Science.gov

Sample records for advanced physical chemistry

  1. Advanced Physical Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Pandey, Gaind P.

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of exciting research and applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) stimulated by deeper understanding of their fundamental properties and increasing production capability. The intrinsic properties of various CNTs were found to strongly depend on their internal microstructures. This review summarizes the fundamental structure-property relations of seamless tube-like single- and multiwalled CNTs and conically stacked carbon nanofibers, as well as the organized architectures of these CNTs (including randomly stacked thin films, parallel aligned thin films, and vertically aligned arrays). It highlights the recent development of CNTs as key components in selected applications, including nanoelectronics, filtration membranes, transparent conductive electrodes, fuel cells, electrical energy storage devices, and solar cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the link between the basic physical chemical properties of CNTs and the organized CNT architectures with their functions and performance in each application.

  2. Physical Chemistry Research Toward Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Advancement.

    PubMed

    Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Campbell, Stephen A

    2013-02-07

    Hydrogen fuel cells, the most common type of which are proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), are on a rapid path to commercialization. We credit physical chemistry research in oxygen reduction electrocatalysis and theory with significant breakthroughs, enabling more cost-effective fuel cells. However, most of the physical chemistry has been restricted to studies of platinum and related alloys. More work is needed to better understand electrocatalysts generally in terms of properties and characterization. While the advent of such highly active catalysts will enable smaller, less expensive, and more powerful stacks, they will require better understanding and a complete restructuring of the diffusion media in PEMFCs to facilitate faster transport of the reactants (O2) and products (H2O). Even Ohmic losses between materials become more important at high power. Such lessons from PEMFC research are relevant to other electrochemical conversion systems, including Li-air batteries and flow batteries.

  3. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  4. An Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John H.

    The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program is a project designed to devise experiments to coordinate the use of instruments in the laboratory programs of physical chemistry, instrumental analysis, and inorganic chemistry at the advanced undergraduate level. It is intended that such experiments would incorporate an introduction to the instrument…

  5. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    DOE PAGES

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; ...

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging formore » probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.« less

  6. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging for probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.

  7. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  8. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  9. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  10. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  11. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  12. The Use of Textbooks for Advanced-Level GCE Courses in Physics, Chemistry and Biology by Sixth-Form Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sixth-form students to determine the level of A-level textbook use in physics, chemistry, and biology in English schools found that texts are used primarily after the lesson, at the student's discretion, and with great variations between students. Biology texts were used most, and physics texts used least. (MBR)

  13. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  14. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer and Conformational Stability of Proteins: An Advanced Biophysical Module for Physical Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Katheryn M.; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2008-01-01

    Protein folding is an exploding area of research in biophysics and physical chemistry. Here, we describe the integration of several techniques, including absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, to probe important topics in protein folding. Cytochrome c is used as a model…

  15. Rethinking Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    A summary of fundamental changes made to the undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in the Chemistry Department at Gustavus Adolphus College (beginning in the 2013-2014 academic year) is presented. The yearlong sequence now consists of an introductory semester covering both quantum mechanics and thermodynamics/kinetics, followed by a second…

  16. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  17. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and Conformational Stability of Proteins: An Advanced Biophysical Module for Physical Chemistry Students.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Katheryn M; Schlamadinger, Diana E; Gable, Jonathan E; Kim, Judy E

    2008-09-01

    Protein folding is an exploding area of research in biophysics and physical chemistry. Here, we describe the integration of several techniques, including absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, to probe important topics in protein folding. Cytochrome c is used as a model protein; comparison of conformational stabilities ( ΔGH2O∘) measured via two chemical denaturants, urea and guanidinium hydrochloride, illustrate important concepts in protein folding and intermolecular interactions. In addition, the determination of intraprotein distances based upon the FRET pair Trp-59 and the heme group for unfolded states of cytochrome c highlights the evolution of the protein structure under unfolding conditions. Analysis and discussion of these results provide opportunities to gain in-depth understanding of models for protein folding while enhancing students' skills with optical techniques. Collectively, the combination of optical spectroscopy, rigorous quantitative analysis, and a focus on biophysics illustrates the significance of fundamental research at the growing intersection of chemistry, biology, and physics.

  18. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and Conformational Stability of Proteins: An Advanced Biophysical Module for Physical Chemistry Students

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Katheryn M.; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2009-01-01

    Protein folding is an exploding area of research in biophysics and physical chemistry. Here, we describe the integration of several techniques, including absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, to probe important topics in protein folding. Cytochrome c is used as a model protein; comparison of conformational stabilities ( ΔGH2O∘) measured via two chemical denaturants, urea and guanidinium hydrochloride, illustrate important concepts in protein folding and intermolecular interactions. In addition, the determination of intraprotein distances based upon the FRET pair Trp-59 and the heme group for unfolded states of cytochrome c highlights the evolution of the protein structure under unfolding conditions. Analysis and discussion of these results provide opportunities to gain in-depth understanding of models for protein folding while enhancing students’ skills with optical techniques. Collectively, the combination of optical spectroscopy, rigorous quantitative analysis, and a focus on biophysics illustrates the significance of fundamental research at the growing intersection of chemistry, biology, and physics. PMID:19756254

  19. Physical chemistry and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Garrett, B.C.; Kolb, C.E. Jr.; Shaw, R.W.; Choppin, G.R.; Wagner, A.F.

    1994-08-01

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ``Physical Chemistry and the Environment`` was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community.

  20. Recent Advances in Azaborine Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Patrick G.; Marwitz, Adam J. V.

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of organoboron compounds has been primarily dominated by their use as powerful reagents in synthetic organic chemistry. Recently, the incorporation of boron as part of a functional target structure has emerged as a useful way to generate diversity in organic compounds. A commonly applied strategy is the replacement of a CC unit with its isoelectronic BN unit. In particular, the BN/CC isosterism of the ubiquitous arene motif has undergone a renaissance in the past decade. The parent molecule of the 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine family has now been isolated. New mono- and polycyclic BN heterocycles have been synthesized for potential use in biomedical and materials science applications. This review is a tribute to Dewar's first synthesis of a monocyclic 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine 50 years ago and discusses recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of carbon(C)-boron(B)-nitrogen(N)-containing heterocycles. PMID:22644658

  1. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  2. Radiation applications of physical chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talrose, V. L.

    1991-05-01

    Many chemical energy problems have a physical chemistry nature connected with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. In the USSR, the development in this field is associated with the name of N. N. Semenov, who was involved in a large number of fundamental and applied physical chemistry problems. The new Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences is dealing with some of them. An overview of the Institute's work on radiation applications is presented. Examples of the use of radiation in the power industry (e.g., in coal gasification), tire production, mechanical joints, metal powder production, and sterilization of pharmaceutical products are given. Methods and problems involved in these applications are discussed and the great potential for extensive utilization is demonstrated.

  3. Ideograms for Physics and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Risueño, Pablo; Syropoulos, Apostolos; Vergés, Natàlia

    2016-12-01

    Ideograms (symbols that represent a word or idea) have great communicative value. They refer to concepts in a simple manner, easing the understanding of related ideas. Moreover, ideograms can simplify the often cumbersome notation used in the fields of Physics and physical Chemistry. Nonetheless only a few ideograms- like and - have been defined to date. In this work we propose that the scientific community follows the example of Mathematics—as well as that of oriental languages—and bestows a more important role upon ideograms. To support this thesis we propose ideograms for essential concepts in Physics and Chemistry. They are designed to be intuitive, and their goal is to make equations easier to read and understand. Our symbols are included in a publicly available [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]package ( svrsymbols).

  4. Physical chemistry of the lipids of human atherosclerotic lesions. Demonstration of a lesion intermediate between fatty streaks and advanced plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, S S; Shipley, G G; Small, D M

    1976-01-01

    within the two-phase zone, defined as "ordinary," had more cholesterol ester, less free cholesterol, a higher cholesteryl oleate/cholesteryl linoleate ratio, a lower sphingomyelin/lecithin ratio, more anisotropic lipid droplets, and rare or no cholesterol crystals. Those lesions within the three-phase zone had many chemical and physical features intermediate between ordinary fatty streaks and gruel plaques. Moreover, 68% of these "intermediate" lesions had no cholesterol crystals by polarizing microscopy in spite of their compositions being within the three-phase zone, indicating the cholesterol ester oily phase or the phospholipid phase or both were supersaturated with cholesterol. Identification of this group of intermediate lesions provides evidence that some fatty streaks may be precursors of advanced plaques. Images PMID:932206

  5. Honors and Advanced Placement Chemistry Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes papers and minipapers on honors and advanced placement (AP) chemistry courses presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Advantages/disadvantages of AP chemistry, high school/college courses, and grouping all chemistry students in one class were among the topics discussed. (JN)

  6. Supplemental Instruction in Physical Chemistry I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…

  7. Advanced Placement Chemistry: Project Advance and the Advanced Placement Program: A Comparison of Students' Performance on the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Syracuse University Project Advance (PA) chemistry students (N=35) with advanced placement (AP) candidates on the AP chemistry examination. PA students scored slightly above the national average on the examination, and students who performed well (B or better) in AP chemistry also did well on the examination. (JN)

  8. Spreadsheets in Advanced Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kari, Roy

    1990-01-01

    Described are several spreadsheet templates which use the functions of iteration and logical look-up which allow students to calculate and graph quantum mechanical functions and to simulate rotational and vibrational energy level and spectra. The templates are listed in the appendix. (KR)

  9. A phenomenological analysis of the essence of the science education experience as perceived by female high school physics and advanced chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the essential elements of the current science education experience as constructed by twelve female high school physics and advanced chemistry students. The expressed desired outcome was a description of the phenomenon from a participant point of view. Student recollections and interpretations of experiences were assessed for a twelve-week period. Data sources were student journals, autobiographies, interviews, focus group interviews and researcher observations. In addition, each participant completed the Test of Science Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981) in order to create attitude profiles for triangulation with other data. While a wide range of aspects of the science education experience emerged, results showed that female students describe and interpret their science education experiences on the basis of actual interest in science, early science experiences, perception of ability, self-confidence, teacher attributes, parental and peer interaction, societal expectations, the nature of science, and gender. Of these factors, specifically, interest and curiosity, societal influence, the nature of science, lack of in-school experiences, the desire to help others, and general parent support were most impacting upon experience and the desire to continue science study. Moreover, the interaction of these factors is relevant. Very simply, early experiences are crucial to interest development. In general, parents can enhance this interest by providing science-related experiences. In the absence of early in-school experiences (i.e., which the participants reported), these out-of-school experiences become crucial. More importantly, quality instruction and parent and peer support are needed to foster science interest and to overcome the powerfully negative influence of society, the discriminatory nature of science, and the lack of experiences.

  10. Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

  11. Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Advanced Placement Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigna, James

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a new addition to the Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry curriculum. This article explains the rationale for its inclusion, an overview of how the PES instrument records data, how the data can be analyzed, and how to include PES data in the course. Sample assessment items and analysis are included, as well as…

  12. Adapting Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Instruction for a Legally Blind Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J.; Butrick, Elizabeth E.; Colangelo, Julie A.; Donaruma, Cristine E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategies and techniques used to successfully teach advanced inorganic chemistry, in the lecture and laboratory, to a legally blind student are described. At Fairfield University, these separate courses, which have a physical chemistry corequisite or a prerequisite, are taught for junior and senior chemistry and biochemistry…

  13. Integrating Computational Chemistry into the Physical Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lewis E.; Engel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Relatively few undergraduate physical chemistry programs integrate molecular modeling into their quantum mechanics curriculum owing to concerns about limited access to computational facilities, the cost of software, and concerns about increasing the course material. However, modeling exercises can be integrated into an undergraduate course at a…

  14. Improving Advanced High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spital, Robin David

    2003-04-01

    A National Research Council study committee recently commissioned a "Physics Panel" to evaluate and make recommendations for improving advanced physics education in American high schools [1]. The Physics Panel recommends the creation of a nationally standardized Newtonian Mechanics Unit that would form the foundation of all advanced physics programs. In a one-year program, the Panel recommends that advanced physics students study at most one other major area of physics, so that sufficient time is available to develop the deep conceptual understanding that is the primary goal of advanced study. The Panel emphasizes that final assessments must be improved to focus on depth of understanding, rather than technical problem-solving skill. The Physics Panel strongly endorses the inclusion of meaningful real-world experiences in advanced physics programs, but believes that traditional "cook-book" laboratory exercises are not worth the enormous amount of time and effort spent on them. The Physics Panel believes that the talent and preparation of teachers are the most important ingredients in effective physics instruction; it therefore calls for a concerted effort by all parts of the physics community to remedy the desperate shortage of highly qualified teachers. [1] Jerry P. Gollub and Robin Spital, "Advanced Physics in the High Schools", Physics Today, May 2002.

  15. Radiation Chemistry of Advanced TALSPEAK Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce; Peterman, Dean; Mcdowell, Rocklan; Olson, Lonnie; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes the results of initial experiments designed to understand the radiation chemistry of an Advanced TALSPEAK process for separating trivalent lanthanides form the actinides. Biphasic aerated samples were irradiated and then analyzed for post-irradiation constituent concentrations and solvent extraction distribution ratios. The effects of irradiation on the TALSPEAK and Advanced TALSPEAK solvents were similar, with very little degradation of the organic phase extractant. Decomposition products were detected, with a major product in common for both solvents. This product may be responsible for the slight increase in distribution ratios for Eu and Am with absorbed dose, however; separation factors were not greatly affected.

  16. Advanced Chemistry Collection, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Software requirements are given in Table 3. Some programs have additional special requirements. Please see the individual program abstracts at JCE Online or the documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Table 3. General software requirements for the Advanced Chemistry Collection.

    ComputerSystemOther Software(Required by one or more programs)
    Mac OS compatibleSystem 7.6.1 or higherAcrobat Reader (included)Mathcad; Mathematica;MacMolecule2; QuickTime 4; HyperCard Player
    Windows CompatibleWindows 2000, 98, 95, NT 4Acrobat Reader (included)Mathcad; Mathematica;PCMolecule2; QuickTime 4;HyperChem; Excel

    Literature Cited

    1. General Chemistry Collection, 5th ed.; J. Chem. Educ. Software, 2001, SP16.
    2. Advanced Chemistry Collection; J. Chem. Educ. Software, 2001, SP28.

  17. Advances in atomic physics

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbini, Tharwat M.

    2013-01-01

    In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University – Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s – when the author first engaged in research – an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics. PMID:26425356

  18. Surfactant Adsorption: A Revised Physical Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Marc R.; Hagen, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Many physical chemistry lab courses include an experiment in which students measure surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. In the traditional experiment, the data are fit to the Gibbs isotherm to determine the molar area for the surfactant, and the critical micelle concentration is used to calculate the Gibbs energy of micelle…

  19. Playing with Liquid Foams: Learning Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritacco, Hernan

    2008-01-01

    Who has never played with soap bubbles? They are so beautiful and amazing, they have a perfect spherical shape and surprising tints. Foams are structures of bubbles of an incredible complexity and they are a perfect system to stimulate students' interest in the chemistry and physics of surface phenomena. In this article I propose a simple…

  20. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  1. PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE TRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WORTHING, ROBERT

    DESIGNED FOR STUDENT USE, THIS MANUAL PRESENTS RELATED INFORMATION AND LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS FOR A 1-YEAR COURSE IN APPLIED PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY ESSEX COUNTY AUTOMOTIVE TEACHERS. CONTENT HEADINGS ARE -- (1) MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES (15 EXPERIMENTS), (2) MECHANICS (4 EXPERIMENTS), (3) HEAT (3 EXPERIMENTS), (4) ELECTRICITY (8…

  2. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.

  3. Advanced Placement Chemistry: A Feasible, Alternative Approach to Advanced Placement Chemistry Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmeier, Brian D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two factors to consider when initiating advanced placement (AP) chemistry, namely, the quality of those teaching the program and the time necessary to teach the relevant concepts. Suggests offering laboratory sessions during evening hours as an alternative to traditional daytime arrangements for laboratory blocks. (JN)

  4. Integration of a Communicating Science Module into an Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Jessica; Squier, Christopher; Larsen, Sarah C.

    2006-01-01

    A communicating science module was introduced into an advanced undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. The module was integrated into the course such that students received formal instruction in communicating science interwoven with the chemistry laboratory curriculum. The content of the communicating science module included three…

  5. Life is physics and chemistry and communication.

    PubMed

    Witzany, Guenther

    2015-04-01

    Manfred Eigen extended Erwin Schroedinger's concept of "life is physics and chemistry" through the introduction of information theory and cybernetic systems theory into "life is physics and chemistry and information." Based on this assumption, Eigen developed the concepts of quasispecies and hypercycles, which have been dominant in molecular biology and virology ever since. He insisted that the genetic code is not just used metaphorically: it represents a real natural language. However, the basics of scientific knowledge changed dramatically within the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, Eigen ignored the results of the philosophy of science discourse on essential features of natural languages and codes: a natural language or code emerges from populations of living agents that communicate. This contribution will look at some of the highlights of this historical development and the results relevant for biological theories about life.

  6. Physical Chemistry in Practice: Evaluation of DVD Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, James U.; Towns, Marcy; Weaver, Gabriela C.

    2007-01-01

    The Physical Chemistry in Practice (PCIP) DVD contains video programs (modules) and experimental data that present the research of scientists working in applications of physical chemistry. The DVD allows students to learn about cutting edge research in physical chemistry while making connections to the theoretical concepts learned in lecture.…

  7. Physical organic chemistry of supramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Serpe, Michael J; Craig, Stephen L

    2007-02-13

    Unlike the case of traditional covalent polymers, the entanglements that determine properties of supramolecular polymers are defined by very specific, intermolecular interactions. Recent work using modular molecular platforms to probe the mechanisms underlying mechanical response of supramolecular polymers is reviewed. The contributions of supramolecular kinetics, thermodynamics, and conformational flexibility to supramolecular polymer properties in solutions of discrete polymers, in networks, and at interfaces, are described. Molecule-to-material relationships are established through methods reminiscent of classic physical organic chemistry.

  8. Preface: Advances in solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2015-12-01

    The idea for this special issue of Advances in Space Research (ASR) was formulated during the 14th European Solar Physics Meeting (ESPM-14) that took place in Dublin, Ireland in September 2014. Since ASR does not publish conference proceedings, it was decided to extend a general call to the international solar-physics community for manuscripts pertinent to the following thematic areas: New and upcoming heliospheric observational and data assimilation facilities.

  9. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehney, A. F.; Inokuti, M.

    1983-12-01

    Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. These areas of study were chosen in view of our goals; that is to say, they were chosen so that the eventual outcome of the work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support the research. First, cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules were determined theoretically and experimently, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules were studied because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  10. Communities of Molecules: A Physical Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Howard; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching physical chemistry. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students see that chemistry is a unified science. Contents include: (1) "Introduction of Physical Chemistry"; (2) "The…

  11. Academic excellence workshops in chemistry and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Susan Rose

    In the mid-1970's, Uri Treisman, at the University of California, Berkeley, developed an academic excellence workshop program that had important successes in increasing minority student achievement and persistence in calculus. The present dissertation research is an in-depth study of chemistry and physics workshops at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Data for the first, longitudinal component of this study were obtained by tracking to Spring 1998 all workshop minority students, i.e., Latino, African American, and Native American workshop students, a random sample of non-workshop minority students, and a random sample of non-targeted students, i.e., Anglo and Asian students, enrolled in first-quarter General Chemistry or Physics during specific quarters of 1992 or 1993. Data for the second component were obtained by administering questionnaires, conducting interviews, and observing science students during Fall, 1996. Workshop participation was a significant predictor of first-quarter course grade for minority students in both chemistry and physics, while verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were not significant predictors of beginning course grade for minority science students. The lack of predictive ability of the SAT and the importance of workshop participation in minority students' beginning science course performance are results with important implications for educators and students. In comparing pre-college achievement measures for workshop and non-targeted students, non-targeted students' mathematics SAT scores were significantly higher than chemistry and physics workshop students' scores. Nonetheless, workshop participation "leveled the field" as workshop and non-targeted students performed similarly in beginning science courses. Positive impacts of workshop participation on achievement, persistence, efficiency, social integration, and self-confidence support the continued and expanded funding of workshop programs

  12. Recent advances in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Willi A; Quick, Harald H

    2011-03-01

    Some of the major interests in medical physics over the last few years have concerned the technical advances in Computed Tomography and high field Magnetic Resonance Imaging. This review discusses the introduction of Dual Source CT and explains how it can not only offer faster data acquisition but also operate with lower radiation doses. This provides enormous benefits for all patients, but for cardiac and pediatric examinations in particular. The advances in MRI at 7 T esla are also impressive, with better signal to noise; cardiac and musculoskeletal applications are discussed; technical improvements are work-in-progress for other applications.

  13. The physical chemistry of Criegee intermediates in the gas phase

    DOE PAGES

    Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2015-07-24

    Here, carbonyl oxides, also known as Criegee intermediates, are key intermediates in both gas phase ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the troposphere and solution phase organic synthesis via ozonolysis. Although the study of Criegee intermediates in both arenas has a long history, direct studies in the gas phase have only recently become possible through new methods of generating stabilised Criegee intermediates in sufficient quantities. This advance has catalysed a large number of new experimental and theoretical investigations of Criegee intermediate chemistry. In this article we review the physical chemistry of Criegee intermediates, focusing on their molecular structure, spectroscopy, unimolecular andmore » bimolecular reactions. These recent results have overturned conclusions from some previous studies, while confirming others, and have clarified areas of investigation that will be critical targets for future studies. In addition to expanding our fundamental understanding of Criegee intermediates, the rapidly expanding knowledge base will support increasingly predictive models of their impacts on society.« less

  14. The physical chemistry of Criegee intermediates in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2015-07-24

    Here, carbonyl oxides, also known as Criegee intermediates, are key intermediates in both gas phase ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the troposphere and solution phase organic synthesis via ozonolysis. Although the study of Criegee intermediates in both arenas has a long history, direct studies in the gas phase have only recently become possible through new methods of generating stabilised Criegee intermediates in sufficient quantities. This advance has catalysed a large number of new experimental and theoretical investigations of Criegee intermediate chemistry. In this article we review the physical chemistry of Criegee intermediates, focusing on their molecular structure, spectroscopy, unimolecular and bimolecular reactions. These recent results have overturned conclusions from some previous studies, while confirming others, and have clarified areas of investigation that will be critical targets for future studies. In addition to expanding our fundamental understanding of Criegee intermediates, the rapidly expanding knowledge base will support increasingly predictive models of their impacts on society.

  15. REFLECTIONS ON PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Science and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jortner, Joshua

    2006-05-01

    This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. "What to leave out and what to put in? That's the problem." Hugh Lofting, Doctor Dolittle's Zoo, 1925

  16. Pre-Service Physics and Chemistry Teachers' Conceptual Integration of Physics and Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuysuz, Mustafa; Bektas, Oktay; Geban, Omer; Ozturk, Gokhan; Yalvac, Bugrahan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the pre-service teachers' opinions about conceptual integration (CI) and their understanding of it. A qualitative phenomenology design was used in the study. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews comprising ten guiding questions. Three pre-service physics and three pre-service chemistry teachers…

  17. Modern Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach by George H. Duffey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranck, John P.

    2001-08-01

    The text has been carefully edited; I found no mathematical or typographical errors.

    Literature Cited

    1. Duffey, G. H. Physical Chemistry; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1962.
    2. Barrow, G. M. Physical Chemistry; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1961.
    3. McQuarrie, D. A.; Simon, J. D. Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach; University Science Books: Sausalito, CA, 1997.

  18. Beginning an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course, Edition Y.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornoff, Frank, Comp.

    This publication is intended to aid in the planning and implementation of Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry courses. Included are reports from high schools that have established such courses concerning costs, facilities, and instructional requirements. Also included are the free-response sections of the 1974 and 1975 AP Chemistry Examination,…

  19. Laboring in the vineyard of physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Widom, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This is an account mostly of what I have seen and worked on in physical chemistry, from my time in graduate school six decades ago to the present. It is a personal story about kinetics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics--in which subjects I continue to be educated, thanks to patient instruction by my students and associates. When I had the invitation from Steve Leone to write this article I said "yes" because (a) "yes" is my default setting; (b) it was a great honor to have been invited to do it; and (c) I was too busy at the time to think about what the consequences of saying "yes" would be. I must now do my best to fulfill my promise.

  20. A Course in Biophysics: An Integration of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giancoli, Douglas C.

    1971-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course for advanced undergraduates in the physical and biological sciences. The goal is to understand a living cell from the most basic standpoint possible. The ideas of physics, chemistry, and molecular biology are all essential to the course, which leads to a unified view of the sciences. (PR)

  1. Advanced Computation in Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William

    2001-10-01

    Scientific simulation in tandem with theory and experiment is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. This talk will review recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations in magnetically-confined plasmas with illustrative examples chosen from areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, magnetic reconnection, and others. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales together with access to powerful new computational resources. In particular, the fusion energy science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop MPP's to produce 3-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations which have accelerated progress in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. It should be emphasized that these calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for tens of thousands time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In general, results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. The associated scientific excitement should serve to stimulate improved cross-cutting collaborations with other fields and also to help attract

  2. Advanced computations in plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W. M.

    2002-05-01

    Scientific simulation in tandem with theory and experiment is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. In this paper we review recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations in magnetically confined plasmas with illustrative examples chosen from magnetic confinement research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, magnetic reconnection, and others. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales together with access to powerful new computational resources. In particular, the fusion energy science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPP's to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations which have accelerated progress in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. It should be emphasized that these calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In general, results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. The associated scientific excitement should serve to

  3. Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions and Mechanisms (by Bernard Miller)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Daniel

    1998-12-01

    Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998. 338 pp, index. ISBN 0-13-373275-4. $59.00. Recently several short texts on intermediate organic chemistry have been published, intended for use in one-term courses for advanced undergraduates and for graduate students who need more background before taking a graduate-level course. These books fill a need not fully met by graduate-level texts such as Lowry and Richardson's Mechanism and Theory in Organic Chemistry or Carey and Sundberg's Advanced Organic Chemistry.

  4. Communities of Molecules: A Physical Chemistry Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Howard

    This book is one in the series of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Chemistry (IAC) designed to help students discover that chemistry is a lively science and actively used to pursue solutions to the important problems of today. It is expected for students to see how chemistry takes place continuously all around and to readily understand the daily…

  5. Nationwide Survey of the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Laura J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide survey of the undergraduate physical chemistry course was conducted to investigate the depth and breadth of content that is covered, how content is delivered, how student understanding is assessed, and the experiences and beliefs of instructors. The survey was administered to instructors of physical chemistry (N = 331) at American…

  6. The Halogens. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit I2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the elements and compounds of Group IV (halogens) of the periodic table. Level one deals with the physical and chemical properties of the individual elements. Level two considers…

  7. Computing Advances in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, W. P.; Matthews, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses three trends in computer-oriented chemistry instruction: (1) availability of interfaces to integrate computers with experiments; (2) impact of the development of higher resolution graphics and greater memory capacity; and (3) role of videodisc technology on computer assisted instruction. Includes program listings for auto-titration and…

  8. Flow chemistry meets advanced functional materials.

    PubMed

    Myers, Rebecca M; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Turner, Richard M; Ley, Steven V

    2014-09-22

    Flow chemistry and continuous processing techniques are beginning to have a profound impact on the production of functional materials ranging from quantum dots, nanoparticles and metal organic frameworks to polymers and dyes. These techniques provide robust procedures which not only enable accurate control of the product material's properties but they are also ideally suited to conducting experiments on scale. The modular nature of flow and continuous processing equipment rapidly facilitates reaction optimisation and variation in function of the products.

  9. Physics of Compact Advanced Stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    M.C. Zarnstorff; L.A. Berry; A. Brooks; E. Fredrickson; G.-Y. Fu; S. Hirshman; S. Hudson; L.-P. Ku; E. Lazarus; D. Mikkelsen; D. Monticello; G.H. Neilson; N. Pomphrey; A. Reiman; D. Spong; D. Strickler; A. Boozer; W.A. Cooper; R. Goldston; R. Hatcher; M. Isaev; C. Kessel; J. Lewandowski; J. Lyon; P. Merkel; H. Mynick; B.E. Nelson; C. Nuehrenberg; M. Redi; W. Reiersen; P. Rutherford; R. Sanchez; J. Schmidt; R.B. White

    2001-08-14

    Compact optimized stellarators offer novel solutions for confining high-beta plasmas and developing magnetic confinement fusion. The 3-D plasma shape can be designed to enhance the MHD stability without feedback or nearby conducting structures and provide drift-orbit confinement similar to tokamaks. These configurations offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio 4-4.4 and average elongation of approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for beta > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at beta = 4% (the rest is from the coils), thus the equilibrium is much less nonlinear and is more controllable than similar advanced tokamaks. The enhanced stability is a result of ''reversed'' global shear, the spatial distribution of local shear, and the large fraction of externally generated transform. Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties.

  10. Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulden, Warren

    1996-01-01

    Presents three examples that show how students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better. Examples include Coulomb's Law and melting points, the Faraday Constant, and the Rydberg Constant. Presents a list of some other traditional topics in a chemistry course that could be enhanced by the…

  11. Materials: Bringing Relevance to Chemistry and Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittingham, M. Stanley

    1997-03-01

    In 1988 Binghamton started to integrate materials throughout the "chemistry" curriculum. A one semester general chemistry course, that is required of physics, engineering and geology majors was first restructured so that the middle one-third of the course emphasized materials, both inorganic and organic (NSF 90-60). It's aim was to involve students in today's science in both lecture and

  12. An Attenuated Total Reflectance Sensor for Copper: An Experiment for Analytical or Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Zudans, Imants; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.; Richardson, John N.

    2004-01-01

    A sensor experiment which can be applied to advanced undergraduate laboratory course in physical or analytical chemistry is described along with certain concepts like the demonstration of chemical sensing, preparation of thin films on a substrate, microtitration, optical determination of complex ion stoichiometry and isosbestic point. It is seen…

  13. The Application of Physical Organic Chemistry to Biochemical Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Frank

    1986-01-01

    Presents the synthesis of the science of enzymology from application of the concepts of physical organic chemistry from a historical perspective. Summarizes enzyme and coenzyme mechanisms elucidated prior to 1963. (JM)

  14. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  15. Proceedings of the physics and chemistry of oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Iye, Y.; Yasuoka, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the physics and chemistry of oxide superconductors. Topics covered include: materials; electronic states; spectroscopy; lattice properties; pressure effects; carrier dynamics; doping effects; spin dynamics; magnetism; strong correlation, and superconducting properties.

  16. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  17. Contrail: A Module from Physical Chemistry On-Line Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Franklin; Zielinski, Theresa Julia; Long, George

    2007-01-01

    The impact of contrails on Earth's climate is researched to understand the active area. It is suggested that the process of contrail formation involves combustion, cooling and ice formation, which are good comprehensive learning exercise for physical chemistry students.

  18. Recent advances in technetium halide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Poineau, Frederic; Johnstone, Erik V; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Sattelberger, Alfred P

    2014-02-18

    Transition metal binary halides are fundamental compounds, and the study of their structure, bonding, and other properties gives chemists a better understanding of physicochemical trends across the periodic table. One transition metal whose halide chemistry is underdeveloped is technetium, the lightest radioelement. For half a century, the halide chemistry of technetium has been defined by three compounds: TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. The absence of Tc binary bromides and iodides in the literature was surprising considering the existence of such compounds for all of the elements surrounding technetium. The common synthetic routes that scientists use to obtain binary halides of the neighboring elements, such as sealed tube reactions between elements and flowing gas reactions between a molecular complex and HX gas (X = Cl, Br, or I), had not been reported for technetium. In this Account, we discuss how we used these routes to revisit the halide chemistry of technetium. We report seven new phases: TcBr4, TcBr3, α/β-TcCl3, α/β-TcCl2, and TcI3. Technetium tetrachloride and tetrabromide are isostructural to PtX4 (X = Cl or Br) and consist of infinite chains of edge-sharing TcX6 octahedra. Trivalent technetium halides are isostructural to ruthenium and molybdenum (β-TcCl3, TcBr3, and TcI3) and to rhenium (α-TcCl3). Technetium tribromide and triiodide exhibit the TiI3 structure-type and consist of infinite chains of face-sharing TcX6 (X = Br or I) octahedra. Concerning the trichlorides, β-TcCl3 crystallizes with the AlCl3 structure-type and consists of infinite layers of edge-sharing TcCl6 octahedra, while α-TcCl3 consists of infinite layers of Tc3Cl9 units. Both phases of technetium dichloride exhibit new structure-types that consist of infinite chains of [Tc2Cl8] units. For the technetium binary halides, we studied the metal-metal interaction by theoretical methods and magnetic measurements. The change of the electronic configuration of the metal atom from d(3) (Tc

  19. Survival Guide for Physical Chemistry (by Michelle Francl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, Matthew

    2002-09-01

    Overall, I would recommend that instructors of physical chemistry consider Francl's text as a supplementary text for their courses. However, instructors who use a main textbook like Donald McQuarrie and John Simon's Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, which contains “math chapters” to deal with many of the same mathematical issues addressed by Francl, may find that this supplementary text is not complementary enough to justify recommending its purchase to students.

  20. Applications of physical chemistry to glass technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Ogie Gregory

    2001-07-01

    Industrial manufacturing of glass, called float glass, involves a process in which flat pieces of glass are produced by pouring molten glass on a bath of molten tin metal. The glass is then coated with thin film coatings for such applications as solar radiation control and "privacy" glass. In this thesis, principles of physical chemistry are applied to selected aspects of glass production and thin film coatings in an effort to better understand these processes with the hope of improving film and glass quality. The research described here consists of three major studies. Part 1 describes the production of thin films by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) and characterization of the films by various analytical techniques. Vanadium oxide films were produced from vanadium (IV) chloride and each of several alcohols to determine the feasibility of this method of deposition and to investigate its use in an electrochromic device. The focus here was to investigate the levels of carbon contamination in the films. It was found that the level of carbon present in the films depend on the type of amine used. Part 2 is an investigation of the flow dynamics that occur during the two thin film deposition processes. APCVD and Powder Spray Pyrolysis (PSP). Information regarding flow dynamics and particle distribution in the region above the films' substrates were obtained and related to film formation and quality. Part 3 is a kinetic study of the gas phase reactions that occur in the vapor region above the glass during float glass production. A kinetic model of the possible reactions was devised and integrated to predict the formation of these impurities with time. An experimental setup to test the model's predictions is also discussed. The research described in this thesis lays the groundwork for several possibilities for future work. Electrochromic films can be produced by APCVD to construct an all-solid-state device. Two dimensional imaging coupled with Laser

  1. A Multistep Synthesis for an Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang Ji; Peters, Dennis G.

    2006-01-01

    Multistep syntheses are often important components of the undergraduate organic laboratory experience and a three-step synthesis of 5-(2-sulfhydrylethyl) salicylaldehyde was described. The experiment is useful as a special project for an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course and offers opportunities for students to master a…

  2. The Physical-Organic Chemistry of Surfaces, and Its Relevance to Molecular Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    THE PHYSICAL-ORGANiC CHEMISTRY OF SURFACES , 0AND ITS RELEVANCE TO MOLECULAR RECOGNITION L N George M. Whitesides and Hans Biebuyck Department of...DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY 1400 Wilson Boulevard Arlington VA 22209 DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY Offic- of Naval Research , Code 1130P 800...Advanced Research Projects Agency or the U.S. Government. LDIST-R-UTI ,j STAApprovcd for pu8bU Y9 1e; 9 Dibu fonl Unlimited SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS

  3. Physical and Biological Modes of Thought in the Chemistry of Linus Pauling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Mary Jo

    No figure in modern chemistry better exemplifies than Linus Pauling (1901-1994) the intersections of the scientific disciplines of chemistry, physics, and biology nor the roles of physical and biological modes of thought in the 'central science' of chemistry.

  4. Recent Advances in Neutron Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Herman; Sheldon, Eric

    1977-01-01

    Discusses new studies in neutron physics within the last decade, such as ultracold neutrons, neutron bottles, resonance behavior, subthreshold fission, doubly radiative capture, and neutron stars. (MLH)

  5. Student Use of Energy Concepts from Physics in Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Megan L.; Lindsey, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary investigation of students' usage of ideas about energy from physics in the context of introductory chemistry. We focus on student understanding of the idea that potential energy is a function of distance between interacting objects, a concept relevant to understanding potential energy in both physical and…

  6. Recent advances in click chemistry applied to dendrimer synthesis.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Mathieu; Wafer, Caroline; Morin, Jean-François

    2015-05-20

    Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the "click chemistry" concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field.

