conductive n-type and p-type III-nitride alloys with high Al contents and high quality QWs with deep UV emission will be discussed. Optical properties that are unique to this ultrahigh bandgap semiconductor material system will be highlighted. Innovative approaches for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of UV emitters, including the incorporation of micro-size emitter arrays and submicron/nano-scale photonic crystals into UV emitters, will be presented. Finally, remaining challenges and future prospects of nitride UV photonics and nanophotonics will be discussed.

  13. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    PubMed

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-08-24

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Photon Source Capabilities of the Jefferson Lab FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S. V.; Douglas, D. R.; Evtushenko, P.; Hannon, F. E.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Klopf, J. M.; Legg, R. A.; Neil, G. R.; Shinn, M. D.; Tennant, C. D.; Zhang, S.; Williams, G. P.

    2013-03-22

    Jefferson Lab operates a superconducting energy recovered linac which is operated with CW RF and which powers oscillator-based IR and UV Free Electron Lasers (FELs) with diffraction limited sub-picosecond pulses with >10{sup 13} photons per pulse (1.0%BW) at pulse repetition frequencies up to 75 MHz. Useful harmonics extend into the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). Based on FEL model calculations validated using this facility, we have designed both an oscillator-based VUV-FEL that would produce 6 10{sup12} coherent (0.5% BW) 100 eV photons per pulse at multi-MHz repetition rates in the fundamental, and a dual FEL configuration that would allow simultaneous lasing lasing at THz and UV wavelengths. The VUV-FEL would utilize a novel high gain, low Q cavity, while the THz source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing diffraction limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules. The THz source would use the exhaust beam from a UVFEL. Such multiphoton capabilities would provide unique opportunities for out of equilibrium dynamical studies at time-scales down to 50 fs. The fully coherent nature of all these sources results in peak and average brightness values that are many orders of magnitude higher than storage rings. We acknowledge support from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Jefferson Lab is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC05-84-ER40150.

  15. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm · rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.

  16. Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources.

    PubMed

    Ampem-Lassen, E; Simpson, D A; Gibson, B C; Trpkovski, S; Hossain, F M; Huntington, S T; Ganesan, K; Hollenberg, L C L; Prawer, S

    2009-07-06

    The ability to manipulate nano-particles at the nano-scale is critical for the development of active quantum systems. This paper presents a technique to manipulate diamond nano-crystals at the nano-scale using a scanning electron microscope, nano-manipulator and custom tapered optical fibre probes. The manipulation of a approximately 300 nm diamond crystal, containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre, onto the endface of an optical fibre is demonstrated. The emission properties of the single photon source post manipulation are in excellent agreement with those observed on the original substrate.

  17. Metastable Krypton Beam Source via Two-Photon Pumping Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.W.; Young, L.

    2003-01-01

    Metastable beams of rare gas atoms have wide applications in chemical analysis of samples, as well as in aiding understanding of fundamental processes and physical attributes. Most current sources of metastable rare gas atomic beams, however, are limited in their flux density, which greatly reduces their utility in applications such as low level trace analysis and precision measurements. Previous work has demonstrated feasibility of metastable krypton production via two-photon pumping, and this paper extends that possibility into beam form. Further optimization on this scheme, moreover, promises 100-fold increase of metastable krypton flux density over that of an rf-driven discharge.

  18. e+e- Plasma Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, Ed P.

    2013-12-06

    This note addresses the idea of a photon source that is based on an e+e- plasma created by co-propagating beams of e+ and e-. The plasma has a well-defined temperature, and the thermal distribution of the charged particles is used to average over the relative velocity cross section multiplied by the relative velocity. Two relevant cross sections are the direct “free-free” annihilation of e+e- pairs in the plasma, and the radiative recombination of e+e- pairs into positronium (Ps) which subsequently undergoes annihilation.

  19. Linear optical quantum computation with imperfect entangled photon-pair sources and inefficient non-photon-number-resolving detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Yanxiao; Zou Xubo; Guo Guangcan; Ralph, Timothy C.; Zhu Shining

    2010-05-15

    We propose a scheme for efficient cluster state quantum computation by using imperfect polarization-entangled photon-pair sources, linear optical elements, and inefficient non-photon-number-resolving detectors. The efficiency threshold for loss tolerance in our scheme requires the product of source and detector efficiencies should be >1/2, the best known figure. This figure applies to uncorrelated loss. We further find that the loss threshold is unaffected by correlated loss in the photon pair source. Our approach sheds new light on efficient linear optical quantum computation with imperfect experimental conditions.

  20. Sources semiconductrices de photons uniques ou de photons jumeaux pour l'information quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel

    2003-07-01

    A large number of scientific proposals in recent years are based on transport and manipulation of information using single quantum objects. Although very impressive theoretical perspectives have been envisaged, experimental demonstrations are still limited due to technological difficulties with present state-of-the-art devices. This paper presents various approaches aiming at efficient single or twin photons semiconductor sources. The emergence of these devices will be an important technological breakthrough in the field of quantum information. To cite this article: V. Berger, J.-M. Gérard, C. R. Physique 4 (2003).

  1. Monitoring performance of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Warren E.; Lampo, Edward J.; Samuelson, Bruce C.

    2001-06-13

    Providing high quality light to users in a consistent and reliable manner is one of the main goals of the accelerator physics group at the Advanced Light source (ALS). To meet this goal considerable time is spent monitoring the performance of the machine. At the Group's weekly meeting the performance of the accelerator over the previous week's run is reviewed. This paper describes the parameters that are monitored to optimize the performance of the ALS.

  2. Advanced Light Source Linac subharmonic buncher cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.C.; Taylor, B.; Lancaster, H.; Guigli, J.

    1989-03-01

    The Linear Accelerator (Linac) in the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is designed to provide either single or multiple bunches of 50 MeV electrons for the booster synchrotron. Three bunchers are used in the Linac. The 3 GHz S band buncher has been described elsewhere. This report deals with the two lower subharmonic bunchers. One operates at 124.914 MHz while the other operates at 499.654 MHz. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Advanced Neutron Source: The users' perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    User experiments will cover fields such as activation analysis of pollutants, irradiation of materials for the fusion program, and neutron scattering studies of materials as diverse as viruses, aerospace composites, and superconductors. Production capabilities must also be provided for the production of isotopes, especially of transuranic elements. The different ways in which these research areas and their required infrastructure influence the design of the Advanced Neutron Source will be the subject of this paper.

  4. Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Felle, M.; Huwer, J. Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Penty, R. V.

    2015-09-28

    The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons.

  5. Semiconductor quantum dot: a quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics.

    PubMed

    Regelman, D V; Mizrahi, U; Gershoni, D; Ehrenfreund, E; Schoenfeld, W V; Petroff, P M

    2001-12-17

    We investigate the intensity correlation properties of single photons emitted from an optically excited single semiconductor quantum dot. The second order temporal coherence function of the photons emitted at various wavelengths is measured as a function of the excitation power. We show experimentally and theoretically that a quantum dot is not only a source of nonclassically correlated monochromatic photons but is also a source of multicolor photons with tunable correlation properties. We found that the emitted photon statistics can be varied by the excitation rate from a sub-Poissonian one, where the photons are temporally antibunched, to super-Poissonian, where they are temporally bunched.

  6. Bright Phase-Stable Broadband Fiber-Based Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-24

    distribution 2, and quantum - state teleportation 3. For example, it is now well known that two parties, each sharing half of an entangled photon pair...FUNDING NUMBERS Bright Phase-Stable Broadband Fiber-Based Source of MURI Center for Photonic Quantum Information Systems: ARO/ARDA Program Polarization...wide range of quantum -information applications. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES single photon source, microstructure fiber, photon correlation

  7. A microwave beam waveguide undulator for a brilliant above 100 keV photon source.

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y. W.

    1999-04-19

    For generation of photons above 100-keV with a magnetic field strength in the range 0.2-0.5 Tesla, an undulator wavelength {lambda}{sub u} shorter than 5 mm may be needed with beam in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. A microwave beam waveguide undulator system has been investigated for generation of such light. The waveguide structure consists of two parallel reflector surfaces that can be derived from an elliptically cylindrical waveguide. The structure can support deflecting TE{sub m0} modes with very low microwave loss. A microwave ring resonator circuit employing the beam waveguide is considered to construct an undulator with the above requirement. Microwave properties of the beam waveguide structure have been investigated, and the design criteria for a microwave undulator are discussed.

  8. An Upgrade for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chemla, Daniel S.; Feinberg, Benedict; Hussain, Zahid; Kirz, Janos; Krebs, Gary F.; Padmore, Howard A.; Robin, David S.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Smith, Neville V.

    2004-09-01

    One of the first third-generation synchrotron light sources, the ALS, has been operating for almost a decade at Berkeley Lab, where experimenters have been exploiting its high brightness for forefront science. However, accelerator and insertion-device technology have significantly changed since the ALS was designed. As a result, the performance of the ALS is in danger of being eclipsed by that of newer, more advanced sources. The ALS upgrade that we are planning includes full-energy, top-off injection with higher storage-ring current and the replacement of five first-generation insertion devices with nine state-of-the art insertion devices and four new application-specific beamlines now being identified in a strategic planning process. The upgrade will help keep the ALS at the forefront of soft x-ray synchrotron light sources for the next two decades.

  9. Research opportunities in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bending-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bending magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV.

  10. Proposal for pulsed on-demand sources of photonic cluster state strings.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Netanel H; Rudolph, Terry

    2009-09-11

    We present a method to convert certain single photon sources into devices capable of emitting large strings of photonic cluster state in a controlled and pulsed "on-demand" manner. Such sources would greatly reduce the resources required to achieve linear optical quantum computation. Standard spin errors, such as dephasing, are shown to affect only 1 or 2 of the emitted photons at a time. This allows for the use of standard fault tolerance techniques, and shows that the photonic machine gun can be fired for arbitrarily long times. Using realistic parameters for current quantum dot sources, we conclude high entangled-photon emission rates are achievable, with Pauli-error rates per photon of less than 0.2%. For quantum dot sources, the method has the added advantage of alleviating the problematic issues of obtaining identical photons from independent, nonidentical quantum dots, and of exciton dephasing.

  11. Proposal for Pulsed On-Demand Sources of Photonic Cluster State Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Netanel H.; Rudolph, Terry

    2009-09-01

    We present a method to convert certain single photon sources into devices capable of emitting large strings of photonic cluster state in a controlled and pulsed “on-demand” manner. Such sources would greatly reduce the resources required to achieve linear optical quantum computation. Standard spin errors, such as dephasing, are shown to affect only 1 or 2 of the emitted photons at a time. This allows for the use of standard fault tolerance techniques, and shows that the photonic machine gun can be fired for arbitrarily long times. Using realistic parameters for current quantum dot sources, we conclude high entangled-photon emission rates are achievable, with Pauli-error rates per photon of less than 0.2%. For quantum dot sources, the method has the added advantage of alleviating the problematic issues of obtaining identical photons from independent, nonidentical quantum dots, and of exciton dephasing.

  12. Cold source vessel development for the advanced neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.T.; Lucas, A.T.

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), in its conceptual design phase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), will be a user-oriented neutron research facility that will produce the most intense flux of neutrons in the world. Among its many scientific applications, the productions of cold neutrons is a significant research mission for the ANS. The cold neutrons come from two independent cold sources positioned near the reactor core. Contained by an aluminum alloy vessel, each cold source is a 410 mm diameter sphere of liquid deuterium that functions both as a neutron moderator and a cryogenic coolant. With nuclear heating of the containment vessel and internal baffling, steady-state operation requires close control of the liquid deuterium flow near the vessel`s inner surface. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses supporting the cold source design are being performed with multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations of the liquid deuterium flow and heat transfer. This paper presents the starting phase of a challenging program and describes the cold source conceptual design, the thermal-hydraulic feasibility studies of the containment vessel, and the future computational and experimental studies that will be used to verify the final design.

  13. Scientific opportunities at the advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.

    1989-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with a projected completion date of September 1992, the ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in eleven long straight sections. It will also have up to 48 bending-magnet ports. Scientific opportunities in materials science, surface science, chemistry, atomic and molecular physics, life science and other fields are reflected in Letters of Interest received for the establishment of beamlines.

  14. Operator scheduling at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1998-06-01

    Scheduling Operations staff at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has evolved from 5 shifts/week for commissioning operations in 1992 to the present 24 hour/day, 21 shift coverage as the ALS went to full operation for users. A number of schedules were developed and implemented in an effort to accommodate changing ALS shift coverage requirements. The present work schedule and the lessons learned, address a number of issues that are useful to any facility that is operating 24 hours/day, 7 days/week.

  15. Chemical Dynamics at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, T.; Berrah, N.; Fadley, C.; Moore, C.B.; Neumark, D.M.; Ng, C.Y.; Ruscic, B.; Smith, N.V.; Suits, A.G.; Wodtke, A.M.

    1999-02-02

    A day-long retreat was held January 15, 1999 to chart the future directions for chemical dynamics studies at the Advanced Light Source. This represents an important period for the Chemical Dynamics Beamline, as the hardware is well-developed, most of the initial experimental objectives have been realized and the mission is now to identify the future scientific priorities for the beamline and attract users of the highest caliber. To this end, we have developed a detailed scientific program for the near term; identified and prioritized the long range scientific opportunities, identified essential new hardware, and outlined an aggressive outreach program to involve the chemical physics community.

  16. Experimental realization of a low-noise heralded single-photon source.

    PubMed

    Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M; Migdall, A; Piacentini, F; Polyakov, S V; Berchera, I Ruo

    2011-01-17

    We present a heralded single-photon source with a much lower level of unwanted background photons in the output channel by using the herald photon to control a shutter in the heralded channel. The shutter is implemented using a simple field programable gate array controlled optical switch.

