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Sample records for advanced piston corer

  1. Piston

    DOEpatents

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2007-11-13

    A number of embodiments of a piston may have a shape that provides enhanced piston guidance. In such embodiments, the piston shape may include an axial profile that is configured to provide certain thrust load characteristics.

  2. Piston

    DOEpatents

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2007-12-04

    A number of embodiments of a piston may have a shape that provides enhanced piston guidance. In such embodiments, the piston shape may include an axial profile that is configured to provide certain thrust load characteristics.

  3. Piston

    DOEpatents

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2009-03-24

    A number of embodiments of a piston may have a shape that provides enhanced piston guidance. In such embodiments, the piston shape may include an axial profile that is configured to provide certain thrust load characteristics.

  4. Piston

    DOEpatents

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2009-02-24

    A number of embodiments of a piston may have a shape that provides enhanced piston guidance. In such embodiments, the piston shape may include an axial profile that is configured to provide certain thrust load characteristics.

  5. Advanced Controller Developed for the Free-Piston Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Scott S.

    2005-01-01

    A free-piston Stirling power convertor is being considered as an advanced power-conversion technology for future NASA deep-space missions requiring long-life radioisotope power systems. The NASA Glenn Research Center has identified key areas where advanced technologies can enhance the capability of Stirling energy-conversion systems. One of these is power electronic controls. Current power-conversion technology for Glenn-tested Stirling systems consists of an engine-driven linear alternator generating an alternating-current voltage controlled by a tuning-capacitor-based alternating-current peak voltage load controller. The tuning capacitor keeps the internal alternator electromotive force (EMF) in phase with its respective current (i.e., passive power factor correction). The alternator EMF is related to the piston velocity, which must be kept in phase with the alternator current in order to achieve stable operation. This tuning capacitor, which adds volume and mass to the overall Stirling convertor, can be eliminated if the controller can actively drive the magnitude and phase of the alternator current.

  6. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  7. Ringless piston experiments. Natural gas engine technology advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. J.

    1991-12-01

    A two stroke 250 cc test engine was designed to experimentally evaluate ringless piston operation. The test engine had a crosshead to minimize the side loads on the ringless piston. The crankcase was sealed and it was possible to eliminate oil in the combustion chamber. A ringless molybdenum piston with labyrinth seals was designed and tested. Ringed-to-ringless power ratios greater than 90 percent were achieved by controlling piston-to-liner clearance via cylinder cooling.

  8. Reaction force of percussive corer, rotary-friction corer, and rotary-percussive corer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Future NASA exploration missions will increasingly require sampling, in-situ analysis and possibly the return of material to Earth for laboratory analysis. To address these objective, effective and optimized drilling techniques are needed. This requires developing comprehensive tools to be able to determine analytically what takes place during the operation and what are the control parameters that can be enhanced. In this study, three types of coring techniques were studied and were identified as potential candidates for operation from a possible future Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission rover. These techniques include percussive, rotary-friction, and rotary-percussive coring. Theoretical models were developed to predict the dynamic reaction forces transmitted from these three types of corers to the robotic arms that hold them. The predicted reaction forces will then be used in a dynamic simulation environment to simulate a representative corer tool to obtain a best estimate of a tool that can be operated from a small rover. The predicted dynamic reaction forces will be presented in this paper.

  9. Planetary rock corer and drill concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imus, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Several planetary rock corers and drill design concepts have been developed for obtaining subsurface rock samples in future planetary explorations. Tools are designed for unmanned space vehicles. Two devices are rotary impact multiple chisel trepan rock corer and hole drilling tool.

  10. Test Method Designed to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    Research on advanced heat engine concepts, such as the low-heat-rejection engine, have shown the potential for increased thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, lighter weight, simpler design, and longer life in comparison to current diesel engine designs. A major obstacle in the development of a functional advanced heat engine is overcoming the problems caused by the high combustion temperatures at the piston ring/cylinder liner interface, specifically at top ring reversal (TRR). Therefore, advanced cylinder liner and piston ring materials are needed that can survive under these extreme conditions. To address this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have designed a tribological test method to help evaluate candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for advanced diesel engines.

  11. Using a video-corer to evaluate hydrocarbon fluxes in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Chen, H. H.; Lin, Y. S.; Huang, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Many natural methane seeps exist in the northern South China Sea. Researchers have often used gravity corers or piston corers to collect sediments and bottom seawater for estimating methane fluxes of these seeps. The actual sampling locations of these corers are difficult to match seeping vents detected by scientific echo sounder because of the difficulty in positioning of these corers when sampling at sea,. Thus, the hydrocarbon fluxes of the seeping vents estimated using these corers might not be representative hydrocarbon fluxes of seeping vents in the northern South China Sea. In this study, we used a real-time video multicorer to collect surface sediments and bottom seawater samples. This real-time multicorer can accurately obtain surface sediments and bottom seawater samples on hydrocarbon seeping vents. To estimate hydrocarbon diffusion fluxes of seeps in the northern South China Sea, we analyzed methane concentrations and carbon isotopes of methane in both porewater and bottom seawater. During the cruises conducted from August to December, 2014, methane fluxes in the study area ranged from 3 to 57000 μmol m-2 d-1 which are significantly higher than previously reported values (~160 μmol m-2 d-1). Besides, we have obtained some samples in the study area using real-time multicorer in 2015. These new results will be presented in the meeting. Overall, the observed result in this study suggests that the in-situ multicorer can be a suitable instrument sampling surface sediments and bottom seawater samples on hydrocarbon seeping vents.

  12. Piston ring thermal transient effects on lubricant temperatures in advanced engines

    SciTech Connect

    Boisclair, M.E.; Hoult, D.P.; Wong, V.W. )

    1989-07-01

    One class of advanced diesel engines operates with low heat rejection and high operating temperatures; piston-ring/linear lubrication is a major problem for these engines. This study attempts to illustrate the time-dependent thermal environment around the top piston ring and lubricant in these advanced engines. Particular emphasis is passed on the maximum lubricant temperature. The analysis starts with a standard cycle simulation and a global finite-element analysis of the piston and liner in relative motion. A more detailed finite-element model, which considers variable oil film thickness on the linear, focuses on the top ring and lubricant and uses the grove and linear temperatures generated in the global analysis as boundary conditions. Results for different heat rejection engine configurations are presented. The authors observe that because of major transient effects, high lubricant temperature is experienced not only at top ring reversal but also down the linear to bottom ring reversal.

  13. Final design of a free-piston hydraulic advanced Stirling conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, D. A.; Noble, J. E.; Emigh, S. G.; Ross, B. A.; Lehmann, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Under the US Department of Energy's (DOEs) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating heat engines for solar distributed receiver systems. The final design is described of an engineering prototype advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) with a free-piston hydraulic engine output capable of delivering about 25 kW of electric power to a utility grid. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, has noncontacting bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. The ASCS is designed to deliver maximum power per year over a range of solar input with a design life of 30 years (60,000 h). The system includes a liquid Nak pool boiler heat transport system and a free-piston Stirling engine with high-pressure hydraulic output, coupled with a bent axis variable displacement hydraulic motor and a rotary induction generator.

  14. 75 FR 36034 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... provide comment on the ANPR. DATES: The comment period for the ANPR published April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22440... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 87 RIN 2060-AP79 Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston... Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded Aviation Gasoline (hereinafter...

  15. Developing a Free-Piston Stirling Convertor for advanced radioisotope space power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, John E.; White, Maurice A.; Peterson, Allen A.; Redinger, Darin L.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Free-Piston Stirling Convertors as a technology for future advanced radioisotope space power systems. In August 2000, DOE awarded competitive Phase I, Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) power system integration contracts to three major aerospace contractors, resulting in SRG conceptual designs in February 2001. All three contractors based their designs on the Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for DOE. The contract award to a single system integration contractor for Phases II and III of the SRG program is anticipated in late 2001. The first potential SRG mission is targeted for a Mars rover. This paper provides a description of the Flight Prototype (FP) Stirling convertor design as compared to the previous TDC design. The initial flight prototype units are already undergoing performance tuning at STC. The new design will be hermetically scaled and will provide a weight reduction from approximately 4.8 kg to approximately 3.9 kg. .

  16. A box corer 30 cm square and 4 m long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster Johnson, Richard

    1988-08-01

    To collect long, large-volume cores of diatomaceous sediment on the continental shelf off Namibia, we built a box corer that is 30 cm square and 4 m long. This paper describes the corer and the tools and procedures for sampling the covers. In terms of volume of sediment recovered in a single penetration, the corer may be among the largest ever used. The corer itself consists of a barrel with segments 20 cm long, a release mechanism at top and a thin fiberglass curtain at bottom. To support the large load of sediment without distortion, the curtain follows a semi-circular track, concave upward. During assembly and disassembly, the corer hangs vertically over the side, enabling it to operate from a relatively small ship. To sample the core, an extruding device pushes the sediment from each segment into boxes made of polyurethane foam. Ashore a specially designed jig helps slice these boxes into vertical slabs as thin as 1 cm. In the 6 days at sea that we had to test the corer and collect samples for the project, we took 9 cores, the longest of which was 3 m.

  17. Composite piston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Allan H. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A composite piston structure is disclosed which provides a simple and reliable means for joining a carbon-carbon or ceramic piston cap with a metallic piston body. Attachment is achieved by means of a special geometry which compensates for differences in thermal expansion without complicated mechanical fastening devices. The shape employs a flange created by opposed frustoconical shapes with coincident vertices intersecting on the radial centerline of the piston in order to retain the piston cap. The use of carbon-carbon for the piston cap material allows a close fit between the piston and a cylinder wall, eliminating the need for piston rings. The elimination of extra mechanical parts of previous composite pistons provides a lightweight composite piston capable of extended high temperature operation.

  18. Lightweight piston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Allan H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A lightweight piston composed of carbon-carbon composites is presented. The use of carbon-carbon composites over conventional materials, such as aluminum, reduces piston weight and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocation engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance is so small as to eliminate the necessity for piston rings. Use of the carbon-carbon composite has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  19. Development of a Phasor Diagram Creator to Visualize the Piston and Displacer Forces in an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Dipanjan; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The steady-state, nearly sinusoidal behavior of the components in a free-piston Stirling engine allows for visualization of the forces in the system using phasor diagrams. Based on Newton's second law, F = ma, any phasor diagrams modeling a given component in a system should close if all of the acting forces have been considered. Since the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), currently being developed for future NASA deep space missions, is made up of such nearly sinusoidally oscillating components, its phasor diagrams would also be expected to close. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been written in MATLAB (MathWorks), which takes user input data, passes it to Sage (Gedeon Associates), a one-dimensional thermodynamic modeling program used to model the Stirling convertor, runs Sage, and then automatically plots the phasor diagrams. Using this software tool, the effect of varying different Sage inputs on the phasor diagrams was determined. The parameters varied were piston amplitude, hot-end temperature, cold-end temperature, operating frequency, and displacer spring constant. These phasor diagrams offer useful insight into convertor operation and performance.

  20. Development of a Phasor Diagram Creator to Visualize the Piston and Displacer Forces in an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Dipanjan; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The steady state, nearly sinusoidal behavior of the components in a Free Piston Stirling Engine allows for visualization of the forces in the system using phasor diagrams. Based on Newton's second law, F=ma, any phasor diagrams modeling a given component in a system should close if all of the acting forces have been considered. Since the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), currently being developed for future NASA deep space missions, is made up of such nearly sinusoidally oscillating components, its phasor diagrams would also be expected to close. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been written in MATLAB by taking user input data, passing it to Sage, a 1-D thermodynamic modeling program used to model the Stirling convertor, running Sage and then automatically plotting the phasor diagrams. Using this software tool, the effect of varying different Sage inputs on the phasor diagrams was determined. The parameters varied were piston amplitude, hot end temperature, cold end temperature, operating frequency, and displacer spring constant. By using these phasor diagrams, better insight can be gained as to why the convertor operates the way that it does.

  1. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). .

  2. Powder-Collection System for Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Blake, David; Bryson, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A system for collecting samples of powdered rock has been devised for use in conjunction with an ultrasonic/sonic drill/corer (USDC) -- a lightweight, lowpower apparatus designed to cut into, and acquire samples of, rock or other hard material for scientific analysis. The USDC includes a drill bit, corer, or other tool bit, in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are excited by an electronically driven piezoelectric actuator. The USDC advances into the rock or other material of interest by means of a hammering action and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, a negligible amount of axial force is needed to make the USDC advance into the material. Also unlike a conventional twist drill, the USDC operates without need for torsional restraint, lubricant, or a sharp bit. The USDC generates powder as a byproduct of the drilling or coring process. The purpose served by the present samplecollection system is to remove the powder from the tool-bit/rock interface and deliver the powder to one or more designated location(s) for analysis or storage

  3. Carbon-carbon piston development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    A new piston concept, made of carbon-carbon refractory-composite material, has been developed that overcomes a number of the shortcomings of aluminum pistons. Carbon-carbon material, developed in the early 1960's, is lighter in weight than aluminum, has higher strength and stiffness than aluminum and maintains these properties at temperatures over 2500 F. In addition, carbon-carbon material has a low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent resistance to thermal shock. An effort, called the Advanced Carbon-Carbon Piston Program was started in 1986 to develop and test carbon-carbon pistons for use in spark ignition engines. The carbon-carbon pistons were designed to be replacements for existing aluminum pistons, using standard piston pin assemblies and using standard rings. Carbon-carbon pistons can potentially enable engines to be more reliable, more efficient and have greater power output. By utilizing the unique characteristics of carbon-carbon material a piston can: (1) have greater resistance to structural damage caused by overheating, lean air-fuel mixture conditions and detonation; (2) be designed to be lighter than an aluminum piston thus, reducing the reciprocating mass of an engine, and (3) be operated in a higher combustion temperature environment without failure.

  4. Advanced diagnostic system for piston slap faults in IC engines, based on the non-stationary characteristics of the vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Randall, Robert Bond; Peeters, Bart

    2016-06-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have the potential to solve the problem of automated diagnostics of piston slap faults, but the critical issue for the successful application of ANN is the training of the network by a large amount of data in various engine conditions (different speed/load conditions in normal condition, and with different locations/levels of faults). On the other hand, the latest simulation technology provides a useful alternative in that the effect of clearance changes may readily be explored without recourse to cutting metal, in order to create enough training data for the ANNs. In this paper, based on some existing simplified models of piston slap, an advanced multi-body dynamic simulation software was used to simulate piston slap faults with different speeds/loads and clearance conditions. Meanwhile, the simulation models were validated and updated by a series of experiments. Three-stage network systems are proposed to diagnose piston faults: fault detection, fault localisation and fault severity identification. Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) networks were used in the detection stage and severity/prognosis stage and a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) was used to identify which cylinder has faults. Finally, it was demonstrated that the networks trained purely on simulated data can efficiently detect piston slap faults in real tests and identify the location and severity of the faults as well.

  5. Status of an advanced radioisotope space power system using free-piston Stirling technology

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.A,; Qiu, S.; Erbeznik, R.M.; Olan, R.W.; Welty, S.C.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a free-piston Stirling engine technology project to demonstrate a high efficiency power system capable of being further developed for deep space missions using a radioisotope (RI) heat source. The key objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years or longer on deep space missions. Primary issues being addressed for Stirling space power systems are weight and the vibration associated with reciprocating pistons. Similar weight and vibration issues have been successfully addressed with Stirling cryocoolers, which are the accepted standard for cryogenic cooling in space. Integrated long-life Stirling engine-generator (or convertor) operation has been demonstrated by the terrestrial Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) and other Stirling Technology Company (STC) programs. Extensive RSG endurance testing includes more than 40,000 maintenance-free, degradation-free hours for the complete convertor, in addition to several critical component and subsystem endurance tests. The Stirling space power convertor project is being conducted by STC under DOE Contract, and NASA SBIR Phase II contracts. The DOE contract objective is to demonstrate a two-convertor module that represents half of a nominal 150-W(e) power system. Each convertor is referred to as a Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC). The ultimate Stirling power system would be fueled by three general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules, and is projected to produce substantially more electric power than the 150-watt target. The system is capable of full power output with one failed convertor. One NASA contract, nearing completion, uses existing 350-W(e) RG-350 convertors to evaluate interactivity of two back-to-back balanced convertors with various degrees of electrical and mechanical interaction. This effort has recently provided the first successful synchronization of two convertors by means of parallel

  6. Technology demonstration of a free-piston stirling advanced radioisotope space power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu, Songgang; Olan, Ronald W.; Erbeznik, Raymond M.

    1999-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling convertors (Stirling engine with integral linear alternator) are a mature technology with demonstrated long-life, maintenance-free, degradation-free operation exceeding 46,000 hours (5+ years) on one unit. Tens of thousands of hours have been accumulated on numerous systems in beta trials, plus more than 8 million flexure-hours (900 flexure-years) on the most critical component (flexure bearings), all with no failures when operated within specifications. Vibration is a key concern for Stirling convertors in space. Recent tests have demonstrated a factor of 50 reduction in vibration, relative to a single convertor, by coupling two convertors mechanically and electrically. Even though the measured vibration level is below Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) specified vibration objectives, demonstration of an additional factor of 10 vibration reduction is pending with an active vibration reduction system. Stirling cycle efficiency is well established. A four-convertor 150-W(e) end of mission (EOM) power system for deep space missions is projected to require only three general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules with conservative Inconel 718 heater heads, leaving significant efficiency improvement potential when used with higher temperature materials. Even in the unlikely scenario of one inoperative convertor, the other three convertors ramp up to provide full output. A two-convertor demonstration system, representative of one-half of a 150-W(e) power system, is described in this paper and scheduled to become operational in December 1998.

  7. Double bowl piston

    DOEpatents

    Meffert, Darrel Henry; Urven, Jr., Roger Leroy; Brown, Cory Andrew; Runge, Mark Harold

    2007-03-06

    A piston for an internal combustion engine is disclosed. The piston has a piston crown with a face having an interior annular edge. The piston also has first piston bowl recessed within the face of the piston crown. The first piston bowl has a bottom surface and an outer wall. A line extending from the interior annular edge of the face and tangent with the outer wall forms an interior angle greater than 90 degrees with the face of the piston. The piston also has a second piston bowl that is centrally located and has an upper edge located below a face of the piston crown.

  8. Collapsible pistons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, R. N. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A piston assembly is described for use in a hypervelocity gun comprising a forward cylindrical section longitudinally spaced from a rearward cylindrical section by an intermediate section. The intermediate section is longitudinally collapsible when subjected to a predetermined force, to allow the distance between the forward and rearward sections to be suddenly reduced.

  9. High temperature tribology for piston ring and cylinder liner in advanced low heat rejection engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kamo, L.S.; Kleyman, A.S.; Bryzik, W.; Mekari, M.

    1996-12-31

    High temperature tribology research efforts being pursued at Adiabatics are directed in the area of post treatment densified plasma sprayed coatings. Previous work has yielded good results for laboratory bench tests using no liquid lubrication. The process infiltrates a thermal sprayed coating layer with Chrome Oxide and Phosphate Glass compounds which serve to enhance the mechanical bond of a thermal sprayed layer, while improving its internal integrity, and sealing off open porosity. It has been applied to over 150 different wear combinations. Of these tests, Iron Oxide based coatings versus Molybdenum alloy materials provide the best results. Testing in a modified Low Heat Rejection (LHR) single cylinder diesel engine proved this wear combination superior to the state of the art materials available today. These data show improvement over past research efforts directed at developing solid lubricants, but they do not achieve goals set for operation in future advanced military LHR diesel powerplants. Through involvement with the support of the US Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) the authors have predetermined a goal of attaining bench test friction coefficients of {mu}{sub f} < 0.10, and material wear rates {le}1.0 mg/hr, at a temperature of 540 C. The research efforts discussed in this paper, focus on optimizing material friction and wear combinations and their interaction with liquid lubricants to generate boundary lubrication effects noted in previous studies and their correlation to advanced diesel engine design.

  10. Piston rod seal

    DOEpatents

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal of the type comprising a gland through which the piston rod is passed the piston is provided with a sleeve surrounding the piston rod and extending axially so as to axially partly overlap the gland when the piston is in its bottom dead center position.

  11. Recent Advances in Design of Low Cost Film Concentrator and Low Pressure Free Piston Stirling Engines for Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinwaechter, J.; Kleinwaechter, H.; Beale, W.

    1984-01-01

    The free piston Stirling-linear alternator was shown to be scalable to power levels of tens of kilowatts in a form which is simple, efficient, long lived and relatively inexpensive. It avoids entirely the vexing problem of high pressure shaft, and its control requirements are not severe nor do they represent a significant threat to durability. Linear alternators have demonstrated high efficiency and moderate weight, and are capable of delivering 3 phase power from single machines without great increases of cost or complexity. There remains no apparent impediments to the commercial exploitation of the free piston engine for solar electric power generation.

  12. Piston and connecting rod assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

  13. Stirling cycle piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, G. R.

    1985-02-12

    This device is an improvement over the conventional type of Stirling cycle engine where the expander piston is connected to a crankshaft and the displacer piston is connected to the same or another crankshaft for operation. The improvement is based on both the expansion and displacer pistons being an integral unit having regenerating means which eliminate the mechanisms that synchronize the regeneration mode.

