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Sample records for advanced photovoltaic experiment

  1. Preliminary results from the advanced photovoltaic experiment flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Hickey, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment is a space flight test designed to provide reference cell standards for photovoltaic measurement as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effect of the space environment on solar cells. After a flight of 69 months in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility set of experiments, it was retrieved in January, 1990. The electronic data acquisition system functioned as designed, measuring and recording cell performance data over the first 358 days of flight; limited by battery lifetime. Significant physical changes are also readily apparent, including erosion of front surface paint, micrometeoroid and debris catering and contamination.

  2. Advanced photovoltaic experiment, S0014: Preliminary flight results and post-flight findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment is a Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment originally designed to provide reference solar cell standards for laboratory measurements as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effects of long term exposure of space solar cells to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment. The experiment functioned on-orbit as designed, successfully measuring and recording cell performance and solar insolation data over the first 325 days. The objectives and design of the experiment are presented as well as the preliminary flight results and postflight findings.

  3. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of post-flight performance testing of the solar cells flown on the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment are reported. Comparison of post-flight current-voltage characteristics with similar pre-flight data revealed little or no change in solar cell conversion efficiency, confirming the reliability and endurance of space photovoltaic cells. This finding is in agreement with the lack of significant physical changes in the solar cells despite nearly six years in the low Earth orbit environment.

  4. Advances in photovoltaic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, G. A.; Bailey, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost in the last 10 years are presented. The potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space is examined, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the needs of satellite solar power systems. Attention is given to single-crystal cells, concentrator and cascade cells, and thin-film solar cells.

  5. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the advanced photovoltaic experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (APEX), containing over 150 solar cells and sensors, was designed to generate laboratory reference standards as well as to explore the durability of a wide variety of space solar cells. Located on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), APEX received the maximum possible dosage of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation, as well as enormous numbers of impacts from micrometeoroids and debris. The effect of the low earth orbital (LEO) environment on the solar cells and materials of APEX will be discussed in this paper. The on-orbit performance of the solar cells, as well as a comparison of pre- and postflight laboratory performance measurements, will be presented.

  6. Advanced photovoltaic solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard M.; Stella, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program, started in mid-1987, is currently in progress to fabricate prototype wing hardware that will lead to wing integration and testing in 1989. The design configuration and key details are reviewed. A status of prototype hardware fabricated to date is provided. Results from key component-level tests are discussed. Revised estimates of array-level performance as a function of solar cell device technology for geosynchronous missions are given.

  7. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  8. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  9. Advanced photovoltaic system simulator to demonstrate the performance of advanced photovoltaic cells and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.; DeBlasio, R.; O'Sullivan, G.A.; Tomko, R.P.

    1983-05-01

    This paper describes a photovoltaic system simulator for characterizing and evaluating the performance of advanced photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays as well as for simulating the operation of advanced conceptual photovoltaic systems. The system simulator is capable of extrapolating the performance from a single laboratory cell, or of a module to power levels up to 10 kW. The major subsystems comprising the system simulator are (1) Solar Array Simulator, (2) Power Conditioning Unit, (3) Load Controller and Resistive Load Unit, (4) Data Acquisition and Control Unit, and (5) Cell Test Bed.

  10. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, William T.; Adams, Steven F.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cells or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.

  11. Research on advanced photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T.; Eberspacher, C. )

    1991-11-01

    This report outlines opportunities for significantly advancing the scale and economy of high-volume manufacturing of high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) modules. We propose to pursue a concurrent effort to advance existing crystalline silicon module manufacturing technology and to implement thin film CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) module manufacturing. This combination of commercial-scale manufacturing of high-efficiency crystalline silicon modules and of pilot-scale manufacturing of low-cost thin film CIS technology will support continued, rapid growth of the US PV industry.

  12. An advanced photovoltaic system simulator to demonstrate the performance of advanced photovoltaic cells and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.; DeBlasio, R.; O'Sullivan, G.A.; Tomko, R.P.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes a photovoltaic system simulator for characterizing and evaluating the performance of advanced photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays as well as for simulating the operation of advanced conceptual photovoltaic systems. The system simulator is capable of extrapolating the performance from a single laboratory cell, or of a module to power levels up to 10 kw. The major subsystems comprising the system simulator are Solar Array Simulator, Power Conditioning Unit, Load Controller and Resistive Load Unit, Data Acquisition and Control Unit, and Cell Test Bed. The system was designed and fabricated by Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ, under subcontract to SERI, and has recently been installed (except the cell test bed) at SERI, where initial operation is taking place.

  13. Overview of NREL's Photovoltaic Advanced R D Project

    SciTech Connect

    Surek, T.

    1992-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR D) Project supports the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program in assisting the development and commercialization of photovoltaics (PV) energy technology. The NREL program is implemented through in-house research and subcontracts, with over 50% of the annual budget awarded through competitive solicitations to universities, large and small businesses, and other research centers. These activities include cost-shared, multiyear, government/industry partnerships and technology initiatives. The research has resulted in a better fundamental understanding of materials, devices, and processes, the achievement of record efficiencies in nearly all PV technology areas, the identification of promising new approaches to low-cost photovoltaics, and the introduction of new PV technology products into system experiments and PV markets. This paper presents an overview of NREL's PV AR D Project in terms of project organization and budgets, near- and long-term project objectives, research participants, and current and future research directions. Recent progress in the in-house and subcontracted research activities is described. 4 refs.

  14. Advancing colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yan; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for solar cells due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and spectral tunability. Progress in CQD photovoltaic technology over the past decade has resulted in power conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. In this review, we give an overview of this progress, and discuss limiting mechanisms and paths for future improvement in CQD solar cell technology.We briefly summarize nanoparticle synthesis and film processing methods and evaluate the optoelectronic properties of CQD films, including the crucial role that surface ligands play in materials performance. We give an overview of device architecture engineering in CQD solar cells. The compromise between carrier extraction and photon absorption in CQD photovoltaics is analyzed along with different strategies for overcoming this trade-off. We then focus on recent advances in absorption enhancement through innovative device design and the use of nanophotonics. Several light-trapping schemes, which have resulted in large increases in cell photocurrent, are described in detail. In particular, integrating plasmonic elements into CQD devices has emerged as a promising approach to enhance photon absorption through both near-field coupling and far-field scattering effects. We also discuss strategies for overcoming the single junction efficiency limits in CQD solar cells, including tandem architectures, multiple exciton generation and hybrid materials schemes. Finally, we offer a perspective on future directions for the field and the most promising paths for achieving higher device efficiencies.

  15. Intermediate load-center photovoltaic application experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of nine intermediate load-center photovoltaic systems were carried into the construction phase this year. These nine systems range in size from 20 to 225 kW/sub p/ electrical output and total almost 1 MW/sub p/. They are being installed in a diverse set of applications and locations and represent the bulk of the photovoltaic initial system evaluation experiments (ISEE) for the intermediate load-center sector. Each of these experiments are briefly described and the status of the construction phase is given for each project.

  16. NASA Lewis Research Center photovoltaic application experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratajczak, A.; Bifano, W.; Martz, J.; Odonnell, P.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has installed 16 geographically dispersed terrestrial photovoltaic systems as part of the DOE National Photovoltaic Program. Four additional experiments are in progress. Currently, operating systems are powering refrigerators, a highway warning sign, forest lookout towers, remote weather stations, a water chiller and insect survey traps. Experiments in progress include the world's first village power system, an air pollution monitor and seismic sensors. Under a separate activity, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, a PV-powered water pump and grain grinder is being prepared for an African village. System descriptions and status are included in this report.

  17. Evaluation of advanced R and D topics in photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surek, T.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of advanced research and development topics in photovoltaic that is summarized. The intent was to develop priorities in a list of advanced research and development activities. Thirty-five activities in 10 major categories were evaluated by their contributions to basic scientific advances, potential impact on further technology development by private industry, and priorities for federal advanced research and development funding.

  18. Photovoltaic array space power plus diagnostics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to summarize the five years of hardware development and fabrication represented by the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Instrument. The original PASP Experiment requirements and background is presented along with the modifications which were requested to transform the PASP Experiment into the PASP Plus Instrument. The PASP Plus hardware and software is described. Test results for components and subsystems are given as well as final system tests. Also included are appendices which describe the major subsystems and present supporting documentation such as block diagrams, schematics, circuit board artwork, drawings, test procedures and test reports.

  19. Operational considerations of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    Issues affecting the long-term operational performance of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) are discussed, with particular attention given to circuit electrical integrity from shadowed and cracked cell modules. The successful integration of individual advanced array components provides a doubling of array specific performance from the previous NASA-developed advanced array (SAFE). Flight test modules both recently fabricated and under fabrication are described. The development of advanced high-performance blanket technology for future APSA enhancement is presented.

  20. Advanced photovoltaic power system technology for lunar base applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of an advanced photovoltaic power system that would have application for a manned lunar base is currently planned under the Surface Power element of Pathfinder. Significant mass savings over state-of-the-art photovoltaic/battery systems are possible with the use of advanced lightweight solar arrays coupled with regenerative fuel cell storage. The solar blanket, using either ultrathin GaAs or amorphous silicon solar cells, would be integrated with a reduced-g structure. Regenerative fuel cells with high-pressure gas storage in filament-wound tanks are planned for energy storage. An advanced PV/RFC power system is a leading candidate for a manned lunar base as it offers a tremendous weight advantage over state-of-the-art photovoltaic/battery systems and is comparable in mass to other advanced power generation technologies.

  1. Development of an advanced photovoltaic concentrator system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; Oneill, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that significant increases in system performance (increased efficiency and reduced system mass) are possible for high power space based systems by incorporating technological developments with photovoltaic power systems. The Advanced Photovoltaic Concentrator Program is an effort to take advantage of recent advancements in refractive optical elements. By using a domed Fresnel lens concentrator and a prismatic cell cover, to eliminate metallization losses, dramatic reductions in the required area and mass over current space photovoltaic systems are possible. The advanced concentrator concept also has significant advantages when compared to solar dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle power systems in Low Earth Orbit applications where energy storage is required. The program is currently involved in the selection of a material for the optical element that will survive the space environment and a demonstration of the system performance of the panel design.

  2. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  3. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  4. Overview of NREL`s Photovoltaic Advanced R&D Project

    SciTech Connect

    Surek, T

    1992-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR & D) Project supports the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaics Program in assisting the development and commercialization of photovoltaics (PV) energy technology. The NREL program is implemented through in-house research and subcontracts, with over 50% of the annual budget awarded through competitive solicitations to universities, large and small businesses, and other research centers. These activities include cost-shared, multiyear, government/industry partnerships and technology initiatives. The research has resulted in a better fundamental understanding of materials, devices, and processes, the achievement of record efficiencies in nearly all PV technology areas, the identification of promising new approaches to low-cost photovoltaics, and the introduction of new PV technology products into system experiments and PV markets. This paper presents an overview of NREL`s PV AR & D Project in terms of project organization and budgets, near- and long-term project objectives, research participants, and current and future research directions. Recent progress in the in-house and subcontracted research activities is described. 4 refs.

  5. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  6. Photovoltaic Experiment Using Light from a Solar Simulator Lamp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell experiment utilizing the convenience of a solar simulating type lamp is described. Insight into the solid state aspect of a solar cell is gained by the student in studying the characteristics, and deducing from them cell parameters and efficiency. (Author/CS)

  7. Latest developments in the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    In 1985, the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) Program was established to demonstrate a producible array system with a specific power greater than 130 W/kg at a 10-kW (BOL) power level. The latest program phase completed fabrication and initial functional testing of a prototype wing representative of a full-scale 5-kW (BOL) wing (except truncated in length to about 1 kW), with weight characteristics that could meet the 130-W/kg (BOL) specific power goal using thin silicon solar cell modules and weight-efficient structural components. The wing configuration and key design details are reviewed, along with results from key component-level and wing-level tests. Projections for future enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced solar cells and structural components are shown. Performance estimates are given for solar electric propulsion orbital transfer missions through the Van Allen radiation belts. The latest APSA program plans are presented.

  8. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 6: Criteria for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1980-01-01

    The criteria is defined for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. The purpose of the audit is twofold: to see if the application is meeting its stated objectives and to measure the application's progress in terms of the National Photovoltaic Program's goals of performance, cost, reliability, safety, and socio-environmental acceptance. The information obtained from an audit will be used to assess the status of an application and to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations on the future conduct of the application. Those aspects are covered of a site audit necessary to produce a systematic method for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data to measure the success of an application. A sequence of audit events and guidelines for obtaining the required information is presented.

  9. Some advanced testing techniques for concentrator photovoltaic cells and lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczer, J.J.; Chaffin, R.J.; Hibray, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    The authors describe two separate test techniques for evaluating concentrator photovoltaic components. For convenient characterization of concentrator solar cells, they have developed a method for measuring the entire illuminated I-V curve of a photovoltaic cell with a single flash of intense simulated sunlight. This method reduces the heat input to the cell and the time required to test a cell, thus making possible quick indoor measurements of photovoltaic conversion efficiency at concentrated illumination levels without the use of elaborate cell mounting fixtures or heat sink attachments. The other test method provides a technique to analyze the spatially dependent, spectral distribution of intense sunlight collected and focused by lenses designed for use in photovoltaic concentrator systems. This information is important in the design of multijunction photovoltaic receivers, secondary concentrators, and in optimizing the performance of conventional silicon cell concentrator systems.

  10. Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the direct conversion of sunlight into electrical energy, may be the best hope for a relatively clean, secure, and inexhaustible source of energy for the future. To stimulate the growth of this technology as a viable energy supply option, considerable research and development has been directed, in both the private and public sectors, to a variety of materials and devices. The technology has sufficiently matured in recent years to be seriously considered as an alternative to conventional energy sources. Despite phenomenal advances in energy conversion efficiencies, many problems still remain to be solved. It is timely, therefore, to review various technological options available. This review critically assesses the status and promise of this emerging technology by a group of experts, each of whom has presented an extended invited paper on his specific field of expertise. This collection of presentations is intended to be an authoritative review of the technology including its developments, current status, and projections for future direction. The content of this review was carefully chosen to represent most of the leading state-of-the-art technologies; these are divided into four areas: (i) a general overview and discussion of silicon technology; (ii) high efficiency multijunction solar cells; (iii) amorphous silicon solar cells; and (iv) thin film compound semiconductors.

  11. Space Station Freedom advanced photovoltaics and battery technology development planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Cox, Spruce M.; Gates, Mark T.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1993-05-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) usable electrical power is planned to be built up incrementally during assembly phase to a peak of 75 kW end-of-life (EOL) shortly after Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) is achieved in 1999. This power will be provided by planar silicon (Si) arrays and nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries. The need for power is expected to grow from 75 kW to as much as 150 kW EOL during the evolutionary phase of SSF, with initial increases beginning as early as 2002. Providing this additional power with current technology may not be as cost effective as using advanced technology arrays and batteries expected to develop prior to this evolutionary phase. A six-month study sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and conducted by Boeing Defense and Space Group was initiated in Aug. 1991. The purpose of the study was to prepare technology development plans for cost effective advanced photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies with application to SSF growth, SSF upgrade after its arrays and batteries reach the end of their design lives, and other low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms. Study scope was limited to information available in the literature, informal industry contacts, and key representatives from NASA and Boeing involved in PV and battery research and development. Ten battery and 32 PV technologies were examined and their performance estimated for SSF application. Promising technologies were identified based on performance and development risk. Rough order of magnitude cost estimates were prepared for development, fabrication, launch, and operation. Roadmaps were generated describing key issues and development paths for maturing these technologies with focus on SSF application.

  12. Space Station Freedom advanced photovoltaics and battery technology development planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Cox, Spruce M.; Gates, Mark T.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) usable electrical power is planned to be built up incrementally during assembly phase to a peak of 75 kW end-of-life (EOL) shortly after Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) is achieved in 1999. This power will be provided by planar silicon (Si) arrays and nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries. The need for power is expected to grow from 75 kW to as much as 150 kW EOL during the evolutionary phase of SSF, with initial increases beginning as early as 2002. Providing this additional power with current technology may not be as cost effective as using advanced technology arrays and batteries expected to develop prior to this evolutionary phase. A six-month study sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and conducted by Boeing Defense and Space Group was initiated in Aug. 1991. The purpose of the study was to prepare technology development plans for cost effective advanced photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies with application to SSF growth, SSF upgrade after its arrays and batteries reach the end of their design lives, and other low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms. Study scope was limited to information available in the literature, informal industry contacts, and key representatives from NASA and Boeing involved in PV and battery research and development. Ten battery and 32 PV technologies were examined and their performance estimated for SSF application. Promising technologies were identified based on performance and development risk. Rough order of magnitude cost estimates were prepared for development, fabrication, launch, and operation. Roadmaps were generated describing key issues and development paths for maturing these technologies with focus on SSF application.

  13. Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seippel, R. G.

    This book attempts to provide the reader with a cursory look at solar energy from a quarry of quartz to a sophisticated solar system. The progression of the theories of light is discussed along with the progression of photoelectricity, light rays, the optical spectrum, light reception, photodetection, aspects of photometry and radiometry, preferred terms in radiometric measurement, semiconductor physics, and light energy availability. Other subjects explored are related to manufacturing processes, photovoltaic materials, crystal growing, slicing techniques, wafer finishing, solar cell fabrication, photovoltaic cell types, concentrators, module fabrication, problems of quality assurance, photovoltaic systems, and the photovoltaics hierarchy. Attention is given to the polycrystalline cell, insulator cells, cadmium sulfide cells, amorphous silicon cells, an electrochemical cell, and the low-cost solar array project.

  14. The Photovoltaic Array Space Power plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Curtis, Henry B.; Guidice, Donald A.; Severance, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) flight experiment is presented in outline and graphic form. The goal of the experiment is to test a variety of photovoltaic cell and array technologies under various space environmental conditions. Experiment objectives, flight hardware, experiment control and diagnostic instrumentation, and illuminated thermal vacuum testing are addressed.

  15. Space station experiment definition: Advanced power system test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, H. E.; Neff, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design for an advanced photovoltaic power system test bed was provided and the requirements for advanced photovoltaic power system experiments better defined. Results of this study will be used in the design efforts conducted in phase B and phase C/D of the space station program so that the test bed capabilities will be responsive to user needs. Critical PV and energy storage technologies were identified and inputs were received from the idustry (government and commercial, U.S. and international) which identified experimental requirements. These inputs were used to develop a number of different conceptual designs. Pros and cons of each were discussed and a strawman candidate identified. A preliminary evolutionary plan, which included necessary precursor activities, was established and cost estimates presented which would allow for a successful implementation to the space station in the 1994 time frame.

  16. US National Photovoltaics Program and applications experiments in the intermediate sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, M.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of the US National Photovoltaics Program is presented. The Department of Energy (DOE) commercial readiness goals for photovoltaics technology are summarized and the role of the national labs, research centers, and institutes in the strategy for achievement of these goals is outlined. Some examples of the flat-plate and concentrator photovoltaics experiments that are under construction through the DOE Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs) are discussed. These experiments are intended to establish system feasibility and demonstrate the applicability of photovoltaics as an alternative energy source in the intermediate sector (industrial, commercial, and agricultural). Installed system costs for the proposed PRDAs are given and concentrator technology requirements for achievement of DOE commercial readiness goals are presented. Some new DOE activities intended to further assist the commercialization of photovoltaics are briefly outlined. These new activities include the completion of an International Photovoltaics Plan.

  17. Advances in Single and Multijunction III-V Photovoltaics on Silicon for Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Ringel, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative research effort at MIT, Ohio State University and NASA has resulted in the demonstration of record quality gallium arsenide (GaAs) based single junction photovoltaic devices on silicon (Si) substrates. The ability to integrate highly efficient, radiation hard III-V based devices on silicon offers the potential for dramatic reductions in cell mass (approx.2x) and increases in cell area. Both of these improvements offer the potential for dramatic reductions in the cost of on-orbit electrical power. Recently, lattice matched InGaP/GaAs and metamorphic InGaP/InGaAs dual junction solar cells were demonstrated by MBE and OMVPE, respectively. Single junction GaAs on Si devices have been integrated into a space flight experiment (MISSES), scheduled to be launched to the International Space Station in March of 2005. I-V performance data from the GaAs/Si will be collected on-orbit and telemetered to ground stations daily. Microcracks in the GaAs epitaxial material, generated because of differences in the thermal expansion coefficient between GaAs and Si, are of concern in the widely varying thermal environment encountered in low Earth orbit. Ground based thermal life cycling (-80 C to + 80 C) equivalent to 1 year in LEO has been conducted on GaAs/Si devices with no discernable degradation in device performance, suggesting that microcracks may not limit the ability to field GaAs/Si in harsh thermal environments. Recent advances in the development and testing of III-V photovoltaic devices on Si will be presented.

  18. Characterization and Application of Colloidal Nanocrystalline Materials for Advanced Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Khagendra P.

    Solar energy is Earth's primary source of renewable energy and photovoltaic solar cells enable the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. Crystalline silicon solar cells and modules have dominated photovoltaic technology from the beginning and they now constitute more than 90% of the PV market. Thin film (CdTe and CIGS) solar cells and modules come in second position in market share. Some organic, dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells are emerging in the market but are not yet in full commercial scale. Solar cells made from colloidal nanocrystalline materials may eventually provide both low cost and high efficiency because of their promising properties such as high absorption coefficient, size tunable band gap, and quantum confinement effect. It is also expected that the greenhouse gas emission and energy payback time from nanocrystalline solar PV systems will also be least compared to all other types of PV systems mainly due to the least embodied energy throughout their life time. The two well-known junction architectures for the fabrication of quantum dot based photovoltaic devices are the Schottky junction and heterojunction. In Schottky junction cells, a heteropartner semiconducting material is not required. A low work function metal is used as the back contact, a transparent conducting layer is used as the front contact, and the layer of electronically-coupled quantum dots is placed between these two materials. Schottky junction solar cells explain the usefulness of nanocrystalline materials for high efficiency heterojunction solar cells. For heterojunction devices, n-type semiconducting materials such as ZnO , CdS or TiO2 have been used as suitable heteropartners. Here, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated using ZnO and CdS semiconductor films as window layers. Both of the heteropartners are sputter-deposited onto TCO coated glass substrates; ZnO was deposited with the substrate held at room temperature and for CdS the substrate was at 250

  19. Experience Scaling Up Manufacturing of Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G. W.; Skinner, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines two important generic photovoltaic technologies at particularly revealing stages of development, i.e., the stages between R&D and stable commercial production and profitable sales. Based on two historical cases, it attempts to shed light on the difference between: (1) costs and schedules validated by actual manufacturing and market experience, and (2) estimated costs and schedules that rely on technology forecasts and engineering estimates. The amorphous Silicon case also identifies some of the costs that are incurred in meeting specific market requirements, while the Cadmium Telluride case identifies many of the operational challenges involved in transferring R&D results to production. The transition between R&D and commercial success takes a great deal of time and money for emerging energy conversion technologies in general. The experience reported here can be instructive to those managing comparable efforts, and to their investors. It can also be instructive to R&D managers responsible for positioning such new technologies for commercial success.

  20. Advanced materials development for multi-junction monolithic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, L.R.; Reno, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    We report results in three areas of research relevant to the fabrication of monolithic multi-junction photovoltaic devices. (1) The use of compliant intervening layers grown between highly mismatched materials, GaAs and GaP (same lattice constant as Si), is shown to increase the structural quality of the GaAs overgrowth. (2) The use of digital alloys applied to the MBE growth of GaAs{sub x}Sb{sub l-x} (a candidate material for a two junction solar cell) provides increased control of the alloy composition without degrading the optical properties. (3) A nitrogen plasma discharge is shown to be an excellent p-type doping source for CdTe and ZnTe, both of which are candidate materials for a two junction solar cell.

  1. Advances in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, B.R.; Armstrong, J.H.; Misra, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    Polycrystalline, thin-film photovoltaics represent one of the few (if not the only) renewable power sources which has the potential to satisfy the demanding technical requirements for future space applications. The demand in space is for deployable, flexible arrays with high power-to-weight ratios and long-term stability (15-20 years). In addition, there is also the demand that these arrays be produced by scalable, low-cost, high yield, processes. An approach to significantly reduce costs and increase reliability is to interconnect individual cells series via monolithic integration. Both CIS and CdTe semiconductor films are optimum absorber materials for thin-film n-p heterojunction solar cells, having band gaps between 0.9-1.5 eV and demonstrated small area efficiencies, with cadmium sulfide window layers, above 16.5 percent. Both CIS and CdTe polycrystalline thin-film cells have been produced on a laboratory scale by a variety of physical and chemical deposition methods, including evaporation, sputtering, and electrodeposition. Translating laboratory processes which yield these high efficiency, small area cells into the design of a manufacturing process capable of producing 1-sq ft modules, however, requires a quantitative understanding of each individual step in the process and its effect on overall module performance. With a proper quantification and understanding of material transport and reactivity for each individual step, manufacturing process can be designed that is not `reactor-specific` and can be controlled intelligently with the design parameters of the process. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the current efforts at MMC to develop large-scale manufacturing processes for both CIS and CdTe thin-film polycrystalline modules. CIS cells/modules are fabricated in a `substrate configuration` by physical vapor deposition techniques and CdTe cells/modules are fabricated in a `superstrate configuration` by wet chemical methods.

  2. Advances in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanning, Bruce R.; Armstrong, Joseph H.; Misra, Mohan S.

    1994-01-01

    Polycrystalline, thin-film photovoltaics represent one of the few (if not the only) renewable power sources which has the potential to satisfy the demanding technical requirements for future space applications. The demand in space is for deployable, flexible arrays with high power-to-weight ratios and long-term stability (15-20 years). In addition, there is also the demand that these arrays be produced by scalable, low-cost, high yield, processes. An approach to significantly reduce costs and increase reliability is to interconnect individual cells series via monolithic integration. Both CIS and CdTe semiconductor films are optimum absorber materials for thin-film n-p heterojunction solar cells, having band gaps between 0.9-1.5 ev and demonstrated small area efficiencies, with cadmium sulfide window layers, above 16.5 percent. Both CIS and CdTe polycrystalline thin-film cells have been produced on a laboratory scale by a variety of physical and chemical deposition methods, including evaporation, sputtering, and electrodeposition. Translating laboratory processes which yield these high efficiency, small area cells into the design of a manufacturing process capable of producing 1-sq ft modules, however, requires a quantitative understanding of each individual step in the process and its (each step) effect on overall module performance. With a proper quantification and understanding of material transport and reactivity for each individual step, manufacturing process can be designed that is not 'reactor-specific' and can be controlled intelligently with the design parameters of the process. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the current efforts at MMC to develop large-scale manufacturing processes for both CIS and CdTe thin-film polycrystalline modules. CIS cells/modules are fabricated in a 'substrate configuration' by physical vapor deposition techniques and CdTe cells/modules are fabricated in a 'superstrate configuration' by wet chemical

  3. Flight Experience from Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Arrays and its Implication on Terrestrial Concentrator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all photovoltaic solar arrays flown in space have used a planar (non- concentrating) design. However, there have been a few notable exceptions where photovoltaic concentrators have been tested and used as the mission s primary power source. Among these are the success experienced by the SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology) concept used to power NASA's Deep Space 1 mission and the problems encountered by the original Boeing 702 reflective trough concentrator design. This presentation will give a brief overview of past photovoltaic concentrator systems that have flown in space, specifically addressing the valuable lessons learned from flight experience, and other viable concentrator concepts that are being proposed for the future. The general trends of this flight experience will be noted and discussed with regard to its implications on terrestrial photovoltaic concentrator designs.

  4. Photovoltaic-powered refrigerator experiment at Isle Royale National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratajczak, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    The use of a photovoltaic power system to operate an electric refrigerator at a trail construction camp at Isle Royale, Michigan is investigated. The use of P/V power for refrigeration in a remote installation is demonstrated. System design as well as predicted and measured system performance are presented.

  5. Heterojunction and Nanostructured Photovoltaic Device: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Kunal

    A primary motivation of research in photovoltaic technology is to obtain higher efficiency photovoltaic devices at reduced cost of production so that solar electricity can be cost competitive. The majority of photovoltaic technologies are based on p-n junction, with efficiency potential being much lower than the thermodynamic limits of individual technologies and thereby providing substantial scope for further improvements in efficiency. The thesis explores photovoltaic devices using new physical processes that rely on thin layers and are capable of attaining the thermodynamic limit of photovoltaic technology. Silicon heterostructure is one of the candidate technologies in which thin films induce a minority carrier collecting junction in silicon and the devices can achieve efficiency close to the thermodynamic limits of silicon technology. The thesis proposes and experimentally establishes a new theory explaining the operation of silicon heterostructure solar cells. The theory will assist in identifying the optimum properties of thin film materials for silicon heterostructure and help in design and characterization of the devices, along with aiding in developing new devices based on this technology. The efficiency potential of silicon heterostructure is constrained by the thermodynamic limit (31%) of single junction solar cell and is considerably lower than the limit of photovoltaic conversion (˜ 80 %). A further improvement in photovoltaic conversion efficiency is possible by implementing a multiple quasi-fermi level system (MQFL). A MQFL allows the absorption of sub band gap photons with current being extracted at a higher band-gap, thereby allowing to overcome the efficiency limit of single junction devices. A MQFL can be realized either by thin epitaxial layers of alternating higher and lower band gap material with nearly lattice matched (quantum well) or highly lattice mismatched (quantum dot) structure. The thesis identifies the material combination for

  6. Industrialization study, phase 2. [assessment of advanced photovoltaic technologies for commerical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The potentials and requirements of advanced photovoltaic technologies still in their early developmental stages were evaluated and compared to the present day single crystal silicon wafer technology and to each other. The major areas of consideration include polycrystalline and amorphous silicon, single crystal and polycrystalline gallium arsenide, and single crystal and polycrystalline cadmium sulfide. A rank ordering of the advanced technologies is provided. The various ranking schemes were based upon present-day efficiency levels, their stability and long-term reliability prospects, material availability, capital investments both at the laboratory and production level, and associated variable costs. An estimate of the timing of the possible readiness of these advanced technologies for technology development programs and industrialization is presented along with a set of recommended government actions concerning the various advanced technologies.

  7. Testing experience of photovoltaic modules for a multimegawatt power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Iliceto, A.; Previ, A.; Fleres, S.; Scuto, M.

    1994-12-31

    The planning of the 3,3 MWp photovoltaic power station of Serre (Salerno) required that ENEL performed a complete set of tests, both on the module types proposed by five pv module manufacturers (type test), and during the test sessions at manufacturer`s site on the batches of modules to be shipped to Serre (acceptance tests), and at the assembly line at Serre on the pv panels (on field tests). Type tests on modules were performed by JRC and CONPHOEBUS, module acceptance tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS and CISE, on field tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS. A list of the tests performed, and the most frequent defects encountered during the testing sessions will be shown in this paper. It is important to note that the aim of these notes is not to give a mark to any PV supplier, but only to put in evidence the actual state of the art of photovoltaic industry.

  8. Sandia photovoltaic systems definition and application experiment projects

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.

    1983-04-01

    A compilation is given of the abstracts and visual material used in presentation at the Fourth Photovoltaic Systems Definition and Applications Projects Integration Meeting held at the Marriott Hotel, April 12-14, 1983, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting provided a forum for detailed analyses on recently completed and current activities. These activities include systems research, balance-of-system technology development, residential experimentation, and evaluation of intermediate-sized applications.

  9. Solution-processed photovoltaics with advanced characterization and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng

    In support of hyperspectral imaging system design and parameter trade-off research, an analytical end-to-end model to simulate the remote sensing system pipeline and to forecast remote sensing system performance has been implemented. It is also being made available to the remote sensing community through a website. Users are able to forecast hyperspectral imaging system performance by defining an observational scenario along with imaging system parameters. For system modeling, the implemented analytical model includes scene, sensor and target characteristics as well as atmospheric features, background spectral reflectance statistics, sensor specifications and target class reflectance statistics. The sensor model has been extended to include the airborne ProspecTIR instrument. To validate the analytical model, experiments were designed and conducted. The predictive system model has been verified by comparing the forecast results to ones obtained using real world data collected during the RIT SHARE 2012 collection. Results include the use of large calibration panels to show the predicted radiance consistent with the collected data. Grass radiance predicted from ground truth reflectance data also compare well with the real world collected data, and an eigenvector analysis also supports the validity of the predictions. Two examples of subpixel target detection scenario are presented. One is to detect subpixel wood yellow painted planks in an asphalt playground, and the other is to detect subpixel green painted wood planks in grass. To validate our system performance, the detection performance are analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in a comprehensive scenario setting. The predicted ROC result of the yellow planks matches well the ROC derived from collected data. However, the predicted ROC curve of green planks differs from collected data ROC curve. Additional experiments were conducted and analyzed to discuss the possible reasons of the

  10. Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - State-of-the-art and advanced technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulawka, A.; Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical and near-term cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for large-scale, central photovoltaic power stations. Various commercially available PCS hardware suitable for use in today's central photovoltaic power stations are also surveyed. Federal and industrial activities in the research and development of advanced PCSs that will contribute to the attainment of fully competitive, large-scale photovoltaic power stations are reviewed. The status of the DOE central station PCS program is discussed.

  11. Evaluation of critical materials in five additional advance design photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.; Martin, P.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. The Critical Materials Assessment Program (CMAP) screens the designs and their supply chains and identifies potential shortages which might preclude large-scale use of the technologies. The results of the screening of five advanced PV cell designs are presented: (1) indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide, (2) zinc phosphide, (3) cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide, (4) copper indium selenium, and (5) cadmium selenide photoelectrochemical. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 Gwe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has a 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online capacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary baseline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. The CMAP methodology used to identify critical materials is described; and detailed characterizations of the advanced photovoltaic cell designs under investigation, descriptions of additional cell production processes, and the results are presented. (WHK)

  12. Advanced communications experiments for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, E.

    1975-01-01

    The Spacelab design and mission capabilities appear to provide a practical vehicle for meeting communication experiment needs. Results of recent discussions and numerous contractual activities have conclusively corroborated the potential useful role that a manned laboratory in space can afford to the communications community. Some examples of the experiments that appear presently as strong candidates for early flights on the Spacelab missions of the 1980s are discussed. Particular attention is given to radio frequency interference, bandwidth compressive modulation, laser experimentation, and use of large deployable communications antenna. It can be expected that the Spacelab will reduce the time, risk, and cost for conducting some communications experiments and developing the related space technology.