  17. 3D passive photon counting automatic target recognition using advanced correlation filters.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungjin; Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Javidi, Bahram

    2011-03-15

    In this Letter, we present results for detecting and recognizing 3D objects in photon counting images using integral imaging with maximum average correlation height filters. We show that even under photon starved conditions objects may be automatically recognized in passively sensed 3D images using advanced correlation filters. We show that the proposed filter synthesized with ideal training images can detect and recognize a 3D object in photon counting images, even in the presence of occlusions and obscuration.

  18. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed.

  19. Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasminskaya, Svetlana; Pyatkov, Felix; Słowik, Karolina; Ferrari, Simone; Kahl, Oliver; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Rath, Patrik; Vetter, Andreas; Hennrich, Frank; Kappes, Manfred M.; Gol'Tsman, G.; Korneev, A.; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Krupke, Ralph; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Photonic quantum technologies allow quantum phenomena to be exploited in applications such as quantum cryptography, quantum simulation and quantum computation. A key requirement for practical devices is the scalable integration of single-photon sources, detectors and linear optical elements on a common platform. Nanophotonic circuits enable the realization of complex linear optical systems, while non-classical light can be measured with waveguide-integrated detectors. However, reproducible single-photon sources with high brightness and compatibility with photonic devices remain elusive for fully integrated systems. Here, we report the observation of antibunching in the light emitted from an electrically driven carbon nanotube embedded within a photonic quantum circuit. Non-classical light generated on chip is recorded under cryogenic conditions with waveguide-integrated superconducting single-photon detectors, without requiring optical filtering. Because exclusively scalable fabrication and deposition methods are used, our results establish carbon nanotubes as promising nanoscale single-photon emitters for hybrid quantum photonic devices.

  20. Pulsed source of spectrally uncorrelated and indistinguishable photons at telecom wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Bruno, N; Martin, A; Guerreiro, T; Sanguinetti, B; Thew, R T

    2014-07-14

    We report on the generation of indistinguishable photon pairs at telecom wavelengths based on a type-II parametric down conversion process in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal. The phase matching, pump laser characteristics and coupling geometry are optimised to obtain spectrally uncorrelated photons with high coupling efficiencies. Four photons are generated by a counter-propagating pump in the same crystal and anlysed via two photon interference experiments between photons from each pair source as well as joint spectral and g((2)) measurements. We obtain a spectral purity of 0.91 and coupling efficiencies around 90% for all four photons without any filtering. These pure indistinguishable photon sources at telecom wavelengths are perfectly adapted for quantum network demonstrations and other multi-photon protocols.

  1. Photon spectrometry for the determination of the dose-rate constant of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe Jay; Nath, Ravinder

    2007-04-01

    Accurate determination of dose-rate constant (lambda) for interstitial brachytherapy sources emitting low-energy photons (< 50 keV) has remained a challenge in radiation dosimetry because of the lack of a suitable absolute dosimeter for accurate measurement of the dose rates near these sources. Indeed, a consensus value of lambda taken as the arithmetic mean of the dose-rate constants determined by different research groups and dosimetry techniques has to be used at present for each source model in order to minimize the uncertainties associated with individual determinations of lambda. Because the dosimetric properties of a source are fundamentally determined by the characteristics of the photons emitted by the source, a new technique based on photon spectrometry was developed in this work for the determination of dose-rate constant. The photon spectrometry technique utilized a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer to measure source-specific photon characteristics emitted by the low-energy sources and determine their dose-rate constants based on the measured photon-energy spectra and known dose-deposition properties of mono-energetic photons in water. This technique eliminates many of the difficulties arising from detector size, the energy dependence of detector sensitivity, and the use of non-water-equivalent solid phantoms in absolute dose rate measurements. It also circumvents the uncertainties that might be associated with the source modeling in Monte Carlo simulation techniques. It was shown that the estimated overall uncertainty of the photon spectrometry technique was less than 4%, which is significantly smaller than the reported 8-10% uncertainty associated with the current thermo-luminescent dosimetry technique. In addition, the photon spectrometry technique was found to be stable and quick in lambda determination after initial setup and calibration. A dose-rate constant can be determined in less than two hours for each source. These features make it

  2. Advancing teaching opportunities through pre-commercial photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusarczuk, Marko M. G.

    2007-06-01

    The Photonics Technology Access Program [PTAP] provides academic researchers with pre-commercial photonic devices. Since one of the goals of PTAP is to promote teaching, the program has developed several approaches to expand teaching opportunities with the processes used to provide the devices.

  3. Ultrafast electrical control of a resonantly driven single photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y.; Bennett, A. J. Ellis, D. J. P.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate generation of a pulsed stream of electrically triggered single photons in resonance fluorescence, by applying high frequency electrical pulses to a single quantum dot in a p-i-n diode under resonant laser excitation. Single photon emission was verified, with the probability of multiple photon emission reduced to 2.8%. We show that despite the presence of charge noise in the emission spectrum of the dot, resonant excitation acts as a “filter” to generate narrow bandwidth photons.

  4. Single-Event Correlation Analysis of Quantum Key Distribution with Single-Photon Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangli Dong,; Xiaobo Wang,; Guofeng Zhang,; Liantuan Xiao,; Suotang Jia,

    2010-04-01

    Multiple photons exist that allow efficient eavesdropping strategies that threaten the security of quantum key distribution. In this paper, we theoretically discuss the photon correlations between authorized partners in the case of practical single-photon sources including a multiple-photon background. To investigate the feasibility of intercept-resend attacks, the cross correlations and the maximum intercept-resend ratio caused by the background signal are determined using single-event correlation analysis based on single-event detection.

  5. Bridging visible and telecom wavelengths with a single-mode broadband photon pair source

    SciTech Connect

    Soeller, C.; Brecht, B.; Mosley, P. J.; Zang, L. Y.; Podlipensky, A.; Joly, N. Y.; Russell, P. St. J.; Silberhorn, C.

    2010-03-15

    We present a spectrally decorrelated photon pair source bridging the visible and telecom wavelength regions. Tailored design and fabrication of a solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) lead to the emission of signal and idler photons into only a single spectral and spatial mode. Thus no narrowband filtering is necessary and the heralded generation of pure photon number states in ultrafast wave packets at telecom wavelengths becomes possible.

  6. Harmonic sextupoles for the Advanced Light Source low emittance upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madur, A.; Arbelaez, D.; Marks, S.; Prestemon, S.; Robin, D.; Schlueter, R.; Steier, C.; Wan, W.

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source is a 3rd generation light source in operation since 1993. This light source is providing state of the art performance to more than 40 beamlines and their users thanks to the upgrades that have been completed over the last few years. Higher photon beam brightness is expected to become available to users in the near future through a new upgrade with the introduction of 48 sextupoles in the ALS lattice. Introducing new combined function magnets in an existing storage ring is a challenge due to the limited space available and a balance had to be found between magnet performance and spatial constraints. Moreover, the existing steering magnets will be replaced by the harmonic sextupoles. Therefore predicting the hysteresis behavior of the harmonic sextupole steering functions became critical for those included in the fast-orbit feedback loop (22 of them). After a brief introduction to the motivation for the upgrade and the scope of the project, we develop in this paper the different constraints driving the three required combined function magnet designs as well as their expected performance.

  7. The Advanced Neutron Source liquid deuterium cold source

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will employ two cold sources to moderate neutrons to low energy (<10 meV). The cold neutrons produced are then passed through beam guides to various experiment stations. Each cold source moderator is a sphere of 410-mm internal diameter. The moderator material is liquid deuterium flowing at a rate of 1 kg/s and maintained at subcooled temperatures at all points of the circuit, to prevent boiling. Nuclear beat deposited within the liquid deuterium and its containment structure totals more than 30 kW. All of this heat is removed by the liquid deuterium, which raises its temperature by 5 K. The liquid prime mover is a cryogenic circulator that is situated in the return leg of the flow loop. This arrangement minimizes the heat added to the liquid between the heat exchanger and the moderator vessel, allowing the moderator to be operated at the minimum practical temperature. This report describes the latest thinking at the time of project termination. It also includes the status of various systems at that time and outlines anticipated directions in which the design would have progressed. In this regard, some detail differences between this report and official design documents reflect ideas that were not approved at the time of closure but are considered noteworthy.

  8. Portable radiation detection system for pulsed high energy photon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Y.D.; Lawrence, R.S.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1994-12-31

    Portable, battery-operated, radiation detection systems for measuring the intensity and energy characteristics of intense, pulsed photon sources (either high energy X-ray or gamma) have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These field-deployable, suitcase-sized detection units are designed to measure and record the characteristics of a single radiation burst or multiple bursts from a pulsed ionizing radiation source. The recorded information can then be analyzed on a simple laptop computer at a location remote from the detection system and completely independent of the ongoing data acquisition process. Two detection unit designs are described. The first, called the MARK-1, has eight bismuth germanate (BGO) radiation detectors. Four of which are unshielded and have different thicknesses (diameters). The remaining four are the same size as the largest unshielded detector but have different thicknesses of lead shielding surrounding each detector. The second unit design, called the MARK-1 A, utilizes the same detection methodology as the MARK-1 but has ten BGO detectors instead of eight and utilizes a different method of amplifying detector signals enabling reduced overall size and weight of the detection unit. Both the detection system designs have sensitivity ranges from 3 x 10{sup {minus}9} cGy to 9 x 10{sup {minus}5} cGy per radiation burst. Experimental detection results will be presented and discussed along the systems` potential for commercial applications.

  9. Documentation generator for VHDL and MatLab source codes for photonic and electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a new concept of software dedicated for documenting the source codes written in VHDL and MatLab. The work starts with the analysis of available documentation generators for both programming languages, with an emphasis on the open source solutions. There are presented own solutions which base on the Doxygen program available as a free license with the source code. The supporting tools for parsers building were used like Bison and Flex. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part one which describes the system concept. Part two describes the MatLab application. MatLab is used for description of the measured phenomena. Part three describes the VHDL application. VHDL is used for behavioral description of the optoelectronic system. All the proposed approach and application documents big, complex software configurations for large systems.

  10. A single-source photon source model of a linear accelerator for Monte Carlo dose calculation

    PubMed Central

    Glatting, Gerhard; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To introduce a new method of deriving a virtual source model (VSM) of a linear accelerator photon beam from a phase space file (PSF) for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation. Materials and methods A PSF of a 6 MV photon beam was generated by simulating the interactions of primary electrons with the relevant geometries of a Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and recording the particles that reach a plane 16 cm downstream the electron source. Probability distribution functions (PDFs) for particle positions and energies were derived from the analysis of the PSF. These PDFs were implemented in the VSM using inverse transform sampling. To model particle directions, the phase space plane was divided into a regular square grid. Each element of the grid corresponds to an area of 1 mm2 in the phase space plane. The average direction cosines, Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between photon energies and their direction cosines, as well as the PCC between the direction cosines were calculated for each grid element. Weighted polynomial surfaces were then fitted to these 2D data. The weights are used to correct for heteroscedasticity across the phase space bins. The directions of the particles created by the VSM were calculated from these fitted functions. The VSM was validated against the PSF by comparing the doses calculated by the two methods for different square field sizes. The comparisons were performed with profile and gamma analyses. Results The doses calculated with the PSF and VSM agree to within 3% /1 mm (>95% pixel pass rate) for the evaluated fields. Conclusion A new method of deriving a virtual photon source model of a linear accelerator from a PSF file for MC dose calculation was developed. Validation results show that the doses calculated with the VSM and the PSF agree to within 3% /1 mm. PMID:28886048

  11. A single-source photon source model of a linear accelerator for Monte Carlo dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Obioma; Glatting, Gerhard; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Jens

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a new method of deriving a virtual source model (VSM) of a linear accelerator photon beam from a phase space file (PSF) for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation. A PSF of a 6 MV photon beam was generated by simulating the interactions of primary electrons with the relevant geometries of a Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and recording the particles that reach a plane 16 cm downstream the electron source. Probability distribution functions (PDFs) for particle positions and energies were derived from the analysis of the PSF. These PDFs were implemented in the VSM using inverse transform sampling. To model particle directions, the phase space plane was divided into a regular square grid. Each element of the grid corresponds to an area of 1 mm2 in the phase space plane. The average direction cosines, Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between photon energies and their direction cosines, as well as the PCC between the direction cosines were calculated for each grid element. Weighted polynomial surfaces were then fitted to these 2D data. The weights are used to correct for heteroscedasticity across the phase space bins. The directions of the particles created by the VSM were calculated from these fitted functions. The VSM was validated against the PSF by comparing the doses calculated by the two methods for different square field sizes. The comparisons were performed with profile and gamma analyses. The doses calculated with the PSF and VSM agree to within 3% /1 mm (>95% pixel pass rate) for the evaluated fields. A new method of deriving a virtual photon source model of a linear accelerator from a PSF file for MC dose calculation was developed. Validation results show that the doses calculated with the VSM and the PSF agree to within 3% /1 mm.

  12. Group IV Light Sources to Enable the Convergence of Photonics and Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shinichi; Gardes, Frederic; Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Tani, Kazuki; Oda, Katsuya; Suwa, Yuji; Ido, Tatemi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Kako, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2014-09-01

    Group IV lasers are expected to revolutionize chip-to-chip optical communications in terms of cost, scalability, yield, and compatibility to the existing infrastructure of silicon industries for mass production. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art developments of silicon and germanium light sources towards monolithic integration. Quantum confinement of electrons and holes in nano-structures has been the primary route for light emission from silicon, and we can use advanced silicon technologies using top-down patterning processes to fabricate these nano-structures, including fin-type vertical multiple quantum wells. Moreover, the electromagnetic environment can also be manipulated in a photonic crystal nano-cavity to enhance the efficiency of light extraction and emission by the Purcell effect. Germanium is also widely investigated as an active material in Group IV photonics, and novel epitaxial growth technologies are being developed to make a high quality germanium layer on a silicon substrate. To develop a practical germanium laser, various technologies are employed for tensile-stress engineering and high electron doping to compensate the indirect valleys in the conduction band. These challenges are aiming to contribute towards the convergence of electronics and photonics on a silicon chip.