  14. Major refit of R/V MARION DUFRESNE and giant sediment corer improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leau, Hélène; Réaud, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    The french Research Vessel MARION DUFRESNE is equipped with a unique sediment coring facility, called CALYPSO, developed initially by Yvon BALUT at the French Polar Institute, Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV) that operates the vessel 217 days per year in all oceans. The CALYPSO sediment corer retrieves routinely 50 m long undisturbed sediment cores in any water depths, and presently holds the worldwide record of the longest core ever retrieved, that is 64.5 m. This vessel is then a fantastic opportunity for the paleoceanographic community to carry out expeditions at sea. Over the last 20 years, many international IMAGES coring expeditions were organized in all the ocean basins around the world on board the R/V MARION DUFRESNE. More than 1500 cores were retrieved, leading to major advances in the paleoceanography and paleoclimatology of the Late Quaternary. The vessel will celebrate her 20th anniversary in 2015 and will undergo a major refit on hull & machineries, public spaces, as well as scientific equipment. The coring capacity is currently being developed to further improve - The length of the retrievable core, with an objective of 75 m long core in routine - The quality of the sediment un-disturbance with a specially designed coring cable with controlled minimum elasticity - The safety of the operations at sea - The quality control of the operations with a suite of sensors and software allowing a detailed monitoring of the coring operation - The time requested for each operation - The environment data collection, in the same time as the coring operations The detailed description of the upgrades will be presented. They consist in a new suite of acoustic sensors that will be integrated on board the vessel during the 4 months ship yard stay from April to July 2015, amongst which a KONSBERG EM122 multibeam echo-sounder and a SBP 120-3 sub-bottom profiler, both mounted on a gondola fitted under the hull of the vessel. This equipment will allow the highest quality images of

  15. Lightweight piston architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Allan H. (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is an improvement in a lightweight carbon-carbon composite piston, the improvement uses near-net shape knitted or warp-interlock preforms to improve the structural qualities of the piston. In its preferred embodiment, a one piece, tubular, closed-ended, knitted preform (a sock) of carbon fibers embedded within the matrix of the piston structure forms the crown, side wall, skirt and inner surface of the piston, and wrap-interlock preforms strengthen the piston crown and wrist pin bosses.

  16. Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) as a sampler for future planetary exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sherrit, S.; Dolgin, B. P.; Bridges, N.; Bao, X.; Chang, Z.; Saunders, R. S.; Pal, D.; Krohl, J.; Peterson, T.

    2000-01-01

    Future NASA exploration missions to Mars, Europa, Titan, comets and asteroids are seeking to perform sampling, in-situ analysis and possibly return of material to Earth for further tests. One of the major limitations of sampling in low gravity environments is the conventional sampling in low gravity environments is the conventional drills need for high axial force. An ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) mechanism was developed to address these and other limitations of existing drilling techniques.

  17. Free piston stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a basic introduction to free piston Stirling engine technology through a review of specialized background material. It also includes information based on actual construction and operation experience with these machines, as well as theoretical and analytical insights into free piston Stirling engine technology.

  18. Stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  19. Free piston inertia compressor

    DOEpatents

    Richards, W.D.C.; Bilodeau, D.; Marusak, T.; Dutram, L. Jr.; Brady, J.

    A free piston inertia compressor comprises a piston assembly including a connecting rod having pistons on both ends, the cylinder being split into two substantially identical portions by a seal through which the connecting rod passes. Vents in the cylinder wall are provided near the seal to permit gas to escape the cylinder until the piston covers the vent whereupon the remaining gas in the cylinder functions as a gas spring and cushions the piston against impact on the seal. The connecting rod has a central portion of relatively small diameter providing free play of the connecting rod through the seal and end portions of relatively large diameter providing a limited tolerance between the connecting rod and the seal. Finally, the seal comprises a seal ring assembly consisting of a dampener plate, a free floating seal at the center of the dampener plate and a seal retainer plate in one face of the dampener plate.

  20. Free piston inertia compressor

    DOEpatents

    Richards, William D. C.; Bilodeau, Denis; Marusak, Thomas; Dutram, Jr., Leonard; Brady, Joseph

    1981-01-01

    A free piston inertia compressor comprises a piston assembly including a connecting rod having pistons on both ends, the cylinder being split into two substantially identical portions by a seal through which the connecting rod passes. Vents in the cylinder wall are provided near the seal to permit gas to excape the cylinder until the piston covers the vent whereupon the remaining gas in the cylinder functions as a gas spring and cushions the piston against impact on the seal. The connecting rod has a central portion of relatively small diameter providing free play of the connecting rod through the seal and end portions of relatively large diameter providing a limited tolerance between the connecting rod and the seal. Finally, the seal comprises a seal ring assembly consisting of a dampener plate, a free floating seal at the center of the dampener plate and a seal retainer plate in one face of the dampener plate.

  1. Cooled spool piston compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  2. Fluid-operated piston

    SciTech Connect

    Ledermen, F.E.

    1987-01-13

    An improvement is described in a friction torque transmitting device having a piston slidably disposed in a cylinder and being selectively pressurized therein for controlling the engagement of frictional plates. The improvement comprises: a rigid piston body generally U-shaped in cross section; an elastomeric covering portion bonded on the piston body and incorporating therein a pair of lip seal portions for engaging the cylinder and cooperating therewith to form a fluid tight joint; valve means formed in the bonded portion for permitting air bleed from the cylinder; a reaction ring bonded to the elastomeric covering; and a spring portion integral with the elastomeric portion operatively disposed between the piston body and the reaction ring.

  3. Piston Ring Pressure Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, M.

    1943-01-01

    The discovery and introduction of the internal combustion engine has resulted in a very rapid development in machines utilizing the action of a piston. Design has been limited by the internal components of the engine, which has been subjected to ever increasing thermal and mechanical stresses, Of these internal engine components, the piston and piston rings are of particular importance and the momentary position of engine development is not seldom dependent upon the development of both of the components, The piston ring is a well-known component and has been used in its present shape in the steam engine of the last century, Corresponding to its importance, the piston ring has been a rich field for creative activity and it is noteworthy that in spite of this the ring has maintained its shape through the many years. From the many and complicated designs which have been suggested as a packing between piston and cylinder wall hardly one suggestion has remained which does not resemble the original design of cast iron rectangular ring.

  4. Compression retaining piston

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglino, A.V. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    A piston apparatus is described for maintaining compression between the piston wall and the cylinder wall, that comprises the following: a generally cylindrical piston body, including: a head portion defining the forward end of the body; and a continuous side wall portion extending rearward from the head portion; a means for lubricating and preventing compression loss between the side wall portion and the cylinder wall, including an annular recessed area in the continuous side wall portion for receiving a quantity of fluid lubricant in fluid engagement between the wall of the recessed and the wall of the cylinder; a first and second resilient, elastomeric, heat resistant rings positioned in grooves along the wall of the continuous side wall portion, above and below the annular recessed area. Each ring engages the cylinder wall to reduce loss of lubricant within the recessed area during operation of the piston; a first pump means for providing fluid lubricant to engine components other than the pistons; and a second pump means provides fluid lubricant to the recessed area in the continuous side wall portion of the piston. The first and second pump means obtains lubricant from a common source, and the second pump means including a flow line supplies oil from a predetermined level above the level of oil provided to the first pump means. This is so that should the oil level to the second pump means fall below the predetermined level, the loss of oil to the recessed area in the continuous side wall portion of the piston would result in loss of compression and shut down of the engine.

  5. Analysis of Piston Slap Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-05-01

    Piston slap is the major force contibuting towards noise levels in combustion engines.This type of noise depends upon a number of factors such as the piston-liner gap, type of lubricant used, number of piston pins as well as geometry of the piston. In this work the lateral and rotary motion of the piston in the gap between the cylinder liner and piston has been analyzed. A model that can predict the forces and response of the engine block due to slap has been dicussed. The parameters such as mass, spring and damping constant have been predicted using a vibrational mobility model.

  6. Reciprocating piston internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.

    1986-04-15

    A reciprocating piston internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a piston movably disposed within an engine cylinder, the piston having a top surface and a piston ring, the engine cylinder and the top surface of the piston defining a combustion chamber, the piston having first and second sections which are divided by a vertical plane containing an axis of a piston pin, the first section being formed with a major thrust surface and the second section being formed with a minor thrust surface; and means for thrusting the piston against a major thrust side wall of the cylinder before the piston reaches top dead center in the cylinder, the thrusting means comprising: means defining a space in the piston, the space communicating with the combustion chamber and being located in the piston second section; a movable member disposed within the space, the movable member being capable of being thrust in the direction of a minor thrust side wall of the cylinder by gas pressure within the combustion chamber and being arranged to thrust the piston ring against the minor thrust side wall when thrust by the gas pressure; and means for producing gas pressure within the combustion chamber such that the gas pressure enters the space at the compression stroke of the engine so that the movable member receives the gas pressure and is thrust toward the minor thrust side wall of the cylinder such that the piston is thrust against a major thrust side wall of the cylinder.

  7. Free-piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A combustion system which can utilize high compression ratios, short burn durations, and homogeneous fuel/air mixtures in conjunction with low equivalence ratios. In particular, a free-piston, two-stroke autoignition internal combustion engine including an electrical generator having a linear alternator with a double-ended free piston that oscillates inside a closed cylinder is provided. Fuel and air are introduced in a two-stroke cycle fashion on each end, where the cylinder charge is compressed to the point of autoignition without spark plugs. The piston is driven in an oscillating motion as combustion occurs successively on each end. This leads to rapid combustion at almost constant volume for any fuel/air equivalence ratio mixture at very high compression ratios. The engine is characterized by high thermal efficiency and low NO.sub.x emissions. The engine is particularly suited for generating electrical current in a hybrid automobile.

  8. Piston engine configuration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a technological assessment of alternate engine component configuration and material alternatives. It includes a comparative analysis of key characteristics of Gasoline, Diesel and Gas Turbine engines built by Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suburu, Suzuki and Toyota. The piston engines range from two to ten cylinders with inline, vee and opposed configurations. Furthermore, additional special features and alternative choices include variable compression ratio, ceramic structural components, supercharger, turbocharger, twin turbocharger, supercharger-turbocharger combined and the regenerative gas turbine.

  9. Analysis of piston secondary motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yeow-Chong; Ripin, Zaidi Mohd

    2013-09-01

    A nonlinear model of the piston with reciprocating, lateral and rotational degree of freedom is developed to investigate the piston secondary motion and the induced vibration behavior of the engine block by the piston slap. The model parameters are obtained from mobility measurement. The gap between the piston skirt and the cylinder liner is modeled as a translational hard stop which is the nonlinear component in the model. The value of the friction coefficient between the piston ring and the cylinder liner is determined by correlating the experimental data with the friction force equation. During the piston slap on the cylinder liner, the high damping coefficient and stiffness of the translational hard stop are added to the equation for the piston secondary motion. The model is validated by experimental data obtained from three laser displacement sensors which capture the distinct modes of the piston secondary motion directly from the piston assembly under motorized conditions. The predicted trend of the piston secondary motion and the vibration response of cylinder block are appropriate and compare well with the measured results.

  10. Hot piston ring tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David J.; Tomazic, William A.

    1987-12-01

    As part of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project, tests were made at NASA Lewis Research Center to determine whether appendix gap losses could be reduced and Stirling engine performance increased by installing an additional piston ring near the top of each piston dome. An MTI-designed upgraded Mod I Automotive Stirling Engine was used. Unlike the conventional rings at the bottom of the piston, these hot rings operated in a high temperature environment (700 C). They were made of a high temperature alloy (Stellite 6B) and a high temperature solid lubricant coating (NASA Lewis-developed PS-200) was applied to the cylinder walls. Engine tests were run at 5, 10, and 15 MPa operating pressure over a range of operating speeds. Tests were run both with hot rings and without to provide a baseline for comparison. Minimum data to assess the potential of both the hot rings and high temperature low friction coating was obtained. Results indicated a slight increase in power and efficiency, an increase over and above the friction loss introduced by the hot rings. Seal leakage measurements showed a significant reduction. Wear on both rings and coating was low.

  11. Hot piston ring tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David J.; Tomazic, William A.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project, tests were made at NASA Lewis Research Center to determine whether appendix gap losses could be reduced and Stirling engine performance increased by installing an additional piston ring near the top of each piston dome. An MTI-designed upgraded Mod I Automotive Stirling Engine was used. Unlike the conventional rings at the bottom of the piston, these hot rings operated in a high temperature environment (700 C). They were made of a high temperature alloy (Stellite 6B) and a high temperature solid lubricant coating (NASA Lewis-developed PS-200) was applied to the cylinder walls. Engine tests were run at 5, 10, and 15 MPa operating pressure over a range of operating speeds. Tests were run both with hot rings and without to provide a baseline for comparison. Minimum data to assess the potential of both the hot rings and high temperature low friction coating was obtained. Results indicated a slight increase in power and efficiency, an increase over and above the friction loss introduced by the hot rings. Seal leakage measurements showed a significant reduction. Wear on both rings and coating was low.

  12. Computer-aided simulation of piston and piston ring dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.; Peeken, H.; Lechtape-Grueter, R.; Lang, J.

    1996-10-01

    A numerical computer simulation program was developed, aiding in finding optimum design parameters in the multibody-system piston, piston-rings, and cylinder with respect to optimum sealing, minimal friction, and minimum noise stimulation(impact impulse). In the simulation of piston secondary movement and piston ring motion, forces arising from the combustion process, subsonic/supersonic gas flow between the combustion chamber and the crank case, inertial forces and forces resulting from the hydrodynamic lubrication between cylinder liner and piston shaft and piston rings and between piston ring flanks and piston grooves are considered. In addition it is possible to account for effects of global, three-dimensional ring deformation as well as local piston deformation, roughness effects in lubricated contacts, and variable viscosity and variable oil supply. The governing differential equations for the pressure as well as the deformation are solved via finite element techniques, while initial value problems are solved by efficient implicit time integration schemes. The application of the developed computer code is presented in examples.

  13. Piston and piston ring for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tokoro, N.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes internal combustion engine comprising: a cylinder block having at least one cylinder bore, the cylinder bore having an inner cylinder bore surface; a piston located within the cylinder bore of the cylinder block, so as to be displaceable upwardly and downwardly in the longitudinal direction of the cylinder bore, the piston including at least one annular groove having upper and lower surfaces, at least the lower surface being an inclined surface such that a bottom of the annular groove is lower than an outer edge of the annular groove; and a piston ring including an outer peripheral portion and an inner peripheral portion, the inner peripheral portion of the piston ring being located within the annular groove of the piston for sliding engagement with the inclined surface of the annular groove of the piston, and inner edge of the inner peripheral portion of the piston ring being located apart from the bottom of the annular groove of the piston and below the outer edge of the annular groove, and the outer peripheral portion of the piston ring being in contact with the cylinder bore surface of the cylinder block.

  14. Modeling and computer simulation of ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC).

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Dolgin, Benjamin P; Sherrit, Stewart; Pal, Dharmendra S; Du, Shu; Peterson, Thomas

    2003-09-01

    Simulation and analytical models for the ultrasonic/sonic drill/corer (USDC) are described in this paper. The USDC was developed as a tool for in-situ rock sampling and analysis in support of the NASA planetary exploration program. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism, which transfers ultrasonic vibrations of a piezoelectric actuator into larger oscillations of a free-flying mass (free-mass). The free-mass impact on the drill bit creates a stress pulse at the drill tip/rock interface causing fracture in the rock. The main parts of the device (transducer, free-mass, bit, and rock) and the interactions between them were analyzed and numerically modeled to explore the drive mechanism. Each of these interactions is normally described by a time-dependent 2- or 3-D model involving slowly converging solutions, which makes the conventional approach unsuitable for USDC optimization studies. A simplified integrated model using tabulated data was developed to simulate the operation of the USDC on desktop PC and successfully predicted the characteristics of the device under a variety of conditions. The simulated results of the model and the experimental data used to verify the model are presented.

  15. Modeling and computer simulation of ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC).

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Dolgin, Benjamin P; Sherrit, Stewart; Pal, Dharmendra S; Du, Shu; Peterson, Thomas

    2003-09-01

    Simulation and analytical models for the ultrasonic/sonic drill/corer (USDC) are described in this paper. The USDC was developed as a tool for in-situ rock sampling and analysis in support of the NASA planetary exploration program. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism, which transfers ultrasonic vibrations of a piezoelectric actuator into larger oscillations of a free-flying mass (free-mass). The free-mass impact on the drill bit creates a stress pulse at the drill tip/rock interface causing fracture in the rock. The main parts of the device (transducer, free-mass, bit, and rock) and the interactions between them were analyzed and numerically modeled to explore the drive mechanism. Each of these interactions is normally described by a time-dependent 2- or 3-D model involving slowly converging solutions, which makes the conventional approach unsuitable for USDC optimization studies. A simplified integrated model using tabulated data was developed to simulate the operation of the USDC on desktop PC and successfully predicted the characteristics of the device under a variety of conditions. The simulated results of the model and the experimental data used to verify the model are presented. PMID:14561031

  16. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  17. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  18. Free-piston cutting machine

    DOEpatents

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  19. Rotating head and piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gomm, T.J.; Messick, N.C.

    1992-07-21

    This patent describes a rotary piston combustion engine. It comprises a housing means, an engine block housing a single toroidal bore, a piston carrier ring spaced outwardly along the entire perimeter of the toroidal bore with at least one finger extending inwardly for piston attachment, a power transfer cylinder, a power output shaft, an auxiliary shaft with driven gearing means meshing with the driving gearing means, a rotating head with windows for piston passage, a trapezoidal porting means in the engine block and in the rotating head, an exhaust port means.

  20. 49 CFR 230.93 - Pistons and piston rods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pistons and piston rods. 230.93 Section 230.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives...

  1. Reciprocating piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eickmann, K.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a reciprocating combustion engine consisting of a cylinder, a piston reciprocating in the cylinder, a top for closing one end of the cylinder, inlets and outlets extending to and from the cylinder for the intake of combustible gas and the expelling of burned exhaust gases. The engine also consists of a device for ignition of the combustible gas, a means of cooling the cylinder and top, a turbine of a turbocharger connected to the outlet, and a compressor of the turbocharger connected to the inlet.

  2. Ceramics Technology Project database: September 1991 summary report. [Materials for piston ring-cylinder liner for advanced heat/diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    The piston ring-cylinder liner area of the internal combustion engine must withstand very-high-temperature gradients, highly-corrosive environments, and constant friction. Improving the efficiency in the engine requires ring and cylinder liner materials that can survive this abusive environment and lubricants that resist decomposition at elevated temperatures. Wear and friction tests have been done on many material combinations in environments similar to actual use to find the right materials for the situation. This report covers tribology information produced from 1986 through July 1991 by Battelle columbus Laboratories, Caterpillar Inc., and Cummins Engine Company, Inc. for the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP). All data in this report were taken from the project's semiannual and bimonthly progress reports and cover base materials, coatings, and lubricants. The data, including test rig descriptions and material characterizations, are stored in the CTP database and are available to all project participants on request. Objective of this report is to make available the test results from these studies, but not to draw conclusions from these data.

  3. Stirling engine with improved piston ring assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes an engine having a reciprocating piston axially stroking within a walled cylinder by a pressure differential acting on opposite axial sides of the piston and an annular piston ring disposed in an annular piston ring groove around the piston for sealing between the piston and the wall of the cylinder to resist leakage past the piston. The improvement described here is in the piston ring. This piston ring is endowed with a flat radially outwardly facing annular axial surface confronting the cylinder wall, temperature responsive means arranged within the groove for coaction with the piston ring to forcefully urge the piston ring radially outwardly when the engine is cold such that the flat radially outwardly facing annular axial surface of the piston ring is urged flat against the cylinder wall but to relax from urging the piston ring outwardly when the engine becomes warm. The piston ring groove has two contiguous axial portions one of which extends radially deeper into the piston than the other, the piston ring being of generally L-shape in cross section so that it has two leg portions consisting of a radially extending leg portion and an axially extending leg portion. The radially extended leg portion is disposed in cooperative association with the one axial portion of the groove and the axially extending leg portion being disposed in cooperative association with the other axial portion of the groove. The temperature responsive means is disposed within the one axial portion of the piston ring groove to be coactive on the radially extending leg portion of the piston ring, and annular sealing means disposed within the groove for sealing between the piston ring and piston to resist leakage between the piston ring and piston.

  4. Carbon-Carbon Piston Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for carbon-carbon composite piston architectures consists of replacing the knitted fiber, three-dimensional piston preform architecture described in U.S. Pat. No. 4.909,133 (Taylor et al.) with a two-dimensional lay-up or molding of carbon fiber fabric or tape. Initially. the carbon fabric or tape layers are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and are laid up or molded about a mandrel. to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part shaped like a "U" channel, a "T"-bar. or a combination of the two. The molded carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. At this point, cylindrical piston blanks are cored from the "U" channel, "T"-bar, or combination part. These blanks are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also be accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston billets are machined to final piston dimensions; coated with oxidation sealants; and/or coated with a catalyst. When compared to conventional steel or aluminum-alloy pistons, the use of carbon-carbon composite pistons reduces the overall weight of the engine; allows for operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength; allows for quieter operation; reduces the heat loss; and reduces the level of hydrocarbon emissions.