  13. Description and status of NASA-LeRC/DOE photovoltaic applications systems experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratajczak, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    In its role of supporting the DOE Photovoltaic Program, the NASA-Lewis Research Center has designed, fabricated and installed 16 geographically dispersed photovoltaic systems. These systems are powering a refrigerator, highway warning sign, forest lookout towers, remote weather stations, a water chiller at a visitor center, and insect survey traps. Each of these systems is described in terms of load requirements, solar array and battery size, and instrumentation and controls. Operational experience is described and present status is given for each system. The P/V power systems have proven to be highly reliable with almost no problems with modules and very few problems overall

  14. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  15. Low Earth orbit durability evaluation of protected silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Mccollum, Timothy A.

    1994-01-01

    The need for efficient, cost effective sources of electrical power in space has led to the development of photovoltaic power systems which make use of novel refractive solar concentrators. These concentrators have been conceived in both point-focus and linear-focus designs. Current concentrator lenses are fabricated from flexible silicones with Fresnel facets along their inside surface. To insure the efficient operation of these power systems, the concentrator lenses must be durable and the silicone material must remain specularly transmitting over a reasonable lifetime in low Earth orbit (LEO) and other space environments. Because of the vulnerability of silicones to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in LEO these lenses have been coated with a multi-layer metal oxide protective coating. The objective of this research was to evaluate the LEO durability of the multilayer coated silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays with respect to optical properties and microstructure. Flat metal oxide coated silicone samples were exposed to ground-laboratory and in-space atomic oxyqen for durability evaluation.

  16. Advanced Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Device Optimization For High Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Almost all solar cells available today for space or terrestrial applications are optimized for low temperature or "room temperature" operations, where cell performances demonstrate favourable efficiency figures. The fact is in many space applications, as well as when using solar concentrators, operating cell temperature are typically highly elevated, where cells outputs are severely depreciated. In this paper, a novel approach for the optimization of multi-junction photovoltaic devices at such high expected operating temperature is presented. The device optimization is carried out on the novel cell physical model previously developed at the Naval Postgraduate School using the SILVACO software tools [1]. Taking into account the high cost of research and experimentation involved with the development of advanced cells, this successful modelling technique was introduced and detailed results were previously presented by the author [2]. The flexibility of the proposed methodology is demonstrated and example results are shown throughout the whole process. The research demonstrated the capability of developing a realistic model of any type of solar cell, as well as thermo-photovoltaic devices. Details of an example model of an InGaP/GaAs/Ge multi-junction cell was prepared and fully simulated. The major stages of the process are explained and the simulation results are compared to published experimental data. An example of cell parameters optimization for high operating temperature is also presented. Individual junction layer optimization was accomplished through the use of a genetic search algorithm implemented in Matlab.

  17. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggest the deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. An important part of the DOE programs to develop new source technologies, in particular photovoltaic systems, is the experimental testing of complete or nearby complete power units. These experiments provide an opportunity to examine operational and integration issues which must be understood before widespread commercial deployment of these technologies can be achieved. Experiments may also be required to explicitly examine integration, operational, and control aspects of single and multiple new source technology power units within a utility system. An identification of utility information requirements, a review of planned experiments, and a preliminary determination of additional experimental needs and opportunities are presented. Other issues discussed include: (1) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on load duration curves and optimal generation mixes are considered; (2) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on utility production costs, with and without dedicated storage and with and without sellback, are analyzed; and (3) current utility rate structure experiments, rationales, policies, practices, and plans are reviewed.

  18. Organizing a Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L

    2006-01-01

    Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site. PMID:17136163

  19. Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective in remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.

  20. Operating experience with the natural bridges national monument photovoltaic power system

    SciTech Connect

    Solman, F. J.; Grossman, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    The 100-kW photovoltaic power system at Natural Bridges National Monument in southwestern Utah has been in operation since May 1980. A comparison of system simulation with actual operation has been performed, good agreement has been found, and results are presented. In addition, conservation measures and their benefits are described. Operating experience with the system is presented, including measured component performance of the arrays, batteries, inverters, and system overhead loads.

  1. Design, installation and operating experience of 20 photovoltaic medical refrigerator systems on four continents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in cooperation with the World Health Organization, U.S.A. I.D., the Pan American Health Organization and national government agencies in some developing countries sponsored the installation of twenty photovoltaic powered medical vaccine storage refrigerator-freezer (R/F) systems. The Solar Power Corporation was selected as the contractor to perform the design, development and installation of these twenty units. Solar Power's experiences are described herein.

  2. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  3. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  4. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced, universally-mountable, integrated residential photovoltaic array concept was defined based upon an in-depth formulation and evaluation of three candidate approaches which were synthesized from existing or proposed residential array concepts. The impact of module circuitry and process sequence is considered and technology gaps and performance drivers associated with residential photovoltaic array concepts are identified. The actual learning experience gained from the comparison of the problem areas of the hexagonal shingle design with the rectangular module design led to what is considered an advanced array concept. Building the laboratory mockup provided actual experience and the opportunity to uncover additional technology gaps.

  5. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    An advanced, universally-mountable, integrated residential photovoltaic array concept was defined based upon an in-depth formulation and evaluation of three candidate approaches which were synthesized from existing or proposed residential array concepts. The impact of module circuitry and process sequence is considered and technology gaps and performance drivers associated with residential photovoltaic array concepts are identified. The actual learning experience gained from the comparison of the problem areas of the hexagonal shingle design with the rectangular module design led to what is considered an advanced array concept. Building the laboratory mockup provided actual experience and the opportunity to uncover additional technology gaps.

  6. Establishment and furnishing of the Photovoltaic Center for the Southwest Residential Experiment Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwibel, H. S.; Schaefer, J. F.

    1982-04-01

    A building to serve as the operations, data gathering, and administrative complex and visitor center for the Southwest Residential Experiment Station (SW RES) was designed, constructed, and furnished as a cost-shared portion of a multiyear effort by the New Mexico Solar Energy Institute to establish and operate the SW RES for the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Center Program. The 3000-square-foot building, called the Photovoltaic Center, houses a Visitor Center, shop area, offices, rest rooms, and a large data collection room. The passive solar design includes Earth berms, glazing along the southwest wall of the building and thermal mass in 55-gallon drums filled with water to store heat from solar radiation entering the building. The building is located on the New Mexico State University campus in Las Cruces.

  7. Recent Advances in Organic Photovoltaics: Device Structure and Optical Engineering Optimization on the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guoping; Ren, Xingang; Zhang, Su; Wu, Hongbin; Choy, Wallace C H; He, Zhicai; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-23

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, which can directly convert absorbed sunlight to electricity, are stacked thin films of tens to hundreds of nanometers. They have emerged as a promising candidate for affordable, clean, and renewable energy. In the past few years, a rapid increase has been seen in the power conversion efficiency of OPV devices toward 10% and above, through comprehensive optimizations via novel photoactive donor and acceptor materials, control of thin-film morphology on the nanoscale, device structure developments, and interfacial and optical engineering. The intrinsic problems of short exciton diffusion length and low carrier mobility in organic semiconductors creates a challenge for OPV designs for achieving optically thick and electrically thin device structures to achieve sufficient light absorption and efficient electron/hole extraction. Recent advances in the field of OPV devices are reviewed, with a focus on the progress in device architecture and optical engineering approaches that lead to improved electrical and optical characteristics in OPV devices. Successful strategies are highlighted for light wave distribution, modulation, and absorption promotion inside the active layer of OPV devices by incorporating periodic nanopatterns/nanostructures or incorporating metallic nanomaterials and nanostructures. PMID:26856789

  8. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The present stature and current research directions of photovoltaic arrays as primary power systems for space are reviewed. There have recently been great advances in the technology of thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. In a thin-film solar cell the thickness of the active element is only a few microns; transfer of this technology to space arrays could result in ultralow-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper-indium selenide (CuInSe2) and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon:hydrogen and alloys. The best experimental efficiency on thin-film solar cells to date is 12 percent AMO for CuIn Se2. This efficiency is likely to be increased in the next few years. The radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single-crystal materials. CuIn Se2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1 MeV electrons. Experimental evidence also suggests that most of all of the radiation damage on thin-films can be removed by a low temperature anneal. The possibility of thin-film multibandgap cascade solar cells is discussed, including the tradeoffs between monolithic and mechanically stacked cells. The best current efficiency for a cascade is 12.5 percent AMO for an amorphous silicon on CuInSe2 multibandgap combination. Higher efficiencies are expected in the future. For several missions, including solar-electric propulsion, a manned Mars mission, and lunar exploration and manufacturing, thin-film photovolatic arrays may be a mission-enabling technology.

  9. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, G.A.; Bailey, S.G.; Flood, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The present stature and current research directions of photovoltaic arrays as primary power systems for space are reviewed. There have recently been great advances in the technology of thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. In a thin-film solar cell the thickness of the active element is only a few microns; transfer of this technology to space arrays could result in ultralow-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper-indium selenide (CuInSe2) and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon:hydrogen and alloys. The best experimental efficiency on thin-film solar cells to date is 12 percent AMO for CuInSe2. This efficiency is likely to be increased in the next few years. The radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single-crystal materials. CuInSe2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1 MeV electrons. Experimental evidence also suggests that most of all of the radiation damage on thin-films can be removed by a low temperature anneal. The possibility of thin-film multibandgap cascade solar cells is discussed, including the tradeoffs between monolithic and mechanically stacked cells. The best current efficiency for a cascade is 12.5 percent AMO for an amorphous silicon on CuInSe2 multibandgap combination. Higher efficiencies are expected in the future. For several missions, including solar-electric propulsion, a manned Mars mission, and lunar exploration and manufacturing, thin-film photovolatic arrays may be a mission-enabling technology.

  10. Advancing the Deployment of Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Plants in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro R.; Villaran, M; Colli, A.

    2012-06-03

    As one of the premier research laboratories operated by the Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is pursuing an energy research agenda that focuses on renewable energy systems and will help to secure the nation's energy security. A key element of the BNL research is the advancement of grid-connected utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) plants, particularly in the northeastern part of the country where BNL is located. While a great deal of information has been generated regarding solar PV systems located in mostly sunny, hot, arid climates of the southwest US, very little data is available to characterize the performance of these systems in the cool, humid, frequently overcast climates experienced in the northeastern portion of the country. Recognizing that there is both a need and a market for solar PV generation in the northeast, BNL is pursuing research that will advance the deployment of this important renewable energy resource. BNL's research will leverage access to unique time-resolved data sets from the 37MWp solar array recently developed on its campus. In addition, BNL is developing a separate 1MWp solar research array on its campus that will allow field testing of new PV system technologies, including solar modules and balance of plant equipment, such as inverters, energy storage devices, and control platforms. These research capabilities will form the cornerstone of the new Northeast Solar Energy Research Center (NSERC) being developed at BNL. In this paper, an overview of BNL's energy research agenda is given, along with a description of the 37MWp solar array and the NSERC.

  11. Advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The research performed by GTE Government Systems and the University of Colorado in support of the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program is summarized. Two levels of research were undertaken. The first dealt with providing interim services Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) satellite (ISIS) capabilities that accented basic rate ISDN with a ground control similar to that of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The ISIS Network Model development represents satellite systems like the ACTS orbiting switch. The ultimate aim is to move these ACTS ground control functions on-board the next generation of ISDN communications satellite to provide full-service ISDN satellite (FSIS) capabilities. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design are obtainable from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models of the major subsystems of the ISDN communications satellite architecture. Discrete event simulation experiments would generate data for analysis against NASA SCAR performance measure and the data obtained from the ISDN satellite terminal adapter hardware (ISTA) experiments, also developed in the program. The Basic and Option 1 phases of the program are also described and include the following: literature search, traffic mode, network model, scenario specifications, performance measures definitions, hardware experiment design, hardware experiment development, simulator design, and simulator development.

  12. Advanced, Cost-Based Indices for Forecasting the Generation of Photovoltaic Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracale, Antonio; Carpinelli, Guido; Di Fazio, Annarita; Khormali, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Distribution systems are undergoing significant changes as they evolve toward the grids of the future, which are known as smart grids (SGs). The perspective of SGs is to facilitate large-scale penetration of distributed generation using renewable energy sources (RESs), encourage the efficient use of energy, reduce systems' losses, and improve the quality of power. Photovoltaic (PV) systems have become one of the most promising RESs due to the expected cost reduction and the increased efficiency of PV panels and interfacing converters. The ability to forecast power-production information accurately and reliably is of primary importance for the appropriate management of an SG and for making decisions relative to the energy market. Several forecasting methods have been proposed, and many indices have been used to quantify the accuracy of the forecasts of PV power production. Unfortunately, the indices that have been used have deficiencies and usually do not directly account for the economic consequences of forecasting errors in the framework of liberalized electricity markets. In this paper, advanced, more accurate indices are proposed that account directly for the economic consequences of forecasting errors. The proposed indices also were compared to the most frequently used indices in order to demonstrate their different, improved capability. The comparisons were based on the results obtained using a forecasting method based on an artificial neural network. This method was chosen because it was deemed to be one of the most promising methods available due to its capability for forecasting PV power. Numerical applications also are presented that considered an actual PV plant to provide evidence of the forecasting performances of all of the indices that were considered.

  13. Preliminary Findings of the Photovoltaic Cell Calibration Experiment on Pathfinder Flight 95-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas-Aburto, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the photovoltaic (PV) cell calibration experiment for Pathfinder was to develop an experiment compatible with an ultralight UAV to predict the performance of PV cells at AM0, the solar spectrum in space, using the Langley plot technique. The Langley plot is a valuable technique for this purpose and requires accurate measurements of air mass (pressure), cell temperature, solar irradiance, and current-voltage(IV) characteristics with the cells directed normal to the direct ray of the sun. Pathfinder's mission objective (95-3) of 65,000 ft. maximum altitude, is ideal for performing the Langley plot measurements. Miniaturization of electronic data acquisition equipment enabled the design and construction of an accurate and light weight measurement system that meets Pathfinder's low payload weight requirements.

  14. PASP, a high voltage array/plasma interaction experiment. [Photovoltaic Array Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the photovoltaic array space power (PASP) experiment, which is designed to obtain data on the interaction between high-voltage photovoltaic arrays and the polar, low-earth plasma environment. Up to six small test arrays (three each of planar and concentrator designs) can be voltage biased over a range of +/- 500 V. During the bias voltage sequence, the array current leakage is measured and array arc events are monitored. If any arcing occurs the arc characteristics will be measured by a transient pulse monitor. An emitter is included to allow voltage bias to be applied to a plasma-charged or uncharged spacecraft. Similarly, the frames of the concentrator arrays can be left floating or can be tied to the negative array terminal. An environmental data scan is made before each bias voltage sequence. This scan collects information on the plasma, array-current-versus-voltage curves, and neutral particle partial pressure. The requirement for high voltages created problems which were met by circuit isolation and logical fault protection.

  15. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R. F.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) is an ongoing research project, for which the work carried out by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Due to the need to complete AGAGE activities specifically funded under NAGW-2034 that had been delayed, a no-cost extension to this grant was obtained, creating an overlap period between the two grants. Because the AGAGE project is continuing, and a Final Project Report is required only because of the change in grant numbers, it is most appropriate to submit for this report the Introduction and Accomplishments sections which appear on pages 1-62 of the October 1998 AGAGE renewal proposal. A copy of the complete proposal is attached.

  16. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Kurylo, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We seek funding from NASA for the third year (2005) of the four-year period January 1, 2003 - December 31, 2006 for continued support of the MIT contributions to the multi-national global atmospheric trace species measurement program entitled Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). The case for real-time high-frequency measurement networks like AGAGE is very strong and the observations and their interpretation are widely recognized for their importance to ozone depletion and climate change studies and to verification issues arising from the Montreal Protocol (ozone) and Kyoto Protocol (climate). The proposed AGAGE program is distinguished by its capability to measure over the globe at high frequency almost all of the important species in the Montreal Protocol and almost all of the significant non-CO2 gases in the Kyoto Protocol.

  17. Review of world experience and properties of materials for encapsulation of terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, D. C.; Gaines, G. B.; Sliemers, F. A.; Kistler, C. W.; Igou, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Published and unpublished information relating to encapsulation systems and materials properties was collected by searching the literature and appropriate data bases (over 1,300 documents were selected and reviewed) and by personal contacts including site and company visits. A data tabulation summarizing world experience with terrestrial photovoltaic arrays (50 installations) is presented in the report. Based on criteria of properties, processability, availability, and cost, candidate materials were identified which have potential for use in encapsulation systems for arrays with a lifetime of over 20 years high reliability, an efficiency greater than 10 percent, a total price less than $500/kW, and a production capacity of 500,000 kW/yr. The recommended materials (all commercially available) include, depending upon the device design, various borosilicate and soda-lime glasses and numerous polymerics suitable for specific encapsulation system functions.

  18. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  19. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Functionality using 500 kW Power Hardware-in-Loop Complete System Laboratory Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, B. A.; Kromer, M. A.; Casey, L.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of distribution connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more and more PV developers and utilities are interested in easing future PV interconnection concerns by mitigating some of the impacts of PV integration using advanced PV inverter controls and functions. This paper describes the testing of a 500 kW PV inverter using Power Hardware-in-Loop (PHIL) testing techniques. The test setup is described and the results from testing the inverter in advanced functionality modes, not commonly used in currently interconnected PV systems, are presented. PV inverter operation under PHIL evaluation that emulated both the DC PV array connection and the AC distribution level grid connection are shown for constant power factor (PF) and constant reactive power (VAr) control modes. The evaluation of these modes was completed under varying degrees of modeled PV variability.

  20. Impact of LDEF photovoltaic experiment findings upon spacecraft solar array design and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leighton E.

    1993-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells (solar cells) and other solar array materials were flown in a variety of locations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). With respect to the predicted leading edge, solar array experiments were located at 0 degrees (row 9), 30 degrees (row 8) and 180 degrees (row 3). Postflight estimates of location of the experiments with respect to the velocity vector add 8.1 degrees to these values. Experiments were also located on the Earth end of the LDEF longitudinal axis. Types and magnitudes of detrimental effects differ between the locations with some commonality. Postflight evaluation of the solar array experiments reveal that some components/materials are very resistant to the environment to which they were exposed while others need protection, modification, or replacement. Interaction of materials with atomic oxygen (AO), as an area of major importance, was dramatically demonstrated by LDEF results. Information gained from the LDEF flight allows array developers to set new requirements for on-going and future technology and flight component development.

  1. PVUSA experience with power conversion for grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.

    1995-11-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Application (PVUSA) project was established to demonstrate photovoltaic (PV) systems in grid-connected utility applications. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of the PV balance of system (BOS). Power conditioning units (PCUs) are the interface between the dc PV arrays and the ac utility lines, and have proved to be the most critical element in grid-connected PV systems. There are five different models of PCUs at PVUSA`s Davis and Kerman sites. This report describes the design, testing, performance characteristics, and maintenance history of each of these PCUs. PVUSA required PCUs in the power range 25 kW to 500 kW which could operate automatically and reliably under changing conditions of sunlight and changing conditions on the utility grid. Although a number of manufacturers can provide PCUs in this power range, none of these PCUs have been produced in sufficient quantity to allow refinement of a particular model into the highly reliable unit needed for long-term, unattended operation. Factory tests were useful but limited by the inability to test under full power and changing power conditions. The inability to completely test PCUs at the factory resulted in difficulty during startup, field testing, and subsequent operation. PVUSA has made significant progress in understanding the requirements for PCUs in grid-connected PV applications and improving field performance. This record of PVUSA`s experience with a variety of PCUs is intended to help utilities and their suppliers identify and retain the good performance characteristics of PCUs, and to make improvements where necessary to meet the needs of utilities.

  2. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Misuri, Alessio

    2002-06-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  3. ADX - Advanced Divertor and RF Tokamak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Martin; Labombard, Brian; Bonoli, Paul; Irby, Jim; Terry, Jim; Wallace, Greg; Vieira, Rui; Whyte, Dennis; Wolfe, Steve; Wukitch, Steve; Marmar, Earl

    2015-11-01

    The Advanced Divertor and RF Tokamak Experiment (ADX) is a design concept for a compact high-field tokamak that would address boundary plasma and plasma-material interaction physics challenges whose solution is critical for the viability of magnetic fusion energy. This device would have two crucial missions. First, it would serve as a Divertor Test Tokamak, developing divertor geometries, materials and operational scenarios that could meet the stringent requirements imposed in a fusion power plant. By operating at high field, ADX would address this problem at a level of power loading and other plasma conditions that are essentially identical to those expected in a future reactor. Secondly, ADX would investigate the physics and engineering of high-field-side launch of RF waves for current drive and heating. Efficient current drive is an essential element for achieving steady-state in a practical, power producing fusion device and high-field launch offers the prospect of higher efficiency, better control of the current profile and survivability of the launching structures. ADX would carry out this research in integrated scenarios that simultaneously demonstrate the required boundary regimes consistent with efficient current drive and core performance.

  4. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2014-06-23

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  5. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  6. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; Yunker, Peter; Lohr, Matthew; Gratale, Matthew; Lynch, Matthew; Kodger, Thomas; Piazza, Roberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Cipelletti, Luca; Schall, Peter; Veen, Sandra; Wegdam, Gerhard; Lee, Chand-Soo; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Cohen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Colloids Experiment is being conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). Work to date will be discussed and future plans and opportunities will be highlighted. The LMM is a microscope facility designed to allow scientists to process, manipulate, and characterize colloidal samples in micro-gravity where the absence of gravitational settling and particle jamming enables scientists to study such things as:a.The role that disordered and ordered-packing of spheres play in the phase diagram and equation of state of hard sphere systems,b.crystal nucleation and growth, growth instabilities, and the glass transition, c.gelation and phase separation of colloid polymer mixtures,d.crystallization of colloidal binary alloys,e.competition between crystallization and phase separation,f.effects of anisotropy and specific interactions on packing, aggregation, frustration and crystallization,g.effects of specific reversible and irreversible interactions mediated in the first case by hybridization of complementary DNA strands attached to separate colloidal particles,h.Lock and key interactions between colloids with dimples and spheres which match the size and shape of the dimples,i.finding the phase diagrams of isotropic and interacting particles,j.new techniques for complex self-assembly including scenarios for self-replication, k.critical Casimir forces,l.biology (real and model systems) in microgravity,m.etc. By adding additional microscopy capabilities to the existing LMM, NASA will increase the tools available for scientists that fly experiments on the ISS enabling scientists to observe directly what is happening at the particle level. Presently, theories are needed to bridge the gap between what is being observed (at a macroscopic level when photographing samples) with what is happening at a particle (or microscopic) level. What is happening at a microscopic level will be directly

  7. Advanced photoinjector experiment photogun commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannibale, F.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C. F.; Staples, J.; Wells, R.; Bailey, B.; Baptiste, K.; Corlett, J.; Cork, C.; De Santis, S.; Dimaggio, S.; Doolittle, L.; Doyle, J.; Feng, J.; Garcia Quintas, D.; Huang, G.; Huang, H.; Kramasz, T.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Lellinger, R.; Moroz, V.; Norum, W. E.; Padmore, H.; Pappas, C.; Portmann, G.; Vecchione, T.; Vinco, M.; Zolotorev, M.; Zucca, F.

    2012-10-01

    The Advanced Photoinjector Experiment (APEX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is dedicated to the development of a high-brightness high-repetition rate (MHz-class) electron injector for x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) and other applications where high repetition rates and high brightness are simultaneously required. The injector is based on a new concept rf gun utilizing a normal-conducting (NC) cavity resonating in the VHF band at 186 MHz, and operating in continuous wave (cw) mode in conjunction with high quantum efficiency photocathodes capable of delivering the required charge at MHz repetition rates with available laser technology. The APEX activities are staged in three phases. In phase 0, the NC cw gun is built and tested to demonstrate the major milestones to validate the gun design and performance. Also, starting in phase 0 and continuing in phase I, different photocathodes are tested at the gun energy and at full repetition rate for validating candidate materials to operate in a high-repetition rate FEL. In phase II, a room-temperature pulsed linac is added for accelerating the beam at several tens of MeV to reduce space charge effects and allow the measurement of the brightness of the beam from the gun when integrated in an injector scheme. The installation of the phase 0 beam line and the commissioning of the VHF gun are completed, phase I components are under fabrication, and initial design and specification of components and layout for phase II are under way. This paper presents the phase 0 commissioning results with emphasis on the experimental milestones that have successfully demonstrated the APEX gun capability of operating at the required performance.

  8. Subsystem engineering and development of grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, E.L.; Post, H.N.; Key, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    The experience gained in fielding residential and intermediate sized photovoltaic application experiments is summarized. This experience is used to guide the engineering and development of array and power conditioning subsystems for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. A major consideration in this development effort is cost. Through innovative engineering, using a modular building block approach for the array subsystem, it is now possible to construct array fields, in moderate quantities, for about $52/m/sup 2/ excluding the photovoltaic modules. Similarly, results of power conditioning subsystem development indicate a projected cost of about $0.25/W/sub p/ for advanced units with conversion efficiencies in excess of 90%.

  9. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic arrays beyond the next generation is discussed with attention given to the potentials of thin-film polycrystalline and amorphous cells. Of particular importance is the efficiency (the fraction of incident solar energy converted to electricity) and specific power (power to weight ratio). It is found that the radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single crystal materials. CuInSe2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1-MeV electrons.

  10. Evaluation of critical materials for five advanced design photovoltaic cells with an assessment of indium and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Jamieson, W.M.; Long, L.W.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Smith, S.A.; Teeter, R.R.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. This report presents the results of the screening of the five following advanced PV cell designs: polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide frontwall, polycrystalline gallium arsenide MIS, and advanced concentrator-500X. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 GWe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online cpacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary basline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. Earlier DOE sponsored work on the assessment of critical materials in PV cells conclusively identtified indium and gallium as warranting further investigation as to their availability. Therefore, this report includes a discussion of the future availability of gallium and indium. (WHK)

  11. PASP Plus: An experiment to measure space-environment effects on photovoltaic power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidice, Donald A.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostic experiment (PASP Plus) was accepted as part of the APEX Mission payload aboard a Pegastar satellite to be orbited by a Pegasus launch vehicle in late 1992. The mission's elliptical orbit will allow us to investigate both space plasma and space radiation effects. PASP Plus will have eleven types of solar arrays and a full complement of environmental and interactions diagnostic sensors. Measurements of space-plasma interactions on the various solar arrays will be made at large negative voltages (to investigate arcing parameters) and at large positive voltages (to investigate leakage currents) by biasing the arrays to various levels up to -500 and +500 volts. The long-term deterioration in solar array performance caused by exposure to space radiation will also be investigated; radiation dosage will be measured by an electron/proton dosimeter included in the environmental sensor complement. Experimental results from PASP Plus will help establish cause-and-effect relationships and lead to improved design guidelines and test standards for new-technology solar arrays.

  12. Photovoltaic Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute through David Scheiman and Phillip Jenkins provided the Photovoltaics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with expertise in photovoltaic (PV) research, flight experiments and solar cell calibration. NASA GRC maintains the only world-class solar cell calibration and measurement facility within NASA. GRC also has a leadership role within the solar cell calibration community, and is leading the effort to develop ISO standards for solar cell calibration. OAI scientists working under this grant provided much of the expertise and leadership in this area.

  13. Advanced Undergraduate Experiments in Thermoanalytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, J. O.; Magee, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments using the techniques of thermal analysis and thermometric titrimetry. Defines thermal analysis and several recent branches of the technique. Notes most of the experiments use simple equipment and standard laboratory techniques. (MVL)

  14. Residential solar photovoltaic systems: Final report for the Northeast Residential Experiment Station

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    This report covers research and development work conducted by the MIT Energy Lab. from July 1982 through June 1986. This Energy Lab. work in the field of solar photovoltaic systems followed six years of similar work at the MIT Lincoln Lab. under the same contract with the US DOE. The final report from the Lincoln Lab. period was published by Lincoln Lab. in 1983. During the period of Energy Lab. involvement, the project focused on the refinement of residential scale, roof-mounted photovoltaic systems for application in the northeastern US. Concurrent with the conclusion of MIT`s involvement, the New England Electric Co. is building a major field test of residential photovoltaics in Gardner, Massachusetts to determine experimentally the effects of photovoltaics on electric power company operations. Using systems designs and technology developed at MIT, the long-term performance of these thirty residential systems in Gardner will provide a measure of our success.

  15. Integration of Photovoltaics into Building Energy Usage through Advanced Control of Rooftop Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, Michael R; Nutaro, James J; Irminger, Philip; Ollis, Benjamin; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Fugate, David L

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to forecast photovoltaic (PV) power in kW based on a neural network linkage of publicly available cloud cover data and on-site solar irradiance sensor data. We also describe a control approach to utilize rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs) to support renewable integration. The PV forecasting method is validated using data from a rooftop PV panel installed on the Distributed Energy, Communications, and Controls (DECC) laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The validation occurs in multiple phases to ensure that each component of the approach is the best representation of the actual expected output. The control of the RTU is based on model predictive methods.

  16. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  17. Advanced beamline automation for biological crystallography experiments.

    PubMed

    Cork, Carl; O'Neill, James; Taylor, John; Earnest, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    An automated crystal-mounting/alignment system has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and has been installed on three of the protein-crystallography experimental stations at the Advanced Light Source (ALS); it is currently being implemented at synchrotron crystallography beamlines at CHESS, NSLS and the APS. The benefits to using an automounter system include (i) optimization of the use of synchrotron beam time, (ii) facilitation of advanced data-collection techniques, (iii) collection of higher quality data, (iv) reduction of the risk to crystals and (v) exploration of systematic studies of experimental protocols. Developments on the next-generation automounter with improvements in robustness, automated alignment and sample tracking are under way, with an end-to-end data-flow process being developed to allow remote data collection and monitoring. PMID:16855300

  18. Space Experiments to Advance Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Donald G.

    2010-05-01

    High power microwave sources are now available and usable, with modification, or beamed energy propulsion experiments in space. As output windows and vacuum seals are not needed space is a natural environment for high power vacuum tubes. Application to space therefore improves reliability and performance but complicates testing and qualification. Low power communications satellite devices (TWT, etc) have already been through the adapt-to-space design cycle and this history is a useful pathway for high power devices such as gyrotrons. In this paper, space experiments are described for low earth orbit (LEO) and lunar environment. These experiments are precursors to space application for beamed energy propulsion using high power microwaves. Power generation and storage using cryogenic systems are important elements of BEP systems and also have an important role as part of BEP experiments in the space environment.

  19. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  20. Advanced tracking and data relay experiment study: Multimode transponder experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A series of experiments utilizing a multimode transponder mounted in an aircraft working either through a spacecraft or directly with a ground station is studied. The purpose of the experiments is to determine the best modulation and encoding techniques for combating RFI and multipath propagation and to determine the characteristics of VHF and UHF RFI in discreet bands. The experiments would also determine the feasibility and accuracy of range and range rate measurements with the various modulation and encoding techniques.

  1. Advances in NIF Shock Timing Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, Harry

    2012-10-01

    Experiments are underway to tune the shock timing of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments use a modified cryogenic hohlraum geometry designed to precisely match the performance of ignition hohlraums. The targets employ a re-entrant Au cone to provide optical access to multiple shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of all four shocks is diagnosed with VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector). Experiments are now routinely conducted in a mirrored keyhole geometry, which allows for simultaneous diagnosis of the shock timing at both the hohlraum pole and equator. Further modifications are being made to improve the surrogacy to ignition hohlraums by replacing the standard liquid deuterium (D2) capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. These experiments will remove any possible surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporate the physics of shock release from the ice layer, which is absent in current experiments. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented.

  2. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  3. Synthesis and Electrochemistry of Cyclopentadienylcarbonyliron Tetramer: An Advanced Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. J.; Cunningham, Alice J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced level experiment in which a transition metal cluster compound, cyclopentadienylcarbonyliron tetramer, is synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. Its redox properties are then explored through cyclic voltammetry. (CS)

  4. Rotor-Shaped Cyclopentadienyltetraphenyl-Cyclobutadienecobalt: An Advanced Inorganic Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Darren K.; Gorodetzer, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Organometallic complex synthesis in advanced inorganic or organic courses usually begin with the synthesis of ferrocene. A synthetic experiment of an alternative compound that has a more interesting structure and the same air stability that makes ferrocene desirable is presented.

  5. An Advanced Undergraduate Nuclear Lifetime experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollefson, A. A.; Prior, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment for measuring the lifetime of the 60-keV state in 237-Np which is populated in the alpha decay of 241-Am. The technique used is the delayed coincidence method using a time-to-pulse-height converter. (Author/GA)

  6. Experience with advanced nodal codes at YAEC

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) has been performing reload licensing analysis since 1969. The basic pressurized water reactor (PWR) methodology involves the use of LEOPARD for cross-section generation, PDQ for radial power distributions and integral control rod worth, and SIMULATE for axial power distributions and differential control rod worth. In 1980, YAEC began performing reload licensing analysis for the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). The basic BWR methodology involves the use of CASMO for cross-section generation and SIMULATE for three-dimensional power distributions. In 1986, YAEC began investigating the use of CASMO-3 for cross-section generation and the advanced nodal code SIMULATE-3 for power distribution analysis. Based on the evaluation, the CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 methodology satisfied all requirements. After careful consideration, the cost of implementing the new methodology is expected to be offset by reduced computing costs, improved engineering productivity, and fuel-cycle performance gains.