  13. Heralded single-photon source in a III-V photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alex S; Husko, Chad; Collins, Matthew J; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Xavier, Stéphane; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter we demonstrate heralded single-photon generation in a III-V semiconductor photonic crystal platform through spontaneous four-wave mixing. We achieve a high brightness of 3.4×10(7) pairs·s(-1) nm(-1) W(-1) facilitated through dispersion engineering and the suppression of two-photon absorption in the gallium indium phosphide material. Photon pairs are generated with a coincidence-to-accidental ratio over 60 and a low g(2) (0) of 0.06 proving nonclassical operation in the single photon regime.

  14. Advanced neutron source materials surveillance program

    SciTech Connect

    Heavilin, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be composed of several different materials, one of which is 6061-T6 aluminum. Among other components, the reflector vessel and the core pressure boundary tube (CPBT), are to be made of 6061-T6 aluminum. These components will be subjected to high thermal neutron fluences and will require a surveillance program to monitor the strength and fracture toughness of the 6061-T6 aluminum over their lifetimes. The purpose of this paper is to explain the steps that were taken in the summer of 1994 toward developing the surveillance program. The first goal was to decide upon standard specimens to use in the fracture toughness and tensile testing. Second, facilities had to be chosen for specimens representing the CPBT and the reflector vessel base, weld, and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) metals. Third, a timetable had to be defined to determine when to remove the specimens for testing.

  15. Coherent dynamics of a telecom-wavelength entangled photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, M. B.; Dean, M. C.; Stevenson, R. M.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Cooper, K.; Farrer, I.; Nicoll, C. A.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2014-02-01

    Quantum networks can interconnect remote quantum information processors, allowing interaction between different architectures and increasing net computational power. Fibre-optic telecommunications technology offers a practical platform for routing weakly interacting photonic qubits, allowing quantum correlations and entanglement to be established between distant nodes. Although entangled photons have been produced at telecommunications wavelengths using spontaneous parametric downconversion in nonlinear media, as system complexity increases their inherent excess photon generation will become limiting. Here we demonstrate entangled photon pair generation from a semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunications wavelength. Emitted photons are intrinsically anti-bunched and violate Bell’s inequality by 17 standard deviations High-visibility oscillations of the biphoton polarization reveal the time evolution of the emitted state with exceptional clarity, exposing long coherence times. Furthermore, we introduce a method to evaluate the fidelity to a time-evolving Bell state, revealing entanglement between photons emitted up to 5 ns apart, exceeding the exciton lifetime.

  16. Coherent dynamics of a telecom-wavelength entangled photon source.

    PubMed

    Ward, M B; Dean, M C; Stevenson, R M; Bennett, A J; Ellis, D J P; Cooper, K; Farrer, I; Nicoll, C A; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2014-01-01

    Quantum networks can interconnect remote quantum information processors, allowing interaction between different architectures and increasing net computational power. Fibre-optic telecommunications technology offers a practical platform for routing weakly interacting photonic qubits, allowing quantum correlations and entanglement to be established between distant nodes. Although entangled photons have been produced at telecommunications wavelengths using spontaneous parametric downconversion in nonlinear media, as system complexity increases their inherent excess photon generation will become limiting. Here we demonstrate entangled photon pair generation from a semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunications wavelength. Emitted photons are intrinsically anti-bunched and violate Bell's inequality by 17 standard deviations High-visibility oscillations of the biphoton polarization reveal the time evolution of the emitted state with exceptional clarity, exposing long coherence times. Furthermore, we introduce a method to evaluate the fidelity to a time-evolving Bell state, revealing entanglement between photons emitted up to 5 ns apart, exceeding the exciton lifetime.

  17. New developments in micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure research at 16-BM-D at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Park, Changyong; Popov, Dmitry; Ikuta, Daijo; Lin, Chuanlong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Bommannavar, Arunkumar; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    The monochromator and focusing mirrors of the 16-BM-D beamline, which is dedicated to high-pressure research with micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) (6-45 keV) spectroscopy, have been recently upgraded. Monochromatic X-rays are selected by a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator operated in an artificial channel-cut mode and focused to 5 μm × 5 μm (FWHM) by table-top Kirkpatrick-Baez type mirrors located near the sample stage. The typical X-ray flux is ∼5 × 10(8) photons/s at 30 keV. The instrumental resolution, Δq/qmax, reaches to 2 × 10(-3) and is tunable through adjustments of the detector distance and X-ray energy. The setup is stable and reproducible, which allows versatile application to various types of experiments including resistive heating and cryogenic cooling as well as ambient temperature compression. Transmission XANES is readily combined with micro-XRD utilizing the fixed-exit feature of the monochromator, which allows combined XRD-XANES measurements at a given sample condition.

  18. New developments in micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure research at 16-BM-D at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Changyong Popov, Dmitry; Ikuta, Daijo; Lin, Chuanlong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Bommannavar, Arunkumar; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-15

    The monochromator and focusing mirrors of the 16-BM-D beamline, which is dedicated to high-pressure research with micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) (6-45 keV) spectroscopy, have been recently upgraded. Monochromatic X-rays are selected by a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator operated in an artificial channel-cut mode and focused to 5 μm × 5 μm (FWHM) by table-top Kirkpatrick-Baez type mirrors located near the sample stage. The typical X-ray flux is ∼5 × 10{sup 8} photons/s at 30 keV. The instrumental resolution, Δq/q{sub max}, reaches to 2 × 10{sup −3} and is tunable through adjustments of the detector distance and X-ray energy. The setup is stable and reproducible, which allows versatile application to various types of experiments including resistive heating and cryogenic cooling as well as ambient temperature compression. Transmission XANES is readily combined with micro-XRD utilizing the fixed-exit feature of the monochromator, which allows combined XRD-XANES measurements at a given sample condition.

  19. An extremely low-noise heralded single-photon source: A breakthrough for quantum technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Genovese, M.; Piacentini, F.; Traina, P.; Della Frera, A.; Tosi, A.; Bahgat Shehata, A.; Scarcella, C.; Gulinatti, A.; Ghioni, M.; Polyakov, S. V.; Migdall, A.; Giudice, A.

    2012-11-01

    Low noise single-photon sources are a critical element for quantum technologies. We present a heralded single-photon source with an extremely low level of residual background photons, by implementing low-jitter detectors and electronics and a fast custom-made pulse generator controlling an optical shutter (a LiNbO3 waveguide optical switch) on the output of the source. This source has a second-order autocorrelation g(2)(0)=0.005(7), and an output noise factor (defined as the ratio of the number of noise photons to total photons at the source output channel) of 0.25(1)%. These are the best performance characteristics reported to date.

  20. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    DOEpatents

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  1. Advanced Light Source: Activity report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces the world`s brightest light in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The first low-energy third-generation synchrotron source in the world, the ALS provides unprecedented opportunities for research in science and technology not possible anywhere else. This year marked the beginning of operations and the start of the user research program at the ALS, which has already produced numerous high quality results. A national user facility located at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California, the ALS is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. This report contains the following: (1) director`s message; (2) operations overview; (3) user program; (4) users` executive committee; (5) industrial outreach; (6) accelerator operations; (7) beamline control system; (8) insertion devices; (9) experimental systems; (10) beamline engineering; (11) first results from user beamlines; (12) beamlines for 1994--1995; (13) special events; (14) publications; (15) advisory panels; and (16) ALS staff.

  2. On-demand source of maximally entangled photon pairs using the biexciton-exciton radiative cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winik, R.; Cogan, D.; Don, Y.; Schwartz, I.; Gantz, L.; Schmidgall, E. R.; Livneh, N.; Rapaport, R.; Buks, E.; Gershoni, D.

    2017-06-01

    We perform full time-resolved tomographic measurements of the polarization state of pairs of photons emitted during the radiative cascade of the confined biexciton in a semiconductor quantum dot. The biexciton was deterministically initiated using a π -area pulse into the biexciton two-photon absorption resonance. Our measurements demonstrate that the polarization states of the emitted photon pair are maximally entangled. We show that the measured degree of entanglement depends solely on the temporal resolution by which the time difference between the emissions of the photon pair is determined. A route for fabricating an on-demand source of maximally polarization entangled photon pairs is thereby provided.

  3. Engineering for high heat loads on ALS (Advanced Light Source) beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, R.; Swain, T.

    1989-08-01

    This paper discussed general thermal engineering problems and specific categories of thermal design issues for high photon flux beam lines at the LBL Advanced Light Source: thermal distortion of optical surfaces and elevated temperatures of thermal absorbers receiving synchrotron radiation. A generic design for water-cooled heat absorbers is described for use with ALS photon shutters, beam defining apertures, and heat absorbing masks. Also, results of in- situ measurements of thermal distortion of a water-cooled mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam line are compared with calculated performance estimates. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  4. X-ray nanoprobe project at Taiwan Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Gung-Chian Chang, Shih-Hung; Chen, Bo-Yi; Chen, Huang-Yeh; Lin, Bi-Hsuan; Tseng, Shao-Chin; Lee, Chien-Yu; Wu, Jian-Xing; Tang, Mau-Tsu; Wu, Shao-Yun

    2016-07-27

    The hard X-ray nanoprobe facility at Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) provides versatile X-ray analysis techniques, with tens of nanometer resolution, including XRF, XAS, XEOL, projection microscope, CDI, etc. Resulting from the large numerical aperture obtained by utilizing Montel KB mirrors, the beamline with a moderate length 75 meters can conduct similar performance with those beamlines longer than 100 meters. The two silica-made Montel mirrors are 45 degree cut and placed in a V-shape to eliminate the gap loss and the deformation caused by gravity. The slope error of the KB mirror pair is less than 0.04 µrad accomplished by elastic emission machining (EEM) method. For the beamline, a horizontal DCM and two-stage focusing in horizontal direction is applied. For the endstation, a combination of SEM for quickly positioning the sample, a fly scanning system with laser interferometers, a precise temperature control system, and a load lock transfer system will be implemented. In this presentation, the design and construction progress of the beamline and endstation is reported. The endstation is scheduled to be in commissioning phase in 2016.

  5. Advanced active quenching circuits for single-photon avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipčević, M.; Christensen, B. G.; Kwiat, P. G.; Gauthier, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    Commercial photon-counting modules, often based on actively quenched solid-state avalanche photodiode sensors, are used in wide variety of applications. Manufacturers characterize their detectors by specifying a small set of parameters, such as detection efficiency, dead time, dark counts rate, afterpulsing probability and single photon arrival time resolution (jitter), however they usually do not specify the conditions under which these parameters are constant or present a sufficient description. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of the active quenching process and identify intrinsic limitations and engineering challenges. Based on that, we investigate the range of validity of the typical parameters used by two commercial detectors. We identify an additional set of imperfections that must be specified in order to sufficiently characterize the behavior of single-photon counting detectors in realistic applications. The additional imperfections include rate-dependence of the dead time, jitter, detection delay shift, and "twilighting." Also, the temporal distribution of afterpulsing and various artifacts of the electronics are important. We find that these additional non-ideal behaviors can lead to unexpected effects or strong deterioration of the system's performance. Specifically, we discuss implications of these new findings in a few applications in which single-photon detectors play a major role: the security of a quantum cryptographic protocol, the quality of single-photon-based random number generators and a few other applications. Finally, we describe an example of an optimized avalanche quenching circuit for a high-rate quantum key distribution system based on time-bin entangled photons.

  6. Applications of photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy with third-generation, synchrotron-radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Mother nature's finest test probe; soft x-ray emission spectroscopy with high-brightness synchrotron radiation sources; anisotropy and polarization of x-ray emission from atoms and molecules; valence-hole fluorescence from molecular photoions as a probe of shape-resonance ionization: progress and prospects; structural biophysics on third-generation synchrotron sources; ultra-soft x-ray fluorescence-yield XAFS: an in situ photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy; and x-ray microprobe: an analytical tool for imaging elemental composition and microstructure.

  7. Applications of photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy with third-generation, synchrotron-radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: Mother nature`s finest test probe; soft x-ray emission spectroscopy with high-brightness synchrotron radiation sources; anisotropy and polarization of x-ray emission from atoms and molecules; valence-hole fluorescence from molecular photoions as a probe of shape-resonance ionization: progress and prospects; structural biophysics on third-generation synchrotron sources; ultra-soft x-ray fluorescence-yield XAFS: an in situ photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy; and x-ray microprobe: an analytical tool for imaging elemental composition and microstructure.

  8. Recent advances in high-speed photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1982-12-01

    Recent progress of some fast high-gain photon detectors using photoemission and secondary emission processes is reviewed and summarized. Specifically, performance characteristics are presented, of the new Amperex XP 2020, RCA 8854, and Hamamatsu R 647-01 conventionally design photomultipliers. Also, characteristics are presented of the ITT F 4129 and Hamamatsu R 1564U extended lifetime microchannel plate photomultipliers as well as certain special made photomultipliers intended for application in positron emission tomography, high energy physics and plasma diagnostic experimental systems. Finally, microchannel plates as photon detectors for ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths are discussed.

  9. Femtosecond Laser--Pumped Source of Entangled Photons for Quantum Cryptography Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, D.; Donaldson, W.; Sobolewski, R.

    2007-07-31

    We present an experimental setup for generation of entangled-photon pairs via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, based on the femtosecond-pulsed laser. Our entangled-photon source utilizes a 76-MHz-repetition-rate, 100-fs-pulse-width, mode-locked, ultrafast femtosecond laser, which can produce, on average, more photon pairs than a cw laser of an equal pump power. The resulting entangled pairs are counted by a pair of high-quantum-efficiency, single-photon, silicon avalanche photodiodes. Our apparatus is intended as an efficient source/receiver system for the quantum communications and quantum cryptography applications.