  5. Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

    The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

  6. The piston-flow interaction as a model for the deflagration-to-detonation transition

    SciTech Connect

    Brailovsky, Irina; Kagan, Leonid; Sivashinsky, Gregory

    2011-01-15

    The piston-flow interaction induced by a piston pushing hydraulically resisted gas through a long tube is discussed. It is shown that the hydraulic resistance causes a significant precompression and preheating of the gas adjacent to the piston's edge. In the case of an explosive premixture this development may lead to a localized autoignition triggering detonation. It is suggested that the problem may serve as a guide for understanding the deflagration-to-detonation transition in tubes, with the piston modeling the impact of the advancing flame. (author)

  7. Subsurface sampler and sensors platform using the ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2007-04-01

    The search for existing or past life in the Universe is one of the most important objectives of NASA's mission. For this purpose, effective instruments that can sample and conduct in-situ astrobiology analysis are being developed. In support of this objective, a series of novel mechanisms that are driven by an Ultrasonic/Sonic actuator have been developed to probe and sample rocks, ice and soil. This mechanism is driven by an ultrasonic piezoelectric actuator that impacts a bit at sonic frequencies through the use of an intermediate free-mass. Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) devices were made that can produce both core and powdered cuttings, operate as a sounder to emit elastic waves and serve as a platform for sensors. For planetary exploration, this mechanism has the important advantage of requiring low axial force, virtually no torque, and can be duty cycled for operation at low average power. The advantage of requiring low axial load allows overcoming a major limitation of planetary sampling in low gravity environments or when operating from lightweight robots and rovers. The ability to operate at duty cycling with low average power produces a minimum sample temperature rise allowing for control of the sample integrity and preventing damage to potential biological markers in the acquired sample. The development of the USDC is being pursued on various fronts ranging from analytical modeling to mechanisms improvements while considering a wide range of potential applications. While developing the analytical capability to predict and optimize its performance, efforts are made to enhance its capability to drill at higher power and high speed. Taking advantage of the fact that the bit does not require rotation, sensors (e.g., thermocouple and fiberoptics) were integrated into the bit to examine the borehole during drilling. The sounding effect of the drill was used to emit elastic waves in order to evaluate the surface characteristics of rocks. Since the USDC

  8. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  9. Researches on the Piston Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehihara, Keikiti

    1944-01-01

    In internal combustion engines, steam engines, air compressors, and so forth, the piston ring plays an important role. Especially, the recent development of Diesel engines which require a high compression pressure for their working, makes, nowadays, the packing action of the piston ring far more important than ever. Though a number of papers have been published in regard to researches on the problem of the piston ring, none has yet dealt with an exact measurement of pressure exerted on the cylinder wall at any given point of the ring. The only paper that can be traced on this subject so far is Mr. Nakagawa's report on the determination of the relative distribution of pressure on the cylinder wall, but the measuring method adopted therein appears to need further consideration. No exact idea has yet been obtained as to how the obturation of gas between the piston and cylinder, the frictional resistance of the piston, and the wear of the cylinder wall are affected by the intensity and the distribution of the radial pressure of the piston ring. Consequently, the author has endeavored, by employing an apparatus of his own invention, to get an exact determination of the pressure distribution of the piston ring. By means of a newly devised ring tester, to which piezoelectricity of quartz was applied, the distribution of the radial pressure of many sample rings on the market was accurately determined. Since many famous piston rings show very irregular pressure distribution, the author investigated and achieved a manufacturing process of the piston ring which will exert uniform pressure on the cylinder wall. Temperature effects on the configuration and on the mean spring power have also been studied. Further, the tests were performed to ascertain how the gas tightness of the piston ring may be affected by the number or spring power. The researches as to the frictional resistance between the piston ring and the cylinder wall were carried out, too. The procedure of study, and

  10. Carbon-Carbon Piston Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved structure for carbon-carbon composite piston architectures is disclosed. The improvement consists of replacing the knitted fiber, three-dimensional piston preform architecture described in U.S. Pat.No. 4,909,133 (Taylor et al.) with a two-dimensional lay-up or molding of carbon fiber fabric or tape. Initially, the carbon fabric of tape layers are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and are laid up or molded about a mandrel, to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part shaped like a "U" channel, a "T"-bar, or a combination of the two. The molded carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. At this point, cylindrical piston blanks are cored from the "U"-channel, "T"-bar, or combination part. These blanks are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston billets are machined to final piston dimensions; coated with oxidation sealants; and/or coated with a catalyst. When compared to conventional steel or aluminum alloy pistons, the use of carbon-carbon composite pistons reduces the overall weight of the engine; allows for operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength; allows for quieter operation; reduces the heat loss; and reduces the level of hydrocarbon emissions.

  11. Piston reciprocating compressed air engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cestero, L.G.

    1987-03-24

    A compressed air engine is described comprising: (a). a reservoir of compressed air, (b). two power cylinders each containing a reciprocating piston connected to a crankshaft and flywheel, (c). a transfer cylinder which communicates with each power cylinder and the reservoir, and contains a reciprocating piston connected to the crankshaft, (d). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying compressed air from the reservoir to each power cylinder and for exhausting compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder, (e). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying from the transfer cylinder to the reservoir compressed air supplied to the transfer cylinder on the exhaust strokes of the pistons of the power cylinders, and (f). an externally powered fan for assisting the exhaust of compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder and from there to the compressed air reservoir.

  12. Solar powered free-piston stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, G.M.

    1988-05-24

    A method of controlling the operation of a free piston Stirling engine including a displacer piston having an integral electrical linear driver, an alternator piston driven by the displacer piston and including means for generating an electric current and variable volume gas springs in the cylinders for the displacer and alternator piston is described comprising the steps of: sensing the output voltage if the generated electric current; controlling the movement of the displacer piston by varying the volume of the gas spring in the displacer cylinder and the status of linear driver responsively to the sensed output voltage; sensing the frequency of the linear driver responsively to the sensed output voltage; sensing the frequency of the alternator piston; and controlling the frequency of the alternator piston by varying the volume of the gas spring of the alternator cylinder responsive to the sensed frequency.

  13. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  14. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  15. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  16. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  17. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  18. Two piston V-type Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A two piston Stirling engine which includes a heat exchanger arrangement placing the cooler and regenerator directly adjacent the compression space for minimal cold duct volume; a sealing arrangement which eliminates the need for piston seals, crossheads and piston rods; and a simplified power control system.

  19. Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston.

    PubMed

    Munakata, T; Ogawa, H

    2001-09-01

    Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston are investigated, based on the mass ratio expansion of the master equation for the piston velocity distribution function. Simple theory for piston motion and relaxation of an ideal gas in a cylinder turns out to reproduce our numerical experiments quantitatively.

  20. Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, Toyonori; Ogawa, Hideki

    2001-09-01

    Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston are investigated, based on the mass ratio expansion of the master equation for the piston velocity distribution function. Simple theory for piston motion and relaxation of an ideal gas in a cylinder turns out to reproduce our numerical experiments quantitatively.

  1. Sibling cycle piston and valving method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Matthew P. (Inventor); Bauwens, Luc (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A double-acting, rotating piston reciprocating in a cylinder with the motion of the piston providing the valving action of the Sibling Cycle through the medium of passages between the piston and cylinder wall. The rotating piston contains regenerators ported to the walls of the piston. The piston fits closely in the cylinder at each end of the cylinder except in areas where the wall of the cylinder is relieved to provide passages between the cylinder wall and the piston leading to the expansion and compression spaces, respectively. The piston reciprocates as it rotates. The cylinder and piston together comprise an integral valve that seqentially opens and closes the ports at the ends of the regenerators alternately allowing them to communicate with the expansion space and compression space and blocking that communication. The relieved passages in the cylinder and the ports in the piston are so arranged that each regenerator is sequentially (1) charged with compressed working gas from the compression space; (2) isolated from both expansion and compression spaces; (3) discharged of working gas into the expansion space; and (4) simultaneously charged with working gas from the expansion space while being discharged of working gas into the compression space, in the manner of the Sibling Cycle. In an alterate embodiment, heat exchangers are external to the cylinder and ports in the cylinder wall are alternately closed by the wall of the piston and opened to the expansion and compression spaces through relieved passages in the wall of the reciprocating, rotating piston.

  2. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.

    1986-04-15

    A pressure balanced piston ring is described for limiting the leakage of a high pressure region on one side of the piston ring to a region of low pressure on the opposite side of the piston ring along a cylinder wall. The piston ring apparatus consists of: a piston ring of low elastic modulus material maintained in a circumferential groove in the reciprocating piston; two elastomeric seals, positioned on opposite axial sides of the piston ring so as to isolate an inner surface from the high and low pressure regions; means for balancing the pressure on the inner surface of the piston ring with the average pressure in a leak path between the piston ring and the cylinder wall, thereby rendering friction and wear of the piston ring independent of the high and low pressures; and means for exerting a predetermined force on the piston ring to maintain contact with the cylinder wall and control the friction between the piston ring and the cylinder wall and leakage between the high and low pressure regions.

  3. Effect of some piston variables on piston and ring assembly friction

    SciTech Connect

    Uras, H.M.; Patterson, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The piston and ring assembly friction of a lightweight piston with lower compression height has been compared to that of a production assembly. Additional weight was added to the lightweight piston to study the effect of that variable alone. The lightweight piston reduced friction, especially in motoring tests. Within the speed range tested (up to 1640 rpm) the friction reduction of the lightweight piston could not be attributed to the lower mass itself.

  4. Linear Motor Free Piston Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, David P.

    1995-02-01

    A Linear Motor Free Piston Compressor (LMFPC), a free piston pressure recovery system for fuel cell powerplants was developed. The LMFPC consists of a reciprocating compressor and a reciprocating expander which are separated by a piston. In the past energy efficient turbochargers have been used for pressure large (over 50 kW) fuel cell powerplants by recovering pressure energy from the powerplant exhaust. A free piston compressor allows pressurizing 3 - 5 kW sized fuel cell powerplants. The motivation for pressurizing PEM fuel cell powerplants is to improve fuel cell performance. Pressurization of direct methanol fuel cells will be required if PEM membranes are to be used Direct methanol oxidation anode catalysts require high temperatures to operate at reasonable power densities. The elevated temperatures above 80 C will cause high water loss from conventional PEM membranes unless pressurization is employed. Because pressurization is an energy intensive process, recovery of the pressure energy is required to permit high efficiency in fuel cell powerplants. A complete LMFPC which can pressurize a 3 kW fuel cell stack was built. This unit is one of several that were constructed during the course of the program.

  5. Method for reducing piston deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Brownawell, D.W.; Thaler, W.A.; Bannister, E.; Ladwig, P.K.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method for reducing piston deposits in an internal combustion engine lubricated with a lubricating oil containing a soluble weak base and circulating within the lubrication system of the engine. It comprises: circulating the lubricating oil to the piston ring zone of the engine where fuel combustion acids are introduced into the oil, contacting, at the piston ring zone, the combustion acids with the weak base such that at lest a portio of the acids are neutralized to form a soluble neutral salt containing the weak base and the combustion acids, circulating the lubricating oil containing the soluble neutral salt to a heterogenous strong base immobilized within the lubrication system of the engine downstream of the piston ring zone, and contacting the soluble neutral salt with the heterogeneous strong base, thereby causing at least a portion of the weak base in the salt to be displaced into the lubricating oil and resulting in the formation of a strong base/combustion acid salt which is immobilized with the heterogenous strong base.

  6. Buoyancy engine utilizing pistons and crankshaft

    SciTech Connect

    De Shon, D.A.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a buoyancy engine utilizing pistons and crankshaft, comprising: cylinders, disposed in a vessel contained liquid; the vessel sitting on a base and having an air exhaust orifice at its top; hydrodynamically designed pistons, disposed within the cylinders, designed with air holding spaces to hold injected air, and attached by connecting rods to a hydrodynamically designed crankshaft; sealed connecting rod bearings which connect the piston rods to the crankshaft; wrist pins which connected the piston rods to the pistons, the crankshaft supported on sealed bearing in the vessel walls, and which is rotated by the upward motion of the relatively buoyant pistons which are attached; the crankshaft designed so that its lobes to which the pistons are attached are at angles which insure that power developed by pistons in their lift cycle is successively converted into continuing rotational force on the crankshaft; computer-controlled air injectors, programmed to crankshaft rotational speed, positioned to inject air, compressed by a compressor, into the pistons at the bottom of each piston's stroke, the pistons having pistons rings to retain the air in the piston during its upward power stroke; and vents incorporated into their design for the release of air at the top of their power stroke. An exhaust port in each cylinder conducts air released from pistons to be released into the ambient liquid; a flywheel attached to the crankshaft, stores a part of the mechanical energy produced, provides continuity to the series of energy developing cycles of the pistons; a generator attached to the crankshaft, produces electric power from the rotation of the crankshaft.

  7. A Method of Measuring Piston Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Mangniello, Eugene J

    1940-01-01

    A method that makes use of thermocouples has been developed to measure the temperature of engine pistons operating at high speeds. The thermocouples installed on the moving piston are connected with a potentiometer outside the engine by means of pneumatically operated plungers, which make contact with the piston thermocouples for about 10 crankshaft degrees at the bottom of the piston stroke. The equipment is operated satisfactory at engine speeds of 2,400 r.p.m. and shows promise of successful operation at higher engine speeds. Measurements of piston temperatures in a liquid-cooled compression-ignition engine and in an air-cooled spark-ignition are presented.

  8. Piston-Skirt Lubrication System For Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Edgar C.; Burzynski, Marion, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Piston-skirt lubrication system provides steady supply of oil to piston rings of gas compressor. No need for oil-filled crankcase or external oil pump. Instead, part of each piston acts as its own oil pump circulating oil from reservoir. Annular space at bottom of piston and cylinder constitutes working volume of small oil pump. Depending on application, reservoir open to atmosphere, or sealed and pressurized in bellows to prevent contact between oil and atmosphere. Filter removes particles worn away from piston rings and cylinder wall during normal operation.

  9. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  10. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOEpatents

    Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  11. Iron piston having selectively hardened ring groove

    SciTech Connect

    Brann, D.E.; Lindsay, J.E.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a long-lasting cast iron piston body for an internal combustion engine, the piston body comprising a generally cylindrical sidewall and having an annular groove in the wall encircling the body for receiving a piston ring. The groove is defined by opposed faces that intersect the wall, the piston body being composed predominantly of gray iron characterized by an as-cast pearlitic microstructure, the groove face comprising an integrally cast, selectively hardened iron band adjacent the piston sidewall and encircling the piston body. The band is characterized by a martensitic microstructure substantially harder than the pearlitic microstructure and is effective to reduce wear resulting from a piston ring seated within the groove.

  12. The Friction of Piston Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischbein, Hans W

    1945-01-01

    The coefficient of friction between piston ring and cylinder liner was measured in relation to gliding acceleration, pressure, temperature, quantity of oil and quality of oil. Comparing former lubrication-technical tests, conclusions were drawn as to the state of friction. The coefficients of friction as figured out according to the hydrodynamic theory were compared with those measured by tests. Special tests were made on "oiliness." The highest permissible pressure was measured and the ratio of pressure discussed.

  13. Piston and spring powered engine

    SciTech Connect

    Samodovitz, A. J.

    1985-12-10

    The invention is an improved piston engine, either two stroke or four stroke. In one, two stroke, one cylinder embodiment, the improvement comprises two springs connecting between the piston and the base of the piston. These springs are relatively relaxed when the crank is at top dead center. Then during the power/intake stroke, some of the fuel's energy is delivered to the crankshaft and some is used to compress the springs. The stored energy in the springs is delivered to the crankshaft during the exhaust/compression stroke while the springs return to their relatively relaxed condition. As a result, energy is delivered to the crankshaft during both strokes of the cycle, and the engine runs smooth. In one, four stroke, two cylinder embodiment, each cylinder has springs as described above, the cranks of each cylinder are aligned, and the cam sets one cylinder in the power stroke while the other is in the intake stroke. As a result, the engine runs smooth because energy is delivered to the crankshaft during all four strokes of the cycle, during two of the strokes by the burning fuel and during the other two by the release of energy in the springs. In both embodiments, a heavy crankshaft is not needed because of the more uniform power delivery.

  14. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  15. Spool valve and piston power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, H.A.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes an engine. It comprises cylinders each containing a piston disposed therein for reciprocating movement, a crankshaft connected to one end of each piston, a drive shaft connected to an end of the crankshaft, a source of pressurized fluid connected by conduits to each cylinder, each piston comprising: a first sealing member acting as the piston head, a second sealing member acting as the bottom of the piston, an arm connected at one end thereof to the bottom of the piston and connected at the other end thereof to the crankshaft, a lower fluid chamber formed by the bottom of the piston and a housing surrounding the arm and the crankshaft, a first port associated with each cylinder for delivering pressurized fluid to the head of the piston, a second port associated with each cylinder for removing pressurized fluid selectively from the upper chamber or delivering pressurized fluid to the lower chamber, a third port for removing pressurized fluid from the lower chamber, and a fourth part connected to the source of pressurized fluid and associated with each cylinder for delivering pressurized fluid to the upper chamber whereby the reciprocating movement of each piston is translated into rotary movement of the drive shaft through the crankshaft.

  16. Piston for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tokoro, N.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a piston for an internal combustion engine comprising: a crown having a circumferentially extending oil-ring groove in an outer portion of the crown, the oil-ring groove having slits on thrust and thurst-opposing sides of the piston; a skirt integrally connected to the crown and extending downward, the skirt having a circumferentially extending faucet rib on an inside surface of a lower portion of the skirt; a pair of opposed bosses protruding inward from an inside surface of the piston and extending in a direction perpendicular with a thrust and thurst-opposing direction of the piston, the bosses being opposed to each other.

  17. Developmental Considerations on the Free-piston Stirling Power Convertor for Use in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power conversion has been considered a candidate for radioisotope power systems for space for more than a decade. Prior to the free-piston Stirling architecture, systems were designed with kinematic Stirling engines with rotary alternators to convert heat to electricity. These systems were proposed with lightly loaded linkages to achieve the necessary life. When the free-piston configuration was initially proposed, it was thought to be attractive due to the relatively high conversion efficiency, acceptable mass, and the potential for long life and high reliability. These features have consistently been recognized by teams that have studied technology options for radioisotope power systems. Since free-piston Stirling power conversion was first considered for space power applications, there have been major advances in three general areas of development: demonstration of life and reliability, the success achieved by Stirling cryocoolers in flight, and the overall developmental maturity of the technology for both flight and terrestrial applications. Based on these advances, free-piston Stirling convertors are currently being developed for a number of terrestrial applications. They commonly operate with the power, efficiency, life, and reliability as intended, and much of the development now centers on system integration. This paper will summarize the accomplishments of free-piston Stirling power conversion technology over the past decade, review the status, and discuss the challenges that remain.

  18. Developmental Considerations on the Free-Piston Stirling Power Convertor for Use in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power conversion has been considered a candidate for radioisotope power systems for space for more than a decade. Prior to the free-piston Stirling architecture, systems were designed with kinematic Stirling engines with rotary alternators to convert heat to electricity. These systems were proposed with lightly loaded linkages to achieve the necessary life. When the free-piston configuration was initially proposed, it was thought to be attractive due to the relatively high conversion efficiency, acceptable mass, and the potential for long life and high reliability. These features have consistently been recognized by teams that have studied technology options for radioisotope power systems. Since free-piston Stirling power conversion was first considered for space power applications, there have been major advances in three general areas of development: demonstration of life and reliability, the success achieved by Stirling cryocoolers in flight, and the overall developmental maturity of the technology for both flight and terrestrial applications. Based on these advances, free-piston Stirling convertors are currently being developed for a number of terrestrial applications. They commonly operate with the power, efficiency, life, and reliability as intended, and much of the development now centers on system integration. This paper will summarize the accomplishments of free-piston Stirling power conversion technology over the past decade, review the status, and discuss the challenges that remain.

  19. Extremum-seeking control for an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) driven at high-power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu

    2006-01-01

    Future NASA exploration missions will increasingly require sampling, in-situ analysis and possibly the return of material to Earth for further tests. One of the challenges to addressing this need is the ability to drill using for low axial loading while operating from light weight platforms (e.g., lander, rover, etc.) as well as operate at planets with low gravity. For this purpose, the authors developed the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) jointly with Cybersonics Inc. Studies of the operation of the USDC at high power have shown there is a critical need to self-tune to maintain the operation of the piezoelectric actuator at resonance. Performing such tuning is encountered with difficulties and to address them an extremum-seeking control algorithm is being investigated. This algorithm is designed to tune the driving frequency of a time-varying resonating actuator subjected to both random and high-power impulsive noise disturbances. Using this algorithm the performance of the actuator is monitored on a time-scale that is compatible with its slowly time-varying physical characteristics. The algorithm includes a parameter estimator, which estimates the coefficients of a function that characterizes the quality factor of the USDC. Since the parameter estimator converges sufficiently faster than the time-varying drift of the USDC's physical parameters, the proposed extremum-seeking estimation and control algorithm is potentially applicable for use as a closed-loop health monitoring system. Specifically, this system may be programmed to automatically adjust the duty-cycle of the sinusoidal driver signal to guarantee that the quality factor of the USDC does not fall below a user-defined set-point. Such fault-tolerant functionality is especially important in automated drilling applications where it is essential not to inadvertently drive the piezoelectric ceramic crystals of the USDC beyond their capacities. The details of the algorithm and experimental results will

  20. Composition of the abyssal infauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka area (NW Pacific) collected with a box corer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Viola; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) expedition with the RV Sonne from July to September 2012, a 0.25 m2 box corer was used to sample the benthic fauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka area. 23 cores were deployed at 12 stations, and in total 36,648 individuals could be identified from a combined surface area of 5.75 m2. Total faunal densities ranged from 1024 to 16,592 ind. m-2, respectively, for the macrofauna from 436 to 3520 ind. m-2. The fauna was dominated by Nematoda (65%), even though this group and other meiofaunal taxa were only partially retained by the 300 μm screen that was used as the smallest screen for this study. The remaining part of the fauna was dominated by polychaetes (23%), followed by peracarid crustaceans (6%) and molluscs (3%). Most of the collected taxa occurred very patchily. Over 80% of the animals were extracted from the upper 2 centimeters of the sediment. Compared to other regions of the Pacific the density of the benthic fauna was unusually high. At the upper slope of the continental margin of the trench and at the southern part of the area the benthic fauna was most taxon rich. Station 3 from the continental slope of the trench was also most rich in terms of faunal density (total numbers of ind. m-2), followed by the station 11 and 12 from that the southernmost part of the abyss. Although the Kuril-Kamchatka area has been sampled on several expeditions during the last century, and some studies on the biomass of the benthic fauna have been published, this study offers the first quantitative community analysis of the benthic fauna in terms of abundance and taxon richness.

  1. Collapsible pistons for light-gas guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Moving and expandable parts of gun consist of pump-tube diaphragm, piston, launch-tube diaphragm, and saboted projectile. As a result of improved piston design, pressure cycle has been significantly improved by smoother buildup, increasing muzzle velocities up to 50%.

  2. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  3. Reciprocating piston pump system with screw drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Gerald S. (Inventor); Moore, Nicholas R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump system of the reciprocating piston type is described, which facilitates direct motor drive and cylinder sealing. A threaded middle potion of the piston is engaged by a nut connected to rotate with the rotor of an electric motor, in a manner that minimizes loading on the rotor by the use of a coupling that transmits torque to the nut but permits it to shift axially and radially with respect to the rotor. The nut has a threaded hydrostatic bearing for engaging the threaded piston portion, with an oil-carrying groove in the nut being interrupted. A fluid emitting seal located at the entrance to each cylinder, can serve to center the piston within the cylinder, wash the piston, and to aid in sealing. The piston can have a long stroke to diameter ratio to minimize reciprocations and wear on valves at high pressures. The voltage applied to the motor can be reversed prior to the piston reaching the end of its stroke, to permit pressure on the piston to aid in reversing the motor.

  4. Improved piston rings for a stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cast-iron piston rings coated with commercially-available antifriction materials improves cylinder life of high-performance Stirling engine. Ring is efficient heat conductor between piston and cylinder. Device has low thermal expansion which maintains minimum gap in ring, good radial force characteristics, and essentially indefinite life.

  5. Wear reduction systems liquid piston ring

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R.J.; Chen, T.N.; DiNanno, L.