  7. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  8. Phase camera experiment for Advanced Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; van Beuzekom, Martin; van der Schaaf, Laura; van den Brand, Jo

    2016-07-01

    We report on a study of the phase camera, which is a frequency selective wave-front sensor of a laser beam. This sensor is utilized for monitoring sidebands produced by phase modulations in a gravitational wave (GW) detector. Regarding the operation of the GW detectors, the laser modulation/demodulation method is used to measure mirror displacements and used for the position controls. This plays a significant role because the quality of controls affect the noise level of the GW detector. The phase camera is able to monitor each sideband separately, which has a great benefit for the manipulation of the delicate controls. Also, overcoming mirror aberrations will be an essential part of Advanced Virgo (AdV), which is a GW detector close to Pisa. Especially low-frequency sidebands can be affected greatly by aberrations in one of the interferometer cavities. The phase cameras allow tracking such changes because the state of the sidebands gives information on mirror aberrations. A prototype of the phase camera has been developed and is currently tested. The performance checks are almost completed and the installation of the optics at the AdV site has started. After the installation and commissioning, the phase camera will be combined to a thermal compensation system that consists of CO2 lasers and compensation plates. In this paper, we focus on the prototype and show some limitations from the scanner performance.

  9. Advances in the Remote Glow Discharge Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Arturo; Zwicker, A.; Rusaits, L.; McNulty, M.; Sosa, Carl

    2014-10-01

    The Remote Glow Discharge Experiment (RGDX) is a DC discharge plasma with variable pressure, end-plate voltage and externally applied axial magnetic field. While the experiment is located at PPPL, a webcam displays the live video online. The parameters (voltage, magnetic field and pressure) can be controlled remotely in real-time by opening a URL which shows the streaming video, as well as a set of Labview controls. The RGDX is designed as an outreach tool that uses the attractive nature of a plasma in order to reach a wide audience and extend the presence of plasma physics and fusion around the world. In March 2014, the RGDX was made publically available and, as of early July, it has had approximately 3500 unique visits from 107 countries and almost all 50 US states. We present recent upgrades, including the ability to remotely control the distance between the electrodes. These changes give users the capability of measuring Paschen's Law remotely and provides a comprehensive introduction to plasma physics to those that do not have access to the necessary equipment.

  10. Experiments investigating advanced materials under thermomechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    Many high temperature aircraft and rocket engine components experience large mechanical loads as well as severe thermal gradients and transients. These nonisothermal conditions are often large enough to cause inelastic deformations, which are the ultimate cause for failure in those parts. A way to alleviate this problem is through improved engine designs based on better predictions of thermomechanical material behavior. To address this concern, an experimental effort was recently initiated within the Hot Section Technology (HOST) program at Lewis. As part of this effort, two new test systems were added to the Fatigue and Structures Lab., which allowed thermomechanical tests to be conducted under closely controlled conditions. These systems are now being used for thermomechanical testing for the Space Station Receiver program, and will be used to support development of metal matrix composites.

  11. Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

    2004-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment.

  12. Photovoltaic power for Europe A scenario for implementation and current experience

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, M.R.; Palz, W.

    1982-09-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (EEC) has implemented a major R+D programme for photovoltaics since 1975. The Commission gives contracts to industry and research institutions in Europe aiming at solar cell development as well as system development and experimentation. The first of a series of 15 pilot projects in the 100 kW range has just been completed in Greece. The cumulative power of all pilot projects exceeds 1 MWp. They are installed in 8 of the 10 EEC member countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, United Kingdom). Associated with this activity is module testing and qualification at the European Community's Joint Research Centre in Ispra. Under contract with the Commission, an assessment study ''Photovoltaic Power for Europe'' has just been completed. It concluded that within the next twenty years and beyond, photovoltaic activities may grow considerably in Europe. Technical development should be part of a comprehensive strategy to be set up in Europe in which national authorities and the Commission will have to play an important role.

  13. Residential photovoltaic power conditioning technology for grid connected applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, T. S.; Klein, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Major advances in photovoltaic (PV) Power Conditioning (PC) with respect to performance and low-cost potential have been made. Solutions have been obtained to interface and control problems related to adapting available inverter designs to the grid-connected, residential photovoltaic experiments. A description is presented to contributing research and development activities. Attention is given to aspects of residential systems experience, conceptual design studies, questions of optimum topology development, and promising advanced designs for residential PV provided by development efforts of the private sector.

  14. Advanced Smart Structures Flight Experiments for Precision Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoyer, Keith K.; Erwin, R. Scott; Ninneman, R. Rory

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents an overview as well as data from four smart structures flight experiments directed by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicles Directorate in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Middeck Active Control Experiment $¯Flight II (MACE II) is a space shuttle flight experiment designed to investigate modeling and control issues for achieving high precision pointing and vibration control of future spacecraft. The Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX-I) is an experiment that has demonstrated active vibration suppression using smart composite structures with embedded piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The Satellite Ultraquiet Isolation Technology Experiment (SUITE) is an isolation platform that uses active piezoelectric actuators as well as damped mechanical flexures to achieve hybrid passive/active isolation. The Vibration Isolation, Suppression, and Steering Experiment (VISS) is another isolation platform that uses viscous dampers in conjunction with electromagnetic voice coil actuators to achieve isolation as well as a steering capability for an infra-red telescope.

  15. Advanced Tokamak Plasmas in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; D.W. Swain; P. Titus; M.A. Ulrickson

    2003-10-13

    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) capability of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma experiment is examined with 0-D systems analysis, equilibrium and ideal-MHD stability, radio-frequency current-drive analysis, and full discharge dynamic simulations. These analyses have identified the required parameters for attractive burning AT plasmas, and indicate that these are feasible within the engineering constraints of the device.

  16. Advanced gamma ray balloon experiment ground checkout and data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackstone, M.

    1976-01-01

    A software programming package to be used in the ground checkout and handling of data from the advanced gamma ray balloon experiment is described. The Operator's Manual permits someone unfamiliar with the inner workings of the software system (called LEO) to operate on the experimental data as it comes from the Pulse Code Modulation interface, converting it to a form for later analysis, and monitoring the program of an experiment. A Programmer's Manual is included.

  17. Cavity Ring down Spectroscopy Experiment for an Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacewicz, T.; Wasylczyk, P.; Kowalczyk, P.; Semczuk, M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment is described that permits advanced undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of the cavity ring down spectroscopy technique. The apparatus is used for measurements of low concentrations of NO[subscript 2] produced in air by an electric discharge. We present the setup, experimental procedure, data analysis and some…

  18. Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, H. W.; Graves, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is described. Tunnel junctions were fabricated, the tunneling spectra of several molecules absorbed on the surface of aluminum oxide measured, and mode assignments made for several of the prominent peaks in spectra using results obtained from optical…

  19. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  20. The photovoltaic-powered water desalination plant 'SORO' design, start up, operating experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaeusser, G.; Mohn, J.; Petersen, G.

    Design features, operational parameters, and test results of a year of operation of the SORO prototype photovoltaic (PV) reverse osmosis salt water desalinization plant are described. Chemicals are added to the salt water to control the pH, prevent formation of compounds which could plug the flow system, and kill bacteria and slime which might grow in the solution. The water is pressurized and forced into contact with membranes which separate the fresh water from the brackish or sea water. The flow rate in the project was 180 l/h, with the main electrical energy load being the high pressure pump and the well pump. Batteries are charged before current is switched to power the desalinization system. The plant yielded 1.50 cu of fresh water/day and is concluded to be a viable design for scale-up to larger production figures, besides being economically competitive with solar desalinization installations where the salt content is 2000 ppm.

  1. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

  2. Advances in Plexcore active layer technology systems for organic photovoltaics: roof-top and accelerated lifetime analysis of high performance organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Darin W.; Vaidya, Swanand; Li, Sergey; Mathai, Mathew; Woodworth, Brian; Sheina, Elena; Williams, Shawn; Hammond, Troy

    2007-09-01

    We report NREL-certified efficiencies and initial lifetime data for organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells based on Plexcore PV photoactive layer and Plexcore HTL-OPV hole transport layer technology. Plexcore PV-F3, a photoactive layer OPV ink, was certified in a single-layer OPV cell at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at 5.4%, which represents the highest official mark for a single-layer organic solar cell. We have fabricated and measured P3HT:PCBM solar cells with a peak efficiency of 4.4% and typical efficiencies of 3 - 4% (internal, NREL-calibrated measurement) with P3HT manufactured at Plextronics by the Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) method. Outdoor and accelerated lifetime testing of these devices is reported. Both Plexcore PV-F3 and P3HT:PCBM-based OPV cells exhibit >750 hours of outdoor roof-top, non-accelerated lifetime with less than 8% loss in initial efficiency for both active layer systems when exposed continuously to the climate of Western Pennsylvania. These devices are continuously being tested to date. Accelerated testing using a high-intensity (1000W) metal-halide lamp affords shorter lifetimes; however, the true acceleration factor is still to be determined.

  3. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) multibeam antenna technology verification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; Lagin, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) is a key to reaching NASA's goal of developing high-risk, advanced communications technology using multiple frequency bands to support the nation's future communication needs. Using the multiple, dynamic hopping spot beams, and advanced on board switching and processing systems, ACTS will open a new era in communications satellite technology. One of the key technologies to be validated as part of the ACTS program is the multibeam antenna with rapidly reconfigurable hopping and fixed spot beam to serve users equipped with small-aperature terminals within the coverage areas. The proposed antenna technology experiments are designed to evaluate in-orbit ACTS multibeam antenna performance (radiation pattern, gain, cross pol levels, etc.).

  4. Simulator design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    This simulation design task completion report documents the simulation techniques associated with the network models of both the Interim Service ISDN (integrated services digital network) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures. The ISIS network model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communication satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete events simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  5. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  6. Explosive Vessel for Dynamic Experiments at Advanced Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Charles; Sorensen, Christian; Armstrong, Christopher; Sanchez, Nathaniel; Jensen, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There has been significant effort in coupling dynamic loading platforms to advanced light sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to take advantage of X-ray diagnostics for examining material physics at extremes. Although the focus of these efforts has been on using gun systems for dynamic compression experiments, there are many experiments that require explosive loading capabilities including studies related to detonator dynamics, small angle X-ray scattering on explosives, and ejecta formation, for example. To this end, an explosive vessel and positioning stage was designed specifically for use at a synchrotron with requirements to confine up to 15 grams of explosives, couple the vessel to the X-ray beam line, and reliably position samples in the X-ray beam remotely with micrometer spatial accuracy. In this work, a description of the system will be provided along with explosive testing results for the robust, reusable positioning system.

  7. Nanostructured photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lan; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III-V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the

  8. Advances in Experiment Design for High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Engene A.

    1998-01-01

    A general overview and summary of recent advances in experiment design for high performance aircraft is presented, along with results from flight tests. General theoretical background is included, with some discussion of various approaches to maneuver design. Flight test examples from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are used to illustrate applications of the theory. Input forms are compared using Cramer-Rao bounds for the standard errors of estimated model parameters. Directions for future research in experiment design for high performance aircraft are identified.

  9. The NASA photovoltaic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Office of Aeronautical and Space Technology OAST Program in space photovoltaics is reviewed. From the perspective of national landmark mission requirements and five year and 25-year long range plans, the texture of the program is revealed. Planar silicon and concentrator GaAs array technology advances are discussed. Advances in lightweight (50 micro cell) arrays and radiation tolerance research are presented. Recent progress in cascade cells and ultralightweight GaAs planar cells is noted. Progress in raising silicon cell voltage to its theoretical maximum is detailed. Advanced concepts such as plasmon converters and the Long Duration Exposure Facility LDEF flight experiments pertaining to solar cell and array technology are also shown.

  10. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Karl

    2016-08-01

    Organic photovoltaics are on the verge of revolutionizing building-integrated photovoltaics. For other applications, however, several basic open scientific questions need answering to, in particular, further improve energy-conversion efficiency and lifetime.

  11. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  12. Initial operating experience of the 12-MW La Ola photovoltaic system.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Lenox, Carl; Johnson, Jay; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2011-10-01

    The 1.2-MW La Ola photovoltaic (PV) power plant in Lanai, Hawaii, has been in operation since December 2009. The host system is a small island microgrid with peak load of 5 MW. Simulations conducted as part of the interconnection study concluded that unmitigated PV output ramps had the potential to negatively affect system frequency. Based on that study, the PV system was initially allowed to operate with output power limited to 50% of nameplate to reduce the potential for frequency instability due to PV variability. Based on the analysis of historical voltage, frequency, and power output data at 50% output level, the PV system has not significantly affected grid performance. However, it should be noted that the impact of PV variability on active and reactive power output of the nearby diesel generators was not evaluated. In summer 2011, an energy storage system was installed to counteract high ramp rates and allow the PV system to operate at rated output. The energy storage system was not fully operational at the time this report was written; therefore, analysis results do not address system performance with the battery system in place.

  13. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  14. Photovoltaic device

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  15. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  16. Experiments applications guide: Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This applications guide first surveys the capabilities of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) system (both the flight and ground segments). This overview is followed by a description of the baseband processor (BBP) and microwave switch matrix (MSM) operating modes. Terminals operating with the baseband processor are referred to as low burst rate (LBR); and those operating with the microwave switch matrix, as high burst rate (HBR). Three very small-aperture terminals (VSATs), LBR-1, LBR-2, and HBR, are described for various ACTS operating modes. Also described is the NASA Lewis link evaluation terminal. A section on ACTS experiment opportunities introduces a wide spectrum of network control, telecommunications, system, and scientific experiments. The performance of the VSATs is discussed in detail. This guide is intended as a catalyst to encourage participation by the telecommunications, business, and science communities in a broad spectrum of experiments.

  17. Design of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight particle fuel tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the newly formed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the next generation Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature monitoring and control combined with on-line fission product monitoring of the sweep gas. The final design phase has just been completed on the first experiment (AGR-1) in this series and the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation. This paper discusses the development of the experimental hardware and support system designs and the status of the experiment.

  18. Advanced experiments with an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Paulo V. S.; Marques, Manuel B.; Rosa, Carla C.

    2014-07-01

    This communication describes an optical hands-on fiber laser experiment aimed at advanced college courses. Optical amplifiers and laser sources represent very important optical devices in numerous applications ranging from telecommunications to medicine. The study of advanced photonics experiments is particularly relevant at undergraduate and master level. This paper discusses the implementation of an optical fiber laser made with a cavity built with two tunable Bragg gratings. This scheme allows the students to understand the laser working principles as a function of the laser cavity set-up. One or both of the gratings can be finely tuned in wavelength through applied stress; therefore, the degree of spectral mismatch of the two gratings can be adjusted, effectively changing the cavity feedback. The impact of the cavity conditions on the laser threshold, spectrum and efficiency is analyzed. This experiment assumes that in a previous practice, the students should had already characterized the erbium doped fiber in terms of absorption and fluorescent spectra, and the spectral gain as a function of pump power.

  19. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; David A. Petti; S. Blaine Grover

    2014-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which each consist of at least five separate capsules, are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gases also have on-line fission product monitoring the effluent from each capsule to track performance of the fuel during irradiation. The first two experiments (designated AGR-1 and AGR-2), have been completed. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. The design of the fuel qualification experiment, designated AGR-5/6/7, is well underway and incorporates lessons learned from the three previous experiments. Various design issues will be discussed with particular details related to selection of thermometry.

  20. Enhancing the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Jandel, M.; Macon, K.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detectors and neutron tagging array. The upgrade will enhance the time domain accessible for time-of-flight neutron measurements as well as improve the resolution in the DANCE barium fluoride crystals for photons.

  1. Enhancing the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Jandel, M.; Macon, K.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Taddeucci, T. N; Ullmann, J. L.; et al

    2015-05-28

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detectors and neutron tagging array. The upgrade will enhance the time domain accessible for time-of-flight neutron measurements as well as improve the resolution in the DANCE barium fluoride crystals for photons.

  2. Detector for advanced neutron capture experiments at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J. L.; Reifarth, R.; Haight, Robert C.; Hunt, L. F.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Strottman, D.; Kaeppeler, F.; Heil, M.; Chamberlin, E. P.

    2002-01-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 159-element 4x barium fluoride array designed to study neutron capture on small quantities, 1 mg or less, of radioactive nuclides. It is being built on a 20 m neutron flight path which views the 'upper tier' water moderator at the Manuel J. Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The detector design is based on Monte Carlo calculations which have suggested ways to minimize backgrounds due to neutron scattering events. A data acquisition system based on fast transient digitizers is bcing implemented

  3. The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Reifarth, R.; Haight, R.C.; Hunt, L.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Rundberg, R.S.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Fowler, M.M.; Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.; Strottman, D.D.; Kaeppeler, F.; Heil, M.; Chamberlin, E.P.

    2003-08-26

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 159-element 4{pi} barium fluoride array designed to study neutron capture on small quantities, 1 mg or less, of radioactive nuclides. It is being built on a 20 m neutron flight path which views the 'upper tier' water moderator at the Manuel J. Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The detector design is based on Monte Carlo calculations which have suggested ways to minimize backgrounds due to neutron scattering events. A data acquisition system based on fast transient digitizers is being implemented.

  4. Advanced Test Reactor Testing Experience: Past, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2005-04-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 48" long and 5.0" diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. The current experiments in the ATR are for a variety of test sponsors -- US government, foreign governments, private researchers, and commercial companies needing neutron irradiation services. There are three basic types of test configurations in the ATR. The simplest configuration is the sealed static capsule, wherein the target material is placed in a capsule, or plate form, and the capsule is in direct contact with the primary coolant. The next level of complexity of an experiment is an instrumented lead experiment, which allows for active monitoring and control of experiment conditions during the irradiation. The highest level of complexity of experiment is the pressurized water loop experiment, in which the test sample can be subjected to the exact environment of a pressurized water reactor. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and future plans.

  5. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  6. Experiences of the advanced nurse practitioner role in acute care.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Alison; Cooper, Joanne; Goldberg, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the service evaluation presented in this article was to explore the multidisciplinary team's (MDT) experiences and perception of the advanced nurse practitioner (ANP) role on an acute health care of the older person ward. A qualitative case study was carried out comprising semi-structured interviews with members of the MDT, exploring their experiences of the ANP role. An overarching theme of 'Is it a nurse? Is it a doctor? No, it's an ANP' emerged from the data, with three subthemes: the missing link; facilitating and leading holistic care; and safe, high quality care. The ANP role is valued by the MDT working with them and provides a unique skill set that has the potential to enhance care of older patients living with frailty. While there are challenges to its introduction, it is a role worth introducing to older people's wards. PMID:27125941

  7. Mobile antennas for COMETS advanced mobile Satcom experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hase, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Masato; Saito, Haruo

    1995-01-01

    Advanced mobile satellite communication experiments in the Ka-band and the mm-wave will be carried out using the COMETS satellite, which is scheduled for launch in 1997. Mobile antennas will play a much more key role in high frequency systems such as COMETS than in conventional L-band mobile systems. This paper describes three types of antennas which are now being developed by the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) for the COMETS mobile experiments. One is a mechanically steered waveguide slot array antenna, another is an electronically steered active phased array antenna, and the third is a mechanically steered torus reflector antenna. The first two antennas will be used in the Ka-band, while the latter will be used in the mm-wave.

  8. Advances in shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Hohenberger, M.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique.

  9. Partner for Promotion: An Innovative Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Legg, Julie E.; Casper, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact. Design A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills. Assessment The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. Conclusion The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services. PMID:19325954

  10. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV) domestically. The SunShot Initiative aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  11. BMDO photovoltaics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caveny, Leonard H.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    This is an overview of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) Photovoltaic Program. Areas discussed are: (1) BMDO advanced Solar Array program; (2) Brilliant Eyes type satellites; (3) Electric propulsion; (4) Contractor Solar arrays; (5) Iofee Concentrator and Cell development; (6) Entech linear mini-dome concentrator; and (7) Flight test update/plans.

  12. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii, for November 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The data accumulated during November 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii, are presented. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  13. Advancements in n-Type Base Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Their Emergence in the Photovoltaic Industry

    PubMed Central

    ur Rehman, Atteq; Lee, Soo Hong

    2013-01-01

    The p-type crystalline silicon wafers have occupied most of the solar cell market today. However, modules made with n-type crystalline silicon wafers are actually the most efficient modules up to date. This is because the material properties offered by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are suitable for higher efficiencies. Properties such as the absence of boron-oxygen related defects and a greater tolerance to key metal impurities by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are major factors that underline the efficiency of n-type crystalline silicon wafer modules. The bi-facial design of n-type cells with good rear-side electronic and optical properties on an industrial scale can be shaped as well. Furthermore, the development in the industrialization of solar cell designs based on n-type crystalline silicon substrates also highlights its boost in the contributions to the photovoltaic industry. In this paper, a review of various solar cell structures that can be realized on n-type crystalline silicon substrates will be given. Moreover, the current standing of solar cell technology based on n-type substrates and its contribution in photovoltaic industry will also be discussed. PMID:24459433

  14. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    foresight, nor that the present generation of innovators are 'tackling' the opportunity with such promise and success, as the work in this special issue clearly demonstrates. References [1] http://environment.nationalgeographic.co.uk/environment/global-warming/solar-power-profile [2] Muth M-A, Mitchel W, Tierney S, Lada T A, Xue X, Richter H, Carrasco-Orozco M and Thelakkat M 2013 Influence of charge carrier mobility and morphology on solar cell parameters in devices of mono- and bis-fullerene adducts Nanotechnology 24 484001 [3] Rudenko A E, Noh S and Thompson B C 2013 Influence of selenophene on the properties of semi-random polymers and their blends with PC61BM Nanotechnology 24 484002 [4] Zhang K, Hu Z, Duan C, Ying L, Huang F and Cao Y 2013 The effect of methanol treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells Nanotechnology 24 484003 [5] Meng B, Fang G, Fu Y, Xie Z and Wang L 2013 Fine tuning of the PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM blend nanoscale phase separation via selective solvent annealing toward high-performance polymer photovoltaics Nanotechnology 24 484004 [6] Arar M et al 2013 Influence of morphology and polymer:nanoparticle ratio on device performance of hybrid solar cells—an approach in experiment and simulation Nanotechnology 24 484005 [7] Yu B, Wang H and Yan D 2013 Efficient organic photovoltaic cells with vertical ordered bulk heterojunction Nanotechnology 24 484006 [8] Chen G, Sasabe H, Sano T, Wang X-F, Hong Z, Kido J and Yang Y 2013 Chloroboron (III) subnaphthalocyanine as an electron donor in bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells Nanotechnology 24 484007 [9] Cheng P, Li Y and Zhan X 2013 DMF-assisted solution process boosts the efficiency in P3HT:PCBM solar cells up to 5.31% Nanotechnology 24 484008 [10] Chen H-Y, Lin S-H, Sun J-Y, Hsu C-H, Lan S and Lin C-F 2013 Morphologic improvement of the PBDTTT-C and PC71BM blend film with mixed solvent for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells Nanotechnology 24 484009 [11] Peng J, Sun Q, Zhai Z, Yuan J, Huang

  15. An evaluation of adhesive sample holders for advanced crystallographic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzorana, Marco; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan Sandy, James; Lobley, Carina M. C.; Sorensen, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Commercially available adhesives have been evaluated for crystal mounting when undertaking complex macromolecular crystallography experiments. Here, their use as tools for advanced sample mounting and cryoprotection is assessed and their suitability for room-temperature data-collection and humidity-controlled studies is investigated. The hydration state of macromolecular crystals often affects their overall order and, ultimately, the quality of the X-ray diffraction pattern that they produce. Post-crystallization techniques that alter the solvent content of a crystal may induce rearrangement within the three-dimensional array making up the crystal, possibly resulting in more ordered packing. The hydration state of a crystal can be manipulated by exposing it to a stream of air at controlled relative humidity in which the crystal can equilibrate. This approach provides a way of exploring crystal hydration space to assess the diffraction capabilities of existing crystals. A key requirement of these experiments is to expose the crystal directly to the dehydrating environment by having the minimum amount of residual mother liquor around it. This is usually achieved by placing the crystal on a flat porous support (Kapton mesh) and removing excess liquid by wicking. Here, an alternative approach is considered whereby crystals are harvested using adhesives that capture naked crystals directly from their crystallization drop, reducing the process to a one-step procedure. The impact of using adhesives to ease the harvesting of different types of crystals is presented together with their contribution to background scattering and their usefulness in dehydration experiments. It is concluded that adhesive supports represent a valuable tool for mounting macromolecular crystals to be used in humidity-controlled experiments and to improve signal-to-noise ratios in diffraction experiments, and how they can protect crystals from modifications in the sample environment is discussed.

  16. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  17. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  18. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  19. Advanced solar panel concentrator experiment (ASPaCE)

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.P.

    1997-12-31

    The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is beginning Phase 2 development for the Advanced Solar Panel Concentrator Experiment (ASPaCE). Phase 1 showed that flexible thin film reflectors can work successfully in a deployable trough concentrator. Thin film reflectors add several advantages to this concentrator including compact stowage, increase power from conventional fold-out solar panels, and solar cell exposure during orbit transfer. Testing on a proof-of-concept model has been completed (Phase 1) and correlation to a large scale flight model is under way. In Phase 2 a large scale reflector on the order of 6 meters by 2.5 meters is being built for deployment and deformation testing and a flight quality array is being designed.

  20. Plan of advanced satellite communications experiment using ETS-VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiomi, Tadashi

    1988-01-01

    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, Japan) has been engaged in development of three advanced satellite communication payloads aiming at experiments by Japan's 2-ton class Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI) which is to be launched in H-II rocket by NASDA in August 1992. CRL's three experimental systems are: (1) S-band inter-satellite communications; (2) millimeter-wave inter-satellite and personal-satellite communications; and (3) optical inter-satellite communications. CRL develops experimental optical communication system with telescope of 75 mm diameter which has gimbal mirror beam pointing/tracking mechanism. The onboard system has fundamental optical communication functions with laser diode transmitter of wavelength 0.83 micron, laser beam point-ahead mechanism, receiver of wavelength 0.51 micron, modulation/demodulation subsystem, and so on.

  1. The DOE photovoltaics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The considered program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has the objective to provide federal support for research and development work related to photovoltaics. According to definitions of policy in 1981, a strong emphasis is to be placed on long-term, high-risk research and development that industry could not reasonably be expected to perform using their own funds. Attention is given to the program structure, the photovoltaics program management organization, the advanced research and development subprogram, the collector research and development subprogram, flat-plate collectors, concentrator collectors, and the systems research and technology subprogram.

  2. Photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  3. Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

  4. Canadian Advanced Nanospace Experiment 2: Om-Orbit Experience with an Innovative Three-Kilogram Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarda, K.; Grant, C.; Eagleson, S.; Kekez, D. D.; Zee, R. E.

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment (CanX) program is to develop highly capable "nanospacecraft," or spacecraft under 10 kilograms, in short timeframes of 2-3 years. CanX missions offer low- cost and rapid access to space for scientists, technology developers, and operationally responsive missions. The Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) has developed the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment 2 (CanX-2) nanosatellite that launched in April 2008. CanX-2, a 3.5-kg, 10 x 10 x 34 cm satellite, features a collection of scientific and engineering payloads that push the envelope of capability for this class of spacecraft. The primary mission of CanX-2 is to test and demonstrate several enabling technologies for precise formation flight. These technologies include a custom cold-gas propulsion system, a 30 mNms nanosatellite reaction wheel as part of a three- axis stabilized momentum-bias attitude control system, and a commercially available GPS receiver. The secondary objective of CanX-2 is to fly a number of university experiments including an atmospheric spectrometer. At the time of writing CanX-2 has been in orbit for three weeks and has performed very well during preliminary commissioning. The mission, the engineering and scientific payloads, and the preliminary on-orbit commissioning experiences of CanX-2 are presented in this paper.

  5. Photovoltaic-cell-research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, J.G.; Hien, L.K.; Silberglitt, R.

    1983-09-30

    The current state of research and development on photovoltaic materials and advanced concepts are reviewed, and priority research activities for improved photovoltaic cells in the major individual research areas (i.e., silicon, III-V materials, II-VI materials) are identified. Also noted is the importance of reserving a small but finite portion of photovoltaic research funding for out-of-the-mainstream research. The major features of a research management philosophy aimed at attracting the best available scientific resources and research capabilities to photovoltaic research and development are outlined. The priority research activities in the principal areas of photovoltaic research are then summarized and compared, and the overall conclusions of the assessment are presented. (LEW)

  6. Advances, experiences, and prospects of the International Soil Moisture Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, W.; van Oevelen, P. J.; Drusch, M.; Wagner, W.; Scipal, K.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2012-12-01

    In 2009, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http:www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at) was initiated as a platform to support calibration and validation of soil moisture products from remote sensing and land surface models, and to advance studies on the behavior of soil moisture over space and time. This international initiative is fruit of continuing coordinative efforts of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) in cooperation with the Group of Earth Observation (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The decisive financial incentive was given by the European Space Agency (ESA) who considered the establishment of the network critical for optimizing the soil moisture products from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The ISMN collects and harmonizes ground-based soil moisture data sets from a large variety of individually operating networks and makes them available through a centralized data portal. Meanwhile, almost 6000 soil moisture data sets from over 1300 sites, distributed among 34 networks worldwide, are contained in the database. The steadily increasing number of organizations voluntarily contributing to the ISMN, and the rapidly increasing number of studies based on the network show that the portal has been successful in reaching its primary goal to promote easy data accessibility to a wide variety of users. Recently, several updates of the system were performed to keep up with the increasing data amount and traffic, and to meet the requirements of many advanced users. Many datasets from operational networks (e.g., SCAN, the US Climate Reference Network, COSMOS, and ARM) are now assimilated and processed in the ISMN on a fully automated basis in near-real time. In addition, a new enhanced quality control system is currently being implemented. This presentation gives an overview of these recent developments, presents some examples of important scientific results based on the ISMN, and sketches an outlook for

  7. Industry Perspectives on Advanced Inverters for U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Systems. Grid Benefits, Deployment Challenges, and Emerging Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, Emerson; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert; Edge, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    To clarify current utility strategies and other considerations related to advanced inverter deployment, we interviewed 20 representatives from 11 leading organizations closely involved with advanced inverter pilot testing, protocols, and implementation. Included were representatives from seven utilities, a regional transmission operator, an inverter manufacturer, a leading solar developer, and a consortium for grid codes and standards. Interview data represent geographically the advanced inverter activities identified in SEPA's prior survey results--most interviewed utilities serve California, Arizona, and Hawaii, though we also interviewed others from the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast.

  8. Experiences in Engaging the Public on Biotechnology Advances and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, M Megan; Smith, Joe; Layton, Raymond; Keese, Paul; Agbagala, Ma Lorelie U; Palacpac, Merle B; Ball, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and

  9. Experiences in Engaging the Public on Biotechnology Advances and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, M. Megan; Smith, Joe; Layton, Raymond; Keese, Paul; Agbagala, Ma. Lorelie U.; Palacpac, Merle B.; Ball, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and

  10. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robin L; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-15

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing. PMID:27046341

  11. Recent advances in large-scale assembly of semiconducting inorganic nanowires and nanofibers for electronics, sensors and photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Long, Yun-Ze; Yu, Miao; Sun, Bin; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Fan, Zhiyong

    2012-06-21

    Semiconducting inorganic nanowires (NWs), nanotubes and nanofibers have been extensively explored in recent years as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics, optoelectronics, chemical/biological/optical sensing, and energy harvesting, storage and conversion, etc. Besides the top-down approaches such as conventional lithography technologies, nanowires are commonly grown by the bottom-up approaches such as solution growth, template-guided synthesis, and vapor-liquid-solid process at a relatively low cost. Superior performance has been demonstrated using nanowires devices. However, most of the nanowire devices are limited to the demonstration of single devices, an initial step toward nanoelectronic circuits, not adequate for production on a large scale at low cost. Controlled and uniform assembly of nanowires with high scalability is still one of the major bottleneck challenges towards the materials and device integration for electronics. In this review, we aim to present recent progress toward nanowire device assembly technologies, including flow-assisted alignment, Langmuir-Blodgett assembly, bubble-blown technique, electric/magnetic- field-directed assembly, contact/roll printing, planar growth, bridging method, and electrospinning, etc. And their applications in high-performance, flexible electronics, sensors, photovoltaics, bioelectronic interfaces and nano-resonators are also presented. PMID:22573265

  12. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 2 for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, HI

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during April and May 1982 at this intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  13. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report, for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Vol. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This report presents the data accumulated during January 1983 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  14. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 1. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during January, February, and March 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  15. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Design for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the design of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the V.35 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the V.35 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  16. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment development for advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Development for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the development of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the RS-499 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the RS-499 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  17. Photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, H.

    1982-11-01

    The utilization of photovoltaic generators in measuring and signalling installations, communication systems, water pumping, and electric power plants is discussed. The advantages of solar generators over conventional power supply equipment are outlined.

  18. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chang; Meng, Tianyu; Yi, Chao; Gong, Xiong

    2016-05-21

    The advance in lifestyle, modern industrialization and future technological revolution are always at high expense of energy consumption. Unfortunately, there exist serious issues such as limited storage, high cost and toxic contamination in conventional fossil fuel energy sources. Instead, solar energy represents a renewable, economic and green alternative in the future energy market. Among the photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) demonstrate a cheap, flexible, clean and easy-processing way to convert solar energy into electricity. However, OPVs with a conventional device structure are still far away from industrialization mainly because of their short lifetime and the energy-intensive deposition of top metal electrode. To address the stability and cost issue simultaneously, an inverted device structure has been introduced into OPVs, bridging laboratory research with practical application. In this review, recent progress in device structures, working mechanisms, functions and advances of each component layer as well their correlations with the efficiency and stability of inverted OPVs are reviewed and illustrated. PMID:27087582

  19. Photovoltaic tests and applications project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Photovoltaic Tests and Applications Project during the period April 1976 through June 1977 are summarized. Results of efforts to identify potential near-term photovoltaic applications and users are discussed, including the outcome of an extensive survey of Federal government agencies. The status of application experiments is presented. Various general engineering efforts are reported, including the design and construction of a photovoltaic Systems Test Facility. Efforts to develop a high efficiency 10 kVA self-commutated inverter and controller specifically designed for photovoltaic systems are also discussed. The results of a wide variety of activities in the area of photovoltaic measurements and standards are related. Documents generated by the Project during the reporting period are listed in an Appendix.