  10. Dynamically unpolarized single-photon source in diamond with intrinsic randomness

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Naofumi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Sadgrove, Mark; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Polarization is one of the fundamental properties of light, providing numerous applications in science and technology. While ‘dynamically unpolarized’ single-photon sources are demanded for various quantum applications, such sources have never been explored. Here we demonstrate dynamically unpolarized single-photon emission from a single [111]-oriented nitrogen- vacancy centre in diamond, in which the single-photon stream is unpolarized, exhibiting intrinsic randomness with vanishing polarization correlation between time adjacent photons. These properties not only allow true random number generation, but may also enable fundamental tests in quantum physics. PMID:28443612

  11. Tailoring the Optical Properties of Silicon with Ion Beam Created Nanostructures for Advanced Photonics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Perveen

    In today's fast life, energy consumption has increased more than ever and with that the demand for a renewable and cleaner energy source as a substitute for the fossil fuels has also increased. Solar radiations are the ultimate source of energy but harvesting this energy in a cost effective way is a challenging task. Si is the dominating material for microelectronics and photovoltaics. But owing to its indirect band gap, Si is an inefficient light absorber, thus requiring a thickness of solar cells beyond tens of microns which increases the cost of solar energy. Therefore, techniques to increase light absorption in thin film Si solar cells are of great importance and have been the focus of research for a few decades now. Another big issue of technology in this fast-paced world is the computing rate or data transfer rate between components of a chip in ultra-fast processors. Existing electronic interconnects suffering from the signal delays and heat generation issues are unable to handle high data rates. A possible solution to this problem is in replacing the electronic interconnects with optical interconnects which have large data carrying capacity. However, optical components are limited in size by the fundamental laws of diffraction to about half a wavelength of light and cannot be combined with nanoscale electronic components. Tremendous research efforts have been directed in search of an advanced technology which can bridge the size gap between electronic and photonic worlds. An emerging technology of "plasmonics'' which exploits the extraordinary optical properties of metal nanostructures to tailor the light at nanoscale has been considered a potential solution to both of the above-mentioned problems. Research conducted for this dissertation has an overall goal to investigate the optical properties of silicon with metal nanostructures for photovoltaics and advanced silicon photonics applications. The first part of the research focuses on achieving enhanced

  12. Advanced Source Deconvolution Methods for Compton Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoglauer, Andreas

    The next generation of space telescopes utilizing Compton scattering for astrophysical observations is destined to one day unravel the mysteries behind Galactic nucleosynthesis, to determine the origin of the positron annihilation excess near the Galactic center, and to uncover the hidden emission mechanisms behind gamma-ray bursts. Besides astrophysics, Compton telescopes are establishing themselves in heliophysics, planetary sciences, medical imaging, accelerator physics, and environmental monitoring. Since the COMPTEL days, great advances in the achievable energy and position resolution were possible, creating an extremely vast, but also extremely sparsely sampled data space. Unfortunately, the optimum way to analyze the data from the next generation of Compton telescopes has not yet been found, which can retrieve all source parameters (location, spectrum, polarization, flux) and achieves the best possible resolution and sensitivity at the same time. This is especially important for all sciences objectives looking at the inner Galaxy: the large amount of expected sources, the high background (internal and Galactic diffuse emission), and the limited angular resolution, make it the most taxing case for data analysis. In general, two key challenges exist: First, what are the best data space representations to answer the specific science questions? Second, what is the best way to deconvolve the data to fully retrieve the source parameters? For modern Compton telescopes, the existing data space representations can either correctly reconstruct the absolute flux (binned mode) or achieve the best possible resolution (list-mode), both together were not possible up to now. Here we propose to develop a two-stage hybrid reconstruction method which combines the best aspects of both. Using a proof-of-concept implementation we can for the first time show that it is possible to alternate during each deconvolution step between a binned-mode approach to get the flux right and a

  13. Improving the performance of bright quantum dot single photon sources using temporal filtering via amplitude modulation.

    PubMed

    Ates, Serkan; Agha, Imad; Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2013-01-01

    Single epitaxially-grown semiconductor quantum dots have great potential as single photon sources for photonic quantum technologies, though in practice devices often exhibit nonideal behavior. Here, we demonstrate that amplitude modulation can improve the performance of quantum-dot-based sources. Starting with a bright source consisting of a single quantum dot in a fiber-coupled microdisk cavity, we use synchronized amplitude modulation to temporally filter the emitted light. We observe that the single photon purity, temporal overlap between successive emission events, and indistinguishability can be greatly improved with this technique. As this method can be applied to any triggered single photon source, independent of geometry and after device fabrication, it is a flexible approach to improve the performance of systems based on single solid-state quantum emitters, which often suffer from excess dephasing and multi-photon background emission.

  14. Improving the performance of bright quantum dot single photon sources using temporal filtering via amplitude modulation

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Serkan; Agha, Imad; Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2013-01-01

    Single epitaxially-grown semiconductor quantum dots have great potential as single photon sources for photonic quantum technologies, though in practice devices often exhibit nonideal behavior. Here, we demonstrate that amplitude modulation can improve the performance of quantum-dot-based sources. Starting with a bright source consisting of a single quantum dot in a fiber-coupled microdisk cavity, we use synchronized amplitude modulation to temporally filter the emitted light. We observe that the single photon purity, temporal overlap between successive emission events, and indistinguishability can be greatly improved with this technique. As this method can be applied to any triggered single photon source, independent of geometry and after device fabrication, it is a flexible approach to improve the performance of systems based on single solid-state quantum emitters, which often suffer from excess dephasing and multi-photon background emission. PMID:23466520

  15. On-Chip Waveguide Coupling of a Layered Semiconductor Single-Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Tonndorf, Philipp; Del Pozo-Zamudio, Osvaldo; Gruhler, Nico; Kern, Johannes; Schmidt, Robert; Dmitriev, Alexander I; Bakhtinov, Anatoly P; Tartakovskii, Alexander I; Pernice, Wolfram; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2017-09-13

    Fully integrated quantum technology based on photons is in the focus of current research, because of its immense potential concerning performance and scalability. Ideally, the single-photon sources, the processing units, and the photon detectors are all combined on a single chip. Impressive progress has been made for on-chip quantum circuits and on-chip single-photon detection. In contrast, nonclassical light is commonly coupled onto the photonic chip from the outside, because presently only few integrated single-photon sources exist. Here, we present waveguide-coupled single-photon emitters in the layered semiconductor gallium selenide as promising on-chip sources. GaSe crystals with a thickness below 100 nm are placed on Si3N4 rib or slot waveguides, resulting in a modified mode structure efficient for light coupling. Using optical excitation from within the Si3N4 waveguide, we find nonclassicality of generated photons routed on the photonic chip. Thus, our work provides an easy-to-implement and robust light source for integrated quantum technology.

  16. Narrowband high-fidelity all-fibre source of heralded single photons at 1570 nm.

    PubMed

    McMillan, A R; Fulconis, J; Halder, M; Xiong, C; Rarity, J G; Wadsworth, W J

    2009-04-13

    An all-fibre heralded single photon source operating at 1570 nm has been demonstrated. The device generates correlated photon pairs, widely spaced in frequency, through four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fibre. Separation of the pair photons and narrowband filtering is all achieved in fibre. The output heralded single photon rate was 9.2 x 10(4) per second, with a counts-to-accidentals ratio of 10.4 and a heralding fidelity of 52 %. Furthermore, narrowband filtering ensured that the output single photon state was near time-bandwidth limited with a coherence length of 4 ps. Such a source is well suited to quantum information processing applications.

  17. Advanced power sources for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

    1989-01-01

    Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

  18. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  19. Advanced light source storage ring rf system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, B.; Baptiste, K.; Lancaster, H.; Lo, C.C.

    1989-03-01

    The short electron bunch length (30ps design target) of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) stored beam is capable exciting a wide spectrum of higher order mode (HOM) frequencies. Further, the small aperture and low cut off frequency of the beam enveloping components does not allow for transmission and consequent attenuation of the lower frequency HOM components. The small cross section and divergence of the high brightness electron beam will allow for more sophisticated high resolution experiments by synchrotron radiation users. A more stringent requirement on beam position stability results, however. In this area transmitted mechanical vibration becomes a problem. The ALS RF system splits 300kW of CW 500MHz power between two single cell cavities. Compared to past practice this power rating is high. The use of only two cavities however has some advantages, it simplifies the waveguide feed system and releases room in straight sections for insertion devices, more important it reduces HOM and beam impedance problems. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. An ALS (Advanced Light Source) handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This booklet aims to provide the prospective user of the Advanced Light Source with a concise description of the radiation a researcher might expect at his or her experimental station. The focus is therefore on the characteristics of the light that emerges from insertion devices and bending magnets and on how components of the beam lines further alter the properties of the radiation. The specifications and operating parameters of the ALS injection system and storage ring are of only peripheral interest. To this end, Sections 3 and 5 and most of Section 4 are devoted to summary presentations, by means of performance plots and tabular compilations, of radiation characteristics at the ALS--spectral brightness, flux, coherent power, resolution, time structure, etc.--assuming a representative set of four undulators and one wiggler and a corresponding set of five beam lines. As a complement to these performance summaries, Section 1 is a general introductory discussion of synchrotron radiation and the ALS, and Section 2 provides a compendious introduction to the characteristics of synchrotron radiation from bending magnets, wigglers, and undulators. In addition, Section 4 briefly introduces the theory of diffraction grating and crystal monochromators. 15 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Reactor design of the advanced neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskamp, J.M. ); Selby, D.L.; Primm, R.T. III )

    1991-03-01

    The ongoing preconceptual and conceptual reactor design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is explored. The ANS is being designed for materials sciences, isotope production, and fundamental physics research. A reactor design based on previously developed technology can meet the performance requirements set by the user community for a new ANS to serve all fields of neutron science. These requirements include the capability of producing a peak thermal neutron flux over five times higher than that in use at any currently operating steady-state facility. Achievement of these ultrahigh flux levels involves many interesting aspects of reactor design. The reactor characteristics of the current preconceptual reference design are presented. The attainment of this design was reached by following a design strategy that best met the safety and user requirements. The design has evolved over the last 5 yr from two concepts proposed in 1985. The trade-offs and selection of many reactor parameters are described to illustrate how and why the current design was achieved. Further reactor design is planned, leading to an ANS operating by 1999 for use by scientists of many disciplines.

  2. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  3. First commissioning results for the elliptically polarizing undulator beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. T.; Feng, J.; Arenholz, E.; Padmore, H. A.; Henderson, T.; Marks, S.; Hoyer, E.; Schlueter, R.; Kortright, J. B.; Martynov, V.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.

    2001-07-01

    A new facility at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, for high resolution magnetic spectroscopy is described. Beamline 4.0.2 has an elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) and a high resolution monochromator, covering the energy range from 90 to 1800 eV. In this paper, we present the first commissioning results from this beamline, including measurements of the spectral resolution, photon flux and polarization of the x-rays.

  4. Compact quasi-monoenergetic photon sources from laser-plasma accelerators for nuclear detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Rykovanov, Sergey; Matlis, Nicholas H.; Steinke, Sven; Vay, Jean-Luc; Esarey, Eric H.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Nakamura, Kei; Quiter, Brian J.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim P.

    2015-05-01

    Near-monoenergetic photon sources at MeV energies offer improved sensitivity at greatly reduced dose for active interrogation, and new capabilities in treaty verification, nondestructive assay of spent nuclear fuel and emergency response. Thomson (also referred to as Compton) scattering sources are an established method to produce appropriate photon beams. Applications are however restricted by the size of the required high-energy electron linac, scattering (photon production) system, and shielding for disposal of the high energy electron beam. Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) produce GeV electron beams in centimeters, using the plasma wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense laser. Recent LPA experiments are presented which have greatly improved beam quality and efficiency, rendering them appropriate for compact high-quality photon sources based on Thomson scattering. Designs for MeV photon sources utilizing the unique properties of LPAs are presented. It is shown that control of the scattering laser, including plasma guiding, can increase photon production efficiency. This reduces scattering laser size and/or electron beam current requirements to scale compatible with the LPA. Lastly, the plasma structure can decelerate the electron beam after photon production, reducing the size of shielding required for beam disposal. Together, these techniques provide a path to a compact photon source system.

  5. Effect of photon energy spectrum on dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. Background Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. Materials and methods MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra. The references for photon energy spectra were: published papers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The data calculated by these photon energy spectra were compared. Results Dose rate constant values showed a maximum difference of 24.07% for 103Pd source with different photon energy spectra. Radial dose function values based on different spectra were relatively the same. 2D anisotropy function values showed minor differences in most of distances and angles. There was not any detectable difference between the isodose contours. Conclusions Dosimetric parameters obtained with different photon spectra were relatively the same, however it is suggested that more accurate and updated photon energy spectra be used in Monte Carlo simulations. This would allow for calculation of reliable dosimetric data for source modeling and calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems. PMID:27247558

  6. Nano-photonic organic solar cell architecture for advanced light management utilizing dual photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2015-09-01

    Organic solar cells have rapidly increasing efficiencies, but typically absorb less than half of the incident solar spectrum. To increase broadband light absorption, we rigorously design experimentally realizable solar cell architectures based on dual photonic crystals. Our optimized architecture consists of a polymer microlens at the air-glass interface, coupled with a photonic-plasmonic crystal at the metal cathode. The microlens focuses light on the periodic nanostructure that generates strong light diffraction. Waveguiding modes and surface plasmon modes together enhance long wavelength absorption in P3HT-PCBM. The architecture has a period of 500 nm, with absorption and photocurrent enhancement of 49% and 58%, respectively.

  7. Miniaturized silicon photonic integrated swept source OCT receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Chen, Long; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of OCT systems are important for enabling many new clinical applications as well as accelerating the development of existing applications. Silicon photonics is an important low-cost, high-volume, multi-functional platform for integrated optics because it can benefit from existing semiconductor fabrication techniques to integrate many advanced optical functions onto a single microchip. We present a miniaturized silicon photonic integrated swept source OCT receiver, measuring 3×4mm2, with advanced functionalities including dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection, essentially enabling the detection of the full vector field (amplitude, phase, and polarization) of the optical signal. With this integrated receiver, we demonstrate full-range OCT for complex conjugate artifact suppression, polarization diversity detection for removing polarization fading artifact, and polarization sensitive OCT for tissue birefringence imaging. The silicon photonic integrated receiver is a key advance towards developing a miniaturized, multi-functional swept source OCT system.