    1990-09-01

    The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving an acceptable wear rate for the cylinder liner, piston, and piston rings in a coal/water-slurry-fueled engine that utilized the concept of a liquid piston ring above the conventional piston rings and to identify technical barriers and required research and development. The study included analytical modeling of the system, a bench study of the fluid motion in the liquid piston ring, and a single-cylinder test rig for wear comparison. A system analysis made on the different variations of the liquid supply system showed the desirability of the once-through version from the standpoint of system simplicity. The dynamics of the liquid ring were modeled to determine the important design parameters that influence the pressure fluctuation in the liquid ring during a complete engine cycle and the integrity of the liquid ring. This analysis indicated the importance of controlling heat transfer to the liquid ring through piston and liner to avoid boiling the liquid. A conceptual piston design for minimizing heat transfer is presented in this report. Results showed that the liquid piston ring effectively reduced the solid particles on the wall by scrubbing, especially in the case where a surfactant was added to the water. The wear rates were reduced by a factor of 2 with the liquid ring. However, leakage of the contaminated liquid ring material past the top ring limited the effectiveness of the liquid ring concept. 8 refs., 33 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Predictive optimization of piston and ring stability

    SciTech Connect

    Knowland, C.G.; Russell, C.J.

    1996-09-01

    A fundamental aspect of the engine development process involves the determination of acceptable piston and ring profiles. There exists a fine balance between the requirements of the piston skirt or ring profile to resist scuffing together with the overall product objectives of reduced oil consumption, blow-by and engine noise. Taking into account these varying and often conflicting considerations, in addition to the time and cost implications of repetitive development testing, drives them towards the necessity for some form of predictive optimization scheme. Benefits from the application of such a predictive tool include: development of piston skirt profiles for adequate running clearance under operating conditions; optimization of piston stability as a function of such parameters as piston pin offset; enhanced bore reaction forces for improved NVH predictions; reduced levels of blow-by and improved oil control.

  7. A two ring piston for gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J.W.; Murray, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Low mass, low friction and low compression height pistons are vital in order to sustain the drive to obtain utmost fuel economy and design refinement in reciprocating piston engines. Much has already been done and a further step forward in the attainment of the objectives is the introduction of a fully durable two ring piston. Developments at Hepworth and Grandage have led to a successful design which meets the present requirements of engine manufacturers in terms of performance and durability and has the potential to reduce weight and compresion height and probably to reduce friction. The compression ring of the two ring piston system can be used with advantage as the top compression ring of an orthodox three ring piston.

  8. Squeeze bottle apparatus with force multiplying pistons

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.; Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber, and a corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area, thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  9. Overview of the 1986 free-piston Stirling activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center's free-piston Stirling engine research is presented, including efforts to improve and advance its design for use in specific space power applications. These efforts are a part of the SP-100 program being conducted to support the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA. Such efforts include: (1) the testing and improvement of 25 kWe Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE); (2) the preliminary design of 25 kWe single-cylinder Experimental stirling Space Engine (ESSE); and, (3) a study to determine the feasibility of scaling a single-cylinder free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator to 150 kWe. Other NASA Lewis free-piston Stirling engine activities will be described, directed toward the advancement of general free-piston Stirling engine technology and its application in specific terrestrial applications. One such effort, supported by DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (DRNL), is the development of a free-piston Stirling engine which produces hydraulic power. Finally, a terrestrial solar application involving a conceptual design of a 25 kWe Solar Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) capable of delivering power to an electric utility grid will be discussed. The latter work is supported by DOE/Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA).

  10. Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) as a Subsurface Sampler and Sensors Platform for Planetary Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2006-01-01

    The search for existing or past life in the Universe is one of the most important objectives of NASA's mission. For this purpose, effective instruments that can sample and conduct in-situ astrobiology analysis are being developed. In support of this objective, a series of novel mechanisms that are driven by an Ultrasonic/Sonic actuator have been developed to probe and sample rocks, ice and soil. This mechanism is driven by an ultrasonic piezoelectric actuator that impacts a bit at sonic frequencies through the use of an intermediate free-mass. Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) devices were made that can produce both core and powdered cuttings, operate as a sounder to emit elastic waves and serve as a platform for sensors. For planetary exploration, this mechanism has the important advantage of requiring low axial force, virtually no torque, and can be duty cycled for operation at low average power. The advantage of requiring low axial load allows overcoming a major limitation of planetary sampling in low gravity environments or when operating from lightweight robots and rovers. The ability to operate at duty cycling with low average power produces a minimum temperature rise allowing for control of the sample integrity and preventing damage to potential biological markers in the acquired sample. The development of the USDC is being pursued on various fronts ranging from analytical modeling to mechanisms improvements while considering a wide range of potential applications. While developing the analytical capability to predict and optimize its performance, efforts are made to enhance its capability to drill at higher power and high speed. Taking advantage of the fact that the bit does not require rotation, sensors (e.g., thermocouple and fiberoptics) were integrated into the bit to examine the borehole during drilling. The sounding effect of the drill was used to emit elastic waves in order to evaluate the surface characteristics of rocks. Since the USDC is

  11. Phasing piston error in segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junlun; Zhao, Weirui

    2016-08-22

    To achieve a diffraction-limited imaging, the piston errors between the segments of the segmented primary mirror telescope should be reduced to λ/40 RMS. We propose a method to detect the piston error by analyzing the intensity distribution on the image plane according to the Fourier optics principle, which can capture segments with the piston errors as large as the coherence length of the input light and reduce these to 0.026λ RMS (λ = 633nm). This method is adaptable to any segmented and deployable primary mirror telescope. Experiments have been carried out to validate the feasibility of the method. PMID:27557192

  12. Adjustable expandable cryogenic piston and ring

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Peter O.; Pallaver, Carl B.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of a reciprocating expansion engine for cryogenic refrigeration is improved by changing the pistons and rings so that the piston can be operated from outside the engine to vary the groove in which the piston ring is located. This causes the ring, which is of a flexible material, to be squeezed so that its contact with the wall is subject to external control. This control may be made manually or it may be made automatically in response to instruments that sense the amount of blow-by of the cryogenic fluid and adjust for an optimum blow-by.

  13. Phasing piston error in segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junlun; Zhao, Weirui

    2016-08-22

    To achieve a diffraction-limited imaging, the piston errors between the segments of the segmented primary mirror telescope should be reduced to λ/40 RMS. We propose a method to detect the piston error by analyzing the intensity distribution on the image plane according to the Fourier optics principle, which can capture segments with the piston errors as large as the coherence length of the input light and reduce these to 0.026λ RMS (λ = 633nm). This method is adaptable to any segmented and deployable primary mirror telescope. Experiments have been carried out to validate the feasibility of the method.

  14. Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A. ); Henein, N.A. . Center for Automotive Research)

    1992-05-01

    The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-[omega]) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, [omega], have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-[omega]) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

  15. Tests of oil scraper piston ring and piston fitted with oil drain holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdewell, H S

    1922-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether or not a properly located and properly designed oil scraper piston ring, installed on a piston provided with oil drain holes of sufficient area, would prevent the excessive oiling of the Liberty engine, particularly with the engine running at idling speed with full oil pressure. Results showed that excessive oiling was in fact prevented. It is strongly recommended that scraper rings and pistons be adopted for aircraft engines.

  16. Drift stabilizer for reciprocating free-piston devices

    DOEpatents

    Ward, William C.; Corey, John A.; Swift, Gregory W.

    2003-05-20

    A free-piston device has a stabilized piston drift. A piston having a frequency of reciprocation over a stroke length and with first and second sides facing first and second variable volumes, respectively, for containing a working fluid defining an acoustic wavelength at the frequency of reciprocation. A bypass tube waveguide connects the first and second variable volumes at all times during reciprocation of the piston. The waveguide has a relatively low impedance for steady flow and a relatively high impedance for oscillating flow at the frequency of reciprocation of the piston, so that steady flow returns fluid leakage from about the piston between the first and second volumes while oscillating flow is not diverted through the waveguide. Thus, net leakage about the piston is returned during each stroke of the piston while oscillating leakage is not allowed and pressure buildup on either the first or second side of the piston is avoided to provide a stable piston location.

  17. Stirling engine with improved sealing piston ring assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-06-02

    This patent describes an engine having a reciprocating piston axially stroking within a walled cylinder by a pressure differential of a working fluid acting on opposite first and second axial sides of the piston. An annular sealing piston ring assembly is disposed in an annular piston ring groove around the piston having a cylindrical inner wall. The piston ring assembly for seals between the piston and the wall of the cylinder to resist leakage of the working fluid past the piston, wherein the sealing piston ring assembly comprises a main piston ring member formed of metal and having oppositely axially facing generally flat annular end surfaces. A radially outwardly facing generally cylindrical surface confronts the cylinder wall and a radially inwardly facing generally cylindrical surface.

  18. Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Samuel A.; Crawford, James V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To visually compare the Nitinol “smart” stapes prosthesis to conventional manual crimping stapes pistons in temporal bone cadaver specimens. Main Outcome Measures. 10 otolaryngologists were given a photograph of the randomly ordered stapes pistons and asked to use the pictures to answer questions about each stapes piston. The answers to the survey were then recorded for analysis. Results. 8 of 9 Nitinol pistons were described as circular, and 3 of 9 manual crimped pistons were described as circular (P < .05). 6 of 9 Nitinol pistons were considered to be in contact with >66% of the incus and 3 of 9 to be in contact with 34–66% of the incus. 3 of 9 manually crimped pistons were considered to be in contact with >66% of the incus, 3 with 34–66% contact and 3 with less than 34% contact. Conclusions. The Nitinol “smart” stapes pistons were considered to provide a more circular and circumferential crimping and to have greater contact with the long process of the incus than conventional stapes pistons. PMID:23724262

  19. Linkage arms for minimizing piston wobble

    SciTech Connect

    Langstroth, S.W.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a block within which at least one piston is attached to a crankshaft by a connecting rod between the crankpin of the crankshaft and the wrist pin of the piston. This patent describes improvement in a fixed gear concentric with the axis of the crankshaft and coupled to the block; a follower gear concentric with the crankpin; at least one intermediate gear coupling the fixed gear to the follower gear; wherein the ratio of the gears is such that the follower gear orbits the fixed gear and does not rotate; and linkage arms interconnecting the follower gear and the piston for preventing the rotation of the piston about the wrist pin.

  20. Hydraulic generator with free-piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bouthers, P.; Breting, O.

    1983-11-15

    A hydraulic generator is disclosed with a free-piston engine and hydropneumatic return cushion and with an associated hydraulic-fluid pumping piston feeding a hydraulic accumulator intended to be charged between two detected levels of pressure. The generator includes a lock device for the free piston at the power-stroke dead center with voluntary control, and servo-control means for this lock device with means for detection of the aforementioned two pressure levels, to assure locking the piston in response to detection of the aforementioned highest pressure level and to assure its unlocking in response to detection of the aforementioned lowest pressure level, and thus an automatic intermittent running of said engine.

  1. Spherical Joint Piston and Connecting Rod Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy, the NASA Lewis Research Center manages a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Technology (HDET) research program. The overall program objectives are to reduce fuel consumption through increased engine efficiency, reduce engine exhaust emissions, and provide options for the use of alternative fuels. The program is administered with a balance of research contracts, university research grants, and focused in-house research. The Cummins Engine Company participates in the HDET program under a cost-sharing research contract. Cummins is researching and developing in-cylinder component technologies for heavy-duty diesel engines. An objective of the Cummins research is to develop technologies for a low-emissions, 55-percent thermal efficiency (LE-55) engine. The best current-production engines in this class achieve about 46-percent thermal efficiency. Federal emissions regulations are driving this technology. Regulations for heavy duty diesel engines were tightened in 1994, more demanding emissions regulations are scheduled for 1998, and another step is planned for 2002. The LE-55 engine emissions goal is set at half of the 1998 regulation level and is consistent with plans for 2002 emissions regulations. LE-55 engine design requirements to meet the efficiency target dictate a need to operate at higher peak cylinder pressures. A key technology being developed and evaluated under the Cummins Engine Company LE-55 engine concept is the spherical joint piston and connecting rod. Unlike conventional piston and connecting rod arrangements which are joined by a pin forming a hinged joint, the spherical joint piston and connecting rod use a ball-and-socket joint. The ball-and-socket arrangement enables the piston to have an axisymmetric design allowing rotation within the cylinder. The potential benefits of piston symmetry and rotation are reduced scuffing, improved piston ring sealing, improved lubrication, mechanical and thermal

  2. Laser initiated piston actuator X51-8284-1

    SciTech Connect

    Spomer, E.

    1993-04-27

    This contract is a follow on effort in the development of a laser initiated piston actuator. During the previous contract a miniature piston actuator was developed which had two system related problems. First, during operation of the actuator, combustion gases would escape past the piston shank, overheating the surrounding materials. Secondly, the function of the device seemed to be overly brisant. The purpose of this contract was to improve the performance of the laser initiated piston actuator by developing a means of sealing the device, and to reduce the velocity of the piston. Three sealing concepts were tested; a silicone pad placed on the powder side of the piston, a stainless steel cup placed on the powder side of the piston, and copper plating on the shank of the piston. Piston velocity was to be reduced by changing the powder charge to BCTK or reducing the amount of Ti/KClO{sub 4}.

  3. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Zongxuan

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  4. Sealing system for piston rod of hot gas engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lundholm, S.G.; Ringqvist, S.A.

    1980-11-25

    An improvement to a sealing system for restricting fluid flow around a piston rod between a piston cylinder and crankshaft space in a hot gas engine where a seal element is secured around the piston rod in an intermediate chamber, the improvement including a link in the crankshaft space connecting, and permitting relative radial motion between, the piston rod and the crosshead and an o-ring having a diameter substantially greater than that of the piston rod and being secured between a lower ring securing the seal element in place around the piston rod and a wall of the intermediate chamber for frictionally restricting radial movement of the lower ring.

  5. Nutating spider crank reciprocating piston machine

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes reciprocating piston apparatus. It comprises a housing; a shaft journalled on the housing for rotation about a shaft axis; a plurality of cylinders each having a central longitudinal axis and disposed parallel to the shaft axis and located on the housing at positions angularly-spaced circumferentially about the shaft; a plurality of double-acting pistons having piston axes and centers, each the piston having a transverse bore therein and being respectively mounted for reciprocation within corresponding ones of the cylinders, each the bore having a longitudinal central axis normal to the respective cylinder axis; a mutating spider having a central hub portion mounted on the shaft obliquely of the shaft axis, and having a plurality of branches extending radially outward from the hub portion and terminating at terminal ends; and means directly connecting the terminal ends centrally to corresponding ones of the bores for transferring motion between reciprocation of the pistons and rotation of the shaft, and for restraining the spider from rotating with the shaft.

  6. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  7. Balancing mechanism for reciprocating piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, N.; Ogino, T.

    1987-04-14

    This patent describes a balancing mechanism for a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine which includes a cylinder, a piston reciprocatable in the cylinder, a crankcase, a crankshaft mounted in the crankshaft, a crankpin connected to the piston, and a pair of crank arms bridging the crankshaft and crankpin. The crank arms and crankpin rotate with the crankshaft during operation and form a rotating mass. The balancing mechanism comprises at least one rotating counterweight attached to and rotating with the crankshaft, and eccentric journal means on the crankshaft adjacent the crank arms, rotating with the crankshaft. The journal means has an axis spaced to the side of the crankshaft axis which is opposite from the crankpin. The rotating counterweight and the eccentric journal means counterbalancing the rotating mass.

  8. Internal combustion engine having opposed pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Puzio, E.T.

    1993-07-20

    An internal combustion apparatus is described having opposed sets of pistons comprising: (a) an inner crankcase means defining an inner chamber means therein, the inner crankcase means further defining a first connecting arm aperture means and a second connecting arm aperture means therein; (b) a crankshaft means rotatably mounted within the inner chamber means of the inner crankcase means and defining a crankshaft axis means extending axially there through, the crankshaft means defining a driving means peripherally therearound to facilitate distribution of driving power therefrom; (c) a first outer crankcase means defining a first outer chamber means in fluid flow communication with respect to the inner chamber means through the first connecting arm aperture means; (d) a second outer crankcase means defining a second outer chamber means in fluid flow communication with respect to the inner chamber means through the second connecting arm aperture means, the second outer crankcase means defining a second piston bore means extending longitudinally therein; (e) a crank pin means positioned extending through the crank pin aperture in the crankshaft means, the crank pin means being rotatable with respect to the crank pin aperture means; (f) a first connecting arm means fixedly secured with respect to one end of the crank pin means and extending through the first connecting arm aperture means into the first outer crankcase means; (g) a second connecting arm means fixedly secured with respect to the other end of the crank pin means and extending through the second connecting arm aperture means into the second outer crankcase means; (h) a first piston assembly means positioned extending through the first piston bore means to be reciprocally axially movable therein; (i) a second piston assembly means positioned extending through the second piston bore means to be reciprocally axially movable therein.

  9. Engine piston having an insulating air gap

    DOEpatents

    Jarrett, Mark Wayne; Hunold,Brent Michael

    2010-02-02

    A piston for an internal combustion engine has an upper crown with a top and a bottom surface, and a lower crown with a top and a bottom surface. The upper crown and the lower crown are fixedly attached to each other using welds, with the bottom surface of the upper crown and the top surface of the lower crown forming a mating surface. The piston also has at least one centrally located air gap formed on the mating surface. The air gap is sealed to prevent substantial airflow into or out of the air gap.

  10. Piston ring designs for reduced friction

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.H.; Newman, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce parasitic losses, a project was initiated to design, develop and bring to production a piston ring set which reduces engine friction while maintaining ring performance. In this paper, theoretical considerations affecting piston ring friction, and their implication in ring design, are discussed. An estimate of friction reduction and fuel economy improvement which can be achieved is calculated. Features of the resulting designs are reviewed, and friction, dynamometer, and vehicle test results are presented. Future ring design changes for reduced friction are reviewed.

  11. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  12. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2006-05-09

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  13. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  14. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  15. Engine makers tap carbon-carbon pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1994-05-01

    This article describes the use of a carbon-carbon composite, developed for nose cones and rocket nozzles, for pistons in modern internal combustion engines. The topics of the article include the carbon-carbon composite mechanical and physical characteristics, initial research, manufacturing methods, fabrication techniques, initial testing in 2 stroke and 4 stroke engines, and current research.

  16. How Hot Can a Fire Piston Get?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Brown, J. A.; Cunningham, O. A.; Goad, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    The fire piston is just a sealed syringe containing a small amount of tinder. When the plunger is forced downwards, the air inside is compressed and heats up, setting fire to the tinder. It has been used as a convenient and portable way of starting fires "over a wide area from northern Burma and Siam through the Malay Peninsula and the Malayan…

  17. Stabilizing gas bearing in free piston machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhar, Manmohan (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    In a free piston engine, to reduce dynamic loads on the reciprocating elements caused by a time varying pressure gradient across the gas bearing and close clearance seals provided therein, drain galleries are incorporated at the ends of the gas bearings to isolate the same, and circumferentially spaced grooves are incorporated in the close clearance seal region.

  18. Modeling aerosols formed in the ring - pack of reciprocating piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallstream, Brian Ellis

    The hydrocarbon emissions of an internal combustion engine are directly correlated with the engine's oil consumption. This oil consumption is associated with reverse blow-by, a condition in which gases flow past the ring-pack from the crankcase to the combustion chamber. This reverse blow-by breaks down the oil film on the cylinder walls and entrains oil particles in the gas flow during the downstroke of the piston. In this project a numerical model was developed that accurately describes the formation of aerosols in the ring pack by simulating the mechanisms by which oil globules are broken up, atomized, and entrained in a gas flowing through an orifice. The results of this numerical model are in good agreement with experimental values. Thus, this numerical model gives insight into the parameters that govern oil consumption. A discussion is also presented regarding the general applications of atomization and how past researchers have developed and advanced the theories of atomization.Included in this discussion is an introduction to past models of oil consumption and the conditions needed for aerosols to form within the ring-pack of a piston.

  19. A 1987 overview of free-piston Stirling technology for space power application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, Jack G.; Alger, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space-power application. NASA Lewis serves as the project office to manage the newly initiated NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program. One of the major elements of this five-year program is the development of advanced power conversion concepts of which the Stirling cycle is a viable growth candidate. Under this program the status of the 25 kWe opposed-piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) is presented. Included in the SPDE discussion are comparisons between predicted and experimental engine performance, enhanced performance resulting from regenerator modification, increased operating stroke brought about by isolating the gas bearing flow between the displacer and power piston, identifying excessive energy losses and recommending corrective action, and a better understanding of linear alternator design and operation. Technology work is also conducted on heat exchanger concepts, both design and fabrication. Design parameters and conceptual design features are also presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power converter.

  20. Laser light stripe measurements assure correct piston assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Norbert; Frohn, Heiko

    1993-12-01

    Two VIKON-3D optical inspection systems assure the correct assembly of piston rings and guard rings in a new Volkswagen piston/rod assembly line. Both systems use laser light stripe measurements to locate and identify the relevant parts with high accuracy. The piston ring assembly is checked dynamically in video real time using laser light stripe and parallel projection techniques. In addition structured light is used to verify the correct piston/rod assembly. Both inspection systems are fully integrated into the manufacturing line. All types of pistons assembled can be checked without any mechanical changes to the measurement setup.

  1. A spherical joint piston design for high speed diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczynski, P.D.; Mielke, S.; Conrow, R.

    1996-09-01

    A spherical joint piston and connecting rod have been developed through design proof-of-concept. The spherical joint allows piston rotation. The benefits of a rotating, symmetrical piston are: mechanical and thermal load symmetry, improved ring sealing and lubrication, and reduced bearing loads, scuffing, clearances and oil consumption. The assembly includes a squeeze cast, fiber reinforced aluminum spherical joint piston. Reinforcement is located in the piston bowl and skirt. The connecting rod consists of a spherical small end positioned on an elliptical cross-sectioned shank blended into a conventional big end. The assembly has operated at cylinder pressures exceeding of 24 MPa.