  20. NREL PV AR&D 11th review meeting, May 13--15, 1992, Denver Marriott City Center, Denver, Colorado. Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This is a collection of abstracts from papers presented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) research and development review meeting held May 1992. Subject areas covered include solar cell and solar module manufacturing and development, materials, polycrystalline thin films, applications, amorphous silicon, solar cell performance and testing, crystalline silicon and other photovoltaic and safety perspectives. (GHH)

  1. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  2. A Novel Laboratory Course on Advanced ChE Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauterbach, J.; White, S.; Liu, Z.; Bodner, G. M.; Delgass, W. N.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a novel approach to laboratory teaching that provides students with a learning environment which allows them to develop advanced experimental skills that are necessary for success in research and development environments. (DKM)

  3. Proceedings of the 15th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Reports from the 15th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference included topics on space solar cell research, space photovoltaics, multibandgap cells,thermophotovoltaics,flight experiments, environmental effects; calibration and characterization; and photovoltaics for planetary surfaces.

  4. A Simple Photochemical Experiment for the Advanced Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment to provide students with: (1) an introduction to photochemical techniques and theory; (2) an experience with semimicro techniques; (3) an application of carbon-14 nuclear magnetic resonance; and (4) a laboratory with some qualities of a genuine experiment. These criteria are met in the photooxidation of 9,…

  5. Recent Experiences and Advances in Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbrey, John R.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging schemes strive to suppress tissue signals in order to better visualize nonlinear signals from blood-pooling ultrasound contrast agents. Because tissue does not generate a subharmonic response (i.e., signal at half the transmit frequency), subharmonic imaging has been proposed as a method for isolating ultrasound microbubble signals while suppressing surrounding tissue signals. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the use of subharmonic imaging in vivo. These advances include the implementation of subharmonic imaging on linear and curvilinear arrays, intravascular probes, and three-dimensional probes for breast, renal, liver, plaque, and tumor imaging. PMID:26090430

  6. Advanced photovoltaic concentrator cells. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, 1 December 1979-29 February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, S.W.; Yang, H.T.; Yang, J.J.; Harris, J.S. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes second quarter activities for a project aimed at demonstrating the technical feasibility of advanced high efficiency concentrator solar converters. The goal of the program is to achieve 30% conversion efficiency with a converter operating at 30/sup 0/C under 500 to 1000 SUN AM2 illumination and 25% conversion efficiency with a converter operating at 150/sup 0/C under 500 to 1000 SUN AM2 illumination. The approach is to fabricate two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked converters using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range of 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV. The high bandgap cells are to be fabricated using MOCVD or LPE to produce the needed AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap cells are to be similarly fabricated from AlGaSb(As) compositions by LPE. These subcells are then to be joined into a monolithic structure by an appropriate thermal bonding technique which will also form the needed transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. The activities this quarter have been largely focused on the development and study of low bandgap cell structures and attempts to develop suitable techniques for the thermal bonding operation.

  7. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bronstein-Bonte, I.Y.; Fischer, A.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a product comprising a photovoltaic cell including a luminescent dye which will absorb radiation at a wavelength to which the cell is not significantly responsive and emit radiation at a higher wavelength at which it is responsive. The improvement described here is wherein the dye comprises a lepidopterene.

  8. Photovoltaic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. photovoltaic industry enjoyed a growth rate of 30 percent in sales for the second year in a row. This sends a message that the way we think about electricity is changing. Instead of big energy projects that perpetuate environmental and economic damage, there is a growing trend toward small renewable technologies that are well matched to end-user needs and operating conditions. As demand grows and markets expand, investment capital will be drawn to the industry and new growth trends will emerge. The photovoltaic industry around the world achieved record shipments also. Worldwide shipments of photovoltaic (PV) modules for 1989 totaled more than 40 megawatts (MW), nearly a 20 percent increase over last year's shipments. The previous two years showed increases in worldwide shipments of 23 and 25 percent, respectively. If this growth rate continues through the 1990s, as industry back orders would indicate, 300 to 1000 MW of PV-supplied power could be on line by 2000. Photovoltaic systems have low environmental impact and they are inexpensive to operate and maintain. Using solid-state technology, PV systems directly convert sunlight to electricity without high-temperature fluids or moving parts that could cause mechanical failure. This makes the technology very reliable.

  9. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  10. Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 2: Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, M. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Supporting documentation pertaining to the hazards of transporting experimental equipment on the Earth Orbit Shuttle is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) experiment and hardware definition, (2) hazard analysis, (3) preventive measure assessment, (4) preventive measures statements, (5) remedial measure assessment, and (6) experiment interaction safety considerations.

  11. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  12. Photovoltaic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  13. Principles of Precision Spectrophotometry: An Advanced Undergraduate Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billmeyer, Fred W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to familiarize students with the operation of a precision spectrophotometer, the effects of changes in operating variables, and the characteristics of such components as sources and detectors. (SLH)

  14. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hartog, P.D.; Grimmer, J.; Xu, S.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Wiemerslage, G.

    1997-08-01

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured.

  15. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  16. Large area space qualified thermoelectrically (TE) cooled HgCdTe MW photovoltaic detectors for the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, P. W.; Zimmermann, P. H.; Briggs, R. J.; Hartle, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Large-area, HgCdTe MW photovoltaic detectors have been developed for the NASA-HALOE instrument scheduled for operation on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite. The photodiodes will be TE-cooled and were designed to operate in the 5.1-5.4 micron band at 185 K to measure nitric oxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The active area required 15 micron thick devices and a full backside common contact. Reflections from the backside contact doubled the effective thickness of the detectors. Optical interference from reflections was eliminated with a dual layer front surface A/R coating. Bakeout reliability was optimized by having Au metallization for both n and p interconnects. Detailed performance data and a model for the optical stack are presented.

  17. Laser Light Scattering, from an Advanced Technology Development Program to Experiments in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Tscharnuter, Walther W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, Pierre; Boucher, Francois; Zuh, Jixiang; Tin, Padetha; Rogers, Richard B.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advancements in laser light scattering hardware are described. These include intelligent single card correlators; active quench/active reset avalanche photodiodes; laser diodes; and fiber optics which were used by or developed for a NASA advanced technology development program. A space shuttle experiment which will employ aspects of these hardware developments is previewed.

  18. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  19. Containerless preparation of advanced optical glasses: Experiment 77F095

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happe, R. A.; Kim, K. S.

    1982-01-01

    Containerless processing of optical glasses was studied in preparation for space shuttle MEA flight experiments. Ground based investigation, experiment/hardware coordination activities and development of flight experiment and sample characterization plans were investigated. In the ground based investigation over 100 candidate glass materials for space processing were screened and promising compositions were identified. The system of Nb2O5-TiO2-CaO was found to be very rich with containerless glass compositions and as extensive number of the oxides combinations were tried resulting in a glass formation ternary phase diagram. The frequent occurrence of glass formation by containerless processing among the compositions for which no glass formations were previously reported indicated the possibility and an advantage of containerless processing in a terrestrial environment.

  20. Determination of the Performance Parameters of a Spectrophotometer: An Advanced Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Virgil W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment developed for the determination of the performance parameters of a spectrophotometer. Among the parameters are the baseline linearity with wavelength, wavelength accuracy and respectability, stray light, noise level and pen response time. (HM)

  1. The Synthesis and Proton NMR Spectrum of Methyl 7-Cycloheptatrienylacetate: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurch, G. R., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment designed to give the senior chemistry student an opportunity to apply several synthetic and purification techniques as well as possibilities for the application of NMR spectroscopy. (CS)

  2. Stereospecificity of NAD+/NADH Reactions: A Project Experiment for Advanced Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrey, Jonathan S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents background information, materials needed, and experimental procedures to study enzymes dependent on pyridine nucleotide coenzymes (NAD/NADH). The experiments, suitable for advanced organic or biochemistry courses, require approximately 10-15 hours to complete. (SK)

  3. The Columbus, Ohio, Experiment with Advanced Telebook Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetten, Kenneth J.; McElhaney, William E.

    This is the Final report of a 3-year, 3-phase experiment on the Telebook service, which is a system for delivering the recorded voice of Talking Books directly and electronically to the homes of blind and handicapped persons upon their request at any time of the day or night. The purpose of the third phase was to determine the long-term…

  4. Chemical release and radiation effects experiment advanced planning and coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Alzmann, Melanie

    1991-01-01

    The efforts conducted to provide assessments and planning support for the Chemical Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) Experiments are summarized. Included are activities regarding scientific working group and workshop development including the preparation of descriptive information on the CRRES Project.

  5. Light Scattering by Polymers: Two Experiments for Advanced Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    Background information, procedures, equipment, and results for two experiments are presented. The first involves the measurement of the mass-average and degree of coiling of polystyrene and is interpreted by the full mathematical theory of light scattering. The second is the study of transitions in gelatin. (JN)

  6. Plan of advanced satellite communication experiments using ETS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, Tetsushi

    1989-01-01

    In 1992, an Engineering Test Satellite 6 is scheduled to be launched by an H-2 rocket. The missions of ETS-6 are to establish basic technologies of inter-satellite communications using S-band, millimeter waves and optical beams and of fixed and mobile satellite communications using multibeam antenna on board the satellite. A plan of the experiments is introduced.

  7. Advancing Intercultural Competency: Canadian Engineering Employers' Experiences with Immigrant Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally…

  8. Chemical release and radiation effects experiment advanced planned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Alzmann, Melanie

    1990-01-01

    A summary of the efforts conducted to provide assessments and planning support for the Chemical Release and Radiation Experiment Satellite (CRRES) is reported. Included are activities regarding scientific working group and workshop development including the preparation of descriptive information on the CRRES project.

  9. Technology Advancements Enhance Aircraft Support of Experiment Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jacques J.

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, the NASA Airborne Science Program has provided airborne platforms for space bound instrument development, for calibrating new and existing satellite systems, and for making in situ and remote sensing measurements that can only be made from aircraft. New technologies have expanded the capabilities of aircraft that are operated for these missions. Over the last several years a new technology investment portfolio has yielded improvements that produce better measurements for the airborne science communities. These new technologies include unmanned vehicles, precision trajectory control and advanced telecommunications capabilities. We will discuss some of the benefits of these new technologies and systems which aim to provide users with more precision, lower operational costs, quicker access to data, and better management of multi aircraft and multi sensor campaigns.

  10. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment: expected performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk; Adams, James H.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Dudnik, Alexey V.; Fazely, Ali R.; Garcia, L.; Grigorov, Naum L.; Guzik, T. Gregory; Inderhees, Susan E.; Isbert, Joachim; Jung, H. C.; Khein, L.; Kim, Sun-Kee; Kroeger, Richard A.; McDonald, Frank B.; Panasyuk, Mikhail I.; Park, Choong-Soo; Schmidt, Wolfgang K.; Dion-Schwartz, C.; Senchishin, V. G.; Wang, J. Z.; Wefel, John P.; Zatsepin, Viktor I.; Zinn, S. Y.

    1996-10-01

    An advanced thin ionization calorimeter (ATIC) will be used to investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of ultrahigh energy primary cosmic rays in a series of long- duration balloon flights. While obtaining new high priority scientific results, this balloon payload can also serve as a proof of concept for a BGO calorimeter-based instrument on the International Space Station. The ATIC technical details are presented in a companion paper at this conference. Here we discuss the expected performance of the instrument based on a GEANT code developed for simulating nuclear- electromagnetic cascades initiated by protons. For simulations of helium and heavy nuclei, a nucleus-nucleus interaction event generator LUCIAE was linked to the GEANT based program. Using these models, the design of the ATIC detector system has been optimized by simulating the instrument response to particles of different charges over the energy range to be covered. Results of these simulations are presented and discussed.

  11. Development of performance criteria for advanced Viking seismic experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and requirements of the seismic instrument for mapping the internal structure of the planet Mars are briefly described. The types of signals expected to exist are microseismic background generated by wind and pressure variations and thermal effects, disturbances of or in the landed vehicle, signals caused by faulting and volcanic activity, and signals due to meteoritic impacts. The advanced instrument package should include a short-period vertical component system, a long-period or wide-band 3-component system, a high frequency vertical component system, and a system for detection and rejection of lander noises. The Viking '75, Surveyor, and Apollo systems are briefly described as potential instruments to be considered for modification. Data processing and control systems are also summarized.

  12. Lead-bismuth eutectic as advanced reactor collant : operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K. A.; Watts, V.; Li, N.

    2004-01-01

    Some proposed advanced reactor concepts would be cooled by lead or lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). An LBE test loop was designed and built at Los Alamos to develop the engineering and materials technology necessary to successfully implement LBE as a coolant (Fig. 1). Operational since December 2001, this test loop has been used to develop and demonstrate safe operation, oxygen concentration and metal corrosion control, instrumentation, thermal-hydraulic performance of heat exchangers and recuperators, and free convection and forced pumping. This paper discusses the technology development and lessons learned from the operation of this facility. A LBE test loop has been operational since December 2001. Using procedures, training, and engineering controls, this loop has operated without an accident. Continuous improvements in operation procedures and instrumentation over these years have resulted in a facility of high reliability, providing the groundwork for the use of LBE as a reactor coolant for temperatures up to 550 C.

  13. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  14. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  15. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  16. Advances in neurosurgery: The Fujita Health University experience

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    In a world with rapidly changing technologies in the field of neurosurgery, Japan leads the world in many subspecialities like vascular neurosurgery. Apart from this, neuro-oncology and spinal surgeries are also among the premium quality operations performed in the region. I would like to share my experience of spending 3 months at the Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan, and the rich expertise and technologies encountered during the period, which made me understand Neurosurgery in a better way. PMID:22059102

  17. Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Wefel, John P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), was selected by NASA's Administrator as a joint collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The AMS program was chartered to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments which were evolving from the Office of Space Science. The first such experiment to come forward was ACCESS in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to place a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the ISS, and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's sub-orbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer-review. This process is still on-going and the Accommodation Study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today. Further detail on the history, scope, and background of the study is provided in Appendix A.

  18. US Naval Research Laboratory's Current Space Photovoltaic Experiemtns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Walters, Robert; Messenger, Scott; Krasowski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has a rich history conducting space photovoltaic (PV) experiments starting with Vanguard I, the first solar powered satellite in 1958. Today, NRL in collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center, is engaged in three flight experiments demonstrating a wide range of PV technologies in both LEO and HEO orbits. The Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE)[1], part of the 5th Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-5), flew for 13 months on the International Space Station in 2005-2006. The FTSCE provided in-situ I-V monitoring of advanced III-V multi-junction cells and laboratory prototypes of thin film and other next generation technologies. Two experiments under development will provide more opportunities to demonstrate advanced solar cells and characterization electronics that are easily integrated on a wide variety of spacecraft bus architectures.

  19. Photovoltaic concentrator module technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Chamberlin, Jay L.; Boes, Eldon C.

    Significant developments in the development of photovoltaic (PV) concentrator technology are described. Concentrator cell research, advances in PV concentrator cell technology, and PV concentrator module development are described. Reliability issues currently of concern, including the applicability of wet insulation resistance tests to concentrator modules, correlation of accelerated thermal cycling tests with life expectancy in the field, and the importance of quality assurance during manufacture, are discussed. Two PV concentrator power systems installed in 1989 are discussed. A PV concentrator initiative program established by the DOE is given, and the results of the latest cost study are presented.

  20. Irradiation of the First Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti

    2008-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight separate tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments, which will each consist of six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control for each capsule. The swept gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The design of the first experiment (designated AGR-1) was completed in 2005, and the fabrication and assembly of the test train as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that monitor and control the experiment during irradiation were completed in September 2006. The experiment was inserted in the ATR in December 2006, and is serving as a shakedown test of the multi-capsule experiment design that will be used in the subsequent irradiations as well as a test of the early variants of the fuel produced under this program. The experiment test train as well as the monitoring, control, and data collection systems are discussed and the status of the experiment is provided.

  1. Bunch cleaning strategies and experiments at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Sereno, N. S.

    1999-04-15

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) design incorporated a positron accumulator ring (PAR) as part of the injector chain. In order to increase reliability and accommodate other uses of the injector, APS will run with electrons, eliminating the need for the PAR, provided another method of eliminating rf bucket pollution in the APS is found. Satellite bunches captured from an up to 30-ns-long beam from the linac need to be removed in the injector synchrotron and storage ring. The bunch cleaning method considered here relies on driving a stripline kicker with an amplitude modulated (AM) carrier signal where the carrier is at a revolution harmonic sideband corresponding to the vertical tune. The envelope waveform is phased so that all bunches except a single target bunch (eventually to be injected into the storage ring) are resonated vertically into a scraper. The kicker is designed with a large enough shunt impedance to remove satellite bunches from the injection energy of 0.4 GeV up to 1 GeV. Satellite bunch removal in the storage ring relies on the single bunch current tune shift resulting from the machine impedance. Small bunches remaining after initial preparation in the synchrotron may be removed by driving the beam vertically into a scraper using a stripline kicker operating at a sideband corresponding to the vertical tune for small current bunches. In this paper both design specifications and bunch purity measurements are reported for both the injector synchrotron and storage ring.

  2. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  3. Experience with fast neutron therapy for locally advanced sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Salinas, R.; Hussey, D.H.; Fletcher, G.H.; Lindberg, R.D.; Martin, R.G.; Peters, L.J.; Sinkovics, J.G.

    1980-03-01

    Between October 1972 and April 1978, 34 patients with locally advanced sarcomas were treated with fast neutrons using the Texas A and M variable energy cyclotron. The clinical material included 29 patients with soft tissue sarcomas, 4 with chondrosarcomas, and one with an osteosarcoma. The best results were achieved for patients with soft tissue sarcomas; 69% (20/29) had local control of their tumor. Only one of 4 patients with chondrosarcomas was classified as having local tumor control, and one patient with osteosarcoma had persistent disease. With most fractionation schedules, local tumor control was superior for patients who received doses greater than 6500 rad/sub eq/ (2100 rad/sub n..gamma../ with 50 MeV/sub d ..-->.. Be/ neutrons). The incidence of major complications was notably increased when maximum radiation doses of 7500 rad/sub eq/ or greater were administered (2400 rad/sub n..gamma../ with 50 MeV/sub d ..-->.. Be/ neutrons). In patients who underwent subsequent surgery, healing was satisfactory if the maximum radiation dose was limited to 4500 to 5500 rad/sub eq/(1450 to 1775 rad/sub n..gamma../ with 50 MeV/sub d ..-->.. Be/ neutrons).

  4. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, T. Gregory; Adams, James H.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Dudnik, Alexey V.; Ellison, Steven B.; Fazely, Ali R.; Garcia, L.; Grigorov, Naum L.; Inderhees, Susan E.; Isbert, Joachim; Jung, H. C.; Khein, L.; Kim, Sun-Kee; Kroeger, Richard A.; Lockwood, R.; McDonald, Frank B.; Panasyuk, Mikhail I.; Park, Choong-Soo; Price, B.; Schmidt, Wolfgang K.; Dion-Schwartz, C.; Senchishin, V. G.; Seo, Eun-Suk; Wefel, John P.; Wang, J. Z.; Zatsepin, Viktor I.; Zinn, S. Y.

    1996-10-01

    A new balloon instrument, the advanced thin ionization calorimeter (ATIC), is currently under development by an international collaboration involving researchers in the U.S., Germany, Korea, Russia and the Ukraine. The instrument will be used, in a series of long duration balloon flights, to investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays over the energy range from about 1010 to 1014 eV. The ATIC instrument is designed around a new technology, fully active Bismuth Germanate (BGO) ionization calorimeter that is used to measure the energy deposited by the cascades formed by particles interacting in an approximately 1 proton interaction length thick carbon target. The charge module comprises a highly segmented, triply redundant set of detectors (scintillator, silicon matrix and Cherenkov) that together give good incident charge resolution plus rejection of the 'backscattered' particles from the interaction. Trajectory information is obtained both from scintillator layers and from the cascade profile throughout the BGO calorimeter. This instrument is specifically designed to take advantage of the existing NASA long duration balloon flight capability in Antarctica and/or the Northern Hemisphere. The ATIC instrumentation is presented here, while a companion paper at this conference discusses the expected performance.

  5. Recent Advances In Science Support For Isolated Droplet Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, F. L.; Kazakov, A.; Urban, B. D.; Kroenlein, K.

    2003-01-01

    In a joint program involving Prof. F.A. Williams of the University of California, San Diego and Dr. V. Nayagam of the National Center for Microgravity Research, the combustion characteristics of isolated liquid fuel droplets of n-heptane, n-decane, methanol, methanol-water, ethanol and ethanol-water having initial diameters between about 1 mm and 6 mm continues to be investigated. The objectives of the work are to improve fundamental knowledge of droplet combustion dynamics for pure fuels and fuel-water mixtures through microgravity experiments and theoretical analyses. The Princeton contributions support the engineering design, data analysis, and data interpretation requirements for the study of initially single component, spherically symmetric, isolated droplet combustion studies through experiments and numerical modeling. UCSD contributions are described in a companion communication in this conference. The Princeton effort also addresses the analyses of Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiments conducted with the above fuels and collaborative work with others who are investigating droplet combustion in the presence of steady convection. A thorough interpretation of droplet burning behavior for n-heptane and n-decane over a relatively wide range of conditions also involves the influences of sooting on the combustion behavior, and this particular aspect on isolated burning of droplets is under consideration in a collaborative program underway with Drexel University. This collaboration is addressed in another communication at this conference. The one-dimensional, time-dependent, numerical modeling approach that we have continued to evolve for analyzing isolated, quiescent droplet combustion data has been further applied to investigate several facets of isolated droplet burning of simple alcohols, n-heptane, and n-decane. Some of the new results are described below.

  6. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  7. Advance Power Technology Experiment for the Starshine 3 Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Wilt, David; Raffaelle, Ryne; Button, Robert; Smith, Mark; Kerslake, Thomas; Miller, Thomas; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor); Hepp, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Starshine 3 satellite will carry several power technology demonstrations. Since Starshine 3 is primarily a passive experiment and does not need electrical power to successfully complete its mission, the requirement for a highly reliable power system is greatly reduced. This creates an excellent opportunity to test new power technologies. Several government and commercial interests have teamed up to provide Starshine 3 with a small power system using state-of-the-art components. Starshine 3 will also fly novel integrated microelectronic power supplies (IWS) for evaluation.

  8. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  9. Qualification testing of photovoltaic concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, E. H.; Barlow, R. S.

    Sandia has developed a revised set of specifications for qualification testing of passively-cooled photovoltaic concentrator modules. The purpose of the tests is to screen new concentrator designs and new production runs for susceptibility to known failure mechanisms; concentrator hardware must be qualified prior to array-level installation at Sandia's Photovoltaic Advanced System Test Facility (PASTF). Tests for cell assemblies and receiver sections, as well as for complete modules, are specified. They include ultraviolet radiation testing of materials, characterization of electrical performance checks to assure safety and structural integrity of modules, and accelerated environmental aging or cycling.

  10. Advanced tokamak physics experiments on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.S.

    1998-12-01

    Significant reductions in the size and cost of a fusion power plant core can be realized if simultaneous improvements in the energy confinement time ({tau}{sub E}) and the plasma pressure (or beta {beta}{sub T} = 2 {mu}{sub 0} < p > /B{sub T}{sup 2}) can be achieved in steady-state conditions with high self driven bootstrap current fraction. In addition, effective power exhaust and impurity and particle control is required. Significant progress has been made in experimentally achieving regimes having the required performance in all of these aspects as well as in developing a theoretical understanding of the underlying physics. The authors have extended the duration of high performance ELMing H-mode plasmas with {beta}{sub N} H{sub iop} {approximately} 10 for 5 {tau}{sub E} ({approximately}1 s) and have demonstrated that core transport barriers can be sustained for the entire 5-s neutral beam duration in L-mode plasmas. Recent DIII-D work has advanced the understanding of improved confinement and internal transport barriers in terms of E x B shear stabilization of micro turbulence. With the aim of current profile control in discharges with negative central magnetic shear, they have demonstrated off-axis electron cyclotron current drive for the first time in a tokamak, finding an efficiency above theoretical expectations. MHD stability has been improved through shape optimization, wall stabilization, and modification of the pressure and current density profiles. Heat flux reduction and improved impurity and particle control have been realized through edge/divertor radiation and understanding and utilization of forced scrape off layer flow and divertor baffling.

  11. DOE project review Massachusetts Photovoltaic Program. Annual report, June 1989--July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This is the third year of operations for work under the Cooperative Agreement between the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Photovoltaic Center and the U.S. Department of Energy. As a collaborative effort with shared resources, the activity at the Photovoltaic Center and the University of Lowell Photovoltaic Program has continued to advance the utilization and implementation of photovoltaic-powered systems into society. The programs and activities developed over the past three years have supported strategies that cover both international utilization as well as domestic application. Three major areas of activities have centered around the following themes: (1) The identification of market opportunities to enlarge sales potential for the photovoltaic industry. (2) The development of a knowledgeable infrastructure to support PV diffusion in Massachusetts, in the United States, and around the world. (3) The analysis of the physical, economic, and regulatory environment in which PV must compete with mature energy technologies. This past year has been an experience of contrasts for the Photovoltaic Center. Projects and activities have resulted in the successful completion of programs goals.

  12. System design of a photovoltaic flat-panel applications experiment at Busch Gardens, Tampa, Florida. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The detailed system design for a photovoltaic roof shingle module installation at Busch Gardens, Tampa, FL, (also known as the Dark Continent) is discussed. This installation of 4312 shingle solar cell modules of a second-generation design, which was developed under this contract, produces 29.5 kW of peak output at 237 Vdc under Standard Operating Conditions (SOC) with an NOCT at 61/sup 0/C. With a total gross roof area of 330.7 m/sup 2/, this installation yields an areal specific power output of 89.2 watt/m/sup 2/ at SOC. The system which uses an improved, low loss direct-coupled, line-commutated inverter controlled to operate the solar array maximum power operating point, delivers 208Y/120 volt, 3 phase ac in parallel with the Busch Gardens distribution network. The calculated annual ac energy m/sup 2/. The resulting overall system conversion efficiency of 9.2% is considered high for a system using large area circular solar cells.

  13. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  14. Advanced Undergraduate-Laboratory Experiment on Electron Spin Resonance in Single-Crystal Ruby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lee A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    An electron-spin-resonance experiment which has been successfully performed in an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory is described. A discussion of that part of the theory of magnetic resonance necessary for the understanding of the experiment is also provided in this article. (DT)

  15. Postural and Object-Oriented Experiences Advance Early Reaching, Object Exploration, and Means-End Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 3 weeks of social (control), postural, or object-oriented experiences on 9- to 21-week-old infants' (N = 42) reaching, exploration, and means-end behaviors were assessed. Coders recorded object contacts, mouthing, fingering, attention, and affect from video. Postural and object-oriented experiences advanced reaching, haptic…

  16. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  17. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE): MIT Contribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We describe in detail the instrumentation and calibrations used in the ALE, GAGE and AGAGE experiments and present a history of the majority of the anthropogenic ozone- depleting and climate-forcing gases in air based on these experiments. Beginning in 1978, these three successive automated high frequency in-situ experiments have documented the long-term behavior of the measured concentrations of these gases over the past twenty years, and show both the evolution of latitudinal gradients and the high frequency variability due to sources and circulation. We provide estimates of the long-term trends in total chlorine contained in long- lived halocarbons involved in ozone depletion. We summarize interpretations of these measurements using inverse methods to determine trace gas lifetimes and emissions. Finally, we provide a combined observational and modeled reconstruction of the evolution of chlorocarbons by latitude in the atmosphere over the past sixty years which can be used as boundary conditions for interpreting trapped air in glaciers and oceanic measurements of chlorocarbon tracers of the deep oceanic circulation. Some specific conclusions are: (a) International compliance with the Montreal Protocol is so far resulting in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon mole fractions comparable to target levels, (b) Mole fractions of total chlorine contained in long-lived halocarbons (CCl2F2, CCl3F, CH3CCl3, CCl4, CHClF2, CCl2FCClF2, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl2=CCl2) in the lower troposphere reached maximum values of about 3.6 ppb in 1993 and are beginning to slowly decrease in the global lower atmosphere, (c) The chlorofluorocarbons have atmospheric lifetimes consistent with destruction in the stratosphere being their principal removal mechanism, (d) Multi-annual variations in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon emissions deduced from ALUGAGWAGAGE data are consistent approximately with variations estimated independently from industrial production and sales data where

  18. Advancing Successful Physics Majors - The Physics First Year Seminar Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deibel, Jason; Petkie, Douglas

    In 2012, the Wright State University physics curriculum introduced a new year-long seminar course required for all new physics majors. The goal of this course is to improve student retention and success via building a community of physics majors and provide them with the skills, mindset, and advising necessary to successfully complete a degree and transition to the next part of their careers. This new course sequence assembles a new cohort of majors annually. To prepare each cohort, students engage in a variety of activities that span from student success skills to more specific physics content while building an entrepreneurial mindset. Students participate in activities including study skills, career night, course planning, campus services, and a department social function. More importantly, students gain exposure to programming, literature searches, data analysis, technical writing, elevator pitches, and experimental design via hands-on projects. This includes the students proposing, designing, and conducting their own experiments. Preliminary evidence indicates increased retention, student success, and an enhanced sense of community among physics undergraduate students, The overall number of majors and students eventually completing their physics degrees has nearly tripled. Associate Professor, Department of Physics.

  19. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  20. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  1. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  2. Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Systems technology, reliability, and present and projected costs of photovoltaic systems are discussed using data derived from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with photovoltaic systems deployed with a variety of users. Operating systems in two villages, one in Upper Volta and the other in southwestern Arizona are described. Energy cost comparisons are presented for photovoltaic systems versus alternative energy sources. Based on present system technology, reliability, and costs, photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for developing nations.

  3. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  5. INITIAL IRRADIATION OF THE FIRST ADVANCED GAS REACTOR FUEL DEVELOPMENT AND QUALIFICATION EXPERIMENT IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti

    2007-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight separate tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments, which will each consist of six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control for each capsule. The swept gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation.

  6. Advanced tracking and data relay experiments study: Multimode transponder experiment equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Plans and implementation concepts were developed for a series of experiments utilizing a Multimode Transponder mounted in an aircraft working either through a spacecraft or directly with a ground station which would simulate a TDRSS user working through the TDRSS. The purpose of the experiments is to determine the best modulation and encoding techniques for combating RFI in discreet bands. The experiments also determine the feasibility and accuracy of range and range rate measurements with the various modulation and encoding techniques. An analysis of the Multimode Transponder and ground support equipment is presented, and the additional equipment required to perform the experiments described above is determined.

  7. Photovoltaics. [research and development of terrestrial electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The federal government has sponsored a program of research and development on terrestrial photovoltaic systems that is designed to reduce the costs of such systems through technological advances. There are many potential paths to lower system costs, and successful developments have led to increased private investment in photovoltaics. The prices for photovoltaic collectors and systems that appear to be achievable within this decade offer hope that the systems will soon be attractive in utility applications within the United States. Most of the advances achieved will also be directly applicable to the remote markets in which photovoltaic systems are now commercially successful

  8. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.F.; Lampkin, C.M.

    1981-12-08

    A photovoltaic cell has: an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide; a first layer containing a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure; a second layer forming a heterojunction with the first layer; and suitable electrodes where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amporphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 mu thick) of underlying polycrystalline semi-conductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  9. Making the most of residential photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.; Parker, D.; Hayter, S.

    1999-10-18

    Making the Most of Residential Photovoltaic Systems, was recently produced by NREL Communications and Public Affairs. It showcases a demonstration project in Florida that produced some remarkable results by incorporating both energy efficiency and photovoltaic systems into newly built housing. The brochure points up the benefits of making wise personal choices about energy use, and how large-scale use of advanced energy technologies can benefit the nation. This is one of a series of brochures that presents stimulating information about photovoltaics, with a goal of helping to push this technology into the power-generation mix in different utilities, communities, and states.

  10. University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, A.; Crotty, G.; Cai, L.; Sana, P.; Doolittle, A.; Ropp, M.; Krygowski, T.; Narasimha, S.

    1995-09-01

    This is a second annual report since the University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education was established at Georgia Tech. The major focus of the center is crystalline silicon, and the mission of the Center is to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and technology of advanced photovoltaic devices and materials, to fabricate high-efficiency cells, and develop low-cost processes, to provide training and enrich the equational experience of students in this field, and to increase US competitiveness by providing guidelines to industry and DOE to achieve cost-effective and high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. This report outlines the work of the Center from July 1993--June 1994.

  11. A Bubble Mixture Experiment Project for Use in an Advanced Design of Experiments Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Stefan H.; Hamada, Michael; White, Bethany J.Giddings; Kutsyy, Vadim; Mosesova, Sofia; Salloum, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article gives an example of how student-conducted experiments can enhance a course in the design of experiments. We focus on a project whose aim is to find a good mixture of water, soap and glycerin for making soap bubbles. This project is relatively straightforward to implement and understand. At its most basic level the project introduces…

  12. Completion of the first NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiment, AGR-1, in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover; John Maki; David Petti

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and completed a very successful irradiation in early November 2009. The design of AGR-1 test train and support systems used to monitor and control the experiment during

  13. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs.

  14. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  15. Completing the Design of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2006-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the newly formed Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control for each capsule. The swept gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation.