  8. Toward a downconversion source of positively spectrally correlated and decorrelated telecom photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Thomas; Kolenderski, Piotr; Jennewein, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency correlation (or decorrelation) of photon pairs is of great importance in long-range quantum communications and photonic quantum computing. We experimentally characterize a spontaneous parametric downconversion source, based on a β-barium borate crystal cut for type-II phase matching at 1550 nm, which has the capability to emit photons with positive or no spectral correlations. Our system employs a carefully designed detection method exploiting two InGaAs detectors.

  9. Bright single-photon source based on an InAs quantum dot in a silver-embedded nanocone structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Asano, T.; Odashima, S.; Nakajima, H.; Kumano, H.; Suemune, I.

    2013-04-01

    High photon-extraction efficiency is strongly required for a practical single-photon source. We succeed in fabricating metal (sliver)-embedded nanocone structure incorporating an InAs quantum dot. Efficient photon emission of ˜200 000 photons per second is detected and single-photon emission is demonstrated using autocorrelation measurements. The photon-extraction efficiency as high as 24.6% is obtained from the structure.

  10. Monolithic on-chip integration of semiconductor waveguides, beamsplitters and single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöns, Klaus D.; Rengstl, Ulrich; Oster, Markus; Hargart, Fabian; Heldmaier, Matthias; Bounouar, Samir; Ulrich, Sven M.; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of fully integrated single-photon sources and detectors into waveguide structures such as photonic crystals or a slab and ridge waveguide is currently one of the major goals in the linear optics quantum computation and communication community. Here, we present an implementation of a single-photon on-chip experiment based on a III-V semiconductor platform. Individual semiconductor quantum dots were used as pulsed single-photon sources integrated in ridge waveguides, and the on-chip waveguide-beamsplitter operation is verified on the single-photon level by performing off-chip photon cross-correlation measurements between the two output ports of the beamsplitter. A degree of polarization of the emitted photons above 90% is observed and a careful characterization of the waveguide propagation losses in straight (< 1.5 dB mm-1) and bent (˜ (8.5 ± 2.2) dB mm-1) sections documents the applicability of such GaAs-based waveguide structures in more complex photonic integrated circuits. The presented work marks an important step towards the realization of fully integrated photonic quantum circuits including on-demand single-photon emitters.

  11. Heralded single-photon source from spontaneous four-wave mixing process in lossy waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nuno A.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate theoretically the spontaneous four-wave mixing (FWM) process that occurs in optical waveguides, as a source of quantum correlated photon-pairs. We consider that the waveguide used to implement the spontaneous FWM process presents a high value of nonlinear parameter, γ = 93.4 W-1m-1, and a non-negligible value of loss coefficient, α = 133.3 dB/m. Moreover, the theoretical model also consider the Raman scattering that inevitably accompanies the FWM process, and generates time-uncorrelated (noise) photon pairs. We use the coincident-to-accidental ratio (CAR) as a figure of merit of the photon pair source, and we were able to observe a CAR of the order of 65 in a high loss regime. After, we use the time-correlated photon pairs generated by the spontaneous FWM process to implement a heralded single photon source at waveguide output. In this scenario, the detection of one photon of the pair heralds the presence of the other photon. The quality of the source was studied by the evaluation of the second order coherence function for one photon of the pair conditioned by the detection of its twin photon. We observe that the presence of a high loss coefficient tends to improve the quality of the photon source, when compared with the lossless regime, even considering the Raman noise photons. We obtain a value for the conditional second order coherence function of the order of 0.11 in absence of loss, and a value of 0.03 for a loss coefficient of 133.3 dB/m.

  12. A bright triggered twin-photon source in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Heindel, T.; Thoma, A.; von Helversen, M.; Schmidt, M.; Schlehahn, A.; Gschrey, M.; Schnauber, P.; Schulze, J. -H.; Strittmatter, A.; Beyer, J.; Rodt, S.; Carmele, A.; Knorr, A.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2017-01-01

    A non-classical light source emitting pairs of identical photons represents a versatile resource of interdisciplinary importance with applications in quantum optics and quantum biology. To date, photon twins have mostly been generated using parametric downconversion sources, relying on Poissonian number distributions, or atoms, exhibiting low emission rates. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate the efficient, triggered generation of photon twins using the energy-degenerate biexciton–exciton radiative cascade of a single semiconductor quantum dot. Deterministically integrated within a microlens, this nanostructure emits highly correlated photon pairs, degenerate in energy and polarization, at a rate of up to (234±4) kHz. Furthermore, we verify a significant degree of photon indistinguishability and directly observe twin-photon emission by employing photon-number-resolving detectors, which enables the reconstruction of the emitted photon number distribution. Our work represents an important step towards the realization of efficient sources of twin-photon states on a fully scalable technology platform. PMID:28367950

  13. III-Nitride high temperature single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Deshpande, Saniya; Frost, Thomas; Hazari, Arnab

    2015-03-01

    Nitride based GaN and InGaN quantum dots are excellent single-photon emitters at high temperature owing to their wide bandgap and large exciton binding energy [1-5]. In this work, two different molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown nanostructures have been investigated for single-photon emission: InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire and InGaN/GaN self-organized quantum dot. Single-photon emission under both optical and electrical excitation has been observed from a single InGaN quantum contained in a GaN nanowire p-n junction. We demonstrate electrically driven single-photon emission, with a g (2)(0) = 0.35, from a single InGaN quantum dot emitting in the green spectral range (λ=520 nm) up to 125 K. Additionally, a self-organized InGaN/GaN single quantum dot diode was grown and fabricated. Emission from a single quantum dot (λ=620 nm) shows single-photon emission with g(2)(0) = 0.29 at room temperature. On-demand single-photon emission by electrical pumping of the quantum dot at an excitation repetition rate of 200 MHz was demonstrated.

  14. Undulators at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J.; Gath, W.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Marks, S.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Portmann, G.; Schlueter, R.

    1995-02-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested, and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 μm over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within ±5 μm. Gap adjusting range is from 14 to 210 mm, which can be scanned in 1 min. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are in the mid-10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23% and 0.20% for the two U5.0s and the U8.0, respectively, and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm×6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented.

  15. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

  16. Next-Generation Photon Sources for Grand Challenges in Science and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    The next generation of sustainable energy technologies will revolve around transformational new materials and chemical processes that convert energy efficiently among photons, electrons, and chemical bonds. New materials that tap sunlight, store electricity, or make fuel from splitting water or recycling carbon dioxide will need to be much smarter and more functional than today's commodity-based energy materials. To control and catalyze chemical reactions or to convert a solar photon to an electron requires coordination of multiple steps, each carried out by customized materials and interfaces with designed nanoscale structures. Such advanced materials are not found in nature the way we find fossil fuels; they must be designed and fabricated to exacting standards, using principles revealed by basic science. Success in this endeavor requires probing, and ultimately controlling, the interactions among photons, electrons, and chemical bonds on their natural length and time scales. Control science - the application of knowledge at the frontier of science to control phenomena and create new functionality - realized through the next generation of ultraviolet and X-ray photon sources, has the potential to be transformational for the life sciences and information technology, as well as for sustainable energy. Current synchrotron-based light sources have revolutionized macromolecular crystallography. The insights thus obtained are largely in the domain of static structure. The opportunity is for next generation light sources to extend these insights to the control of dynamic phenomena through ultrafast pump-probe experiments, time-resolved coherent imaging, and high-resolution spectroscopic imaging. Similarly, control of spin and charge degrees of freedom in complex functional materials has the potential not only to reveal the fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity, but also to lay the foundation for future generations of information science. This

  17. A comparison of photon counting and current measuring techniques in spectrophotometry of faint sources.

    PubMed

    Tull, R G

    1968-10-01

    The component of dark noise produced by Cerenkov pulses in photomultipliers due to cosmic ray mu mesons is discussed. It is shown by integration of pulse height spectra that this source of noise can be the limiting factor in de measuring spectrophotometry of faint astronomical sources. Direct current methods of photometry are compared with photon counting, and the advantage of photon counting is demonstrated under various operating conditions.

  18. Precision error in dual-photon absorptiometry related to source age

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.D.; Wasnich, R.D.; Vogel, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    An average, variable precision error of up to 6% related to source age was observed for dual-photon absorptiometry of the spine in a longitudinal study of bone mineral content involving 393 women. Application of a software correction for source decay compensated for only a portion of this error. The authors conclude that measurement of bone-loss rates using serial dual-photon bone mineral measurements must be interpreted with caution.

  19. Status report on the advanced photon source: Spring 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Moncton, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Facility construction is presented for the conventional facilities, central laboratory/Office building, and the user residence facility. Accelerator systems are described in terms of commissioning and control system hardware. Insertion devices, front-end components, and monochromators are depicted in the experimental facilities. The operating energy and beam stability are discussed in terms of operations objectives. Collaborative access teams efforts are presented for the memoranda of understanding, CAT funding, and foreign participation in research at APS.

  20. High-Efficiency Plug-and-Play Source of Heralded Single Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaut, Nicola; Sansoni, Linda; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Ricken, Raimund; Quiring, Viktor; Herrmann, Harald; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Reliable generation of single photons is of key importance for fundamental physical experiments and to demonstrate quantum protocols. Waveguide-based photon-pair sources have shown great promise in this regard due to their large spectral tunability, high generation rates, and long temporal coherence of the photon wave packet. However, integrating such sources with fiber-optic networks often results in a strong degradation of performance. We answer this challenge by presenting an alignment-free source of photon pairs in the telecommunications band that maintains heralding efficiency >50 % even after fiber pigtailing, photon separation, and pump suppression. The source combines this outstanding performance in heralding efficiency with a compact, stable, and easy-to-use "plug-and-play" package: one simply connects a laser to the input and detectors to the output, and the source is ready to use. This high performance can be achieved even outside the lab without the need for alignment which makes the source extremely useful for any experiment or demonstration needing heralded single photons.

  1. Room temperature single photon source using fiber-integrated hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Tobias; Lu, Yuerui; Lam, Ping Koy

    2017-07-01

    Single photons are a key resource for quantum optics and optical quantum information processing. The integration of scalable room temperature quantum emitters into photonic circuits remains to be a technical challenge. Here we utilize a defect center in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) attached by Van der Waals force onto a multimode fiber as a single photon source. We perform an optical characterization of the source in terms of spectrum, state lifetime, power saturation and photostability. A special feature of our source is that it allows for easy switching between fiber-coupled and free space single photon generation modes. In order to prove the quantum nature of the emission we measure the second-order correlation function {{g}(2)}≤ft(τ \\right) . For both fiber-coupled and free space emission, the {{g}(2)}≤ft(τ \\right) dips below 0.5 indicating operation in the single photon regime. The results so far demonstrate the feasibility of 2D material single photon sources for scalable photonic quantum information processing.

  2. Characterization of Low-Energy Photon-Emitting Brachytherapy Sources with Modified Strengths for Applications in Focal Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Joshua L.

    Permanent implants of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources are used to treat a variety of cancers. Individual source models must be separately characterized due to their unique geometry, materials, and radionuclides, which all influence their dose distributions. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are often used for dose measurements around low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources. TLDs are typically calibrated with higher energy sources such as 60Co, which requires a correction for the change in the response of the TLDs as a function of photon energy. These corrections have historically been based on TLD response to x ray bremsstrahlung spectra instead of to brachytherapy sources themselves. This work determined the TLD intrinsic energy dependence for 125I and 103Pd sources relative to 60Co, which allows for correction of TLD measurements of brachytherapy sources with factors specific to their energy spectra. Traditional brachytherapy sources contain mobile internal components and large amounts of high-Z material such as radio-opaque markers and titanium encapsulations. These all contribute to perturbations and uncertainties in the dose distribution around the source. The CivaString is a new elongated 103Pd brachytherapy source with a fixed internal geometry, polymer encapsulation, and lengths ranging from 1 to 6 cm, which offers advantages over traditional source designs. This work characterized the CivaString source and the results facilitated the formal approval of this source for use in clinical treatments. Additionally, the accuracy of a superposition technique for dose calculation around the sources with lengths >1 cm was verified. Advances in diagnostic techniques are paving the way for focal brachytherapy in which the dose is intentionally modulated throughout the target volume to focus on subvolumes that contain cancer cells. Brachytherapy sources with variable longitudinal strength (VLS) are a promising candidate for use in focal

  3. Plug-in to Eclipse environment for VHDL source code editor with advanced formatting of text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes an idea and realization of a smart plug-in to the Eclipse software environment. The plug-in is predicted for editing of the VHDL source code. It extends considerably the capabilities of the VEditor program, which bases on the open license. There are presented the results of the formatting procedures performed on chosen examples of the VHDL source codes. The work is a part of a bigger project of building smart programming environment for design of advanced photonic and electronic systems. The examples of such systems are quoted in references.

  4. High-resolution VUV spectroscopy: New results from the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, F.; Bozek, J.

    1996-06-01

    Third-generation synchrotron light sources are providing photon beams of unprecedented brightness for researchers in atomic and molecular physics. Beamline 9.0.1, an undulator beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), produces a beam in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region of the spectrum with exceptional flux and spectral resolution. Exciting new results from experiments in atomic and molecular VUV spectroscopy of doubly excited autoionizing states of helium, hollow lithium, and photoelectron spectroscopy of small molecules using Beamline 9.0.1 at the ALS are reported.

  5. An advanced negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Alexey A. Dobrovolsky, Andrey N.; Goretskii, Victor P.