  7. Oxetanes: Recent Advances in Synthesis, Reactivity, and Medicinal Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bull, James A; Croft, Rosemary A; Davis, Owen A; Doran, Robert; Morgan, Kate F

    2016-10-12

    The four-membered oxetane ring has been increasingly exploited for its contrasting behaviors: its influence on physicochemical properties as a stable motif in medicinal chemistry and its propensity to undergo ring-opening reactions as a synthetic intermediate. These applications have driven numerous studies into the synthesis of new oxetane derivatives. This review takes an overview of the literature for the synthesis of oxetane derivatives, concentrating on advances in the last five years up to the end of 2015. These methods are clustered by strategies for preparation of the ring and further derivatization of preformed oxetane-containing building blocks. Examples of the use of oxetanes in medicinal chemistry are reported, including a collation of oxetane derivatives appearing in recent patents for medicinal chemistry applications. Finally, examples of oxetane derivatives in ring-opening and ring-expansion reactions are described.

  8. Advancements in Solar Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramonti, Lino; Antonelli, Vito

    2013-03-01

    We review the results of solar neutrino physics, with particular attention to the data obtained and the analyses performed in the last decades, which were determinant to solve the solar neutrino problem (SNP), proving that neutrinos are massive and oscillating particles and contributing to refine the solar models. We also discuss the perspectives of the presently running experiments in this sector and of the ones planned for the near future and the impact they can have on elementary particle physics and astrophysics.

  9. New physics and chemistry in high electrostatic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahka, M. L.; Kreuzer, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Fields of the order of volts per meter exist along micron-sized tips. They are of the magnitude of fields inside atoms and molecules and can affect their electronic structure. This leads to a continuous periodic table resulting in new field-induced chemistry. We will present a tutorial treatment of this new physics and chemistry explaining such surprising phenomena like covalent bonding of helium to metal surfaces, metallization of semiconductors and insulators, and more.

  10. Research for the advancement of green chemistry practice: Studies in atmospheric and educational chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullipher, Steven Gene

    Green chemistry is a philosophy of chemistry that emphasizes a decreasing dependence on limited non-renewable resources and an increasing focus on preventing pollution byproducts of the chemical industry. In short, it is the discipline of chemistry practiced through the lens of environmental stewardship. In an effort to advance the practice of green chemistry, three studies will be described that have ramifications for the practice. The first study examines the atmospheric oxidation of a hydrofluorinated ether, a third-generation CFC replacement compound with primarily unknown atmospheric degradation products. Determination of these products has the potential to impact decisions on refrigerant usage in the future. The second study examines chemistry students' development of understanding benefits-costs-risks analysis when presented with two real-world scenarios: refrigerant choice and fuel choice. By studying how benefits-costs-risks thinking develops, curricular materials and instructional approaches can be designed to better foster the development of an ability that is both necessary for green chemists and important in daily decision-making for non-chemists. The final study uses eye tracking technology to examine students' abilities to interpret molecular properties from structural information in the context of global warming. Such abilities are fundamental if chemists are to appropriately assess risks and hazards of chemistry practice.

  11. Physics and Its Interfaces with Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ricardo N.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.

    2013-08-01

    Medicinal chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject that integrates knowledge from a variety of fields of science, including, but not limited to, chemistry, biology, and physics. The area of drug design involves the cooperative work of scientists with a diverse range of backgrounds and technical skills, trying to tackle complex problems using an integration of approaches and methods. One important contribution to this field comes from physics through studies that attempt to identify and quantify the molecular interactions between small molecules (drugs) and biological targets (receptors), such as the forces that govern the interactions, the thermodynamics of the drug-receptor interactions, and so on. In this context, the interfaces of physics, medicinal chemistry, and drug design are of vital importance for the development of drugs that not only have the right chemistry but also the right intermolecular properties to interact at the macromolecular level, providing useful information about the principles and molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of drugs. This article highlights some of the most important connections between physics and medicinal chemistry in the design of new drugs.

  12. Physics in advanced GNVQ Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, D.

    1995-07-01

    GNVQ Science is a vocational qualification for students in England, with a demand equivalent to traditional GCE A-levels. This article looks at the approach adopted by GNVQ to physics, and discusses the way in which appropriate teaching resources have been developed by the Nuffield Science in Practice project.

  13. Interactive Digital Computing in Undergraduate Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herber, R. H.; Hazony, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the results of educational experiments aimed at incorporating APL programming techniques in an undergraduate physical-analytical laboratory course. Included are a list of first year experiments and some examples of operations. (CC)

  14. Advanced Physics Lab at TCU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    The one semester, one credit hour Modern Physics Lab is viewed as a transition between the structured Physics 1 and 2 labs and junior/senior research. The labs focus on a variety of experiments built around a multichannel analyzer, various alpha, beta and gamma ray detectors and weak radioactive sources. Experiments include radiation safety and detection with a Geiger counter and NaI detector, gamma ray spectroscopy with a germanium detector, beta spectrum, alpha energy loss, gamma ray absorption, Compton effect, nuclear and positron annihilation lifetime, speed of gamma rays. Other experiments include using the analog oscilloscope, x-ray diffraction of diamond and using an SEM/EDX. Error analysis is emphasized throughout. The semester ends with an individual project, often an extension of one of the earlier experiments, and students present their results as a paper and an APS style presentation to the department.

  15. Lithography of Polymer Nanostructures on Glass for Teaching Polymer Chemistry and Physics.

    PubMed

    Sahar-Halbany, Adi; Vance, Jennifer M; Drain, Charles Michael

    2011-05-01

    As nanolithography becomes increasingly important in technology and daily life, a variety of inexpensive and creative methods toward communicating the concepts underpinning these processes in the classroom are necessary. An experiment is described that uses simple CD-Rs, C-clamps, an oven, and a freezer to provide concrete examples and insights into the chemistry and principles of nanolithography. The experiment also has flexibility, making it suitable for a range of classroom levels from high school to more advanced labs in college. Because CD-Rs are composed of grooves of polycarbonate, the experiment provides a basis for discussions and exploration into the chemistry and physics of polymers on the nanoscale.

  16. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  17. Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Qinbai; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment designed to give students some experience with photochemistry, electrochemistry, and basic theories about semiconductors. Uses a liquid-junction solar cell and illustrates some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity interconversion as well as the properties of semiconductors. (JRH)

  18. Physics and chemistry of layered chalcogenide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Keita; Takano, Yoshihiko; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Structural and physical properties of layered chalcogenide superconductors are summarized. In particular, we review the remarkable properties of the Fe-chalcogenide superconductors, FeSe and FeTe-based materials. Furthermore, we introduce the recently discovered BiS2-based layered superconductors and discuss their prospects. PMID:27877516

  19. Physics and Chemistry of the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    The solar system is thought to have begun in a flattened disk of gas and dust referred to traditionally as the solar nebula. Such a construct seems to be a natural product of the collapse of dense parts of giant molecular clouds, the vast star-forming regions that pepper the Milky Way and other galaxies. Gravitational, magnetic and thermal forces within the solar nebula forced a gradual evolution of mass toward the center (where the sun formed) and angular momentum (borne by a small fraction of the mass) toward the outer more distant regions of the disk. This evolution was accompanied by heating and a strong temperature contrast from the hot, inner regions to the cold, more remote parts of the disk. The resulting chemistry in the disk determined the initial distribution of organic matter in the planets; most of the reduced carbon species, in condensed form, were located beyond the asteroid belt (the `outer' solar system). The Earth could have received much of its inventory of pre-biological material from comets and other icy fragments of the process of planetary formation in the outer solar system.

  20. Physics and chemistry of the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Lunine, J I

    1997-06-01

    The solar system is thought to have begun in a flattened disk of gas and dust referred to traditionally as the solar nebula. Such a construct seems to be a natural product of the collapse of dense parts of giant molecular clouds, the vast star-forming regions that pepper the Milky Way and other galaxies. Gravitational, magnetic and thermal forces within the solar nebula forced a gradual evolution of mass toward the center (where the sun formed) and angular momentum (borne by a small fraction of the mass) toward the outer more distant regions of the disk. This evolution was accompanied by heating and a strong temperature contrast from the hot, inner regions to the cold, more remote parts of the disk. The resulting chemistry in the disk determined the initial distribution of organic matter in the planets; most of the reduced carbon species, in condensed form, were located beyond the asteroid belt (the 'outer' solar system). The Earth could have received much of its inventory of pre-biological material from comets and other icy fragments of the process of planetary formation in the outer solar system.

  1. Air and water stable ionic liquids in physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Endres, Frank; Zein El Abedin, Sherif

    2006-05-14

    Ionic liquids are defined today as liquids which solely consist of cations and anions and which by definition must have a melting point of 100 degrees C or below. Originating from electrochemistry in AlCl(3) based liquids an enormous progress was made during the recent 10 years to synthesize ionic liquids that can be handled under ambient conditions, and today about 300 ionic liquids are already commercially available. Whereas the main interest is still focussed on organic and technical chemistry, various aspects of physical chemistry in ionic liquids are discussed now in literature. In this review article we give a short overview on physicochemical aspects of ionic liquids, such as physical properties of ionic liquids, nanoparticles, nanotubes, batteries, spectroscopy, thermodynamics and catalysis of/in ionic liquids. The focus is set on air and water stable ionic liquids as they will presumably dominate various fields of chemistry in future.

  2. Understanding the chemistry and physics of coal structure (A Review)

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Duane G.; Schlosberg, Richard H.; Silbernagel, Bernard G.

    1982-01-01

    This article outlines our current understanding of the structure of coal in terms of both the chemical and physical bonding processes responsible for its structural integrity and the extensive network of pores that permeate the organic material. Information on the microscopic chemistry of coal and its relationship to coal's physical structure and reactivity is an essential component in the successful development of the next generation of coal conversion technologies. Although coal is an extremely complex and heterogeneous material, many of its fundamental properties can be determined by the coordinated efforts of organic and physical chemists, solid state physicists, and chemical engineers. The scientific questions that emerge from these efforts lie at the frontiers of chemistry and physics research.

  3. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  4. Polymer Principles in the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Course. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Part l (SE 538 305) covered application of classical thermodynamics, polymer crystallinity, and phase diagrams to teaching physical chemistry. This part covers statistical thermodynamics, conformation, molecular weights, rubber elasticity and viscoelasticity, and kinetics of polymerization. Eight polymer-oriented, multiple-choice test questions…

  5. The Lebanese Brevet Chemistry and Physics Examinations: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Jaber, Lama Z.; Rizk, Nadya G.; Bayoud, Jana M.

    2009-01-01

    The high-stakes Lebanese Brevet examinations are undertaken by almost all school students at the end of year 9 and include papers in Chemistry and Physics. This research presents an analysis of the 2007 examinations in these two science subjects using official statistics and response patterns arising from samples of candidate scripts. The…

  6. Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)

  7. Simulation of the Physical Chemistry of Gas Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, John; Lord, J. R.

    2000-11-01

    A menu allows navigation between the sections of Simulation of the Physical Chemistry of Gas Chromatography. Experiments can be stopped and restarted easily. Many definitions and other technical points are available as hypertext. The student is encouraged to look quickly through the whole package, then to carefully work through the text and experiments.

  8. The Freezing Point Depression Law in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Hugo F.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests a change in physical chemistry courses to use a slightly more complicated but significantly more useful generalization of the simple freezing point depression law. Lists reasons for the change and presents the treatment of solid-liquid equilibria where solid-solution is allowed. Provides a mathematical treatment. (MVL)

  9. An Integrated, Statistical Molecular Approach to the Physical Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative to the "thermodynamics first" or "quantum first" approaches to the physical chemistry curriculum, the statistical definition of entropy and the Boltzmann distribution are introduced in the first days of the course and the entire two-semester curriculum is then developed from these concepts. Once the tools of statistical mechanics…

  10. A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer…

  11. Metrology in physics, chemistry, and biology: differing perceptions.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Venkatesh

    2007-04-01

    The association of physics and chemistry with metrology (the science of measurements) is well documented. For practical purposes, basic metrological measurements in physics are governed by two components, namely, the measure (i.e., the unit of measurement) and the measurand (i.e., the entity measured), which fully account for the integrity of a measurement process. In simple words, in the case of measuring the length of a room (the measurand), the SI unit meter (the measure) provides a direct answer sustained by metrological concepts. Metrology in chemistry, as observed through physical chemistry (measures used to express molar relationships, volume, pressure, temperature, surface tension, among others) follows the same principles of metrology as in physics. The same basis percolates to classical analytical chemistry (gravimetry for preparing high-purity standards, related definitive analytical techniques, among others). However, certain transition takes place in extending the metrological principles to chemical measurements in complex chemical matrices (e.g., food samples), as it adds a third component, namely, indirect measurements (e.g., AAS determination of Zn in foods). This is a practice frequently used in field assays, and calls for additional steps to account for traceability of such chemical measurements for safeguarding reliability concerns. Hence, the assessment that chemical metrology is still evolving.

  12. Exemplary Programs in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E., Ed.

    The 1982 Search for Excellence in Science Education project has identified 50 exemplary programs in physics, chemistry, biology, and earth science. Descriptions of four of these programs and the criteria used in their selection are presented. The first section reviews the direction established by Project Synthesis in searching for exemplary…

  13. Odour sampling 1: Physical chemistry considerations.

    PubMed

    Hudson, N; Ayoko, G A

    2008-07-01

    The selection of an odour sampling device may influence the composition of the resulting odour sample. Limited comparison of emission rates derived from turbulent and essentially quiescent sampling devices confirms that the emission rates derived from these devices are quite different. There is therefore compelling evidence that current odour sampling practice should have greater regard for fundamental physical and chemical principles, the nature of the odour source and the conditions created by the sampling device. Such consideration may identify the most appropriate situations under which the use of these devices may or may not be correct.

  14. Enhancing Interdisciplinary, Mathematics, and Physical Science in an Undergraduate Life Science Program through Physical Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect. PMID:19255133

  15. Teaching a Chemistry MOOC with a Virtual Laboratory: Lessons Learned from an Introductory Physical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patrick J.; Agger, Jonathan R.; Anderson, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the experience and lessons learned of running a MOOC in introductory physical chemistry. The course was unique in allowing students to conduct experimental measurements using a virtual laboratory constructed using video and simulations. A breakdown of the student background and motivation for taking the course is…

  16. Advanced Propulsion Physics Lab: Eagleworks Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scogin, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro Optical laboratory (EOL) at Johnson Space Center. These investigations are pursuing technology necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system and beyond.

  17. Latest Advances Towards Ras Inhibition: A Medicinal Chemistry Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sautier, Brice; Nising, Carl F; Wortmann, Lars

    2016-12-23

    Owing to their high occurrence rate across many human cancers and their lack of druggability so far, mutant forms of the signaling protein Ras are currently among the most attractive (and elusive) oncology targets. This strong appeal explains the sustained effort in the field, and the ensuing progress has rekindled optimism regarding the discovery of Ras inhibitors. In this Minireview, we discuss the most recent advances towards irreversible inhibitors, and highlight approaches to inhibitors of Ras-effector interactions that have been overshadowed by the current focus on direct Ras inhibition. At the same time, we provide a critical assessment from a medicinal chemistry perspective.

  18. On the interrelation between the methodologies of chemistry and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'eva, E. A.; Mesyats, E. A.; Nagovitsyna, O. A.; Sergievskii, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Aspects of the methodology and language of chemistry and physics are discussed. Chemistry defines the chemical properties of any substance from the results of its interaction with other substances using the logic of relations. Therefore, describing the properties of substances means using sets of different ideas, including ones that are opposite in meaning. Consequently, depending on the nature of reagents with respect to which properties are established, substances show chemical dualism. This dualism was established in chemistry long before the discovery of wave-particle dualism, to understand which N. Bohr proposed the complementarity principle in 1927. The methodology of natural sciences corresponds to the principle of complementarity and the need to use it to understand the world and record the results in the linguistic reality of several languages.

  19. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  20. Advanced Fencing; Physical Education: 5551.54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Marjorie

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 8-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Strategy, tactics, principles, and fundamentals of advanced fencing skills. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The contents are divided into seven areas, which are Course Guidelines, Course Description and Broad Goal, Course of Study Behavioral Objectives, Course Content, Learning Activities and…

  1. Teacher's Handbook for Advanced Physical Science 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Everett

    This handbook is an adjunct to the "Laboratory Manual for Advanced Physical Science 2," and is intended to assist teachers in organizing laboratory experiences. Information for each experiment includes (1) Introduction, (2) Scheduling, (3) Time required, (4) Materials needed , (5) Precautions, (6) Laboratory hints, (7) Sample data, and…

  2. The physics and chemistry of the Schottky barrier height

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Raymond T.

    2014-03-15

    The formation of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) is a complex problem because of the dependence of the SBH on the atomic structure of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface. Existing models of the SBH are too simple to realistically treat the chemistry exhibited at MS interfaces. This article points out, through examination of available experimental and theoretical results, that a comprehensive, quantum-mechanics-based picture of SBH formation can already be constructed, although no simple equations can emerge, which are applicable for all MS interfaces. Important concepts and principles in physics and chemistry that govern the formation of the SBH are described in detail, from which the experimental and theoretical results for individual MS interfaces can be understood. Strategies used and results obtained from recent investigations to systematically modify the SBH are also examined from the perspective of the physical and chemical principles of the MS interface.

  3. The chemistry and physics of transition metal clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, E.K.; Jellinek, J.; Knickelbein, M.B.; Riley, S.J.

    1994-06-01

    In this program the authors study the fundamental properties of isolated clusters of transition metal atoms. Experimental studies of cluster chemistry include determination of cluster structure, reactivity, and the nature of cluster-adsorbate interactions. Studies of physical properties include measurements of cluster ionization potentials and photoabsorption cross sections. Theoretical studies focus on the structure and dynamics of clusters, including isomers, phases and phase changes, interactions with molecules, and fragmentation process.

  4. Sol-Gel Application for Consolidating Stone: An Example of Project-Based Learning in a Physical Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de los Santos, Desiree´ M.; Montes, Antonio; Sa´nchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Navas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    A Project Based Learning (PBL) methodology was used in the practical laboratories of the Advanced Physical Chemistry department. The project type proposed simulates "real research" focusing on sol-gel synthesis and the application of the obtained sol as a stone consolidant. Students were divided into small groups (2 to 3 students) to…

  5. Advances in the biology and chemistry of sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit

    2010-02-19

    Sialic acids are a subset of nonulosonic acids, which are nine-carbon alpha-keto aldonic acids. Natural existing sialic acid-containing structures are presented in different sialic acid forms, various sialyl linkages, and on diverse underlying glycans. They play important roles in biological, pathological, and immunological processes. Sialobiology has been a challenging and yet attractive research area. Recent advances in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis, as well as large-scale E. coli cell-based production, have provided a large library of sialoside standards and derivatives in amounts sufficient for structure-activity relationship studies. Sialoglycan microarrays provide an efficient platform for quick identification of preferred ligands for sialic acid-binding proteins. Future research on sialic acid will continue to be at the interface of chemistry and biology. Research efforts not only will lead to a better understanding of the biological and pathological importance of sialic acids and their diversity but also could lead to the development of therapeutics.

  6. A Validity Study of the Multiple-Choice Component of the Advanced Placement Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modu, Christopher C.; Taft, Hessy L.

    1982-01-01

    Compares performance of first-year general chemistry college students from 32 institutions with performance of Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry Candidates in 1978 to provide a concurrent validity measure of the multiple-choice section of the AP chemistry examination. Average AP candidates scored significantly higher than average college students.…

  7. The Physics and Physical Chemistry of Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Astumian, R Dean; Mukherjee, Shayantani; Warshel, Arieh

    2016-06-17

    The concept of a "power stroke"-a free-energy releasing conformational change-appears in almost every textbook that deals with the molecular details of muscle, the flagellar rotor, and many other biomolecular machines. Here, it is shown by using the constraints of microscopic reversibility that the power stroke model is incorrect as an explanation of how chemical energy is used by a molecular machine to do mechanical work. Instead, chemically driven molecular machines operating under thermodynamic constraints imposed by the reactant and product concentrations in the bulk function as information ratchets in which the directionality and stopping torque or stopping force are controlled entirely by the gating of the chemical reaction that provides the fuel for the machine. The gating of the chemical free energy occurs through chemical state dependent conformational changes of the molecular machine that, in turn, are capable of generating directional mechanical motions. In strong contrast to this general conclusion for molecular machines driven by catalysis of a chemical reaction, a power stroke may be (and often is) an essential component for a molecular machine driven by external modulation of pH or redox potential or by light. This difference between optical and chemical driving properties arises from the fundamental symmetry difference between the physics of optical processes, governed by the Bose-Einstein relations, and the constraints of microscopic reversibility for thermally activated processes.

  8. Blurring Boundaries among Physics, Chemistry, & Astronomy: The Mosely Centenary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    Scientists are territorial animals, not just about our parking spaces & seats in the colloquium room, but also about our scientific territories, from the narrowest thesis topic (``Who's been working on my Nebula and left it covered with dust?'') to the whole of physics, chemistry, or astronomy. Many 19th century astronomers resented spectroscopes invading their observatories; chemists objected to Moseley's use of X-rays outgaming their retorts and test tubes in 1913; and chemists & physicists typically disbelieve astronomers suggesting new science on the basis of astronomical data (3 other combinations are possible). The talk will explore some of these transgressions, successes and failures. Moseley's own contributions included sorting out the rare earths, putting paid to nebulium, coronium, etc, and putting Prout's hypothesis on a firm foundation ready for the structure Cameron and B2FH would eventually erect there. Back in 1935 Gamow asked whether a new discipline should be called nuclear physics or nuclear chemistry (both now exist within APS and ACS), and 30+ years later, chemist L.S. Trimble was still complaining that physicists had grabbed the territory of atomic and nuclear composition away from chemistry. Some historians agree.

  9. Her Physics, His Physics: Gender Issues in Israeli Advanced Placement Physics Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Sela, David

    2003-01-01

    Investigates gender issues in Israeli advanced placement physics classes. Analyzes matriculation exam scores from approximately 400 high schools over 12 years. Conducts semi-constructed interviews with 50 advanced placement physics students (25 girls and 25 boys). Discusses changes in the ratio of girls, performance, and factors that are…

  10. Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Revealing Chemistry Through Advanced Chemical Imaging

    2006-09-01

    The field of chemical imaging can provide detailed structural, functional, and applicable information about chemistry and chemical engineering phenomena that have enormous impacts on medicine, materials, and technology. In recognizing the potential for more research development in the field of chemical imaging, the National Academies was asked by the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, U.S. Army, and National Cancer Institute to complete a study that would review the current state of molecular imaging technology, point to promising future developments and their applications, and suggest a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements in the ability to image molecular processes simultaneously in multiple physical dimensions as well as time. The study resulted in a consensus report that provides guidance for a focused research and development program in chemical imaging and identifies research needs and possible applications of imaging technologies that can provide the breakthrough knowledge in chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering for which we should strive. Public release of this report is expected in early October.

  11. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  12. NASA physics and chemistry experiments in-space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Physics and Chemistry Experiments Program (PACE) is part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) research and technology effort in understanding the fundamental characteristics of physics and chemical phenomena. This program seeks to increase the basic knowledge in these areas by well-planned research efforts which include in-space experiments when the limitations of ground-based activities precludes or restricts the achievement of research goals. Overview study areas are concerned with molecular beam experiments for Space Shuttle, experiments on drops and bubbles in a manned earth-orbiting laboratory, the study of combustion experiments in space, combustion experiments in orbiting spacecraft, gravitation experiments in space, and fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat-transfer experiments. Procedures for the study program have four phases. An overview study was conducted in the area of materials science.

  13. Advanced Electron Microscopy in Materials Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Jarausch, K.

    2009-06-01

    Aberration correction has opened a new frontier in electron microscopy by overcoming the limitations of conventional round lenses, providing sub-angstrom-sized probes and extending information limits. The imaging and analytical performance of these corrector-equipped microscopes affords an unprecedented opportunity to study structure-property relationships of matter at the atomic scale. This new generation of microscopes is able to retrieve high-quality structural information comparable to neutron and synchrotron x-ray experiments, but with local atomic resolution. These advances in instrumentation are accelerating the research and development of various functional materials ranging from those for energy generation, conversion, transportation and storage to those for catalysis and nano-device applications. The dramatic improvements in electron-beam illumination and detection also present a host of new challenges for the interpretation and optimization of experiments. During 7-9 November 2007, a workshop, entitled 'Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy in Material Physics', was convened at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) to address these opportunities and challenges. The workshop was co-sponsored by Hitachi High Technologies, a leader in electron microscopy instrumentation, and BNL's Institute of Advanced Electron Microscopy, a leader in materials physics research using electron microscopy. The workshop featured presentations by internationally prominent scientists working at the frontiers of electron microscopy, both on developing instrumentation and applying it in materials physics. The meeting, structured to stimulate scientific exchanges and explore new capabilities, brought together {approx}100 people from over 10 countries. This special issue complies many of the advances in instrument performance and materials physics reported by the invited speakers and attendees at the workshop.

  14. An Investigation of the Factors Influencing Student Performance in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Gayle; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2001-01-01

    Studies students in two physical chemistry classes to determine what factors influenced their performance, what their perceptions were of their own abilities, and what factors they believe influence student performance. Concludes that achievement in a physical chemistry course designed for chemistry fields is significantly related to students'…

  15. Developing Technical Writing Skills in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: A Progressive Approach Employing Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…

  16. The Validity of Stirling's Approximation: A Physical Chemistry Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, A. S.; Brandt, K. A.

    1999-10-01

    Often in physical chemistry courses, the direct proof of Stirling's approximation is omitted owing to the complexity of the mathematics involved. We present an accessible proof of this result that requires only an understanding of first-year calculus. We also present an undergraduate project dealing with the validity of Stirling's approximation. This assignment asks students to study the validity of the formula using mathematical tools such as programmable calculators, commercially available computer software such as Derive, and basic computer programming. Examples of students' solutions are provided.

  17. An Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model for the Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jin-Sheng

    2001-01-01

    This report is the final report for the Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1000. The tasks outlined in the various proposals are listed with a brief comment as to the research performed. The publications titles are: The effects of particle size and nitric acid uptake on the homogenous freezing of sulfate aerosols; Parameterization of an aerosol physical chemistry model (APCM) for the NH3/H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system at cold temperatures; and The onset, extent and duration of dehydration in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex.

  18. Research opportunities in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bending-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bending magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV.

  19. Lithography of Polymer Nanostructures on Glass for Teaching Polymer Chemistry and Physics

    PubMed Central

    Sahar-Halbany, Adi; Vance, Jennifer M.; Drain, Charles Michael

    2011-01-01

    As nanolithography becomes increasingly important in technology and daily life, a variety of inexpensive and creative methods toward communicating the concepts underpinning these processes in the classroom are necessary. An experiment is described that uses simple CD-Rs, C-clamps, an oven, and a freezer to provide concrete examples and insights into the chemistry and principles of nanolithography. The experiment also has flexibility, making it suitable for a range of classroom levels from high school to more advanced labs in college. Because CD-Rs are composed of grooves of polycarbonate, the experiment provides a basis for discussions and exploration into the chemistry and physics of polymers on the nanoscale. PMID:21686088

  20. Modern advances in heterocyclic chemistry in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alexandria P; Robinson, Ralph P; Fobian, Yvette M; Blakemore, David C; Jones, Lyn H; Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi

    2016-07-12

    New advances in synthetic methodologies that allow rapid access to a wide variety of functionalized heterocyclic compounds are of critical importance to the medicinal chemist as it provides the ability to expand the available drug-like chemical space and drive more efficient delivery of drug discovery programs. Furthermore, the development of robust synthetic routes that can readily generate bulk quantities of a desired compound help to accelerate the drug development process. While established synthetic methodologies are commonly utilized during the course of a drug discovery program, the development of innovative heterocyclic syntheses that allow for different bond forming strategies are having a significant impact in the pharmaceutical industry. This review will focus on recent applications of new methodologies in C-H activation, photoredox chemistry, borrowing hydrogen catalysis, multicomponent reactions, regio- and stereoselective syntheses, as well as other new, innovative general syntheses for the formation and functionalization of heterocycles that have helped drive project delivery. Additionally, the importance and value of collaborations between industry and academia in shaping the development of innovative synthetic approaches to functionalized heterocycles that are of greatest interest to the pharmaceutical industry will be highlighted.

  1. Advances in the Biology and Chemistry of Sialic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Sialic acids are a subset of nonulosonic acids, which are nine-carbon alpha-keto aldonic acids. Natural existing sialic acid-containing structures are presented in different sialic acid forms, various sialyl linkages, and on diverse underlying glycans. They play important roles in biological, pathological, and immunological processes. Sialobiology has been a challenging and yet attractive research area. Recent advances in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis as well as large-scale E. coli cell-based production have provided a large library of sialoside standards and derivatives in amounts sufficient for structure-activity relationship studies. Sialoglycan microarrays provide an efficient platform for quick identification of preferred ligands for sialic acid-binding proteins. Future research on sialic acid will continue to be at the interface of chemistry and biology. Research efforts will not only lead to a better understanding of the biological and pathological importance of sialic acids and their diversity, but could also lead to the development of therapeutics. PMID:20020717

  2. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R

    2002-05-09

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate was created in July 2000 by Bruce Tarter, Director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Director called for the new organization to execute and support programs that apply cutting-edge physics and advanced technology to develop integrated solutions to problems in national security, fusion energy, information science, health care, and other national grand challenges. When I was appointed a year later as the PAT Directorate's first Associate Director, I initiated a strategic planning project to develop a vision, mission, and long-term goals for the Directorate. We adopted the goal of becoming a leader in frontier physics and technology for twenty-first-century national security missions: Stockpile Stewardship, homeland security, energy independence, and the exploration of space. Our mission is to: (1) Help ensure the scientific excellence and vitality of the major LLNL programs through its leadership role in performing basic and applied multidisciplinary research and development with programmatic impact, and by recruiting and retaining science and technology leaders; (2) Create future opportunities and directions for LLNL and its major programs by growing new program areas and cutting-edge capabilities that are synergistic with, and supportive of, its national security mission; (3) Provide a direct conduit to the academic and high-tech industrial sectors for LLNL and its national security programs, through which the Laboratory gains access to frontier science and technology, and can impact the science and technology communities; (4) Leverage unique Laboratory capabilities, to advance the state universe. This inaugural PAT Annual Report begins a series that will chronicle our progress towards fulfilling this mission. I believe the report demonstrates that the PAT Directorate has a strong base of capabilities and accomplishments on which to build in meeting its goals. Some of the highlights

  3. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in physics, chemistry, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Rangelov, Andon A.; Shore, Bruce W.; Bergmann, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    The technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), which allows efficient and selective population transfer between quantum states without suffering loss due to spontaneous emission, was introduced in 1990 by Gaubatz et al.. Since then STIRAP has emerged as an enabling methodology with widespread successful applications in many fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. This article reviews the many applications of STIRAP emphasizing the developments since 2001, the time when the last major review on the topic was written (Vitanov, Fleischhauer et al.). A brief introduction into the theory of STIRAP and the early applications for population transfer within three-level systems is followed by the discussion of several extensions to multilevel systems, including multistate chains and tripod systems. The main emphasis is on the wide range of applications in atomic and molecular physics (including atom optics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, formation of ultracold molecules, etc.), quantum information (including single- and two-qubit gates, entangled-state preparation, etc.), solid-state physics (including processes in doped crystals, nitrogen-vacancy centers, superconducting circuits, semiconductor quantum dots and wells), and even some applications in classical physics (including waveguide optics, polarization optics, frequency conversion, etc.). Promising new prospects for STIRAP are also presented (including processes in optomechanics, precision experiments, detection of parity violation in molecules, spectroscopy of core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states, population transfer with x-ray pulses, etc.).

  4. Insights from a Subject Knowledge Enhancement Course for Preparing New Chemistry and Physics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Michael; Mallaburn, Andrea; Tynan, Richard; Clays, Ken; Jones, Robert Bryn

    2013-01-01

    A recent Government response to shortages of new physics and chemistry teachers is the extended subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) course. Graduates without a physics or chemistry bachelor degree are prepared by an SKE course to enter a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme to become science teachers with a physics or chemistry…

  5. Guide for Teaching Chemistry-Physics Combined 1-2, 3-4 (PSSC - CHEMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstone, H. George

    This guide is written for a combined physics-chemistry course taught over a two-year period. The subject matter contains the major ideas in Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS) Chemistry and Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) Physics. The guide includes discussion of text references, laboratory experiments, films, testing and evaluation…

  6. Molecular Signposts of the Physics and Chemistry of Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleeves, Lauren Ilsedore

    Observations of molecules in planet-forming circumstellar disks are powerful diagnostic tools, enabling characterization of both gas composition and underlying physical conditions using molecular excitation. My thesis has primarily focused on the role of disk structure and ionization for the chemistry of disks and the corresponding submillimeter emission. Changes in the overall morphology of disks, including inner holes or gaps, significantly alters the stellar irradiation of the disk, which will affect the disk heating, especially at the walls of an inner hole (Chapter 2). I have modeled the 3D chemistry of gapped disks, carved out by planets, including for the first time heating by a luminous protoplanet. The planet sublimates ices beyond expected disk "snow-lines" leading to observable signatures detectable with ALMA (Chapter 3). Regarding ionization, I have studied disk ionization by cosmic rays (Chapter 4), short-lived radionuclides (Chapter 5), and X-rays from the central star (Chapter 6). In Chapter 6, I investigated the molecular dependence on each of these processes and made testable predictions for sensitive submillimeter observations to map out disk ionization, which I applied to the TW Hya disk, finding a substantially lower than interstellar cosmic ray rate (Chapter 7). One of the major implications of this work is related to the formation chemistry of water, which requires ionization to proceed. In the absence of water-formation in the solar nebula protoplanetary disk, this work demonstrates that there must be a substantial inheritance of water from earlier evolutionary stages, pre-dating the Sun's formation (Chapter 8). Together, these projects have also enabled the development of a comprehensive 2D and 3D disk modeling framework, useful for parameter space studies and source-targeted modeling.

  7. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (<1 uN), and commission the facility with an existing Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster. To date, the QVPT line of research has produced data suggesting very high specific impulse coupled with high specific force. If the physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  8. Recent advances in the chemistry and biology of pyridopyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Buron, F; Mérour, J Y; Akssira, M; Guillaumet, G; Routier, S

    2015-05-05

    The interest in pyridopyrimidine cores for pharmaceutical products makes this scaffold a highly useful building block for organic chemistry. These derivatives have found applications in various areas of medicine such as anticancer, CNS, fungicidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antibacterial therapies. This review mainly focuses on the progress achieved since 2004 in the chemistry and biological activity of pyridopyrimidines.

  9. What Does a Student Know Who Earns a Top Score on the Advanced Placement Chemistry Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Daubenmire, Paul L.; Scalise, Kathleen M.; Balicki, Scott; Gochyyev, Perman; Stacy, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of students at a high-performing U.S. public school (n = 64) on the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam to their performance on the ChemQuery assessment system. The AP chemistry exam was chosen because, as the National Research Council acknowledges, it is the "perceived standard of excellence and school…

  10. Development of an Advanced Training Course for Teachers and Researchers in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragisich, Vera; Keller, Valerie; Black, Rebecca; Heaps, Charles W.; Kamm, Judith M.; Olechnowicz, Frank; Raybin, Jonathan; Rombola, Michael; Zhao, Meishan

    2016-01-01

    Based on our long-standing Intensive Training Program for Effective Teaching Assistants in Chemistry, we have developed an Advanced Training Course for Teachers and Researchers in Chemistry at The University of Chicago. The topics in this course are designed to train graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) to become effective teachers and well-rounded…

  11. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Teachers' and Technicians' Notes for First Year Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    The Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC) has produced units of study for students in A-level chemistry. Students completing ILPAC units assume a greater responsibility for their own learning and can work, to some extent, at their own pace. By providing guidance, and detailed solutions to exercises in the units, supported by…

  12. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data).

  13. ADVANCES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY: CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, ISBN 81-901238-5-8

    EPA Science Inventory

    16. Abstract Advances in Green Chemistry: Chemical Syntheses Using Microwave Irradiation
    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predomi...