  16. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwendtner, E.; Adli, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P. N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A. A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K. V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V. A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C. P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected into the sample wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  17. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 8. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii for December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during December 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphiclaly. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  18. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 5. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii for September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during September 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  19. Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, Terry Alan

    2002-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This paper addresses two general types of experiments in the ATR facility and how safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore this type of experiment is addressed with more detail in the safety basis. This allows individual safety analyses for these experiments to be more routine and repetitive. The second type of experiment is less defined and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, individual safety analyses for the second type of experiment tend to be more unique from experiment to experiment. Experiments are also discussed relative to "major modifications" and DOE-STD-1027-92. Application of the USQ process to ATR experiments is also discussed.

  20. Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, T.A.

    2002-06-19

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This paper addresses two general types of experiments in the ATR facility and how safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore this type of experiment is addressed with more detail in the safety basis. This allows individual safety analyses for these experiments to be more routine and repetitive. The second type of experiment is less defined and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, individual safety analyses for the second type of experiment tend to be more unique from experiment to experiment. Experiments are also discussed relative to ''major modifications'' and DOE-STD-1027-92. Application of the USQ process to ATR experiments is also discussed.

  1. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  2. Understanding Fluorescence Measurements through a Guided-Inquiry and Discovery Experiment in Advanced Analytical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna; Salin, Eric Dunbar

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on fluorescence spectroscopy suitable for an advanced analytical laboratory is presented. Its conceptual development used a combination of the expository and discovery styles. The "learn-as-you-go" and direct "hands-on" methodology applied ensures an active role for a student in the process of visualization and discovery of concepts.…

  3. An Advanced Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Exploring NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanke, Randall; Stauffer, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment to study the advantages and hazards of the coupling of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is described. The combination is commonly used for analysis and process control of various ingredients used in agriculture, petroleum and food products.

  4. The Effect of Conceptual Advancement in Jazz Music Selections and Jazz Experience on Musicians' Aesthetic Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggiola, John C.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an investigation of what musicians consider to be their aesthetic experience with jazz music selections that vary in level of conceptual advancement (melodic complexity during improvised solos). Music major participants (N = 128) were assigned to either the jazz musician (n = 64) or nonjazz musician (n = 64) group. Data were gathered…

  5. Learning to Facilitate Advance Care Planning: The Novice Social Worker's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla; Bowland, Sharon; Mueggenburg, Kay; Pederson, Margaret; Otten, Sheila; Renn, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Professional leaders have identified clear roles for social workers involved in advance care planning (ACP), a facilitated process whereby individuals identify their preferences for future medical care; yet information about effective teaching practices in this area is scant. This study reports on the experiences of 14 social workers who…

  6. Against All Odds: Positive Life Experiences of People with Advanced Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; McNicoll, Paule

    1998-01-01

    Describes the nature of positive life experiences of 13 people coping exceptionally well while living with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's, disease and the resulting significant physical disabilities. Emerging themes were the use of cognitive reappraisal, reframing, and intellectual stimulation as coping mechanisms;…

  7. DECADE OF EXPERIMENT, THE FUND FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION 1951-61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MURPHY, JUDITH; VON STOEPHASIUS, RENATA

    IN THE 50'S PUBLIC CONCERN ABOUT AMERICAN EDUCATION, THE INFLUENCE OF SPUTNIK I, AND THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT OF 1958 BROUGHT ABOUT MAJOR EDUCATIONAL RESULTS. IN TUNE WITH THESE EVENTS AND ATTITUDES, THE FUND FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION WAS CREATED IN APRIL 1951 FOR THE PURPOSE OF EXPERIMENTING AND PIONEERING IN EDUCATION.…

  8. Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

  9. Documenting Student Engagement Using an Intention/Reflection Exercise during an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.

    2015-01-01

    The article shares the outcomes of a practice called Intention/Reflection (I/R) when applied to a group of ten students in a five-week course involving an international advanced pharmacy practice experience. Developed by the authors and founded on a combination of theoretical principles, this practice is unique because of the blend of formative…

  10. SCARLET Photovoltaic Concentrator Array Selected for Flight Under NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center continues to demonstrate its expertise in the development and implementation of advanced space power systems. For example, during the past year, the NASA New Millennium Program selected the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) photovoltaic array as the power system for its Deep Space-1 (DS-1) mission. This Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) managed DS-1 mission, which represents the first operational flight of a photovoltaic concentrator array, will provide a baseline for the use of this technology in a variety of future government and commercial applications. SCARLET is a joint NASA Lewis/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology that uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The general concept is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with AEC-Able Engineering, Inc., for the Multiple Experiments to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. The SCARLET II design selected by the New Millennium Program is a direct adaptation of the smaller SCARLET I array built for METEOR. Even though SCARLET I was lost during a launch failure in October 1995, the hardware (designed, built, and flight qualified within 6 months) provided invaluable information and experience that led to the selection of this technology as the primary power source for DS-1.

  11. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  12. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This L-shaped probe mounted on the forward fuselage of a modified F-18 Systems Research Aircraft was the focus of an air data collection experiment flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration (ALADIN) experiment focused on providing pilots with angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip information as well as traditional airspeed and altitude data from a single system. For the experiment, the probes--one mounted on either side of the F-18's forward fuselage--were hooked to a series of four transducers, which relayed pressure measurements to an on-board research computer.

  13. Advanced Reactor Licensing: Experience with Digital I&C Technology in Evolutionary Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, RT

    2004-09-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of experience with digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology in evolutionary nuclear power plants. In particular, this study evaluated regulatory approaches employed by the international nuclear power community for licensing advanced l&C systems and identified lessons learned. The report (1) gives an overview of the modern l&C technologies employed at numerous evolutionary nuclear power plants, (2) identifies performance experience derived from those applications, (3) discusses regulatory processes employed and issues that have arisen, (4) captures lessons learned from performance and regulatory experience, (5) suggests anticipated issues that may arise from international near-term deployment of reactor concepts, and (6) offers conclusions and recommendations for potential activities to support advanced reactor licensing in the United States.

  14. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J. F.; Lampkin, C. M.

    1981-02-03

    A photovoltaic cell is disclosed having an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide. A first layer contains a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure a second layer forms a heterojunction with the first layer suitable electrodes are provided where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, and the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amorphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 mu thick) of underlying polycrystalline semi-conductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  15. Integration of an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience With an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in Adult Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Matthew L.; Vesta, Kimi S.; Harrison, Donald L.; Dennis, Vincent C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and assessment of an internal medicine introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) that was integrated with an existing advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in internal medicine. Design. A structured IPPE was designed for first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy (P1, P2, and P3) students. Activities for the IPPE were based on the established APPE and the individual learner's educational level. Assessment. Students reported a greater understanding of clinical pharmacists’ roles, increased confidence in their clinical skills, and better preparation for APPEs. Peers viewed the approach as innovative and transferable to other practice settings. Participating faculty members provided a greater number of contact hours compared to traditional one-time site visits. Conclusions. Integrating an IPPE with an existing APPE is an effective and efficient way to provide patient care experiences for students in the P1-P3 years in accordance with accreditation standards. PMID:22544969

  16. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  17. Advanced tracking and data relay experiments study: Multimode transponder experiment analysis procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.; Moses, J.

    1973-01-01

    Plans and implementation concepts were developed for utilizing a multimode transponder mounted in an aircraft working either through a spacecraft or directly with a ground station. The purpose would be to determine the best modulation and encoding techniques for combating RFI and multipath propagation and to determine the characteristics of VHF and UHF RFI in discreet bands. The experiments would also determine the feasibility and accuracy of range and range rate measurements with the various modulation and encoding techniques.

  18. Hospitalists caring for patients with advanced cancer: An experience-based guide.

    PubMed

    Koo, Douglas J; Tonorezos, Emily S; Kumar, Chhavi B; Goring, Tabitha N; Salvit, Cori; Egan, Barbara C

    2016-04-01

    Every year, nearly 5 million adults with cancer are hospitalized. Limited evidence suggests that hospitalization of the cancer patient is associated with adverse morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization of the patient with advanced cancer allows for an intense examination of health status in the face of terminal illness and an opportunity for defining goals of care. This experience-based guide reports what is currently known about the topic and outlines a systematic approach to maximizing opportunities, improving quality, and enhancing the well-being of the hospitalized patient with advanced cancer. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:292-296. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine. PMID:26588430

  19. Photovoltaic roof construction

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, W.W.

    1980-02-26

    In a batten-seam roof construction employing at least one photovoltaic cell module, the electrical conduits employed with the at least one photovoltaic cell module are disposed primarily under the battens of the roof.

  20. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  1. Transient terahertz photoconductivity measurements of minority-carrier lifetime in tin sulfide thin films: Advanced metrology for an early stage photovoltaic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, R.; Sher, Meng-Ju; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K.; Steinmann, V.; Yang, Chuanxi; Hartman, Katy; Nelson, Keith A.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.; Gordon, Roy G.; Buonassisi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Materials research with a focus on enhancing the minority-carrier lifetime of the light-absorbing semiconductor is key to advancing solar energy technology for both early stage and mature material platforms alike. Tin sulfide (SnS) is an absorber material with several clear advantages for manufacturing and deployment, but the record power conversion efficiency remains below 5%. We report measurements of bulk and interface minority-carrier recombination rates in SnS thin films using optical-pump, terahertz-probe transient photoconductivity (TPC) measurements. Post-growth thermal annealing in H2S gas increases the minority-carrier lifetime, and oxidation of the surface reduces the surface recombination velocity. However, the minority-carrier lifetime remains below 100 ps for all tested combinations of growth technique and post-growth processing. Significant improvement in SnS solar cell performance will hinge on finding and mitigating as-yet-unknown recombination-active defects. We describe in detail our methodology for TPC experiments, and we share our data analysis routines in the form freely available software.

  2. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  3. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  4. Photovoltaic device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  5. Advanced lab initiatives: building on a rich diversity of programs and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Richard

    2009-04-01

    The intermediate and advanced lab experience plays a critical role in preparing physics undergraduates for a diversity of careers and graduate school options. During the last few years AAPT, APS, and ALPhA (Advanced Laboratory Physics Association - http://www.advlab.org/) have been working together to invigorate these programs and to help network their instructors -- including a 2009 2.5-day advanced lab topical conference at the University of Michigan 7/23-7/25 (http://advlabs.aapt.org/). Project oriented labs incorporating applications in engineering, acoustics, fluids, optical metrology and diagnostics, non-linear dynamics, biophysics, and nanoscience can play a broadly motivating role for students planning on REU or graduate work in applied physics areas. Experimental examples highlighted here include studies of mechanical resonance and shock wave phenomena utilizing holographic, Schlieren, and interferometric diagnostics -- often in conjunction with MATLAB and COMSOL computational work.

  6. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) simulator development for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The simulation development associated with the network models of both the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures is documented. The ISIS Network Model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communications satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete event simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters, and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  7. Microprocessor-controlled photovoltaic-array loading unit

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.F.

    1982-08-01

    Described is a microprocessor-controlled test system in operation at the Photovoltaics Advanced Systems Test Facility located at Sandia National Laboratories. The test system is designed to measure the total energy output of photovoltaic arrays. The theory, installation, operation, and calibration of the test system are described.

  8. International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, 5th, Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 26-30, 1990, Technical Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference on photovoltaic science and engineering encompasses amorphous silicon materials, compound solar cells, a national photovoltaic project, solar cells fabricated from polycrystalline silicon and amorphous silicon, the use of solar cells in space systems, photovoltaic systems components, and experience from field use of the systems. Specific issues addressed include the status of the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program, a novel p-type window material for amorphous silicon solar cells, low dislocation-density GaAs on Si for solar cells, the spin-cast process for Si solar cells, advances in a-Si:H alloy multijunction devices, and n-ZnO/p-MoSe2 heterojunction solar cells. Also addressed are polycrystalline photovoltaic silicon-ingot production, cells with large areas and high efficiency, a vacuum-evaporated CdS/CdTe solar cell, proton-irradiation damage in thin-film GaAs solar cells fabricated on Si substrates, and advanced power systems for the Space Station Freedom.

  9. Developing Structured-Learning Exercises for a Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Renee Ahrens

    2006-01-01

    The recent growth in the number of pharmacy schools across the nation has resulted in the need for high-quality community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites. A vital part of a student's education, these APPEs should be structured and formalized to provide an environment conducive to student learning. This paper discusses how to use a calendar, structured-learning activities, and scheduled evaluations to develop students' knowledge, skills, and abilities in a community pharmacy setting. PMID:17136164

  10. Advanced Test Reactor In-Canal Ultrasonic Scanner: Experiment Design and Initial Results on Irradiated Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; J. M. Wight; D. T. Clark; J. M. Williams; S. C. Taylor; D. J. Utterbeck; G. L. Hawkes; G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek; N. C. Craft

    2008-09-01

    An irradiation test device has been developed to support testing of prototypic scale plate type fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor. The experiment hardware and operating conditions were optimized to provide the irradiation conditions necessary to conduct performance and qualification tests on research reactor type fuels for the RERTR program. The device was designed to allow disassembly and reassembly in the ATR spent fuel canal so that interim inspections could be performed on the fuel plates. An ultrasonic scanner was developed to perform dimensional and transmission inspections during these interim investigations. Example results from the AFIP-2 experiment are presented.

  11. A landmark recognition and tracking experiment for flight on the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory (ATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an experiment for landmark recognition and tracking from the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory is described. It makes use of parallel coherent optical processing to perform correlation tests between landmarks observed passively with a telescope and previously made holographic matched filters. The experimental equipment including the optics, the low power laser, the random access file of matched filters and the electro-optical readout device are described. A real time optically excited liquid crystal device is recommended for performing the input non-coherent optical to coherent optical interface function. A development program leading to a flight experiment in 1981 is outlined.

  12. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future. PMID:26872163

  13. An experiment in remote manufacturing using the advanced communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsatsoulis, Costas; Frost, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the completed project was to develop an experiment in remote manufacturing that would use the capabilities of the ACTS satellite. A set of possible experiments that could be performed using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and which would perform remote manufacturing using a laser cutter and an integrated circuit testing machine are described in detail. The proposed design is shown to be a feasible solution to the offered problem and it takes into consideration the constraints that were placed on the experiment. In addition, we have developed two more experiments that are included in this report: backup of rural telecommunication networks, and remote use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data analysis for on-site collection of glacier scattering data in the Antarctic.

  14. The experience of living with advanced-stage cancer: a thematic synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    García-Rueda, N; Carvajal Valcárcel, A; Saracíbar-Razquin, M; Arantzamendi Solabarrieta, M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the experience of people living with advanced-stage cancer through literature. The search included The Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Cuiden. Thirteen studies were included. A qualitative meta-synthesis was conducted. One thread emerged from the thematic synthesis: the desire to live as normally as possible, despite being aware of the proximity of death. Three themes also emerged: "a process that is unique" with its four sub-themes; "support network" and "health context," each of them having two sub-themes. This study concludes that living with advanced-stage cancer is a unique and complex process which has both positive and negative aspects. The review provides a comprehensive view of the experience, which considers the importance of the support network and the health context in which the person lives. In this study, "normalcy" is the adjustment to the new reality and living as closely as possible to the way one lived before the disease, while developing a new relationship with being finite and death. A better understanding of the experience of living with advanced-stage cancer will help health professionals to identify the needs of the patients in order to plan individual, high-quality care. PMID:27297131

  15. Supporting Photovoltaics in Market-Rate Residential NewConstruction: A Summary of Programmatic Experience to Date and LessonsLearned

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-02-10

    As a market segment for solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption, new homes have a number of attractive attributes. Homebuyers can easily roll the cost of the PV system into their tax-deductible home mortgage and, with rebates and other financial incentives, potentially achieve an immediate net-positive cash flow from the investment. New homes are amenable to building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), which are less susceptible to aesthetic concerns than traditional, rack-mounted systems. The performance of PV systems can be optimized on new homes by taking roof orientation and shading into account when designing the home. Perhaps most importantly, subdivisions with PV systems installed on a large number of homes offer potential cost savings from volume purchases of modules and inverters and from scale economies in system design and installation. Finally, the ability of builders to install PV as a standard feature on multiple homes in new subdivisions offers an opportunity to circumvent the high transaction costs and information-related market barriers typically confronted when each individual homeowner must make a decision about installing PV. Builders may benefit in several ways from incorporating PV into new homes. Builders may gain greater market differentiation, enhanced media exposure, and less community or political opposition to development projects. Additionally, if homebuyers place a high value on PV, builders may be able to earn additional profits, just as they would on granite countertops or other high-value home features. Although the impact of PV on the original sale price of new homes has not yet been rigorously examined, some limited empirical evidence does suggest that PV and energy efficient features may have a positive effect on resale value. Along with its unique advantages, residential new construction also faces unique barriers to PV adoption. Most fundamentally, perhaps, is the general aversion to technology risk within the building industry

  16. Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and support systems will be briefly discussed, followed by the progress and status of the experiment to date.

  17. Status of the NGNP fuel experiment AGR-2 irradiated in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti

    2014-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also undergo on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and sup

  18. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 4. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii for June, July, and August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during June, July, and August 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weater are provided.

  19. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program. Annual report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  20. Routes to Ultrahigh Efficiency Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Eisler, Carissa; Lloyd, John; Flowers, Cris; Darbe, Sunita; Warmann, Emily; Verlage, Erik; Fountaine, Kate; Hu, Shu; Lewis, Nathan; Atwater, Harry

    2014-10-15

    We discuss ‘full spectrum’ photovoltaic modules that leverage low-cost III-V compound semiconductor cells, efficient optics and unconventional fabrication/assembly methods, and discuss advances in photoelectrochemical water-splitting with high efficiency.

  1. Summary of Thermocouple Performance During Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor and Out-of-Pile Thermocouple Testing in Support of Such Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; DC Haggard; J. W. Herter; M. Scervini; W. D. Swank; D. L. Knudson; R. S. Cherry

    2011-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B); and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Types C and W). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of these Nickel based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000°C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past ten years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700oC – 1200oC. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out of pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150oC and 1200oC for 2000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250oC, and 200 hours at 1300oC. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl2O4) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly thermocouple with hard fired alumina

  2. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  3. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986-1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  4. Physics Design of the National High-power Advanced Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, J E; Fu, G -Y; Gorelenkov, N; Kaye, S M; Kramer, G; Maingi, R; Neumeyer, C L; Sabbagh, S A; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2007-07-18

    Moving beyond ITER toward a demonstration power reactor (Demo) will require the integration of stable high fusion gain in steady-state, advanced methods for dissipating very high divertor heat-fluxes, and adherence to strict limits on in-vessel tritium retention. While ITER will clearly address the issue of high fusion gain, and new and planned long-pulse experiments (EAST, JT60-SA, KSTAR, SST-1) will collectively address stable steady-state highperformance operation, none of these devices will adequately address the integrated heat-flux, tritium retention, and plasma performance requirements needed for extrapolation to Demo. Expressing power exhaust requirements in terms of Pheat/R, future ARIES reactors are projected to operate with 60-200MW/m, a Component Test Facility (CTF) or Fusion Development Facility (FDF) for nuclear component testing (NCT) with 40-50MW/m, and ITER 20-25MW/m. However, new and planned long-pulse experiments are currently projected to operate at values of Pheat/R no more than 16MW/m. Furthermore, none of the existing or planned experiments are capable of operating with very high temperature first-wall (Twall = 600-1000C) which may be critical for understanding and ultimately minimizing tritium retention with a reactor-relevant metallic first-wall. The considerable gap between present and near-term experiments and the performance needed for NCT and Demo motivates the development of the concept for a new experiment — the National High-power advanced-Torus eXperiment (NHTX) — whose mission is to study the integration of a fusion-relevant plasma-material interface with stable steady-state high-performance plasma operation.

  5. MicroTCA and AdvancedTCA equipment evaluation and customization for LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cosmo, M.; Bobillier, V.; Haas, S.; Joos, M.; Mico, S.; Vasey, F.

    2015-01-01

    The MicroTCA and AdvancedTCA industry standards are candidate modular electronics platforms for the upgrade of the current generation of high energy physics experiments at CERN. The PH-ESE group at CERN launched an xTCA evaluation project with the aim of performing technical evaluations and providing support for commercially available components. Over the past years, different equipment from different vendors has been acquired and evaluated. This paper summarizes our evaluation results of commercial MicroTCA and AdvancedTCA equipment. Special emphasis is put on the component requirements to be defined in view of future equipment procurement. Customized prototypes developed according to these generic specifications are presented for the first time.

  6. Photovoltaics Performance and Reliability Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

  7. Advanced Laboratory at Texas State University: Error Analysis, Experimental Design, and Research Experience for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrice, Carl

    2009-04-01

    Physics is an experimental science. In other words, all physical laws are based on experimentally observable phenomena. Therefore, it is important that all physics students have an understanding of the limitations of certain experimental techniques and the associated errors associated with a particular measurement. The students in the Advanced Laboratory class at Texas State perform three detailed laboratory experiments during the semester and give an oral presentation at the end of the semester on a scientific topic of their choosing. The laboratory reports are written in the format of a ``Physical Review'' journal article. The experiments are chosen to give the students a detailed background in error analysis and experimental design. For instance, the first experiment performed in the spring 2009 semester is entitled Measurement of the local acceleration due to gravity in the RFM Technology and Physics Building. The goal of this experiment is to design and construct an instrument that is to be used to measure the local gravitational field in the Physics Building to an accuracy of ±0.005 m/s^2. In addition, at least one of the experiments chosen each semester involves the use of the research facilities within the physics department (e.g., microfabrication clean room, surface science lab, thin films lab, etc.), which gives the students experience working in a research environment.

  8. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rafael S; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The "color" of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:26844299

  9. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rafael S.; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P.; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3–xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The “color” of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:26844299

  10. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  11. Qualitative critical incident study of patients’ experiences leading to emergency hospital admission with advanced respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    Karasouli, Eleni; Munday, Daniel; Bailey, Cara; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hewison, Alistair; Griffiths, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The high volume of emergency admissions to hospital is a challenge for health systems internationally. Patients with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are frequently admitted to hospital as emergency cases. While the frequency of emergency admission has been investigated, few studies report patient experiences, particularly in relation to the decision-making process prior to emergency admission. We sought to explore patient and carer experiences and those of their healthcare professionals in the period leading up to emergency admission to hospital. Setting 3 UK hospitals located in different urban and rural settings. Design Qualitative critical incident study. Participants 24 patients with advanced lung cancer and 15 with advanced COPD admitted to hospital as emergencies, 20 of their carers and 50 of the health professionals involved in the patients’ care. Results The analysis of patient, carer and professionals’ interviews revealed a detailed picture of the complex processes involved leading to emergency admission to hospital. 3 phases were apparent in this period: self-management of deteriorating symptoms, negotiated decision-making and letting go. These were dynamic processes, characterised by an often rapidly changing clinical condition, uncertainty and anxiety. Patients considered their options drawing on experience, current and earlier advice. Patients tried to avoid admission, reluctantly accepting it, albeit often with a sense of relief, as anxiety increased with worsening symptoms. Conclusions Patients with advanced respiratory illness, and their carers, try to avoid emergency admission, and use logical and complex decision-making before reluctantly accepting it. Clinicians and policy-makers need to understand this complex process when considering how to reduce emergency hospital admissions rather than focusing on identifying and labelling admissions as ‘inappropriate’. PMID:26916687

  12. The perception and experience of gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement among Japanese physicians.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from the US have found that female physicians often experience gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement. In Japan, female physicians are underrepresented in leadership positions but little is known about the prevalence of gender discrimination. We investigated the perception and prevalence of gender-based career obstacles and discrimination among Japanese physicians. The study was based on surveys of alumnae from 13 medical schools and alumni from 3 medical schools. In total, 1,684 female and 808 male physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 83% and 58%). More women than men had the perception of gender-based career obstacles for women (77% vs. 55%; p < 0.0001). Women with part-time positions were more likely to have the perception of gender-based career obstacles than women working full-time (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.73). More women than men reported experience of gender discrimination related to professional advancement (21% vs. 3%; p < 0.0001). Factors associated with experience of gender discrimination included age (p < 0.0001), marital status (p < 0.0001), academic positions (p < 0.0001), subspecialty board certification (p = 0.0011), and PhD status (p < 0.0001). Women older than 40 years were more likely to experience gender discrimination compared with younger women (OR 5.77, 95% CI: 1.83-18.24 for women above 50, and OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.48-7.28 for women between 40 and 49) and women with PhD were more likely to experience gender discrimination (OR 4.23, 95% CI: 1.81-9.89). Our study demonstrated that a significant proportion of Japanese women experienced gender-based discrimination and perceived gender-based career obstacles compared with male physicians. PMID:24477176

  13. Treatment experience: locally advanced sarcomas with 15 MeV fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ornitz, R.; Herskovic, A.; Schell, M.; Fender, F.; Rogers, C.C.

    1980-06-01

    Experience with ten evaluable osseous sarcomas and ten evaluable advanced soft tissue sarcomas treated with neutrons of a mean neutron energy of 15 MeV are described. Neutron irradiation with or without conventional megavoltage radiotherapy is an effective modality in the treatment of these patients. No correlation between response rate and grade or whether fast neutrons alone or combined with megavoltage radiotherapy was noted. Those patients receiving a neutron dose of 2195 neutron plus gamma rads or greater all had a complete response.

  14. ETA-II experiments for determining advanced radiographic capabilities of induction linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.T.; Caporaso, G.J.; Clark, J.C.; Kirbie, H.C.; Chen, Y.-J.; Lund, S.M.; Westenskow, G.A.; Paul, A.C

    1997-05-01

    LLNL has proposed a multi-pulsed, multi-line of sight radiographic machine based on induction linac technology to be the core of the advanced hydrotest facility (AHF) being considered by the Department of Energy. In order to test the new technologies being developed for AHF we have recommissioned the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA II). We will conduct our initial experiments using kickers and large angle bending optics at the ETA II facility. Our current status and our proposed experimental schedule will be presented.

  15. MicroTCA and AdvancedTCA equipment evaluation and developments for LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobillier, V.; Haas, S.; Joos, M.; Mendez, J.; Mico, S.; Vasey, F.

    2016-02-01

    The MicroTCA (MTCA) and AdvancedTCA (ATCA) industry standards have been selected as the platform for many of the current and planned upgrades of the off-detector electronic systems of two of the LHC experiments at CERN. We present a status update from an ongoing project to evaluate commercial MTCA and ATCA components with particular emphasis on infrastructure equipment such as shelves and power-supplies. Shelves customized for use in the existing LHC rack infrastructure have been tested, and electrical and cooling measurements and simulations were performed. In-house developments for hardware platform management will also be shown.

  16. Development of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes and the advanced thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.

  17. Development and operating experience of a short-period superconducting undulator at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Harkay, K.; Abliz, M.; Boon, L.; Borland, M.; Capatina, D.; Collins, J.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Dooling, J.; Doose, C.; Emery, L.; Fuerst, J.; Gagliano, J.; Hasse, Q.; Jaski, M.; Kasa, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kustom, R.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, J.; Moog, E.; Robinson, D.; Sajaev, V.; Schroeder, K.; Sereno, N.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Skiadopoulos, D.; Smith, M.; Sun, X.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I.; Vella, A.; Xiao, A.; Xu, J.; Zholents, A.; Gluskin, E.; Lev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Syrovatin, V.; Tsukanov, V.; Makarov, A.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Potratz, D.

    2015-04-01

    A decade-long effort at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on development of superconducting undulators culminated in December 2012 with the installation of the first superconducting undulator "SCU0" into Sector 6 of the APS storage ring. The device was commissioned in January 2013 and has been in user operation since. This paper presents the magnetic and cryogenic design of the SCU0 together with the results of stand-alone cold tests. The initial commissioning and characterization of SCU0 as well as its operating experience in the APS storage ring are described.

  18. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  19. Photovoltaics - The endless spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presened. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  20. Photovoltaics: The endless spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presented. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  1. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report describes subcontracted research by the Chronar Corporation, prepared by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) for Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Development project. Amorphous silicon is chosen as the PV technology that Chronar Corporation and APS believe offers the greatest potential for manufacturing improvements, which, in turn, will result in significant cost reductions and performance improvements in photovoltaic products. The APS Eureka'' facility was chosen as the manufacturing system that can offer the possibility of achieving these production enhancements. The relationship of the Eureka'' facility to Chronar's batch'' plants is discussed. Five key areas are also identified that could meet the objectives of manufacturing potential that could lead to improved performance, reduced manufacturing costs, and significantly increased production. The projected long-term potential benefits of these areas are discussed, as well as problems that may impede the achievement of the hoped-for developments. A significant number of the problems discussed are of a generic nature and could be of general interest to the industry. The final section of this document addresses the cost and time estimates for achieving the solutions to the problems discussed earlier. Emphasis is placed on the number, type, and cost of the human resources required for the project.

  2. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L. (Editor); Wefel, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  3. Pathways toward high-performance perovskite solar cells: review of recent advances in organo-metal halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhaoning; Watthage, Suneth C.; Phillips, Adam B.; Heben, Michael J.

    2016-04-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskite-based solar cells have been the focus of intense research over the past five years, and power conversion efficiencies have rapidly been improved from 3.8 to >21%. This article reviews major advances in perovskite solar cells that have contributed to the recent efficiency enhancements, including the evolution of device architecture, the development of material deposition processes, and the advanced device engineering techniques aiming to improve control over morphology, crystallinity, composition, and the interface properties of the perovskite thin films. The challenges and future directions for perovskite solar cell research and development are also discussed.

  4. Near minimum-time maneuvers of the advanced space structures technology research experiment (ASTREX) test article: Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vadali, Srinivas R.; Carter, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory at the Edwards Air Force Base has developed the Advanced Space Structures Technology Research Experiment (ASTREX) facility to serve as a testbed for demonstrating the applicability of proven theories to the challenges of spacecraft maneuvers and structural control. This report describes the work performed on the ASTREX test article by Texas A&M University under contract NAS119373 as a part of the Control-Structure Interaction (CSI) Guest Investigator Program. The focus of this work is on maneuvering the ASTREX test article with compressed air thrusters that can be throttled, while attenuating structural excitation. The theoretical foundation for designing the near minimum-time thrust commands is based on the generation of smooth, parameterized optimal open-loop control profiles, and the determination of control laws for final position regulation and tracking using Lyapunov stability theory. Details of the theory, mathematical modeling, model updating, and compensation for the presence of 'real world' effects are described and the experimental results are presented. The results show an excellent match between theory and experiments.

  5. ESA successfully conducts experiment in Advanced Space Robotics on Japanese satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    ETS-VII is the latest in NASDA's series of engineering test satellites. It is dedicated to the in-orbit assessment and demonstration of novel technologies in rendez-vous / docking and space robotics. ETS-VII is in fact a pair of satellites, a larger chaser and a smaller target satellite which can be released for the rendez-vous and docking experiments. The larger satellite carries a robot arm with a stretched length of about 2 m, and a set of experimentation equipment to test the robot's capabilities : a task board on which typical robot manipulation activities can be performed and measured, an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) to be removed and reinstalled, a truss structure to be erected, an antenna assembly mechanism to be actuated and an advanced robot hand. The ESA experiments concern advanced schemes for planning, commanding, controlling and monitoring the activities of a space robot arm system. One set of experiments tests an operational mode called "interactive autonomy", whereby the robot motions are split into typical "tasks" of medium complexity. Ground operators can interact with the tasks (parameterising, commanding, rescheduling, monitoring, interrupting them as needed), relying on the fact that each task will be autonomously executed using appropriate sensor-based control loops (it having been programmed and extensively verified in advance by simulation). This significantly reduces the amount of data traffic over the spacelink - in fact, ETS-VII offers only a few short communications windows per day. Data from ESA experiments will be used to assess the performance of tasks executed with "interactive autonomy" compared with the more traditional telemanipulation at lower control levels. The second group of experiments concerns vision-based robot control. Using the Japanese-provided on-board vision system (which includes one hand camera and one scene-overview camera), it has been demonstrated that reliable automatic object localisation and grasping can be

  6. Interactive Web-based Learning Modules Prior to General Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Alison M.; Nisly, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement and evaluate interactive web-based learning modules prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on inpatient general medicine. Design. Three clinical web-based learning modules were developed for use prior to APPEs in 4 health care systems. The aim of the interactive modules was to strengthen baseline clinical knowledge before the APPE to enable the application of learned material through the delivery of patient care. Assessment. For the primary endpoint, postassessment scores increased overall and for each individual module compared to preassessment scores. Postassessment scores were similar among the health care systems. The survey demonstrated positive student perceptions of this learning experience. Conclusion. Prior to inpatient general medicine APPEs, web-based learning enabled the standardization and assessment of baseline student knowledge across 4 health care systems. PMID:25995515

  7. Fuel plate stability experiments and analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1993-05-01

    The planned reactor for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will use closely spaced arrays of involute-shaped fuel plates that will be cooled by water flowing through the channels between the plates. There is concern that at certain coolant flow velocities, adjacent plates may deflect and touch, with resulting failure of the plates. Experiments have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to examine this potential phenomenon. Results of the experiments and comparison with analytical predictions are reported. The tests were conducted using full-scale epoxy plate models of the aluminum/uranium silicide ANS involute-shaped fuel plates. Use of epoxy plates and model theory allowed lower flow velocities and pressures to explore the potential failure mechanism. Plate deflections and channel pressures as functions of the flow velocity are examined. Comparisons with mathematical models are noted.