    2016-02-15

    The results of investigation of emission productivity of negative particles source with cesiated combined discharge are presented. A cylindrical beam of negative hydrogen ions with density about 2 A/cm{sup 2} in low noise mode on source emission aperture is obtained. The total beam current values are up to 200 mA for negative hydrogen ions and up to 1.5 A for all negative particles with high divergence after source. The source has simple design and can produce stable discharge with low level of oscillation.

  6. Quantum key distribution over 120 km using ultrahigh purity single-photon source and superconducting single-photon detectors

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Kazuya; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yorozu, Shinichi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Advances in single-photon sources (SPSs) and single-photon detectors (SPDs) promise unique applications in the field of quantum information technology. In this paper, we report long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) by using state-of-the-art devices: a quantum-dot SPS (QD SPS) emitting a photon in the telecom band of 1.5 μm and a superconducting nanowire SPD (SNSPD). At the distance of 100 km, we obtained the maximal secure key rate of 27.6 bps without using decoy states, which is at least threefold larger than the rate obtained in the previously reported 50-km-long QKD experiment. We also succeeded in transmitting secure keys at the rate of 0.307 bps over 120 km. This is the longest QKD distance yet reported by using known true SPSs. The ultralow multiphoton emissions of our SPS and ultralow dark count of the SNSPD contributed to this result. The experimental results demonstrate the potential applicability of QD SPSs to practical telecom QKD networks. PMID:26404010

  7. Quantum key distribution over 120 km using ultrahigh purity single-photon source and superconducting single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Kazuya; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yorozu, Shinichi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-09-01

    Advances in single-photon sources (SPSs) and single-photon detectors (SPDs) promise unique applications in the field of quantum information technology. In this paper, we report long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) by using state-of-the-art devices: a quantum-dot SPS (QD SPS) emitting a photon in the telecom band of 1.5 μm and a superconducting nanowire SPD (SNSPD). At the distance of 100 km, we obtained the maximal secure key rate of 27.6 bps without using decoy states, which is at least threefold larger than the rate obtained in the previously reported 50-km-long QKD experiment. We also succeeded in transmitting secure keys at the rate of 0.307 bps over 120 km. This is the longest QKD distance yet reported by using known true SPSs. The ultralow multiphoton emissions of our SPS and ultralow dark count of the SNSPD contributed to this result. The experimental results demonstrate the potential applicability of QD SPSs to practical telecom QKD networks.

  8. Heralded single-photon sources for quantum-key-distribution applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, Matteo; Vallone, Giuseppe; Ticozzi, Francesco; Villoresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon sources (SPSs) are a fundamental building block for optical implementations of quantum information protocols. Among SPSs, multiple crystal heralded single-photon sources seem to give the best compromise between high pair production rate and low multiple photon events. In this work, we study their performance in a practical quantum-key-distribution experiment, by evaluating the achievable key rates. The analysis focuses on the two different schemes, symmetric and asymmetric, proposed for the practical implementation of heralded single-photon sources, with attention on the performance of their composing elements. The analysis is based on the protocol proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 and on its improvement exploiting decoy state technique. Finally, a simple way of exploiting the postselection mechanism for a passive, one decoy state scheme is evaluated.

  9. Interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons with mirror and mixer

    DOEpatents

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-06-01

    53 Systems and methods are described for an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device optically coupled to a source of coherent energy, the multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device i) including a mirror and a mixer and ii) converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a tunable phase adjuster optically coupled to the condenser device, the tunable phase adjuster changing a phase of at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam to generate a first interferometeric multi-color entangled photon beam; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the condenser device, the beam splitter combining the first interferometeric multi-color entangled photon beam with a second interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam.

  10. A review on single photon sources in silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Lohrmann, A; Johnson, B C; McCallum, J C; Castelletto, S

    2017-03-01

    This paper summarizes key findings in single-photon generation from deep level defects in silicon carbide (SiC) and highlights the significance of these individually addressable centers for emerging quantum applications. Single photon emission from various defect centers in both bulk and nanostructured SiC are discussed as well as their formation and possible integration into optical and electrical devices. The related measurement protocols, the building blocks of quantum communication and computation network architectures in solid state systems, are also summarized. This includes experimental methodologies developed for spin control of different paramagnetic defects, including the measurement of spin coherence times. Well established doping, and micro- and nanofabrication procedures for SiC may allow the quantum properties of paramagnetic defects to be electrically and mechanically controlled efficiently. The integration of single defects into SiC devices is crucial for applications in quantum technologies and we will review progress in this direction.

  11. A review on single photon sources in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrmann, A.; Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C.; Castelletto, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper summarizes key findings in single-photon generation from deep level defects in silicon carbide (SiC) and highlights the significance of these individually addressable centers for emerging quantum applications. Single photon emission from various defect centers in both bulk and nanostructured SiC are discussed as well as their formation and possible integration into optical and electrical devices. The related measurement protocols, the building blocks of quantum communication and computation network architectures in solid state systems, are also summarized. This includes experimental methodologies developed for spin control of different paramagnetic defects, including the measurement of spin coherence times. Well established doping, and micro- and nanofabrication procedures for SiC may allow the quantum properties of paramagnetic defects to be electrically and mechanically controlled efficiently. The integration of single defects into SiC devices is crucial for applications in quantum technologies and we will review progress in this direction.

  12. Recent advances in superconducting NbN single-photon detector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, Alexander; Divochiy, Alexander; Vachtomin, Yury; Korneeva, Yulia; Florya, Irina; Elezov, Michael; Manova, Nadezhda; Tarkhov, Michael; An, Pavel; Kardakova, Anna; Isupova, Anastasiya; Chulkova, Galina; Smirnov, Konstantin; Kaurova, Natalya; Seleznev, Vitaliy; Voronov, Boris; Goltsman, Gregory

    2011-06-01

    Superconducting single-photon detector (SSPD) is a planar nanostructure patterned from 4-nm-thick NbN film deposited on sapphire substrate. The sensitive element of the SSPD is 100-nm-wide NbN strip. The device is operated at liquid helium temperature. Absorption of a photon leads to a local suppression of superconductivity producing subnanosecond-long voltage pulse. In infrared (at 1550 nm and longer wavelengths) SSPD outperforms avalanche photodiodes in terms of detection efficiency (DE), dark counts rate, maximum counting rate and timing jitter. Efficient single-mode fibre coupling of the SSPD enabled its usage in many applications ranging from single-photon sources research to quantum cryptography. Recently we managed to improve the SSPD performance and measured 25% detection efficiency at 1550 nm wavelength and dark counts rate of 10 s-1. We also improved photon-number resolving SSPD (PNR-SSPD) which realizes a spatial multiplexing of incident photons enabling resolving of up to 4 simultaneously absorbed photons. Another improvement is the increase of the photon absorption using a λ/4 microcavity integrated with the SSPD. And finally in our strive to increase the DE at longer wavelengths we fabricated SSPD with the strip almost twice narrower compared to the standard 100 nm and demonstrated that in middle infrared (about 3 μm wavelength) these devices have DE several times higher compared to the traditional SSPDs.

  13. Phenomenological Modeling of Infrared Sources: Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Chun Ming; Kwok, Sun (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Infrared observations from planned space facilities (e.g., ISO (Infrared Space Observatory), SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)) will yield a large and uniform sample of high-quality data from both photometric and spectroscopic measurements. To maximize the scientific returns of these space missions, complementary theoretical studies must be undertaken to interpret these observations. A crucial step in such studies is the construction of phenomenological models in which we parameterize the observed radiation characteristics in terms of the physical source properties. In the last decade, models with increasing degree of physical realism (in terms of grain properties, physical processes, and source geometry) have been constructed for infrared sources. Here we review current capabilities available in the phenomenological modeling of infrared sources and discuss briefly directions for future research in this area.

  14. Expert Assessment of Advanced Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    developments include: ydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells ( PEMFC ): gh- own. There is renewed interest in lithium/air, aluminum/air and carbon...of the small format fuel cells are of the PEM type, b H Because of the intense development of hydrogen fueled PEMFCs , largely for automotive... PEMFC . Two classes of hydrogen source can be identified: hydrogen storage or hydroge generation sources. Within each class they can be further

  15. Experimental observation of sub-Rayleigh quantum imaging with a two-photon entangled source

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, De-Qin; Song, Xin-Bing; Li, Hong-Guo; Zhang, De-Jian; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xiong, Jun Wang, Kaige

    2015-04-27

    It has been theoretically predicted that N-photon quantum imaging can realize either an N-fold resolution improvement (Heisenberg-like scaling) or a √(N)-fold resolution improvement (standard quantum limit) beyond the Rayleigh diffraction bound, over classical imaging. Here, we report the experimental study on spatial sub-Rayleigh quantum imaging using a two-photon entangled source. Two experimental schemes are proposed and performed. In a Fraunhofer diffraction scheme with a lens, two-photon Airy disk pattern is observed with subwavelength diffraction property. In a lens imaging apparatus, however, two-photon sub-Rayleigh imaging for an object is realized with super-resolution property. The experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction in the two-photon quantum imaging regime.

  16. Experimental observation of sub-Rayleigh quantum imaging with a two-photon entangled source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, De-Qin; Song, Xin-Bing; Li, Hong-Guo; Zhang, De-Jian; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xiong, Jun; Wang, Kaige

    2015-04-01

    It has been theoretically predicted that N-photon quantum imaging can realize either an N-fold resolution improvement (Heisenberg-like scaling) or a √{ N } -fold resolution improvement (standard quantum limit) beyond the Rayleigh diffraction bound, over classical imaging. Here, we report the experimental study on spatial sub-Rayleigh quantum imaging using a two-photon entangled source. Two experimental schemes are proposed and performed. In a Fraunhofer diffraction scheme with a lens, two-photon Airy disk pattern is observed with subwavelength diffraction property. In a lens imaging apparatus, however, two-photon sub-Rayleigh imaging for an object is realized with super-resolution property. The experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction in the two-photon quantum imaging regime.

  17. Hybrid microfiber-lithium-niobate nanowaveguide structures as high-purity heralded single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, Philip; Mosley, Peter J.; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Lijian; Gorbach, Andrey V.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a compact, fiber-integrated architecture for photon-pair generation by parametric downconversion with unprecedented flexibility in the properties of the photons produced. Our approach is based on a thin-film lithium niobate nanowaveguide, evanescently coupled to a tapered silica microfiber. We demonstrate how controllable mode hybridization between the fiber and waveguide yields control over the joint spectrum of the photon pairs. We also investigate how independent engineering of the linear and nonlinear properties of the structure can be achieved through the addition of a tapered, proton-exchanged layer to the waveguide. This allows further refinement of the joint spectrum through custom profiling of the effective nonlinearity, drastically improving the purity of the heralded photons. We give details of a source design capable of generating heralded single photons in the telecom wavelength range with purity of at least 0.95, and we provide a feasible fabrication methodology.

  18. Quantitative analysis of directional spontaneous emission spectra from light sources in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, Willem L.

    2005-05-15

    We have performed angle-resolved measurements of spontaneous-emission spectra from laser dyes and quantum dots in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals. Pronounced directional dependencies of the emission spectra are observed: angular ranges of strongly reduced emission adjoin with angular ranges of enhanced emission. It appears that emission from embedded light sources is affected both by the periodicity and by the structural imperfections of the crystals: the photons are Bragg diffracted by lattice planes and scattered by unavoidable structural disorder. Using a model comprising diffuse light transport and photonic band structure, we quantitatively explain the directional emission spectra. This work provides detailed understanding of the transport of spontaneously emitted light in real photonic crystals, which is essential in the interpretation of quantum optics in photonic-band-gap crystals and for applications wherein directional emission and total emission power are controlled.

  19. Direct photon production from hadronic sources in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Kiselev, S. M.; Sharkov, G. B.

    2008-09-15

    The low p{sub T} direct photon production from a variety of the hadronic sources is studied within the microscopic hadron-string dynamics transport approach for p+C, p+Pb, and Pb+Pb collisions at 160A GeV. The direct photon emission from elementary hadronic scatterings as well as meson-meson bremsstrahlung are incorporated. The influence of in-medium effects such as a collisional broadening of the vector-meson spectral functions on the photon emission rate is found to be hardly observable in the final spectra that are dominated by bremsstrahlung-type processes. The uncertainties in the subtraction of the 'background' from the photon decay of hadronic resonances inside the hot and dense fireball is investigated, additionally. Our findings are relevant for the interpretation and extraction of experimental data on direct photon production at low p{sub T}.

  20. A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Le Jeannic, Hanna; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Munro, William John; Shimizu, Kaoru; Yamada, Koji; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Takesue, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Integrated photonic circuits are one of the most promising platforms for large-scale photonic quantum information systems due to their small physical size and stable interferometers with near-perfect lateral-mode overlaps. Since many quantum information protocols are based on qubits defined by the polarization of photons, we must develop integrated building blocks to generate, manipulate, and measure the polarization-encoded quantum state on a chip. The generation unit is particularly important. Here we show the first integrated polarization-entangled photon pair source on a chip. We have implemented the source as a simple and stable silicon-on-insulator photonic circuit that generates an entangled state with 91 ± 2% fidelity. The source is equipped with versatile interfaces for silica-on-silicon or other types of waveguide platforms that accommodate the polarization manipulation and projection devices as well as pump light sources. Therefore, we are ready for the full-scale implementation of photonic quantum information systems on a chip. PMID:23150781

  1. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  2. Advanced Light Source activity report 1996/97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Ten years ago, the Advanced Light Source (ALS) existed as a set of drawings, calculations, and ideas. Four years ago, it stored an electron beam for the first time. Today, the ALS has moved from those ideas and beginnings to a robust, third-generation synchrotron user facility, with eighteen beam lines in use, many more in planning or construction phases, and hundreds of users from around the world. Progress from concepts to realities is continuous as the scientific program, already strong in many diverse areas, moves in new directions to meet the needs of researchers into the next century. ALS staff members who develop and maintain the infrastructure for this research are similarly unwilling to rest on their laurels. As a result, the quality of the photon beams the authors deliver, as well as the support they provide to users, continues to improve. The ALS Activity Report is designed to share the results of these efforts in an accessible form for a broad audience. The Scientific Program section, while not comprehensive, shares the breadth, variety, and interest of recent research at the ALS. (The Compendium of User Abstracts and Technical Reports provides a more comprehensive and more technical view.) The Facility Report highlights progress in operations, ongoing accelerator research and development, and beamline instrumentation efforts. Although these Activity Report sections are separate, in practice the achievements of staff and users at the ALS are inseparable. User-staff collaboration is essential as they strive to meet the needs of the user community and to continue the ALS's success as a premier research facility.