  14. Physics and Chemistry in UV Illuminated Regions: the Horsehead Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Viviana V.; Pety, Jérôme; Gratier, Pierre; Goicoechea, Javier; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne

    2014-06-01

    Molecular lines are used to trace the structure of the interstellar medium and the physical conditions of the gas in different environments, from protoplanetary disks to high-z galaxies. To fully benefit from the diagnostic power of molecular lines, the formation and destruction paths of the molecules, including the interplay between gas-phase and grain surface chemistry, must be quantitatively understood. Well-defined sets of observations of simple template sources are key to benchmark the theoretical models. In this context the PDR of the Horsehead mane is a particularly interesting case because it has a simple geometry (almost 1D, viewed edge-on) and the density profile across the PDR is well constrained. In this talk, I will summarize our recent results on the ISM physics and chemistry in the Horsehead, from a complete and unbiased line survey at 1, 2 and 3mm performed with the IRAM-30m telescope, where approximately 30 species (plus their isotopologues) are detected with up to 7 atoms. I will show the importance of the interplay between the solid and gas phase chemistry in the formation of (complex) organic molecules, like H_2CO, CH_3OH, and CH_3CN, which reveal that photo-desorption of ices is an efficient mechanism to release molecules into the gas phase. The case of CH_3CN is especially surprising, as it is 40 times more abundant in the warm (Tkin˜60 K) UV-illuminated edge of the nebula, than in the shielded and colder (Tkin˜20 K) inner layers. I will show that complex molecules, such as HCOOH, CH_2CO, CH_3CHO, and CH_3CCH are easily detected in the PDR. I will also discuss new diagnostics of the UV-illuminated gas, like CF^+ (for which we recently resolved its hyperfine structure for the first time), which is observable from the ground, and we propose it can be used as a proxy of C^+. I will finish by reporting the first detection of a new molecule, recently confirmed to be the small hydrocarbon C_3H^+, which shows that photo-erosion of PAHs is needed to

  15. PREFACE: XV International Seminar on Physics and Chemistry of Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotur, Bogdan; Brągiel, Piotr

    2011-03-01

                      Logo     Logo The XV International Seminar on Physics and Chemistry of Solids (ISPCS15) was held from 7-10 June 2009 in Szklarska Poręba. Over eighty participants joined together in this mountain resort, at the foot of Szrenica peak, in the Polish part of the Sudety range. The majority or participants, in accordance with Seminar tradition, were from Ukraine and Poland. The pleasant and warm atmosphere created by the organizers was conducive to fruitful discussions, making new contacts and to joyful gatherings with friends. Even the rainy weather could not change that. Lectures and communications mainly covered the fields of solid state physics and chemistry, and possible applications. This time, however, a new section was introduced - one devoted to modern topics in liquid chemistry. Sometimes such a look over the borders of scientific specialties leads to interesting insights and original research solutions. Some of the papers presented during ISPCS15 are collected in this volume. Their diversity is representative of both the scope and character of this Seminar. The majority of the papers are research reports, but a review article and a paper focussed on problems connected with environmental protection are also included. This Conference has functioned for over a decade due to the permanent support of the rectors of both co-organizing universities: Professor Ivan Vakarchuk from Ivan Franko National University of Lviv and Professor Zygmunt Bąk from Jan Dlugosz University in Częstochowa. It is our pleasure, on behalf of the all participants of the past Seminars, to express our gratitude for this assistance. We would also like to thank all the invited speakers who kindly accepted our invitation, namely Professors Roman Gladyshevskii (Ivan Franko National University, Lviv, Ukraine), Mihaela Gulea (Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculare et Thioorganique, CAEN, France), Osama I Abd El-Salam (National Research

  16. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  17. Surface chemistry: key to control and advance myriad technologies.

    PubMed

    Yates, John T; Campbell, Charles T

    2011-01-18

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field.

  18. "Structure and dynamics in complex chemical systems: Gaining new insights through recent advances in time-resolved spectroscopies.” ACS Division of Physical Chemistry Symposium presented at the Fall National ACS Meeting in Boston, MA, August 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Daniel

    2016-09-26

    8-Session Symposium on STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS IN COMPLEX CHEMICAL SYSTEMS: GAINING NEW INSIGHTS THROUGH RECENT ADVANCES IN TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPIES. The intricacy of most chemical, biochemical, and material processes and their applications are underscored by the complex nature of the environments in which they occur. Substantial challenges for building a global understanding of a heterogeneous system include (1) identifying unique signatures associated with specific structural motifs within the heterogeneous distribution, and (2) resolving the significance of each of multiple time scales involved in both small- and large-scale nuclear reorganization. This symposium focuses on the progress in our understanding of dynamics in complex systems driven by recent innovations in time-resolved spectroscopies and theoretical developments. Such advancement is critical for driving discovery at the molecular level facilitating new applications. Broad areas of interest include: Structural relaxation and the impact of structure on dynamics in liquids, interfaces, biochemical systems, materials, and other heterogeneous environments.

  19. Subject Knowledge Enhancement (SKE) Courses for Creating New Chemistry and Physics Teachers: Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Richard; Mallaburn, Andrea; Jones, Robert Bryn; Clays, Ken

    2014-01-01

    During extended subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses, graduates without chemistry or physics bachelor degrees prepared to enter a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme to become chemistry or physics teachers. Data were gathered from the exit survey returned by Liverpool John Moores University SKE students about to start…

  20. Analysis of High School Physics, Chemistry and Biology Curriculums in Terms of Scientific Literacy Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Melek Nur; Koseoglu, Fitnat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze 9th grade physics, chemistry and biology curriculums, which were implemented by the Ministry of Education since the academic year 2008-2009, in terms of scientific literacy themes and the balance of these themes and also to examine the quality of statements about objectives. Physics, chemistry, and biology…

  1. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  2. Students' Understanding of Mathematical Expressions in Physical Chemistry Contexts: An Analysis Using Sherin's Symbolic Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nicole; Towns, Marcy

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate physical chemistry courses require students to be proficient in calculus in order to develop an understanding of thermodynamics concepts. Here we present the findings of a study that examines student understanding of mathematical expressions, including partial derivative expressions, in two undergraduate physical chemistry courses.…

  3. Terra Firma: "Physics First" for Teaching Chemistry to Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Michelle B.

    2007-01-01

    A pre-service elementary school teacher chemistry class that incorporates the physics first idea is described. This class is taught basic physics followed by introductory chemistry and the students' response indicates that both science literacy and science interest increase using this method.

  4. Exploring the Random Phase Approximately for materials chemistry and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzsinsky, Adrienn

    2015-03-23

    This proposal focuses on improved accuracy for the delicate energy differences of interest in materials chemistry with the fully nonlocal random phase approximation (RPA) in a density functional context. Could RPA or RPA-like approaches become standard methods of first-principles electronic-structure calculation for atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and nano-structures? Direct RPA includes the full exact exchange energy and a nonlocal correlation energy from the occupied and unoccupied Kohn-Sham orbitals and orbital energies, with an approximate but universal description of long-range van der Waals attraction. RPA also improves upon simple pair-wise interaction potentials or vdW density functional theory. This improvement is essential to capture accurate energy differences in metals and different phases of semiconductors. The applications in this proposal are challenges for the simpler approximations of Kohn-Sham density functional theory, which are part of the current “standard model” for quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics. Within this project we already applied RPA on different structural phase transitions on semiconductors, metals and molecules. Although RPA predicts accurate structural parameters, RPA has proven not equally accurate in all kinds of structural phase transitions. Therefore a correction to RPA can be necessary in many cases. We are currently implementing and testing a nonempirical, spatially nonlocal, frequency-dependent model for the exchange-correlation kernel in the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation context. This kernel predicts a nearly-exact correlation energy for the electron gas of uniform density. If RPA or RPA-like approaches prove to be reliably accurate, then expected increases in computer power may make them standard in the electronic-structure calculations of the future.

  5. Integrating Computational Chemistry into the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum: A Wet Lab/Dry Lab Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpen, Mary E.; Henderleiter, Julie; Schaertel, Stephanie A.

    2004-01-01

    The usage of computational chemistry in a pedagogically effective manner in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum is described. The changes instituted for an effective course structure and the assessment of the course efficacy are discussed.

  6. Assessing Advanced High School and Undergraduate Students' Thinking Skills: The Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Dangur, Vered; Avargil, Shirly; Peskin, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry students in Israel have two options for studying chemistry: basic or honors (advanced placement). For instruction in high school honors chemistry courses, we developed a module focusing on abstract topics in quantum mechanics: Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics. The module adopts a visual-conceptual approach, which…

  7. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The contract objective was to demonstrate Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc., (AED) Ultrafine Coal (UFC) electrostatic physical fine coal cleaning process as capable of: producing clean coal products of no greater than 2% ash; significantly reducing the pyritic sulfur content below that achievable with state-of-the-art coal cleaning; recovering over 80% of the available energy content in the run-of-mine coal; producing product and refuse with surface moisture below 30%. Originally the demonstration was to be of a Charger/Disc System at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) at Homer City, Pennsylvania. As a result of the combination of Charger/Disc System scale-up problems and parallel development of an improved Vertical-Belt Separator, DOE issued a contract modification to perform additional laboratory testing and optimization of the UFC Vertical-Belt Separator System at AED. These comparative test results, safety analyses and an economic analysis are discussed in this report. 29 refs., 25 figs., 41 tabs.

  8. Where the girls aren't: High school girls and advanced placement physics enrollment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Susan O'brien

    During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.

  9. DNA-METAFECTENE PRO complexation: a physical chemistry study.

    PubMed

    Alatorre-Meda, Manuel; González-Pérez, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Julio R

    2010-07-21

    Complexes formed between cationic liposomes and DNA (also known as lipoplexes or genosomes) have proven, for years now, to be a suitable option for gene delivery to cells, transfection, however, some aspects regarding the liposome-DNA interaction mechanism and complex stability remain still unclear. This work aims to improve the understanding of the poorly defined mechanisms and structural conformation associated with the interaction of METAFECTENE PRO (MEP), a commercial liposomal transfection reagent, with poly-anion DNA at mass ratios around the mass ratio recommended for transfection (L/D congruent with 700). A physical chemistry characterization was conducted at a pH of 6.5 and at a temperature of 25 degrees C by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrophoretic mobility (zeta-potential), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Five parameters important for transfection were determined for the lipoplexes: (i) the hydrodynamic radius, R(H), (ii) the stability with time, (iii) the mass ratio of at which both moieties start to interact, (L/D)(i), (iv) the overall charge, and (v) the morphology. Results in ensemble point to a "beads on a string" conformation, with the lipoplex formation occurring well below isoneutrality from (L/D)(i) congruent with 600. The lipoplexes were found to be stable within at least seven days presenting an average R(H) of 135 nm.

  10. An Assessment of a Physical Chemistry Online Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamby Towns, Marcy; Kreke, Kelley; Sauder, Deborah; Stout, Roland; Long, George; Zielinski, Theresa Julia

    1998-12-01

    A questionnaire and list server archive were used to investigate the perception of students and faculty who took part in a physical chemistry online project. Students at four universities worked cooperatively in their own classrooms and collaborated as a larger team on the Internet via a list server to determine the best mathematical model to describe the PV behavior of a gas at a specified temperature. The strengths of the project were the interaction among students, the use of Mathcad and modern technology, and the experience of authentic problem-solving. The weaknesses were the problems with the technology, the facilitation of interaction, and the student's ability to ask questions to solve an ill-defined problem. The suggestions for improvements focused on facilitating interuniversity interaction between students, clarifying tasks and goals, and implementation of the online activities. We discuss how our evaluation of the project guided and informed the design of a subsequent online project, and our planning for future projects. In addition, we describe the professional learning community that evolved among faculty who participated in this project.

  11. Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope (ADEPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles L. Bennett

    2009-03-26

    In 2006, we proposed to NASA a detailed concept study of ADEPT (the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope), a potential space mission to reliably measure the time-evolution of dark energy by conducting the largest effective volume survey of the universe ever done. A peer-review panel of scientific, management, and technical experts reported back the highest possible 'excellent' rating for ADEPT. We have since made substantial advances in the scientific and technical maturity of the mission design. With this Department of Energy (DOE) award we were granted supplemental funding to support specific extended research items that were not included in the NASA proposal, many of which were intended to broadly advance future dark energy research, as laid out by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF). The proposed work had three targets: (1) the adaptation of large-format infrared arrays to a 2 micron cut-off; (2) analytical research to improve the understanding of the dark energy figure-of- merit; and (3) extended studies of baryon acoustic oscillation systematic uncertainties. Since the actual award was only for {approx}10% of the proposed amount item (1) was dropped and item (2) work was severely restricted, consistent with the referee reviews of the proposal, although there was considerable contradictions between reviewer comments and several comments that displayed a lack of familiarity with the research. None the less, item (3) was the focus of the work. To characterize the nature of the dark energy, ADEPT is designed to observe baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in a large galaxy redshift survey and to obtain substantial numbers of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The 2003 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) made a precise determination of the BAO 'standard ruler' scale, as it was imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at z {approx} 1090. The standard ruler was also imprinted on the pattern of galaxies, and was first detected in 2005 in Sloan

  12. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2003 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A; Sketchley, J

    2005-01-20

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate overcame significant challenges in 2003 to deliver a wealth of scientific and programmatic milestones, and move toward closer alignment with programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We acted aggressively in enabling the PAT Directorate to contribute to future, growing Lawrence Livermore missions in homeland security and at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We made heavy investments to bring new capabilities to the Laboratory, to initiate collaborations with major Laboratory programs, and to align with future Laboratory directions. Consistent with our mission, we sought to ensure that Livermore programs have access to the best science and technology, today and tomorrow. For example, in a move aimed at revitalizing the Laboratory's expertise in nuclear and radiation detection, we brought the talented Measurement Sciences Group to Livermore from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, after its mission there had diminished. The transfer to our I Division entailed significant investment by PAT in equipment and infrastructure required by the group. In addition, the move occurred at a time when homeland security funding was expected, but not yet available. By the end of the year, though, the group was making crucial contributions to the radiation detection program at Livermore, and nearly every member was fully engaged in programmatic activities. Our V Division made a move of a different sort, relocating en masse from Building 121 to the NIF complex. This move was designed to enhance interaction and collaboration among high-energy-density experimental scientists at the Laboratory, a goal that is essential to the effective use of NIF in the future. Since then, V Division has become increasingly integrated with NIF activities. Division scientists are heavily involved in diagnostic development and fielding and are poised to perform equation-of-state and high-temperature hohlraum experiments in 2004 as

  13. Physical Chemistry of Nanomedicine: Understanding the Complex Behaviors of Nanoparticles in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Lucas A.; Qian, Ximei; Smith, Andrew M.; Nie, Shuming

    2015-04-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field of research at the interface of science, engineering, and medicine, with broad clinical applications ranging from molecular imaging to medical diagnostics, targeted therapy, and image-guided surgery. Despite major advances during the past 20 years, there are still major fundamental and technical barriers that need to be understood and overcome. In particular, the complex behaviors of nanoparticles under physiological conditions are poorly understood, and detailed kinetic and thermodynamic principles are still not available to guide the rational design and development of nanoparticle agents. Here we discuss the interactions of nanoparticles with proteins, cells, tissues, and organs from a quantitative physical chemistry point of view. We also discuss insights and strategies on how to minimize nonspecific protein binding, how to design multistage and activatable nanostructures for improved drug delivery, and how to use the enhanced permeability and retention effect to deliver imaging agents for image-guided cancer surgery.

  14. Advances in atmospheric chemistry modeling: the LLNL impact tropospheric/stratospheric chemistry model

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D A; Atherton, C

    1999-10-07

    We present a unique modeling capability to understand the global distribution of trace gases and aerosols throughout both the troposphere and stratosphere. It includes the ability to simulate tropospheric chemistry that occurs both in the gas phase as well as on the surfaces of solid particles. We have used this capability to analyze observations from particular flight campaigns as well as averaged observed data. Results show the model to accurately simulate the complex chemistry occurring near the tropopause and throughout the troposphere and stratosphere.

  15. Advances in the chemistry of catalytic reforming of naphtha

    SciTech Connect

    Anabtawi, J.A.; Redwan, D.S.; Al-Jarallah, A.M.; Aitani, A.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Catalytic reforming of naphtha remains the key process for production of high octane gasoline and aromatics (BTX) which are used as petrochemicals feedstocks. The increased demand for these products has led refiners to investigate ways for improving the performance of the reforming process and its catalysts. Moreover, in order to comply with environmental restrictions, the reduction in lead content would require further increase in the reformate octane number. In response to these requirements, refiners and catalyst manufacturers are examining the role of the catalysts in improving the selectivity to aromatics and in octane enhancement. By understanding the chemistry and the mechanism of the reforming process, higher performance catalysts with longer life on stream and lower cost can be developed. This review covers recent developments in reforming catalysts, process reaction chemistry and mechanism. It also highlights prospective areas of research.

  16. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-07

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling.

  17. Biomaterials — where biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and medicine meet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hing, K. A.

    2008-03-01

    The success or failure of an implant material in the body depends on a complex interaction between a synthetic 'foreign body' and the 'host tissue'. These interactions occur at many levels from the sub-microscopic level, where subtle changes in the surface physio-chemistry can substantially alter the nature of the biomaterial-host tissue interface, through the microscopical level (e.g. sensitivity to surface topography) to the macrostructural level (e.g. dependence on scaffold porosity). Thus the factors that control these responses are not only biologically determined but also mechanically, physically and chemically mediated, although identifying where one starts and the other finishes can be difficult. Design of a successful medical device has therefore to call on expertise within a wide range of disciplines. In terms of both investigating the basic science behind the factors which orchestrate a biological response and developing research tools that enable study of these responses. However, a medical device must also meet the economic and practical demands of health care professionals who will ultimately be using it in the clinic. Bone graft substitute materials are used in orthopaedics as an alternative or adjunct to autografting, a practice where the patient 'donates' bone from a healthy site to aid bone repair at a damaged or diseased site. These materials are used in a wide range of procedures from total hip revision to spinal fusion and their evolution over the last 10 years illustrates how an interdisciplinary approach has benefited their development and may lead to further innovation in the future.

  18. Use of the Berkeley Physics Laboratory to Teach an Advanced Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, James David

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a course, centered around 32 experiments taught for advanced students, designed to develop a laboratory strongly suggestive of contemporary research using relatively sophisticated apparatus. Its unique advantage lies in enriching advanced physics curriculum. (DF)

  19. Controls on the physics and chemistry of seafloor hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A.; Elderfield, H.

    Low temperature diffuse hydrothermal circulation is a natural consequence of the cooling of the oceanic lithosphere. Diffuse flow is expected to be ubiquitous, and will be present both within mid-ocean ridge crest axial zones of young age (0-1 Ma), and also on the older ridge crest flanks and limbs. If underlying thermal models are correct, hydrothermal circulation should persist for oceanic lithosphere of age 0-65 Ma, and is present over half the total area of the ocean basins. By using numerical models of hydrothermal circulation in cracked permeable media, we show qualitatively how diffuse flow is an intrinsic feature of high temperature axial (0-1 Ma) hydrothermal systems, and is not restricted to older (more than 1 Ma) lithosphere. This is in agreement with our field observations which suggest that in such high temperature vent fields the greatest part of the heat and volume flux is due to lower temperature diffuse flow, rather than high temperature black smoker venting. By combining direct measurements of the physical properties of diffusely flowing effluent within axial hydrothermal systems with concurrent sampling of the chemical properties of that effluent, and by considering also the chemistry of unmixed black smoker endmember fluids from the same hydrothermal systems, the processes of mineral deposition and dissolution can be studied directly. By referring to the present-day lithology of such areas, it is possible to examine the balance between concurrent mineral deposition and dissolution processes, and the retention rate of specific mineral assemblages integrated over the history of the hydrothermal system. Thus details of the episodicity of hydrothermal venting within the system may be revealed. An example of this method of combining a variety of direct measurements of diffuse and high temperature effluent properties is given from the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Long time series observations of the physical properties of diffuse and

  20. Continuous Symmetry and Chemistry Teachers: Learning Advanced Chemistry Content through Novel Visualization Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Blonder, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the learning process of a group of experienced chemistry teachers in a specially designed workshop on molecular symmetry and continuous symmetry. The workshop was based on interactive visualization tools that allow molecules and their symmetry elements to be rotated in three dimensions. The topic of continuous symmetry is…

  1. NEW APPROACHES: Reading in Advanced level physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Dorothy

    1997-11-01

    Teachers often report that their A-level pupils are unwilling to read physics-related material. What is it about physics texts that deters pupils from reading them? Are they just too difficult for 16 - 18 year olds, or is it that pupils lack specific reading skills? This article describes some of the results from my research into pupils' reading of physics-related texts and tries to clarify the situation.

  2. An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning in a Physical Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurses, Ahmet; Acikyildiz, Metin; Dogar, Cetin; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach in a physical chemistry laboratory course. The parameters investigated were students' attitudes towards a chemistry laboratory course, scientific process skills of students and their academic achievement. The design of the study was one group…

  3. Analyzing Students' Understanding of Models and Modeling Referring to the Disciplines Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krell, Moritz; Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, secondary school students' (N?=?617; grades 7 to 10) understanding of models and modeling was assessed using tasks which explicitly refer to the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics and, as a control, to no scientific discipline. The students' responses are interpreted as their biology-, chemistry-, and…

  4. Advances in microwave-assisted combinatorial chemistry without polymer-supported reagents.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Palou, Rafael

    2006-08-01

    Combinatorial methodologies have dramatically changed the chemical research and discovery process, offering an unlimited source of new molecule entities to be screened for activity. The application of microwave irradiation in Combinatorial Chemistry and high-throughput synthesis has become increasingly popular. By taking advantage of this energy source, compound libraries for lead generation can be assembled in a fraction of time required by conventional thermal heating. This review focuses on the advances in developing synthetic methodologies in microwave without polymer-supported reagents suitable for combinatorial chemistry, including the advances in microwave-assisted fluorous synthesis technology.

  5. Advances in solid-phase extraction disks for environmental chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Snavely, K.

    2000-01-01

    The development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for environmental chemistry has progressed significantly over the last decade to include a number of new sorbents and new approaches to SPE. One SPE approach in particular, the SPE disk, has greatly reduced or eliminated the use of chlorinated solvents for the analysis of trace organic compounds. This article discusses the use and applicability of various SPE disks, including micro-sized disks, prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of trace organic compounds in water. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

  7. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1979-September 1980: fundamental molecular physics and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, Mitio; Dehmer, P. M.; Pratt, S. T.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Dehmer, J. L.; Stockbauer, Roger; Dill, Dan; Parr, A. C.; Jackson, K. H.; Zare, R. N.; Person, J. C.; Nicole, P. P.; Fowler, D. E.; Codling, K.; West, J. B.; Ederer, D. L.; Cole, B. E.; Loomba, D.; Wallace, Scott; Swanson, J. R.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Spence, David; Chupka, W. A.; Stevens, C. M.; Shyn, W. T.; Sharp, W. E.; Kim, Y. K.; Eggarter, E.; Baer, T.; Hanson, J. D.; Shimamura, Isao; Dillon, Michael A.

    1981-09-01

    Research is reported on the physics and chemistry of atoms, ions, and molecules, especially their interactions with external agents such as photons and electrons. Individual items from the report were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  8. Integrative Chemistry: Advanced functional cellular materials bearing multiscale porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depardieu, M.; Kinadjian, N.; Backov, R.

    2015-07-01

    With this mini review we show through the sol-gel and emulsion-based Integrative Chemistry how it is possible to trigger materials dimensionality and beyond their functionalities when reaching enhanced applications. In here we focus on 3D macrocellular monolithic foams bearing hierarchical porosities and applications thereof. We first depict the general background of emulsions focusing on concentrated ones, acting as soft templates for the design of PolyHIPE foams, HIPE being the acronym of High Internal Phase Emulsions while encompassing both sol-gel and polymer chemistry. Secondly we extend this approach toward the design of hybrid organic-inorganic foams, labeled Organo-Si(HIPE), where photonics and heterogeneous catalysis applications are addressed. In a third section we show how inorganic Si(HIPE) matrices can be employed as sacrificial hard templates for the generation carbonaceous foams, labeled Carbon(HIPE). These foams being conductive we show applications when employed as electrodes for Li-S battery and as hosts for Li(BH4)-based hydrogen storage.

  9. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Podophyllotoxins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Che, Zhiping; Xu, Hui

    2017-04-03

    Podophyllotoxin and its related aryltetralin cyclolignans belong to a family of important products that exhibit various biological properties (e.g., cytotoxic, insecticidal, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, antirheumatic, antioxidative, antispasmogenic, and hypolipidemic activities). This Review provides a survey of podophyllotoxin and its analogues isolated from plants. In particular, recent developments in the elegant total chemical synthesis, structural modifications, biosynthesis, and biotransformation of podophyllotoxin and its analogues are summarized. Moreover, a deoxypodophyllotoxin-based chemosensor for selective detection of mercury ion is described. In addition to the most active podophyllotoxin derivatives in each series against human cancer cell lines and insect pests listed in the tables, the structure-activity relationships of podophyllotoxin derivatives as cytotoxic and insecticidal agents are also outlined. Future prospects and further developments in this area are covered at the end of the Review. We believe that this Review will provide necessary information for synthetic, medicinal, and pesticidal chemistry researchers who are interested in the chemistry and biology of podophyllotoxins.

  10. Advancing Successful Physics Majors - The Physics First Year Seminar Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deibel, Jason; Petkie, Douglas

    In 2012, the Wright State University physics curriculum introduced a new year-long seminar course required for all new physics majors. The goal of this course is to improve student retention and success via building a community of physics majors and provide them with the skills, mindset, and advising necessary to successfully complete a degree and transition to the next part of their careers. This new course sequence assembles a new cohort of majors annually. To prepare each cohort, students engage in a variety of activities that span from student success skills to more specific physics content while building an entrepreneurial mindset. Students participate in activities including study skills, career night, course planning, campus services, and a department social function. More importantly, students gain exposure to programming, literature searches, data analysis, technical writing, elevator pitches, and experimental design via hands-on projects. This includes the students proposing, designing, and conducting their own experiments. Preliminary evidence indicates increased retention, student success, and an enhanced sense of community among physics undergraduate students, The overall number of majors and students eventually completing their physics degrees has nearly tripled. Associate Professor, Department of Physics.

  11. A Study to Maximize the Learning Experience in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    designed to teach physical chemistry concepts in a laboratory setting, a portion of which was designed to teach thcse concepts exclusive of the L lecture...validation of a set of curriculum materials designed to teach certain physical chemistry concepts with little or no reinforcement from a lecture setting...8217 understanding of the discipline being studied. Anderson says not only is there a need for new perspectives for teaching science, but It is especially

  12. Physical chemistry and membrane properties of two phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate isomers†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Janmey, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The most highly charged phospholipids, polyphosphoinositides, are often involved in signaling pathways that originate at cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and different isomers of polyphosphoinositides have distinct biological functions that cannot be explained by separate highly specific protein ligand binding sites [Lemmon, Nature Reviews Molecular and Cell Biology, 2008, 9 99–111]. PtdIns(3,5)P2 is a low abundance phosphoinositide localized to cytoplasmic-facing membrane surfaces, with relatively few known ligands, yet PtdIns(3,5)P2 plays a key role in controlling membrane trafficking events and cellular stress responses that cannot be duplicated by other phosphoinositides [Dove et al., Nature, 1997, 390, 187–192; Michell, FEBS Journal, 2013, 280, 6281–6294]. Here we show that PtdIns(3,5)P2 is structurally distinct from PtdIns(4,5)P2 and other more common phospholipids, with unique physical chemistry. Using multiscale molecular dynamics techniques on the quantum level, single molecule, and in bilayer settings, we found that the negative charge of PtdIns(3,5)P2 is spread over a larger area, compared to PtdIns(4,5)P2, leading to a decreased ability to bind divalent ions. Additionally, our results match well with experimental data characterizing the cluster forming potential of these isomers in the presence of Ca2+ [Wang et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2012, 134, 3387–3395; van den Bogaart et al., Nature, 2011, 479, 552–555]. Our results demonstrate that the different cellular roles of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,5)P2 in vivo are not simply determined by their localization by enzymes that produce or degrade them, but also by their molecular size, ability to chelate ions, and the partial dehydration of those ions, which might affect the ability of PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 to form phosphoinositide-rich clusters in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25901568

  13. Physical chemistry and membrane properties of two phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate isomers.

    PubMed

    Slochower, David R; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Janmey, Paul A

    2015-05-21

    The most highly charged phospholipids, polyphosphoinositides, are often involved in signaling pathways that originate at cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and different isomers of polyphosphoinositides have distinct biological functions that cannot be explained by separate highly specific protein ligand binding sites [Lemmon, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 2008, 9, 99-111]. PtdIns(3,5)P2 is a low abundance phosphoinositide localized to cytoplasmic-facing membrane surfaces, with relatively few known ligands, yet PtdIns(3,5)P2 plays a key role in controlling membrane trafficking events and cellular stress responses that cannot be duplicated by other phosphoinositides [Dove et al., Nature, 1997, 390, 187-192; Michell, FEBS J., 2013, 280, 6281-6294]. Here we show that PtdIns(3,5)P2 is structurally distinct from PtdIns(4,5)P2 and other more common phospholipids, with unique physical chemistry. Using multiscale molecular dynamics techniques on the quantum level, single molecule, and in bilayer settings, we found that the negative charge of PtdIns(3,5)P2 is spread over a larger area, compared to PtdIns(4,5)P2, leading to a decreased ability to bind divalent ions. Additionally, our results match well with experimental data characterizing the cluster forming potential of these isomers in the presence of Ca(2+) [Wang et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 3387-3395; van den Bogaart et al., Nature, 2011, 479, 552-555]. Our results demonstrate that the different cellular roles of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,5)P2in vivo are not simply determined by their localization by enzymes that produce or degrade them, but also by their molecular size, ability to chelate ions, and the partial dehydration of those ions, which might affect the ability of PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 to form phosphoinositide-rich clusters in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    ScienceCinema

    Finkelstein, Noah [University of Colorado, Colorado, USA

    2016-07-12

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  15. Educating Scientifically: Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  16. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  17. A Simultaneous Analysis Problem for Advanced General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, J. J.; Gallaher, T. N.

    1983-01-01

    Oxidation of magnesium metal in air has been used as an introductory experiment for determining the formula of a compound. The experiment described employs essentially the same laboratory procedure but is significantly more advanced in terms of information sought. Procedures and sample calculations/results are provided. (JN)

  18. Recent Advances in Glycerol Polymers: Chemistry and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, we describe the underlying chemistry of glycerol, which provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations. We then review the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth. Next, we describe several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity. Fourth, we describe the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine. Finally we conclude and summarize the findings, as well as discuss potential opportunities for continued research efforts. PMID:25308354

  19. Recent advances in glycerol polymers: chemistry and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, the underlying chemistry of glycerol that provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations is described. Then, the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth are reviewed. Next, several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity are described. Fourth, the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine is described. Finally, the findings are concluded and summarized, as well as the potential opportunities for continued research efforts are discussed.

  20. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  1. s-Block Elements. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit I1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two sections and an appendix, focuses on the elements and compounds of Groups I and II (the s-block) of the periodic table. The groups are treated concurrently to note comparisons between groups and to…

  2. Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Alison J.

    2004-01-01

    An active service-learning research work is conducted in the field of advanced environmental chemistry. Multiple projects are assigned to students, which promote individual learning skills, self-confidence as scientists, and a deep understanding of the environmental chemist's profession.

  3. Atomic Structure. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on atomic structure is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. Level one focuses on the atomic nucleus. Level two focuses on the arrangement of extranuclear electrons, approaching atomic orbitals through both electron bombardment and spectra.…

  4. Equilibrium II: Acids and Bases. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…

  5. Hydrocarbons. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit O1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on hydrocarbons is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit is divided into sections dealing with alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, and several aspects of the petroleum industry. Two experiments, exercises (with answers), and pre- and post-tests are included.…

  6. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  7. The Gaseous State. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the gaseous state is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. Level one deals with the distinctive characteristics of gases, then considers the gas laws, in particular the ideal gas equation and its applications. Level two concentrates on…

  8. Bonding and Structure. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on chemical bonding is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, provides an introduction to the main types of chemical bonding and important aspects of structure. The main emphasis is placed on such topics as ionic and covalent bonding,…

  9. Chemical Energetics. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on chemical energetics is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, provides a clear yet detailed and thorough introduction to the topic. Level one extends ideas from previous courses, introduces and emphasizes the importance of Hess'…

  10. Equilibrium I: Principles. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the principles of equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. After a treatment of non-mathematical aspects in level one (the idea of a reversible reaction, characteristics of an equilibrium state, the Le Chatelier's principle),…

  11. An Advanced Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Exploring NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanke, Randall; Stauffer, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment to study the advantages and hazards of the coupling of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is described. The combination is commonly used for analysis and process control of various ingredients used in agriculture, petroleum and food products.

  12. Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences (by Raymond Chang)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pounds, Andrew

    2001-05-01

    This book does offer an alternative approach to physical chemistry that is particularly well suited for those who want to pursue a course of study more focused on the biological sciences. It could also be an excellent choice for schools that mainly serve preprofessional programs or for schools that have split physical chemistry tracks to independently serve the B.S. and B.A. degrees. Since the book focuses on single-variable mathematics, schools that require only one year of calculus for their chemistry degree could also think about adopting it. However, in general, the use of the text as a drop-in replacement for physical chemistry for the B.S. degree is questionable owing to its lack of focus on quantum mechanics and its implications for spectroscopy.

  13. Analyzing Students' Understanding of Models and Modeling Referring to the Disciplines Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krell, Moritz; Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    In this study, secondary school students' ( N = 617; grades 7 to 10) understanding of models and modeling was assessed using tasks which explicitly refer to the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics and, as a control, to no scientific discipline. The students' responses are interpreted as their biology-, chemistry-, and physics-related or general understanding of models and modeling. A subpopulation ( N = 115; one class per grade) was subsequently asked which models they had in mind when answering the tasks referring to biology, chemistry, and physics (open-ended questions). The findings show significant differences between students' biology-, chemistry-, and physics-related understandings of models and modeling. Based on a theoretical framework, the biology-related understanding can be seen as less elaborated than the physics- and chemistry-related understandings. The students' general understanding of models and modeling is located between the biology- and the physics-related understandings. Answers to the open-ended questions indicate that students primarily think about scale and functional models in the context of biology tasks. In contrast, more abstract models (e.g., analogical models, diagrams) were mentioned in relation to chemistry and physics tasks. In sum, the findings suggest that models may be used in a rather descriptive way in biology classes but in a predictive way in chemistry and physics classes. This may explain discipline-specific understandings of models and modeling. Only small differences were found in students' understanding of models and modeling between the different grade levels 7/8 and 9/10.

  14. Advances in Measurement Technology at NIST's Physical Measurement Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmer, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The NIST mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology. The Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML) has responsibility for maintaining national standards for two dozen physical quantities needed for international trade; and, importantly, it carries out advanced research at the frontiers of measurement science to enable extending innovation into new realms and new markets. This talk will highlight advances being made across several sectors of technology; and it will describe how PML interacts with its many collaborators and clients in industry, government, and academe.

  15. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  16. plasmaFoam: An OpenFOAM framework for computational plasma physics and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Verma, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    As emphasized in the 2012 Roadmap for low temperature plasmas (LTP), scientific computing has emerged as an essential tool for the investigation and prediction of the fundamental physical and chemical processes associated with these systems. While several in-house and commercial codes exist, with each having its own advantages and disadvantages, a common framework that can be developed by researchers from all over the world will likely accelerate the impact of computational studies on advances in low-temperature plasma physics and chemistry. In this regard, we present a finite volume computational toolbox to perform high-fidelity simulations of LTP systems. This framework, primarily based on the OpenFOAM solver suite, allows us to enhance our understanding of multiscale plasma phenomenon by performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations on unstructured meshes using well-established high performance computing tools that are widely used in the computational fluid dynamics community. In this talk, we will present preliminary results obtained using the OpenFOAM-based solver suite with benchmark three-dimensional simulations of microplasma devices including both dielectric and plasma regions. We will also discuss the future outlook for the solver suite.

  17. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. The main activity during this granting period was a completion of a detailed comparative analysis of the suite of spectral editing techniques developed in our laboratory for this purpose. The appended report is a manuscript being submitted to the Journal of Magnetic Resonance on this subject.