  2. Free-piston regenerative hot gas hydraulic engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A displacer piston which is driven pneumatically by a high-pressure or low-pressure gas is included in a free-piston regenerative hydraulic engine. Actuation of the displacer piston circulates the working fluid through a heater, a regenerator and a cooler. The present invention includes an inertial mass such as a piston or a hydraulic fluid column to effectively store and supply energy during portions of the cycle. Power is transmitted from the working fluid to a hydraulic fluid across a diaphragm or lightweight piston to achieve a hydraulic power out-put. The displacer piston of the present invention may be driven pneumatically, hydraulically or electromagnetically. In addition, the displacer piston and the inertial mass of the present invention may be positioned on the same side of the diaphragm member or may be separated by the diaphragm member.

  3. Method of making and apparatus for composite pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsock, D.L.

    1986-06-03

    A method is described of making a composite piston for a reciprocating engine, comprising: (a) forming members to constitute the composite piston, including: (i) a piston member comprised of a material selected from plastic and metal having a density of less than about 0.15 lb/in/sup 3/, the piston member having a top, a side, and a cast in place metallic ring in the side of the piston member, the ring presenting an annular grooved wall disposed at a location radially opposite a depending portion of the carrier member when the latter is in the wrapped position, (ii) a ceramic facing member adapted to extend over the top of the piston, (iii) a carrier member effective to separate the facing member from the piston member while securing the facing member and piston member together for conjoint movement, the carrier member having one side adapted to wrap over the top of the piston with a portion depending along at least a portion of the piston side, (b) assembling the members by securing the ceramic facing member to the opposite side of the carrier member and wrapping the one side of the carrier member over the piston top with the portion depending along at least a portion of the piston side; and (c) with the carrier member wrapped about the piston, directing a high energy beam across a zone of the carrier member radially aligned with the grooved wall and effective to melt the portion of the carrier member intersected by the beam, causing the melted material to flow into the groove to fill the same and lock the piston member to the carrier member upon solidification.

  4. Design of an interferometric system for piston measurements in segmented primary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasa, Josep; Laguarta, Ferran; Pizarro, Carlos; Tomas, Nuria; Pinto, Agusti

    2000-10-01

    Recently, telescopes with segmented primary mirrors are becoming increasingly popular due to their ability of achieving large apertures without the inconveniences caused by the fabrication and handling of monolithic surfaces with 8m (or over) in diameter. The difference in position of each pair of adjacent segments along the local normal of their interface (called piston hereafter), however, needs to be precisely measured in order to provide a diffraction- limited image. If a system yielding the nanometric accuracy required in piston measurements worked in daylight hours, the resultant saving in observation time would be an important advance on a majority of the state-of-the-art piston measurement systems. An interferometric piston measurement instrument accomplishing such objectives has been designed starting from the usual Michelson configuration at the CD6 (Terrassa, Spain), and its final test has been carried out in the test workbench of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC, Canary Islands, Spain). Its optical layout relies on projecting the reference arm of the interferometer onto one of the segments of the pair considered, along the direction of the local normal to the surface while the measurement arm is projected onto the interface which divides the pair of segments considered. The field of view and its illumination are calculated to be equivalent in both segments. The lateral shift of the fringes in both interferograms determines the piston error present. A combination of monochromatic and white light is used, in order to remove the (lambda) /2 phase ambiguities present in piston measurements without losing the required resolution in the measurement. In this paper, the optical design of this interferometric piston measurement instrument will be presented. The particular configuration used in the interferometer, the implementation of an imaging system allowing to see both the interface of the segments and the interference fringes, the effect of the

  5. 1987 Overview of the free-piston Stirling technology for space power application

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, J.G.; Alger, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space-power application. Free-piston Stirling technology is applicable for both solar and nuclear powered systems. As such, NASA Lewis serves as the project office to manage the newly initiated NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program. This 5-yr program provides the technology thrust for providing significant component and subsystem options for increased efficiency, reliability and survivability, and power output growth at reduced specific mass. One of the major elements of the program is the development of advanced power conversion concepts of which the Stirling cycle is a viable growth candidate. Under this program the status of the 25 kWe opposed-piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) is presented. Included in the SPDE discussion are comparisons between predicted and experimental engine performance, enhanced performance resulting from regenerator modification, increased operating stroke brought about by isolating the gas bearing flow between the displacer and power piston, identifying excessive energy losses and recommending corrective action, and a better understanding of linear alternator design and operation. Technology work is also conducted on heat exchanger concepts, both design and fabrication, to minimize the number of joints as well as to enhance performance. Design parameters and conceptual design features are also presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power converter. A cursory comparison is presented showing the mass benefits that a Stirling system has over a Brayton system for the same peak temperature and output power.

  6. Partially stabilized zirconia piston bowl reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsock, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    The Weibull based ''Simplified Structural Ceramic Design Technique'' was used to calculate the reliability of a partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) piston bowl design. The details of the method and a set of sample calculations are presented. Test results of the piston bowl showed cracks in regions which had a high calculated probability of failure. In addition cracks developed in a region of high compressive/shear stress. Since Weibull reliability analysis only uses tensile stresses this area did not have a high calculated probability of failure. Several hypotheses are presented for the mode of failure in this region. The simplified technique was used to predict what the necessary material properties would have to be for successful PSZ insert of the design shown.

  7. Gas-charged piston-cylinder apparatus for pressures to 4 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getting, Ivan C.; Spetzler, Hartmut A.

    1994-07-01

    An end-loaded piston-cylinder high pressure apparatus which utilizes an argon pressure medium has been developed. This device has a pressurized volume in excess of 3 cm3 and offers the absolute pressure calibration of the piston-cylinder apparatus with the truly hydrostatic and chemically inert enviornment of argon. The vessel is precharged to 0.5 GPa through a port and valve system built into the end-load hardware. No port is required in the wall of the vessel. After precharge, the piston is advanced into the chamber to generate pressure to 4 GPa. Solid argon, at pressures greater than ˜1.3 GPa, is so weak that it requires gas sealing techniques to contain it. The seals consist entirely of unsupported area mitre rings in chamfers. No O-rings or other soft seal components are used. This configuration permits extensive cycling through the melting-freezing pressure of argon without failure. Leak rates are exceedingly low over the entire pressure range. A safety barrier have been constructed which comfortably contains the shock wave and any ejecta associated with failure. At slightly elevated temperatures, argon remains a true fluid. With an internal heater and internal temperature and pressure sensors, this apparatus is intended for high precision, ultrasonic velocity measurement. It will also be useful for truly hydrostatic studies of phase equilibria, diffusion, and partial melts. Deformation studies with truly hydrostatic confining pressure are also planned with the addition of an internal piston to generate differential stress.

  8. Overview of free-piston Stirling engine technology for space power application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of free-piston Stirling engine activities, directed toward space power applications. One of the major elements of the program is the development of advanced power conversion. Under this program the status of the 25 kWe opposed-piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) is presented. Initial differences between predicted and experimental power outputs and power output influenced by variations in regenerators are discussed. Technology work was conducted on heat-exchanger concepts to minimize the number of joints as well as to enhance the heat transfer in the heater. Design parameters and conceptual design features are also presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space power converter. Projections are made for future space power requirements over the next few decades along with a recommendation to consider the use of dynamic power conversion systems, either solar or nuclear. A cursory comparison is presented showing the mass benefits of a Stirling system over a Brayton system for the same peak temperature and output power. A description of a study to investigate the feasibility of scaling a single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space power module to the 150 kWe power range is presented.

  9. Component improvement of free-piston Stirling engine key technology for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    The successful performance of the 25 kW Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine during an extensive testing period has provided a baseline of free piston Stirling engine technology from which future space Stirling engines may evolve. Much of the success of the engine was due to the initial careful selection of engine materials, fabrication and joining processes, and inspection procedures. Resolution of the few SPD engine problem areas that did occur has resulted in the technological advancement of certain key free piston Stirling engine components. Derivation of two half-SPD, single piston engines from the axially opposed piston SPD engine, designated as Space Power Research (SPR) engines, has made possible the continued improvement of these engine components. The two SPR engines serve as test bed engines for testing of engine components. Some important fabrication and joining processes are reviewed. Also, some component deficiencies that were discovered during SPD engine testing are described and approaches that were taken to correct these deficiencies are discussed. Potential component design modifications, based upon the SPD and SPR engine testing, are also reported.

  10. Compression ratio control in reciprocating piston engines

    SciTech Connect

    Doundoulakis, G.J.

    1989-08-29

    The patent describes compression ratio control for reciprocating piston engines. It comprises: a reciprocating engine crankcase; a plurality of compression/expansion cylinders rigidly attached to the crankcase; each of the cylinders including a curved surface and a cylinder head; a fuel mixture in-taken in the cylinders; a piston reciprocating along each cylinder's curved surface for providing compression/expansion to the fuel mixture; a crank mechanism including a crankshaft rotating about an axial line that is substantially equidistant from the heads, crankcheek lobes radially extending from the crankshaft, crankpins inside and in contact with crankpin bearings, axially extending between the crankcheek lobes, and crankshaft journal bearings for providing low frictional support to the crankshaft; a connecting rod for each of the cylinders connecting the piston with the crankpin; crankshaft positioning; a first transmission gear, a crankshaft gear for meshing with the transmission gear, and a slot cut on the crankcase; wherein the constraint in the displacement of the crankshaft in the horizontal sense is provided by the vertical edges of the slot, and wherein the vertical edges of the slot are preferably being curved with a radius of curvature substantially equal to the average pitch diameter of the crankshaft gear and thee first transmission gear for accurate meshing of the gears.

  11. Analysis of Variation of Piston Temperature with Piston Dimensions and Undercrown Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J C; Schramm, W B

    1948-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented that permits estimation of the changes in piston-temperature distribution induced by variations in the crown thickness, the ring-groove-pad thickness, and the undercrown surface heat-transfer coefficient. The analysis consists of the calculation of operating temperatures at various points in the piston body on the basis of the experimentally determined surface heat-transfer coefficients and boundary-region temperatures, as well as arbitrarily selected surface coefficients. Surface heat-transfer coefficients were estimated from the internal temperature gradients obtained by hardness surveys of aluminum pistons that had been operated under severe conditions in a liquid-cooled, single-cylinder, 5 1/2 by 6-inch test engine.

  12. Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Power Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses and experiments demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and displacer motion in a free piston Stirling Engine. Isothermal analysis shows the theoretical limits of power density improvement due to ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. More realistic models based on nodal analysis show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal, often producing less power than engines that use sinusoidal piston and displacer motion. Constrained optimization using nodal analysis predicts that Stirling engine power density can be increased by as much as 58% using optimized higher harmonic piston and displacer motion. An experiment is conducted in which an engine designed for sinusoidal motion is forced to operate with both second and third harmonics, resulting in a maximum piston power increase of 14%. Analytical predictions are compared to experimental data showing close agreement with indirect thermodynamic power calculations, but poor agreement with direct electrical power measurements.

  13. Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Specific Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell Henry

    2014-01-01

    This work uses analytical methods to demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and/or displacer motion in a Stirling Engine. Isothermal analysis was used to show the potential benefits of ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. Nodal analysis is used to show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal in real Stirling engines. Constrained optimization was used to identify piston and displacer waveforms that increase Stirling engine specific power.

  14. Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Specific Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2015-01-01

    This work uses analytical methods to demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and/or displacer motion in a Stirling engine. Isothermal analysis was used to show the potential benefits of ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. Nodal analysis is used to show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal in real Stirling engines. Constrained optimization was used to identify piston and displacer waveforms that increase Stirling engine specific power.

  15. Internal position and limit sensor for free piston machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Ezekiel S. (Inventor); Wood, James Gary (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A sensor for sensing the position of a reciprocating free piston in a free piston Stirling machine. The sensor has a disk mounted to an end face of the power piston coaxially with its cylinder and reciprocating with the piston The disk includes a rim around its outer perimeter formed of an electrically conductive material A coil is wound coaxially with the cylinder, spaced outwardly from the outer perimeter of the disk and mounted in fixed position relative to the pressure vessel, preferably on the exterior of the pressure vessel wall.

  16. PIFFO -- Piston friction force measurements during engine operation

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, F.; Geiger, U.; Hermsen, F.G.

    1996-09-01

    Fuel consumption of a modern combustion engine is significantly influenced by the mechanical friction losses. Particularly in typical city driving, the reduction of the engine friction losses offers a remarkable potential in emission and fuel consumption reduction. The analysis of the engine friction distribution of modern engines shows that the piston group has a high share at total engine friction. This offers a high potential to optimize piston group friction. The paper presents results of recent research and development work in the field of the tribological system piston/piston ring/cylinder bore.

  17. Studies of a heat-pipe cooled piston crown

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Cao, Y.; Wang, R.; Mignano, F.; Chen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Designing pistons with effective cooling is crucial to preventing piston failure and improving engine service life. A piston design that incorporates the heat-pipe cooling technology may provide a new approach that could improve the thermal-tribological performance of heavy-duty diesel engine pistons. A simplified piston crown with an annular reciprocating heat pipe is constructed to demonstrate this concept. The piston crown is experimentally tested on a specially designed reciprocating apparatus. Experimental data indicate that the annular heat-pipe cooling can greatly assist in reducing the temperature gradient and peak temperature along the ring bank. In order to predict the performance in a more realistic piston working condition, a three-dimensional finite element modeling is used to analyze the thermal performance of this annular heat-pipe cooled crown (AHPCC). The heat-transfer coefficient under the reciprocal environment of the experimental apparatus and the effective thermal conductance of the heat pipe are determined by correlating the numerical calculations with the experimental measurements. The results indicate that the heat-pipe-cooling concept presented in this paper can provide an effective means for piston temperature control under real piston operating conditions.

  18. Lubrication and friction of piston and piston rings in internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Miltsios, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    A model was developed for determining the lubrication regime under which the piston and piston rings operate in the internal combustion engine, and for calculating the friction force of each component at each crank angle. The ring is assumed to have a circular profile in the direction of motion. The profile changes in time because tilting of the ring is taken into account. In the circumferential direction, two cases are examined. In the first, the ring is assumed to be a perfect circle, and the bore cross-section elliptic. The finite-element method is used to solve the two-dimensional Reynolds equation. In the second, the clearance between ring and bore is assumed to be constant, and the one-dimensional Reynolds equation is used. The ring is treated as infinitely long, and an integration of the Reynolds equation is performed. The piston is treated like the one-dimensional case of the ring, except that a correction factor is used to take care of the fact that the piston skirt has dimensions of the same magnitude in both direction. For all cases, mixed lubrication is considered when the oil film thickness becomes lower than a specified value.

  19. Fluorocarbon seal replaces metal piston ring in low density gas environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morath, W. D.; Morgan, N. E.

    1967-01-01

    Reinforced fluorocarbon cupseal, which provides an integral lip-type seal, replaces the metal piston rings in piston-cylinder configurations used in the compression of low density gases. The fluorocarbon seal may be used as cryogenic compressor piston seals.

  20. Stability analysis of free piston Stirling engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégot, Sylvie; Layes, Guillaume; Lanzetta, François; Nika, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis of a free piston Stirling engine. The model and the detailed calculation of pressures losses are exposed. Stability of the machine is studied by the observation of the eigenvalues of the model matrix. Model validation based on the comparison with NASA experimental results is described. The influence of operational and construction parameters on performance and stability issues is exposed. The results show that most parameters that are beneficial for machine power seem to induce irregular mechanical characteristics with load, suggesting that self-sustained oscillations could be difficult to maintain and control.

  1. Analysis of reciprocating compressor piston rod failures

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, H.A.; Drosjack, M.J.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the analysis of five piston rod failures which occurred on reciprocating compressors. Calculations are shown for rod stress which includes nominal rod loading sources as well as additional loads due to unusual pressure losses in the compressor valves, flexure of the rods due to misalignment, and manufacturing errors. The additional loads were incorporated on the basis of field measurements. The stress values are used with Baquin's equation to produce fatigue life curves for the rods. Based on the calculations, recommendations for modified rods were made. The calculation procedures are described in a manner which will permit their application to other reciprocating compressors.

  2. Symmetry of the Adiabatic Condition in the Piston Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be…

  3. External combustion engine with improved piston and crankshaft linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, F.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes improvement in an external heat engine having a piston mounted for movement between a first position and a second position, means for forcibly moving the piston from the first position to the second position (power stroke), a crankshaft rotatable about a main axis, and means for linking the piston and crankshaft so that linear movement of the piston from the first position to the second position during the power stroke is transformed into rotational movement of the crankshaft, the power stroke corresponding to a first portion of one rotation of the crankshaft about the main axis, the piston moving from the second position to the first position during a second portion of one rotation of the crankshaft (compression stroke). The improvement comprises: means for linking the piston and crankshaft comprises a rotatable member; means connected to the piston for rotatably supporting the rotatable member, the rotatable member being rotatable about a first point and being connected to the crankshaft at a second point offset from the first point, for rotation about the first point in response to rotation of the crankshaft about its main axis, the first point being disposed so that when the piston is in the first position, the first point is substantially aligned with the main axis of the crankshaft during a third portion of one rotation of the crankshaft about the main axis.

  4. Fluid powered linear piston motor with harmonic coupling

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, David W.

    2016-09-20

    A motor is disclosed that includes a module assembly including a piston that is axially cycled. The piston axial motion is coupled to torque couplers that convert the axial motion into rotary motion. The torque couplers are coupled to a rotor to rotate the rotor.

  5. CNC grinding of valve housing piston holes

    SciTech Connect

    Ashbaugh, F.A.

    1991-11-01

    Grinding has traditionally been used for machining operations requiring close dimensional tolerances and better surface finishes than can be obtained from other metal removal techniques. Using a grinding process for the last metal removal operation, the close tolerances and surface finishes can be easily held while eliminating the adverse conditions from the current metal removal processes. Pre-machined test parts were sent to a machine tool supplier to have the critical inside features of a typical piston bore finish machined using an internal CNC grinder equipped with high-frequency spindles. The piston bore and sealing angle were ground using a standard 120-grit silicon carbide wheel. The wafer step was machined using a solid carbide tool designed and built at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Six consecutive parts were machined for evaluation. The repeatability on all six parts was within print requirements. The inside corner radii was less than 0.002 in. and the surface finish was 8.2 arithmetical average or better as defined by ANSI B46.1, Surface Texture. Machining parts by this grinding process would eliminate bellmouth, chatter, waviness, and traveler polishing operations. It would produce a superior surface finish, small inside radii, and small easily removable burrs. It would also hold tolerances closer and significantly reduce scrap, rework, rejects, and deviations. 1 fig.

  6. Piston ring conformability in a distorted bore

    SciTech Connect

    Tomanik, E.

    1996-09-01

    Some different equations to calculate the maximum deformation that a given ring can conform to, are found in the bibliography. These equations do not consider the ring end gap and ovality, gas pressure acting on it, nor the actual bore shape, but only the maximum amplitude for a given term (from a fourier Series that describes the bore shape). A more exact prediction can be done with Finite Element tools or specific codes for piston ring simulation; those approaches are not usually carried out, except in special cases or in more fundamental studies. Experimental measurements were carried out to verify the simple conformability criteria. Deformed shapes were produced in a static jig and areas of non contact, between ring and the deformed bore shapes, were measured. Based on these measurements, a semi-empirical equation is proposed to calculate the limit of piston ring conformability. The proposed equation is simple enough to be calculated in the initial engine design phases (where the required inputs to more detailed methods are not available) or on a day-by-day basis. If bore deformation surpasses the ring conformability, the percentage of ring periphery contacting the bore can be estimated, in a first approximation, by the linear regression empirically found in the experiments.

  7. Differential piston and valving system for detonation device

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.S.

    1988-07-26

    A method of producing repeated detonations in a detonation chamber is described comprising: a. arranging a movable differential piston in a differential cylinder around a fixed wall of the detonation chamber so as to form a fluid flow passageway between the detonation chamber wall and the piston; and b. arranging valves to cooperate with the differential piston so that a power stroke of the differential piston draws cooling and purging air into contact with the detonation chamber wall and compresses recharging air and so that a return stroke of the differential piston forces the cooling and purging air through the passageway into the detonation chamber to purge exhaust gas from the detonation chamber and subsequently admits compressed recharging air through the passageway and into the detonation chamber.

  8. Piston ring microwelding: Field/lab correlation and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Shuster, M.; Mahler, F.; Deis, M.; Macy, D.; Frame, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper will discuss the microwelding phenomenon between aluminum pistons and iron piston rings in internal combustion engines. The mechanism of microwelding as observed on field run engine hardware has been correlated with the microwelding mechanism generated in an accelerated laboratory bench test. Hardness distribution measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS spectrometer have been used in the analysis of this surface damage mechanism. In this work, the metallurgical parameters were formulated which describe the microwelding phenomenon after field usage and after accelerated testing. It was demonstrated that the high output water-cooled two-stroke engine accelerated bench test reproduces the field run engine microwelding phenomenon in 30 minutes. It was shown that the best prevention of the microwelding phenomenon was provided when the piston and piston ring surfaces were separated by a soft, wear and heat resistant coating, integrally bonded to the piston ring.

  9. Powder-lubricant piston ring for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a diesel engine fueled by coal-water slurry. It comprises: a distal end including a piston head impinging upon a combustion chamber formed between the piston and a cylinder of the diesel engine; a proximal end including means for attaching the piston to a reciprocating arm means; a heat dam between the distal end and the proximal end, the heat dam including a portion of substantially decreased diameter thereby forming a debris chamber within the piston; the distal portion including a particulate return valve communicating from the debris chamber to the combustion chamber wherein residue from the coal-water slurry is returned from the debris chamber to the combustion chamber; and at least one powder-lubricated ring circumferentially extending around the piston head wherein lubricant powder is disposed between the powder-lubricant powder is disposed between the powder-lubricant ring and a wall of the cylinder.

  10. Ultralean combustion in general aviation piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The role of ultralean combustion in achieving fuel economy in general aviation piston engines was investigated. The aircraft internal combustion engine was reviewed with regard to general aviation requirements, engine thermodynamics and systems. Factors affecting fuel economy such as those connected with an ideal leanout to near the gasoline lean flammability limit (ultralean operation) were analyzed. A Lycoming T10-541E engine was tested in that program (both in the test cell and in flight). Test results indicate that hydrogen addition is not necessary to operate the engine ultralean. A 17 percent improvement in fuel economy was demonstrated in flight with the Beechcraft Duke B60 by simply leaning the engine at constant cruiser power and adjusting the ignition for best timing. No detonation was encountered, and a 25,000 ft ceiling was available. Engine roughness was shown to be the limiting factor in the leanout.