  8. Effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving with an advanced traveler information system.

    PubMed

    Dingus, T A; Hulse, M C; Mollenhauer, M A; Fleischman, R N; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N

    1997-06-01

    This paper explores the effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving, navigation performance, and safety for drivers who used TravTek, an Advanced Traveler Information System. The first two studies investigated various route guidance configurations on the road in a specially equipped instrumented vehicle with an experimenter present. The third was a naturalistic quasi-experimental field study that collected data unobtrusively from more than 1200 TravTek rental car drivers with no in-vehicle experimenter. The results suggest that with increased experience, drivers become familiar with the system and develop strategies for substantially more efficient and safer use. The results also showed that drivers over age 65 had difficulty driving and navigating concurrently. They compensated by driving slowly and more cautiously. Despite this increased caution, older drivers made more safety-related errors than did younger drivers. The results also showed that older drivers benefited substantially from a well-designed ATIS driver interface. PMID:9302887

  9. An Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in a Student-Staffed Medication Therapy Management Call Center

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Anna M.; Roane, Teresa E.; Mistry, Reena

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation of an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in medication therapy management (MTM) designed to contribute to student pharmacists’ confidence and abilities in providing MTM. Design. Sixty-four student pharmacists provided MTM services during an APPE in a communication and care center. Assessment. Students conducted 1,495 comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) identifying 6,056 medication-related problems. Ninety-eight percent of the students who completed a survey instrument (52 of 53) following the APPE expressed that they had the necessary knowledge and skills to provide MTM services. Most respondents felt that pharmacist participation in providing Medicare MTM could move the profession of pharmacy forward and that pharmacists will have some role in deciding the specific provisions of the Medicare MTM program (92% and 91%, respectively). Conclusion. Students completing the MTM APPE received patient-centered experiences that supplemented their confidence, knowledge, and skill in providing MTM services in the future. PMID:22919086

  10. Advanced Biasing Experiments on the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Korepanov, Sergey; Garate, Eusebio; Yang, Xiaokang; Gota, Hiroshi; Douglass, Jon; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Uchizono, Nolan; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    The C-2 experiment seeks to study the evolution, heating and sustainment effects of neutral beam injection on field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. Recently, substantial improvements in plasma performance were achieved through the application of edge biasing with coaxial plasma guns located in the divertors. Edge biasing provides rotation control that reduces instabilities and E × B shear that improves confinement. Typically, the plasma gun arcs are run at ~ 10 MW for the entire shot duration (~ 5 ms), which will become unsustainable as the plasma duration increases. We have conducted several advanced biasing experiments with reduced-average-power plasma gun operating modes and alternative biasing cathodes in an effort to develop an effective biasing scenario applicable to steady state FRC plasmas. Early results show that several techniques can potentially provide effective, long-duration edge biasing.

  11. Feasibility of conducting a dynamic helium charging experiment for vanadium alloys in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of conducting a dynamic helium charging experiment (DHCE) for vanadium alloys in the water-cooled Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is being investigated as part of the U.S./Monbusho collaboration. Preliminary findings suggest that such an experiment is feasible, with certain constraints. Creating a suitable irradiation position in the ATR, designing an effective thermal neutron filter, incorporating thermocouples for limited specimen temperature monitoring, and handling of tritium during various phases of the assembly and reactor operation all appear to be feasible. An issue that would require special attention, however, is tritium permeation loss through the capsule wall at the higher design temperatures (>{approx}600{degrees}C). If permeation is excessive, the reduced amount of tritium entering the test specimens would limit the helium generation rates in them. At the lower design temperatures (<{approx}425{degrees}C), sodium, instead of lithium, may have to be used as the bond material to overcome the tritium solubility limitation.

  12. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  13. [Challenges and opportunities: contributions of the Advanced Practice Nurse in the chronicity. Learning from experiences].

    PubMed

    Appleby, Christine; Camacho-Bejarano, Rafaela

    2014-01-01

    Undoubtedly, our society is facing new economic, political, demographic, social and cultural challenges that require healthcare services able to meet the growing health needs of the population, especially in dealing with chronic conditions. In this new context, some countries such as the United Kingdom have made a firm commitment to develop new models for chronic patients care based on the introduction of new figures of Advanced Practice Nurses, which includes 4 cornerstones of professional practice: advanced clinical skills, clinical management, teaching and research. The implementation of this new figures implies a redefinition of professional competencies and has its own accreditation system and a specific catalogue of services adapted to the population requirements, in order to provide chronic care support from Primary Care settings. This trajectory allows us analysing the process of design and implementation of these new models and the organizational structure where it is integrated. In Spain, there are already experiences in some regions such as Andalucia and the Basque Country, focused on the creation of new advanced nursing roles. At present, it is necessary to consider suitable strategic proposals for the complete development of these models and to achieve the best results in terms of overall health and quality of life of patients with chronic conditions, improving the quality of services and cost-effectiveness through a greater cohesion and performance of healthcare teams towards the sustainability of healthcare services and patient satisfaction. PMID:24468497

  14. Investigation of the improved performance in a graphene/polycrystalline BiFeO3/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction: Experiment, modeling, and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Yongyuan; Xie, Dan; Chen, Yu; Wu, Xiao; Ren, Tianling; Zhu, Hongwei; Cao, Jiang-Li; Plant, David

    2012-09-01

    We report on the enhancement of photovoltaic performance in a graphene/polycrystalline BiFeO3 (BFO)/Pt heterojunction for the first time. The unique properties of the graphene electrode lead to a short circuit current density of 61 μA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.52 V in the heterojunction. These values are much higher than the results reported in polycrystalline BFO with indium tin oxide as the top electrode. A theoretical band diagram model and an equivalent electrical model considering the ferroelectric polarization, interface states, and energy band bending effect are constructed to depict the carrier transport behavior. Important photovoltaic parameters, such as conversion efficiency, illumination intensity response, ON/OFF characteristics, minority carrier lifetime, and external quantum efficiency, are investigated experimentally and theoretically. To improve the photovoltaic performance of the graphene/polycrystalline BFO/Pt heterojunction, HNO3 treatment, and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) filling/sensitizing, as two independent chemical and physical routines, were processed and compared. It can be seen that the photocurrent density exhibits a significant improvement from 61 μA/cm2 to 8.67 mA/cm2 (˜150 fold) after HNO3 treatment, while a considerable enhancement of ˜5 fold is seen with QDs filling/sensitizing. We also present and investigate an optical application of our graphene/polycrystalline BFO/Pt heterojunction as a photosensitive detector.

  15. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K Hartwell; John B. Walter

    2008-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B’s) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  16. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John b. Walter

    2010-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B’s) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  17. Photovoltaic multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queisser, Hans J.

    1997-04-01

    A multicell solar energy converter, produced in 1959/60 at the Shockley Transistor Corporation, is reviewed. The feasibility of this device, one of the first involving principles of Si integrated circuits, was demonstrated in anticipation of large-area Si sheets, to be pulled from Si/Pb binary melts. Secondly, the generation of multiple carrier pairs by absorption of merely one photon is discussed. Experiments on high-quality Si solar cells demonstrated this effect, which relies on inverse Auger generation. In principle, much higher maximal conversion efficiencies would be possible; novel criteria for materials optimization result. The new challenge of the inverse band structure problem arises. Finally, multistage optical transitions via deep centers in solar cells are briefly appraised.

  18. Advanced MRI techniques to improve our understanding of experience-induced neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Christine Lucas; Gauthier, Claudine Joëlle; Steele, Christopher John; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Schäfer, Andreas; Schaefer, Alexander; Turner, Robert; Villringer, Arno

    2016-05-01

    Over the last two decades, numerous human MRI studies of neuroplasticity have shown compelling evidence for extensive and rapid experience-induced brain plasticity in vivo. To date, most of these studies have consisted of simply detecting a difference in structural or functional images with little concern for their lack of biological specificity. Recent reviews and public debates have stressed the need for advanced imaging techniques to gain a better understanding of the nature of these differences - characterizing their extent in time and space, their underlying biological and network dynamics. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of advanced imaging techniques for an audience of cognitive neuroscientists that can assist them in the design and interpretation of future MRI studies of neuroplasticity. The review encompasses MRI methods that probe the morphology, microstructure, function, and connectivity of the brain with improved specificity. We underline the possible physiological underpinnings of these techniques and their recent applications within the framework of learning- and experience-induced plasticity in healthy adults. Finally, we discuss the advantages of a multi-modal approach to gain a more nuanced and comprehensive description of the process of learning. PMID:26318050

  19. ADX: a high field, high power density, Advanced Divertor test eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R.; Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; ADX Team

    2014-10-01

    The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment (ADX) - a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research program on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. This high field (6.5 tesla, 1.5 MA), high power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) facility would utilize Alcator magnet technology to test innovative divertor concepts for next-step DT fusion devices (FNSF, DEMO) at reactor-level boundary plasma pressures and parallel heat flux densities while producing high performance core plasma conditions. The experimental platform would also test advanced lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) actuators and wave physics at the plasma densities and magnetic field strengths of a DEMO, with the unique ability to deploy launcher structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-field side - a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and wave physics is most favorable for efficient current drive, heating and flow drive. This innovative experiment would perform plasma science and technology R&D necessary to inform the conceptual development and accelerate the readiness-for-deployment of FNSF/DEMO - in a timely manner, on a cost-effective research platform. Supported by DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  20. Some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that impacted the advancement of aeronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamar, John E.

    2009-08-01

    This paper highlights the three aerodynamic pillars of aeronautics; namely, theory/CFD, wind-tunnel experiments and flight tests, and notes that at any given time these three are not necessarily at the same level of maturity. After an initial history of these three pillars, the focus narrows to a brief history of some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that have impacted the advancement of aeronautics in recent decades. They include the F-106, Concorde, SR-71, light-weight fighters (F-16, F/A-18), and F-16XL. These aircraft share in common the utilization of vortical flow and have flown at transonic speeds during a part of the flight envelope. Due to the vast amount of information from flight and CFD that has recently become available for the F-16XL, this aircraft is highlighted and its results detailed. Lastly, it is interesting to note that, though complicated, vortical flows over the F-16XL aircraft at subsonic speeds can be reliably and generally well-predicted with the current CFD flow solvers. However, these solvers still have some problems in matching flight pressure data at transonic speeds. That this problem has been highlighted is both an advancement in aeronautics and a tempting prize to those who would seek its solution.

  1. Design and Implementation of a Laboratory-Based Drug Design and Synthesis Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Ashok; Stephens, Mark; Mitchell, Sheila L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide students with an opportunity to participate in medicinal chemistry research within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Design. We designed and implemented a 3-course sequence in drug design or drug synthesis for pharmacy students consisting of a 1-month advanced elective followed by two 1-month research advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). To maximize student involvement, this 3-course sequence was offered to third-year and fourth-year students twice per calendar year. Assessment. Students were evaluated based on their commitment to the project’s success, productivity, and professionalism. Students also evaluated the course sequence using a 14-item course evaluation rubric. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Students found the experience to be a valuable component of their pharmacy curriculum. Conclusion. We successfully designed and implemented a 3-course research sequence that allows PharmD students in the traditional 4-year program to participate in drug design and synthesis research. Students report the sequence enhanced their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills and helped them develop as independent learners. Based on the success achieved with this sequence, efforts are underway to develop research APPEs in other areas of the pharmaceutical sciences. PMID:25995518

  2. Photovoltaic technology and applications: Overview for the workshop on photochemistry research opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    The business surrounding photovoltaic energy conversion for terrestrial applications has changed dramatically in the last several years. It is now a business that makes money. Industry is responding. with manufacturing capacity expansions, and planned expansions, that will triple U.S. annual output within the next eighteen months. The majority of this product is exported (70%) where it is proven to be a cost competitive alternative. This industry provides experience in manufacturing and reliability in fielded systems that will serve as the basis for extrapolating growth to larger-scale installations and utility systems. The largest part of the National Photovoltaic Program budget supports assisting industry in advancing manufacturing technology and stimulating applications to reduce cost and expand the evolving industry. A growing segment of society looks to photovoltaics as an alternative that may be needed to replace conventional electric generating capacity. The grand challenge for photovoltaics is to make the technology economically competitive for large scale electric power generation before real or perceived evidence of environmental damage from conventional sources dictates its use at economically disruptive costs.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  4. Photovoltaics industry profile

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  5. Characterization of Photovoltaic Generators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitier, V.; Cressault, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses photovoltaic panel systems and reviews their electrical properties and use in several industrial fields. We explain how different photovoltaic panels may be characterized by undergraduate students at university using simple methods to retrieve their electrical properties (power, current and voltage) and compare these values…

  6. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  7. Handbook for photovoltaic cabling

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D. N.

    1980-08-01

    This volume, originally written as part of the Interim Performance Criteria Document Development Implementation Plan and Procedures for Photovoltaic Energy Systems, is an analysis of the several factors to be considered in selecting cabling for photovoltaic purposes. These factors, correspoonding to chapter titles, are electrical, structural, safety, durability/reliability, and installation. A glossary of terms used within the volume is included for reference.

  8. Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

    2011-12-01

    On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial

  9. Annual Report: Photovoltaic Subcontract Program FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, K. A.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  10. Plant Growth Experiments in Zeoponic Substrates: Applications for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J. E.; Henderson, K. E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Barta, D. J.; Galindo, C.; Henninger, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    A zeoponic plant-growth system is defined as the cultivation of plants in artificial soils, which have zeolites as a major component (Allen and Ming, 1995). Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that have the ability to exchange constituent cations without major change of the mineral structure. Recently, zeoponic systems developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) slowly release some (Allen et at., 1995) or all of the essential plant-growth nutrients (Ming et at., 1995). These systems have NH4- and K-exchanged clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) and either natural or synthetic apatite (a calcium phosphate mineral). For the natural apatite system, Ca and P were made available to the plant by the dissolution of apatite. Potassium and NH4-N were made available by ion-exchange reactions involving Ca(2+) from apatite dissolution and K(+) and NH4(+) on zeolitic exchange sites. In addition to NH4-N, K, Ca, and P, the synthetic apatite system also supplied Mg, S, and other micronutrients during dissolution (Figure 1). The overall objective of this research task is to develop zeoponic substrates wherein all plant growth nutrients are supplied by the plant growth medium for several growth seasons with only the addition of water. The substrate is being developed for plant growth in Advanced Life Support (ALS) testbeds (i.e., BioPLEX) and microgravity plant growth experiments. Zeoponic substrates have been used for plant growth experiments on two Space Shuttle flight experiments (STS-60; STS-63; Morrow et aI., 1995). These substrates may be ideally suited for plant growth experiments on the International Space Station and applications in ALS testbeds. However, there are several issues that need to be resolved before zeoponics will be the choice substrate for plant growth experiments in space. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on recent research directed toward the refinement of zeoponic plant growth substrates.

  11. Introductory and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences Within Campus-based Influenza Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric J.; Hagemann, Tracy M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and assessment of an introductory and an advanced pharmacy practice experience (IPPE and APPE) integrated within campus-based influenza clinics. Design. The influenza clinics were designed to incorporate the learning objectives for the IPPE and APPE, and included preparatory sessions, online learning, and direct patient interactions tailored to the appropriate education level of the learner. Assessment. The clinics provided influenza vaccinations to 2,292 and 2,877 individuals in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The clinics allowed for experiential education of 39 students earning a total of 467 IPPE and APPE hours in 2010 and 58 students earning a total of 656 IPPE and APPE hours in 2011. Third-year students were assessed before and after completing the IPPE, and improvement was seen in knowledge and self-ratings of perceptions and attitudes toward administering immunizations. Conclusions. Integrating pharmacy practice experiences within campus-based influenza clinics was an effective way to provide students with direct patient care experience and preventive health services knowledge. PMID:23610479

  12. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  13. Performance experiments with alternative advanced teleoperator control modes for a simulated solar maximum satellite repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Zak, H.; Kim, W. S.; Bejczy, A. K.; Schenker, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments are described which were conducted at the JPL Advanced Teleoperator Lab to demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of various teleoperator control modes in the performance of a simulated Solar Max Satellite Repair (SMSR) task. THe SMSR was selected as a test because it is very rich in performance capability requirements and it actually has been performed by two EVA astronauts in the Space Shuttle Bay in 1984. The main subtasks are: thermal blanket removal; installation of a hinge attachment for electrical panel opening; opening of electrical panel; removal of electrical connectors; relining of cable bundles; replacement of electrical panel; securing parts and cables; re-mate electrical connectors; closing of electrical panel; and reinstating thermal blanket. The current performance experiments are limited to thermal blanket cutting, electrical panel unbolting and handling electrical bundles and connectors. In one formal experiment even different control modes were applied to the unbolting and reinsertion of electrical panel screws subtasks. The seven control modes are alternative combinations of manual position and rate control with force feedback and remote compliance referenced to force-torque sensor information. Force-torque sensor and end effector position data and task completion times were recorded for analysis and quantification of operator performance.

  14. Next Generation Climate Change Experiments Needed to Advance Knowledge and for Assessment of CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenberger, John; Arnott, James; Wright, Alyson

    2014-10-30

    The Aspen Global Change Institute hosted a technical science workshop entitled, “Next generation climate change experiments needed to advance knowledge and for assessment of CMIP6,” on August 4-9, 2013 in Aspen, CO. Jerry Meehl (NCAR), Richard Moss (PNNL), and Karl Taylor (LLNL) served as co-chairs for the workshop which included the participation of 32 scientists representing most of the major climate modeling centers for a total of 160 participant days. In August 2013, AGCI gathered a high level meeting of representatives from major climate modeling centers around the world to assess achievements and lessons learned from the most recent generation of coordinated modeling experiments known as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – 5 (CMIP5) as well as to scope out the science questions and coordination structure desired for the next anticipated phase of modeling experiments called CMIP6. The workshop allowed for reflection on the coordination of the CMIP5 process as well as intercomparison of model results, such as were assessed in the most recent IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Working Group 1. For example, this slide from Masahiro Watanabe examines performance on a range of models capturing Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  15. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiment Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of

  16. Treatment of advanced thyroid cancer with targeted therapies: ten years of experience.

    PubMed

    Viola, David; Valerio, Laura; Molinaro, Eleonora; Agate, Laura; Bottici, Valeria; Biagini, Agnese; Lorusso, Loredana; Cappagli, Virginia; Pieruzzi, Letizia; Giani, Carlotta; Sabini, Elena; Passannati, Paolo; Puleo, Luciana; Matrone, Antonio; Pontillo-Contillo, Benedetta; Battaglia, Valentina; Mazzeo, Salvatore; Vitti, Paolo; Elisei, Rossella

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid cancer is rare, but it is the most frequent endocrine malignancy. Its prognosis is generally favorable, especially in cases of well-differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs), such as papillary and follicular cancers, which have survival rates of approximately 95% at 40 years. However, 15-20% of cases became radioiodine refractory (RAI-R), and until now, no other treatments have been effective. The same problems are found in cases of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid cancers and in at least 30% of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases, which are very aggressive and not sensitive to radioiodine. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent a new approach to the treatment of advanced cases of RAI-R DTC, MTC, PDTC, and, possibly, ATC. In the past 10 years, several TKIs have been tested for the treatment of advanced, progressive, and RAI-R thyroid tumors, and some of them have been recently approved for use in clinical practice: sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC and PDTC and vandetanib and cabozantinib for MTC. The objective of this review is to present the current status of the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer with the use of innovative targeted therapies by describing both the benefits and the limits of their use based on the experiences reported so far. A comprehensive analysis and description of the molecular basis of these therapies, as well as new therapeutic perspectives, are reported. Some practical suggestions are given for both the choice of patients to be treated and their management, with particular regard to the potential side effects. PMID:27207700

  17. Circulating fluidized bed tehnology in biomass combustion-performance, advances and experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Mutanen, K.I.

    1995-11-01

    Development of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) was started both in North America and in Europe in the 1960`s. In Europe and especially in Scandinavia the major driving force behind the development was the need to find new more efficient technologies for utilization of low-grade fuels like different biomasses and wastes. Both bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technologies were under intensive R&D,D efforts and have now advanced to dominating role in industrial and district heating power plant markets in Europe. New advanced CFB designs are now entering the markets. In North America and especially in the US the driving force behind the FBC development was initially the need to utilize different types of coals in a more efficient and environmentally acceptable way. The present and future markets seem to be mainly in biomass and multifuel applications where there is benefit from high combustion efficiency, high fuel flexibility and low emissions such as in the pulp and paper industry. The choice between CFB technology and BFB technology is based on selected fuels, emission requirements, plant size and on technical and economic feasibility. Based on Scandinavian experience there is vast potential in the North American industry to retrofit existing oil fired, pulverized coal fired, chemical recovery or grate fired boilers with FBC systems or to build a new FBC based boiler plant. This paper will present the status of CFB technologies and will compare technical and economic feasibility of CFB technology to CFB technology to BFB and also to other combustion methods. Power plant projects that are using advanced CFB technology e.g. Ahlstrom Pyroflow Compact technology for biomass firing and co-firing of biomass with other fuels will also be introduced.

  18. Developing clinical competency: Experiences and perceptions of Advanced Midwifery Practitioners in training.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, Lynne; Beaton, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper will describe the experiences and perception of a cohort of trainee Advanced Midwifery Practitioners (AMP's) during their training on an MSc in Advanced Practice. The educational philosophy underpinning the master's programme is interprofessional learning linked closely to work based learning and assessment. The focus group explored how the AMP's were developing core competencies within four domains: The links between the university and clinical assessments were instrumental in developing both midwifery and specialised skills required for extending their scope of practice. The changing demographics of their client group facilitated the need to provide safe assessment and management of ladies with complex health and social needs in pregnancy and childbirth; provide specialised clinics and the development of a robust staff training and assessment process. The generic competencies they gained improved collaborative working with their medical colleagues, raising the trainees profile and acceptance of their extended role. In addition to this, development of specialised midwifery skills promoted a high degree of decision making responsibilities within midwifery to facilitate service development and promote evidence based care. PMID:25892367

  19. Intraoperative radiation therapy for advanced cervical metastasis: a single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to review our experience with the use of IORT for patients with advanced cervical metastasis. Methods Between August 1982 and July 2007, 231 patients underwent neck dissections as part of initial therapy or as salvage treatment for advanced cervical node metastases resulting from head and neck malignancies. IORT was administered as a single fraction to a dose of 15 Gy or 20 Gy in most pts. The majority was treated with 5 MeV electrons (112 pts, 50.5%). Results 1, 3, and 5 years overall survival (OS) after surgery + IORT was 58%, 34%, and 26%, respectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) at 1, 3, and 5 years was 66%, 55%, and 49%, respectively. Disease recurrence was documented in 83 (42.8%) pts. The majority of recurrences were regional (38 pts), as compared to local recurrence in 20 pts and distant failures in 25 pts. There were no perioperative fatalities. Conclusions IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity. Our results support the initiation of a phase III trial comparing outcomes for patients with cervical metastasis treated with or without IORT. PMID:21676211

  20. New generation of cryogen free advanced superconducting magnets for neutron scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, O.; Brown, J.; Adroja, D. T.; Manuel, P.; Kouzmenko, G.; Bewley, R. I.; Wotherspoon, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in superconducting technology and cryocooler refrigeration have resulted in a new generation of advanced superconducting magnets for neutron beam applications. These magnets have outstanding parameters such as high homogeneity and stability at highest magnetic fields possible, a reasonably small stray field, low neutron scattering background and larger exposure to neutron detectors. At the same time the pulse tube refrigeration technology provides a complete re-condensing regime which allows to minimise the requirements for cryogens without introducing additional noise and mechanical vibrations. The magnets can be used with dilution refrigerator insert which expands the temperature range from 20mK to 300K. Here we are going to present design, test results and the operational data of the 14T magnet for neutron diffraction and the 9T wide angle chopper magnet for neutron spectroscopy developed by Oxford Instruments in collaboration with ISIS neutron source. First scientific results obtained from the neutron scattering experiments with these magnets are also going to be discussed.

  1. Neural network setpoint control of an advanced test reactor experiment loop simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, G.A.; Bryan, S.R.; Powell, R.H.; Chick, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the design, implementation, and application of artificial neural networks to achieve temperature and flow rate control for a simulation of a typical experiment loop in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The goal of the project was to research multivariate, nonlinear control using neural networks. A loop simulation code was adapted for the project and used to create a training set and test the neural network controller for comparison with the existing loop controllers. The results for three neural network designs are documented and compared with existing loop controller action. The neural network was shown to be as accurate at loop control as the classical controllers in the operating region represented by the training set. 9 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Advancements in RNASeqGUI towards a Reproducible Analysis of RNA-Seq Experiments.

    PubMed

    Russo, Francesco; Righelli, Dario; Angelini, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We present the advancements and novelties recently introduced in RNASeqGUI, a graphical user interface that helps biologists to handle and analyse large data collected in RNA-Seq experiments. This work focuses on the concept of reproducible research and shows how it has been incorporated in RNASeqGUI to provide reproducible (computational) results. The novel version of RNASeqGUI combines graphical interfaces with tools for reproducible research, such as literate statistical programming, human readable report, parallel executions, caching, and interactive and web-explorable tables of results. These features allow the user to analyse big datasets in a fast, efficient, and reproducible way. Moreover, this paper represents a proof of concept, showing a simple way to develop computational tools for Life Science in the spirit of reproducible research. PMID:26977414

  3. Tracking Patient Encounters and Clinical Skills to Determine Competency in Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Chrystian R.; Harris, Ila M.; Moon, Jean Y.; Westberg, Sarah M.; Kolar, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the amount of exposure to patient encounters and clinical skills correlates to student clinical competency on ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design. Students in ambulatory care APPEs tracked the number of patients encountered by medical condition and the number of patient care skills performed. At the end of the APPE, preceptors evaluated students’ competency for each medical condition and skill, referencing the Dreyfus model for skill acquisition. Assessment. Data was collected from September 2012 through August 2014. Forty-six responses from a student tracking tool were matched to preceptor ratings. Students rated as competent saw more patients and performed more skills overall. Preceptors noted minimal impact on workload. Conclusions. Increased exposure to patient encounters and skills performed had a positive association with higher Dreyfus stage, which may represent a starting point in the conversation for more thoughtful design of ambulatory care APPEs. PMID:26941440

  4. The CNO Concentration in Cosmic Ray Spectrum as Measured From The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazely, A. R.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Ahn, H.; Ampe, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present preliminary results on the spectra of CNO nuclei in the cosmic radiation as measured in the first flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment (ATIC) which lasted for 16 days, starting in December, 2000 with a launch from McMurdo, Antarctica. ATIC is a multiple, long duration balloon flight, investigation for the study of cosmic ray spectra from below 50 GeV to near 100 TeV total energy, using a fully active Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter. It is equipped with the first large area mosaic of small fully depleted silicon detector pads capable of charge identification in cosmic rays from H to Fe. As a redundancy check for the charge identification and a coarse particle tracking system, three projective layers of x-y scintillator hodoscopes were employed, above, in the center and below a Carbon interaction "target".

  5. Advanced photoelectric effect experiment beamline at Elettra: A surface science laboratory coupled with Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panaccione, G.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Krizmancic, D.; Annese, E.; Giovanelli, L.; Maccherozzi, F.; Salvador, F.; De Luisa, A.; Benedetti, D.; Gruden, A.; Bertoch, P.; Rossi, G.; Polack, F.; Cocco, D.; Sostero, G.; Diviacco, B.; Hochstrasser, M.; Maier, U.; Pescia, D.; and others

    2009-04-15

    We report the main characteristics of the advanced photoelectric effect experiments beamline, operational at Elettra storage ring, featuring a fully independent double branch scheme obtained by the use of chicane undulators and able to keep polarization control in both linear and circular mode. The paper describes the novel technical solutions adopted, namely, (a) the design of a quasiperiodic undulator resulting in optimized suppression of higher harmonics over a large photon energy range (10-100 eV), (b) the thermal stability of optics under high heat load via cryocoolers, and (c) the end station interconnected setup allowing full access to off-beam and on-beam facilities and, at the same time, the integration of users' specialized sample growth chambers or modules.

  6. Impact of Instruction and Feedback on Reflective Responses during an Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience.

    PubMed

    Teply, Robyn; Spangler, Mikayla; Klug, Laura; Tilleman, Jennifer; Coover, Kelli

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To investigate whether instruction and feedback on reflective responses are beneficial in developing pharmacy students to become more reflective practitioners. Methods. Students on an advanced pharmacy practice experience answered weekly reflection questions and were randomly assigned to either an intervention (received instruction and feedback on reflection) or control group. The final week's responses were de-identified and two blinded faculty members independently categorized them as reflective or nonreflective. The primary outcome measure was comparing the number of "reflective" responses in each group. Results. The responses were classified as reflective in 83.3% of students in the intervention group (n=18) compared to 37.5% of the control group (n=16). The odds that the response was categorized as reflective were 8.3 times higher in the intervention group. Conclusion. Providing instruction and feedback to students improved the likelihood that their work was reflective. PMID:27402984

  7. Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station: ISS accommodation study

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, John P.

    1999-01-22

    ACCESS--Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station--was selected as a new Mission Concept under NRA 96-OSS-03, with the goal of combining calorimeter and transition radiation techniques to provide measurements of cosmic rays from Hydrogen through Nickel up to energies approaching the 'knee' in the cosmic ray all particle spectrum, plus providing measurements of the Z>28 (Ultra-Heavy) nuclei at all energies. An instrument to perform such an investigation is undergoing an ISS/STS Accommodation Study at JSC. The instrument concept, the mission plan, and the accommodation issues for an ISS attached payload which include, in part, the carrier, ISS Site, thermal control, power, data and operations are described and the current status of these issues, for an ACCESS Mission, is summarized.

  8. Advancements in RNASeqGUI towards a Reproducible Analysis of RNA-Seq Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Francesco; Righelli, Dario

    2016-01-01

    We present the advancements and novelties recently introduced in RNASeqGUI, a graphical user interface that helps biologists to handle and analyse large data collected in RNA-Seq experiments. This work focuses on the concept of reproducible research and shows how it has been incorporated in RNASeqGUI to provide reproducible (computational) results. The novel version of RNASeqGUI combines graphical interfaces with tools for reproducible research, such as literate statistical programming, human readable report, parallel executions, caching, and interactive and web-explorable tables of results. These features allow the user to analyse big datasets in a fast, efficient, and reproducible way. Moreover, this paper represents a proof of concept, showing a simple way to develop computational tools for Life Science in the spirit of reproducible research. PMID:26977414

  9. Impact of Instruction and Feedback on Reflective Responses during an Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Mikayla; Klug, Laura; Tilleman, Jennifer; Coover, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether instruction and feedback on reflective responses are beneficial in developing pharmacy students to become more reflective practitioners. Methods. Students on an advanced pharmacy practice experience answered weekly reflection questions and were randomly assigned to either an intervention (received instruction and feedback on reflection) or control group. The final week’s responses were de-identified and two blinded faculty members independently categorized them as reflective or nonreflective. The primary outcome measure was comparing the number of “reflective” responses in each group. Results. The responses were classified as reflective in 83.3% of students in the intervention group (n=18) compared to 37.5% of the control group (n=16). The odds that the response was categorized as reflective were 8.3 times higher in the intervention group. Conclusion. Providing instruction and feedback to students improved the likelihood that their work was reflective. PMID:27402984

  10. Utility photovoltaic group: Status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfass, Jeffrey A.; Hester, Stephen L.; Wills, Bethany N.

    1996-01-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG) was formed in October of 1992 with a mission to accelerate the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging grid-connected applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. The UPVG is now implementing a program to install up to 50 megawatts of photovoltaics in small-scale and grid-connected applications. This program, called TEAM-UP, is a partnership of the U.S. electric utility industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to help develop utility PV markets. TEAM-UP is a utility-directed program to significantly increase utility PV experience by promoting installations of utility PV systems. Two primary program areas are proposed for TEAM-UP: (1) Small-Scale Applications (SSA)—an initiative to aggregate utility purchases of small-scale, grid-independent applications; and (2) Grid-Connected Applications (GCA)—an initiative to identify and competitively award cost-sharing contracts for grid-connected PV systems with high market growth potential, or collective purchase programs involving multiple buyers. This paper describes these programs and outlines the schedule, the procurement status, and the results of the TEAM-UP process.

  11. A Space Testbed for Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1998-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the NASA Lewis Research Center are designing and building a solar-cell calibration facility, the Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed (PET) to fly on the International Space Station to test advanced solar cell types in the space environment. A wide variety of advanced solar cell types have become available in the last decade. Some of these solar cells offer more than twice the power per unit area of the silicon cells used for the space station power system. They also offer the possibilities of lower cost, lighter weight, and longer lifetime. The purpose of the PET facility is to reduce the cost of validating new technologies and bringing them to spaceflight readiness. The facility will be used for three primary functions: calibration, measurement, and qualification. It is scheduled to be launched in June of 2002.

  12. Fission Product Monitoring and Release Data for the Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Mark W. Drigert; Edward L. Reber

    2010-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 26, 2006 until November 6, 2009 in support of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Fuel Development and Qualification program. An important measure of the fuel performance is the quantification of the fission product releases over the duration of the experiment. To provide this data for the inert fission gasses(Kr and Xe), a fission product monitoring system (FPMS) was developed and implemented to monitor the individual capsule effluents for the radioactive species. The FPMS continuously measured the concentrations of various krypton and xenon isotopes in the sweep gas from each AGR-1 capsule to provide an indicator of fuel irradiation performance. Spectrometer systems quantified the concentrations of Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, Kr-89, Kr-90, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe 135, Xe 135m, Xe-137, Xe-138, and Xe-139 accumulated over repeated eight hour counting intervals.-. To determine initial fuel quality and fuel performance, release activity for each isotope of interest was derived from FPMS measurements and paired with a calculation of the corresponding isotopic production or birthrate. The release activities and birthrates were combined to determine Release-to-Birth ratios for the selected nuclides. R/B values provide indicators of initial fuel quality and fuel performance during irradiation. This paper presents a brief summary of the FPMS, the release to birth ratio data for the AGR-1 experiment and preliminary comparisons of AGR-1 experimental fuels data to fission gas release models.