  18. Does Everyone's Motivational Beliefs about Physical Science Decline in Secondary School?: Heterogeneity of Adolescents' Achievement Motivation Trajectories in Physics and Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Degol, Jessica Lauren; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue

    2016-12-01

    Students' motivational beliefs about learning physical science are critical for achieving positive educational outcomes. In this study, we incorporated expectancy-value theory to capture the heterogeneity of adolescents' motivational trajectories in physics and chemistry from seventh to twelfth grade and linked these trajectories to science-related outcomes. We used a cross-sequential design based on three different cohorts of adolescents (N = 699; 51.5 % female; 95 % European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave = 13.2, 14.1, and 15.3 years) coming from ten public secondary schools. Although many studies claim that physical science motivation declines on average over time, we identified seven differential motivational trajectories of ability self-concept and task values, and found associations of these trajectories with science achievement, advanced science course taking, and science career aspirations. Adolescents' ability self-concept and task values in physics and chemistry were also positively related and interlinked over time. Examining how students' motivational beliefs about physical science develop in secondary school offers insight into the capacity of different groups of students to successfully adapt to their changing educational environments.

  19. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Beyond: Modern Advances in Borylation Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lawson, James R; Melen, Rebecca L

    2017-02-03

    As main-group chemistry, in particular boron chemistry, has expanded and developed over the past 20 years, one reagent has risen to prominence as well. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, B(C6F5)3 (commonly known as BCF), has demonstrated extensive applications in a wide variety of reactions, including borylation, hydrogenation, hydrosilylation, frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) chemistry, Lewis acid catalysis, and more. The high Lewis acidity of B(C6F5)3 is derived from the electronic effects of its three C6F5 rings, rendering it a versatile reagent for a great number of reactions. In addition, the steric bulk of these rings also allows it to function as the Lewis acid in a FLP, granting this reagent yet another synthetically useful application. However, as main-group chemistry continues to evolve as a field, new reagents are required that go beyond BCF, increasing not only the range of reactions available but also the breadth of compounds attainable. Great strides have already been made in order to accomplish this task, and this review will highlight modern advances in boron chemistry relating to borylation reactions. Herein, we will show the recent uses of B(C6F5)3 in borylation reactions while also focusing on current advances in novel borane and borocation usage that eclipses that of the stalwart B(C6F5)3.

  20. Project for the Institution of an Advanced Course in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    2006-06-01

    A project for an advanced course in physics at the master level, is presented in great detail. The goal of this project is to create a specific and rigorous training for those who want to carry out experimental and theoretical research on "anomalies" in physical science, especially from the point of view of atmospheric physics, plasma physics, photonic physics, biophysics, astronomy and astrophysics. A specific training in powering mental skills is planned as well. The planned teaching program is presented as a two-year course where the following subjects are intended to be taught: cognitive techniques (I and II), radiation physics (I and II), biophysics (I and II), bioastronomy (I and II), history of physics (I and II), didactics of physics, physics of atmospheric plasmas, physics of non-stationary photonic events, physics of non-linear processes, complements of quantum mechanics, quantum informatics, research methodology in physics and astronomy, computer science methods in physics and astronomy, optoelectronics, radioelectronics. Detailed teaching programs, didactics methods, and performance evaluation, are presented for each subject. The technical content of this project is preceded by an ample introduction that shows all the reasons of this kind of physics course, particularly aimed at innovation in physical science.

  1. Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach (by Donald A. McQuarrie and John D. Simon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, Jeffrey D.

    1998-05-01

    University Science Books: Sausalito, CA, 1997. xxiii + 1270 pp. Figs and tables. 10.28 x 7.27 x 2.34 in. ISBN 0-935702-99-7. $80.00. This book will not appeal to traditionalists. Those willing to take a fresh look at the subject, however, will find this well-executed text an attractive alternative. Most undergraduate physical chemistry textbooks begin with thermodynamics, then proceed to quantum chemistry and finally to statistical thermodynamics and kinetics. This structure derives from the classic textbooks such as Physical Chemistry by Alberty and Silbey, which traces its origin to the Outline of Theoretical Chemistry written by Herbert Getman in 1913 when thermodynamics was the core of physical chemistry and quantum mechanics was in its infancy. Occasional authors have tried to deviate from this orthodoxy. I learned my undergraduate physical chemistry from the solid textbook written in 1964 by a University of Washington team: Eggers, Gregory, Halsey, and Rabinovitch. That text opens with quantum mechanics, as does the elegant and sophisticated book by Berry, Rice, and Ross. None of these books has been very successful, however, partly because they challenge tradition in a pedagogically conservative profession.

  2. Advanced Software Methods for Physics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lista, L.

    2006-01-01

    Unprecedented data analysis complexity is experienced in modern High Energy Physics experiments. The complexity arises from the growing size of recorded data samples, the large number of data analyses performed by different users in each single experiment, and the level of complexity of each single analysis. For this reason, the requirements on software for data analysis impose a very high level of reliability. We present two concrete examples: the former from BaBar experience with the migration to a new Analysis Model with the definition of a new model for the Event Data Store, the latter about a toolkit for multivariate statistical and parametric Monte Carlo analysis developed using generic programming.

  3. Density functional theory across chemistry, physics and biology.

    PubMed

    van Mourik, Tanja; Bühl, Michael; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2014-03-13

    The past decades have seen density functional theory (DFT) evolve from a rising star in computational quantum chemistry to one of its major players. This Theme Issue, which comes half a century after the publication of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems that laid the foundations of modern DFT, reviews progress and challenges in present-day DFT research. Rather than trying to be comprehensive, this Theme Issue attempts to give a flavour of selected aspects of DFT.

  4. An Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model for the Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jin-Sheng

    2001-01-01

    This report is the final report for the Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1000. The tasks outlined in the various proposals are: (1) Development of an aerosol chemistry model; (2) Utilization of satellite measurements of trace gases along with analysis of temperatures and dynamic conditions to understand ice cloud formation, dehydration and sedimentation in the winter polar regions; (3) Comparison of the HALOE and SAGE II time dependencies of the Pinatubo aerosol decay. The publications are attached.

  5. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  6. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers…

  7. Mental Rolodexing: Senior Chemistry Majors' Understanding of Chemical and Physical Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFever, Ryan S.; Bruce, Heather; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Using a constructivist framework, eight senior chemistry majors were interviewed twice to determine: (i) structural inferences they are able to make from chemical and physical properties; and (ii) their ability to apply their inferences and understandings of these chemical and physical properties to solve tasks on the reactivity of organic…

  8. Biology--Chemistry--Physics, Students' Guide, A Three-Year Sequence, Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Arthur; And Others

    Parts I and II of the students' guide to the three-year integrated biology, chemistry, and physics course being prepared by the Portland Project Committee are contained in this guide. A committee reviewed and selected material developed by the national course improvement groups--Physical Science Study Committee, Chemical Bond Approach, Chemical…

  9. Biology-Chemistry-Physics, Teachers' Guide, a Three-Year Sequence, Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Arthur; And Others

    This is one of two teacher's guides for a three-year integrated biology, chemistry, and physics course being prepared by the Portland Project Committee. This committee reviewed and selected material developed by the national course improvement groups--Physical Science Study Committee, Chemical Bond Approach, Chemical Education Materials Study,…

  10. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Science)

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.

    1996-10-01

    DOE has engaged the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science (IPC/RAS) to conduct studies of the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium elements (TRU, primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. This work is supported by DOE because the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRU and technetium, are alkaline, and the chemistries of TRU and technetium are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry and on coprecipitation. In FY 1996, the work will focus more on the applied chemistry of TR and technetium in alkaline media and work will continue on the coprecipitation task.

  11. The Advanced Light Source: A new tool for research in atomic and molecular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1991-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the world's brightest synchrotron radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum when it begins operation in 1993. It will be available as a national user facility to researchers in a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, atomic and molecular physics, chemistry, biology, imaging, and technology. The high brightness of the ALS will be particularly well suited to high-resolution studies of tenuous targets, such as excited atoms, ions, and clusters.

  12. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences: FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences is conducting a program of fundamental and applied research into the chemistry of the actinides and technetium in alkaline media such as are present in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. This work is being coordinated and the results disseminated through a technical liaison maintained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The technical liaison is performing laboratory studies on plutonium chemistry in alkaline media. The activities at the Institute of Physical Chemistry and through the liaison are pursued to improve understanding of the chemical behavior of key long-lived radioactive elements under current operating and proposed tank waste processing conditions. Both activities are supported by the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program under the Office of Science and Technology of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. ALPhA: The Advanced Laboratory Physics Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Eric; McCann, Lowell; Reichert, Jonathan; Spalding, Gabe; Essick, John; van Baak, David; Wonnell, Steve

    2011-03-01

    The Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPhA) is a group of people with a shared interest in teaching physics labs at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level. ALPhA works closely with the American Physical Society (APS), the Optical Society of America (OSA), and the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) to develop new methods for teaching modern experimental physics. In the summer of 2010 we initiated the ALPhA Immersion Program, a three-day short course where instructors visit a lab, do one or more of the local experiments (home-built or commercial) with the local instructor, and learn the experiments well enough to incorporate them into their own programs. These immersions were very well received, with attendees filling up all available slots. In this talk I will describe ALPhA and the Immersions Program and solicit input from the broader community.

  14. Atomic physics at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne`s 7-GeV synchrotron light source (APS) is expected to commence operations for research early in FY 1996. The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Research Center (BESSRC) is likewise expected to start its research programs at that time. As members of the BESSRC CAT (Collaborative Access Team), we are preparing, together with atomic physicists from the University of Western Michigan, the University of Tennessee, and University of Notre Dame, to initiate a series of atomic physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of the APS, especially its high brilliance for photon energies extending from about 3 keV to more than 50 keV. Most of our early work will be conducted on an undulator beam line and we are thus concentrating on various aspects of that beam line and its associated experimental areas. Our group has undertaken responsibilities in such areas as hutch design, evaluation of undulator performance, user policy, interfacing and instrumentation, etc. Initial experiments will probably utilize existing apparatus. We are, however, planning to move rapidly to more sophisticated measurements involving, for example, ion-beam targets, simultaneous laser excitation, and the spectroscopy of emitted photons.

  15. Chapter 1: Recent Advances in Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.

    2008-10-01

    For millennia, the Sun (and the universe) has been viewed in the visual light. As the bestower of light and life, the ancients made God out of the Sun. With the Babylonians, or with the multiple origins with the Chinese, Egyptians and Indians, quoting the Rig Veda:"All that exists was born from Sūrya, the God of gods.", we have come a long way to understanding the Sun. In the early seventeenth century, however, Galileo showed that the Sun was not an immaculate object. Thus began our scientific interests in our nearest stellar neighbour, the Sun (cf., Figure 1.1.), with its sunspots and the related solar activity. The observations of the Sun and their interpretations are of universal importance for at least two reasons: First, the Sun is the source of energy for the entire planetary system and all aspects of our life have direct impact on what happens on the Sun; and second, the Sun's proximity makes it unique among the billions of stars in the sky of which we can resolve its surface features and study physical processes at work...

  16. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methane groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples. In this report period we have focused our work on 1 segment of the program. Our last report outlined progress in using our NMR editing methods with higher field operation where higher magic angle spinning rates are required. Significant difficulties were identified, and these have been the main subject of study during the most recent granting period.

  17. Advancing Chemistry with the Lanthanide and Actinide Elements: Final Report, September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, William John

    2013-09-11

    The objective of this research is to use the unique chemistry available from complexes of the lanthanides and actinides, as well as related heavy metals such as scandium, yttrium, and bismuth to advance chemistry in energy-related areas. The lanthanides and actinides have a combination of properties in terms of size, charge, electropositive character, and f valence orbitals that provides special opportunities to probe reactivity and catalysis in ways not possible with the other metals in the periodic table. We seek to discover reaction pathways and structural types that reveal new options in reaction chemistry related to energy. Identification of new paradigms in structure and reactivity should stimulate efforts to develop new types of catalytic processes that at present are not under consideration because either the transformation or the necessary intermediates are unknown.

  18. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Astrophysics (Advanced Physics Readers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Bob

    2000-07-01

    Here is a handy and attractive reader to support students on post-16 courses. It covers the astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology that are demanded at A-level and offers anyone interested in these fields an interesting and engaging reference book. The author and the production team deserve credit for producing such an attractive book. The content, in ten chapters, covers what one would expect at this level but it is how it is presented that struck me as the book's most powerful asset. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. Line drawings are clear and convey enough information to make them more than illustrations - they are as valuable as the text in conveying information. Full colour is used throughout to enhance illustrations and tables and to lift key sections of the text. A number of colour photographs complement the material and serve to maintain interest and remind readers that astrophysics is about real observable phenomena. Included towards the end is a set of tables offering information on physical and astronomical data, mathematical techniques and constellation names and abbreviations. This last table puzzled me as to its value. There is a helpful bibliography which includes society contacts and a website related to the text. Perhaps my one regret is that there is no section where students are encouraged to actually do some real astronomy. Astrophysics is in danger of becoming an armchair and calculator interest. There are practical projects that students could undertake either for school assessment or for personal interest. Simple astrophotography to capture star trails, observe star colours and estimate apparent magnitudes is an example, as is a simple double-star search. There are dozens more. However, the author's style is friendly and collaborative. He befriends the reader as they journey together through the ideas. There are progress questions at the end of each chapter. Their style tends to be rather closed and they emphasize factual recall

  20. Linking Physics, Chemistry, and Math for Sustained Reform in Teacher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mary; Lewis, W. James; Vokos, Stamatis; Plisch, Monica

    2012-02-01

    Physics, chemistry and math consistently rank as the highest need disciplines for qualified teachers. There are many common challenges faced by teacher educators in these disciplines, as well as some key differences. The panel will discuss these similarities and differences, and explore possible links between disciplinary efforts to promote sustained reform. The discussion will build on the work of the Task Force on Teacher Education in Physics, the ACS effort to launch the Chemistry Teacher Education Coalition, and the Conference Board of Mathematical Sciences report on the Mathematical Education of Teachers.

  1. New Developments in the Physical Chemistry of Shock Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlott, Dana D.

    2011-05-01

    This review discusses new developments in shock compression science with a focus on molecular media. Some basic features of shock and detonation waves, nonlinear excitations that can produce extreme states of high temperature and high pressure, are described. Methods of generating and detecting shock waves are reviewed, especially those using tabletop lasers that can be interfaced with advanced molecular diagnostics. Newer compression methods such as shockless compression and precompression shock that generate states of cold dense molecular matter are discussed. Shock compression creates a metallic form of hydrogen, melts diamond, and makes water a superionic liquid with unique catalytic properties. Our understanding of detonations at the molecular level has improved a great deal as a result of advanced nonequilibrium molecular simulations. Experimental measurements of detailed molecular behavior behind a detonation front might be available soon using femtosecond lasers to produce nanoscale simulated detonation fronts.

  2. 2004 Physics and Advanced Technologies In the News

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-11-01

    Several outstanding research activities in the Physics and Advanced Technology Directorate in 2004 were featured in ''Science & Technology Review'', the monthly publication of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Reprints of those articles accompany this report. Here we summarize other science and technology highlights, as well as the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2004.

  3. 2005 Physics and Advanced Technologies in the News

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2006-12-19

    Several outstanding research activities in the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate in 2005 were featured in ''Science and Technology Review'', the monthly publication of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Reprints of those articles accompany this report. Here we summarize other science and technology highlights, as well as the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2005. As part of the World Year of Physics commemorating the 100th anniversary of Einstein's ''miraculous year'', we also highlight ongoing physics research that would not be possible without Einstein's pioneering accomplishments.

  4. A Study of Faculty Approaches to Teaching Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Michael Ryan

    Chemistry education researchers have not adequately studied teaching and learning experiences at all levels in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum leaving gaps in discipline-based STEM education communities understanding about how the upper- division curricula works (National Research Council, 2012b; Towns, 2013). This study explored faculty approaches to teaching in upper-division physical chemistry course settings using an interview-based methodology. Two conceptualizations of approaches to teaching emerged from a phenomenographic analysis of interview transcripts: (1) faculty beliefs about the purposes for teaching physical chemistry and (2) their conceptions of their role as an instructor in these course settings. Faculty who reported beliefs predominantly centered on helping students develop conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills in physical chemistry often worked with didactic models of teaching, which emphasized the transfer of expert knowledge to students. When faculty expressed beliefs that were more inclusive of conceptual, epistemic, and social learning goals in science education they often described more student-centered models of teaching and learning, which put more responsibilities on them to facilitate students' interactive engagement with the material and peers during regularly scheduled class time. Knowledge of faculty thinking, as evinced in a rich description of their accounts of their experience, provides researchers and professional developers with useful information about the potential opportunities or barriers that exist for helping faculty align their beliefs and goals for teaching with research-based instructional strategies.

  5. Radiation physics and chemistry of biomolecules. Recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    A chapter of the book ;Radiation chemistry. From basics to application in materials and life sciences (EDP Science, Paris, France, 2008); was devoted to the state-of-the-art in the research on ionizing radiation (IR) effects on biomolecules. An update, eight years later, seemed pertinent enough to the editors of this journal who accepted to dedicate a Special Issue to the latest developments in this area of high interest for cancer radiotherapy, nuclear workers' radioprotection and food radiosterilisation. We sincerely thank them and the authors who accepted to present reviews of their most recent work. Obviously, only a small part of the research in the fascinating domain of molecular radiobiology can be covered here. Some articles are presenting the contribution of biophysical models and computational techniques to the understanding of IR effects on molecules such as DNA and proteins, or on larger systems such as chromatin, chromosomes and even cells (Nikjoo et al., Štěpán & Davídková, Ballarini & Carante, and Nikitaki et al.). In these papers, as well as in many others, several qualities of IR are compared in order to explain the observed differences of effects. The damages induced by the low energy electrons and new techniques involved in their study are discussed in great detail (Sanche and Fromm & Boulanouar). The chemistry behind the IR induced damages (single or clustered), studied in many laboratories around the world is presented in several papers (Cadet & Wagner, Sevilla et al., Chatgilialoglu et al., and Greenberg). One of them addresses a very useful comparison between the effects of IR and UV exposure on DNA (Ravanat & Douki). The majority of the papers in this Special Issue is dealing with DNA and this reflects the real situation: damages of DNA are more studied than those of other biomolecules. This is due to the role of DNA as main support of hereditary information. Nevertheless, more and more studies are outlining the influence of epigenetic

  6. Computers in Undergraduate Education: Mathematics, Physics, Statistics, and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, J. David

    This is the report of a conference which was initiated by the National Science Foundation's Office of Computing Activities and which explored and summarized current thinking about the role of the computer for undergraduate curricula in the physical and mathematical sciences. The conference focused on deciding which goals of the existing…

  7. Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

  8. A Course on the Physics and Chemistry of Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1971-01-01

    Describes a course on environmental pollution which stresses physical and chemical principles. Course presents a unified discussion of air and water pollution and solid waste with special treatment of pesticides, thermal pollution, radioactivity, and electric power generation. Uses historical and current statistics extensively to set pollution…

  9. Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

  10. High School Students' Attitudes and Beliefs on Using the Science Writing Heuristic in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putti, Alice

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses student attitudes and beliefs on using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) in an advanced placement (AP) chemistry classroom. During the 2007 school year, the SWH was used in a class of 24 AP chemistry students. Using a Likert-type survey, student attitudes and beliefs on the process were determined. Methods for the study are…

  11. Combining research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A. The femtosecond molecular dynamics of small gas-phase anion clusters. Part B. Surveying student beliefs about chemistry and the development of physical chemistry learning tutorials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Jack

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation combines work in the areas of experimental physical chemistry and chemical education. In the area of physical chemistry, femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to interrogate the time-dependence for energy redistribution, solvent reorientation, and dissociation dynamics in small gas-phase anion clusters. The chemical education research addressed in this manuscript include the development and validation of a survey to measure students' beliefs about chemistry and the learning of chemistry and the development and testing of learning tutorials for use in undergraduate physical chemistry courses in thermodynamics and kinetics. In the first part of this dissertation, the Cu(CD3OD) dynamics are investigated using a combination of femtosecond pump-probe experiments and ab initio calculations. Dissociation of this complex into Cu and CD3OD occurs on two distinct time scales: 3 and 30 ps, which arise, respectively, from the coupling of intermolecular solvent rotations and excited methyl rotor rotation into the Cu-O dissociation component upon electron photodetachment of the precursor anion. In the second part of this dissertation, the time-resolved recombination of photodissociated IBr-(CO2)n (n = 5 - 10) cluster anions is investigated. Upon excitation to the A' 2pi 1/2 state of the chromophore, the bare anion results in I- and Br products, upon solvation with CO2, the IBr- chromophore regains near-IR absorption after recombination and vibrational relaxation on the ground electronic state. The recombination times vary with the number of solvent molecules from 12 ps for n = 5 to 900 ps for n = 10. Extensive electronic structure and non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations provide a framework to understand this behavior. In the third part of this dissertation, the modification and validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for use in chemistry is presented in detail. The CLASS survey is designed to measure student

  12. Surface chemistry and physics of deuterium retention in lithiated graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C. N.; Krstic, Predrag S; Allain, J. P.; Heim, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H.

    2011-01-01

    Lithium wall conditioning in TFTR, CDX-U, T-11M, TJ-II and NSTX is found to yield enhanced plasma performance manifest, in part, through improved deuterium particle control. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments examine the affect of D irradiation on lithiated graphite and show that the surface chemistry of lithiated graphite after D ion bombardment (500 eV/amu) is fundamentally different from that of non-Li conditioned graphite. Instead of simple LiD bonding seen in pure liquid Li, graphite introduces additional complexities. XPS spectra show that Li-O-D (533.0 {+-} 0.6 eV) and Li-C-D (291.4 {+-} 0.6 eV) bonds, for a nominal Li dose of 2 {micro}m, become 'saturated' with D at fluences between 3.8 and 5.2 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. Atomistic modeling indicate that Li-O-D-C interactions may be a result of multibody effects as opposed to molecular bonding.

  13. The relative role of "A" level chemistry, physics and biology in the medical course.

    PubMed

    Tomilson, R W; Clack, G B; Pettingale, K W; Anderson, J; Ryan, K C

    1977-03-01

    The performance of 209 students in the 2nd MBBS, first clinical year and final MBBS examinations has been compared retrospectively with their grades in chemistry, physics and biology at "A" level. The mean grade has also been determined for students from different social classes and secondary education. Significant differences in marks for biology were found between successful and not so successful students, especially in the pre-clinical part of the course. Significnat differences in marks and significant correlations were also found for physics but not to any great extent for chemistry. The relative role of these three basic sciences in the medical course is discussed. The suggestion is made that there is a need for a re-appraisal of the privleged position of chemistry and an unquestioned science requirement for entry to medical school.

  14. Physical chemistry of nucleic acids and their complexes.

    PubMed

    Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2013-12-01

    Studies of the physical properties of nucleic acids began almost immediately following the discovery of the DNA structure. Early investigations focused on the stability and specificity of multi-strand polynucleotide complexes, then gradually on their interaction with other molecules, particularly proteins. As molecular and structural biology expanded to provide detailed information about biochemical mechanisms, physical studies eventually acquired the additional constraint that they should be relevant to functioning biological systems. We describe work in our laboratory that began with investigations of relatively simple questions about the role of electrostatic interactions in the stabilization of multi-strand nucleic acid structures, and evolved to studies of chromatin structure in vitro and within the nucleus.

  15. Variational Principles and Methods in Theoretical Physics and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbet, Robert K.

    2005-07-01

    Preface; Part I. Classical Mathematics and Physics: 1. History of variational theory; 2. Classical mechanics; 3. Applied mathematics; Part II. Bound States in Quantum Mechanics: 4. Time-independent quantum mechanics; 5. Independent-electron models; 6. Time-dependent theory and linear response; Part III. Continuum States and Scattering Theory: 7. Multiple scattering theory for molecules and solids; 8. Variational methods for continuum states; 9. Electron-impact rovibrational excitation of molecules; Part IV. Field Theories: 10. Relativistic Lagrangian theories.

  16. Life as physics and chemistry: A system view of biology.

    PubMed

    Baverstock, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Cellular life can be viewed as one of many physical natural systems that extract free energy from their environments in the most efficient way, according to fundamental physical laws, and grow until limited by inherent physical constraints. Thus, it can be inferred that it is the efficiency of this process that natural selection acts upon. The consequent emphasis on metabolism, rather than replication, points to a metabolism-first origin of life with the adoption of DNA template replication as a second stage development. This order of events implies a cellular regulatory system that pre-dates the involvement of DNA and might, therefore, be based on the information acquired as peptides fold into proteins, rather than on genetic regulatory networks. Such an epigenetic cell regulatory model, the independent attractor model, has already been proposed to explain the phenomenon of radiation induced genomic instability. Here it is extended to provide an epigenetic basis for the morphological and functional diversity that evolution has yielded, based on natural selection of the most efficient free energy transduction. Empirical evidence which challenges the current genetic basis of cell and molecular biology and which supports the above proposal is discussed.

  17. Emergence of life: Physical chemistry changes the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Jan; Pielak, Gary J; Poolman, Bert

    2015-06-10

    Origin of life research has been slow to advance not only because of its complex evolutionary nature (Franklin Harold: In Search of Cell History, 2014) but also because of the lack of agreement on fundamental concepts, including the question of 'what is life?'. To re-energize the research and define a new experimental paradigm, we advance four premises to better understand the physicochemical complexities of life's emergence: (1) Chemical and Darwinian (biological) evolutions are distinct, but become continuous with the appearance of heredity. (2) Earth's chemical evolution is driven by energies of cycling (diurnal) disequilibria and by energies of hydrothermal vents. (3) Earth's overall chemical complexity must be high at the origin of life for a subset of (complex) chemicals to phase separate and evolve into living states. (4) Macromolecular crowding in aqueous electrolytes under confined conditions enables evolution of molecular recognition and cellular self-organization. We discuss these premises in relation to current 'constructive' (non-evolutionary) paradigm of origins research - the process of complexification of chemical matter 'from the simple to the complex'. This paradigm artificially avoids planetary chemical complexity and the natural tendency of molecular compositions toward maximum disorder embodied in the second law of thermodynamics. Our four premises suggest an empirical program of experiments involving complex chemical compositions under cycling gradients of temperature, water activity and electromagnetic radiation.

  18. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  19. Retention of Differential and Integral Calculus: A Case Study of a University Student in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukic Matic, Ljerka; Dahl, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on retention of differential and integral calculus concepts of a second-year student of physical chemistry at a Danish university. The focus was on what knowledge the student retained 14 months after the course and on what effect beliefs about mathematics had on the retention. We argue that if a student can quickly…

  20. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  1. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  2. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  3. Using Metaphor Theory to Examine Conceptions of Energy in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies depending on context. In this paper, the discourse used to explain the role of energy in systems from biology, chemistry, and physics is examined from the perspective of metaphor theory. Six substance metaphors for energy are identified in…

  4. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  5. Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

  6. For the Love of Learning Science: Connecting Learning Orientation and Career Productivity in Physics and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John

    2010-01-01

    An individual's motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this…

  7. Investigating Intermolecular Interactions via Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullman, David; Peterson, Karen I.

    2004-01-01

    A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) project designed as a module for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described. The effects of van der Waals interactions on the condensed-phase structure are examined by the analysis of the pattern of the monolayer structures.

  8. The Nature of Students' Chemical Reasoning Employed in Scientific Argumentation in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, A.; Stanford, C.; Cole, R.; Towns, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent science education reform efforts have emphasized scientific practices in addition to scientific knowledge. Less work has been done at the tertiary level to consider students' engagement in scientific practices. In this work, we consider physical chemistry students' engagement in argumentation and construction of causal explanations.…

  9. A Practical and Convenient Diffusion Apparatus: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Ben; Ochiai, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a diffusion apparatus to be used in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment to determine the diffusion coefficients of aqueous solutions of sucrose and potassium dichromate. Included is the principle of the method, apparatus design and description, and experimental procedure. (Author/DS)

  10. EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Michael P.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

  11. A Writing and Ethics Component for a Quantum Mechanics, Physical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John T.; Strickland, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A writing-across-the-curriculum and ethics component is presented for a second-semester, physical chemistry course. The activity involves introducing ethical issues pertinent to scientists. Students are asked to read additional material, participate in discussions, and write essays and a paper on an ethical issue. The writing and discussion…

  12. Addition of a Project-Based Component to a Conventional Expository Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Gorezi, Marianna

    2007-01-01

    Students should enjoy their laboratory classes and for this purpose a project-based activity is added to a conventional physical chemistry laboratory. Students were given project work instead of conventional experiment and then they had to make progress in the project according to instructions and then carry out experiments related to the project.

  13. A Game-Based Approach to an Entire Physical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daubenfeld, Thorsten; Zenker, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We designed, implemented, and evaluated a game-based learning approach to increase student motivation and achievement for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. By focusing only on the most important game aspects, the implementation was realized with a production ratio of 1:8 (study load in hours divided by production effort in hours).…

  14. The James Webb Space Telescope: Inspiration and Context for Physics and Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Dan; Johnston, Tania; Davies, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design, delivery, evaluation and impact of a CPD course for physics and chemistry teachers. A key aim of the course was to use the context of the James Webb Space Telescope project to inspire teachers and lead to enriched teaching of STEM subjects. (Contains 1 box and 3 figures.)

  15. Biology, Chemistry and Physics Teaching in Ohio: An Analysis of the 1982-1983 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Franklin B.; And Others

    This study assessed the qualifications of biology, chemistry, and physics teachers, both from the perspective of their initial preparation and with regard to the type of certification they possessed. In particular, the Ohio Department of Education sought to determine what patterns of preparation must be followed at each of Ohio's teacher education…

  16. Teaching about Ethics through Socioscientific Issues in Physics and Chemistry: Teacher Candidates' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth; Nieswandt, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and explain the origins of physics and chemistry teacher candidates' beliefs about teaching about ethics through socioscientific issues (SSI). This study utilized a series of in-depth interviews, while the participants (n = 12) were enrolled in a 9-month teacher education program at an urban…

  17. Faculty Beliefs about the Purposes for Teaching Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Michael R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a phenomenographic analysis of faculty beliefs about the purposes for teaching upper-division physical chemistry courses in the undergraduate curriculum. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to recruit a diverse group of faculty for interviews. Collectively, the participating faculty regularly teach or have taught…

  18. Coherence of Physics and Chemistry Curricula in Terms of the Electron Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elena, Ivanova

    2016-08-01

    One of the major contradictions in subject teaching is the contradiction between the unity of the world and the discrete separated generalized content of natural sciences that study natural phenomena. These are physics, chemistry, biology and more. One can eliminate the conflict if opens the content's interdisciplinary links set by the events that are studied by different disciplines. The corresponding contexts of the phenomenon content arise depending on the discipline, and they are not enough coordinated. Obviously, we need a mechanism that allows establishing interdisciplinary links in the content quickly and without losing the logic of the material and assess their coherence in academic disciplines. This article uses a quantitative method of coherence assessment elaborated by T.N. Gnitetskaya. The definition of the concept of the semantic state introduced by the authors is given in this article. The method is applied to coherence assessment of physics and chemistry textbooks. The coherence of two pairs of chemistry and physics textbooks by different authors in different combinations was calculated. The most cohered pairs of textbooks (chemistry-physics) were identified. One can recommend using the pair of textbooks for eighth grade that we offered that favors the development of holistic understandings of the world around us.

  19. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC…

  20. Selected chapters from general chemistry in physics teaching with the help of e - learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feszterová, Melánia

    2017-01-01

    Education in the field of natural disciplines - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology and Biology takes part in general education at all schools on the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to reach the state of balanced development of all personal characteristics of pupils, to teach them correctly identify and analyse problems, propose solutions and above all how to solve the problem itself. High quality education can be reached only through the pedagogues who have a good expertise knowledge, practical experience and high level of pedagogical abilities. The teacher as a disseminator of natural-scientific knowledge should be not only well-informed about modern tendencies in the field, but he/she also should actively participate in project tasks This is the reason why students of 1st year of study (bachelor degree) at the Department of Physics of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra attend lectures in the frame of subject General Chemistry. In this paper we present and describe an e - learning course called General Chemistry that is freely accessible to students. One of the aims of this course is to attract attention towards the importance of cross-curricular approach which seems to be fundamental in contemporary natural-scientific education (e.g. between Physics and Chemistry). This is why it is so important to implement a set of new topics and tasks that support development of abilities to realise cross-curricular goals into the process of preparation of future teachers of Physics.

  1. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  2. Job Satisfaction Levels of Secondary School Physics, Chemistry and Biology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskan, A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the job satisfaction levels of the teachers participating in the study and to investigate whether their job satisfaction levels differ with respect to certain variables. The participants of the study were 297 science teachers (physics: 104, chemistry: 105, biology: 87 and 1 N/A) from secondary schools in…

  3. Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)

  4. Lysozyme Thermal Denaturation and Self-Interaction: Four Integrated Thermodynamic Experiments for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Schaefle, Nathaniel J.; Muth, Gregory W.; Miessler, Gary L.; Clark, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an effort to infuse our physical chemistry laboratory with biologically relevant, investigative experiments, we detail four integrated thermodynamic experiments that characterize the denaturation (or unfolding) and self-interaction of hen egg white lysozyme as a function of pH and ionic strength. Students first use Protein Explorer to…

  5. Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology: A Mixed Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to assess preservice teachers' domain-specific epistemological beliefs and to investigate whether preservice teachers distinguish disciplinary differences (physics, chemistry, and biology) in domain-specific epistemological beliefs. Mixed-method research design guided the present research. The researcher explored…

  6. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence (AISS): An Introductory Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Edwalds-Gilbert, Gretchen; Landsberg, Adam S.; Copp, Newton; Ulsh, Lisa; Drew, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A new interdisciplinary, introductory science course was offered for the first time during the 2007-2008 school year. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the idea of working at the intersections of biology, chemistry, and physics and to recognize interconnections between the disciplines. Interdisciplinary laboratories are a key…

  7. Integrated Science as a Preparation for 'A' Level Physics, Chemistry and Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    Compared performance in A-level science examinations of students who took an integrated science course (SCISP) with students who studied the separate subjects of physics, chemistry, and biology to 0-level standard. Results show no significant differences between the performance of the two groups. (JN)

  8. Computational Modeling of the Optical Rotation of Amino Acids: An "in Silico" Experiment for Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Scott; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates the optical activity of the amino acid valine has been developed for an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Hybrid density functional theory calculations were carried out for valine to confirm the rule that adding a strong acid to a solution of an amino acid in the l…

  9. Framing a Program Designed to Train New Chemistry/Physics Teachers for California Outlying Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodily, Gerald P., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for a new high school chemistry and physics teacher training program. Eleven participants were interviewed who attended daylong workshops, every other Saturday, for 10 months. The instructors used Modeling Instruction pedagogy and curriculum. All the instructors had high school teaching…

  10. The Relationship Between Responses to Science Concepts on a Semantic Differential Instrument and Achievement in Freshman Physics and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Arthur Israel

    Students taking freshman physics and freshman chemistry at The State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNYAB) were administered a science-related semantic differential instrument. This same test was administered to physics and chemistry graduate students from SUNYAB and the University of Rochester. A scoring procedure was developed which…

  11. Track structure: time evolution from physics to chemistry.

    PubMed

    Dingfelder, M

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses interaction cross sections of charged particles (electrons, protons, light ions) with atoms and molecules. The focus is on biological relevant targets like liquid water which serves as a substitute of soft tissue in most Monte Carlo codes. The spatial distribution of energy deposition patterns by different radiation qualities and their importance to the time evolution from the physical to the chemical stage or radiation response is discussed. The determination of inelastic interaction cross sections for charged particles in condensed matter is discussed within the relativistic plane-wave Born approximation and semi-empirical models. The dielectric-response-function of liquid water is discussed.

  12. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology.

  13. Electrostatic correlations at the Stern layer: Physics or chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travesset, A.; Vangaveti, S.

    2009-11-01

    We introduce a minimal free energy describing the interaction of charged groups and counterions including both classical electrostatic and specific interactions. The predictions of the model are compared against the standard model for describing ions next to charged interfaces, consisting of Poisson-Boltzmann theory with additional constants describing ion binding, which are specific to the counterion and the interfacial charge ("chemical binding"). It is shown that the "chemical" model can be appropriately described by an underlying "physical" model over several decades in concentration, but the extracted binding constants are not uniquely defined, as they differ depending on the particular observable quantity being studied. It is also shown that electrostatic correlations for divalent (or higher valence) ions enhance the surface charge by increasing deprotonation, an effect not properly accounted within chemical models. The charged phospholipid phosphatidylserine is analyzed as a concrete example with good agreement with experimental results. We conclude with a detailed discussion on the limitations of chemical or physical models for describing the rich phenomenology of charged interfaces in aqueous media and its relevance to different systems with a particular emphasis on phospholipids.