  11. TCM aircraft piston engine emission reduction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    The technology necessary to safely reduce general aviation piston engine exhaust emissions to meet the EPA 1980 Emission Standards with minimum adverse effects on cost, weight, fuel economy, and performance was demonstrated. A screening and assessment of promising emission reduction concepts was provided, and the preliminary design and development of those concepts was established. A system analysis study and a decision making procedure were used by TCM to evaluate, trade off, and rank the candidate concepts from a list of 14 alternatives. Cost, emissions, and 13 other design criteria considerations were defined and traded off against each candidate concept to establish its merit and emission reduction usefulness. A computer program was used to aid the evaluators in making the final choice of three concepts.

  12. Powder-lubricated piston ring development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heshmat, H.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder lubrication that would utilize coal ash, either alone or in combination with another powder. The feasibility of this particular lubrication concept for reducing ring/liner wear was demonstrated in a series of experiments utilizing redesigned and properly selected components. Wear performance for suitable ring/liner materials lubricated with a powder that incorporates the abrasive ash particles was evaluated in terms of load capacity, friction, and rate of wear for the best combination of ring design, ring and liner materials, and powder constituents. In addition, the use of a powder-lubricated system in the upper portion of the cylinder isolated the particulates from the lower portions of the engine, thus further reducing engine wear.

  13. Powder-lubricated piston ring development

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder lubrication that would utilize coal ash, either alone or in combination with another powder. The feasibility of this particular lubrication concept for reducing ring/liner wear was demonstrated in a series of experiments utilizing redesigned and properly selected components. Wear performance for suitable ring/liner materials lubricated with a powder that incorporates the abrasive ash particles was evaluated in terms of load capacity, friction, and rate of wear for the best combination of ring design, ring and liner materials, and powder constituents. In addition, the use of a powder-lubricated system in the upper portion of the cylinder isolated the particulates from the lower portions of the engine, thus further reducing engine wear. (VC)

  14. Thermo-optical piston in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chermyaninov, I. V.; Chernyak, V. G.

    2014-12-09

    The new steady state of the gas – thermo-optical pressure difference is considered. This condition occurs in the gas that is in a closed capillary in the field of resonant laser radiation and a temperature gradient. The pressure difference at the ends of the capillary is determined by the interaction of three fluxes – thermal creep, the light-induced drift and Poiseuille flux. Laser radiation and the temperature gradient play the role of thermo-optical piston (TOP) which compresses the gas in different ends of the capillary. The problem is solved based on the linearized Boltzmann kinetic equations that take into account the induced and spontaneous transitions in atoms or molecules. Expressions for the kinetic coefficients defining TOP-effect are obtained in the case of a nearly free-molecular regime. Numerical estimates of the TOP-effect are given for sodium vapor.

  15. New Outboard Motor Firing on All Pistons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Seven years ago, NASA was in the planning stages of producing an aluminum alloy with higher strength and resistance at elevated temperatures for aerospace applications. At that time, a major automobile manufacturer happened to approach NASA for solutions to lowering engine emissions and the costs associated with developing aluminum engine pistons. The Space Agency realized the answers to the manufacturer's problems could lie within the proposed alloy. Jonathan Lee, a structural materials engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center s Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department, and PoShou Chen, a scientist with Huntsville, Alabama-based Morgan Research Corporation, partook in the development project as the inventors. The resulting NASA High-Strength Aluminum Alloy, or "MSFC-398," was capable of casting metal components at both high volume and low cost, making it extremely attractive for commercial application, not just in automotives, but in a variety of other industries, as well. NASA patented the technology and introduced it for public licensing in 2001.

  16. Piston core properties and disturbance effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, H.W.; Rice, T.L.; Mayne, P.W.; Singh, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory geotechnical data on piston cores for 31 sites on the mid-Atlantic Upper Continental Slope show the near-surface sediments vary from normally consolidated to somewhat overconsolidated clayey silts and silty clays of low to high plasticity. They also exhibit normalized behavior and their index property correlations with the effective-stress friction angle, the undrained strength ratio, and the compression index are reasonably consistent with existing knowledge. Because existing knowledge concerning disturbance effect suggests that in-situ preconsolidation stress values should lie between those derived from the triaxial and laboratory vane data, the preconsolidation stress values obtained from the consolidation data appear to be appreciably smaller than in-situ values. -from ASCE Publications Information

  17. Use of an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer to Obtain Sample Powder for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipera, S. J.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sherrit, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    A miniature CHEMIN XRD/XRF (X-Ray Diffraction/X-Ray Fluourescence) instrument is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed in order to enable XRD analysis on an extraterrestrial body is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For XRD powder diffraction analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a 2-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results with poorly prepared powders, the quality of the data will improve if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL is an effective mechanism of sampling rock to produce cores and powdered cuttings. It requires low axial load (< 5N) and thus offers significant advantages for operation from lightweight platforms and in low gravity environments. The USDC is lightweight (<0.5kg), and can be driven at low power (<5W) using duty cycling. It consists of an actuator with a piezoelectric stack, ultrasonic horn, free-mass, and drill bit. The stack is driven with a 20 kHz AC voltage at resonance. The strain generated by the piezoelectric is amplified by the horn by a factor of up to 10 times the displacement amplitude. The tip impacts the free-mass and drives it into the drill bit in a hammering action. The free-mass rebounds to interact with the horn tip leading to a cyclic rebound at frequencies in the range of 60-1000 Hz. It does not require lubricants, drilling fluid or bit sharpening and it has the potential to operate at high and low temperatures using a suitable choice of piezoelectric material. To assess whether the powder from an ultrasonic drill would be adequate for analyses by an XRD/XRF spectrometer such as CHEMIN, powders obtained from the JPL

  18. Cam drive diesel engine utilizing double acting pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Gassman, W.J.

    1991-05-21

    This patent describes a improved double acting piston internal combustion engine. It comprises: a least one double acting piston positioned in an internal combustion engine cylinder having first and second combustion chambers located at opposed ends thereof, the at least one double acting piston having first and second piston heads on opposed ends thereof, the first and second piston heads communicating with the first and second combustion chambers respectively, and cam drive means operably associated with the at least one double acting piston, the cam drive means operably converting a combustion actuated reciprocable movement of the at least one double acting piston into a rotational drive movement, thereby to effect a rotation movement of a drive shaft means so that the drive shaft means functions as a power takeoff for the internal combustion engine, and further including cam groove means positioned in the cam drive means, the follower means operably engaging the cam groove means to effect the rotational drive movement, and wherein the follower means comprises a radially extending pin orthogonally positioned relative to a reciprocable movement axis of the at least one double acting position, and further including a drive ring means slidably movable over a circumferential surface of the cam drive means, the drive ring means retaining the follower means therein and directing the follower means into the cam groove means.

  19. Hot piston ring/cylinder liner materials: Selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    In current designs of the automotive (kinematic) Stirling engine, the piston rings are made of a reinforced polymer and are located below the pistons because they cannot withstand the high temperatures in the upper cylinder area. Theoretically, efficiency could be improved if hot piston rings were located near the top of the pistons. Described is a program to select piston ring and cylinder coating materials to test this theory. Candidate materials were screened, then subjected to a pin or disk friction and wear test machine. Tests were performed in hydrogen at specimen temperatures up to 760 C to simulate environmental conditions in the region of the hot piston ring reversal. Based on the results of these tests, a cobalt based alloy, Stellite 6B, was chosen for the piston rings and PS200, which consists of a metal-bonded chromium carbide matrix with dispersed solid lubricants, was chosen as the cylinder coating. Tests of a modified engine and a baseline engine showed that the hot ring reduced specific fuel consumption by up to 7 percent for some operating conditions and averaged about 3 percent for all conditions evaluated. Related applications of high-temperature coatings for shaft seals and as back-up lubricants are also described.

  20. Loss terms in free-piston Stirling engine models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.

    1992-01-01

    Various models for free piston Stirling engines are reviewed. Initial models were developed primarily for design purposes and to predict operating parameters, especially efficiency. More recently, however, such models have been used to predict engine stability. Free piston Stirling engines have no kinematic constraints and stability may not only be sensitive to the load, but also to various nonlinear loss and spring constraints. The present understanding is reviewed of various loss mechanisms for free piston Stirling engines and how they have been incorporated into engine models is discussed.

  1. Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A.; Henein, N.A.

    1992-05-01

    The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-{omega}) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, {omega}, have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-{omega}) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

  2. Engine including a piston member having a high top ring groove

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, R.L.; Kamman, K.R.; Ballheimer, B.; Shoup, S.G.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes an improvement in an engine. It is of the type having a block defining an upper bore, a cylinder liner located in the block bore and defining a piston bore, a cylinder head connected to the block, and a piston assembly including a steel piston member disposed for reciprocation in the piston bore.

  3. 13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, parallel motion links and steam chest. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  4. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA).

    SciTech Connect

    Leick, Michael T.; Moses, Ronald W.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  5. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Harvey, Michael N.

    2001-01-30

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  6. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Harvey, Michael N.

    2000-02-15

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  7. Turbocharger with sliding piston, and having vanes and leakage dams

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Quentin; Alnega, Ahmed

    2011-12-06

    A turbocharger having a sliding piston for regulating exhaust gas flow into the turbine wheel includes a set of first vanes mounted on a fixed first wall of the turbine nozzle and projecting axially toward an opposite second wall of the nozzle, and/or a set of second vanes mounted on the end of the piston and projecting in an opposite axial direction toward the first wall of the nozzle. For the/each set of vanes, there are leakage dams formed on the wall that is adjacent the vane tips when the piston is closed. The leakage dams are closely adjacent the vane tips and discourage exhaust gas from leaking in a generally radial direction past the vane tips as the piston just begins to open from its fully closed position.

  8. A contribution to film coefficient estimation in piston cooling galleries

    SciTech Connect

    Torregrosa, A.J.; Broatch, A.; Olmeda, P.; Martin, J.

    2010-02-15

    The need to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in internal combustion engines has been drastically increased during last years. One of the most important processes affecting these parameters is heat transfer from the in-cylinder gas to the surrounding walls, as this mechanism has a direct influence on the combustion process. Regarding the different walls (liner, cylinder head and piston surfaces), heat flow to the piston is especially important, as it is essential to avoid excessively high temperatures that could result in material damage and/or oil cracking. With this purpose different cooling strategies are used, among which the improvement of the piston cooling system by using oil galleries is preferred. In this work, the heat flow through the oil gallery in a Diesel piston was investigated on a dedicated test bench. This bench consists of a controlled heat source and a piston oil cooling system in which different test conditions were evaluated in order to obtain a correlation for the film coefficient associated with piston oil cooling. These experimental results were then incorporated into a lumped model for engine heat transfer. Finally, in order to evaluate the accuracy of this model and the effects of the correlation for oil gallery coefficient on engine heat flows, results obtained on a conventional engine test bench equipped with a Diesel engine, in which two piston temperatures had been measured, were used. The results show an improvement in piston temperature predictions when compared with those obtained using a previously reported expression for the calculation of the oil film coefficient. (author)

  9. [Cytotoxicity evaluation of the disposable medical syringe piston].

    PubMed

    He, Huahong; Li, Wei; Wu, Ting

    2010-03-01

    When some testing institutions performed biological evaluation to the disposable medical syringe piston, cytotoxicity was found. According to the biological evaluation testing Selection Guide proposed by Ministry of Health and the Comments of Sample Provider, We performed biological evaluation to one sample by using 5 tests of basic biological evaluation. Cytotoxicity was found, which was probably caused by the residue of the lotion. This research provides reference for objective evaluation of disposable medical syringe piston and safe guarantee of the product.

  10. Structural design of Stirling engine with free pistons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusov, Jozef; Gavlas, Stanislav; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    Stirling engine is a device that converts thermal energy to mechanical work, which is mostly used to drive a generator of electricity. Advantage of Stirling engine is that it works with closed-cycle, where working medium is regularly cooled and heated, which acts on the working piston. This engine can be made in three modifications - alpha, beta, gamma. This paper discusses the design of the gamma Stirling engine with free pistons.

  11. The problems of piston skirt microgeometry in combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskra, A.; Babiak, M.; Wróblewski, E.

    2016-09-01

    Geometry of the slot between piston bearing surface and cylinder bore affects the friction losses of the IC engine to the far extent. It appears that these losses depend more on the area covered with oil than the thickness of oil layer separating collaborating parts. Barrel-shaped or stepwise piston bearing surface is the way to reduce the oil covered area. Turns out that the referred to friction losses contributes more to area covered by the oil film than the film thickness of the separation elements cooperating. The method to reduce the area covered by the oil film is a modification of the bearing surface of the piston by adjusting the profile. This paper presents the results of simulation leading to the reduction in friction losses and abrasive wear of piston bearing surface and cylinder bore. Covering the piston bearing surface with a thin layer of graphite one can get an extremely advantageous tribological properties of the piston assembly which means the expected parameters of oil film and in a case of film rupture-an ignorable abrasive wear of the graphite layer and/or cylinder bore.

  12. Method of Fabricating Chopped-Fiber Composite Piston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional piston molding is fabricated from a mixture of chopped, carbon tow filaments of variable length, which are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and molded by conventional molding processes into a near net shape, to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part. Continuous reinforcement in the form of carbon-carbon composite tapes or pieces of fabric can be also laid in the mold before or during the charging of the mold with the chopped-fiber mixture, to enhance the strength in the crown and wrist-pin areas. The molded chopped-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite parts are then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. These pyrolized parts are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches, which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston molds are machined to final piston dimensions, and piston ring grooves are added. To prevent oxidation and/or to seal the piston surface or near surface, the chopped-fiber piston is coated with ceramic and/or metallic sealants: and/or coated with a catalyst.

  13. Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping.

    PubMed

    Malouin, Bernard A; Vogel, Michael J; Olles, Joseph D; Cheng, Lili; Hirsa, Amir H

    2011-02-01

    The small scales associated with lab-on-a-chip technologies lend themselves well to capillarity-dominated phenomena. We demonstrate a new capillarity-dominated system where two adjoining ferrofluid droplets can behave as an electronically-controlled oscillator or switch by an appropriate balance of magnetic, capillary, and inertial forces. Their oscillatory motion can be exploited to displace a surrounding liquid (akin to an axial piston pump), forming electromagnetic "liquid pistons." Such ferrofluid pistons can pump a precise volume of liquid via finely tunable amplitudes (cf. pump stroke) or resonant frequencies (cf. pump speed) with no solid moving parts for long-term operation without wear in a small device. Furthermore, the rapid propagation of electromagnetic fields and the favorable scaling of capillary forces with size permit micron sized devices with very fast operating speeds (∼kHz). The pumping dynamics and performance of these liquid pistons is explored, with experimental measurements showing good agreement with a spherical cap model. While these liquid pistons may find numerous applications in micro- and mesoscale fluidic devices (e.g., remotely activated drug delivery), here we demonstrate the use of these liquid pistons in capillarity-dominated systems for chip-level, fast-acting adaptive liquid lenses with nearly perfect spherical interfaces.

  14. Piston designs keep pace with increased engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-12-01

    Piston technology for medium-speed diesel engines is having to keep pace with steadily increasing engine performance criteria. Specific output of medium-speed diesel engines has increased some 50% since 1970, according to Walter Griffiths, chief engineer at the UK-based AE Geotze Special Products Ltd. To satisfy the higher performance now required, a two-piece piston has been developed and went into production in 1995. This type still uses an aluminum alloy forged body, but incorporates a steel crown. The composite piston can carry higher engine ratings and resists the abrasive deposits formed by heavy fuel operation. It has become well established for bore sizes above 300 mm and is becoming increasingly specified for engines down to 200 mm. The latest solution to the carbon deposits on the top of the piston that has gained widespread acceptance within the industry is to reduce the diameter of the bore above the top ring and cut back the top land to maintain the normal operating clearance. This requires an insert to be fitted into the liner after the piston has been assembled. The effect is to limit the carbon build-up on the top land to a specific diameter, which is always less than the bore diameter. Thus there is no possibility of top land contact with the bore over the effective stroke of the piston rings. 2 figs.

  15. The axial motion of a piston ring in the piston ring groove

    SciTech Connect

    Brownawell, M E

    1983-06-01

    The piston ring axial motion model developed by Furuhama, Dowson and Hoult was modified using the parallel plate squeeze equation to account for oil in the ring grooves. The improved model was used to predict ring motion and the ring transition time from one ring land to the other. The ring axial motion was measured in detail on an engine with a clear plexiglas cylinder using a high-speed motion picture camera. The observed ring motion and transit times were compared to those predicted by the new model. The model was found to correctly predict the motion of the rings and the scaling with lubricant viscosity and engine speed.

  16. Spherical rotary piston machine as an artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Wipf, S L

    1991-01-01

    A positive displacement pump with six rotary pistons was proposed as an artificial heart. The pump's design was characterized by high symmetry and compactness. Thus, a spherical volume of 4 1/4 inch diameter sufficed for a pump delivering 10 L/min at 120 pulses/min with the pistons turning at 30 rpm. The pistons and four connecting gears were the only moving parts. The pump functions in two separate halves as left and right ventricles, with two of the six pistons each having inlet and outlet passages, and one of them replacing mitral and pulmonary valves with the other, tricuspid and aortic valves. The function of the intraventricular septum was provided by the other four pistons whose interiors also accommodated driving motors each capable of 0.4 Nm torque for a combined power of 5 watts. There were no stagnant regions in the pumping volume, and at all internal surfaces in contact with blood, there was periodic shear stress not exceeding approximately 300 Pa.

  17. Transtibial prosthetic suspension: less pistoning versus easy donning and doffing.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Ali, Sadeeq; Sævarsson, Stefan Karl; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Pirouzi, Gholam Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Poor suspension increases slippage of the residual limb inside the socket during ambulation. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the pistoning at the prosthetic liner-socket interface during gait and assess patients' satisfaction with two different liners. Two prostheses with seal-in and locking liners were fabricated for each of the 10 subjects with transtibial amputation. The Vicon motion system was used to measure the pistoning during gait. The subjects were also asked to complete a Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. The results revealed higher pistoning inside the socket during gait with the locking liner than with the seal-in liner (p < 0.05). The overall satisfaction with the locking liner was higher (p < 0.05) because of the relative ease with which the patients could don and doff the device. As such, pistoning may not be the main factor that determines patients' overall satisfaction with the prosthesis and other factors may also contribute to comfort and satisfaction with prostheses. The article also verifies the feasibility of the Vicon motion system for measuring pistoning during gait.

  18. Numerical and semiclassical analysis of some generalized Casimir pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Schaden, M.

    2009-05-15

    The Casimir force due to a scalar field in a cylinder of radius r with a spherical cap of radius R>r is computed numerically in the world-line approach. A geometrical subtraction scheme gives the finite interaction energy that determines the Casimir force. The spectral function of convex domains is obtained from a probability measure on convex surfaces that is induced by the Wiener measure on Brownian bridges the convex surfaces are the hulls of. Due to reflection positivity, the vacuum force on the piston by a scalar field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is attractive in these geometries, but the strength and short-distance behavior of the force depend strongly on the shape of the piston casing. For a cylindrical casing with a hemispherical head, the force on the piston does not depend on the dimension of the casing at small piston elevation a<piston near its periphery. A semiclassical estimate reproduces the numerical results for the small-distance behavior of the force within statistical errors, whereas the proximity force approximation is off by one order of magnitude when R{approx}r.

  19. Spherical rotary piston machine as an artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Wipf, S L

    1991-01-01

    A positive displacement pump with six rotary pistons was proposed as an artificial heart. The pump's design was characterized by high symmetry and compactness. Thus, a spherical volume of 4 1/4 inch diameter sufficed for a pump delivering 10 L/min at 120 pulses/min with the pistons turning at 30 rpm. The pistons and four connecting gears were the only moving parts. The pump functions in two separate halves as left and right ventricles, with two of the six pistons each having inlet and outlet passages, and one of them replacing mitral and pulmonary valves with the other, tricuspid and aortic valves. The function of the intraventricular septum was provided by the other four pistons whose interiors also accommodated driving motors each capable of 0.4 Nm torque for a combined power of 5 watts. There were no stagnant regions in the pumping volume, and at all internal surfaces in contact with blood, there was periodic shear stress not exceeding approximately 300 Pa. PMID:1751131

  20. Magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curwen, P. W.; Flemig, D. P.; Rao, D. K.; Wilson, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility and efficiency of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery currently being developed for long-term space missions are assessed. The study was performed for a 50-kWe Reference Stirling Space Power Converter (RSSPC) which currently uses hydrostatic gas bearings to support the reciprocating displacer and power piston assemblies. Active magnetic bearings of the attractive electromagnetic type are feasible for the RSSPC power piston. Magnetic support of the displacer assembly would require unacceptable changes to the design of the current RSSPC. However, magnetic suspension of both displacer and power piston is feasible for a relative-displacer version of the RSSPC. Magnetic suspension of the RSSPC power piston can potentially increase overall efficiency by 0.5 to 1 percent (0.1 to 0.3 efficieny points). Magnetic bearings will also overcome several operational concerns associated with hydrostatic gas bearing systems. These advantages, however, are accompanied by a 5 percent increase in specific mass of the RSSPC.

  1. Magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curwen, P. W.; Fleming, D. P.; Rao, D. K.; Wilson, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery currently being developed for long-term space missions are assessed. The study was performed for a 50-kWe Reference Stirling Space Power Converter (RSSPC) which currently uses hydrostatic gas bearings to support the reciprocating displacer and power piston assemblies. Active magnetic bearings of the attractive electromagnetic type are feasible for the RSSPC power piston. Magnetic support of the displacer assembly would require unacceptable changes to the design of the current RSSPC. However, magnetic suspension of both displacer and power piston is feasible for a relative-displacer version of the RSSPC. Magnetic suspension of the RSSPC power piston can potentially increase overall efficiency by 0.5 to 1 percent (0.1 to 0.3 efficiency points). Magnetic bearings will also overcome several operational concerns associated with hydrostatic gas bearing systems. These advantages, however, are accompanied by a 5 percent increase in specific mass of the RSSPC.