  3. Advanced photonic, electronic, and web engineering systems: WILGA Symposium, January 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The cycle of WILGA Symposia [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of SPIE, IEEE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Multi-Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The January conference was attended by around 100 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical photonics, electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced photonic, electronic circuits and systems. The 32 nd WILGA Symposium took place on 27 May - 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. These two editions of WILGA Conferences - January and May have generated more than 250 articles, from which around 100 were chosen by the Symposium and Conference Committees to be published in this volume of Proc.SPIE. WILGA Symposium papers are traditionally submitted via the WILGA web page [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] to the SPIE Proceedings publishing system [spie.org]. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. All Wilga papers are published in journals Elektronika, IJET-PAN and in Proc.SPIE. Topical tracks of the symposium usually embrace, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium In its two editions a year is a summary of the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country and this geographical region in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also

  4. Advanced radioisotope heat source for Stirling Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobry, T. J.; Walberg, G.

    2001-02-01

    The heat exchanger on a Stirling Engine requires a thermal energy transfer from a heat source to the engine through a very limited area on the heater head circumference. Designing an effective means to assure maximum transfer efficiency is challenging. A single General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), which has been qualified for space operations, would satisfy thermal requirements for a single Stirling Engine that would produce 55 electrical watts. However, it is not efficient to transfer its thermal energy to the engine heat exchanger from its rectangular geometry. This paper describes a conceptual design of a heat source to improve energy transfer for Stirling Engines that may be deployed to power instrumentation on space missions. .

  5. Solid-State Source of Nonclassical Photon Pairs with Embedded Multimode Quantum Memory.

    PubMed

    Kutluer, Kutlu; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2017-05-26

    The generation and distribution of quantum correlations between photonic qubits is a key resource in quantum information science. For applications in quantum networks and quantum repeaters, it is required that these quantum correlations be stored in a quantum memory. In 2001, Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) proposed a scheme combining a correlated photon-pair source and a quantum memory in atomic gases, which has enabled fast progress towards elementary quantum networks. In this Letter, we demonstrate a solid-state source of correlated photon pairs with embedded spin-wave quantum memory, using a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. We show strong quantum correlations between the photons, high enough for performing quantum communication. Unlike the original DLCZ proposal, our scheme is inherently multimode thanks to a built-in rephasing mechanism, allowing us to demonstrate storage of 11 temporal modes. These results represent an important step towards the realization of complex quantum networks architectures using solid-state resources.

  6. Highly efficient heralded single-photon source for telecom wavelengths based on a PPLN waveguide.

    PubMed

    Bock, Matthias; Lenhard, Andreas; Chunnilall, Christopher; Becher, Christoph

    2016-10-17

    We present the realization of a highly efficient photon pair source based on spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide. The source is suitable for long distance quantum communication applications as the photon pairs are located at the centers of the telecommunication O- and C- band at 1312 nm and 1557 nm. The high efficiency is confirmed by a conversion efficiency of 4 × 10-6 - which is to our knowledge among the highest conversion efficiencies reported so far - and a heralding efficiency of 64.1 ± 2.1%. The heralded single-photon properties are confirmed by the measurement of the photon statistics with a Click/No-Click method as well as the heralded g(2)-function. A minimum value for g(2)(0) of 0.001 ± 0.0003 indicating clear antibunching has been observed.

  7. Solid-State Source of Nonclassical Photon Pairs with Embedded Multimode Quantum Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutluer, Kutlu; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2017-05-01

    The generation and distribution of quantum correlations between photonic qubits is a key resource in quantum information science. For applications in quantum networks and quantum repeaters, it is required that these quantum correlations be stored in a quantum memory. In 2001, Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) proposed a scheme combining a correlated photon-pair source and a quantum memory in atomic gases, which has enabled fast progress towards elementary quantum networks. In this Letter, we demonstrate a solid-state source of correlated photon pairs with embedded spin-wave quantum memory, using a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. We show strong quantum correlations between the photons, high enough for performing quantum communication. Unlike the original DLCZ proposal, our scheme is inherently multimode thanks to a built-in rephasing mechanism, allowing us to demonstrate storage of 11 temporal modes. These results represent an important step towards the realization of complex quantum networks architectures using solid-state resources.

  8. Three-photon frequency down-conversion as an event-ready source of entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, Alejandro A.

    2005-03-01

    An event-ready (or deterministic) source of entangled states is of interest in the practical implementation of schemes of quantum computation and cryptography as well as in the experiments aimed to elucidate the foundations of quantum mechanics. I study the phase matching geometry and detection conditions for the process of three-photon frequency down-conversion, which is a possible source of that kind. It is apparently free of some limitations of the schemes based on two-photon frequency down-conversion. The goal of the proposed setup is not the generation of an entangled state of three photons (in a GHZ-state sense), but of an entangled state of two photons with a 'trigger' signal. As an example, I estimate the values of the trios' flux and trigger's reliability for the particular case of crystal calcite illuminated by the fourth harmonic of a Nd:YAG mode-locked laser.

  9. A gallium nitride single-photon source operating at 200 K.

    PubMed

    Kako, Satoshi; Santori, Charles; Hoshino, Katsuyuki; Götzinger, Stephan; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2006-11-01

    Fundamentally secure quantum cryptography has still not seen widespread application owing to the difficulty of generating single photons on demand. Semiconductor quantum-dot structures have recently shown great promise as practical single-photon sources, and devices with integrated optical cavities and electrical-carrier injection have already been demonstrated. However, a significant obstacle for the application of commonly used III-V quantum dots to quantum-information-processing schemes is the requirement of liquid-helium cryogenic temperatures. Epitaxially grown gallium nitride quantum dots embedded in aluminium nitride have the potential for operation at much higher temperatures. Here, we report triggered single-photon emission from gallium nitride quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K, a temperature easily reachable with thermo-electric cooling. Gallium nitride quantum dots also open a new wavelength region in the blue and near-ultraviolet portions of the spectrum for single-photon sources.

  10. High-efficiency, ultra low-noise all-fiber photon-pair source.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Shellee D; Stevens, Martin J; Baek, Burm; Nam, Sae Woo

    2008-06-23

    We demonstrate an all-fiber photon-pair source with the highest coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) reported to date in the fiber-optic telecom C-band. We achieve this through careful optimization of pairproduction efficiency as well as careful characterization and minimization of all sources of background photons, including Raman generation in the nonlinear fiber, Raman generation in the single-mode fiber, and leakage of pump photons. We cool the nonlinear fiber to 4 K to eliminate most of the Raman scattering, and we reduce other noise photon counts through careful system design. This yields a CAR of 1300 at a pair generation rate of 2 kHz. This CAR is a factor of 12 higher than previously reported results in the C-band. Measured data agree well with theoretical predictions.

  11. Measurement of anisotropic angular distributions of photon energy spectra for I-125 brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Yunoki, Akira; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    The angular distribution of photon energy spectra emitted from an I-125 brachytherapy source was measured using a specially designed jig in the range of ±70° in the plane of the long axis of the source. It is important to investigate the angular dependence of photon emissions from these sources for the calibration of the air kerma rate. The results show that the influence of the distributions between 0° and ±8° is small enough to allow a calibration using current primary instruments which have a large entrance window.

  12. Narrow bandwidth Thomson photon source development using Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, C. G. R.; van Tilborg, J.; Tsai, H.-E.; Toth, Cs.; Vay, J.-L.; Lehe, R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Rykovanov, S. G.; Grote, D. P.; Friedman, A.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-10-01

    Compact, high-quality photon sources at MeV energies are being developed based on Laser-Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). An independent scattering laser with controlled pulse shaping in frequency and amplitude can be used together with laser guiding to realize high photon yield and narrow bandwidth. Simulations are presented on production of controllable narrow bandwidth sources using the beam and plasma capabilities of LPAs. Recent experiments and simulations demonstrate controllable LPAs in the energy range appropriate to MeV Thomson sources. Design of experiments and laser capabilities to combine these elements will be presented, towards a compact photon source system. A dedicated facility under construction will be described. Work supported by US DOE NNSA DNN R&D and by Sc. HEP under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  13. Optimization of periodic single-photon sources based on combined multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodog, Ferenc; Adam, Peter; Mechler, Matyas; Santa, Imre; Koniorczyk, Mátyás

    2016-09-01

    We consider periodic single-photon sources with combined multiplexing in which the outputs of several time-multiplexed sources are spatially multiplexed. We give a full statistical description of such systems in order to optimize them with respect to maximal single-photon probability. We carry out the optimization for a particular scenario which can be realized in bulk optics and its expected performance is extremely good at the present state of the art. We find that combined multiplexing outperforms purely spatially or time-multiplexed sources for certain parameters only, and we characterize these cases. Combined multiplexing can have the advantages of possibly using less nonlinear sources, achieving higher repetition rates, and the potential applicability for continuous pumping. We estimate an achievable single-photon probability between 85% and 89%.

  14. Ultrabright single-photon source on diamond with electrical pumping at room and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyanin, D. Yu; Agio, M.

    2016-07-01

    The recently demonstrated electroluminescence of color centers in diamond makes them one of the best candidates for room temperature single-photon sources. However, the reported emission rates are far off what can be achieved by state-of-the-art electrically driven epitaxial quantum dots. Since the electroluminescence mechanism has not yet been elucidated, it is not clear to what extent the emission rate can be increased. Here we develop a theoretical framework to study single-photon emission from color centers in diamond under electrical pumping. The proposed model comprises electron and hole trapping and releasing, transitions between the ground and excited states of the color center as well as structural transformations of the center due to carrier trapping. It provides the possibility to predict both the photon emission rate and the wavelength of emitted photons. Self-consistent numerical simulations of the single-photon emitting diode based on the proposed model show that the photon emission rate can be as high as 100 kcounts s-1 at standard conditions. In contrast to most optoelectronic devices, the emission rate steadily increases with the device temperature achieving of more than 100 Mcount s-1 at 500 K, which is highly advantageous for practical applications. These results demonstrate the potential of color centers in diamond as electrically driven non-classical light emitters and provide a foundation for the design and development of single-photon sources for optical quantum computation and quantum communication networks operating at room and higher temperatures.

  15. Wavelength-tunable sources of entangled photons interfaced with atomic vapours.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Rinaldo; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Wildmann, Johannes S; Piredda, Giovanni; Reindl, Marcus; Schimpf, Christian; Zallo, Eugenio; Stroj, Sandra; Edlinger, Johannes; Rastelli, Armando

    2016-01-27

    The prospect of using the quantum nature of light for secure communication keeps spurring the search and investigation of suitable sources of entangled photons. A single semiconductor quantum dot is one of the most attractive, as it can generate indistinguishable entangled photons deterministically and is compatible with current photonic-integration technologies. However, the lack of control over the energy of the entangled photons is hampering the exploitation of dissimilar quantum dots in protocols requiring the teleportation of quantum entanglement over remote locations. Here we introduce quantum dot-based sources of polarization-entangled photons whose energy can be tuned via three-directional strain engineering without degrading the degree of entanglement of the photon pairs. As a test-bench for quantum communication, we interface quantum dots with clouds of atomic vapours, and we demonstrate slow-entangled photons from a single quantum emitter. These results pave the way towards the implementation of hybrid quantum networks where entanglement is distributed among distant parties using optoelectronic devices.

  16. Wavelength-tunable sources of entangled photons interfaced with atomic vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, Rinaldo; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Piredda, Giovanni; Reindl, Marcus; Schimpf, Christian; Zallo, Eugenio; Stroj, Sandra; Edlinger, Johannes; Rastelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of using the quantum nature of light for secure communication keeps spurring the search and investigation of suitable sources of entangled photons. A single semiconductor quantum dot is one of the most attractive, as it can generate indistinguishable entangled photons deterministically and is compatible with current photonic-integration technologies. However, the lack of control over the energy of the entangled photons is hampering the exploitation of dissimilar quantum dots in protocols requiring the teleportation of quantum entanglement over remote locations. Here we introduce quantum dot-based sources of polarization-entangled photons whose energy can be tuned via three-directional strain engineering without degrading the degree of entanglement of the photon pairs. As a test-bench for quantum communication, we interface quantum dots with clouds of atomic vapours, and we demonstrate slow-entangled photons from a single quantum emitter. These results pave the way towards the implementation of hybrid quantum networks where entanglement is distributed among distant parties using optoelectronic devices.

  17. An electrically driven cavity-enhanced source of indistinguishable photons with 61% overall efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlehahn, A.; Thoma, A.; Munnelly, P.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Heindel, T.; Schneider, C.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report on an electrically driven efficient source of indistinguishable photons operated at pulse-repetition rates f up to 1.2 GHz. The quantum light source is based on a p-i-n-doped micropillar cavity with integrated self-organized quantum dots, which exploits cavity quantum electrodynamics effects in the weak coupling regime to enhance the emission of a single quantum emitter coupled to the cavity mode. We achieve an overall single-photon extraction efficiency of (61 ± 11) % for a device triggered electrically at f = 625 MHz. Analyzing the suppression of multi-photon emission events as a function of excitation repetition rate, we observe single-photon emission associated with g(2)HBT(0) values between 0.076 and 0.227 for f ranging from 373 MHz to 1.2 GHz. Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference experiments under pulsed current injection at 487 MHz reveal a photon-indistinguishability of (41.1 ± 9.5) % at a single-photon emission rate of (92 ± 23) MHz.