  14. Interface chemistry between complex oxides and semiconductors: where chemistry and physics meet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Chiara

    2010-03-01

    Even though heavily based on semiconductors, microelectronics CMOS technology would not exist without the integration of thin oxide films which enable the exploitation of the semiconductor properties. Indeed, working principle of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, the main building block of such a technology, is the modulation of charges at the oxide/semiconductor interface. The quality of this interface is of fundamental importance for device performance. For over four decades, SiO2 was the gate dielectric of choice and device scaling meant improving performance while lowering production costs. However, as scaling is approaching fundamental limits, direct tunneling across the dielectric becomes unacceptable. At this point, the integration of more complex and higher dielectric constant oxides - ``high-K dielectrics''- with Si or even more complex semiconductors (Ge, III-V) is the key enabler of performance gain. I will review critical issues related to the oxide/semiconductor interfaces, starting with SiO2/Si. Then, I will discuss how the level of complexity increases with the introduction of high-K dielectrics and other semiconductors in the stack. Among the issues to be addressed to fabricate high-performance devices, I will discuss the role played by: 1) interfacial chemistry and thermodynamical stability, 2) band alignment and surface band bending, 3) presence of defects at the interface and in the oxide bulk, 4) evolution of the gate stack properties upon post-deposition treatments. The impact of these parameters on electrical performance of devices will be discussed in detail. Finally, epitaxial oxide on Si will be explored as a promising approach for ultimate EOT scaling and the parameters governing the epitaxial growth of complex crystalline oxides on Si will be addressed. I will show that the development performed in this area might enable the integration of epitaxial oxides for monolithic integration, paving the way to technological

  15. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  16. Deciphering the physics and chemistry of perovskites with transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Polking, Mark J

    2016-03-28

    Perovskite oxides exhibit rich structural complexity and a broad range of functional properties, including ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and superconductivity. The development of aberration correction for the transmission electron microscope and concurrent progress in electron spectroscopy, electron holography, and other techniques has fueled rapid progress in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these materials. New techniques based on the transmission electron microscope are first surveyed, and the applications of these techniques for the study of the structure, chemistry, electrostatics, and dynamics of perovskite oxides are then explored in detail, with a particular focus on ferroelectric materials.

  17. Deciphering the physics and chemistry of perovskites with transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polking, Mark J.

    2016-03-01

    Perovskite oxides exhibit rich structural complexity and a broad range of functional properties, including ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and superconductivity. The development of aberration correction for the transmission electron microscope and concurrent progress in electron spectroscopy, electron holography, and other techniques has fueled rapid progress in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these materials. New techniques based on the transmission electron microscope are first surveyed, and the applications of these techniques for the study of the structure, chemistry, electrostatics, and dynamics of perovskite oxides are then explored in detail, with a particular focus on ferroelectric materials.

  18. The Oil Drop Experiment: Do Physical Chemistry Textbooks Refer to its Controversial Nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Rodríguez, María A.

    Most general chemistry textbooks consider the oil drop experiment as a classic experiment, characterized by its simplicity and precise results. A review of the history and philosophy of science literature shows that the experiment is difficult to perform (even today!) and generated a considerable amount of controversy. Acceptance of the quantization of the elementary electrical charge was preceded by a bitter dispute between R.A. Millikan and F. Ehrenhaft, that lasted for many years (1910-1925). The objective of this study was to investigate whether physical chemistry textbooks refer to the controversial nature of the experiment. Based on six criteria developed previously, 28 physical chemistry textbooks were evaluated. Analysis of the texts using six identified criteria demonstrated that the textbooks neither referred to the controversial nature of the experiment nor recognized the difficulty of the experimental procedure. Only a few texts even attempted to include any discussion of the history or philosophy of the experiment. The instructor of a physical chemistry course could include aspects of the Millikan-Ehrenhaft controversy to motivate classroom discussion and help facilitate an understanding of the role that controversy has in scientific progress.

  19. System studies for quasi-steady-state advanced physics tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1983-11-01

    Parametric studies were conducted using the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Tokamak Systems Code to investigate the impact of veriation in physics parameters and technology limits on the performance and cost of a low q/sub psi/, high beta, quasi-steady-state tokamak for the purpose of fusion engineering experimentation. The features and characteristics chosen from each study were embodied into a single Advanced Physics Tokamak design for which a self-consistent set of parameters was generated and a value of capital cost was estimated.

  20. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  1. Advanced Swimming, Phase II--Advanced Swimmer; Physical Education: 5551.48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutting, Dick

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Advanced swimming. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The first two sections of the guides are devoted to course guidelines, description, and broad goal statement. The next two sections list behavioral and skill objectives and course content. The fifth section presents learning activities and…

  2. A study of the physics and chemistry of TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratap, P.; Dickens, J. E.; Snell, R. L.; Miralles, M. P.; Bergin, E. A.; Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1997-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the physical and chemical conditions along the TMC-1 ridge. Temperatures were estimated from observations of CH3CCH, NH3, and CO. Densities were obtained from a multitransition study of HC3N. The values of the density and temperature allow column densities for 13 molecular species to be estimated from statistical equilibrium calculations, using observations of rarer isotopomers where possible, to minimize opacity effects. The most striking abundance variations relative to HCO+ along the ridge were seen for HC3N, CH3CCH, and SO, while smaller variations were seen in CS, C2H, and HCN. On the other hand, the NH3, HNC, and N2H+ abundances relative to HCO+ were determined to be constant, indicating that the so-called NH3 peak in TMC-1 is probably a peak in the ammonia column density rather than a relative abundance peak. In contrast, the well-studied cyanopolyyne peak is most likely due to an enhancement in the abundance of long-chain carbon species. Comparisons of the derived abundances to the results of time-dependent chemical models show good overall agreement for chemical timescales around 10(5) yr. We find that the observed abundance gradients can be explained either by a small variation in the chemical timescale from 1.2 x 10(5) to 1.8 x 10(5) yr or by a factor of 2 change in the density along the ridge. Alternatively, a variation in the C/O ratio from 0.4 to 0.5 along the ridge produces an abundance gradient similar to that observed.

  3. Review: gas-phase ion chemistry of the noble gases: recent advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grandinetti, Felice

    2011-01-01

    This review article surveys recent experimental and theoretical advances in the gas-phase ion chemistry of the noble gases. Covered issues include the interaction of the noble gases with metal and non-metal cations, the conceivable existence of covalent noble-gas anions, the occurrence of ion-molecule reactions involving singly-charged xenon cations, and the occurrence of bond-forming reactions involving doubly-charged cations. Research themes are also highlighted, that are expected to attract further interest in the future.

  4. Advances in methods and algorithms in a modern quantum chemistry program package.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yihan; Molnar, Laszlo Fusti; Jung, Yousung; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Brown, Shawn T; Gilbert, Andrew T B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Levchenko, Sergey V; O'Neill, Darragh P; DiStasio, Robert A; Lochan, Rohini C; Wang, Tao; Beran, Gregory J O; Besley, Nicholas A; Herbert, John M; Lin, Ching Yeh; Van Voorhis, Troy; Chien, Siu Hung; Sodt, Alex; Steele, Ryan P; Rassolov, Vitaly A; Maslen, Paul E; Korambath, Prakashan P; Adamson, Ross D; Austin, Brian; Baker, Jon; Byrd, Edward F C; Dachsel, Holger; Doerksen, Robert J; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D; Dutoi, Anthony D; Furlani, Thomas R; Gwaltney, Steven R; Heyden, Andreas; Hirata, So; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Kedziora, Gary; Khalliulin, Rustam Z; Klunzinger, Phil; Lee, Aaron M; Lee, Michael S; Liang, Wanzhen; Lotan, Itay; Nair, Nikhil; Peters, Baron; Proynov, Emil I; Pieniazek, Piotr A; Rhee, Young Min; Ritchie, Jim; Rosta, Edina; Sherrill, C David; Simmonett, Andrew C; Subotnik, Joseph E; Woodcock, H Lee; Zhang, Weimin; Bell, Alexis T; Chakraborty, Arup K; Chipman, Daniel M; Keil, Frerich J; Warshel, Arieh; Hehre, Warren J; Schaefer, Henry F; Kong, Jing; Krylov, Anna I; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2006-07-21

    Advances in theory and algorithms for electronic structure calculations must be incorporated into program packages to enable them to become routinely used by the broader chemical community. This work reviews advances made over the past five years or so that constitute the major improvements contained in a new release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry package, together with illustrative timings and applications. Specific developments discussed include fast methods for density functional theory calculations, linear scaling evaluation of energies, NMR chemical shifts and electric properties, fast auxiliary basis function methods for correlated energies and gradients, equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for ground and excited states, geminal wavefunctions, embedding methods and techniques for exploring potential energy surfaces.

  5. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  6. Expanded Choices for Vibration-Rotation Spectroscopy in the Physical Chemistry Teaching Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Joel R.; Dolson, David A.

    2015-06-01

    Many third-year physical chemistry laboratory students in the US analyze the vibration-rotation spectrum of HCl in support of lecture concepts in quantum theory and molecular spectroscopy. Contemporary students in physical chemistry teaching laboratories increasingly have access to FTIR spectrometers with 1/8th wn resolution, which allows for expanded choices of molecules for vibration-rotation spectroscopy. Here we present the case for choosing HBr/DBr for such a study, where the 1/8th wn resolution enables the bromine isotopic lines to be resolved. Vibration-rotation lines from the fundamental and first-overtone bands of four hydrogen bromide isotopomers are combined in a global analysis to determine molecular spectroscopic constants. Sample production, spectral appearance, analysis and results will be presented for various resolutions commonly available in teaching laboratories.

  7. A Profile of Michigan Teachers of High School Biology, Chemistry, and Physics: 1980-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Christian R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a profile of Michigan high school biology, chemistry, and physics teachers for the 1980-81, 1981-82, and 1982-83 school years, including highest degree(s), major(s), minor(s), sex, years of teaching experience, type of certificate, and assignment(s). Also examines possible trends in the staffing of high school science courses in Michigan.…

  8. How G.N. Lewis reset the terms of the dialogue between chemistry and physics.

    PubMed

    Bogaard, Paul A

    2003-05-01

    While quantum physics provided a mathematical framework for understanding the valency of chemical elements, to make use of these mathematical equations required approximations based on chemical experience. To better understand how this establishes limits to the presumption that chemistry can be derived from physics, this paper starts with the warnings in Coulson's widely read text, Valence, as to why there are pitfalls in the interpretation of what "valence" accomplishes. He directs some of these concerns back to Pauling's earlier text, The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Both Coulson and Pauling are aware that quantum theory's ability to approximate the energetic stability of chemical systems is of use to chemistry only if it can be correlated with the molecular structure that results from chemical bonding. While this may now be routinely expected, it was a struggle to see that this was the challenge chemistry posed to physics-and this achievement they both attribute to G.N. Lewis. Until the more mature forms of quantum mechanics arose in the 1920s, Lewis was skeptical that the dynamic models of the atom posed by Bohr could meet this challenge. How Lewis formulates this challenge initially in 1916 and then in his longer work, Valence and the Structure of Atoms and Molecules, will be examined.

  9. Classical Challenges in the Physical Chemistry of Polymer Networks and the Design of New Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Sing, Michelle K; Avery, Reginald K; Souza, Bruno S; Kim, Minkyu; Olsen, Bradley D

    2016-12-20

    Polymer networks are widely used from commodity to biomedical materials. The space-spanning, net-like structure gives polymer networks their advantageous mechanical and dynamic properties, the most essential factor that governs their responses to external electrical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. Despite the ubiquity of applications and a century of active research on these materials, the way that chemistry and processing interact to yield the final structure and the material properties of polymer networks is not fully understood, which leads to a number of classical challenges in the physical chemistry of gels. Fundamentally, it is not yet possible to quantitatively predict the mechanical response of a polymer network based on its chemical design, limiting our ability to understand and characterize the nanostructure of gels and rationally design new materials. In this Account, we summarize our recent theoretical and experimental approaches to study the physical chemistry of polymer networks. First, our understanding of the impact of molecular defects on topology and elasticity of polymer networks is discussed. By systematically incorporating the effects of different orders of loop structure, we develop a kinetic graph theory and real elastic network theory that bridge the chemical design, the network topology, and the mechanical properties of the gel. These theories show good agreement with the recent experimental data without any fitting parameters. Next, associative polymer gel dynamics is discussed, focusing on our evolving understanding of the effect of transient bonds on the mechanical response. Using forced Rayleigh scattering (FRS), we are able to probe diffusivity across a wide range of length and time scales in gels. A superdiffusive region is observed in different associative network systems, which can be captured by a two-state kinetic model. Further, the effects of the architecture and chemistry of polymer chains on gel nanostructure are studied. By

  10. A Need to Reassess Physical-Organic Curricula: A Course Enhancement Using Readily Available Quantum Chemistry Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipkowitz, Kenny B.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a graduate-level course in physical-organic chemistry in which students learn to solve problems using computer programs available through the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange. Includes condensed syllabus and time line showing where various computational programs are introduced. (Author/JN)

  11. Resource Letter ANP-1: Advances in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Maury C.

    2016-12-01

    Three of the twelve fundamental fermions in particle physics are neutrinos. It was long thought that neutrinos might be massless, but we now know through the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations that neutrinos have mass. This resource letter will cover the history of the growth in our knowledge about neutrinos since they were first proposed in the 1930s, and also covers some up the upcoming experiments which will further our understanding of neutrino properties. Results from experiments are described that use various sources of neutrinos including nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, accelerators, and supernovae. In this resource letter, the resources that can be used to trace the past, present, and anticipated future advances in neutrino physics are reviewed.

  12. Framing a program designed to train new chemistry/physics teachers for California outlying regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodily, Gerald P., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for a new high school chemistry and physics teacher training program. Eleven participants were interviewed who attended daylong workshops, every other Saturday, for 10 months. The instructors used Modeling Instruction pedagogy and curriculum. All the instructors had high school teaching experience, but only one possessed a doctorate degree. The interview questions focused on four themes: motivation, epistemology, meta-cognition, and self-regulation; and the resulting transcripts were analyzed using a methodology called Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. The cases expressed a strong preference for the program's instruction program over learning subject matter knowledge in university classrooms. The data indicated that the cases, as a group, were disciplined scholars seeking a deep understanding of the subject matter knowledge needed to teach high school chemistry and physics. Based on these results a new approach to training teachers was proposed, an approach that offers novel answers to the questions of how and who to train as science teachers. The how part of the training involves using a program called Modeling Instruction. Modeling instruction is currently used to upgrade experienced science teachers and, in the new approach, replaces the training traditionally administered by professional scientists in university science departments. The who aspect proposes that the participants be college graduates, selected not for university science training, but for their high school math and science background. It is further proposed that only 10 months of daily, face-to-face instruction is required to move the learner to a deep understanding of subject matter knowledge required to teach high school chemistry and physics. Two outcomes are sought by employing this new training paradigm, outcomes that have been unachievable by current educational practices. First, it is hoped that new chemistry and physics teachers can

  13. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  14. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  15. Measurement of the Order Parameter in a Room Temperature Liquid Crystal: An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Donald B.; Chapoy, L. Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Presented here is a laboratory experiment for a course in physical chemistry. Students are requested to directly measure the degree of orientational order in a liquid crystal at room temperature. A minimum amount of equipment is necessary. (Author/SA)

  16. A Transition from a Traditional to a Project-Like Physical Chemistry Laboratory via a Heterogeneous Catalysis Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwasser, M. R.; Leal, O.

    1979-01-01

    Outlines an approach for instruction in a physical chemistry laboratory which combines traditional and project-like experiments. An outline of laboratory experiments and examples of project-like experiments are included. (BT)

  17. Advanced physical assessment skills: implementation of a module.

    PubMed

    Aldridge-Bent, Sharon

    2011-02-01

    This article aims to explore and examine advanced physical assessment skills and the role of the district nurse. It will particularly highlight district nurses' perceptions of how they may implement skills learnt on a new module introduced into the Community Health Care Nursing degree at a university in London. Physical assessment skills have traditionally been viewed as part of a doctor's role; however, with the advancement of nursing roles, it is argued that it has become a key nursing skill. As Government policy continues to expect health professionals to keep patients in the community who have complex health and social care needs, the role of the district nurse presents as 'best placed' to take on this challenge (Department of Health (DH), 2005a; 2005b). Evaluation of the district nurses' perceptions of their practice is shared here, highlighting some of the challenges that they face. The article will address the complexity of developing a curriculum in response to the DH initiatives and the importance of listening to students on courses.

  18. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  19. Blurring the Boundaries Among Astronomy, Physics, and Chemistry: The Moseley Centenary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2013-01-01

    Scientists, like other human beings, are territorial animals, not just about our parking spaces and seats in the colloquium room, but also about our scientific territories, from the narrowest thesis topic ("Who's been working on my Nebula and left it covered with dust?") to the whole of physics, or chemistry, or astronomy. Many 19th century astronomers resented spectroscopes invading their observatories; chemists objected to Moseley's use of X-ray outgaming their retorts and test tubes in 1913; and chemists and physicists typically disbelieve astronomers suggesting new science on the basis of astronomical data (three other combinations are also possible). The talk will explore some of these transgressions, both a few spectacular successes and rather more awkward failures. Moseley's own contributions included sorting out the rare earths, putting paid to nebulium and coronium as elements between H and He, many years before improved understanding of atomic structure led to correct identifications of the ionization states and transitions actually responsible for the lines credited to them, and putting Prout's hypothesis on a firm foundation ready for the structure Cameron and B2FH would eventually erect there. Back in 1935, Gamow asked whether a new discipline should be called nuclear physics or nuclear chemistry (both now exist, within APS and ACS respectively), and 30+ years later, chemist L.S. Trimble was still complaining that the physicists had grabbed away the territory of atomic and nuclear composition, which should have been part of chemistry!

  20. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    These are Proceedings of the Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics, held August 25-26, 1989, at Lahti (Finland). The Symposium belongs to an annual series of Meetings, the first one of which was arranged in 1987 at Lund (Sweden) and the second one in 1988 at Kolle-Kolle near Copenhagen (Denmark). Although these Symposia have thus far been essentially Nordic events, their international character has increased significantly; the trend is vividly reflected through contributions in the present Topical Issue. The interdisciplinary nature of Computational Science is central to the activity; this fundamental aspect is also responsible, in an essential way, for its rapidly increasing impact. Crucially important to a wide spectrum of superficially disparate fields is the common need for extensive - and often quite demanding - computational modelling. For such theoretical models, no closed-form (analytical) solutions are available or they would be extremely difficult to find; hence one must rather resort to the Art of performing computational investigations. Among the unifying features in the computational research are the methods of simulation employed; methods which frequently are quite closely related with each other even for faculties of science that are quite unrelated. Computer simulation in Natural Sciences is presently apprehended as a discipline on its own right, occupying a broad region somewhere between the experimental and theoretical methods, but also partially overlapping with and complementing them. - Whichever its proper definition may be, the computational approach serves as a novel and an extremely versatile tool with which one can equally well perform "pure" experimental modelling and conduct "computational theory". Computational studies that have earlier been made possible only through supercomputers have opened unexpected, as well as exciting, novel frontiers equally in mathematics (e.g., fractals

  1. [Commentary on the Nobel Prize that has been granted in Medicine-Physiology, Chemistry and Physics to noteable investigators].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Arturo; Apolinar, Leticia Manuel; Saucedo, Renata; Basurto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1901 to award people who have made outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry and medicine. So far, from 852 laureates, 45 have been female. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics and eight years later also for chemistry It is remarkable that her daughter Irene and her husband also received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935. Other two married couples, Cori and Moser, have also been awarded the Nobel Prize. The present commentary attempts to show the female participation in the progress of scientific activities.

  2. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershigora, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE group), offers increased opportunities for advanced fundamental and applied research in climatic engineering.

  3. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  4. How Did the Tree of Knowledge Get Its Blossom? The Rise of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, with an Eye on Berlin and Leipzig.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Bretislav

    2016-04-25

    "Physical chemistry is not just a branch on but the blossom of the tree of knowledge," declared Ostwald, a most vocal advocate of his field, conceived as the basis for all of chemistry. This Essay describes the historical development of physical and theoretical chemistry with a focus on Berlin and Leipzig, its foremost centers in Germany.

  5. The Logical and Psychological Structure of Physical Chemistry and Its Relevance to Graduate Students' Opinions about the Difficulties of the Major Areas of the Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In a previous publication, Jensen's scheme for the logical structure of chemistry was employed to identify a logical structure for physical chemistry, which was further used as a tool for analyzing the organization of twenty physical chemistry textbooks. In addition, science education research was considered for the study of the psychological…

  6. The evolution of pedagogical content knowledge in chemistry and physics prospective secondary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veal, William Richard

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of pedagogical content knowledge in prospective secondary chemistry and physics teachers. A new paradigmatic framework was developed to guide the research. Craft knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge were compared and combined forming a new perspective from which to view secondary chemistry and physics teachers' "learning to teach." A second purpose of this study was to develop philosophically-derived, domain-specific, pedagogical content knowledge taxonomies. Four taxonomies were developed in all; two general and two domain-specific. The general taxonomies describe types of pedagogical content knowledge and attributes of pedagogical content knowledge. The two domain-specific taxonomies describe topics common to both physics and chemistry and outline domain-specific laboratories for the differentiation between heat and temperature. A methodological theoretical framework, synthesized from radical and social constructivism, was developed to guide the researcher in data collection, analysis, and interpretation. The researcher used four cases, two prospective chemistry teachers and two prospective physics teachers, and followed their development through the science curriculum class and student teaching field experience of their teacher preparation program. Content-specific, situational vignettes were created as a tool to monitor the participants' development of pedagogical content knowledge. The vignettes were administered using a modified microgenetic method. The modified microgenetic procedure involved the repeated administration of a task (vignette) over a period of time to monitor cognitive change. Data were collected through several methods: participant responses to the vignettes, field notes taken during the science curriculum class and student teaching field experience, interviews, artifact collection, and journals. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results of this study

  7. 2014 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    2014 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2014), was held at the Media Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 13-14 January 2014. The ScieTech 2014 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. ScieTech 2014 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 187 papers and after rigorous review, 50 papers were accepted. The participants come from 16 countries. There are 5 (Five) Paralell Sessions and Four Keynote Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of ScieTech 2014. The Editors of the Scietech 2014 Proceedings: Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. P.N. Gajjar

  8. Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Andrew J.

    Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was

  9. An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

  10. Screened hybrid density functionals for solid-state chemistry and physics.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2009-01-21

    Density functional theory incorporating hybrid exchange-correlation functionals has been extraordinarily successful in providing accurate, computationally tractable treatments of molecular properties. However, conventional hybrid functionals can be problematic for solids. Their nonlocal, Hartree-Fock-like exchange term decays slowly and incorporates unphysical features in metals and narrow-bandgap semiconductors. This article provides an overview of our group's work on designing hybrid functionals for solids. We focus on the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid functional [J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 118, 8207], its applications to the chemistry and physics of solids and surfaces, and our efforts to build upon its successes.

  11. Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Tianquan

    2013-09-20

    The Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion at the Fall ACS Meeting in Indianapolis, IN (Sept. 8-12) featured the following sessions (approx. 6 speakers per session): (1) Quantum Dots and Nanorods for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (2) Artificial Photosynthesis: Water Oxidation; (3) Artificial Photosynthesis: Solar Fuels (2 half-day sessions); (4) Organic Solar Cells; (5) Novel Concepts for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (6) Emerging Techniques for Solar Energy Conversion; (7) Interfacial Electron Transfer

  12. Decadal Simulation and Comprehensive Evaluation of CESM/CAM5 with Advanced Chemistry, Aerosol Microphysics, and Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Glotfelty, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a global Earth system model that was developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to simulate the entire Earth system by coupling physical climate system with chemistry, biogeochemistry, biology and human systems. It can also quantify the certainties and uncertainties in Earth system feedbacks on time scales up to centuries and longer. The Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) is the atmosphere component of CESM version 1.0.5. CESM/CAM5.1 has been applied by NCAR to simulate climate change as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The IPCC-AR5 indicates that the uncertainties associated with cloud, aerosol, and their feedbacks, as well as uncertainties in near- and long-term projections are emerging issues to be addressed by the scientific community. CESM/CAM5.1 has been recently further developed and improved with advanced treatments for gas-phase chemistry, aerosol chemistry and dynamics, and aerosol-cloud interactions by North Carolina State University (NCSU) to reduce the uncertainties associated with those treatments in the model predictions. Our ultimate goal is to enhance CESM/CAM5's capability in representing current atmosphere and projecting future climate change. In this work, as the first step toward this goal, the NCSU's version of CESM/CAM5 with those advanced treatments is applied for 2001-2010, which will provide valuable information about the model's capability in capturing the decadal variation trend in climate and its potential in projecting future climate changes. The model simulation is conducted at a horizontal resolution of 0.9o × 1.25o and a vertical resolution of 30 layers. The simulation results based on 10-year average are evaluated comprehensively with a variety of datasets, including global surface observations of meteorological and radiative variables; satellite observations of the column mass of chemical species and

  13. XII Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Thomas; Carminati, Federico; Werlen, Monique

    November 2008 will be a few months after the official start of LHC when the highest quantum energy ever produced by mankind will be observed by the most complex piece of scientific equipment ever built. LHC will open a new era in physics research and push further the frontier of Knowledge This achievement has been made possible by new technological developments in many fields, but computing is certainly the technology that has made possible this whole enterprise. Accelerator and detector design, construction management, data acquisition, detectors monitoring, data analysis, event simulation and theoretical interpretation are all computing based HEP activities but also occurring many other research fields. Computing is everywhere and forms the common link between all involved scientists and engineers. The ACAT workshop series, created back in 1990 as AIHENP (Artificial Intelligence in High Energy and Nuclear Research) has been covering the tremendous evolution of computing in its most advanced topics, trying to setup bridges between computer science, experimental and theoretical physics. Conference web-site: http://acat2008.cern.ch/ Programme and presentations: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=34666

  14. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry/Russian Academy of Science Fiscal Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-09-01

    Investigations into the chemistry of alkaline Hanford Site tank waste (TTP RL4-3-20-04) were conducted in Fiscal Year 1995 at Westinghouse Hanford Company under the support of the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (EM-53). The investigation had two main subtasks: liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science and further laboratory testing of the chemistry of thermal reconstitution of Hanford Site tank waste. Progress, which was achieved in the liaison subtask during Fiscal Year 1995, is summarized as follows: (1) A technical dialogue has been established with Institute scientists. (2) Editing was done on a technical literature review on the chemistry of transuranic elements and technetium in alkaline media written by researchers at the Institute. The report was issued in May 1995 as a Westinghouse Hanford Company document. (3) Four tasks from the Institute were selected for support by the U.S. Department of Energy. Work on three tasks commenced on 1 March 1995; the fourth task commenced on 1 April 1995. (4) Technical information describing the composition of Hanford Site tank waste was supplied to the Institute. (5) A program review of the four tasks was conducted at the Institute during a visit 25 August to 1 September, 1995. A lecture on the origin, composition, and proposed treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes was presented during this visit. Eight additional tasks were proposed by Institute scientists for support in Fiscal Year 1996. (6) A paper was presented at the Fifth International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM`95) in Berlin, Germany on 3 to 9 September, 1995 on the solubility of actinides in alkaline media.

  15. The Physics and Chemistry of Small Translucent Molecular Clouds. VI. Organo-Sulfur Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, B. E.

    1996-04-01

    A survey of HCS+ and CS has been conducted in most of our standard samples of 11 cirrus cores and 27 Clemens-Barvainis translucent objects whose structures and chemistry have been studied earlier in this series. CS (J = 2-1) is seen quite strongly in all cirrus cores and CB objects, and CS (J = 3-2) in seven cirrus clouds and 25 CB objects. HCS+ (J = 2-1) is detected in four of seven cirrus cores searched, and 15 of 20 CB objects. These observations are modeled in terms of our previous hydrostatic equilibrium and n ˜ r-α structures together with other chemical and physical properties derived earlier. We find high CS abundances, over the wide range 10-9 to 10-7.2, increasing monotonically with increasing extinction in the 1.2-2.6 mag range. The HCS+ abundances are much lower, in the range 10-10 to 10-9.3, again increasing monotonically with increasing extinction. Thus these species display the same characteristic transition between diffuse and dense cloud chemistry as do SO, SO2, HCO+, and other species studied in this series. The same simple ion-molecule network as used by Turner (1995b; Paper V) is extended to include the organo-sulfur species, and when solved analytically, predicts the observed parameters of SO, SO2, and HCS+ successfully. The median abundance of CS is also predicted but the slope with respect to extinction is flatter than observed. The overall success of the model strongly endorses ion-molecule chemistry for all sulfur species so far studied. Other sulfur chemistries (grain catalysis, shock processes) are entirely inconsistent with the observed abundances of any of the four sulfur species studied to date in these translucent objects.

  16. Support for chemistry symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, February 17-21 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Casey

    2011-08-20

    This proposal supported Chemistry Symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Meeting in Washington, DC February 17-21, 2011. The Chemistry Section of AAAS presented an unusually strong set of symposia for the 2011 AAAS meeting to help celebrate the 2011 International Year of Chemistry. The AAAS meeting provided an unusual opportunity to convey the excitement and importance of chemistry to a very broad audience and allowed access to a large contingent of the scientific press. Excellent suggestions for symposia were received from AAAS Chemistry Fellows and from the chairs of the American Chemical Society Technical Divisions. The AAAS Chemistry executive committee selected topics that would have wide appeal to scientists, the public, and the press for formal proposals of symposia. The symposia proposals were peer reviewed by AAAS. The Chemistry Section made a strong case to the program selection committee for approval of the chemistry symposia and 6 were approved for the 2011 annual meeting. The titles of the approved symposia were: (1) Powering the Planet: Generation of Clean Fuels from Sunlight and Water, (2) Biological Role and Consequences of Intrinsic Protein Disorder, (3) Chemically Speaking: How Organisms Talk to Each Other, (4) Molecular Self-Assembly and Artificial Molecular Machines, (5) Frontiers in Organic Materials for Information Processing, Energy and Sensors, and (6) Celebrating Marie Curie's 100th Anniversary of Her Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Chemistry Section of AAAS is provided with funds to support only 1-2 symposia a year. Because of the much greater number of symposia approved in conjunction with observance of the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, additional support was sought from DOE to help support the 30 invited speakers and 8 symposia moderators/organizers. Support for the symposia provided the opportunity to highlight the excitement of current chemical research, to educate the public about the

  17. Single-molecule chemistry and physics explored by low-temperature scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Swart, Ingmar; Gross, Leo; Liljeroth, Peter

    2011-08-28

    It is well known that scanning probe techniques such as scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) routinely offer atomic scale information on the geometric and the electronic structure of solids. Recent developments in STM and especially in non-contact AFM have allowed imaging and spectroscopy of individual molecules on surfaces with unprecedented spatial resolution, which makes it possible to study chemistry and physics at the single molecule level. In this feature article, we first review the physical concepts underlying image contrast in STM and AFM. We then focus on the key experimental considerations and use selected examples to demonstrate the capabilities of modern day low-temperature scanning probe microscopy in providing chemical insight at the single molecule level.

  18. Research Data in Core Journals in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics.

    PubMed

    Womack, Ryan P

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a stratified random sample of articles published in 2014 from the top 10 journals in the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as ranked by impact factor. Sampled articles were examined for their reporting of original data or reuse of prior data, and were coded for whether the data was publicly shared or otherwise made available to readers. Other characteristics such as the sharing of software code used for analysis and use of data citation and DOIs for data were examined. The study finds that data sharing practices are still relatively rare in these disciplines' top journals, but that the disciplines have markedly different practices. Biology top journals share original data at the highest rate, and physics top journals share at the lowest rate. Overall, the study finds that within the top journals, only 13% of articles with original data published in 2014 make the data available to others.

  19. Magick, Mayhem, and Mavericks: The Spirited History of Physical Chemistry (Cathy Cobb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truman Schwartz, A.

    2003-07-01

    To be sure, errors such as these will not interfere with the ability of a non-expert reader to form a generally accurate picture of the development of physical chemistry. However, it is unfortunate to allow such carelessness to compromise an otherwise interesting and well-intentioned book. It is nicely illustrated with photographs and reproductions of engravings by Albrecht Dürer and others, and each of the 31 brief chapters is introduced by an epigraph. The illustrations and epigraphs are not all equally apt, but they dress up the book. All in all, this is a near miss. It will annoy many physical chemists, but that fact might recommend it to other readers.

  20. Research Data in Core Journals in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a stratified random sample of articles published in 2014 from the top 10 journals in the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as ranked by impact factor. Sampled articles were examined for their reporting of original data or reuse of prior data, and were coded for whether the data was publicly shared or otherwise made available to readers. Other characteristics such as the sharing of software code used for analysis and use of data citation and DOIs for data were examined. The study finds that data sharing practices are still relatively rare in these disciplines’ top journals, but that the disciplines have markedly different practices. Biology top journals share original data at the highest rate, and physics top journals share at the lowest rate. Overall, the study finds that within the top journals, only 13% of articles with original data published in 2014 make the data available to others. PMID:26636676

  1. Density Functional Theory: Toward Better Understanding of Complex Systems in Chemistry and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Sijie

    Density functional theory (DFT) has become the workhorse of computational chemistry and physics in the past two decades. The continuous developments of high-quality exchange-correlation functionals (xcFs) have enabled chemists and physicists to study complex as well as large systems with high accuracy at low-to-moderate computational expense. Although a wide range of normal systems have been well understood by DFT, there are still complex ones presenting particular challenges where most commonly used xcFs have failed due to the complex nature of the system, lack of or difficulty to obtain reliable reference data, or the practical limitations of the Kohn-Sham DFT (KS-DFT) formulation. This thesis presents studies with various exchange-correlation functionals on a wide selection of complex systems in chemistry and solid-state physics, including large organic molecules, adsorption on metallic surfaces, transition states, as well as transition metal atoms, ions, and compounds, to (i) draw conclusions upon recommendations of xcFs for important practical applications; (ii) understand the root of errors to help design better xcFs or propose new theoretical schemes of DFT; (iii) explore the utility of noncollinear spin orbitals in KS-DFT for better description of multi-reference systems.

  2. Deuterated formaldehyde in HH212: physics and chemistry of a typical protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Dipen; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Minh, Young Chol

    2016-07-01

    HH212 is a nearby (400 pc) source in Orion. Recent observation (Codella et al., 2014) with ALMA using 24 no. of 12 m antenna revealed the source with high angular resolution and sensitivity (HPBW=0.65arc × 0.47 arc, σ - 3 to 4 mJy/beam/0.43 km s^-1) than previous SMA observation (Lee et al., 2007). This allows observations of several molecular lines e.g., SO, SO^2, C^{17}O, CO, and SiO. Emissions from these species probe different regions of this young stellar object, e.g., the outflow, the molecular jet, the envelop and the disk. The source might be the Class 0 protostellar system with a Keplerian disc and collimated bipolar SiO jets. Physics and chemistry of this region are very interesting. No deuterated molecule has been reported in this source except the recent report of deuterated water, HDO (Codella et al., 2016). Here, we report the HDCO (deuterated formaldehyde) line observation from ALMA data to probe the inner region of HH212. We compare HDCO line with other molecular lines to explain the possible chemistry and physics of the source, and also discussed the deuterium enrichment of molecular species.

  3. Fundamental and functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures with examples in physics, cell biology, and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kalay, Ziya

    2011-08-01

    How small can a macroscopic object be made without losing its intended function? Obviously, the smallest possible size is determined by the size of an atom, but it is not so obvious how many atoms are required to assemble an object so small, and yet that performs the same function as its macroscopic counterpart. In this review, we are concerned with objects of intermediate nature, lying between the microscopic and the macroscopic world. In physics and chemistry literature, this regime in-between is often called mesoscopic, and is known to bear interesting and counterintuitive features. After a brief introduction to the concept of mesoscopic systems from the perspective of physics, we discuss the functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures in cell biology, and supramolecular chemistry through many examples from the literature. We argue that the biochemistry of the cell is largely regulated by mesoscopic functional architectures; however, the significance of mesoscopic phenomena seems to be quite underappreciated in biological sciences. With this motivation, one of our main purposes here is to emphasize the critical role that mesoscopic structures play in cell biology and biochemistry.

  4. What's on the Surface? Physics and Chemistry of Delta-Doped Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Outline of presentation: 1. Detector surfaces and the problem of stability 2. Delta-doped detectors 3. Physics of Delta-doped Silicon 4. Chemistry of the Si-SiO2 Interface 5. Physics and Chemistry of Delta-doped Surfaces a. Compensation b. Inversion c. Quantum exclusion. Conclusions: 1. Quantum confinement of electrons and holes dominates the behavior of delta-doped surfaces. 2. Stability of delta-doped detectors: Delta-layer creates an approx 1 eV tunnel barrier between bulk and surface. 3. At high surface charge densities, Tamm-Shockley states form at the surface. 4. Surface passivation by quantum exclusion: Near-surface delta-layer suppresses T-S trapping of minority carriers. 5. The Si-SiO2 interface compensates the surface 6. For delta-layers at intermediate depth, surface inversion layer forms 7. Density of Si-SiO2 interface charge can be extremely high (>10(exp 14)/sq cm)

  5. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  6. PET/CT: underlying physics, instrumentation, and advances.