  2. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    A free piston Stirling engine was tested. The tests performed over the past several years on the single cylinder engine were designed to investigate the dynamics of a free piston Stirling engine. The data are intended to be used primarily for computer code validation. The tests designed to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations in working space pressure, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics were completed. In addition, some data were recorded with alternate working fluids. A novel resonant balance system for the engine was also tested. Some preliminary test results of the tests performed are presented along with an outline of future tests to be run with the engine coupled to a hydraulic output unit. A description of the hydraulic output unit is given.

  3. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  4. Effect of piston second land shape on oil consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Hideki; Kusama, Kazunori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Ariga, Susumu

    1996-12-31

    Focusing on the oil flow characteristics in piston land areas, the authors measured variables affecting oil flow in an actual engine and conducted computer-aided analysis in order to develop a technique to reduce oil consumption. Since volume of the second land influences piston ring behavior, the volume has to be determined so that blow-up gas flow is reduced. As a means of sizing the second land volume, a V-shaped groove may be made in the second land. This particular groove shape made it possible to prevent the flow of oil into the combustion chamber. The behavior of oil on the piston land was observed through a glass cylinder installed on the engine. The effect of the land design on the oil flow was analyzed by using a computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) code.

  5. Hot piston ring/cylinder liner materials - Selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    A materials testing program to determine whether automotive Stirling engine efficiency can be improved by locating 'hot piston rings' near the top of the pistons is described. Candidate materials were screened theoretically and experimentally by friction and wear tests. Based on the test results, a cobalt-based alloy, Stellite 6B, was chosen for the piston rings and PS200, which consists of a metal-bonded chromium carbide matrix with dispersed solid lubricants, was chosen as the cylinder coating. Tests of a modified engine and a baseline engine showed that the hot ring did reduce specific fuel consumption by up to 7 percent for some operating conditions and averaged about three percent for all conditions evaluated. Related applications of high-temperature coatings for shaft seals and as backup lubricants for gas bearings are also described.

  6. Space Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Scaling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D.

    1989-01-01

    The design feasibility study is documented of a single cylinder, free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) power module generating 150 kW-electric (kW sub e), and the determination of the module's maximum feasible power level. The power module configuration was specified to be a single cylinder (single piston, single displacer) FPSE/LA, with tuning capacitors if required. The design requirements were as follows: (1) Maximum electrical power output; (2) Power module thermal efficiency equal to or greater than 20 percent at a specific mass of 5 to 8 kg/kW(sub e); (3) Heater wall temperature/cooler wall temperature = 1050 K/525 K; (4) Sodium heat-pipe heat transport system, pumped loop NaK (sodium-potassium eutectic mixture) rejection system; (5) Maximum power module vibration amplitude = 0.0038 cm; and (6) Design life = 7 years (60,000 hr). The results show that a single cylinder FPSE/LA is capable of meeting program goals and has attractive scaling attributes over the power range from 25 to 150 kW(sub e). Scaling beyond the 150 kW(sub e) power level, the power module efficiency falls and the power module specific mass reaches 10 kg/kW(sub e) at a power output of 500 kW(sub e). A discussion of scaling rules for the engine, alternator, and heat transport systems is presented, along with a detailed description of the conceptual design of a 150 kW(sub e) power module that meets the requirements. Included is a discussion of the design of a dynamic balance system. A parametric study of power module performance conducted over the power output range of 25 to 150 kW(sub e) for temperature ratios of 1.7, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 is presented and discussed. The results show that as the temperature ratio decreases, the efficiency falls and specific mass increases. At a temperature ratio of 1.7, the 150 kW(sub e) power module cannot satisfy both efficiency and specific mass goals. As the power level increases from 25 to 150 kW(sub e) at a fixed temperature ratio, power

  7. Analytical and experimental investigation of ringless-piston concept. Interim report, September 1986-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, D.W.; Wood, C.D.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to analytically and experimentally investigate the concept of a ringless-piston internal-combustion engine. A joint objective was to design, build, and test a ringless piston to improve ringless-piston engine performance. A computer model was developed to predict ringed and ringless-piston engine performance. Experimental performance data were then collected by operating a small, liquid-cooled, two-stroke gasoline engine with and without the piston ring on the stock aluminum and Southwest Research Institute prototype steel piston. The experimental performance data were then compared with the results of the computer model. The results showed that a piston engine can operate without piston rings.

  8. Lightweight piston-rod assembly for a reciprocating machine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1986-01-01

    In a reciprocating machine, there is provided a hollow piston including a dome portion on one end and a base portion on the opposite end. The base portion includes a central bore into which a rod is hermetically fixed in radial and angular alignment. The extending end of the rod has a reduced diameter portion adapted to fit into the central bore of a second member such as a cross-head assembly, and to be secured thereto in radial and axial alignment with the piston.

  9. Continuing Development for Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Allen A.; Qiu, Songgang; Redinger, Darin L.; Augenblick, John E.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2004-02-01

    Long-life radioisotope power generators based on free-piston Stirling engines are an energy-conversion solution for future space applications. The high efficiency of Stirling machines makes them more attractive than the thermoelectric generators currently used in space. Stirling Technology Company (STC) has been developing free-piston Stirling machines for over 30 years, and its family of Stirling generators is ideally suited for reliable, maintenance-free operation. This paper describes recent progress and status of the STC RemoteGen™ 55 W-class Stirling generator (RG-55), presents an overview of recent testing, and discusses how the technology demonstration design has evolved toward space-qualified hardware.

  10. Mathematical modeling of bent-axis hydraulic piston motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the DSN 70-m antennas uses 16 bent-axis hydraulic piston motors as part of the antenna drive system. On each of the two antenna axes, four motors are used to drive the antenna and four motors provide counter torque to remove the backlash in the antenna drive train. This article presents a mathematical model for bent-axis hydraulic piston motors. The model was developed to understand the influence of the hydraulic motors on the performance of the DSN 70-m antennas' servo control system.

  11. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Free Piston Linear Alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Janson Wu; Nicholas Paradiso; Peter Van Blarigan; Scott Goldsborough

    1998-11-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) free piston powered linear alternator has been conducted to determine if improvements can be made in the thermal and conversion efficiencies of modern electrical generator systems. Performance of a free piston engine was investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine and a full cycle thermodynamic model. Linear alternator performance was investigated with a computer model. In addition linear alternator testing and permanent magnet characterization hardware were developed. The development of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process has begun.

  12. Assembly for electrical conductivity measurements in the piston cylinder device

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Heather Christine; Roberts, Jeffrey James

    2012-06-05

    An assembly apparatus for measurement of electrical conductivity or other properties of a sample in a piston cylinder device wherein pressure and heat are applied to the sample by the piston cylinder device. The assembly apparatus includes a body, a first electrode in the body, the first electrode operatively connected to the sample, a first electrical conductor connected to the first electrode, a washer constructed of a hard conducting material, the washer surrounding the first electrical conductor in the body, a second electrode in the body, the second electrode operatively connected to the sample, and a second electrical conductor connected to the second electrode.

  13. Non-adiabatic pumping in an oscillating-piston model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuchem, Maya; Dittrich, Thomas; Cohen, Doron

    2012-05-01

    We consider the prototypical "piston pump" operating on a ring, where a circulating current is induced by means of an AC driving. This can be regarded as a generalized Fermi-Ulam model, incorporating a finite-height moving wall (piston) and non-trivial topology (ring). The amount of particles transported per cycle is determined by a layered structure of phase space. Each layer is characterized by a different drift velocity. We discuss the differences compared with the adiabatic and Boltzmann pictures, and highlight the significance of the "diabatic" contribution that might lead to a counter-stirring effect.

  14. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOEpatents

    Hoult, D.P.

    1985-09-10

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal. 4 figs.

  15. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOEpatents

    Hoult, David P.

    1985-01-01

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal.

  16. Improved piston ring materials for 650 deg C service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorndahl, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    A program to develop piston ring material systems which will operate at 650C was performed. In this program, two candidate high temperature piston ring substrate materials, Carpenter 709-2 and 440B, were hot formed into the piston ring shape and subsequently evaluated. In a parallel development effort ceramic and metallic piston ring coating materials were applied to cast iron rings by various processing techniques and then subjected to thermal shock and wear evaluation. Finally, promising candidate coatings were applied to the most thermally stable hot formed substrate. The results of evaluation tests of the hot formed substrate show that Carpenter 709-2 has greater thermal stability than 440B. Of the candidate coatings, plasma transferred arc (PTA) applied tungsten carbide and molybdenum based systems exhibit the greatest resistance to thermal shock. For the ceramic based systems, thermal shock resistance was improved by bond coat grading. Wear testing was conducted to 650C (1202F). For ceramic systems, the alumina/titania/zirconia/yttria composition showed highest wear resistance. For the PTA applied systems, the tungsten carbide based system showed highest wear resistance.

  17. Spherical-wave expansions of piston-radiator fields.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, R C; Yaghjian, A D

    1991-09-01

    Simple spherical-wave expansions of the continuous-wave fields of a circular piston radiator in a rigid baffle are derived. These expansions are valid throughout the illuminated half-space and are useful for efficient numerical computation in the near-field region. Multipole coefficients are given by closed-form expressions which can be evaluated recursively.

  18. Pistons and Cylinders Made of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved reciprocating internal combustion engine has a plurality of engine pistons, which are fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials, in operative association with an engine cylinder block, or an engine cylinder tube, or an engine cylinder jug, all of which are also fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials.

  19. Wear compensating seal means for rotary piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.; Gardner, John F.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a wear compensating seal arrangement for use in a rotary piston feeder utilized for feeding pulverized coal into a gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. The rotary piston feeder has a circular casing with a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable disoidal rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocatable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam whereby pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder and then discharged therefrom into the high pressure gasifier while maintaining minimal losses of producer gas and the expenditure of minimal energy which would detract from the efficiency of the gasification. The seal arrangement of the present invention is disposed between the rotor and the casing about the coal discharge and prevents the high pressure gases from within the gasifier from escaping between these relatively movable parts during operation of the coal feeder. The seal utilizes a primary seal in contact with the rotor and a secondary seal supporting the primary seal. The primary seal is continuously urged towards the rotor by springs and the high pressure producer gas.

  20. [Lubricant-free piston compressors for mechanized medical instruments].

    PubMed

    Sabitov, V Kh; Repin, V A; Kil'kinov, A A

    1988-01-01

    Piston compressor without lubrication with air blow to packing rings by plunger, disposed in subpiston space, is recommended as the basic scheme of construction of a power supply unit for medical pneumatic tooling. The construction reduces a leak of the compressive medium, increasing the efficiency of a compressor and seal reliability.

  1. Vented piston seal prevents fluid leakage between two chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Glashan, W. F.; Morrison, R.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent fluid leakage around piston seals separating two fluids under differential pressure, a venting system has been devised. Two methods may be used for venting seals through internal passages to an external low-pressure area, O-ring or split-ring seals.

  2. Thermal observations of gas pistoning at Kilauea Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.B.; Harris, A.J.L.; Hoblitt, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    Data acquired by three continuously recording thermal infrared thermometers situated on the north rim of Pu'u'O' o Crater at Kilauea Volcano during 2002 revealed episodes of periodic thermal pulses originating from a degassing vent on the crater floor. These thermal pulses are interpreted as gas release (jetting events) associated with gas pistoning, a mechanism observed previously at both Mauna Ulu and Pu'u'O' o. During a 35-day-long period spanning June and July 2002, gas pistoning was frequently the dominant mode of gas release, with as many as several hundred pulses occurring in uninterrupted series. On other days, degassing alternated between periods of quasi-continuous gas jetting and intervals of gas pistoning that contained a few to a few dozen pulses. Characteristic time intervals between pistoning events ranged from 2 up to 7 min. We identify three types of pistoning. Type 1 involves emission of lava, followed by gas jetting and drain back; type 2 is the same but the elevated position of the vent does not allow postjet drain back; and type 3 involves gas jetting only with no precursory lava flow. To explain gas pistoning, we apply a model whereby a stagnant cap of degassed magma develops in the conduit below the vent. Gas bubbles rise through the magma column and collect under the cap. The collective buoyancy of these bubbles pushes the cap upward. When the cap reaches the surface, it erupts from the vent as a lava flow. Unloading of the conduit magma in this way results in an abrupt pressure drop (i.e., the overburden felt by the bubbles is reduced), causing explosive gas expansion in the form of gas jetting from the vent. This terminates the event and lava drains back into the conduit to start the cycle anew. In the case where there is no surface lava emission or drain back, the cap instead pushes into and spreads out within a subsurface cavity. Again, this unloads the conduit magma and terminates in explosive gas release. Once gas is expelled, lava in

  3. Integrated Optic Segment Piston Sensor for the GMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, Francis; Uhlendorf, Kristina; Gardhouse, Rusty; Conan, Rodolphe; Espeland, Brady; Bouchez, Antonin

    2013-12-01

    Integrated optic segment piston sensor (IOPS) for the Giant Mag- ellan Telescope (GMT) uses single mode laser written waveguides to measure segment piston of the GMT primary mirrors. Light in the H-band (from 1.5 to 1.6 µm) incident on each segment originating from an off-axis guide star is coupled into separate laser written single mode waveguides in a fused silica substrate. Light from neighbouring segments is interfered in several coupling regions where waveguides are in spatial proximity allowing coupling, in order to produce an inter- ference signal at the output. The output signal magnitude is directly related to the phase difference at the waveguide input, originating from the segment piston. IOPS is located in the on-instrument wavefront sensor of the GMT, which includes a deformable mirror for low order Zernike mode cor- rection. Residual image motion (tip-tilt modes) in the on-instrument wavefront sensor are measured by a tip-tilt sensor in the K-band. Small residual tip-tilt modes caused by atmospheric dispersion at the IOPS input will reduce performance significantly as these modes are seen by IOPS as segment piston. This aliasing effect also exists for higher order modes, but with a reduced magnitude. The input of IOPS is dithered by a small amount with a steering mirror. The corresponding drop in reference signals from each segment allows for the detection and correction of tip-tilt modes at the IOPS input to less than 5 nm. Segment piston sensitivity of less than 35 nm RMS is achieved with Strehl at the IOPS input greater than15% with a detector integration time of 7.5 seconds and dithered input.

  4. Effect of the plasma piston size on the efficiency of the electrodynamic acceleration of a body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevskii, E. M.; Rozov, S. I.; Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Sokolov, V. M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the experiments reported here was to investigate the effect of the size of the plasma piston on velocity saturation during the electrodynamic acceleration of a body in rail-gun accelerators. An analysis of the results suggests that the observed decrease of the efficiency of the accelerating action of an expanded plasma piston is associated with the increased permeability of the piston with respect to the gas enclosed between the piston and the body. This conclusion is consistent with the concept of the plasma piston as a combination of merging and separating arc channels.

  5. Analytical and experimental investigation of ringless-piston concept. Final report, September 1986-November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, D.W.; Wood, C.D.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to analytically and experimentally investigate the concept of a ringless-piston internal combustion engine. A joint objective was to design, build, and test a ringless piston to improve ringless piston engine performance. A computer model was developed to predict ringed and ringless piston engine performance. Experimental performance data were then collected by operating a small, liquid-cooled, two-stroke gasoline engine with and without the piston ring on the stock aluminum and Southwest Research Institute prototype steel piston. The experimental performance data were then compared with the results of the computer model. The results showed that a piston engine can operate without piston rings. Ringless-piston engine power and efficiency were found to be defined by the expression C/NBS, where C = piston-to-bore diametrical clearance, N = engine speed in rpm, B = engine bore, and S = engine stroke. There was good agreement between predicted and measured performance reperformance can be improved by using piston and liner materials that have similar coefficients of thermal expansion.

  6. Assembly of piston and connecting rod in internal-combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, H.; Ozu, T.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes an assembly of a piston and a connecting rod in an internal-combustion engine comprising: a generally cylindrical piston pin; a connecting rod integrally formed with and extending from only a lower surface of the piston pin at a point midway between either end of the piston pin; a piston having a skirt and a crown disposed on an upper surface of the skirt, the skirt having a concave bearing recess of semicylindrical shape on a lower surface thereof, the recess having a length at least equal so that of the piston pin; a metal bearing pieces of semicylindrical shape disposed in the concave bearing recess across the entire length thereof, an upper half of the piston pin being held in a semicylindrical recess defined by the metal bearing piece; a pair of space metal bearing halves of semicylindrical shape disposed, respectively, over a lower half of the piston pin on either side of the connecting rod; a pair of bearing caps, each of the bearing caps having a concave bearing recess, each of the bearing caps being fitted over one of the metal bearing halves to pivotally couple the piston pin to the piston; and bolt means fixedly attaching the pair of bearing caps to the skirt of the piston.

  7. Liner surface improvements for low friction piston ring packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderberg, C.; Dimkovski, Z.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of engine components in the automotive industry is governed by several constraints such as environmental legislation and customer expectations. About a half of the frictional losses in an internal combustion engine come from the interactions between the piston assembly and cylinder liner surface. The tribological considerations in the contact between the piston ring and cylinder liner have attracted much attention over the past few decades. Many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes have been, and are being, developed with the aim to reduce friction losses and oil consumption, but the effects of the surface finish on piston ring pack performance is not well understood. One way of reducing friction in the cylinder system is to reduce the tangential load from the piston ring pack, focusing on the oil control ring. However, the side-effect of this is a disappointingly increased oil consumption. In this study a number of different cylinder liner surface specifications were developed and implemented in test engines with the aim of maintaining the level for oil consumption when decreasing the tangential load for the piston ring pack. To improve our understanding of the result, the same surfaces were evaluated in elastic and elasto-plastic rough contact and hydrodynamic flow simulation models. It is shown that oil consumption is strongly related to surface texture on the cylinder liners and at lower speeds (900-1200 rpm), a ‘rougher surface’ with a high core (e.g. Sk) and valley roughness (e.g. Svk) results in higher oil consumption. At the medium speed range (1200-3600 rpm), oil consumption continues to dominate for the ‘rough’ surfaces but with a visible influence of a lower oil consumption for a decreased roughness within the ‘rough’ surface group. ‘Smooth’ surfaces with a ‘smooth’ core (Sk), irrespective of the valley component (Svk), show similar oil consumption. For engine speeds above 3600 rpms, an increase in plateau

  8. Wavefront reconstruction and piston measurement using Ronchi test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penalver, Dayana H.; Granados-Agustin, Fermin; Romero-Antequera, David L.

    2011-10-01

    Ronchi test represents an economical alternative, with ease implementation and uncertainties in the order of wavelength, to measure the piston between the elements of a segmented mirror. The current trend of using non monolithic surfaces as imaging systems in telescopes or adaptive optical systems in medical devices, open the field for the development of new wavefront sensors that would retrieve information allowing an optimal disposition of the segments to form an image with minimum of optical aberration. This paper uses the Ronchi test to reconstruct the wavefront, and measure the piston between two adjacent mirrors. Based on a geometrical relation, we have developed a computer software that determine the distance between the mirrors and the light source using a nonlinear optimization algorithm. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to perform a several stages processing to the input images. Finally, the wavefront reconstruction is carried out using a combined nonlinear optimization and least square algorithm.

  9. Piston and tilt interferometry for segmented wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Deprez, M; Bellanger, C; Lombard, L; Wattellier, B; Primot, J

    2016-03-15

    We present a novel interferometric technique dedicated to the measurement of relative phase differences (pistons) and tilts of a periodically segmented wavefront. Potential applications include co-phasing of segmented mirrors of Keck-like telescopes as well as coherent laser beam combining. The setup only requires a holes mask selecting the center part of each element, a diffracting component, and a camera. Recorded interferogram is made of many subareas with sinusoidal fringe pattern. From each pattern, piston is extracted from fringe shift and tilts from fringe frequency and orientation. The pattern analysis is simple enough to enable kilohertz rate operation. The λ ambiguities are solved by a two-wavelength measurement. This technique is compatible with a very high number of elements and can be operated in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. PMID:26977638

  10. Piston-Driven Fluid Ejectors In Silicon Mems

    DOEpatents

    Galambos, Paul C.; Benavides, Gilbert L.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Jakubczak II, Jerome F.

    2005-05-03

    A surface-micromachined fluid-ejection apparatus is disclosed which utilizes a piston to provide for the ejection of jets or drops of a fluid (e.g. for ink-jet printing). The piston, which is located at least partially inside a fluid reservoir, is moveable into a cylindrical fluid-ejection chamber connected to the reservoir by a microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator which is located outside the reservoir. In this way, the reservoir and fluid-ejection chamber can be maintained as electric-field-free regions thereby allowing the apparatus to be used with fluids that are electrically conductive or which may react or break down in the presence of a high electric field. The MEM actuator can comprise either an electrostatic actuator or a thermal actuator.

  11. General aviation piston-engine exhaust emission reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.; Houtman, W. H.; Westfield, W. T.; Duke, L. C.; Rezy, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    To support the promulgation of aircraft regulations, two airports were examined, Van Nuys and Tamiami. It was determined that the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from piston-engine aircraft have a significant influence on the CO levels in the ambient air in and around airports, where workers and travelers would be exposed. Emissions standards were set up for control of emissions from aircraft piston engines manufactured after December 31, 1979. The standards selected were based on a technologically feasible and economically reasonable control of carbon monoxide. It was concluded that substantial CO reductions could be realized if the range of typical fuel-air ratios could be narrowed. Thus, improvements in fuel management were determined as reasonable controls.

  12. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1998-01-01

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod.

  13. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, C.M.

    1998-12-15

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine is described. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod. 8 figs.

  14. Development of an accelerating piston implosion-driven launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneault, J.; Loiseau, J.; Higgins, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The ability to soft-launch projectiles to velocities exceeding 10 km/s is of interest for a number of scientific fields, including orbital debris impact testing and equation of state research. Current soft-launch technologies have reached a performance plateau below this operating range. In the implosion-driven launcher (ILD) concept, explosives are used to dynamically compress a light driver gas to significantly higher pressures and temperatures than the propellant of conventional light-gas guns. The propellant of the IDL is compressed through the linear implosion of a pressurized tube. The imploding tube behaves like a piston which travels into the light gas at the explosive detonation velocity, thus forming an increasingly long column of shock-compressed gas which can be used to propel a projectile. The McGill designed IDL has demonstrated the ability to launch a 0.1-g projectile to 9.1 km/s. This work will focus on the implementation of a novel launch cycle in which the explosively driven piston is accelerated in order to gradually increase driver gas compression, thus maintaining a relatively constant projectile driving pressure. The theoretical potential of the concept as well as the experimental development of an accelerating piston driver will be examined.