  18. Wavelength-tunable sources of entangled photons interfaced with atomic vapours

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Rinaldo; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Piredda, Giovanni; Reindl, Marcus; Schimpf, Christian; Zallo, Eugenio; Stroj, Sandra; Edlinger, Johannes; Rastelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of using the quantum nature of light for secure communication keeps spurring the search and investigation of suitable sources of entangled photons. A single semiconductor quantum dot is one of the most attractive, as it can generate indistinguishable entangled photons deterministically and is compatible with current photonic-integration technologies. However, the lack of control over the energy of the entangled photons is hampering the exploitation of dissimilar quantum dots in protocols requiring the teleportation of quantum entanglement over remote locations. Here we introduce quantum dot-based sources of polarization-entangled photons whose energy can be tuned via three-directional strain engineering without degrading the degree of entanglement of the photon pairs. As a test-bench for quantum communication, we interface quantum dots with clouds of atomic vapours, and we demonstrate slow-entangled photons from a single quantum emitter. These results pave the way towards the implementation of hybrid quantum networks where entanglement is distributed among distant parties using optoelectronic devices. PMID:26815609

  19. Large ordered arrays of single photon sources based on II-VI semiconductor colloidal quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Dang, Cuong; Urabe, Hayato; Wang, Jing; Sun, Shouheng; Nurmikko, Arto

    2008-11-24

    In this paper, we developed a novel and efficient method of deterministically organizing colloidal particles on structured surfaces over macroscopic areas. Our approach utilizes integrated solution-based processes of dielectric encapsulation and electrostatic-force-mediated self-assembly, which allow precisely controlled placement of sub-10nm sized particles at single particle resolution. As a specific demonstration, motivated by application to single photon sources, highly ordered 2D arrays of single II-VI semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QDs) were created by this method. Individually, the QDs display triggered single photon emission at room temperature with characteristic photon antibunching statistics, suggesting a pathway to scalable quantum optical radiative systems.

  20. Advanced RF power sources for linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1996-10-01

    In order to maintain a reasonable over-all length at high center-of-mass energy, the main linac of an electron-positron linear collider must operate at a high accelerating gradient. For copper (non-superconducting) accelerator structures, this implies a high peak power per unit length and a high peak power per RF source, assuming a limited number of discrete sources are used. To provide this power, a number of devices are currently under active development or conceptual consideration: conventional klystrons with multi-cavity output structures, gyroklystrons, magnicons, sheet-beam klystrons, multiple-beam klystrons and amplifiers based on the FEL principle. To enhance the peak power produced by an rf source, the SLED rf pulse compression scheme is currently in use on existing linacs, and new compression methods that produce a flatter output pulse are being considered for future linear colliders. This paper covers the present status and future outlook for the more important rf power sources and pulse compression systems. It should be noted that high gradient electron linacs have applications in addition to high-energy linear colliders; they can, for example, serve as compact injectors for FEL`s and storage rings.

  1. Proposed neutron activation analysis facilities in the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, L.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A number of analytical chemistry experimental facilities are being proposed for the Advanced Neutron Source. Experimental capabilities will include gamma-ray analysis and neutron depth profiling. This paper describes the various systems proposed and some of their important characteristics.

  2. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.; Young, J.

    1991-11-11

    This paper is a status report on the ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE (ALS) control system. The current status, performance data, and future plans will be discussed. Manpower, scheduling, and costs issues are addressed.

  3. Photon flux and spectrum of γ-rays Compton sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Ben Alì Zinati, R.; Chaikovska, I.; Curatolo, C.; Ferrario, M.; Maroli, C.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.; Variola, A.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the characteristics of the γ radiation produced by Compton back-scattering of a high brightness electron beam produced by a photoinjector and accelerated in a linac up to energies of 360-720 MeV and a laser operated at about 500 nm, by comparing classical and quantum models and codes. The interaction produces γ rays in the range 4.9-18.8 MeV. In view of the application to nuclear resonance fluorescence a relative bandwidth of few 10-3 is needed. The bandwidth is reduced by taking advantage of the frequency-angular correlation typical of the phenomenon and selecting the radiation in an angle of tens of μrads. The foreseen spectral density is 20-6 photons per eV in a single shot, a number that can be increased by developing multi-bunch techniques and laser recirculation. In this way a final value of 104 photon per eV per second can be achieved.

  4. Titanium: Sapphire laser as an excitation source in two-photon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.G.; Wachter, E.A.; Armas, M.; Seaton, C.

    1997-02-01

    The passively mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser provides new opportunities for acquiring two-photon spectral data in the near-infrared, a region not commonly accessible to synchronously pumped dye lasers. This source generates pulses with peak powers near 100 kW at average powers over 1 W and is capable of yielding two-photon signals roughly two orders of magnitude larger than is possible with synchronously pumped dye lasers. However, the multimode output of this laser exhibits significant temporal and spectral pulse profile variations as the laser wavelength is tuned. As a consequence, peak powers of the titanium:sapphire laser can vary independently from average power across the tuning range. This wavelength dependence, coupled with the quadratic dependence of the two-photon signal upon the instantaneous power of the laser, precludes simple average power correction of nonlinear spectral band shapes. Here, we investigate the key properties of the titanium:sapphire laser as an excitation source for two-photon spectroscopy. We also identify a chemical reference suitable for obtaining source-corrected excitation spectra in the near-infrared using a double-beam, ratiometric approach; this is based on a source-independent two-photon excitation spectrum for the laser dye coumarin-480 that has been obtained with a single-frequency titanium:sapphire laser. From these data, correction factors are generated for correction of multimode source data. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  5. Advanced Laser and RF Plasma Sources and Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    June 2011. 3. R. Giar and J. Scharer, “Focused Excimer Laser Initiated, RF Sustained High Pressure Air Plasmas.” Journal of Applied Physics 110...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0063 Advanced Laser and RF Plasma Sources and Diagnostics John Scharer University of Wisconsin March...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Advanced Laser and RF Plasma Sources and Diagnostics 5b. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-09-l-0357 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  6. Advanced Middle-UV Coherent Optical Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-15

    cm2 for laser bars with facet coatings on both facets. Developed n-type and p-type doping for AlGaN-based cladding layers for deep-UV lasers . The...as 180kW/cm 2 for laser bars with facet coatings on both facets. 7. Developed n-type and p-type doping for AlGaN-based cladding layers for deep-UV... laser evaluation. The excitation source is ArF Excimer laser (λ= 193 nm) with a pulse width of 20 ns at a repetition rate of 10 Hz and the output

  7. Tuneable on-demand single-photon source in the microwave range

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Z. H.; de Graaf, S. E.; Tsai, J. S.; Astafiev, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    An on-demand single-photon source is a key element in a series of prospective quantum technologies and applications. Here we demonstrate the operation of a tuneable on-demand microwave photon source based on a fully controllable superconducting artificial atom strongly coupled to an open-ended transmission line. The atom emits a photon upon excitation by a short microwave π-pulse applied through a control line. The intrinsically limited device efficiency is estimated to be in the range 65–80% in a wide frequency range from 7.75 to 10.5 GHz continuously tuned by an external magnetic field. The actual demonstrated efficiency is also affected by the excited state preparation, which is about 90% in our experiments. The single-photon generation from the single-photon source is additionally confirmed by anti-bunching in the second-order correlation function. The source may have important applications in quantum communication, quantum information processing and sensing. PMID:27545689

  8. No Photon Left Behind: Advanced Optics at ARPA-E for Buildings and Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branz, Howard M.

    2015-04-01

    Key technology challenges in building efficiency and solar energy utilization require transformational optics, plasmonics and photonics technologies. We describe advanced optical technologies funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy. Buildings technologies include a passive daytime photonic cooler, infra-red computer vision mapping for energy audit, and dual-band electrochromic windows based on plasmonic absorption. Solar technologies include novel hybrid energy converters that combine high-efficiency photovoltaics with concentrating solar thermal collection and storage. Because the marginal cost of thermal energy storage is low, these systems enable generation of inexpensive and dispatchable solar energy that can be deployed when the sun doesn't shine. The solar technologies under development include nanoparticle plasmonic spectrum splitting, Rugate filter interference structures and photovoltaic cells that can operate efficiently at over 400° C.

  9. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; ...

    2015-10-07

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers,more » electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.« less

  10. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2015-10-07

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.

  11. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Kroll, Thomas; Chollet, Mathieu; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Kern, Jan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Nordlund, Dennis; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-04-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure and its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

  12. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; ...

    2015-04-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure andmore » its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.« less

  13. On-demand semiconductor single-photon source with near-unity indistinguishability.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Ming; He, Yu; Wei, Yu-Jia; Wu, Dian; Atatüre, Mete; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Single-photon sources based on semiconductor quantum dots offer distinct advantages for quantum information, including a scalable solid-state platform, ultrabrightness and interconnectivity with matter qubits. A key prerequisite for their use in optical quantum computing and solid-state networks is a high level of efficiency and indistinguishability. Pulsed resonance fluorescence has been anticipated as the optimum condition for the deterministic generation of high-quality photons with vanishing effects of dephasing. Here, we generate pulsed single photons on demand from a single, microcavity-embedded quantum dot under s-shell excitation with 3 ps laser pulses. The π pulse-excited resonance-fluorescence photons have less than 0.3% background contribution and a vanishing two-photon emission probability. Non-postselective Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between two successively emitted photons is observed with a visibility of 0.97(2), comparable to trapped atoms and ions. Two single photons are further used to implement a high-fidelity quantum controlled-NOT gate.

  14. Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip

    PubMed Central

    Silverstone, J. W.; Santagati, R.; Bonneau, D.; Strain, M. J.; Sorel, M.; O'Brien, J. L.; Thompson, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement—one of the most delicate phenomena in nature—is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale. PMID:26245267

  15. The Advanced Light Source U8 beam line, 20--300 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.; Warwick, T.; Howells, M.; McKinney, W.; Digennaro, D.; Gee, B.; Yee, D.; Kincaid, B.

    1991-10-01

    The U8 is a beam line under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The beam line will be described along with calculations of its performance and its current status. An 8 cm period undulator is followed by two spherical collecting mirrors, an entrance slit, spherical gratings having a 15{degree} deviation angle, a moveable exit slit, and refocusing and branching mirrors. Internal water cooling is provided to the metal M1 and M2 mirrors as well as to the gratings. Calculations have been made of both the flux output and the resolution over its photon energy range of 20--300 eV. The design goal was to achieve high intensity, 10{sup 12} photons/sec, at a high resolving power of 10,000. The U8 Participating Research Team (PRT) is planning experiments involving the photoelectron spectroscopy of gaseous atoms and molecules, the spectroscopy of ions and actinide spectroscopy.

  16. Development and design of advanced two-photon microscope used in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, M. S.; Popov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    This work represents the real steps to development and design advanced two-photon microscope by efforts of laboratory staff. Self-developed microscopy system provides possibility to service it and modify the structure of microscope depending on highly specialized experimental design and scientific goals. We are presenting here module-based microscopy system which provides an opportunity to looking for new applications of this setup depending on laboratories needs using with galvo and resonant scanners.

  17. Advances in Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Hardware and Software.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Marina; Garcia, Ernest V

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques remain today's most reliable modality for the assessment and quantification of myocardial perfusion. In recent years, the field has experienced tremendous progress both in terms of dedicated cameras for cardiac applications and software techniques for image reconstruction. The most recent advances in single-photon emission computed tomography hardware and software are reviewed, focusing on how these improvements have resulted in an even more powerful diagnostic tool with reduced injected radiation dose and acquisition time.

  18. Detailed flux calculations for the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    A detailed MCNP model of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor has been developed. All reactor components inside the reflector tank were included, and all components were highly segmented. Neutron and photon multigroup flux spectra have been calculated for each segment in the model, and thermal-to-fast neutron flux ratios were determined for each component segment. Axial profiles of the spectra are provided for all components of the reactor. Individual segment statistical uncertainties were limited wherever possible, and the group fluxes for all important reflector components have a standard deviation below 10%.

  19. Ultrafast room temperature single-photon source from nanowire-quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bounouar, S; Elouneg-Jamroz, M; Hertog, M den; Morchutt, C; Bellet-Amalric, E; André, R; Bougerol, C; Genuist, Y; Poizat, J-Ph; Tatarenko, S; Kheng, K

    2012-06-13

    Epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots are particularly promising as realistic single-photon sources for their compatibility with manufacturing techniques and possibility to be implemented in compact devices. Here, we demonstrate for the first time single-photon emission up to room temperature from an epitaxial quantum dot inserted in a nanowire, namely a CdSe slice in a ZnSe nanowire. The exciton and biexciton lines can still be resolved at room temperature and the biexciton turns out to be the most appropriate transition for single-photon emission due to a large nonradiative decay of the bright exciton to dark exciton states. With an intrinsically short radiative decay time (≈300 ps) this system is the fastest room temperature single-photon emitter, allowing potentially gigahertz repetition rates.

  20. Pulsed Sagnac polarization-entangled photon source with a PPKTP crystal at telecom wavelength.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Wakui, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Sasaki, Masahide

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrate pulsed polarization-entangled photons generated from a periodically poled KTiOPO(4) (PPKTP) crystal in a Sagnac interferometer configuration at telecom wavelength. Since the group-velocity-matching (GVM) condition is satisfied, the intrinsic spectral purity of the photons is much higher than in the previous scheme at around 800 nm wavelength. The combination of a Sagnac interferometer and the GVM-PPKTP crystal makes our entangled source compact, stable, highly entangled, spectrally pure and ultra-bright. The photons were detected by two superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) with detection efficiencies of 70% and 68% at dark counts of less than 1 kcps. We achieved fidelities of 0.981 ± 0.0002 for |ψ(-)〉 and 0.980 ± 0.001 for |ψ(+)〉 respectively. This GVM-PPKTP-Sagnac scheme is directly applicable to quantum communication experiments at telecom wavelength, especially in free space.