    PubMed

    Torres Espallardo, I

    2017-01-12

    Since it was first introduced, the main goal of PET/CT has been to provide both PET and CT images with high clinical quality and to present them to radiologists and specialists in nuclear medicine as a fused, perfectly aligned image. The use of fused PET and CT images quickly became routine in clinical practice, showing the great potential of these hybrid scanners. Thanks to this success, manufacturers have gone beyond considering CT as a mere attenuation corrector for PET, concentrating instead on design high performance PET and CT scanners with more interesting features. Since the first commercial PET/CT scanner became available in 2001, both the PET component and the CT component have improved immensely. In the case of PET, faster scintillation crystals with high stopping power such as LYSO crystals have enabled more sensitive devices to be built, making it possible to reduce the number of undesired coincidence events and to use time of flight (TOF) techniques. All these advances have improved lesion detection, especially in situations with very noisy backgrounds. Iterative reconstruction methods, together with the corrections carried out during the reconstruction and the use of the point-spread function, have improved image quality. In parallel, CT instrumentation has also improved significantly, and 64- and 128-row detectors have been incorporated into the most modern PET/CT scanners. This makes it possible to obtain high quality diagnostic anatomic images in a few seconds that both enable the correction of PET attenuation and provide information for diagnosis. Furthermore, nowadays nearly all PET/CT scanners have a system that modulates the dose of radiation that the patient is exposed to in the CT study in function of the region scanned. This article reviews the underlying physics of PET and CT imaging separately, describes the changes in the instrumentation and standard protocols in a combined PET/CT system, and finally points out the most important

  7. Undergraduate Professional Education in Chemistry: Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Provided are guidelines for evaluating undergraduate professional education in chemistry. The guidelines summarize an approved program as including: 400 hours of classroom work; 500 hours of laboratory work; a core curriculum covering principles of analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry; 1 year of advanced work in chemistry or…

  8. Some physics and chemistry of Coblation® electrosurgical plasma devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; Ryan, Thomas P.; Woloszko, Jean

    2013-02-01

    Electrosurgical devices employing plasmas to ablate, cut and otherwise treat tissues have been in widespread use for decades. Following d'Arsonval's 19th century work on the neuromuscular response from high-frequency excitation of tissue, Doyen treated skin blemishes with a spark-gap generator in 1909. In the late 1920's, physician Harvey Cushing and Harvard physicist William Bovie developed an electrosurgical device and power source that eventually became a standard of care for cutting, coagulating, desiccating, or fulgurating tissue. Beginning in the 1990's a new class of low-voltage electrosurgical devices employing electricallyconducting saline fluids were developed by ArthroCare Corp. These modern Coblation® devices are now widely used in many different surgical procedures, including those in arthroscopic surgery, otorhinolaryngology, spine surgery, urology, gynecological surgery, and others. This paper summarizes some of the research we have been doing over the last decade to elucidate the physics and chemistry underlying Coblation® electrosurgical devices. Electrical-, thermal-, fluid-, chemicaland plasma-physics all play important roles in these devices and give rise to a rich variety of observations. Experimental techniques employed include optical and mass spectroscopy, fast optical imaging, and electrical voltage and current measurements. Many of the features occur on fast time scales and small spatial scales, making laboratory measurements difficult, so coupled-physics, finite-element-modeling can also be employed to glean more information than has been acquired thus far through physical observation.

  9. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  10. PREFACE: 2013 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford

    2013-03-01

    The 2013 International Conference on Science and Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2013), was held at the Aston Rasuna Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 24-25 January 2013. The ScieTech 2013 conference aims to bring together scholars, leading researchers and experts from diverse backgrounds and applications areas. Special emphasis is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics, all areas of sciences and applied mathematics. We would like to thank the invited and plenary speakers as well as all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program. This year, we received 197 papers and, after rigorous review, 67 papers were accepted. The participants come from 21 countries. There are 6 (six) Plenary and Invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed ScieTech 2013 be be sucyh a success. The Editors of the ScieTech 2013 Proceedings Dr Ford Lumban Gaol Dr Hoga Saragih Tumpal Pandiangan Dr Mohamed Bououdina The PDF also contains the abstracts of the Invited and Plenary talks, and some photographs taken during the conference.

  11. Development of new methods and polyphosphazene chemistries for advanced materials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindenlang, Mark D.

    The work described within this thesis focuses on the design, synthesis, and characterization of new phosphazenes with potential in advanced materials applications. Additionally, these unique polymers required the development of novel reaction methods or the investigation of new phosphazene chemistry to achieve their synthesis. Chapter 1 lays out some of the basic principles and fundamentals of polymer chemistry. Chapter 2 investigates the use of iodinated polyphosphazenes as x-ray opaque materials. Single-substituent polymers with 4-iodophenoxy or 4-iodophenylanaline ethyl ester units as the only side groups were prepared. Although a single-substitutent polymer with 3,5-diiodotyrosine ethyl ester groups was difficult to synthesize, probably because of steric hindrance, mixed-substituent polymers that contained the non-iodinated ethyl esters of glycyine, alanine, or phenylalanine plus a corresponding iodinated substituent, could be synthesized. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used to follow the substitution of side groups onto the phosphazene back bone and judge the ratio of substituents. Chapter 3 details the initial investigation into 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and dopamine substituted polyphosphazenes that could be applied to a number of applications. L-DOPAEE was acetonide protected to prevent crosslinking reactions by the catechole functionality. Cyclic small molecule studies and macromolecular substitution reactions on the linear high polymer were conducted with the protected L-DOPA. Continuing studies into protection of the dopamine catechol have elucidated a viable method for the synthesis of amino-linked dopamine polymers. Chapter 4 describes a method for the synthesis of phosphazenes with quaternary amine complexes as potential antibacterial agents. Replacement reactions of pyridine alkoxides and chlorophosphazenes were first attempted at the small molecule level to study the reactivities of pyridine alkoxides. The formation of an

  12. Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Alison J.

    2004-02-01

    In an advanced environmental chemistry course, the inclusion of semester-long scientific service projects successfully integrated the research process with course content. Each project involved a unique community-based environmental analysis in which students assessed an aspect of environmental health. The projects were due in small pieces at even intervals, and students worked independently or in pairs. Initially, students wrote a project proposal in which they chose and justified a project. Following a literature review of their topic, they drafted sampling and analysis plans using methods in the literature. Samples were collected and analyzed, and all students assembled scientific posters describing the results of their study. In the last week of the semester, the class traveled to a regional professional meeting to present the posters. In all, students found the experience valuable. They learned to be professional environmental chemists and learned the value of the discipline to community health. Students not only learned about their own project in depth, but they were inspired to learn textbook material, not for an exam, but because it helped them understand their own project. Finally, having a community to answer to at the end of the project motivated students to do careful work.

  13. Advances in molecular quantum chemistry contained in the Q-Chem 4 program package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yihan; Gan, Zhengting; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Gilbert, Andrew T. B.; Wormit, Michael; Kussmann, Joerg; Lange, Adrian W.; Behn, Andrew; Deng, Jia; Feng, Xintian; Ghosh, Debashree; Goldey, Matthew; Horn, Paul R.; Jacobson, Leif D.; Kaliman, Ilya; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kuś, Tomasz; Landau, Arie; Liu, Jie; Proynov, Emil I.; Rhee, Young Min; Richard, Ryan M.; Rohrdanz, Mary A.; Steele, Ryan P.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Woodcock, H. Lee, III; Zimmerman, Paul M.; Zuev, Dmitry; Albrecht, Ben; Alguire, Ethan; Austin, Brian; Beran, Gregory J. O.; Bernard, Yves A.; Berquist, Eric; Brandhorst, Kai; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Brown, Shawn T.; Casanova, David; Chang, Chun-Min; Chen, Yunqing; Chien, Siu Hung; Closser, Kristina D.; Crittenden, Deborah L.; Diedenhofen, Michael; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Do, Hainam; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Edgar, Richard G.; Fatehi, Shervin; Fusti-Molnar, Laszlo; Ghysels, An; Golubeva-Zadorozhnaya, Anna; Gomes, Joseph; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; Harbach, Philipp H. P.; Hauser, Andreas W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Holden, Zachary C.; Jagau, Thomas-C.; Ji, Hyunjun; Kaduk, Benjamin; Khistyaev, Kirill; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihan; King, Rollin A.; Klunzinger, Phil; Kosenkov, Dmytro; Kowalczyk, Tim; Krauter, Caroline M.; Lao, Ka Un; Laurent, Adèle D.; Lawler, Keith V.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Lin, Ching Yeh; Liu, Fenglai; Livshits, Ester; Lochan, Rohini C.; Luenser, Arne; Manohar, Prashant; Manzer, Samuel F.; Mao, Shan-Ping; Mardirossian, Narbe; Marenich, Aleksandr V.; Maurer, Simon A.; Mayhall, Nicholas J.; Neuscamman, Eric; Oana, C. Melania; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; O'Neill, Darragh P.; Parkhill, John A.; Perrine, Trilisa M.; Peverati, Roberto; Prociuk, Alexander; Rehn, Dirk R.; Rosta, Edina; Russ, Nicholas J.; Sharada, Shaama M.; Sharma, Sandeep; Small, David W.; Sodt, Alexander; Stein, Tamar; Stück, David; Su, Yu-Chuan; Thom, Alex J. W.; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Vanovschi, Vitalii; Vogt, Leslie; Vydrov, Oleg; Wang, Tao; Watson, Mark A.; Wenzel, Jan; White, Alec; Williams, Christopher F.; Yang, Jun; Yeganeh, Sina; Yost, Shane R.; You, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Igor Ying; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Yan; Brooks, Bernard R.; Chan, Garnet K. L.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Goddard, William A., III; Gordon, Mark S.; Hehre, Warren J.; Klamt, Andreas; Schaefer, Henry F., III; Schmidt, Michael W.; Sherrill, C. David; Truhlar, Donald G.; Warshel, Arieh; Xu, Xin; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Baer, Roi; Bell, Alexis T.; Besley, Nicholas A.; Chai, Jeng-Da; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D.; Furlani, Thomas R.; Gwaltney, Steven R.; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Jung, Yousung; Kong, Jing; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Liang, WanZhen; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Rassolov, Vitaly A.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Herbert, John M.; Krylov, Anna I.; Gill, Peter M. W.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr2 dimer, exploring zeolite-catalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.

  14. Recent advances in Rydberg physics using alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this brief review, the opportunities that the alkaline-earth elements offer for studying new aspects of Rydberg physics are discussed. For example, the bosonic alkaline-earth isotopes have zero nuclear spin which eliminates many of the complexities present in alkali Rydberg atoms, permitting simpler and more direct comparison between theory and experiment. The presence of two valence electrons allows the production of singlet and triplet Rydberg states that can exhibit a variety of attractive or repulsive interactions. The availability of weak intercombination lines is advantageous for laser cooling and for applications such as Rydberg dressing. Excitation of one electron to a Rydberg state leaves behind an optically active core ion allowing, for high-L states, the optical imaging of Rydberg atoms and their (spatial) manipulation using light scattering. The second valence electron offers the possibility of engineering long-lived doubly excited states such as planetary atoms. Recent advances in both theory and experiment are highlighted together with a number of possible directions for the future.

  15. An advanced scheme for wet scavenging and liquid-phase chemistry in a regional online-coupled chemistry transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knote, C.; Brunner, D.

    2012-10-01

    Clouds are reaction chambers for atmospheric trace gases and aerosols, and the associated precipitation is a major sink for atmospheric constituents. The regional chemistry-climate model COSMO-ART has been lacking a description of wet scavenging of gases and aqueous-phase chemistry. In this work we present a coupling of COSMO-ART with a wet scavenging and aqueous-phase chemistry scheme. The coupling is made consistent with the cloud microphysics scheme of the underlying meteorological model COSMO. While the choice of the aqueous-chemistry mechanism is flexible, the effects of a simple sulfur oxidation scheme are shown in the application of the coupled system in this work. We give details explaining the coupling and extensions made, then present results from idealized flow-over-hill experiments in a 2-D model setup and finally results from a full 3-D simulation. Comparison against measurement data shows that the scheme efficiently reduces SO2 trace gas concentrations by 0.3 ppbv (-30%) on average, while leaving O3 and NOx unchanged. PM10 aerosol mass, which has been overestimated previously, is now in much better agreement with measured values due to a stronger scavenging of coarse particles. While total PM2.5 changes only little, chemical composition is improved notably. Overestimations of nitrate aerosols are reduced by typically 0.5-1 μg m-3 (up to -2 μg m-3 in the Po Valley) while sulfate mass is increased by 1-1.5 μg m-3 on average (up to 2.5 μg m-3 in Eastern Europe). The effect of cloud processing of aerosols on its size distribution, i. e. a shift towards larger diameters, is observed. Compared against wet deposition measurements the system underestimates the total wet deposited mass for the simulated case study. We find that while evaporation of cloud droplets dominates in higher altitudes, evaporation of precipitation can contribute up to 50% of total evaporated mass near the surface.

  16. Physics basis for an advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant configuration: ARIES-ACT1

    DOE PAGES

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Here, the advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at an aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2, and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall-stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n = 3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and/or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reaches βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle magnetohydrodynamic stability shows that themore » alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling shows that 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while >95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring ~1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ion cyclotron radio frequency/fast wave and 40 MW of lower hybrid current drive. Electron cyclotron is most effective for safety factor control over ρ~0.2 to 0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~0.9×1020/m3, and the temperature is ~4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the ratio of net power to threshold power is 2.8 to 3.0 in the flattop.« less

  17. The Physics Basis For An Advanced Physics And Advanced Technology Tokamak Power Plant Configuration, ARIES-ACT1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Kessel, et al

    2014-03-05

    The advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n=3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, and requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reached βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle MHD stability shows that the alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling show that about 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while over 95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring about ~ 1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ICRF/FW and 40 MW of LHCD. EC was examined and is most effective for safety factor control over ρ ~ 0.2-0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~ 0.9x1020 /m3 and the temperature is ~ 4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the net power to LH threshold power is 2.8- 3.0 in the flattop.

  18. Physics basis for an advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant configuration: ARIES-ACT1

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Here, the advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at an aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2, and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall-stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n = 3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and/or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reaches βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle magnetohydrodynamic stability shows that the alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling shows that 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while >95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring ~1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ion cyclotron radio frequency/fast wave and 40 MW of lower hybrid current drive. Electron cyclotron is most effective for safety factor control over ρ~0.2 to 0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~0.9×1020/m3, and the temperature is ~4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the ratio of net power to threshold power is 2.8 to 3.0 in the flattop.

  19. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foffi, G.; Pastore, A.; Piazza, F.; Temussi, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding through an

  20. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012).

    PubMed

    Foffi, G; Pastore, A; Piazza, F; Temussi, P A

    2013-08-02

    conference held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding

  1. Differences in physical chemistry and dissolution rate of solid particle aerosols from solution pressurised inhalers.

    PubMed

    Buttini, Francesca; Miozzi, Michele; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Royall, Paul G; Brambilla, Gaetano; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Forbes, Ben

    2014-04-25

    Solution composition alters the dynamics of beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) particle formation from droplets emitted by pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The hypothesis that differences in inhaler solutions result in different solid particle physical chemistry was tested using a suite of complementary calorimetric techniques. The atomisation of BDP-ethanol solutions from commercial HFA-pMDI produced aerodynamically-equivalent solid particle aerosols. However, differences in particle physico-chemistry (morphology and solvate/clathrate formation) were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and supported by hot stage microscopy (HSM). Increasing the ethanol content of the formulation from 8 to 12% (w/w), which retards the evaporation of propellant and slows the increase in droplet surface viscosity, enhanced the likelihood of particles drying with a smooth surface. The dissolution rate of BDP from the 12% (w/w) ethanol formulation-derived particles (63% dissolved over 120 min) was reduced compared to the 8% (w/w) ethanol formulation-derived particles (86% dissolved over 120 min). The addition of 0.01% (w/w) formoterol fumarate or 1.3% (w/w) glycerol to the inhaler solution modified the particles and reduced the BDP dissolution rate further to 34% and 16% dissolved in 120 min, respectively. These data provide evidence that therapeutic aerosols from apparently similar inhaler products, including those with similar aerodynamic performance, may behave non-equivalently after deposition in the lungs.

  2. Bioorganic Chemistry. A Natural Reunion of the Physical and Life Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Poulter, C. Dale

    2009-01-01

    Organic substances were conceived as those found in living organisms. Although the definition was soon broadened to include all carbon-containing compounds, naturally occurring molecules have always held a special fascination for organic chemists. From these beginnings, molecules from nature were indespensible tools as generations of organic chemists developed new techniques for determining structures, analyzed the mechanisms of reactions, explored the effects conformation and stereochemistry on reactions, and found challenging new targets to synthesize. Only recently have organic chemists harnessed the powerful techniques of organic chemistry to study the functions of organic molecules in their biological hosts, the enzymes that synthesize molecules and the complex processes that occur in a cell. In this Perspective, I present a personal account my entrée into bioorganic chemistry as a physical organic chemist and subsequent work to understand the chemical mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, to develop techniques to identify and assign hydrogen bonds in tRNAs through NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules, and to study how structure determines function in biosynthetic enzymes with proteins obtained by genetic engineering. PMID:19323569

  3. Liaison activities with the institute of physical chemistry, Russian academy of sciences: FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.

    1996-09-23

    The task ``IPC/RAS Liaison and Tank Waste Testing`` is a program being conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1996 with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, EM-53 Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program, under the technical task plan RLA6C342. The principal investigator is Cal Delegard of the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The task involves a technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) and their DOE-supported investigations into the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. The task has three purposes: 1. Providing technical information and technical direction to the IPC/RAS. 2. Disseminating IPC/RAS data and information to the DOE technical community. 3. Verifying IPC/RAS results through laboratory testing and comparison with published data. This report fulfills the milestone ``Provide End-of-Year Report to Focus Area,`` due September 30, 1996.

  4. Bioorganic chemistry. A natural reunion of the physical and life sciences.

    PubMed

    Poulter, C Dale

    2009-04-03

    Organic substances were conceived as those found in living organisms. Although the definition was soon broadened to include all carbon-containing compounds, naturally occurring molecules have always held a special fascination for organic chemists. From these beginnings, molecules from nature were indespensible tools as generations of organic chemists developed new techniques for determining structures, analyzed the mechanisms of reactions, explored the effects conformation and stereochemistry on reactions, and found challenging new targets to synthesize. Only recently have organic chemists harnessed the powerful techniques of organic chemistry to study the functions of organic molecules in their biological hosts, the enzymes that synthesize molecules and the complex processes that occur in a cell. In this Perspective, I present a personal account of my entree into bioorganic chemistry as a physical organic chemist and subsequent work to understand the chemical mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, to develop techniques to identify and assign hydrogen bonds in tRNAs through NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules, and to study how structure determines function in biosynthetic enzymes with proteins obtained by genetic engineering.

  5. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

  6. Using Mathematical Software to Introduce Fourier Transforms in Physical Chemistry to Develop Improved Understanding of Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tierney C.; Richardson, John N.; Kegerreis, Jeb S.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents an exercise that utilizes mathematical software to explore Fourier transforms in the context of model quantum mechanical systems, thus providing a deeper mathematical understanding of relevant information often introduced and treated as a "black-box" in analytical chemistry courses. The exercise is given to…

  7. TIMSS Advanced 2015 and Advanced Placement Calculus & Physics. A Framework Analysis. Research in Review 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Christopher; Jones, Lee; Webb, David C.; Grover, Ryan; Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Marino, Katherine Adele

    2016-01-01

    This report will determine to what degree the AP Physics 1 and 2 and AP Calculus AB and BC frameworks are aligned with the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced Physics and Mathematics frameworks. This will enable an exploration of any differences in content coverage and levels of complexity, and will set the stage…

  8. Quantitative Measurement of Magnetic Hyperfine Parameters and the Physical Organic Chemistry of Supramolecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Christopher J.

    The physical principles that underlie organic reactions were established by a systematic study of chemical reaction dynamics that employed correlated measurements of reaction rates and a physical parameter that could be related of the electronic properties of the molecules in question (Hammett, 1970). Today, molecular science emphasizes the concept of molecular device, which connotes a supramolecular structure (the term "supramolecule" loosely means a molecule that has multiple functionalities associated with it; for example, an enzyme might be regarded as a supramolecule in the sense that it features a supported metal catalyst and a receptor site that recognizes a specific substrate upon which the catalyst acts) that acts in some specific fashion. A molecular device may be biological (e.g., enzymes, contractile proteins; cf. Tanford & Reynolds, 2001), or it may be produced by synthetic means (e.g., molecular wires, switches, machines, etc.; cf. Sauvage, 2001; Balzani et al., 2003). Current synthetic chemistry provides the technical means that enable one to create and modify molecular devices so that structure may elicit some specific function, and so physical organic chemists are interested in reactions that involve engineered and structurally complex systems such as supported catalysts, protein active sites, or nanostructures (cf. amilton, 1996; Tidwell et al., 1997).

  9. For the love of learning science: Connecting learning orientation and career productivity in physics and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John

    2010-06-01

    An individual’s motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this paper: performance orientation or motivation to demonstrate one’s ability or performance to others, and learning orientation or motivation through the desire to learn about a topic. The data were obtained as part of Project Crossover, a mixed-methods study which focused on studying the transition from graduate student to scientist in the physical sciences and included a survey of members of two national professional physical science organizations. Using regression analysis on data from 2353 physicists and chemists, results indicate that physicists and chemists who reported a learning orientation as their motivation for going to graduate school were more productive, in terms of total career primary and/or first-author publications and grant funding, than those reporting a performance orientation. Furthermore, given equal salary, learning-oriented individuals produced more primary and/or first-author publications than their nonlearning oriented counterparts.

  10. An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment on Surfactants: Electrochemical Study of a Commercial Soap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Pablo C.; Clausse, Danièle

    2003-09-01

    A general and physical chemistry laboratory on the electrochemistry of soap solutions is proposed. It involves safe, nontoxic, nonpolluting materials, common laboratory apparatuses, and a combination of theoretical and practical concepts. The critical micelle concentration is measured in weight percent and the mean hydrocarbon chain length and soap mixture molar weight are determined. Conductivity data are also used to determine the micelle ionization degree, the micelle and monomer molar conductivity, and the micellar electrophoretic mobility. The existence of a critical micelle concentration range is also visualized. The hydrolysis degree, the fatty acid ionization constant and water solubility, the formation of acid soap, and the concentration at which the first submicellar aggregates form are determined by pH measurements. These results lead to a discussion of several characteristics of surfactant solutions.

  11. On determining important aspects of mathematical models: Application to problems in physics and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    1987-01-01

    The use of parametric and functional gradient sensitivity analysis techniques is considered for models described by partial differential equations. By interchanging appropriate dependent and independent variables, questions of inverse sensitivity may be addressed to gain insight into the inversion of observational data for parameter and function identification in mathematical models. It may be argued that the presence of a subset of dominantly strong coupled dependent variables will result in the overall system sensitivity behavior collapsing into a simple set of scaling and self similarity relations amongst elements of the entire matrix of sensitivity coefficients. These general tools are generic in nature, but herein their application to problems arising in selected areas of physics and chemistry is presented.

  12. Enhancing Student Success in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics by Transforming the Faculty Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Howard; Smith, Leigh; Koenig, Kathleen; Beyette, Jill; Kinkle, Brian; Vonderheide, Anne

    We present preliminary results of an effort to enhance undergraduate student success in the STEM disciplines. We explore a multistep approach that reflects recent literature and report initial results by each of the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics of implementing several change strategies. The central elements of our approach involve identified departmental Teaching and Learning Liaisons, a unique faculty development component by our teaching center, a vertical integration of leadership across department heads, the Dean, and the Provost, and the explicit acknowledgement that change happens locally. Teaching and Learning lunches across the departments have attracted an attendance of ~65% of the faculty. The use of Learning Assistants in classrooms has also increased sharply. Modest changes in the student success rates have been observed. These efforts and others at the decanal and provostal levels promise changes in student success. We acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Foundation through DUE 1544001 and 1431350.

  13. Heterodyne Spectroscopy in the Thermal Infrared Region: A Window on Physics and Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal infrared region contains molecular bands of many of the most important species in gaseous astronomical sources. True shapes and frequencies of emission and absorption spectral lines from these constituents of planetary and stellar atmospheres contain unique information on local temperature and abundance distribution, non-thermal effects, composition, local dynamics and winds. Heterodyne spectroscopy in the thermal infrared can remotely measure true line shapes in relatively cool and thin regions and enable the retrieval of detailed information about local physics and chemistry. The concept and techniques for heterodyne detection will be discussed including examples of thermal infrared photomixers and instrumentation used in studies of several astronomical sources. Use of heterodyne detection to study non-LTE phenomena, planetary aurora, minor planetary species and gas velocities (winds) will be discussed. A discussion of future technological developments and relation to space flight missions will be addressed.

  14. Chemistry to conservation: using otoliths to advance recreational and commercial fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Carlson, A K; Phelps, Q E; Graeb, B D S

    2017-02-01

    Otolith chemistry is an effective technique for evaluating fish environmental history, but its utility in fisheries management has not been comprehensively examined. Thus, a review of otolith chemistry with emphasis on management applicability is presented. More than 1500 otolith chemistry manuscripts published from 1967 to 2015 are reviewed and descriptive case studies are used to illustrate the utility of otolith chemistry as a fisheries management tool. Otolith chemistry publications span a wide variety of topics (e.g. natal origins, habitat use, movement, stock discrimination and statistical theory) and species in freshwater and marine systems. Despite the broad distribution of manuscripts in a variety of fisheries, environmental and ecological journals, the majority of publications (83%, n = 1264) do not describe implications or applications of otolith chemistry for fisheries management. This information gap is addressed through case studies that illustrate management applications of otolith chemistry. Case studies cover numerous topics (e.g. natal origins, population connectivity, stock enhancement, transgenerational marking, pollution exposure history and invasive species management) in freshwater and marine systems using sport fishes, invasive fishes, endangered fishes and species of commercial and aquaculture importance. Otolith chemistry has diverse implications and applications for fisheries management worldwide. Collaboration among fisheries professionals from academia, government agencies and non-governmental organizations will help bridge the research-management divide and establish otolith chemistry as a fisheries management tool.

  15. An overview of silica in biology: its chemistry and recent technological advances.

    PubMed

    Perry, Carole C

    2009-01-01

    Biomineralisation is widespread in the biological world and occurs in bacteria, single-celled protists, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Minerals formed in the biological environment often show unusual physical properties (e.g. strength, degree of hydration) and often have structures that exhibit order on many length scales. Biosilica, found in single cell organisms through to higher plants and primitive animals (sponges), is formed from an environment that is undersaturated with respect to silicon and under conditions of around neutral pH and low temperature, ca. 4-40 degrees C. Formation of the mineral may occur intra- or extra-cellularly, and specific biochemical locations for mineral deposition that include lipids, proteins and carbohydrates are known. In most cases, the formation of the mineral phase is linked to cellular processes, understanding of which could lead to the design of new materials for biomedical, optical and other applications. This Chapter briefly describes the occurrence of silica in biology including known roles for the mineral phase, the chemistry of the material, the associated biomolecules and some recent applications of this knowledge in materials chemistry.The terminology which is used in this and other contributions within this volume is as follows: Si: the chemical symbol for the element and the generic term used when the nature of the specific silicon compound is not known. Si(OH) ( 4 ): orthosilicic acid, the fundamental building block used in the formation of silicas. SiO ( 2 ) x nH ( 2 ) O or SiO ( 2-x ) (OH) ( 2x ) x 2H ( 2 ) O: amorphous, hydrated, polymerised material. Oligomerisation: the formation of dimers and small oligomers from orthosilicic acid by removal of water. For example, 2Si(OH)(4) <--> (HO)(3)Si-O-Si(OH)(3) + H(2)O Polymerisation: the mutual condensation of silicic acid to give molecularly coherent units of increasing size. Organosilicon compound: must contain silicon covalently bonded to carbon within a

  16. The advanced light source at Lawrence Berkeley laboratory: a new tool for research in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, Alfred S.; Robinson, Arthur L.

    1991-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) and 24 high-quality bend-magnet ports. The short pulse width (30-50 ps) will be ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will generate high-brightness partially coherent soft X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; this radiation is plane polarized. Wigglers and bend magnets will extend the spectrum by generating high fluxes of X-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy), and in biology, such as X-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity; the high flux will allow measurements in atomic physics and chemistry to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. Technological applications could include lithography and nano-fabrication.

  17. Recent advances in the application of electron tomography to materials chemistry.

    PubMed

    Leary, Rowan; Midgley, Paul A; Thomas, John Meurig

    2012-10-16

    Nowadays, tomography plays a central role in pureand applied science, in medicine, and in many branches of engineering and technology. It entails reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) structure of an object from a tilt series of two-dimensional (2D) images. Its origin goes back to 1917, when Radon showed mathematically how a series of 2D projection images could be converted to the 3D structural one. Tomographic X-ray and positron scanning for 3D medical imaging, with a resolution of ∼1 mm, is now ubiquitous in major hospitals. Electron tomography, a relatively new chemical tool, with a resolution of ∼1 nm, has been recently adopted by materials chemists as an invaluable aid for the 3D study of the morphologies, spatially-discriminating chemical compositions, and defect properties of nanostructured materials. In this Account, we review the advances that have been made in facilitating the recording of the required series of 2D electron microscopic images and the subsequent process of 3D reconstruction of specimens that are vulnerable, to a greater or lesser degree, to electron beam damage. We describe how high-fidelity 3D tomograms may be obtained from relatively few 2D images by incorporating prior structural knowledge into the reconstruction process. In particular, we highlight the vital role of compressed sensing, a recently developed procedure well-known to information theorists that exploits ideas of image compression and "sparsity" (that the important image information can be captured in a reduced data set). We also touch upon another promising approach, "discrete" tomography, which builds into the reconstruction process a prior assumption that the object can be described in discrete terms, such as the number of constituent materials and their expected densities. Other advances made recently that we outline, such as the availability of aberration-corrected electron microscopes, electron wavelength monochromators, and sophisticated specimen goniometers

  18. Bridging the Cognitive-Affective Gaps: Teaching Chemistry while Advancing Affective Objectives. The Singapore Curricular Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Siang; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai

    2006-01-01

    Chemistry teachers face constraints when trying to integrate cognitive and affective objectives, and hence thoughtful lesson planning is required to achieve the goal. Chemistry teachers can educate students to be knowledgeable about chemical concepts, processes and the benefits of responsible practice by the chemical industry, while being aware,…

  19. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  20. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  1. A Self-Teaching Scheme in Applied Science (Physics and Chemistry) for Students of Widely Varying Background Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsey, Joan; Milson, A.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of an investigation of a self-teaching scheme of selected topics in physics and chemistry used with students taking courses in catering, hotel/catering, and institutional management and diploma in home economics. Two complementary experimental approaches are used: statistical analysis of the data and semistructured…

  2. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  3. Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the types of views and misconceptions uncovered after assessing 155 freshman general chemistry students on the concept of particle position during the reversible physical change of melting, using the Melting Cycle Instrument, which illustrates particulate-level representations of a melting-freezing cycle. Animations…

  4. Reasoning Using Particulate Nature of Matter: An Example of a Sociochemical Norm in a University-Level Physical Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nicole; Rasmussen, Chris; Sweeney, George; Wawro, Megan; Towns, Marcy; Cole, Renee

    2013-01-01

    In college level chemistry courses, reasoning using molecular and particulate descriptions of matter becomes central to understanding physical and chemical properties. In this study, we used a qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's model of argumentation in order to describe the ways in which students develop…

  5. Translating across Macroscopic, Submicroscopic, and Symbolic Levels: The Role of Instructor Facilitation in an Inquiry-Oriented Physical Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nicole; Stanford, Courtney; Towns, Marcy; Cole, Renee

    2015-01-01

    In physical chemistry classrooms, mathematical and graphical representations are critical tools for reasoning about chemical phenomena. However, there is abundant evidence that to be successful in understanding complex thermodynamics topics, students must go beyond rote mathematical problem solving in order to connect their understanding of…

  6. Determination of Molecular Self-Diffusion Coefficients Using Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR: An Experiment for Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Jennifer; Coffman, Cierra; Villarrial, Spring; Chabolla, Steven; Heisel, Kurt A.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V.

    2012-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has become one of the primary tools that chemists utilize to characterize a range of chemical species in the solution phase, from small organic molecules to medium-sized proteins. A discussion of NMR spectroscopy is an essential component of physical and biophysical chemistry lecture courses, and a number of instructional…

  7. Success Factors in Curriculum Innovation: The Case of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology in Secondary Education in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Ard; And Others

    This paper reports on a theoretical and empirical study into curriculum innovation in secondary education in the Netherlands focusing on mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. Curriculum specialists, subject specialists, researchers, policy makers, and teachers were interviewed for the study. Results indicate that mathematics had the most…

  8. Practical Work in Biology, Chemistry and Physics at Lower Secondary and General Upper Secondary Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Spernjak, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Syllabi in the science subjects, biology, chemistry and physics at lower and general upper secondary school are compared in the light of their underlying philosophies, goals, objectives and recognized importance in science teaching. Even though all syllabi were prepared within the same framework, great differences among syllabi concerning…

  9. The Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Cohorts' Early Enrollment in Physics: concurrent with enrollment in mathematics, biology and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Robert Bruce Rodes

    Cohorts of 48 entering biological science majors was recruited in the fall of 2007 and again in 2008 and 2009 for the Interdisciplinary Science Experience (ISE). These ISE students enrolled in their own sections of standard courses of physics, chemistry, and biology. In these courses average ISE student out-performed their non-cohort peers by up to a full letter grade. A qualitative analysis of ISE student interviews illuminates the student experience and shows how the ISE students perceived themselves to be different than their non-cohort peers. Quantitative modeling of student performance shows that higher grades are correlated with multiple factors. These factors includes admissions characteristics such as high school GPA, and SAT scores, as well as demographic information. These trends support and elaborate on the selection narratives told by participants. Additionally the quantitative model found that higher student performance is predicted by structural aspects of the ISE program, specifically the timing of course, enrolling as a freshmen in many of their courses, and the sequencing of physics and chemistry courses. There is a statistically significant benefit to student performance in general and organic chemistry courses associated with completing the first quarter of the Physics for Bio-Science majors prior to enrollment. Further the combination of quantitative and qualitative data suggest that there is a epistemological transfer of problem solving skills and outlook from the physics to the chemistry courses.

  10. Getting Physical with Your Chemistry: Mechanically Investigating Local Structure and Properties of Surfaces with the Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, William F.; Hoh, Jan H.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) investigates mechanically the chemical properties of individual molecules, surfaces, and materials using suitably designed probes. The current state of the art of AFM in terms of imaging, force measurement, and sample manipulation and its application to physical chemistry is discussed.