  13. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  14. Canadian Advanced Nanospace Experiment 2 Orbit Operations: Two Years of Pushing the Nanosatellite Performance Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarda, Karan

    The objective of the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment (CanX) program is to de-velop highly capable nanospacecraft, i.e. spacecraft under 10 kilograms, in short timeframes of 2-3 years. CanX missions offer low-cost and rapid access to space for scientists, technol-ogy developers and operationally-responsive missions. The Space Flight Laboratory (SFL), at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) has developed the CanX-2 nanosatellite that launched in April 2008. CanX-2, a 3.5-kg, 10 x 10 x 34 cm satellite, features a collection of scientific and engineering payloads that push the envelope of capability for this class of spacecraft. The primary mission of CanX-2 is to perform a number of university exper-iments. These experiments include a miniature atmospheric spectrometer designed to detect greenhouse gas concentrations, a GPS signal occultation experiment designed to map electron and water vapour concentrations in the ionosphere and troposphere respectively, and a materi-als science experiment which evaluates a novel atomic oxygen resistant coating. The secondary mission of CanX-2 is to test and demonstrate several enabling technologies for precise formation flight. These technologies include a custom cold-gas propulsion system, a nanosatellite reac-tion wheel as part of a three-axis stabilized attitude control subsystem, and a GPS receiver. After two successful years in orbit, the nanosatellite has met or exceeded all mission objectives and continues to demonstrate the cost-effective capabilities of this class of spacecraft. Key achievements to date include a characterization of the propulsion system, a full demonstration of the attitude determination and control subsystem including capabilities in accurate pay-load pointing, unprecedented radio performance for an operational nanosatellite, and hundreds of successful science operations. The mission, the engineering and scientific payloads, and a discussion of notable orbit

  15. Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

  16. The link evaluation terminal for the advanced communications technology satellite experiments program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Brian D.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental NASA satellite, Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), introduces new technology for high throughput 30 to 20 GHz satellite services. Contained in a single communication payload is both a regenerative TDMA system and multiple 800 MHz 'bent pipe' channels routed to spot beams by a switch matrix. While only one mode of operation is typical during any experiment, both modes can operate simultaneously with reduced capability due to sharing of the transponder. NASA-Lewis instituted a ground terminal development program in anticipation of the satellite launch to verify the performance of the switch matrix mode of operations. Specific functions are built into the ground terminal to evaluate rain fade compensation with uplink power control and to monitor satellite transponder performance with bit error rate measurements. These functions were the genesis of the ground terminal's name, Link Evaluation Terminal, often referred to as LET. Connectors are included in LET that allow independent experimenters to run unique modulation or network experiments through ACTS using only the RF transmit and receive portions of LET. Test data indicate that LET will be able to verify important parts of ACTS technology and provide independent experimenters with a useful ground terminal. Lab measurements of major subsystems integrated into LET are presented. Bit error rate is measured with LET in an internal loopback mode.

  17. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Preceptor and Student Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E.; Ombengi, David N.; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R.; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J.; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W.; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Alsharif, Naser Z.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students. PMID:27170810

  18. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Preceptor and Student Considerations.

    PubMed

    Dornblaser, Emily K; Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E; Ombengi, David N; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W; Abrons, Jeanine P; Alsharif, Naser Z

    2016-04-25

    The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students. PMID:27170810

  19. A Complex-Geometry Validation Experiment for Advanced Neutron Transport Codes

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; Anthony W. LaPorta; Joseph W. Nielsen; James Parry; Mark D. DeHart; Samuel E. Bays; William F. Skerjanc

    2013-11-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a focused effort to upgrade legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols used for support of core fuel management and experiment management in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its companion critical facility (ATRC) at the INL.. This will be accomplished through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate new Verification and Validation (V&V) protocols, over the next 12-18 months. Stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and nuclear data packages that support this effort include MCNP5[1], SCALE/KENO6[2], HELIOS[3], SCALE/NEWT[2], and ATTILA[4]. Furthermore, a capability for sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification based on the TSUNAMI[5] system has also been implemented. Finally, we are also evaluating the Serpent[6] and MC21[7] codes, as additional verification tools in the near term as well as for possible applications to full three-dimensional Monte Carlo based fuel management modeling in the longer term. On the experimental side, several new benchmark-quality code validation measurements based on neutron activation spectrometry have been conducted using the ATRC. Results for the first four experiments, focused on neutron spectrum measurements within the Northwest Large In-Pile Tube (NW LIPT) and in the core fuel elements surrounding the NW LIPT and the diametrically opposite Southeast IPT have been reported [8,9]. A fifth, very recent, experiment focused on detailed measurements of the element-to-element core power distribution is summarized here and examples of the use of the measured data for validation of corresponding MCNP5, HELIOS, NEWT, and Serpent computational models using modern least-square adjustment methods are provided.

  20. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  1. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  2. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  3. Photovoltaic systems test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Facility provides broad and flexible capability for evaluating photovoltaic systems and design concepts. As 'breadboard' system, it can be used to check out complete systems, subsystems, and components before installation in actual service.

  4. Photovoltaics - Where are we going?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The directions that will be followed for solar cell development, production and marketing are projected on the basis of experiences gained during the JPL's Flat-Plate Solar Array project. It is thought that a billion dollar market for Si ribbons can be established by 1990. Thin film technology will yield a product at $2 U.S./W at the end of the 1980s. R&D is growing more focused on central station photovoltaic generators, although the residential market may be the more suitable goal. The intermediate markets, e.g., schools, hospitals and shopping centers may be developed before the central stations.

  5. Photovoltaic systems and applications perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The National Photovoltaic Program is currently in the process of increasing emphasis on full-scale system experiments in the potential user environment, a natural coccurrence in the evolution of system design and development. At this point large amounts of design information are available and need to be brought together in usable form to support this effort. The state of understanding in the system definition area for the major applications is reviewed, and the remaining issues, especially as they impact the field test activities, are indicated.

  6. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  7. Early experience with digital advance care planning and directives, a novel consumer-driven program

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Spivey, Christy; Boardman, Bonnie; Courtney, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Barriers to traditional advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) creation have limited the promise of ACP/AD for individuals and families, the healthcare team, and society. Our objectives were to determine the results of a digital ACP/AD through which consumers create, store, locate, and retrieve their ACP/AD at no charge and with minimal physician involvement, and the ACP/AD can be integrated into the electronic health record. The authors chose 900 users of MyDirectives, a digital ACP/AD tool, to achieve proportional representation of all 50 states by population size and then reviewed their responses. The 900 participants had an average age of 50.8 years (SD = 16.6); 84% of the men and 91% of the women were in self-reported good health when signing their ADs. Among the respondents, 94% wanted their physicians to consult a supportive and palliative care team if they were seriously ill; nearly 85% preferred cessation of life-sustaining treatments during their final days; 76% preferred to spend their final days at home or in a hospice; and 70% would accept attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in limited circumstances. Most respondents wanted an autopsy under certain conditions, and 62% wished to donate their organs. In conclusion, analysis of early experience with this ACP/AD platform demonstrates that individuals of different ages and conditions can engage in an interrogatory process about values, develop ADs that are more nuanced than traditional paper-based ADs in reflecting those values, and easily make changes to their ADs. Online ADs have the potential to remove barriers to ACP/AD and thus further improve patient-centered end-of-life care. PMID:27365867

  8. Early experience with digital advance care planning and directives, a novel consumer-driven program.

    PubMed

    Fine, Robert L; Yang, Zhiyong; Spivey, Christy; Boardman, Bonnie; Courtney, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Barriers to traditional advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) creation have limited the promise of ACP/AD for individuals and families, the healthcare team, and society. Our objectives were to determine the results of a digital ACP/AD through which consumers create, store, locate, and retrieve their ACP/AD at no charge and with minimal physician involvement, and the ACP/AD can be integrated into the electronic health record. The authors chose 900 users of MyDirectives, a digital ACP/AD tool, to achieve proportional representation of all 50 states by population size and then reviewed their responses. The 900 participants had an average age of 50.8 years (SD = 16.6); 84% of the men and 91% of the women were in self-reported good health when signing their ADs. Among the respondents, 94% wanted their physicians to consult a supportive and palliative care team if they were seriously ill; nearly 85% preferred cessation of life-sustaining treatments during their final days; 76% preferred to spend their final days at home or in a hospice; and 70% would accept attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in limited circumstances. Most respondents wanted an autopsy under certain conditions, and 62% wished to donate their organs. In conclusion, analysis of early experience with this ACP/AD platform demonstrates that individuals of different ages and conditions can engage in an interrogatory process about values, develop ADs that are more nuanced than traditional paper-based ADs in reflecting those values, and easily make changes to their ADs. Online ADs have the potential to remove barriers to ACP/AD and thus further improve patient-centered end-of-life care. PMID:27365867

  9. Materials Integration and Metamorphic Substrate Engineering from Silicon to Gallium Arsenide to Indium Phosphide for Advanced III-V/Silicon Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Andrew M.

    Lattice-mismatched epitaxy in the III-V compound semiconductor system based on III-AsP and related alloys are of enormous importance, and considerable research interest, for many years. The reason is straightforward if one considers the limitations placed on available materials properties for devices dictated by lattice matching to the dominant substrate technologies - Si, GaAs (and/or Ge) and InP. For III-V epitaxy, the lattice constants of these substrates have defined a generation or more of device advances since growth of heterostructures possessing the same equilibrium lattice constants as the substrate yields essentially defect-free (specifically extended defect-free) materials and devices. Removing the restriction of lattice matching to current substrate technology opens a rich spectrum of bandgaps, bandgap combinations, conduction and valence band offsets, etc., that are desirable and exploitable for advancing device technologies for new functionality and greater performance. However successful exploitation of these properties requires mitigation of a variety of extended defects that result from the lattice mismatch between substrate and epitaxial heterostructures. A well known method to achieve this solution is through the use of compositionally (lattice constant-graded) buffer interlayers, in which the equilibrium lattice constants of interlayers are slowly altered by controlled changes in layer composition so that the mismatch strain between the initial substrate and the final device layers is spread across a thickness of buffer. The research accomplished has yielded success for both lattice constant ranges Si - GaAs and GaAs - InP. For the Si - GaAs system, a three step GaP nucleation process on Si has been developed and demonstrated, which maintains total avoidance of creating coalescence-related defects such as antiphase domains and stacking faults resulting from the initial III-V/IV interfaces while reducing overall threading dislocation density by

  10. Characterization of photovoltaic generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boitier, V.; Cressault, Y.

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses photovoltaic panel systems and reviews their electrical properties and use in several industrial fields. We explain how different photovoltaic panels may be characterized by undergraduate students at university using simple methods to retrieve their electrical properties (power, current and voltage) and compare these values with those stated by the manufacturer. We also discuss how the efficiency of solar panels depends upon their construction, temperature, net irradiation and geographic location.

  11. Lightweight Solar Photovoltaic Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceragioli, R.; Himmler, R.; Nath, P.; Vogeli, C.; Guha, S.

    1995-01-01

    Lightweight, flexible sheets containing arrays of stacked solar photovoltaic cells developed to supply electric power aboard spacecraft. Solar batteries satisfying stringent requirements for operation in outer space also adaptable to terrestrial environment. Attractive for use as long-lived, portable photovoltaic power sources. Cells based on amorphous silicon which offers potential for order-of-magnitude increases in power per unit weight, power per unit volume, and endurance in presence of ionizing radiation.

  12. The Source Physics Experiments and Advances in Seismic Explosion Monitoring Predictive Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Antoun, T.; Pitarka, A.; Xu, H.; Vorobiev, O.; Rodgers, A.; Pyle, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Despite many years of study, a number of seismic explosion phenomena remain incompletely understood. These include the generation of S-waves, the variation of absolute amplitudes with emplacement media differences, and the occasional generation of reversed Rayleigh waves. Advances in numerical methods and increased computational power have improved the physics contained in the modeling software and it is possible to couple non-linear source-region effects to far-field propagation codes to predict seismic observables, thereby allowing end-to-end modeling. However, despite the many sensor records from prior nuclear tests, the data available to develop and validate the simulation codes remain limited in important ways. This is particularly the case for the range of both scaled depths of burial and of source media, especially where full near-field to far-field records are available along with key quantitative parameter data such as depth, material properties and yield. For example, two of the most widely used seismic source models, both derived from the best empirical data, Mueller and Murphy (1971) and Denny and Johnson (1989), predict very different amplitudes for greatly overburied explosions. To provide new data to advance predictive explosion modeling capabilities, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is carrying out a series of seven chemical explosions over a range of depths and sizes in the Source Physics Experiments (SPE). These shots are taking place in the Climax Stock granite at the Nevada National Security Site, the location where reversed Rayleigh waves from a nuclear test were first observed in the 1962 HARDHAT event (e.g. Brune and Pomeroy, 1963). Three of the SPE shots have successfully occurred so far, and were well-recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation including seismic, acoustic, EM, and remote sensing. In parallel, detailed site characterization has been conducted using geologic mapping and sampling, borehole geophysics

  13. Technology advancement for the ASCENDS mission using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Antill, C.; Browell, E. V.; Campbell, J. F.; CHEN, S.; Cleckner, C.; Dijoseph, M. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Ismail, S.; Lin, B.; Meadows, B. L.; Mills, C.; Nehrir, A. R.; Notari, A.; Prasad, N. S.; Kooi, S. A.; Vitullo, N.; Dobler, J. T.; Bender, J.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Horney, S.; McGregor, D.; Neal, M.; Shure, M.; Zaccheo, T.; Moore, B.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Welch, W.

    2013-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center project funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technologies being advanced are: (1) multiple transmitter and telescope-aperture operations, (2) high-efficiency CO2 laser transmitters, (3) a high bandwidth detector and transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The instrument architecture is being developed for ACES to operate on a high-altitude aircraft, and it will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. The above technologies are critical for developing an airborne simulator and spaceborne instrument with lower platform consumption of size, mass, and power, and with improved performance. This design employs several laser transmitters and telescope-apertures to demonstrate column CO2 retrievals with alignment of multiple laser beams in the far-field. ACES will transmit five laser beams: three from commercial lasers operating near 1.57-microns, and two from the Exelis atmospheric oxygen (O2) fiber laser amplifier system operating near 1.26-microns. The Master Oscillator Power Amplifier at 1.57-microns measures CO2 column concentrations using an Integrated-Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar approach. O2 column amounts needed for calculating the CO2 mixing ratio will be retrieved using the Exelis laser system with a similar IPDA approach. The three aperture telescope design was built to meet the constraints of the Global Hawk high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This assembly integrates fiber-coupled transmit collimators for all of the laser transmitters and fiber-coupled optical signals from the three telescopes to the aft optics and detector package. The detector

  14. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  15. The World's Largest Photovoltaic Concentrator System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harry V.

    1982-01-01

    The Mississippi County Community College large-scale energy experiment, featuring the emerging high technology of solar electricity, is described. The project includes a building designed for solar electricity and a power plant consisting of a total energy photovoltaic system, and features two experimental developments. (MLW)

  16. BACH, the beamline for advanced dichroic and scattering experiments at ELETTRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, M.; Finazzi, M.; Paolucci, G.; Comelli, G.; Diviacco, B.; Walker, R. P.; Cocco, D.; Parmigiani, F.

    2001-02-01

    A beamline for advanced dichroism (BACH), to perform light polarization dependent experiments in the 35-1600 eV photon energy range is under construction at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Radiation Source in Trieste, Italy. The radiation source, based on two APPLE-II helical undulators, is designed for high photon flux and high resolving powers. The photons dispersion system is based on a Padmore variable angle spherical grating monochromator with a typical resolving power of 20 000-6000, 20 000-6000, and 15 000-5000 in the energy ranges 35-200 eV, 200-500 eV, and 500-1600 eV, respectively. Two separate branches after the monochromator allow setting two independent experimental chambers. The photon flux in the experimental chamber(s), calculated at the best resolutions achievable and with the aperture of the slits set at 10 μm, is expected to be above 1011 photons's with linearly or circularly polarized light. In addition, a fourth grating operates in the 400-1600 eV range to provide a higher flux, 1012 photons's with smaller resolving power (10 000-2000), allowing fluorescence and x-ray scattering experiments. The refocusing section(s), based on plane elliptical mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme, will provide on the sample, a nearly free-aberration spot(s), whose dimensions are expected to be 200×10 μm2 (horizontal×vertical). In the following, the general layout of the beamline is reported and the characteristics of the optical elements, as well as the optical performances (resolving powers and efficiencies of the monochromator, flux, and spot dimensions) are described in detail.

  17. Emerging photovoltaic module technologies at PVUSA: A five-year assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, T.

    1995-04-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of photovoltaic systems: new modules fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, and more mature technologies fielded as 20- to 500-kW turnkey Utility Scale (US) systems. This report summarizes experiences of the PVUSA project in operating the first six 20-kW EMT photovoltaic systems. Five systems are installed at Davis, California, and one at Kihei, Hawaii. Products selected for testing and demonstration were judged to have potential for significant technical advancement or reduction in manufacturing cost. Features leading to selection of each system and findings over the average 5 years of operation are compared in the report. Factory product qualification test experiences along with field acceptance test results are documented. Evaluation includes a broad range of performance parameters, including long-term efficiency, seasonal generation patterns, and maintenance. While some of the arrays have operated as well as any commercial system, others have fared poorly. Throughout the procurement and operation of these precommercial PV modules, PVUSA has provided feedback to vendors, critical for product improvement. The data and evaluations in this report will be of further benefit to manufacturers and provide general comparative information on a variety of technologies to researchers in utilities, government, and industry alike.

  18. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  19. An Evidence-based Medicine Elective Course to Improve Student Performance in Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Rudisill, Celeste N.; Bickley, A. Rebecca; McAbee, Catherine; Miller, April D.; Piro, Christina C.; Schulz, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate the impact of an elective evidence-based medicine (EBM) course on student performance during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design A 2-hour elective course was implemented using active-learning techniques including case studies and problem-based learning, journal club simulations, and student-driven wiki pages. The small class size (15 students) encouraged independent student learning, allowing students to serve as the instructors and guest faculty members from a variety of disciplines to facilitate discussions. Assessment Pre- and posttests found that students improved on 83% of the core evidence-based medicine concepts evaluated. Fifty-four APPE preceptors were surveyed to compare the performance of students who had completed the EBM course prior to starting their APPEs with students who had not. Of the 38 (70%) who responded, the majority (86.9%) agreed that students who had completed the course had stronger skills in applying evidence-based medicine to patient care than other students. The 14 students who completed the elective also were surveyed after completing their APPEs and the 11 who responded agreed the class had improved their skills and provided confidence in using the medical literature. Conclusions The skill set acquired from this EBM course improved students' performance in APPEs. Evidence-based medicine and literature search skills should receive more emphasis in the pharmacy curriculum. PMID:21451761

  20. The entrance system laboratory prototype for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, F.; Desai, M. I.; Livi, R.; Livi, S.; McComas, D. J.; Randol, B.

    2009-10-15

    Electrostatic analyzers (ESA) have been used extensively for the characterization of plasmas in a variety of space environments. They vary in shape, geometry, and size and are adapted to the specific particle population to be measured and the configuration of the spacecraft. Their main function is to select the energy per charge of the particles within a passband. An energy-per-charge range larger than that of the passband can be sampled by varying the voltage difference between the ESA electrodes. The voltage sweep takes time and reduces the duty cycle for a particular energy-per-charge passband. Our design approach for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment (AMICCE) has a novel electrostatic analyzer that essentially serves as a spectrograph and selects ions simultaneously over a broad range of energy-per-charge (E/q). Only three voltage settings are required to cover the entire range from {approx}10 to 270 keV/q, thus dramatically increasing the product of the geometric factor times the duty cycle when compared with other instruments. In this paper, we describe the AMICCE concept with particular emphasis on the prototype of the entrance system (ESA and collimator), which we designed, developed, and tested. We also present comparisons of the laboratory results with electrostatic simulations.

  1. The Impact of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences on Students' Readiness for Self-directed Learning

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Stuart T.; Plaza, Cecilia M.; Sturpe, Deborah A.; Williams, Greg; Rodriguez de Bittner, Magaly A.; Roffman, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' readiness for self-directed learning. Methods The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) was administered to students prior to and after completing their APPEs. SDLRS is a validated instrument that determines the relative degree to which students have the attitudes and motivation to engage in self-directed learning. Results Seventy-seven (64%) students completed the SDLRS prior to starting their APPEs and 80 (67%) students completed the instrument after completing their APPEs. Forty-six (38%) students completed both. Prior to starting their APPEs, 74% of students scored greater than 150 on the SDLRS, indicating a high level of readiness for self-directed learning. No significant difference was found between the mean scores of students who took the SDLRS both prior to (159 ± 20) and after completing their APPEs (159 ± 24; p > 0.05). Conclusion Students at our institution appear to be ready for self-directed learning but APPEs had a minimal impact on their readiness for self-directed learning. PMID:19657498

  2. Quasi-static and dynamic responses of advanced high strength steels: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Akhtar; Baig, Muneer; Choi, Shi Hoon; Yang, Hoe Seok; Sun, Xin

    2012-03-01

    Measured responses of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and their tailor welded blanks (TWBs), over a wide range of strain-rates (10*4 to 103 s*1) are presented. The steels investigated include transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), dual phase (DP), and drawing quality (DQ) steels. The TWBs include DQ-DQ and DP-DP laser welds. A tensile split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was used for the dynamic experiments. AHSS and their TWB's were found to exhibit positive strain-rate sensitivity. The Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) constitutive model is shown to correlate and predict the observed responses reasonably well. Micro-texture characterization of DQ steels, DQ-DQ and DP-DP laser welds were performed to investigate the effect of strain-rate on texture evolution of these materials. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was used to analyze the micro-texture evolution and kernel average misorientation (KAM) map. Measurement of micro-hardness profile across the cross section of tensile samples was conducted to understand the effect of initial microstructure on ductility of laser weld samples.

  3. Flame experiments at the advanced light source: new insights into soot formation processes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nils; Skeen, Scott A; Michelsen, Hope A; Wilson, Kevin R; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The following experimental protocols and the accompanying video are concerned with the flame experiments that are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(1-4). This video demonstrates how the complex chemical structures of laboratory-based model flames are analyzed using flame-sampling mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. This experimental approach combines isomer-resolving capabilities with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range(5,6). The first part of the video describes experiments involving burner-stabilized, reduced-pressure (20-80 mbar) laminar premixed flames. A small hydrocarbon fuel was used for the selected flame to demonstrate the general experimental approach. It is shown how species' profiles are acquired as a function of distance from the burner surface and how the tunability of the VUV photon energy is used advantageously to identify many combustion intermediates based on their ionization energies. For example, this technique has been used to study gas-phase aspects of the soot-formation processes, and the video shows how the resonance-stabilized radicals, such as C3H3, C3H5, and i-C4H5, are identified as important intermediates(7). The work has been focused on soot formation processes, and, from the chemical point of view, this process is very intriguing because chemical structures containing millions of carbon atoms are assembled from a fuel molecule possessing only a few carbon atoms in just milliseconds. The second part of the video highlights a new experiment, in which an opposed-flow diffusion flame and synchrotron-based aerosol mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of the combustion-generated soot particles(4). The experimental results indicate that the widely accepted H-abstraction-C2H2-addition (HACA) mechanism is not the sole molecular growth process responsible for the formation

  4. Flame Experiments at the Advanced Light Source: New Insights into Soot Formation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nils; Skeen, Scott A.; Michelsen, Hope A.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The following experimental protocols and the accompanying video are concerned with the flame experiments that are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory1-4. This video demonstrates how the complex chemical structures of laboratory-based model flames are analyzed using flame-sampling mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. This experimental approach combines isomer-resolving capabilities with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range5,6. The first part of the video describes experiments involving burner-stabilized, reduced-pressure (20-80 mbar) laminar premixed flames. A small hydrocarbon fuel was used for the selected flame to demonstrate the general experimental approach. It is shown how species’ profiles are acquired as a function of distance from the burner surface and how the tunability of the VUV photon energy is used advantageously to identify many combustion intermediates based on their ionization energies. For example, this technique has been used to study gas-phase aspects of the soot-formation processes, and the video shows how the resonance-stabilized radicals, such as C3H3, C3H5, and i-C4H5, are identified as important intermediates7. The work has been focused on soot formation processes, and, from the chemical point of view, this process is very intriguing because chemical structures containing millions of carbon atoms are assembled from a fuel molecule possessing only a few carbon atoms in just milliseconds. The second part of the video highlights a new experiment, in which an opposed-flow diffusion flame and synchrotron-based aerosol mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of the combustion-generated soot particles4. The experimental results indicate that the widely accepted H-abstraction-C2H2-addition (HACA) mechanism is not the sole molecular growth process responsible for the formation of the

  5. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  6. An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

  7. Computer experiments on periodic systems identification using rotor blade transient flapping-torsion responses at high advance ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Prelewicz, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Systems identification methods have recently been applied to rotorcraft to estimate stability derivatives from transient flight control response data. While these applications assumed a linear constant coefficient representation of the rotorcraft, the computer experiments described in this paper used transient responses in flap-bending and torsion of a rotor blade at high advance ratio which is a rapidly time varying periodic system.

  8. The Advanced Interdisciplinary Research Laboratory: A Student Team Approach to the Fourth-Year Research Thesis Project Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Boyd, Cleo; Barzda, Virginijus; Gradinaru, Claudiu C.; Krull, Ulrich J.; Stefanovic, Sasa; Stewart, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The advanced interdisciplinary research laboratory (AIRLab) represents a novel, effective, and motivational course designed from the interdisciplinary research interests of chemistry, physics, biology, and education development faculty members as an alternative to the independent thesis project experience. Student teams are assembled to work…

  9. Synthesis of Di- and Trisubstituted Azulenes Using a Danheiser Annulation as the Key Step: An Advanced Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rebecca M.; Shea, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This three-week advanced-level organic experiment provides students with an inquiry-based approach focused on learning traditional skills such as primary literature interpretation, reaction design, flash column chromatography, and NMR analysis. Additionally, students address higher-order concepts such as the origin of azulene's blue color,…

  10. Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

  11. Photovoltaic roof system

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, P.; Laarman, T.; Singh, A.

    1993-08-03

    A modular batten and seam type photovoltaic roofing system is described comprising: (1) a plurality of photovoltaic panels, each panel including: a base member having a generally planar central portion at least partially bounded by two upturned flanges; a photovoltaic device disposed on the central portion, the device including a positive terminal and a negative terminal; a positive terminal region associated with the base member and including a first electrical conductor in electrical communication with the positive terminal of the photovoltaic device; a negative terminal region associated with the base member and including a second electrical conductor in electrical communication with the negative terminal of the photovoltaic device; a first electrical connector affixed to the positive terminal region, in electrical communication with the first electrical conductor; a second electrical conductor affixed to the negative terminal region, in electrical communication with the second electrical conductor; the roofing system further including: (2) a coupling member having a first end reversibly attachable to one of the electrical connectors on a first one of the plurality of panels and a second end reversibly attachable to one of the electrical connectors on a second one of the panels, the coupling member being operable to establish electrical communication between the first and second panels; (3) a plurality of batten members, each configured to cover one upturned flange of each of two of the plurality of panels, when the two panels are adjacently disposed on a roof.

  12. Photovoltaic research and development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, K.

    1983-02-01

    The status of the Japanese photovoltaic (PV) R&D activities was surveyed through literature searches, private communications, and site visits in 1982. The results show that the Japanese photovoltaic technology is maturing rapidly, consistent with the steady government funding under the Sunshine Project. Two main thrusts of the Project are: (1) completion of the solar panel production pilot plants using cast ingot and sheet silicon materials, and (2) development of large area amorphous silicon solar cells with acceptable efficiency (10 to 12%). An experimental automated solar panel production plant rated at 500 kW/yr is currently under construction for the Sunshine Project for completion in March 1983. Efficiencies demonstrated by experimental large are amorphous silicon solar cells are approaching 8%. Small area amorphous silicon solar cells are, however, currently being mass produced and marketed by several companies at an equivalent annual rate of 2 MW/yr for consumer electronic applications. There is no evidence of an immediate move by the Japanese PV industry to enter extensively into the photovoltaic power market, domestic or otherwise. However, the photovoltaic technology itself could become ready for such an entry in the very near future, especially by making use of advanced process automation technologies.

  13. Photovoltaic research and development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1983-01-01

    The status of the Japanese photovoltaic (PV) R&D activities was surveyed through literature searches, private communications, and site visits in 1982. The results show that the Japanese photovoltaic technology is maturing rapidly, consistent with the steady government funding under the Sunshine Project. Two main thrusts of the Project are: (1) completion of the solar panel production pilot plants using cast ingot and sheet silicon materials, and (2) development of large area amorphous silicon solar cells with acceptable efficiency (10 to 12%). An experimental automated solar panel production plant rated at 500 kW/yr is currently under construction for the Sunshine Project for completion in March 1983. Efficiencies demonstrated by experimental large are amorphous silicon solar cells are approaching 8%. Small area amorphous silicon solar cells are, however, currently being mass produced and marketed by several companies at an equivalent annual rate of 2 MW/yr for consumer electronic applications. There is no evidence of an immediate move by the Japanese PV industry to enter extensively into the photovoltaic power market, domestic or otherwise. However, the photovoltaic technology itself could become ready for such an entry in the very near future, especially by making use of advanced process automation technologies.

  14. Final Assembly and Initial Irradiation of the First Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. B. Grover

    2007-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing.1,2 The experiments, which will each consist of six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The final design phase for the first experiment was completed in 2005, and the fabrication and assembly of the first experiment test train (designated AGR-1) as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment

  15. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user`s risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly.

  16. Cooling Properties of the Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Spacesuit: Results of an Environmental Chamber Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Bue, Grant; Son, Chan; Norcross, Jason; Kuznetz, Larry; Chapman, Kirt; Chhipwadia, Ketan; McBride, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The shuttle crew wears the Advanced Crew Escape Spacesuit (ACES) to protect themselves from cabin decompression and to support bail out during landing. ACES is cooled by a liquid-cooled garment (LCG) that interfaces to a heat exchanger that dumps heat into the cabin. The ACES outer layer is made of Gore-Tex(Registered TradeMark), permitting water vapor to escape while containing oxygen. The crew can only lose heat via insensible water losses and the LCG. Under nominal landing operations, the average cabin temperature rarely exceeds 75 F, which is adequate for the ACES to function. Problem A rescue shuttle will need to return 11 crew members if the previous mission suffers a thermal protection system failure, preventing it from returning safely to Earth. Initial analysis revealed that 11 crew members in the shuttle will increase cabin temperature at wheel stop above 80 F, which decreases the ACES ability to keep crew members cool. Air flow in the middeck of the shuttle is inhomogeneous and some ACES may experience much higher temperatures that could cause excessive thermal stress to crew members. Methods A ground study was conducted to measure the cooling efficiency of the ACES at 75 F, 85 F, and 95 F at 50% relative humidity. Test subjects representing 5, 50, and 95 percentile body habitus of the astronaut corps performed hand ergometry keeping their metabolic rate at 400, 600, and 800 BTU/hr for one hour. Core temperature was measured by rectal probe and skin, while inside and outside the suit. Environmental chamber wall and cooling unit inlet and outlet temperatures were measured using high-resolution thermistors ( 0.2 C). Conclusions Under these test conditions, the ACES was able to protect the core temperature of all test subjects, however thermal stress due to high insensible losses and skin temperature and skin heat flow may impact crew performance. Further research should be performed to understand the impact on cognitive performance.

  17. Gender Differences in Classroom Participation and Achievement: An Experiment Involving Advanced Placement Calculus Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    1995-01-01

    Despite scoring lower on the mathematics Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT-M) prior to taking an advanced placement calculus course, female students (n=85) scored as well as males (n=51) on the Advanced Placement BC level calculus test. Predictors of AP scores were: first, scores on the Calculus Readiness Test; second, scores on the SAT-M; and…

  18. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  19. Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A.; Birner, S.

    2014-04-21

    Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ∼5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

  20. Photovoltaic concentrator research progress

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a review of progress in the DOE sponsored, Sandia managed Photovoltaic Concentrator Research Project. Research status, project goals and a discussion of concentrator economics is presented. Recent research accomplishments that will be discussed include 21% efficient baseline silicon cells by Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Sandia, 26% efficient GaAs cells by Varian Associates, and near 25% mechanically stacked multijunction GaAs/Si cells by Hughes Research, Applied Solar, and Sandia. In addition, improvements in breadboard module units (i.e. single lens/cell combination) such as a 19% GaAs unit by Varian and a near 17% silicon unit by ENTECH will be reviewed. This paper concludes that the photovoltaic concentrator option is making excellent progress toward competitive cost-effectiveness and provides a strong photovoltaic alternative.

  1. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  2. A survey of stakeholder knowledge, experience, and opinions of advance directives for mental health in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Christine M; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Bonnie, Richard J; Wanchek, Tanya; McLaughlin, Laura; Richardson, Jeanita

    2013-05-01

    An innovative Virginia health care law enables competent adults with serious mental illness to plan for treatment during incapacitating crises using an integrated advance directive with no legal distinction between psychiatric or other causes of decisional incapacity. This article reports results of a survey of 460 individuals in five stakeholder groups during the initial period of the law's implementation. All respondents held favorable views of advance directives for mental health care. Identified barriers to completing and using advance directives varied by group. We conclude that relevant stakeholders support implementation of advance directives for mental health, but level of baseline knowledge and perception of barriers vary. A multi-pronged approach will be needed to achieve successful implementation of advance directives for mental health. PMID:22240937

  3. Characteristics of Advanced Placement environmental science reading teacher participants and their perceptions of the reading as a professional development experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Freda M.

    Sixty percent of American high schools offer one or more Advanced Placement courses, and several thousand Advanced Placement teachers serve as Readers or graders of Advanced Placement exams each year. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of teachers who choose to participate in Advanced Placement Environmental Science Readings and determine how these teachers view the Reading experience as a form of professional development. This study was conducted with teacher participants at the June 2004 Advanced Placement Environmental Science Reading. Sixty of the 114 teacher participants completed a survey regarding their education background, age, experience level, educational philosophy, involvement in professional development opportunities, perceptions of the professional benefits of the Reading, and the influence of the Reading experience on their pedagogical practices. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with a subset of 18 teacher participants to determine their perceptions regarding the professional benefits of the Reading experience, its potential to serve as a professional development activity, and perceived changes in their pedagogical practices resulting from participation in the Reading process. Results indicate that APES Reading teacher participants are experienced, effective teachers from many parts of the country. These teachers participate in ongoing professional development activities, can delineate components of effective professional development, strongly believe that effective professional development occurs at the APES Reading, and report that their pedagogical practice has improved as a result of participation in the APES Reading. Considering the crucial role teachers play in the educational process, it is important to pursue this additional avenue of professional development in order to further improve APES teacher effectiveness.