  11. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  12. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate (III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that allows students to test the effect of ionic strength on the rates of a reaction between ions. The reduction of hexacyanoferrate III by ascorbic acid is detailed. Comparisons with the iodine clock reaction are made. (CS)

  13. Utilization of a Microcomputer for the Study of an Iodine Oxidation and Equilibrium Reaction: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment which incorporates the use of a microcomputer to enhance understanding of combined kinetic and equilibrium phenomena, to increase experimental capabilities when working with large numbers of students and limited equipment, and for the student to develop a better understanding of experimental design. (JN)

  14. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram of Phenol and t-Butanol: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaogang; Wu, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the solid-liquid phase diagram of a binary system is always used as an experiment in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory courses. However, most phase diagrams investigated in the lab are simple eutectic ones, despite the fact that complex binary solid-liquid phase diagrams are more common. In this article, the…

  15. Observation and Analysis of N[subscript 2]O Rotation-Vibration Spectra: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Mark S.; Reeve, Scott W.; Burns, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The linear molecule N[subscript 2]O is presented as an alternative gas-phase species for the ubiquitous undergraduate physical chemistry rotation-vibration spectroscopy experiment. Utilizing a 0.5 cm[superscript -1] resolution teaching grade FTIR spectrometer, 15 vibrational bands, corresponding to 1229 rotation-vibration transitions, have been…

  16. A Precise, Simple, and Low-Cost Experiment to Determine the Isobaric Expansion Coefficient for Physical Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pe´rez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The procedure of a physical chemistry experiment for university students must be designed in a way that the accuracy and precision of the measurements is properly maintained. However, in many cases, that requires costly and sophisticated equipment not readily available in developing countries. A simple, low-cost experiment to determine isobaric…

  17. Ab Initio Determinations of Photoelectron Spectra Including Vibronic Features: An Upper-Level Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Richard L.; Davis, Lisa; Millam, Evan L.; Brown, Eric; Offerman, Chad; Wray, Paul; Green, Susan M. E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a first-principles determination of the photoelectron spectra of water and hypochlorous acid as a laboratory exercise accessible to students in an undergraduate physical chemistry course. This paper demonstrates the robustness and user-friendliness of software developed for the Franck-Condon factor calculation. While the calculator is…

  18. Theory of planetary atmospheres: an introduction to their physics and chemistry /2nd revised and enlarged edition/

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, J.W.; Hunten, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models of planetary atmospheres are characterized in an introductory text intended for graduate physics students and practicing scientists. Chapters are devoted to the vertical structure of an atmosphere; atmospheric hydrodynamics; the chemistry and dynamics of the earth stratosphere; planetary astronomy; ionospheres; airglows, auroras, and aeronomy; and the stability of planetary atmospheres. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  19. Post-16 Physics and Chemistry Uptake: Combining Large-Scale Secondary Analysis with In-Depth Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

  20. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zisman, M. S.

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences were surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. Demand for separated isotopes is expected to remain roughly at present levels, although a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes is predicted. Use of neutron rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators and use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are expected to expand. An increase in the need for calibration standards for techniques of radiological dating, such as Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf is predicted, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  1. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  2. A biologist's view of the relevance of thermodynamics and physical chemistry to cryobiology✰

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics and physical chemistry have played powerful roles the past forty-five years in interpreting cryobiological problems and in predicting cryobiological outcomes. The author has been guided by a few core principles in using these concepts and tools and this paper discusses these core principles. They are (1) the importance of chemical potentials and of the difference between the chemical potentials of water and solutes inside the cell and outside in determining the direction and rate of fluxes of water and solutes. (2) The influence of the curvature of an ice crystal on its chemical potential and on the ability of ice to pass through pores in cell membranes, on the nucleation temperature of supercooled water, and on the recrystallization of ice. (3) The use of Le Chatalier's Principle in qualitatively predicting the direction of a reaction is response to variables like pressure. (4) The fact that the energy differences between State A and State B are independent of the path taken to go from A to B. (5) The importance of being aware of the assumptions underlying thermodynamic models of cryobiological events. And (6), the difficulties in obtaining experimental verification of thermodynamic and physical-chemical models. PMID:19962974

  3. The Clarinet Reed: AN Introduction to its Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadonte, Donald Jay

    Although clarinet reeds have been used for over two-hundred years, there has been little scientific study of the reed, either from a material science or engineering perspective. This document is intended to be the first large-scale study of the clarinet reed covering its biology, chemistry and physics. The reed is made, most often, from cane--Arundo donax. We present a complete atlas of the anatomy of Arundo donax, and examine the role of each of the cellular components in the clarinet reed performance. We examine the three principal chemical components of the processed clarinet reed: cellulose, xylan, and lignin through the use of instrumental analysis. We examine the breakdown pathways of the clarinet reed, and isolate five: (1) decrystallization of the cellulose microstructure, (2) removal of xylan by saliva, (3) plasticization of the reed material due to alkalai attack in saliva, (4) the culturing of a bacterium, Staph Epidermitis, in the cell wall matrix, (5) density changes due to salival coating of the reed. The physics of the reed is examined, and a finite element model of the modal shapes is presented. We present a theoretical treatment of the two modes of excitation of the reed, a low frequency mode (normal playing mode) due to vortex shedding, and a high frequency mode which is associated with reed squeak.

  4. Modeling physical chemistry of the Io plasma torus in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copper, M.; Delamere, P. A.; Overcast-Howe, K.

    2016-07-01

    Periodicities in the Io plasma illustrate the rich complexity of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in space plasmas. The confounding System IV period (slower than the rotation of Jupiter's magnetic field ≡ System III) remains a mystery of the torus. Common to both System III and IV are modulations of the superthermal electron population. The small fraction (<1%) of hot electrons plays a vital role in torus physical and chemical properties, modulating the abundance and temperature of ion species. Building on previous models of torus physical chemistry, we have developed a two-dimensional model that includes azimuthal and radial transport (diffusion equation) while averaging chemical processes in latitude. This paper presents initial results of the model, demonstrating the role of hot electrons in forming a single-peaked torus structure. The effect of azimuthal shear is investigated as plasma is transported radially outward, showing how the torus properties evolve during transport from a chemically dominated regime (inner torus) to a transport dominated regime (outer torus). Surprisingly, we find that hot electron populations influence torus properties at all radial distances. While many of our results are preliminary, suggestions for future modeling experiments are suggested to provide additional insight into the origin of the ubiquitous superthermal electrons.

  5. Light Weight UAVs for Unravelling the Nexus Between Chemistry, Physics and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2015-12-01

    New discoveries in atmospheric sciences involve unravelling the interactions and feedback processes between chemitsry, physics and dynamics. One of the most complex of such problems is the role of aerosol-clouds-climate interactions in climate change. During the last 7 years we have designed field experiments with light weight UAVs that are flown in stacked as well as formation flying patterns to map out the three dimensional structure of the atmosphere. Such formation and stacked formation flights have enabled us to measure simulatneously aerosol chemistry, cloud micro physics, cloud albedo, divergence of radiative heating of the atmosphere and more recently the vertical structure of turbulent fluxes of water avpor and momentum. These first-such measurments have provided new insights into the role of aerosols in cloud albedo; vertical distribution of black and brown carbon heating; role of absorbing aerosols in the melting of Himalayan glaciers; role of mixing state of aerosols in aerosol forcing and recently the link between absorbing aerosols and turbulent fluxes. All of the instruments had to be miniaturized to fit into the UAVs with maximum of 6 kg of payload. The most impprtant aspects of our studies are that the instruments and their intergration with the UAvs were all developed by post doctoral candidates and students. Thus the light weight UAVs are ideal platforms for making pioneerign studies by students and young scientists.

  6. A biologist's view of the relevance of thermodynamics and physical chemistry to cryobiology.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Thermodynamics and physical chemistry have played powerful roles the past 45years in interpreting cryobiological problems and in predicting cryobiological outcomes. The author has been guided by a few core principles in using these concepts and tools and this paper discusses these core principles. They are (1) the importance of chemical potentials and of the difference between the chemical potentials of water and solutes inside the cell and outside in determining the direction and rate of fluxes of water and solutes. (2) The influence of the curvature of an ice crystal on its chemical potential and on the ability of ice to pass through pores in cell membranes, on the nucleation temperature of supercooled water, and on the recrystallization of ice. (3) The use of Le Chatalier's Principle in qualitatively predicting the direction of a reaction in response to variables like pressure. (4) The fact that the energy differences between State A and State B are independent of the path taken to go from A to B. (5) The importance of being aware of the assumptions underlying thermodynamic models of cryobiological events. And (6), the difficulties in obtaining experimental verification of thermodynamic and physical-chemical models.

  7. Controlling the physics and chemistry of binary and ternary praseodymium and cerium oxide systems.

    PubMed

    Niu, Gang; Zoellner, Marvin Hartwig; Schroeder, Thomas; Schaefer, Andreas; Jhang, Jin-Hao; Zielasek, Volkmar; Bäumer, Marcus; Wilkens, Henrik; Wollschläger, Joachim; Olbrich, Reinhard; Lammers, Christian; Reichling, Michael

    2015-10-14

    Rare earth praseodymium and cerium oxides have attracted intense research interest in the last few decades, due to their intriguing chemical and physical characteristics. An understanding of the correlation between structure and properties, in particular the surface chemistry, is urgently required for their application in microelectronics, catalysis, optics and other fields. Such an understanding is, however, hampered by the complexity of rare earth oxide materials and experimental methods for their characterisation. Here, we report recent progress in studying high-quality, single crystalline, praseodymium and cerium oxide films as well as ternary alloys grown on Si(111) substrates. Using these well-defined systems and based on a systematic multi-technique surface science approach, the corresponding physical and chemical properties, such as the surface structure, the surface morphology, the bulk-surface interaction and the oxygen storage/release capability, are explored in detail. We show that specifically the crystalline structure and the oxygen stoichiometry of the oxide thin films can be well controlled by the film preparation method. This work leads to a comprehensive understanding of the properties of rare earth oxides and highlights the applications of these versatile materials. Furthermore, methanol adsorption studies are performed on binary and ternary rare earth oxide thin films, demonstrating the feasibility of employing such systems for model catalytic studies. Specifically for ceria systems, we find considerable stability against normal environmental conditions so that they can be considered as a "materials bridge" between surface science models and real catalysts.

  8. Earth materials research: Report of a Workshop on Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The report concludes that an enhanced effort of earth materials research is necessary to advance the understanding of the processes that shape the planet. In support of such an effort, there are new classes of experiments, new levels of analytical sensitivity and precision, and new levels of theory that are now applicable in understanding the physical and chemical properties of geological materials. The application of these capabilities involves the need to upgrade and make greater use of existing facilities as well as the development of new techniques. A concomitant need is for a sample program involving their collection, synthesis, distribution, and analysis.

  9. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  10. Students' confidence in the ability to transfer basic math skills in introductory physics and chemistry courses at a community college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and

  11. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Copper-Alanine System: An Advanced Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, John J.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated physical-analytical-inorganic chemistry laboratory procedure for use with undergraduate biology majors is described. The procedure requires five to six laboratory periods and includes acid-base standardizations, potentiometric determinations, computer usage, spectrophotometric determinations of crystal-field splitting…

  12. Application of Advances in Learning Theory and Philosophy of Science to the Improvement of Chemistry Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses seven key concepts in Ausubel's learning theory which function to guide research and teaching. Also discusses concept mapping and Gowins Vee, providing examples of how they are used in chemistry instruction. (JN)

  13. Droplet Deformation in an Extensional Flow: The Role of Surfactant Physical Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebe, Kathleen J.

    1996-01-01

    Surfactant-induced Marangoni effects strongly alter the stresses exerted along fluid particle interfaces. In low gravity processes, these stresses can dictate the system behavior. The dependence of Marangoni effects on surfactant physical chemistry is not understood, severely impacting our ability to predict and control fluid particle flows. A droplet in an extensional flow allows the controlled study of stretching and deforming interfaces. The deformations of the drop allow both Marangoni stresses, which resist tangential shear, and Marangoni elasticities, which resist surface dilatation, to develop. This flow presents an ideal model system for studying these effects. Prior surfactant-related work in this flow considered a linear dependence of the surface tension on the surface concentration, valid only at dilute surface concentrations, or a non-linear framework at concentrations sufficiently dilute that the linear approximation was valid. The linear framework becomes inadequate for several reasons. The finite dimensions of surfactant molecules must be taken into account with a model that includes surfaces saturation. Nonideal interactions between adsorbed surfactant molecules alter the partitioning of surfactant between the bulk and the interface, the dynamics of surfactant adsorptive/desorptive exchange, and the sensitivity of the surface tension to adsorbed surfactant. For example, cohesion between hydrocarbon chains favors strong adsorption. Cohesion also slows the rate of desorption from interfaces, and decreases the sensitivity of the surface tension to adsorbed surfactant. Strong cohesive interactions result in first order surface phase changes with a plateau in the surface tension vs surface concentration. Within this surface concentration range, the surface tension is decoupled from surface concentration gradients. We are engaged in the study of the role of surfactant physical chemistry in determining the Marangoni stresses on a drop in an extensional

  14. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  15. CURRICULUM GUIDES IN PHYSICS--GENERAL ADVANCED PLACEMENT, COLLEGE LEVEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESNER, GORDON E.

    THE GENERAL PHYSICS CURRICULUM IS PLANNED FOR THOSE WHOSE GENERAL ABILITY IS BETTER THAN AVERAGE AND IS OFFERED IN GRADES 11 OR 12. GENERAL OBJECTIVES ARE, TO DEVELOP CRITICAL THINKING THROUGH THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD, TO UNDERSTAND BASIC PHYSICAL LAWS AND MAN'S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND TO DEVELOP A SCIENTIFIC ABILITY AND INTEREST. ELEVEN UNITS OF…

  16. Genetic algorithms and genetic programming for multiscale modeling: Applications in materials science and chemistry and advances in scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastry, Kumara Narasimha

    2007-03-01

    Effective and efficient rnultiscale modeling is essential to advance both the science and synthesis in a, wide array of fields such as physics, chemistry, materials science; biology, biotechnology and pharmacology. This study investigates the efficacy and potential of rising genetic algorithms for rnultiscale materials modeling and addresses some of the challenges involved in designing competent algorithms that solve hard problems quickly, reliably and accurately. In particular, this thesis demonstrates the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) and genetic programming (GP) in multiscale modeling with the help of two non-trivial case studies in materials science and chemistry. The first case study explores the utility of genetic programming (GP) in multi-timescaling alloy kinetics simulations. In essence, GP is used to bridge molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods to span orders-of-magnitude in simulation time. Specifically, GP is used to regress symbolically an inline barrier function from a limited set of molecular dynamics simulations to enable kinetic Monte Carlo that simulate seconds of real time. Results on a non-trivial example of vacancy-assisted migration on a surface of a face-centered cubic (fcc) Copper-Cobalt (CuxCo 1-x) alloy show that GP predicts all barriers with 0.1% error from calculations for less than 3% of active configurations, independent of type of potentials used to obtain the learning set of barriers via molecular dynamics. The resulting method enables 2--9 orders-of-magnitude increase in real-time dynamics simulations taking 4--7 orders-of-magnitude less CPU time. The second case study presents the application of multiobjective genetic algorithms (MOGAs) in multiscaling quantum chemistry simulations. Specifically, MOGAs are used to bridge high-level quantum chemistry and semiempirical methods to provide accurate representation of complex molecular excited-state and ground-state behavior. Results on ethylene and benzene---two common

  17. Beyond Popper and Polanyi: Leonor Michaelis, a critical and passionate pioneer of research at the interface of medicine, enzymology, and physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    The biochemist and biophysicist Leonor Michaelis (1875-1949) was a renowned pioneer who worked at the interface of physical chemistry and biochemistry. He is best known for his work on the physical chemistry of proteins and enzymes and for the mathematical derivation, together with Maud Menten, of the affinity constant of the enzyme substrate bond, now known as the Michaelis-Menten constant. His thorough experimentation and careful theorizing made him critical of his contemporaries in medical biochemistry, whose work did not withstand scrutiny. His strong influence resulted from combining new concepts and approaches with traditional ones, thus bridging conceptual gaps. Most importantly, his success was brought about because he combined a critical and sharp mind with competence, passion, and determination. A review of Michaelis's approach and achievements shows that critical theory testing, as suggested by Popper, cannot explain scientific advance if taken alone; the existence of a passionate commitment to scientific beliefs, as emphasized by Polanyi, is another necessary prerequisite for the development of science.

  18. Effect of the science teaching advancement through modeling physical science professional development workshop on teachers' attitudes, beliefs and content knowledge and students' content knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Laura

    The Science Teaching Advancement through Modeling Physical Science (STAMPS) professional development workshop was evaluated for effectiveness in improving teachers' and students' content knowledge. Previous research has shown modeling to be an effective method of instruction for improving student and teacher content knowledge, evidenced by assessment scores. Data includes teacher scores on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI; Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhamer, 1992) and the Chemistry Concept Inventory (CCI; Jenkins, Birk, Bauer, Krause, & Pavelich, 2004), as well as student scores on a physics and chemistry assessment. Quantitative data is supported by teacher responses to a post workshop survey and classroom observations. Evaluation of the data shows that the STAMPS professional development workshop was successful in improving both student and teacher content knowledge. Conclusions and suggestions for future study are also included.

  19. Research in Physical Chemistry and Chemical Education: Part A--Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized Atmospheric Compounds Part B--The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, Marta Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental physical chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized atmospheric molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water…

  20. Intrinsic charge trapping in organic and polymeric semiconductors: a physical chemistry perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kaake, Loren; Barbara, Paul F.; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2010-01-12

    We aim to understand the origins of intrinsic charge carrier traps in organic and polymeric semiconductor materials from a physical chemistry perspective. In crystalline organic semiconductors, we point out some of the inadequacies in the description of intrinsic charge traps using language and concepts developed for inorganic semiconductors. In π-conjugated polymeric semiconductors, we suggest the presence of a two-tier electronic energy landscape, a bimodal majority landscape due to two dominant structural motifs and a minority electronic energy landscape from intrinsic charged defects. The bimodal majority electronic energy landscape results from a combination of amorphous domains and microcrystalline or liquid-crystalline domains. The minority tier of the electronic density of states is comprised of deep Coulomb traps embedded in the majority electronic energy landscape. This minority electronic energy landscape may dominate transport properties at low charge carrier densities, such as those expected for organic photovoltaic devices, while the bimodal majority electronic energy landscape becomes significant at high carrier densities, that is, in organic field effect transistors.

  1. DNA as information: at the crossroads between biology, mathematics, physics and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Giannerini, Simone; González, Diego L

    2016-03-13

    On the one hand, biology, chemistry and also physics tell us how the process of translating the genetic information into life could possibly work, but we are still very far from a complete understanding of this process. On the other hand, mathematics and statistics give us methods to describe such natural systems-or parts of them-within a theoretical framework. Also, they provide us with hints and predictions that can be tested at the experimental level. Furthermore, there are peculiar aspects of the management of genetic information that are intimately related to information theory and communication theory. This theme issue is aimed at fostering the discussion on the problem of genetic coding and information through the presentation of different innovative points of view. The aim of the editors is to stimulate discussions and scientific exchange that will lead to new research on why and how life can exist from the point of view of the coding and decoding of genetic information. The present introduction represents the point of view of the editors on the main aspects that could be the subject of future scientific debate.

  2. DNA as information: at the crossroads between biology, mathematics, physics and chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, biology, chemistry and also physics tell us how the process of translating the genetic information into life could possibly work, but we are still very far from a complete understanding of this process. On the other hand, mathematics and statistics give us methods to describe such natural systems—or parts of them—within a theoretical framework. Also, they provide us with hints and predictions that can be tested at the experimental level. Furthermore, there are peculiar aspects of the management of genetic information that are intimately related to information theory and communication theory. This theme issue is aimed at fostering the discussion on the problem of genetic coding and information through the presentation of different innovative points of view. The aim of the editors is to stimulate discussions and scientific exchange that will lead to new research on why and how life can exist from the point of view of the coding and decoding of genetic information. The present introduction represents the point of view of the editors on the main aspects that could be the subject of future scientific debate. PMID:26857674

  3. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J.; Nelson, Daniel C.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2010-12-01

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics.

  4. Lipidology and lipidomics--quo vadis? A new era for the physical chemistry of lipids.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, Ole G

    2011-11-21

    Our picture of lipid membranes has come a long way since Gorter and Grendel in 1925 formulated the lipid bilayer hypothesis. Most modern textbook models of membranes are based on the Singer-Nicolson model from 1972, although we have in recent years seen significant amendments to this model, not least fuelled by the finding of lipid membrane domains and the subsequent 'raft rush'. The science of lipids, lipidology, has now become an established discipline, acknowledging that lipids organize in space and time and display emergent physico-chemical properties that are beyond the chemical nature of the individual molecules and which collectively control membrane function. Recently, lipidomics has been followed as a new discipline in the omics-sequel, characterized by an explosion in detailed data for lipid profiles of tissues, cells, and subcellular components. The focus is now swinging toward enumerating individual lipid species, determining their identity, and quantitating their amount. Time is ripe to marry the two disciplines, both in order to take lipidomics beyond the stage of 'stamp collection' and in order to incorporate into the lipidology approach the new knowledge about the individual lipid species. As an important matchmaker for this marriage, the physical chemistry of lipids in lipid bilayers and membranes is entering a new era of renaissance.

  5. Analysis of scientific argumentation in two physical chemistry classrooms using the POGIL approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Alena C.

    The benefits of facilitating argumentation in science education have been well reported (Jimenez-Aleixandre & Erduran, 2007). Engaging in argumentation has shown to model authentic scientific inquiry as well as promote development of content knowledge. However, less emphasis has been placed on facilitating argumentation in upper level undergraduate courses, though it is important for evaluating undergraduate curricula to characterize upper level students' scientific reasoning. This work considers two implementations of the POGIL physical chemistry curriculum and evaluates the classroom argumentation. The researchers aimed to consider the content of the arguments and dialectical features characteristic of socially constructed arguments (Nielson, 2013). To do this, whole class sessions were videotaped and Toulmin's Argument Pattern (TAP) was used to identify the arguments generated during the class (Erduran, Simon, & Osborne, 2004). A learning progression on chemical thinking (Sevian & Talanquer, 2014) was used as a domain-specific measure of argument quality. Results show differences in argumentation between and across both classrooms that can be explained by analysis of instructor facilitation and the POGIL curriculum. The results from this work will be used to make recommendations for instructor facilitation of argumentation and reform of the POGIL curriculum.

  6. How and why does the immunological synapse form? Physical chemistry meets cell biology.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arup K

    2002-03-05

    During T lymphocyte (T cell) recognition of an antigen, a highly organized and specific pattern of membrane proteins forms in the junction between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell (APC). This specialized cell-cell junction is called the immunological synapse. It is several micrometers large and forms over many minutes. A plethora of experiments are being performed to study the mechanisms that underlie synapse formation and the way in which information transfer occurs across the synapse. The wealth of experimental data that is beginning to emerge must be understood within a mechanistic framework if it is to prove useful in developing modalities to control the immune response. Quantitative models can complement experiments in the quest for such a mechanistic understanding by suggesting experimentally testable hypotheses. Here, a quantitative synapse assembly model is described. The model uses concepts developed in physical chemistry and cell biology and is able to predict the spatiotemporal evolution of cell shape and receptor protein patterns observed during synapse formation. Attention is directed to how the juxtaposition of model predictions and experimental data has led to intriguing hypotheses regarding the role of null and self peptides during synapse assembly, as well as correlations between T cell effector functions and the robustness of synapse assembly. We remark on some ways in which synergistic experiments and modeling studies can improve current models, and we take steps toward a better understanding of information transfer across the T cell-APC junction.

  7. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-12-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states. Achieve, Inc. on behalf of the twenty-six states and partners that collaborated on the NGSS, 2013). Although assessments of the NGSS have yet to be developed, most students are currently evaluated on their ability to interpret science visuals. While numerous studies exist on particular visuals, it is unclear whether the same types of visuals are emphasized in all science disciplines. The present study is an evaluation of the similarities and differences of visuals used to assess students' knowledge of chemistry, earth science, living environment (biology), and physics on the New York State Regents examination. Analysis of 266 distinct visual representations categorized across the four content examinations reveals that the frequency and type of visuals vary greatly between disciplines. Diagrams, Graphs, Tables, and Maps are the most prevalent across all science disciplines. Maps, Cartograms, and Time Charts are unique to the Earth Science examination, and Network Diagrams are unique to the living environment (biology) examination. This study identifies which representations are most critical for training students across the science disciplines in anticipation of the implementation and eventual assessment of the NGSS.

  8. Teachers' Views about the Nuffield Advanced Physics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes results of a survey on teachers' views of the Nuffield A-level physics course (NAP) including, among others, course content, philosophy, examinations, organization, and individual units. Suggests that most teachers surveyed were satisfied with their NAP course. (SK)

  9. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  10. Advances in the physics basis for the European DEMO design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Angioni, C.; Artaud, J.-F.; Bernert, M.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Jenko, F.; Maget, P.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Poli, E.; Ramogida, G.; Reux, C.; Schneider, M.; Sieglin, B.; Villone, F.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.

    2015-06-01

    In the European fusion roadmap, ITER is followed by a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO), for which a conceptual design is under development. This paper reports the first results of a coherent effort to develop the relevant physics knowledge for that (DEMO Physics Basis), carried out by European experts. The program currently includes investigations in the areas of scenario modeling, transport, MHD, heating & current drive, fast particles, plasma wall interaction and disruptions.

  11. Advanced modelling of the multiphase DMS chemistry with the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Tilgner, Andreas; Schrödner, Roland; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Oceans are the general emitter of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the major natural sulphur source (Andreae, 1990), and cover approximately 70 % of earth's surface. The main DMS oxidation products are SO2, H2SO4 and methyl sulfonic acid (MSA). Hence, DMS is very important for formation of non-sea salt sulphate (nss SO42-) aerosols and secondary particulate matter and thus global climate. Despite many previous model studies, there are still important knowledge gaps, especially in aqueous phase DMS chemistry, of its atmospheric fate (Barnes et al., 2006). Therefore, a comprehensive multiphase DMS chemistry mechanism, the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0 (DM1.0), has been developed. The DM1.0 includes 103 gas phase reactions, 5 phase transfers and 54 aqueous phase reactions. It was coupled with the multiphase chemistry mechanism MCMv3.2/CAPRAM4.0α (Rickard et al., 2015; Bräuer et al., 2016) and the extended CAPRAM halogen module 2.1 (HM2.1, Bräuer et al., 2013) for investigation of multiphase DMS oxidation in the marine boundary layer. Then, a pristine ocean scenario was simulated using the air parcel model SPACCIM (Wolke et al., 2005) including 8 non-permanent cloud passages - 4 at noon and 4 at midnight. This allows the investigation of the influence of deliquesced particles and clouds on multiphase DMS chemistry during both daytime and nighttime conditions as well as under cloud formation and evaporation. To test the influence of various subsystems on multiphase DMS chemistry different sensitivity runs were performed. Investigations of multiphase chemistry of DMS and its important oxidation products were done using concentration-time profiles and detailed time-resolved reaction flux analyses. The model studies revealed the importance of aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its oxidation products. Overall about 7.0% of DMS is effectively oxidised by O3 in the aqueous phase of clouds. The simulations revealed the importance of halogen and aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its

  12. Using advanced surface complexation models for modelling soil chemistry under forests: Solling forest, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bonten, Luc T C; Groenenberg, Jan E; Meesenburg, Henning; de Vries, Wim

    2011-10-01

    Various dynamic soil chemistry models have been developed to gain insight into impacts of atmospheric deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and other elements on soil and soil solution chemistry. Sorption parameters for anions and cations are generally calibrated for each site, which hampers extrapolation in space and time. On the other hand, recently developed surface complexation models (SCMs) have been successful in predicting ion sorption for static systems using generic parameter sets. This study reports the inclusion of an assemblage of these SCMs in the dynamic soil chemistry model SMARTml and applies this model to a spruce forest site in Solling Germany. Parameters for SCMs were taken from generic datasets and not calibrated. Nevertheless, modelling results for major elements matched observations well. Further, trace metals were included in the model, also using the existing framework of SCMs. The model predicted sorption for most trace elements well.

  13. Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-28

    nonequilibrium. For example, the plasma transport may transition between rarefied and continuum flow , requiring appropriate models for each case through...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0023 Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics 5a

  14. The Horsehead Nebula, a Template Source for Interstellar Physics and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerin, M.; Pety, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present a summary of our previous investigations of the physical and chemical structure of the Horsehead nebula, and discuss how these studies led to advances on the understanding of the impact of FUV radiation on the structure of dense interstellar clouds. Specific molecular tracers can be used to isolate different environments, that are more sensitive to changes in the FUV radiation or density than the classical tracers of molecular gas: the CO isotopologues or the dust (sub)millimeter continuum emission. They include the HCO or CCH radicals for the FUV illuminated interfaces, or the molecular ions H13CO+, DCO+, and other deuterated species (DNC, DCN) for the cold dense core. We discuss future prospects in the context of Herschel and ALMA.

  15. Japan - UK Conference: Trends in Physics and Chemistry Education in Secondary Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    demonstrations by groups of physics and chemistry teachers of apparatus that they had made. This hugely enjoyable session has resulted in a great number of good ideas appearing ready for use in a certain British physics lab. Poaching ideas in teaching can be an international activity as well! One impression that this session left us with is that, making a gross generalization, the Japanese are physics teachers, the British physics teachers. How delightful if we in Britain could more often gather in this fashion to delight in exploring physics for ourselves. A substantial benefit of the conference was the challenge of presenting the substantive arguments behind the philosophy of curriculum change to teachers from a different culture, with thoughts being tempered in the furnace of translation. When each word requires lengthy translation, they become precious. An attempt to explain what was meant by the phrase `positive formative reinforcement' that had been carelessly written on one overhead transparency on the purpose of assessment has left permanent mental scars (and perhaps rightly so!). And what of the future? The conference, and perhaps more especially the surrounding visits, resulted in the start of new friendships and the renewal of old acquaintances. Other visits and conferences will doubtless be arranged. The two groups of physics teachers have much to share and discuss with each other. In the short term it is hoped that fruitful e-mail communication and cooperation can be continued both between participants and among a wider circle of physics teachers from both countries. Philip Britton and Ian Lawrence Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, and Secretary, IoP Education Group King's School Worcester, and Chairman, IoP Education Group

  16. The Efficacy of Advance Organizers and Behavioral Objectives for Improving Achievement in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershman, Kenneth Eugene

    This research investigates the utility of advance organizers and behavioral objectives in a traditional introductory physics class at the college level. The advance organizer was designed to compare and contrast content to be learned with content previously studied or with assumed common knowledge. Behavioral objectives listed the expected…

  17. Semiempirical and ab initio Calculations of Charged Species Used in the Physical Organic Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliom, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrates on the semiempirical methods MINDO/3, MNDO, and AMI available in the program AMPAC from the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange at Indiana University. Uses charged ions in the teaching of computational chemistry. Finds that semiempirical methods are accurate enough for the general use of the bench chemist. (MVL)

  18. Illustrating Concepts in Physical Organic Chemistry with 3D Printed Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Michael J.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital theory provides a powerful tool for rationalizing and understanding many phenomena in chemistry. In most introductory chemistry courses, students are introduced to atomic and molecular orbitals in the form of two-dimensional drawings. In this work, we describe a general method for producing 3D printing files of orbital models that can be…

  19. Recent Advances in Indirect Drive ICF Target Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, B; Lindl, J; Amendt, P A; Bernat, G W; Collins, G W; Glenzer, S H; Koch, S H; Haan, S; Landen, O L; Suter, L J

    2002-10-08

    In preparation for ignition on the National Ignition Facility, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, working in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique (CEA), and Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester, has performed a broad range of experiments on the Nova and Omega lasers to test the fundamentals of the NIF target designs. These studies have refined our understanding of the important target physics, and have led to many of the specifications for the NIF laser and the cryogenic ignition targets. Our recent work has been focused in the areas of hohlraum energetics, symmetry, shock physics, and target design optimization & fabrication.

  20. Recent advances in indirect drive ICF target physics at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, T P; Collins, G W; Haan, S; Hammel, B A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Sutter, L J

    1998-01-13

    In preparation for ignition on the National Ignition Facility, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, working in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Commissariat a 1'Energie Atomique (CEA), and Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester, has performed a broad range of experiments on the Nova and Omega lasers to test the fundamentals of the NIF target designs. These studies have refined our understanding of the important target physics, and have led to many of the specifications for the NIF laser and the cryogenic ignition targets. Our recent work has been focused in the areas of hohlraum energetics, symmetry, shock physics, and target design optimization & fabrication.

  1. Working with Advanced Primary School Students in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, Ljiljana; Cucic, Dragoljub

    2010-01-01

    Working with students who have special needs is the type of work that requires special engagement and skills of those who perform it. Working with gifted children requires outstanding knowledge of a teacher and above all the teachers should be very well informed on the subject they teach, Physics in our case. This work also requires great pedagogical and psychological skills so that these talented students would be approached in a suitable way. In this paper we will present to you our methods of teaching Physics to these talented children (13 years old), in the Regional Center for Talents "Mihajlo Pupin" in Pancevo.

  2. Towards the virtual artery: a multiscale model for vascular physiology at the physics-chemistry-biology interface.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Alfons G; Alowayyed, Saad; Lorenz, Eric; Melnikova, Natalia; Mountrakis, Lampros; van Rooij, Britt; Svitenkov, Andrew; Závodszky, Gábor; Zun, Pavel

    2016-11-13

    This discussion paper introduces the concept of the Virtual Artery as a multiscale model for arterial physiology and pathologies at the physics-chemistry-biology (PCB) interface. The cellular level is identified as the mesoscopic level, and we argue that by coupling cell-based models with other relevant models on the macro- and microscale, a versatile model of arterial health and disease can be composed. We review the necessary ingredients, both models of arteries at many different scales, as well as generic methods to compose multiscale models. Next, we discuss how this can be combined into the virtual artery. Finally, we argue that the concept of models at the PCB interface could or perhaps should become a powerful paradigm, not only as in our case for studying physiology, but also for many other systems that have such PCB interfaces.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  3. Towards the virtual artery: a multiscale model for vascular physiology at the physics-chemistry-biology interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Alfons G.; Alowayyed, Saad; Lorenz, Eric; Melnikova, Natalia; Mountrakis, Lampros; van Rooij, Britt; Svitenkov, Andrew; Závodszky, Gábor; Zun, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    This discussion paper introduces the concept of the Virtual Artery as a multiscale model for arterial physiology and pathologies at the physics-chemistry-biology (PCB) interface. The cellular level is identified as the mesoscopic level, and we argue that by coupling cell-based models with other relevant models on the macro- and microscale, a versatile model of arterial health and disease can be composed. We review the necessary ingredients, both models of arteries at many different scales, as well as generic methods to compose multiscale models. Next, we discuss how this can be combined into the virtual artery. Finally, we argue that the concept of models at the PCB interface could or perhaps should become a powerful paradigm, not only as in our case for studying physiology, but also for many other systems that have such PCB interfaces. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  4. Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

  5. Exploring Interactive and Dynamic Simulations Using a Computer Algebra System in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the use of Mathematica, a computer algebra system (CAS), in a high school chemistry course. Mathematica was used to generate a graph, where a slider controls the value of parameter(s) in the equation; thus, students can visualize the effect of the parameter(s) on the behavior of the system. Also, Mathematica can show the…

  6. Advanced Chemistry for Operators. Training Module 1.321.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with inorganic and general organic chemistry as applied to water and wastewater treatment. Included are objectives, instructor guides, and student handouts. The module contains material related to chemical reactions in water solutions,…

  7. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  8. Advanced Chemistry Collection: Abstract of Special Issue 28, a CD ROM (for Students)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Literature Cited

    1. Grushow, A. J. Chem. Educ., 2000, 77, 1527.
    2. Haigh, J.; Lord, J. R. J. Chem. Educ., 2000, 77, 1528.
    3. General Chemistry Collection, 4th Ed.; J. Chem. Educ. Software, 2000, SP16.

  9. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models for Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations.

  10. Advanced Quantitative Measurement Methodology in Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and…

  11. Recent advances in understanding physical properties of metallurgical slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dong Joon; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2017-01-01

    Present-day knowledge of the structure and physical properties of metallurgical slags is summarized to address structure-property and inter-property relationships. Physical properties of slags including viscosity, electrical conductivity, and surface tension is reviewed focusing on the effect of slag structure, which is comprehensively evaluated using FT-IT, Raman, and MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The effect of the slag composition on slag structure and property is reviewed in detail: Compositional effect encompasses traditional concepts of basicity, network-forming behaviors of anions, and secondary impact of network-modifying cations. Secondary objective of this review is elucidating the mutual relationship between physical properties of slags. For instance, the relationship between slag viscosity and electrical conductivity is suggested by Walden's rule and discussed based on the experimental results. Slag foaming index is also introduced as a comprehensive understanding method of physical properties of slags. The dimensional analysis was made to address the effect of viscosity, density, and surface tension on the foaming index of slags.