  4. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  5. Photovoltaic device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, P.; Barnard, T.J.; Crea, D.

    1986-05-20

    A photovoltaic device is described comprising: an electrically conductive substrate layer; a semiconductor body deposited upon the substrate layer; a transparent conductive layer over at least a portion of the semiconductor body for facilitating collection of electrical current produced by the photovoltaic device; and a bus-grid structure, in contact with the conductive layer, the bus-grid structure comprising a current collecting portion comprising grid fingers and a current carrying portion comprising a busbar structure for carrying current collected by the current collecting portion, the entirety of the current carrying portion which overlies the semiconductor body being electrically insulated from the semiconductor body by a layer of solid material.

  6. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Xu, Xi Xiang

    1999-11-02

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  7. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  8. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  9. Development, Evaluation and Use of a Student Experience Survey in Undergraduate Science Laboratories: The Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory Student Laboratory Learning Experience Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Simon C.; Bucat, Robert B.; Buntine, Mark A.; Burke da Silva, Karen; Crisp, Geoffrey T.; George, Adrian V.; Jamie, Ian M.; Kable, Scott H.; Lim, Kieran F.; Pyke, Simon M.; Read, Justin R.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Yeung, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    Student experience surveys have become increasingly popular to probe various aspects of processes and outcomes in higher education, such as measuring student perceptions of the learning environment and identifying aspects that could be improved. This paper reports on a particular survey for evaluating individual experiments that has been developed over some 15 years as part of a large national Australian study pertaining to the area of undergraduate laboratories-Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory. This paper reports on the development of the survey instrument and the evaluation of the survey using student responses to experiments from different institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the USA. A total of 3153 student responses have been analysed using factor analysis. Three factors, motivation, assessment and resources, have been identified as contributing to improved student attitudes to laboratory activities. A central focus of the survey is to provide feedback to practitioners to iteratively improve experiments. Implications for practitioners and researchers are also discussed.

  10. Phenomena and Performance of High-Efficiency Split Spectrum Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Chandler

    High-efficiency photovoltaics are one of the most promising technologies for supplying sustainable energy in the near future. These technologies allow for high energy conversion efficiencies and long system lifetimes, which is becoming an increasingly profitable power generation option. One high-efficiency photovoltaic technology gaining increasing attention recent years is that of split-spectrum photovoltaics. This technology divides the incident solar spectrum on the basis of wavelength, directing each portion of the spectrum to a different cell where the light can be utilized most efficiently. In this dissertation, a number of aspects of high-efficiency photovoltaics, most notably split-spectrum photovoltaics, are examined. First, the ideal bandgap placements of the subcells of a split-spectrum photovoltaic system are calculated, specifically determined with an eye towards practical fabrication of the cells. Two viable designs are determined which improve theoretical absolute conversion efficiency by 4-5%. Next, those systems are simulated using the TCAD Sentaurus software package to project conversion efficiencies and determine additional device specifications (doping levels, layer thicknesses, etc.). These cells show comparable conversion efficiencies to high performing, full-spectrum multijunction photovoltaics in fabrication today. In the last section, a theoretical examination of semiconductor performance under high optical concentration is performed, including the prediction and characterization of various phenomena in those devices. This work aims to improve the understanding of the performance of high concentration photovoltaics, most notably split-spectrum photovoltaics. This understanding will aid in the advancement of this technology as a widespread, sustainable energy source for use worldwide, reducing greenhouse emissions and providing cheap, clean energy.

  11. Photovoltaic effect in Bi{sub 2}TeO{sub 5} photorefractive crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Ivan de Capovilla, Danilo Augusto

    2015-10-12

    We report on the presence of a strong photovoltaic effect on nominally undoped photorefractive Bi{sub 2}TeO{sub 5} crystals and estimated their Glass photovoltaic constant and photovoltaic field for λ = 532 nm illumination. We directly measured the photovoltaic-based photocurrent in this material under λ = 532 nm wavelength laser light illumination and compared its behavior with that of a well known photovoltaic Fe-doped Lithium Niobate crystal. We also show the photovoltaic current to strongly depend on the polarization direction of light. Holographic diffraction efficiency oscillation during recording and the behavior of fringe-locked running holograms in self-stabilized experiments are also demonstrated here as additional indirect proofs of the photovoltaic nature of this material.

  12. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, D.J.

    1988-10-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays or storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  13. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays of storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  14. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays or storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  15. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  16. Recent experience with multidisciplinary analysis and optimization in advanced aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1990-01-01

    The task of modern aircraft design has always been complicated due to the number of intertwined technical factors from the various engineering disciplines. Furthermore, this complexity has been rapidly increasing by the development of such technologies as aeroelasticity tailored materials and structures, active control systems, integrated propulsion/airframe controls, thrust vectoring, and so on. Successful designs that achieve maximum advantage from these new technologies require a thorough understanding of the physical phenomena and the interactions among these phenomena. A study commissioned by the Aeronautical Sciences and Evaluation Board of the National Research Council has gone so far as to identify technology integration as a new discipline from which many future aeronautical advancements will arise. Regardless of whether one considers integration as a new discipline or not, it is clear to all engineers involved in aircraft design and analysis that better methods are required. In the past, designers conducted parametric studies in which a relatively small number of principal characteristics were varied to determine the effect on design requirements which were themselves often diverse and contradictory. Once a design was chosen, it then passed through the various engineers' disciplines whose principal task was to make the chosen design workable. Working in a limited design space, the discipline expert sometimes improved the concept, but more often than not, the result was in the form of a penalty to make the original concept workable. If an insurmountable problem was encountered, the process began over. Most design systems that attempt to account for disciplinary interactions have large empirical elements and reliance on past experience is a poor guide in obtaining maximum utilizations of new technologies. Further compounding the difficulty of design is that as the aeronautical sciences have matured, the discipline specialist's area of research has generally

  17. Flexible, rollable photovoltaic cell module

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, C.R.; Hartman, R.A.; Koch, P.E.

    1986-03-04

    A photovoltaic module is described consisting of: busbar means; individual photovoltaic cell strips, each cell strip having an electrically conductive substrate layer, a semiconductor body deposited on the substrate layer, and a transparent electrically conductive layer deposited on the semiconductor body, the transparent electrically conductive layer being selectively sectioned to define electrically distinct photovoltaic cells carried by the cell strip; grid means deposited on the transparent electrically conductive layer of each of the photovoltaic cell; continuous electrically conductive filament means alternately and repetitively connected, at contact points, to the electrically conductive substrate layer of one photovoltaic cell strip and to the grid means of another photovoltaic cell strip; wherein the filament means is connected medially of the lateral edges of the respective cell strips; and means for connecting the transparent electrically conductive layer of one photovoltaic cell strip to the busbar means.

  18. Photovoltaics reading list

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The articles, conference papers, monographs and technical reports cited here are meant to provide a basic introduction to photovoltaics, its research, economics, and technology development. In addition to specific articles and books, several directories, bibliographies, journals, and magazines are suggested as additional sources of information.

  19. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  20. Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  1. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  2. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  3. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  4. Flexible photovoltaic device

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, E.

    1989-03-28

    A photovoltaic device is described comprising a transparent substrate, a transparent conductive layer adjacent to the transparent substrate, a TFS layer adjacent to the transparent conductive layer, and a conductive layer adjacent to the TFS layer, the transparent substrate being a tetrafluoroethyleneperfluoroalkooxy resin in the form of a flexible film.

  5. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  6. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  7. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  8. Market and economic analysis of residential photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabors, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    The overall structure of a project to evaluate the U.S. residential photovoltaic market or markets is reviewed and experience obtained before cuts in federal funding for the project were reduced is summarized. Topics covered include residential worth analysis, (including retrofit applications); evaluation of presently available regional, econometric models which could be used to project housing stocks; and the analysis of retrofit potential for residential photovoltaic power systems given available roof area.

  9. Project Description Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-2A and AFC-2B Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    AFCI AFC-2A and AFC-2B Experiments Project Executi

    2007-03-01

    The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the AFC-1 fuel test series currently in progress in the ATR. This document discusses the experiments and the planned activities that will take place.

  10. Photovoltaics: From the laboratory to the marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.S.; Surek, T.; Thornton, J.

    1991-03-01

    Photovoltaics (PV), the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is experiencing significant improvements in technology performance and lowered costs. Fostering these improvements, the SERI Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR D) Project supports research and provides services to the US PV industry. This paper presents the recent advances and future direction of the PV project. Research areas are Fundamental and Supporting Research, Advanced Thin-Film Materials, High-Efficiency Materials, Module Development, and Systems Development. Materials of interest include amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide and related alloys, transparent conductors, antireflection coatings, substrates, and encapsulants. The PV project inherently provides technology transfer that helps industry shorten the time to bring R D advances to the marketplace. SERI annually performs over 10,000 measurements for the entire PV community, participates in collaborative research, and welcomes visiting scientists. Two specific areas of recently increased national focus are: (1) manufacturing processes for cost-effective PV modules, and (2) systems development for high-value utility applications. The SERI research approach is based on facilitating direct contact between industry, electric utilities, and others interested in PV technology. This approach heavily relies on SERI/industry partnerships. The arrangements vary to address generic and company-specific problems to improve the US industry's competitive position and accelerate greater electric utility deployment of PV systems. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. The Synthesis and Methanolysis of Benzyl Tosylates: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Michael E.; Gribble, Gordon W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments (requiring six hours/week for six to eight weeks) involving the synthesis and methanolysis of substituted benzyl tosylates. The experiments provide students with experiences in kinetic data manipulation and an introduction and firm basis for structure-activity relationships and solvent effects in organic…

  12. Career advancement and educational opportunities: experiences and perceptions of internationally educated nurses.

    PubMed

    Salma, Jordana; Hegadoren, Kathleen M; Ogilvie, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The number of internationally educated nurses is increasing in the Canadian workforce. Recruitment of internationally educated nurses is often seen as a solution to ongoing nursing shortages. However, international recruitment needs to be accompanied by strategies to ensure long-term retention. One of the criteria for successful retention is the availability and accessibility of career advancement and educational opportunities. Little research exists on the opportunities for career advancement and education for internationally educated nurses in Canada. This interpretive descriptive study was conducted to look at the perceptions of internationally educated nurses regarding career advancement and educational opportunities in Alberta, Canada. Eleven internationally educated nurses, working as registered nurses in Alberta, were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Five themes were identified: motherhood as a priority, communication and cultural challenges, process of skill recognition, perceptions of opportunity and need for mentorship. PMID:23010920

  13. Progress in photovoltaic concentrator research

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in photovoltaic concentrator research. In the past 18 months, several exciting new developments have been reported. Record efficiency concentrator silicon cells have been reported at Stanford University, with 28% efficient high resistivity cells, and at the University of New South Wales, with near 25% efficient low resistivity cells. Both groups also report record 22% one-sun efficiencies for these cells. Compound semiconductor cells have also made advances. Research on multijunction devices has led to a mechanically stacked concentrator cell with near 27% efficiency. Module improvements in commercial designs have taken the form of reduced cost and better component reliability. In addition, current research emphasis is on the development of new prototype modules that use the recent laboratory cell advances. Array efforts have centered around improving the tracking and control subsystems in accuracy, durability, and cost. Today, concentrator systems in high insolation areas are being offered at prices near $4/W/sub p/ ac for large MW sizes and at prices below those of flat plate systems ($8/W/sub p/) in hundred kW sizes. This paper will review these achievements and discuss the potential for concentrator technology to become a viable cost-effective bulk electrical power option.

  14. R and D limited partnerships (possible applications in advanced communications satellite technology experiment program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Typical R&D limited partnership arrangements, advantages and disadvantages of R&D limited partnership (RDLPs) and antitrust and tax implications are described. A number of typical forms of RDLPs are described that may be applicable for use in stimulating R&D and experimental programs using the advanced communications technology satellite. The ultimate goal is to increase the rate of market penetration of goods and/or services based upon advanced satellite communications technology. The conditions necessary for these RDLP forms to be advantageous are outlined.

  15. Building a Governance Strategy for CER: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Andrea R.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Lieu, Tracy; Nelson, Andrew F.; Prausnitz, Stephanie; Horberg, Michael A.; Arterburn, David E.; Gould, Michael K.; Laws, Reesa L.; Steiner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network was established with funding from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in 2014. The PORTAL team adapted governance structures and processes from past research network collaborations. We will review and outline the structures and processes of the PORTAL governance approach and describe how proactively focusing on priority areas helped us to facilitate an ambitious research agenda. Background: For years a variety of funders have supported large-scale infrastructure grants to promote the use of clinical datasets to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. These awards have provided the impetus for health care systems to join forces in creating clinical data research networks. Often, these scientific networks do not develop governance processes proactively or systematically, and address issues only as problems arise. Even if network leaders and collaborators foresee the need to develop governance approaches, they may underestimate the time and effort required to develop sound processes. The resulting delays can impede research progress. Innovation: Because the PORTAL sites had built trust and a foundation of collaboration by participating with one another in past research networks, essential elements of effective governance such as guiding principles, decision making processes, project governance, data governance, and stakeholders in governance were familiar to PORTAL investigators. This trust and familiarity enabled the network to rapidly prioritize areas that required sound governance approaches: responding to new research opportunities, creating a culture of trust and collaboration, conducting individual studies, within the broader network, assigning responsibility and credit to scientific investigators, sharing data while protecting privacy/security, and allocating resources. The PORTAL Governance Document, complete with a Toolkit of

  16. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  17. Re-challenge with pemetrexed in advanced mesothelioma: a multi-institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although first-line therapy for patients affected by advanced mesothelioma is well established, there is a lack of data regarding the impact of second-line treatment. Methods We retrospectively collected data of patients affected by advanced mesothelioma, already treated with first-line therapy based on pemetrexed and platin, with a response (partial response or stable disease) lasting at least 6 months, and re-treated with a pemetrexed-based therapy at progression. The primary objective was to describe time to progression and overall survival after re-treatment. Results Overall across several Italian oncological Institutions we found 30 patients affected by advanced mesothelioma, in progression after a 6-month lasting clinical benefit following a first-line treatment with cisplatin and pemetrexed, and re-challenged with a pemetrexed-based therapy. In these patients we found a disease control rate of 66%, with reduction of pain in 43% of patients. Overall time to progression and survival were promising for a second-line setting of patients with advanced mesothelioma, being 5.1 and 13.6 months, respectively. Conclusions In our opinion, when a patient has a long-lasting benefit from previous treatment with pemetrexed combined with a platin compound, the same treatment should be offered at progression. PMID:22943698

  18. Preliminary Experience with a Social Work Rotation for Advanced General Dentistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Daniel W.; Marks, Ruth E.

    1993-01-01

    The Temple University (Pennsylvania) advanced general dentistry program includes seminars and clinical rotations in social work, to help students gain an appreciation and working knowledge of social workers' function in health care provision, to improve interpersonal skills, to interact with social workers, to address diversity issues, and to…

  19. Advanced missions safety. Volume 2: Technical discussion, Part 2: Experiment safety, guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, M. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technical analysis of a portion of the advanced missions safety study is presented. The potential hazards introduced when experimental equipment is carried aboard the Earth Orbit Shuttle are identified. Safety guidelines and requirements for eliminating or reducing these hazards are recommended.

  20. Traffic model for advanced satellite designs and experiments for ISDN services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The data base structure and fields for categorizing and storing Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) user characteristics is outlined. This traffic model data base will be used to exercise models of the ISDN Advanced Communication Satellite to determine design parameters and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program.

  1. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  2. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives. PMID:17272237

  3. Proceedings of the 19th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Stephanie (Compiler); Morton, Thomas (Compiler)

    2007-01-01

    The 19th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT XIX) was held September 20 to 22, 2005, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT Conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVIII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  4. Photovoltaic power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.

    1993-03-01

    The wide acceptance and utilization of the photovoltaic generation of electrical power depends on our ability to reduce the cost of photovoltaic systems. This, in turn, largely hinges on our ability to decrease the cost of production of solar cells and panels while at the same time increasing their conversion efficiency. A short tutorial on solar cells is followed by a discussion of the types of solar cells that are presently being investigated for cost reduction and efficiency improvement. Many types of cells are under investigation as are a wide range of materials. Impressive efficiency improvements have been achieved for many types of cells that are potentially low cost in large-volume production.

  5. Superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, M.; So, L. C.; Leburton, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel class of photovoltaic cascade structures is introduced which features multijunction upper subcells. These superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics (SHEP's) exhibit enhanced upper subcell spectral response because of the additional junctions which serve to reduce bulk recombination losses by decreasing the mean collection distance for photogenerated minority carriers. Two possible electrical configurations were studied and compared: a three-terminal scheme that allows both subcells to be operated at their individual maximum power points and a two-terminal configuration with an intercell ohmic contact for series interconnection. The three-terminal devices were found to be superior both in terms of beginning-of-life expectancy and radiation tolerance. Realistic simulations of three-terminal AlGaAs/GaAs SHEP's show that one sun AMO efficiencies in excess of 26 percent are possible.

  6. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  7. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  8. Design and Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-3/4 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in November 2013. Since the purpose of this experiment is to provide data on fission product migration and retention in the NGNP reactor, the design of this experiment is

  9. Photovoltaic cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  10. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  11. Photovoltaic panel support assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.M.; Underwood, J.C.; Shingleton, J.

    1993-07-20

    A solar energy electrical power source is described comprising in combination at least two flat photovoltaic panels disposed side-by-side in co-planar relation with one another, a pivot shaft extending transversely across the panels, at least two supports spaced apart lengthwise of the pivot shaft, means for connecting the pivot shaft to the at least two supports, attachment means for connecting the at least two panels to the pivot shaft so that the panels can pivot about the longitudinal axis of the shaft, coupling means mechanically coupling all of the panels together so as to form a unified flat array, and selectively operable drive means for mechanically pivoting the unified flat array about the axis; wherein each of the flat photovoltaic panels comprises at least two modules each comprising a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells, the at least two modules being aligned along a line extending at a right angle to the pivot shaft, and the coupling means comprises (a) an elongate member extending parallel to and spaced from the pivot shaft and (b) means for attaching the elongate member to the panels; and further wherein each flat photovoltaic panel comprises a unitary frame consisting of a pair of end frame members extending parallel to the pivot shaft, a pair of side frame members extending between and connected to the end frame members, and a pair of spaced apart cross frame members, with one of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and a first one of each of the end and cross frame members, and the other of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and the second one of each of the end and cross frame members, whereby the gap created by the spaced apart cross frame members allow air to pass between them in order to reduce the sail effect when the solar array is subjected to buffeting winds.

  12. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOEpatents

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  13. Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Liping; Lany, Stephan; Kykyneshi, Robert; Jieratum, Vorranutch; Ravichandran, Ram; Pelatt, Brian; Altschul, Emmeline; Platt, Heather A. S.; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.; Zunger, Alex

    2011-08-10

    An integrated computational and experimental study of FeS₂ pyrite reveals that phase coexistence is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. This phase coexistence is suppressed with the ternary materials Fe₂SiS₄ and Fe₂GeS₄, which also exhibit higher band gaps than FeS₂. Thus, the ternaries provide a new entry point for development of thin-film absorbers and high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  14. Photovoltaics and the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2005-09-21

    Over the past five years, solar energy usage has grown by about 43 percent a year, giving rise to a billion-dollar industry in photovoltaics (PV) or getting electricity from light. The word photovoltaics combines the Greek phos, or light, with the “volt” of electricity. PV technologies have distinct environmental advantages over conventional power technologies, such as: no noise, no emissions, no need for fuel and power lines. Compared to burning coal, a gigawatt-hour of PV-generated electricity would prevent the release of about 1,000 tons of carbon dioxide, eight of sulfur dioxide, four of nitrogen oxides, and 0.4 tons of particulates. However, manufacturing the solar cells that transform light to electricity requires the use of some toxic and flammable substances. Addressing the environmental, health, and safety concerns of the PV industry to minimize risk while ensuring economic viability and public support is the work of the National Photovoltaic Environmental Health, & Safety Assistance Center at BNL.

  15. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger-Waldau, A.

    2011-10-01

    Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  16. Photovoltaics and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    For years people have been in love with the automobile. Some people just enjoy using the automobile as transportation while others also enjoy the workings and operation of this fascinating machine. The automobile is not without problems of pollution and energy consumption. These problems are changing its design and construction. New clean energy sources are being analyzed and applied to power the modern automobile. A space age energy source now being considered by some and used by others to power the automobile is photovoltaics. Photovoltaics (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. There are a number of devices in the modern car that are electrically powered. PV could provide a clean endless supply of electricity for air conditioning, radios and other electrical components of a car. Most people have never heard of photovoltaics (PV). There has been a great deal of research in PV among energy experts. The automobile is known the world over in both use and operation. The author describes how the merging of these two technologies will benefit mankind and without damaging the environment. 12 refs.

  17. Photocurrent of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeler, Seth; McIntyre, Max; Cossel, Raquel; Bowser, Chris; Tzolov, Marian

    Photovoltaic cells can be used to harness clean, renewable energy from light. Examined in this project were photovoltaic cells based on a bulk heterojunction between PCPDTBT and PCBM sandwiched between an ITO anode and an Al cathode. Current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectra for multiple photovoltaic devices were taken under varying DC electrical bias and different level of illumination. This data was interpreted in terms of an equivalent circuit with linear elements, e.g. capacitance, series resistance, and parallel resistance. A physical interpretation of each circuit element will be presented. The spectral response of the devices was characterized by optical transmission and photocurrent spectroscopy using a spectrometer in the spectral range from 300 to 900 nm. The DC measurements confirmed that the devices are electrically rectifying. The AC measurements allowed modeling of the devices as a dielectric between two electrodes with injection current passing through it. The characteristic peaks for both PCBDTBT and PCBM are clearly visible in both the photocurrent and transmission data. The good correlation between the photocurrent and transmission data indicates photocurrent generation due to absorption in both materials constituting the heterojunction.

  18. Analysis methods for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Because photovoltaic power systems are being considered for an ever-widening range of applications, it is appropriate for system designers to have knowledge of and access to photovoltaic power systems simulation models and design tools. This brochure gives brief descriptions of a variety of such aids and was compiled after surveying both manufacturers and researchers. Services available through photovoltaic module manufacturers are outlined, and computer codes for systems analysis are briefly described. (WHK)

  19. Advancing women and closing the leadership gap: the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) program experience.

    PubMed

    Richman, R C; Morahan, P S; Cohen, D W; McDade, S A

    2001-04-01

    Women are persistently underrepresented in the higher levels of academic administration despite the fact that they have been entering the medical profession in increasing numbers for at least 20 years and now make up a large proportion of the medical student body and fill a similar proportion of entry level positions in medical schools. Although there are no easy remedies for gender inequities in medical schools, strategies have been proposed and implemented both within academic institutions and more broadly to achieve and sustain the advancement of women faculty to senior level positions. Substantial, sustained efforts to increase programs and activities addressing the major obstacles to advancement of women must be put in place so that the contributions of women can be fully realized and their skills fittingly applied in meeting the medical education and healthcare needs of all people in the 21st century. PMID:11389787

  20. Scenarios and performance measures for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1991-01-01

    Described here are the contemplated input and expected output for the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) Models. The discrete event simulations of these models are presented with specific scenarios that stress ISDN satellite parameters. Performance measure criteria are presented for evaluating the advanced ISDN communication satellite designs of the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  1. Experiment and mechanism investigation on advanced reburning for NOx reduction: influence of CO and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Jun-hu; Zhang, Yan-wei; Lu, Zhi-min; Fan, Jian-ren; Cen, Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    Pulverized coal reburning, ammonia injection and advanced reburning in a pilot scale drop tube furnace were investigated. Premix of petroleum gas, air and NH3 were burned in a porous gas burner to generate the needed flue gas. Four kinds of pulverized coal were fed as reburning fuel at constant rate of 1g/min. The coal reburning process parameters including 15%~25% reburn heat input, temperature range from 1100 °C to 1400 °C and also the carbon in fly ash, coal fineness, reburn zone stoichiometric ratio, etc. were investigated. On the condition of 25% reburn heat input, maximum of 47% NO reduction with Yanzhou coal was obtained by pure coal reburning. Optimal temperature for reburning is about 1300 °C and fuel-rich stoichiometric ratio is essential; coal fineness can slightly enhance the reburning ability. The temperature window for ammonia injection is about 700 °C~1100 °C. CO can improve the NH3 ability at lower temperature. During advanced reburning, 72.9% NO reduction was measured. To achieve more than 70% NO reduction, Selective Non-catalytic NOx Reduction (SNCR) should need NH3/NO stoichiometric ratio larger than 5, while advanced reburning only uses common dose of ammonia as in conventional SNCR technology. Mechanism study shows the oxidization of CO can improve the decomposition of H2O, which will rich the radical pools igniting the whole reactions at lower temperatures. PMID:15682503

  2. Mutation Profiling of Clinically Advanced Cancers Using Next-Generation Sequencing for Targeted Therapy: A Lifespan Experience.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Kenneth; Resnick, Murray B; Safran, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The application of modern molecular tests such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) to human malignancies has led to better understanding of tumor biology and the design of targeted molecular therapies. In the research setting, important genomic alterations in tumors have been discovered with potential therapeutic implications but data regarding the impact of this technology in a real world oncology practice is limited. As a result, we decided to review the results of NGS in 144 advanced-stage cancer patients referred to the oncology practices of Lifespan-affiliated centers in Rhode Island. Most cancers revealed genomic alterations in genes commonly mutated in cancer. However, several unexpected genomic alterations were discovered in certain cancers with potential therapeutic intervention. Most cancers contained "actionable" genomic alterations despite being of advanced stage. Our experience demonstrates that application of NGS in the clinical setting contributes both to increasing the therapeutic armamentarium as well as our understanding of tumor biology. PMID:26422540

  3. Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Catherine; Rae, Jessica Caverly; Goyak, Katy O.; Minsavage, Gary; Westmoreland, Carl; Andersen, Melvin; Avigan, Mark; Duché, Daniel; Harris, Georgina; Hartung, Thomas; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Kleensang, Andre; Landesmann, Brigitte; Martos, Suzanne; Matevia, Marilyn; Toole, Colleen; Rowan, Andrew; Schultz, Terry; Seed, Jennifer; Senior, John; Shah, Imran; Subramanian, Kalyanasundaram; Vinken, Mathieu; Watkins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary A workshop sponsored by the Human Toxicology Project Consortium (HTPC), “Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action” brought together experts from a wide range of perspectives to inform the process of pathway development and to advance two prototype pathways initially developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center (JRC): liver-specific fibrosis and steatosis. The first half of the workshop focused on the theory and practice of pathway development; the second on liver disease and the two prototype pathways. Participants agreed pathway development is extremely useful for organizing information and found that focusing the theoretical discussion on a specific AOP is helpful. It is important to include several perspectives during pathway development, including information specialists, pathologists, human health and environmental risk assessors, and chemical and product manufacturers, to ensure the biology is well captured and end use is considered. PMID:24535319

  4. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  5. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1−x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  6. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  7. Utility-scale photovoltaic concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics concentrators section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  8. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.; Richards, E.H.

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  9. Do photovoltaics have a future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    There is major concern as to the economic practicality of widespread terrestrial use because of the high cost of the photovoltaic arrays themselves. Based on their high efficiency, photovoltaic collectors should be one of the cheapest forms of energy generators known. Present photovoltaic panels are violating the trend of lower costs with increasing efficiency due to their reliance on expensive materials. A medium technology solution should provide electricity competitive with the existing medium to high technology energy generators such as oil, coal, gas, and nuclear fission thermal plants. Programs to reduce the cost of silicon and develop reliable thin film materials have a realistic chance of producing cost effective photovoltaic panels.

  10. 252Cf fission-neutron spectrum using a simplified time-of-flight setup: An advanced teaching laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.; Febbraro, M.; Torres-Isea, R.; Ojaruega, M.; Baum, L.

    2013-02-01

    The removal of PuBe and AmBe neutron sources from many university teaching laboratories (due to heightened security issues) has often left a void in teaching various aspects of neutron physics. We have recently replaced such sources with sealed 252Cf oil-well logging sources (nominal 10-100 μCi), and developed several experiments using them as neutron sources. This includes a fission-neutron time-of-flight experiment using plastic scintillators, which utilizes the prompt γ rays emitted in 252Cf spontaneous fission as a fast timing start signal. The experiment can be performed with conventional nuclear instrumentation and a 1-D multi-channel pulse-height analyzer, available in most advanced teaching laboratories. Alternatively, a more sophisticated experiment using liquid scintillators and n/γ pulse-shape discrimination can be performed. Several other experiments using these neutron sources are also feasible. The experiments can introduce students to the problem of detecting the dark matter thought to dominate the universe and to the techniques used to detect contraband fissionable nuclear materials.

  11. Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

  12. Association of Experience with Illness and End-of-life Care with Advance Care Planning in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Amjad, Halima; Towle, Virginia; Fried, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether experiences with illness and end-of-life care are associated with increased readiness to participate in advance care planning (ACP). Design Observational cohort study. Setting Community. Participants Persons age ≥ 60 recruited from physician offices and a senior center. Measurements Participants were asked about personal experience with major illness or surgery and experience with others’ end-of-life care, including whether they had made a medical decision for someone dying, knew someone who had a bad death due to too much/too little medical care, or experienced the death of a loved one who made end-of-life wishes known. Stages of change were assessed for specific ACP behaviors: completion of living will and healthcare proxy, communication with loved ones regarding life-sustaining treatments and quantity versus quality of life, and communication with physicians about these same topics. Stages of change included precontemplation, contemplation, preparation and action/maintenance corresponding to whether the participant was not ready to complete the behavior, was considering participation in the next six months, was planning participation within thirty days, or had already participated. Results Of 304 participants, 84% had one or more personal experiences or experience with others. Personal experiences were not associated with increased readiness for most ACP behaviors. In contrast, having one or more experiences with others was associated with increased readiness to complete a living will and healthcare proxy, discuss life-sustaining treatment with loved ones and discuss quantity versus quality of life with loved ones and with physicians. Conclusion Older individuals who have experience with end-of-life care for others demonstrate increased readiness to participate in ACP. Discussions with older patients regarding these experiences may be a useful tool in promoting ACP. PMID:24934237

  13. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Keith; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2014-10-18

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantial investments.

  14. Photovoltaic Power for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey; Bailey, Sheila G.; Lyons, Valerie J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in crystalline solar cell technology are reviewed. Dual-junction and triple-junction solar cells are presently available from several U. S. vendors. Commercially available triple-junction cells consisting of GaInP, GaAs, and Ge layers can produce up to 27% conversion efficiency in production lots. Technology status and performance figures of merit for currently available photovoltaic arrays are discussed. Three specific NASA mission applications are discussed in detail: Mars surface applications, high temperature solar cell applications, and integrated microelectronic power supplies for nanosatellites.

  15. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  16. Applicability of BWR SFD experiments and codes for advanced core component designs

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.

    1997-12-01

    Prior to the DF-4 boiling water reactor (BWR) severe fuel damage (SFD) experiment conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in 1986, no experimental database existed for guidance in modeling core component behavior under postulated severe accident conditions in commercial BWRs. This paper presents the lessons learned from the DF-4 experiment (and subsequent German CORA BWR SFD tests) and the impact on core on of SFD code.

  17. Planned High-brightness Channeling Radiation Experiment at Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Blomberg, Ben; Mihalcea, Daniel; Panuganti, Harsha; Piot, Philippe; Brau, Charles; Choi, Bo; Gabella, William; Ivanov, Borislav; Mendenhall, Marcus; Lynn, Christopher; Sen, Tanaji; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    In this contribution we describe the technical details and experimental setup of our study aimed at producing high-brightness channeling radiation (CR) at Fermilab’s new user facility the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). In the ASTA photoinjector area electrons are accelerated up to 40-MeV and focused to a sub-micron spot on a ~40 micron thick carbon diamond, the electrons channel through the crystal and emit CR up to 80-KeV. Our study utilizes ASTA’s long pulse train capabilities and ability to preserve ultra-low emittance, to produce the desired high average brightness.

  18. Construction, commissioning and operational experience of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.; Arnold, N.; Berg, W.

    1996-10-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator system consists of a 200 MeV, 2856 MHz S-Band electron linac and a 2-radiation-thick tungsten target followed by a 450 MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past year to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies and to provide beam for the user experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described and its operation and performance are discussed.

  19. Recent advances in renal hypoxia: insights from bench experiments and computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Layton, Anita T

    2016-07-01

    The availability of oxygen in renal tissue is determined by the complex interactions among a host of processes, including renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, arterial-to-venous oxygen shunting, medullary architecture, Na(+) transport, and oxygen consumption. When this delicate balance is disrupted, the kidney may become susceptible to hypoxic injury. Indeed, renal hypoxia has been implicated as one of the major causes of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of renal hypoxia; some of these studies were published in response to a recent Call for Papers of this journal: Renal Hypoxia. PMID:27147670

  20. DOE/OER-sponsored basic research in high-efficiency photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S.K.; Benner, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    A high-efficiency photovoltaic project involving many of the national laboratories and several universities has been initiated under the umbrella of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials. The objectives of this project are to generate advances in fundamental scientific understanding that will impact the efficiency, cost and reliability of thin-film photovoltaic cells. The project is focused on two areas. (1) Silicon-Based Thin Films, in which key scientific and technological problems involving amorphous and polycrystalline silicon thin films will be addressed, and (2) Next-Generation Thin-Film Photovoltaics, which will be concerned with the possibilities of new advances and breakthroughs in the materials and physics of photovoltaics using non-silicon-based materials.