  12. An advanced modeling study on the impacts and atmospheric implications of multiphase dimethyl sulfide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Tilgner, Andreas; Schrödner, Roland; Bräuer, Peter; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-10-18

    Oceans dominate emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), the major natural sulfur source. DMS is important for the formation of non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO4(2-)) aerosols and secondary particulate matter over oceans and thus, significantly influence global climate. The mechanism of DMS oxidation has accordingly been investigated in several different model studies in the past. However, these studies had restricted oxidation mechanisms that mostly underrepresented important aqueous-phase chemical processes. These neglected but highly effective processes strongly impact direct product yields of DMS oxidation, thereby affecting the climatic influence of aerosols. To address these shortfalls, an extensive multiphase DMS chemistry mechanism, the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism DMS Module 1.0, was developed and used in detailed model investigations of multiphase DMS chemistry in the marine boundary layer. The performed model studies confirmed the importance of aqueous-phase chemistry for the fate of DMS and its oxidation products. Aqueous-phase processes significantly reduce the yield of sulfur dioxide and increase that of methyl sulfonic acid (MSA), which is needed to close the gap between modeled and measured MSA concentrations. Finally, the simulations imply that multiphase DMS oxidation produces equal amounts of MSA and sulfate, a result that has significant implications for nss-SO4(2-) aerosol formation, cloud condensation nuclei concentration, and cloud albedo over oceans. Our findings show the deficiencies of parameterizations currently used in higher-scale models, which only treat gas-phase chemistry. Overall, this study shows that treatment of DMS chemistry in both gas and aqueous phases is essential to improve the accuracy of model predictions.

  13. An advanced modeling study on the impacts and atmospheric implications of multiphase dimethyl sulfide chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Tilgner, Andreas; Schrödner, Roland; Bräuer, Peter; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-10-01

    Oceans dominate emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), the major natural sulfur source. DMS is important for the formation of non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) aerosols and secondary particulate matter over oceans and thus, significantly influence global climate. The mechanism of DMS oxidation has accordingly been investigated in several different model studies in the past. However, these studies had restricted oxidation mechanisms that mostly underrepresented important aqueous-phase chemical processes. These neglected but highly effective processes strongly impact direct product yields of DMS oxidation, thereby affecting the climatic influence of aerosols. To address these shortfalls, an extensive multiphase DMS chemistry mechanism, the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism DMS Module 1.0, was developed and used in detailed model investigations of multiphase DMS chemistry in the marine boundary layer. The performed model studies confirmed the importance of aqueous-phase chemistry for the fate of DMS and its oxidation products. Aqueous-phase processes significantly reduce the yield of sulfur dioxide and increase that of methyl sulfonic acid (MSA), which is needed to close the gap between modeled and measured MSA concentrations. Finally, the simulations imply that multiphase DMS oxidation produces equal amounts of MSA and sulfate, a result that has significant implications for nss-SO42- aerosol formation, cloud condensation nuclei concentration, and cloud albedo over oceans. Our findings show the deficiencies of parameterizations currently used in higher-scale models, which only treat gas-phase chemistry. Overall, this study shows that treatment of DMS chemistry in both gas and aqueous phases is essential to improve the accuracy of model predictions.

  14. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside: Physical-Chemistry, Foodomics and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín; Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del R; Cárdenas-Robles, Arely I; Mendoza-Díaz, Sandra O; Álvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; de la Rosa, Laura A; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham

    2016-09-21

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant secondary metabolites from the flavonoid family. Red to blue fruits are major dietary sources of ACNs (up to 1 g/100 g FW), being cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3G) one of the most widely distributed. Cy3G confers a red hue to fruits, but its content in raspberries and strawberries is low. It has a good radical scavenging capacity (RSC) against superoxide but not hydroxyl radicals, and its oxidative potential is pH-dependent (58 mV/pH unit). After intake, Cy3G can be metabolized (phases I, II) by oral epithelial cells, absorbed by the gastric epithelium (1%-10%) and it is gut-transformed (phase II & microbial metabolism), reaching the bloodstream (<1%) and urine (about 0.02%) in low amounts. In humans and Caco-2 cells, Cy3G's major metabolites are protocatechuic acid and phloroglucinaldehyde which are also subjected to entero-hepatic recycling, although caffeic acid and peonidin-3-glucoside seem to be strictly produced in the large bowel and renal tissues. Solid evidence supports Cy3G's bioactivity as DNA-RSC, gastro protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic chemo-preventive and as an epigenetic factor, exerting protection against Helicobacter pylori infection, age-related diseases, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and oral cancer. Most relevant mechanisms include RSC, epigenetic action, competitive protein-binding and enzyme inhibition. These and other novel aspects on Cy3G's physical-chemistry, foodomics, and health effects are discussed.

  15. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Industrial Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenhunt, James E.

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour introduction to industrial physics that explains and demonstrates to industrial maintenance mechanics the direct relationship of physics to machinery. Project TEAM is intended to upgrade basic technical competencies of…

  16. Integrating Advanced Physical Training Programs into the Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    the CrossFit program and consequently a fee is required to participate in the CrossFit 3 P90X , Extreme Body Workout, (unknown... P90X , Extreme Body Workout n.d.) , P90X is a home based DVD workout program designed to achieve results in 90 days at a cost of $119.85. 4...PFT and is characterized by anaerobic (short burst) energy demands”.13 By coincidence, many of the advanced training programs, such as P90X , CrossFit

  17. Advances on modelling of ITER scenarios: physics and computational challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Garcia, J.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Decker, J.; Imbeaux, F.; Peysson, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2011-12-01

    Methods and tools for design and modelling of tokamak operation scenarios are discussed with particular application to ITER advanced scenarios. Simulations of hybrid and steady-state scenarios performed with the integrated tokamak modelling suite of codes CRONOS are presented. The advantages of a possible steady-state scenario based on cyclic operations, alternating phases of positive and negative loop voltage, with no magnetic flux consumption on average, are discussed. For regimes in which current alignment is an issue, a general method for scenario design is presented, based on the characteristics of the poloidal current density profile.

  18. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  19. An experimental investigation by optical methods of the physics and chemistry of transient plasma ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Scott James

    The use of nonequilibrium plasma generated by nanosecond discharges to ignite fuel/air mixtures, known as transient plasma ignition (TPI), has been shown to effectively reduce ignition delay and improve engine performance relative to spark ignition for combustion engines. While this method is potentially useful for many engine applications, at present the underlying physics are poorly understood. This work provides a review of previous engine implementation work as well as previous experimental work seeking to provide an understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms of TPI. Work on producing the pulses needed for TPI, both engine testing and optical diagnostic is presented. The emission of TPI is analyzed in order to determine the spectral, spatial, and temporal behavior of the discharge. Temperature mesurements of TPI using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) show that the temperature in streamer discharge and afterglow increases, though it is difficult to quantify the increase with this method. The results of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy temperature measurements are reported and discussed, with temperature increases up to 1500 K above ambient observed in the discharge afterglow in fuel/air mixtures. The impact of this temperature increase on TPI and the possibility of thermal ignition is considered. In addition, CARS measurements show that generation of vibrationally excited states of nitrogen is inefficient during the discharge in air but that generation occurs at a high rate roughly 5 micros following the discharge; with the addition of fuels vibrationally excited states are observed during the discharge but an increase in population is still seen at 5 micros. Possible mechanisms for this behavior are discussed. Additionally, this work uses two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence to measure oxygen atom concentrations in streamer discharge afterglow in a variety of fuel/air mixtures in order to account for the oxygen pathways in

  20. Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Steven A.

    To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.

  1. Advances in atomic physics: Four decades of contribution of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Tharwat M

    2015-09-01

    In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s - when the author first engaged in research - an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics.

  2. UCSD Geothermal Chemical Modeling Project: DOE Advanced Brine Chemistry Program. [University of California at San Diego (UCSD)

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, N.; Weare, J.H.

    1992-04-01

    DOE funding to the UCSD Chemical Modeling Group supports research to provide computer models which will reliably characterize the equilibrium chemistry of geothermal brines (solution, solid and gas phases) under variable thermodynamic conditions. With this technology, it will be possible to rapidly and inexpensively predict the chemical behavior of geothermal brines during various resource recovery stages; exploration, production, plant energy extraction and rejection as well as in ancillary programs such as mineral recovery. Our modeling technology is based on recent progress in the physical chemistry of concentrated aqueous solutions. The behavior of these fluids has not been predicted from first principle theories. However, because of the importance of concentrated brines to many industrial and natural processes, there have been numerous efforts to develop accurate phenomenological expressions for predicting the chemical behavior of these brines. One of the most successful of these efforts is that of Pitzer and coworkers. Incorporating the semiempirical equations of Pitzer, we have shown at UCSD that we can create highly accurate models of brine-solid-gas chemistry.

  3. Determining the Quantum Efficiency for Activation of an Organometallic Photoinitiator for Cationic Polymerization: An Experiment for the Physical or Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David M.; Mahar, Maura; Schnabel, R. Chris; Shah, Paras; Lees, Alistair J.; Jakubek, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We present a new laboratory experiment on the photochemistry of organometallic [eta][superscript 5],[eta][superscript 6]-mixed-sandwich compounds, which is suitable for both the physical chemistry and inorganic chemistry laboratory. Specifically, students use 1,10-phenanthroline to trap the intermediate formed when…

  4. Learning that Prepares for More Learning: Symbolic Mathematics in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinski, Theresa Julia

    2004-01-01

    The well-crafted templates are useful to learn the new concepts of chemistry. The templates focus on pressure-volume work, the Boltzmann distribution, the Gibbs free energy function, intermolecular potentials, the second virial coefficient and quantum mechanical tunneling.

  5. Recent advances in crosslinking chemistry of biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The design and application of biomimetic hydrogels have become an important and integral part of modern tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Many of these hydrogels are prepared from synthetic macromers (e.g., poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG) as they provide high degrees of tunability for matrix crosslinking, degradation, and modification. For a hydrogel to be considered biomimetic, it has to recapitulate key features that are found in the native extracellular matrix, such as the appropriate matrix mechanics and permeability, the ability to sequester and deliver drugs, proteins, and or nucleic acids, as well as the ability to provide receptor-mediated cell-matrix interactions and protease-mediated matrix cleavage. A variety of chemistries have been employed to impart these biomimetic features into hydrogel crosslinking. These chemistries, such as radical-mediated polymerizations, enzyme-mediated crosslinking, bio-orthogonal click reactions, and supramolecular assembly, may be different in their crosslinking mechanisms but are required to be efficient for gel crosslinking and ligand bioconjugation under aqueous reaction conditions. The prepared biomimetic hydrogels should display a diverse array of functionalities and should also be cytocompatible for in vitro cell culture and/or in situ cell encapsulation. The focus of this article is to review recent progress in the crosslinking chemistries of biomimetic hydrogels with a special emphasis on hydrogels crosslinked from poly(ethylene glycol)-based macromers. PMID:26029357

  6. Advances in reactor physics education: Visualization of reactor parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Kromar, M.; Zerovnik, G.

    2012-07-01

    Modern computer codes allow detailed neutron transport calculations. In combination with advanced 3D visualization software capable of treating large amounts of data in real time they form a powerful tool that can be used as a convenient modern educational tool for reactor operators, nuclear engineers, students and specialists involved in reactor operation and design. Visualization is applicable not only in education and training, but also as a tool for fuel management, core analysis and irradiation planning. The paper treats the visualization of neutron transport in different moderators, neutron flux and power distributions in two nuclear reactors (TRIGA type research reactor and a typical PWR). The distributions are calculated with MCNP and CORD-2 computer codes and presented using Amira software. (authors)

  7. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  8. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology--strategies for drug delivery to the brain.

    PubMed

    Denora, Nunzio; Trapani, Adriana; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopedota, Angela; Trapani, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of some recent approaches for the treatment of brain pathologies examining both medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology contributions. Medicinal chemistry-based strategies are essentially aimed at the chemical modification of low molecular weight drugs in order to increase their lipophilicity or the design of appropriate prodrugs, although this review will focus primarily on the use of prodrugs and not analog development. Recently, interest has been focused on the design and evaluation of prodrugs that are capable of exploiting one or more of the various endogenous transport systems at the level of the blood brain barrier (BBB). The technological strategies are essentially non-invasive methods of drug delivery to malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS) and are based on the use of nanosystems (colloidal carriers) such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric micelles and dendrimers. The biodistribution of these nanocarriers can be manipulated by modifying their surface physico-chemical properties or by coating them with surfactants and polyethylene-glycols (PEGs). Liposomes, surfactant coated polymeric nanoparticles, and solid lipid nanoparticles are promising systems for delivery of drugs to tumors of the CNS. This mini-review discusses issues concerning the scope and limitations of both the medicinal chemistry and technological approaches. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that crossing of the BBB and drug delivery to CNS is extremely complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach such as a close collaboration and common efforts among researchers of several scientific areas, particularly medicinal chemists, biologists and pharmaceutical technologists.

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Advancement in Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST): Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Hee, Pah Chin

    2013-04-01

    The 4th International Conference on the Advancement of Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST 2012), with theme 'Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications', took place in Kuantan, Malaysia, from Wednesday 7 to Friday 9 November 2012. The conference was attended by more than 100 participants, and hosted about 160 oral and poster papers by more than 140 pre-registered authors. The key topics of the 4th iCAST 2012 include Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Dynamical Systems, Statistics and Financial Mathematics. The scientific program was rather full since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, four parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The conference aimed to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with the application of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology and environmental sciences. We would like to thank the Keynote and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to 4th iCAST 2012. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. We cannot end without expressing our many thanks to International Islamic University Malaysia and our sponsors for their financial support . This volume presents selected papers which have been peer-reviewed. The editors hope that it may be useful and fruitful for scholars, researchers, and advanced technical members of the industrial laboratory facilities for developing new tools and products. Guest Editors Nasir Ganikhodjaev, Farrukh Mukhamedov and Pah Chin Hee The PDF contains the committee lists, board list and biographies of the plenary speakers.

  10. An overview on the advances of Gymnema sylvestre: chemistry, pharmacology and patents.

    PubMed

    Porchezhian, E; Dobriyal, R M

    2003-01-01

    Chemistry and pharmacology of Gymnema sylvestre is reviewed relying on research papers and patent literature. Extracts of this plant are widely used in Australian, Japananese, Vietnamese and Indian folk medicine. Gymnema preparations have a profound action on the modulation of taste, particularly suppressing sweet taste sensations. It is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and in food additives against obesity and caries. Anti-allergic, antiviral, lipid lowering and other effects are also reported. From a technological point of view, muchefforts have been made to mask the biter taste of Gymnema preparations.

  11. Recent Advances in Boron-Substituted 1,3-Dienes Chemistry: Synthesis and Application.

    PubMed

    Pyziak, Jadwiga; Walkowiak, Jędrzej; Marciniec, Bogdan

    2017-03-13

    In the syntheses developed to access naturally occurring compounds, especially bioactive substances, boron-functionalized dienes (also "linchpin" reagents) are used as key reagents. Structurally unique dienes are found in nature, and play important biological and chemical roles. Recently, linchpin moieties have been proved as useful substrates for a variety of highly functionalized chemical transformations. The products of these processes are potentially of some use for the syntheses of an important class of natural products showing a wide range of biological activities. This review describes progress in the synthesis of borylsubstituted buta-1,3-dienes as well as their application in organic chemistry.

  12. Recent advances in the chemistry of Rh carbenoids: multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, J. J.; Nikolaev, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    Multicomponent reactions of diazo compounds catalyzed by RhII complexes become a powerful tool for organic synthesis. They enable three- or four-step processes to be carried out as one-pot procedures (actually as one step) with high stereoselectivity to give complex organic molecules, including biologically active compounds. This review addresses recent results in the chemistry of Rh-catalyzed multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds with the intermediate formation of N-, O- and C=O-ylides. The diastereo- and enantioselectivity of these reactions and the possibility of using various co-catalysts to increase the efficiency of the processes under consideration are discussed. The bibliography includes 120 references.

  13. Advanced brine chemistry program. DOE Quarterly report, January 1, 1998--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, N.; Weare, J.

    1998-05-01

    Due to space limitations, the Chemistry Department Computer Center put some of our software routines on an old disk. This disk subsequently crashed. Since the Center had failed to back-up this space, the routines were lost. The Center acknowledges their error and has agreed to reimburse the grant for the lost time. We are now negotiating the amount of time the lost routines represent. Fortunately, data files, input and output files, models and reports were not affected by this lost. The present assessment is that several fitting codes for creating TEQUEL models and GEOFLUIDS models were lost.Fluid studies, equations of state, enthalpy models, and software improvements are discussed.

  14. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  15. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Kengyelics, S M

    2007-12-01

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors.

  16. Recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu₁).

    PubMed

    Owen, Dafydd R

    2011-08-17

    This Review summarizes the medicinal chemistry found in publications on both orthosteric and allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu(1)) from 2005 to the present. The time period covered by the scope of this current review has been particularly rich in mGlu(1)-related publications with numbers quadrupling when compared to the preceding five year period of 2000-2005. Publications in the field peaked in 2007 with over 35 articles appearing in the peer reviewed literature in the course of that year. Given that glutamate is one of the primary excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), it is unsurprising that it acts upon several receptors that are considered to be of potential therapeutic interest for many indications. Orthosteric and allosteric modulation of the receptor is possible, with a logical extrapolation to the chemotypes used for each strategy. The last five years of publications have yielded many mGlu(1) selective antagonist chemotypyes, most of which have shown efficacy in pain in vivo models. However, the primary impact of these compounds has been to highlight the mechanistic safety risks of mGlu(1) antagonism, independent of chemotype. As a review in medicinal chemistry, the primary focus of this paper will be on the design and, to a lesser degree, synthetic strategies for the delivery of subtype selective, CNS penetrant, druglike compounds through a "medchem" program, targeting modulators of the mGlu(1) receptor.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-09-01

    Breithaupt's new book is big: at 727 pages, it will be a hefty addition to any student's bag. According to the preface, the book is designed to help students achieve the transition from GCSE to A-level and to succeed well at this level. It also aims to cover the requirements of the compulsory parts of all new syllabuses and to cover most of the optional material, too. The book is organized into seven themes along traditional lines: mechanics, materials, fields, waves, electricity, inside the atom, and physics in medicine. Each theme begins with a colourful title page that outlines what the theme is about, lists the applications that students will meet in their reading, identifies prior learning from GCSE and gives a checklist of what students should be able to do once they have finished their reading of the theme. This is all very useful. The text of the book is illustrated with many colourful photographs, pictures and cartoons, but despite this it looks very dense. There are a lot of words on every page in a small font that makes them seem very unfriendly, and although the book claims to be readable I rather doubt that the layout will encourage voluntary reading of the text. Each chapter ends with a useful summary and a selection of short questions that allow students to test their understanding. Each theme has a set of multiple choice and long questions. Some of the questions have an icon referring the student to the accompanying CD (more of this later). There is much up-to-date material in the book. For example, the section on cosmology gives a brief description of the inflationary scenario within the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe, although no mechanism for the inflation is given, which might prove unsatisfying to some students. I do have some reservations about the presentation of some topics within the book: the discussion of relativistic mass, for example, states that `Einstein showed that the mass ... is given by the formula ...' and quotes

  18. Extracting physical chemistry from mechanics: a new approach to investigate DNA interactions with drugs and proteins in single molecule experiments.

    PubMed

    Rocha, M S

    2015-09-01

    In this review we focus on the idea of establishing connections between the mechanical properties of DNA-ligand complexes and the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions. This type of connection is interesting because it opens the possibility of performing a robust characterization of such interactions by using only one experimental technique: single molecule stretching. Furthermore, it also opens new possibilities in comparing results obtained by very different approaches, in particular when comparing single molecule techniques to ensemble-averaging techniques. We start the manuscript reviewing important concepts of DNA mechanics, from the basic mechanical properties to the Worm-Like Chain model. Next we review the basic concepts of the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions, revisiting the most important models used to analyze the binding data and discussing their binding isotherms. Then, we discuss the basic features of the single molecule techniques most used to stretch DNA-ligand complexes and to obtain "force × extension" data, from which the mechanical properties of the complexes can be determined. We also discuss the characteristics of the main types of interactions that can occur between DNA and ligands, from covalent binding to simple electrostatic driven interactions. Finally, we present a historical survey of the attempts to connect mechanics to physical chemistry for DNA-ligand systems, emphasizing a recently developed fitting approach useful to connect the persistence length of DNA-ligand complexes to the physicochemical properties of the interaction. Such an approach in principle can be used for any type of ligand, from drugs to proteins, even if multiple binding modes are present.

  19. Chemistry and Physical Properties of Melt Processed- and Solution- Cross Linked Corn Zein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn zein was cross linked with the glutaraldehyde (GDA) using glacial acetic acid (HAc) as catalyst. The objectives are to enhance the mechanical properties of poured films and to compare them with compression molded tensile bars from melt processed zein. Chemistry of the cross linking reaction w...

  20. Looking beyond Lewis Structures: A General Chemistry Molecular Modeling Experiment Focusing on Physical Properties and Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Cole, Renee S.; Sarkar, Somnath

    2011-01-01

    We present a guided-inquiry experiment using Spartan Student Version, ready to be adapted and implemented into a general chemistry laboratory course. The experiment provides students an experience with Spartan Molecular Modeling software while discovering the relationships between the structure and properties of molecules. Topics discussed within…

  1. The Oil Drop Experiment: Do Physical Chemistry Textbooks Refer to Its Controversial Nature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Rodriguez, Maria A.

    2005-01-01

    Most general chemistry textbooks consider the oil drop experiment as a classic experiment, characterized by its simplicity and precise results. A review of the history and philosophy of science literature shows that the experiment is difficult to perform (even today!) and generated a considerable amount of controversy. Acceptance of the…

  2. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Sciences)

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.

    1997-10-01

    DOE has engaged the IPC/RAS to study the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium actinide elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. This work is supported by DOE because the alkaline radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRUs and technetium, and these radioelements must be partitioned to the HLW fraction in planned waste processing operations. The chemistries of the TRUs and technetium are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry of the TRUs and technetium in alkaline media, and on their coprecipitation reactions. During FY 1996, further studies of fundamental and candidate process chemistries were pursued with continuing effort on coprecipitation. The technical liaison was established at Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide information to the IPC/RAS on the Hanford Site waste system, define and refine the work scope, publish IPC/RAS reports in open literature documents and presentations, provide essential materials and equipment to the IPC/RAS, compare IPC/RAS results with results from other sources, and test chemical reactions or processes proposed by the IPC/RAS with actual Hanford Site tank waste. The liaison task was transferred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) in October 1996.

  3. Proceedings of the 1992 topical meeting on advances in reactor physics. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents proceedings of the 1992 Topical Meeting on Advances in Reactor Physics on March 8--11, 1992 at Charleston, SC. Session topics were as follows: Transport Theory; Fast Reactors; Plant Analyzers; Integral Experiments/Measurements & Analysis; Core Computational Systems; Reactor Physics; Monte Carlo; Safety Aspects of Heavy Water Reactors; and Space-Time Core Kinetics. The individual reports have been cataloged separately. (FI)

  4. Probing the scale of new physics by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mazumdar, A.

    2016-05-01

    We show that if the new physics beyond the standard model is associated with a first-order phase transition around 107- 108 GeV , the energy density stored in the resulting stochastic gravitational waves and the corresponding peak frequency are within the projected final sensitivity of the advanced LIGO/VIRGO detectors. We discuss some possible new physics scenarios that could arise at such energies, and in particular, the consequences for Peccei-Quinn and supersymmetry breaking scales.

  5. The physics and chemistry behind the bubbling properties of champagne and sparkling wines: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2005-04-20

    In this review, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The chemistry of carbon dioxide molecules dissolved into the liquid matrix (section 2) is presented, as are the three main steps of a fleeting bubble's life, that is, the bubble nucleation on tiny particles stuck on the glass wall (section 3), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (section 4), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (section 5), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step.

  6. EDITORIAL: The Fifth International Workshop on Physical Chemistry of Wet Etching of Semiconductors (PCWES 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Helmut

    2007-04-01

    The biannual Workshop on Physical Chemistry of Wet Etching of Semiconductors (PCWES) was held in Saarbrücken, Germany in June 2006 for the fifth time in its history. The event was initiated in 1998 by Miko Elwenspoek from Twente University. It is a dedicated workshop with a typical attendance of about 30 scientists with multidisciplinary backgrounds from all parts of the world working in the field. Starting off in Holten in The Netherlands in 1998, subsequent workshops have been held at Toulouse, France in 2000, Nara, Japan in 2002, and Montreal, Canada in 2004. The initial focus was upon anisotropic etching of silicon in alkaline solutions, including surface topology, modelling aspects and applications. This process has found a wide range of applications in microsystems technology (MST), i.e. in the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Most prominently, it provides the technological basis for bulk micromachining. More recently, other semiconductors such as germanium, III-V compounds and, particularly, wide-bandgap materials have started to enter the field. Furthermore, electrochemical aspects have gained in importance and the formation of porous silicon has also become a considerable part of the programme. From the very beginning up to the present time there was and is a strong focus on illumination of the underlying mechanism of crystallographic anisotropy, as well as on the understanding of electrochemical and dopant-induced etch stop phenomena. The fifth workshop, presented in Saarbrücken, included a total of twenty four contributions, six of which were as posters. Five of these are included in this partial special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering as full length papers after having undergone the standard review process. The selection of contributions starts with the first invited paper given by M Gosalvez et al, resulting from a collaboration between Nagoya University, Japan and Helsinki University of Technology

  7. Effects of iron enrichment on the chemistry and physical properties of deep lower mantle silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pasquale, Antonella

    Variations in seismic wave speed and density in the Earth's deep lower mantle have been linked to chemical heterogeneities. In order to identify the compositions of these regions and determine their roles in Earth history and dynamics, experimental measurements are needed of the effects of compositional variation, particularly major elements Fe and Al, on phase equilibria and physical properties of mantle minerals. The experiments that comprise this dissertation provide new constraints on the chemistry and compressibility of mantle silicates. Experiments were conducted at mantle pressure-temperature conditions using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Determination of pressure in the diamond anvil cell requires internal pressure calibrants which suffer from uncertainty as high as 10% at Mbar pressures. A series of experiments were performed to test the reliability and agreement of pressure scales for Au, Mo, MgO, NaCl B2, Ne and Pt. These data were used to determine a new comprehensive pressure scale for use in experiments on mantle materials. The lower mantle's dominant phase is (Mg,Fe,Al)(Fe,Al,Si)O3 perovskite. At pressure-temperature conditions comparable to the deep lower mantle, perovskite undergoes a transition to a post-perovskite phase. I synthesized perovskites and post-perovskites from a series of Fe-rich (enstatite--ferrosilite, (Mg1--x,Fex)SiO 3, 0 < x < 74) and Fe,Al-rich (pyrope--almandine, (Mg1--x,Fex) 3Al2Si3O12, 0 < x < 100) compositions. These experiments have shown that as much as 75% FeSiO 3 is soluble in perovskite at 70--80 GPa. Fe was observed to lower and broaden the pressure range of the post-perovskite transition. Volume data were collected over a range of pressures for all compositions to constrain the effects of Fe and Al on the equations of state of these phases. Fe and Al incorporation were observed to increase the unit cell volume of perovskite but have a weak effect on its compressibility. The electronic behavior of Fe in

  8. Recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of novel erythromycin-derivatized antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lu; Tang, Datong

    2010-01-01

    Development of novel erythromycin-based antibiotics has been one of the most studied topics in the past three decades. Such tremendous efforts have generated a number of beneficiary drugs such as clarithromycin, azithromycin and telithromycin. However, widespread application of antibiotics in clinical practice has triggered an increasing emergence of bacterial resistance. Therefore, discovery of novel macrolide antibiotics to suppress the resistance is urgent for human healthcare. This review focuses on advances in the area since 2004.

  9. Recent advances in the link between physical activity, sedentary behavior, physical fitness, and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Lim, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent studies have characterized physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and cardiorespiratory fitness as distinct, interrelated constructs that influence the risk of CRC and related outcomes. PA levels required to confer protection against CRC may be higher than previously thought. Sedentary behavior, defined as time spent sitting, increases CRC risk independent of PA and may require novel interventions distinct from those targeting PA. Finally, cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with CRC risk and mortality and may provide a potential tool for risk stratification and intervention. PMID:28344777

  10. Integrating Organic Matter Structure with Ecosystem Function using Advanced Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms are the primary transformers of organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The structure of organic matter controls its bioavailability and researchers have long sought to link the chemical characteristics of the organic matter pool to its lability. To date this effort has been primarily attempted using low resolution descriptive characteristics (e.g. organic matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, aromaticity, etc .). However, recent progress in linking these two important ecosystem components has been advanced using advanced high resolution tools (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based techniques). A series of experiments will be presented that highlight the application of high resolution techniques in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the focus on how these data explicitly provide the foundation for integrating organic matter structure into our concept of ecosystem function. The talk will highlight results from a series of experiments including: an MS-based metabolomics and fluorescence excitation emission matrix approach evaluating seasonal and vegetation based changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from arctic soils; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and MS metabolomics analysis of DOM from three lakes in an alpine watershed; and the transformation of 13C labeled glucose track with NMR during a rewetting experiment from Colorado grassland soils. These data will be synthesized to illustrate how the application of advanced analytical techniques provides novel insight into our understanding of organic matter processing in a wide range of ecosystems.

  11. Physics and Chemistry of Advanced Nanoscale Materials: Experiment, Simulation, and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    1995-01-01

    This thesis discusses simulation and theory of lattice dynamics as well as experiments on novel forms of carbon. A new crystalline AgBr interaction potential was constructed by fitting literature experimental data. The shell model was successfully used to account for the polarizabilities of the ions. This approach overcame difficulties previous investigators faced in determining the AgBr potential. The very useful shell model was generalized to allow, for the first time, its use in dynamical simulations. The rapid shell dynamics, simulating the electron polarization, were integrated out in a generalized Born-Oppenheimer-like approach. The effective Hamiltonians were derived for both quantum and classical descriptions of the shells. The first crystallization and characterization of a metallofullerene were performed. Endohedral metallofullerenes were synthesized and characterized. Metals such as Sc, Y, and Er that formed stable compounds in fullerene cages were synthesized and products purified. The crystal structure of rm Sc_2C_{84} was determined by transmission electron microscopy study. Experimental studies on fullerenes and related materials lead to the first example of a catalytically -grown, fullerene-like material. We discovered that single -layer carbon nanotubes can be produced by vaporizing cobalt and carbon with an electric arc in a helium atmosphere. Catalyst promoters such as sulfur, bismuth, and lead were found not only to enhance the yield of single-layer nanotubes but also to produce tubes in a diameter range not accessible with cobalt alone. Sulfur, bismuth, and tungsten were found to catalyze the formation of cobalt crystals encapsulated in graphitic polyhedra. Various carbon structures were also produced concurrently, e.g. multilayer nanotubes, strings of carbon nanocompartments, carbon nanofibers, and metal-filled nanomaterials. Nanotubes were observed to undergo real-time structural changes under electron beam heating. A growth model of single-layer nanotube was formulated based on the experimental results. The carbon ring is regarded as the nanotube precursor, and cobalt carbide is regarded as the catalytic species that efficiently supplies carbon clusters to the open end of tube. The catalyst promoter assists the reaction by keeping the growing end open.

  12. Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

  13. Advanced Swimming, Phase One--Swimmer; Physical Education: 5551.48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutting, Dick

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Advanced swimming. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The first five sections of the guide list course guidelines, course description, broad goal statement, behavioral objectives, course content, learning activities, and teaching procedures. The guide also contains evaluation forms and a five-item…

  14. Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

  15. Modelling interstellar physics and chemistry: implications for surface and solid-state processes.

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Viti, Serena

    2013-07-13

    We discuss several types of regions in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and other galaxies in which the chemistry appears to be influenced or dominated by surface and solid-state processes occurring on or in interstellar dust grains. For some of these processes, for example, the formation of H₂ molecules, detailed experimental and theoretical approaches have provided excellent fundamental data for incorporation into astrochemical models. In other cases, there is an astrochemical requirement for much more laboratory and computational study, and we highlight these needs in our description. Nevertheless, in spite of the limitations of the data, it is possible to infer from astrochemical modelling that surface and solid-state processes play a crucial role in astronomical chemistry from early epochs of the Universe up to the present day.

  16. Probing the bioinorganic chemistry of toxic metals in the mammalian bloodstream to advance human health.

    PubMed

    Gailer, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    The etiology of numerous grievous human diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease is not well understood. Conversely, the concentration toxic metals and metalloids, such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb in human blood of the average population is well established, yet we know strikingly little about the role that they might play in the etiology of disease processes. Establishing functional connections between the chronic exposure of humans to these and other inorganic pollutants and the etiology of certain human diseases is therefore viewed by many as one of the greatest challenges in the post-genomic era. Conceptually, this task requires us to uncover hitherto unknown biomolecular mechanisms which must explain how small doses of a toxic metal/metalloid compound (low μg per day) - or mixtures thereof - may eventually result in a particular human disease. The biological complexity that is inherently associated with mammals, however, makes the discovery of these mechanisms a truly monumental task. Recent findings suggest that a better understanding of the bioinorganic chemistry of inorganic pollutants in the mammalian bloodstream represents a fruitful strategy to unravel relevant biomolecular mechanisms. The adverse effect(s) that toxic metals/metalloid compounds exert on the transport of essential ultratrace elements to internal organs appear particularly pertinent. A brief overview of the effect that arsenite and Hg(2+) exert on the mammalian metabolism of selenium is presented.

  17. Building an advanced climate model: Program plan for the CHAMMP (Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics) Climate Modeling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The issue of global warming and related climatic changes from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has received prominent attention during the past few years. The Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (CHAMMP) Climate Modeling Program is designed to contribute directly to this rapid improvement. The goal of the CHAMMP Climate Modeling Program is to develop, verify, and apply a new generation of climate models within a coordinated framework that incorporates the best available scientific and numerical approaches to represent physical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes, that fully utilizes the hardware and software capabilities of new computer architectures, that probes the limits of climate predictability, and finally that can be used to address the challenging problem of understanding the greenhouse climate issue through the ability of the models to simulate time-dependent climatic changes over extended times and with regional resolution.

  18. How gender and reformed introductory physics impacts student success in advanced physics courses and continuation in the physics major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Potvin, Geoff; Kramer, Laird H.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Active-learning approaches to teaching introductory physics have been found to improve student learning and affective gains on short-term outcomes [S. Freeman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 8410 (2014)]; however, whether or not the benefits of active learning impact women to the same degree as men has been a point of concern [A. Madsen, S. B. McKagan, and E. C. Sayre, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 9, 020121 (2013)]. Further, the long-term impacts of active-learning experiences are also understudied. At Florida International University, a Hispanic-majority institution, we have implemented Modeling Instruction (MI) and the Integrated Science Learning Environment (ISLE) in introductory physics classes for the past decade. In this empirical paper, we report on a longitudinal investigation of student performance and persistence in upper level physics courses after having previously experienced MI or ISLE in their introductory physics courses, and disaggregate students by gender. Using survival analysis methods, we find women who declare physics as a major are more likely than men to graduate with a physics degree. Women are also just as likely as men to pass through the upper division courses, with the highest failure risk for both men and women occurring in the first semester of upper-division course taking. These results reinforce the need to expand considerations of performance outcomes to be longitudinal to measure the effectiveness of the entire physics experience.

  19. Social aspects of classroom learning: Results of a discourse analysis in an inquiry-oriented physical chemistry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Nicole M.

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating inquiry-oriented classroom environments in which students learn with understanding. This study examined the social influences that contribute to classroom learning in an inquiry-oriented undergraduate physical chemistry class using the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) approach. A qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's (1968) model of argumentation was used to document patterns in classroom reasoning that reflect normative aspects of social interaction. Adapting the constructs of social and sociomathematical norms from the work of Yackel and Cobb (1996), I describe social aspects of the classroom environment by discussing normative aspects of social interaction (social norms) and discipline-specific criteria related to reasoning and justification in chemistry contexts, referred to here as sociochemical norms. This work discusses four social norms and two sociochemical norms that were documented over a five-week period of observation in Dr. Black's POGIL physical chemistry class. In small group activities, the socially established expectations that students explain reasoning, negotiate understandings of terminology and symbolic representations, and arrive at a consensus on critical thinking questions shaped small group interactions and reasoning. In whole class discussion, there was an expectation that students share reasoning with the class, and that the instructor provide feedback on student reasoning in ways that extended student contributions and elaborated relationships between macroscopic, particulate, and symbolic-level ideas. The ways in which the class constructed

  20. Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry 2014: Celebrating the International Year of Light 2015, commemorating the Old Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2015-01-01

    2015 is the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (IYL), while the physics and chemistry Nobel Prizes 2014 are both about light. The work leading to the two prizes share the same basic theoretical foundation: when an electron jumps from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, the energy difference is transformed into a photon. This basic way of light generation is a key part of the Old Quantum Theory. Interestingly, the date of announcing the 2014 Nobel Prize for physics coincided with the birthdays of Niels Bohr and, especially, of Planck's blackbody radiation formula. In connection with the two 2014 Nobel Prizes, we recall the development of the Old Quantum Theory by Planck, Einstein and Bohr.