  15. The piston ring shape and its effects on engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Ryan, T.W.; Winter, J.; Dixon, R.

    1996-09-01

    The paper presents the latest research results on the piston ring free shape. A new free shape measurement method with optical gauging was developed. Three numerical models to compute the contact force distribution of piston ring were developed using finite element analysis (FEA). These numerical methods have been compared with each other, and validated with the experimental results of ring deformation in a ring gage. The contact force distribution of a piston ring at working condition was also studied. It consists of the ring thermal boundary conditions (RTBC) validation, 3-D FEA thermal analysis and thermal contact force computation based on validated wire-cable element model. The RTBC for heavy duty diesel engine has been validated for the first time using a CUMMINS L10 engine test. Three different free shapes have been tested. The wear band measurements of tested rings all show tremendous improvements over the standard top ring. It was found that the tip contact concentration is a key factor of tip scuffing during break-in. A procedure to define a free shape producing uniform contact force distribution at working condition was developed.

  16. Development of a Collins-type cryocooler floating piston control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Jake; Hannon, Charles L.; Brisson, John

    2012-06-01

    The Collins-type cryocooler uses a floating piston design for the working fluid expansion. The piston floats between a cold volume, where the working fluid is expanded, and a warm volume. The piston is shuttled between opposite ends of the closed cylinder by opening and closing valves connecting several reservoirs at various pressures to the warm volume. Ideally, these pressures should be distributed between the high and low system pressure to gain good control of the piston motion. In this work, a numerical quasi-steady thermodynamic model is developed for the piston cycle. The model determines the steady state pressure distribution of the reservoirs for a given control algorithm. The results are then extended to show how valve timing modifications can be used to overcome helium leakage past the piston during operation.

  17. Statistics of injected power on a bouncing ball subjected to a randomly vibrating piston.

    PubMed

    García-Cid, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Pablo; Falcón, Claudio; Aumaître, Sébastien; Falcon, Eric

    2015-09-01

    We present an experimental study on the statistical properties of the injected power needed to maintain an inelastic ball bouncing constantly on a randomly accelerating piston in the presence of gravity. We compute the injected power at each collision of the ball with the moving piston by measuring the velocity of the piston and the force exerted on the piston by the ball. The probability density function of the injected power has its most probable value close to zero and displays two asymmetric exponential tails, depending on the restitution coefficient, the piston acceleration, and its frequency content. This distribution can be deduced from a simple model assuming quasi-Gaussian statistics for the force and velocity of the piston.

  18. The Effect of Piston-Head Temperature on Knock-Limited Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imming, Harry S.

    1944-01-01

    To determine the effect of piston-head temperature on knock-limited power. Tests were made in a supercharged CFR engine over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.055 to 0.120, using S-3 reference fuel, AN-F-28, Amendment-2, aviation gasoline, and AN-F-28 plus 2 percent xylidines by weight. Tests were run at a compression ratio of 7.0 with inlet-air temperatures of 150 F and 250 F and at a compression ratio of 8.0 with an inlet-air temperature of 250 F. All other engine conditions were held constant. The piston-head temperature was varied by circulation of oil through passages in the crown of a liquid-cooled piston. This method of piston cooling decreased the piston-head temperature about 80 F. The data are not intended to constitute a recommendation as to the advisability of piston cooling in practice.

  19. a Simple Model to Estimate the Impact Force Induced by Piston Slap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHO, S.-H.; AHN, S.-T.; KIM, Y.-H.

    2002-08-01

    The dynamics of piston's secondary motion (lateral and rotational motion) across the clearance between piston and cylinder inner wall of reciprocating machines are analyzed. This paper presents an analytical model, which can predict the impact forces and vibratory response of engine block surface induced by the piston slap of an internal combustion engine. A piston is modelled on a three-degree-of-freedom system to represent its planar motion. When slap occurs, the impact point between piston skirt and cylinder inner wall is modelled on a two-degree-of-freedom vibratory system. The equivalent parameters such as mass, spring constant, and damping constant of piston and cylinder inner wall are estimated by using measured (driving) point mobility. Those parameters are used to calculate the impact force and for estimating the vibration level of engine block surfaces. The predicted results are compared with experimental results to verify the model.

  20. Statistics of injected power on a bouncing ball subjected to a randomly vibrating piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cid, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Pablo; Falcón, Claudio; Aumaître, Sébastien; Falcon, Eric

    2015-09-01

    We present an experimental study on the statistical properties of the injected power needed to maintain an inelastic ball bouncing constantly on a randomly accelerating piston in the presence of gravity. We compute the injected power at each collision of the ball with the moving piston by measuring the velocity of the piston and the force exerted on the piston by the ball. The probability density function of the injected power has its most probable value close to zero and displays two asymmetric exponential tails, depending on the restitution coefficient, the piston acceleration, and its frequency content. This distribution can be deduced from a simple model assuming quasi-Gaussian statistics for the force and velocity of the piston.

  1. Optimum step design for centering of pistons moving in an incompressible fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrodynamic effects are analyzed for a stepped piston moving within a tight clearance tube filled with an incompressible fluid. Hydrostatic effects are analyzed and a complete solution is obtained and an optimum step design for centering of the piston is suggested. The axial speed resulting from an axial driving force is calculated, and some experimental results for pistons falling in a water-filled tube are presented.

  2. Simulation of the instantaneous free piston Stirling engine-electrical load interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdizadeh, N.S.; Stouffs, P.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the authors consider a gamma type free piston engine (that is, a configuration with a power piston cylinder and a separate displacer cylinder) with the MARTINI configuration (that is, with a free piston but a kinematically driven displacer). In the modeled engine, the displacer is driven by an electrical motor and there are two symmetrical, free, power pistons. This configuration ensures a complete balancing of the engine. The free pistons bear the moving parts of the linear electric alternators. This engine may be considered for solar to electrical energy conversion for land or space applications, for instance. A dynamic simulation of this engine has been developed using a decoupled analysis. The motion equation of the free piston induces a strong coupling between the electrical load and the thermodynamics inside the free piston Stirling engine. From the thermodynamics point of view, the piston-displacer phase lag is an important parameter. It is shown that if the electrical circuit elements (R-L-C) are constants, the phase lag between the free pistons and displacer motions is far from the optimum. However this phase lag can be controlled by means of a variable electrical resistance. For both cases of stand-alone engine with an independent electrical load, or grid-connected engine, it is shown how one can in a very simple way multiply the net electrical power by a factor 4 to 10 and the efficiency by a factor 1.25 to 2 without any engine geometry modification.

  3. Numerical simulation of the operation of piston rings in a reciprocating engine

    SciTech Connect

    Saghir, H.; Arques, P.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the authors present results concerning the tightness of a combustion chamber by rings placed on a piston. The authors have developed a program of simulation of the operation of rings on a piston in movement. This program takes into account: the unstationary reciprocating movement of the ring in the piston ring groove and flows of gases between the combustion chamber, volumes delimited by the set rings-piston-cylinder and the crankcase. These flows are executed in rear of the ring or directly by the clearance to the cup of the ring.

  4. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Free piston Stirling technology is applicable for both solar and nuclear powered systems. As such, the Lewis Research Center serves as the project office to manage the newly initiated SP-100 Advanced Technology Program. This five year program provides the technology push for providing significant component and subsystem options for increased efficiency, reliability and survivability, and power output growth at reduced specific mass. One of the major elements of the program is the development of advanced power conversion concepts of which the Stirling cycle is a viable candidate. Under this program the research findings of the 25 kWe opposed piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) are presented. Included in the SPDE discussions are initial differences between predicted and experimental power outputs and power output influenced by variations in regenerators. Projections are made for future space power requirements over the next few decades. And a cursory comparison is presented showing the mass benefits that a Stirling system has over a Brayton system for the same peak temperature and output power.

  5. Free-piston Stirling technology for space power

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space power. This work is being carried out under NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The overall goal of CSTI`s High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The Stirling cycle offers an attractive power conversion concept for space power needs. Discussed in this paper is the completion of the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) testing - culminating in the generation of 25 kW of engine power from a dynamically-balanced opposed-piston Stirling engine at a temperature ratio of 2.0. Engine efficiency was approximately 22 percent. The SPDE recently has been divided into two separate single-cylinder engines, called Space Power Research Engines (SPRE), that now serve as test beds for the evaluation of key technology disciplines. These disciplines include hydrodynamic gas bearings, high-efficiency linear alternators, space qualified heat pipe heat exchangers, oscillating flow code validation, and engine loss understanding. The success of the SPDE at 650 K has resulted in a more ambitious Stirling endeavor - the design, fabrication, test and evaluation of a designed-for-space 25 kW per cylinder Stirling Space Engine (SSE). The SSE will operate at a hot metal temperature of 1050 K using superalloy materials. This design is a low temperature confirmation of the 1300 K design. It is the 1300 K free-piston Stirling power conversion system that is the ultimate goal; to be used in conjunction with the SP-100 reactor. The approach to this goal is in three temperature steps. However, this paper concentrates on the first two phases of this program - the 650 K SPDE and the 1050 K SSE.

  6. Vacuum stress and closed paths in rectangles, pistons and pistols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulling, S. A.; Kaplan, L.; Kirsten, K.; Liu, Z. H.; Milton, K. A.

    2009-04-01

    Rectangular cavities are solvable models that nevertheless touch on many of the controversial or mysterious aspects of the vacuum energy of quantum fields. This paper is a thorough study of the two-dimensional scalar field in a rectangle by the method of images, or closed classical (or optical) paths, which is exact in this case. For each point r and each specularly reflecting path beginning and ending at r, we provide formulae for all components of the stress tensor Tμν(r), for all values of the curvature coupling constant ξ and all values of an ultraviolet cutoff parameter. Arbitrary combinations of Dirichlet and Neumann conditions on the four sides can be treated. The total energy is also investigated, path by path. These results are used in an attempt to clarify the physical reality of the repulsive (outward) force on the sides of the box predicted by calculations that neglect both boundary divergences and the exterior of the box. Previous authors have studied 'piston' geometries that avoid these problems and have found the force to be attractive. We consider a 'pistol' geometry that comes closer to the original problem of a box with a movable lid. We find again an attractive force, although its origin and detailed behavior are somewhat different from the piston case. However, the pistol (and the piston) model can be criticized for extending idealized boundary conditions into short distances where they are physically implausible. Therefore, it is of interest to see whether leaving the ultraviolet cutoff finite yields results that are more plausible. We then find that the force depends strongly on a geometrical parameter; it can be made repulsive, but only by forcing that parameter into the regime where the model is least convincing physically.

  7. Vortex motion in axisymmetric piston-cylinder configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I. P.; Smith, G. E.; Springer, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    By using the Beam and Warming implicit-factored method of solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, velocities were calculated inside axisymmetric piston cylinder configurations during the intake and compression strokes. Results are presented in graphical form which show the formation, growth and breakup of those vortices which form during the intake stroke by the jet issuing from the valve. It is shown that at bore-to-stroke ratio of less than unity, the vortices may breakup during the intake stroke. It is also shown that vortices which do not breakup during the intake stroke coalesce during the compression stroke.

  8. Free-Piston Stirling Machine for Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, James Gary (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A free piston Stirling machine including a thermal buffer tube extending from the machine's expansion space and surrounded by its heat rejector and its regenerator, a displacer cylinder extending from the thermal buffer tube to the compression space and surrounded by the heat rejecting heat exchanger, and a displacer that reciprocates within an excursion limit that extends into the regenerator by no more than 20% of the length of the regenerator during normal operation and preferably within excursion limits that are substantially the length of the heat rejector.

  9. Tilt/Tip/Piston Manipulator with Base-Mounted Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad

    2006-01-01

    A proposed three-degree-of-freedom (tilt/tip/piston) manipulator, suitable for aligning an optical or mechanical component, would offer several advantages over prior such manipulators: Unlike in some other manipulators, no actuator would support the weight of another actuator: All of the actuators would be mounted on a base. Hence, there would be less manipulated weight. The basic geometry of the manipulator would afford mechanical advantage: that is, actuator motions would be larger than the motions they produce in the manipulated object. Mechanical advantage inherently increases the accuracy and resolution of manipulation. Unlike in some other manipulators, it would not be necessary to route power and/or data lines through manipulator joints. The proposed manipulator (see figure) would include three prismatic actuators (T1N1, T2N2, and T3N3) mounted on the base and operating in the same plane. Examples of suitable prismatic actuators include lead-screw mechanisms, linear hydraulic motors, piezoelectric linear drives, inchworm-movement linear stepping motors, and linear flexure drives. The actuators would control the lengths of links R1T1, R2T2, and R3T3. Three spherical joints (P1, P2, and P3) would be located at the corners of an equilateral triangle of side length q on the platform holding the object to be manipulated. Three inextensible limbs (R1P1, R2P2, and R3P3) having length r would connect the spherical joints on the platform to revolute joints (R1, R2, and R3) at the ends of the actuator-controlled links R1T1, R2T2, and R3T3. By varying the lengths of these links, one could control the tilt, tip, and piston coordinates of the platform. Closed-form equations for direct or forward kinematics of the manipulator (given the lengths of the variable links, find the tilt, tip, and piston coordinates) have been derived. The equations of inverse kinematics (find the variable link lengths needed to obtain the desired tilt, tip, and piston coordinates) have also

  10. Acceleration of a slab driven by a constant pressure piston

    SciTech Connect

    Diez, J. A.; Thomas, L. P.

    1989-08-01

    The sequence of shock and rarefaction waves, which occur in a plane layer of ideal gas initially at rest when it is driven toward the vacuum by a very high constant pressure piston, is studied. In the rarefaction flow that relaxes the layer compressed by the first strong shock, a second shock is generated. The time and position of its formation are obtained by an exact analytical expression. The subsequent motion and intensity of the shock wave are approximated by the Chester--Chisnell--Whitham (CCW) method. Then, the Lagrangian distribution of entropy in the layer is analytically derived.

  11. NACA Investigation of Fuel Performance in Piston-Type Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C

    1951-01-01

    This report is a compilation of many of the pertinent research data acquired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on fuel performance in piston engines. The original data for this compilation are contained in many separate NACA reports which have in the present report been assembled in logical chapters that summarize the main conclusions of the various investigations. Complete details of each investigation are not included in this summary; however, such details may be found, in the original reports cited at the end of each chapter.

  12. Piston cylinder cell for high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo measurements.

    PubMed

    Kepa, M W; Ridley, C J; Kamenev, K V; Huxley, A D

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonic techniques such as pulse echo, vibrating reed, or resonant ultrasound spectroscopy are powerful probes not only for studying elasticity but also for investigating electronic and magnetic properties. Here, we report on the design of a high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo apparatus, based on a piston cylinder cell, with a simplified electronic setup that operates with a single coaxial cable and requires sample lengths of mm only. The design allows simultaneous measurements of ultrasonic velocities and attenuation coefficients up to a pressure of 1.5 GPa. We illustrate the performance of the cell by probing the phase diagram of a single crystal of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe2. PMID:27587156

  13. Vortex motion in axisymmetric piston-cylinder configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, T.I.P.; Smith, G.E.; Springer, G.S.

    1982-09-01

    By using the Beam and Warming implicit-factored method of solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, velocities were calculated inside axisymmetric piston cylinder configurations during the intake and compression strokes. Results are presented in graphical form which show the formation, growth and breakup of those vortices which form during the intake stroke by the jet issuing from the valve. It is shown that at bore-to-stroke ratio of less than unity, the vortices may breakup during the intake stroke. It is also shown that vortices which do not breakup during the intake stroke coalesce during the compression stroke.

  14. Piston cylinder cell for high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa, M. W.; Ridley, C. J.; Kamenev, K. V.; Huxley, A. D.

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonic techniques such as pulse echo, vibrating reed, or resonant ultrasound spectroscopy are powerful probes not only for studying elasticity but also for investigating electronic and magnetic properties. Here, we report on the design of a high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo apparatus, based on a piston cylinder cell, with a simplified electronic setup that operates with a single coaxial cable and requires sample lengths of mm only. The design allows simultaneous measurements of ultrasonic velocities and attenuation coefficients up to a pressure of 1.5 GPa. We illustrate the performance of the cell by probing the phase diagram of a single crystal of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe2.

  15. Durability, Performance, and Emission of Diesel Engines Using Carbon Fiber Piston and Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afify, E. M.; Roberts, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted by NC State University in investigating the durability, performance and emission of a carbon fiber piston and liner in our single cylinder research Diesel engine. Both the piston and liner were supplied to NC State University by NASA LaRC and manufactured by C-CAT under a separate contract to NASA LaRC. The carbon-carbon material used to manufacture the piston and liner has significantly lower thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and superior strength characteristics at elevated temperatures when compared to conventional piston materials such as aluminum. The results of the carbon-carbon fiber piston testing were compared to a baseline configuration, which used a conventional aluminum piston in a steel liner. The parameters measured were the brake specific fuel consumption, ignition delay, frictional horsepower, volumetric efficiency, and durability characteristics of the two pistons. Testing was performed using a naturally aspirated Labeco Direct Injection single cylinder diesel engine. Two test cases were performed over a range of loads and speeds. The fixed test condition between the aluminum and carbon-carbon piston configurations was the brake mean effective pressure. The measured data was the fuel consumption rate, volumetric efficiency, load, speed, cylinder pressure, needle lift, and exhaust gas temperature. The cylinder pressure, and fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, and needle lift were recorded using a National Instruments DAQ board and a PC. All test cases used Diesel no. 2 for fuel.

  16. The combustion process in a DI diesel hydraulic free piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Somhorst, J.H.E.; Achten, P.A.J.

    1996-09-01

    In a free piston engine the piston is neither connected to a crankshaft mechanism nor to any other kinematic system. Instead the piston movement is determined by the free forces that act upon it. This difference between the kinematic principle of the crankshaft engine and the free piston principle has a significant influence on the combustion process. In this paper the combustion process in a free piston engine is described on the basis of experiments. The experimental data were obtained from measurements on the free piston engine that has been developed by the Dutch company Innas. This article discusses the influence of the free piston principle on cold start, ignition delay, heat release, heat transfer, indicated efficiency and emissions. In the optimum point the engine has an indicated efficiency of 51%, a NOx emission of 6 gr/kWhi and a soot emission corresponding to a Bosch Filter Number of less than 0.5. The combustion process of the free piston engine is furthermore characterized by a nearly constant volume combustion process.

  17. The corrugation instability of a piston-driven shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Jason

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a shock wave that is driven into an inviscid fluid by the steady motion of a two-dimensional planar piston with small corrugations on its surface. This problem was first considered by Freeman [Proc. Royal Soc. A. 228, 341 (1955)], who showed that piston-driven shocks are unconditionally stable when the medium through which they propagate is an ideal gas. Here, we generalize his work to account for a fluid with an arbitrary equation of state. We find that shocks are stable when - 1 < h

  18. π0 Reconstruction using the Muon Piston Calorimeter Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Dhruv; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Muon-Piston Calorimeter Extension (MPC-EX) is a new detector in the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider that was installed for the recent Run 15 of the experiment. In polarized p+p and polarized p+A collisions, an important measurement is the yield and momentum distribution of direct photons. Unaffected by the strong force, direct photons traverse the dense medium in the collision zone mostly unchanged, thereby providing information about the initial stages of the collision. However, there is a huge background of photons from other sources, primarily π0 which decay into two photons. The opening angle between the decay photons becomes smaller with higher energies of the original π0. For energies greater than ~20 GeV, the Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) cannot distinguish the two decay photons from a single photon, as their showers merge. The MPC-EX, an 8-layer tungsten and silicon sensor sandwich in front of the MPC, can measure and image the shower development, and help distinguish between direct photons and π0 decay photons up to higher energies than the MPC alone. We will describe the MPC-EX detector and its readout, and present the calibration procedures applied to the data in order to obtain the π0 spectrum. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  19. New 5 Kilowatt Free-piston Stirling Space Convertor Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Chapman, Peter A., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Exploration of the moon may someday require a nuclear reactor coupled with a free-piston Stirling convertor at a power level of 30-40 kW. In the 1990s, Mechanical Technology Inc. s Stirling Engine Systems Division (some of whose Stirling personnel are now at Foster-Miller, Inc.) developed a 25 kW free piston Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine under the SP-100 program. This system consisted of two 12.5 kW engines connected at their hot ends and mounted in tandem to cancel vibration. Recently, NASA and DoE have been developing dual 55 W and 80 W Stirling convertor systems for potential use with radioisotope heat sources. Total test times of all convertors in this effort exceed 120,000 hours. Recently, NASA began a new project with Auburn University to develop a 5 kW, single convertor for potential use in a lunar surface reactor power system. Goals of this development program include a specific power in excess of 140 W/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and a control system that will safely manage the convertors in case of an emergency. Auburn University awarded a subcontract to Foster-Miller, Inc. to undertake development of the 5 kW Stirling Convertor Assembly. The characteristics of the design along with progress in developing the system will be described.

  20. The low-cost and precise piston gas pressure regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudasik, Mateusz; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    The present paper discusses the concept and functioning of an innovative instrument for precise stabilization of gas pressure. The piston gas pressure regulator was constructed at the Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The tests to which the instrument was subjected involved observing the values of stabilized pressure at the level of 10 bar and 3 bar, for various gas flow rates at the outlet of the instrument. The piston gas pressure regulator operates within the range of 0-10 bar and the gas flow range of 0-240 cm3 min-1. The precision of the process of stabilizing the initial pressure is  ±0.005 bar, regardless of the gas pressure value and the flow rate observed at the outlet of the instrument. Although the pressure transducer’s accuracy is 0.25% of the full range, the conducted tests of the regulator demonstrated that the obtained changeability of the stabilized pressure is at least two times lower. Unlike some other gas pressure regulators available on the market, the instrument constructed by the authors of the present paper is highly precise when it comes to the process of stabilization, and inexpensive to build.

  1. The frictionless damping of a piston in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringuier, E.

    2015-09-01

    The paper revisits Rüchardt’s experiment and the two-chamber variant of Clark and Katz, where the oscillating motion of a freely sliding piston involves the adiabatic exponent of the gas enclosed in a thermally isolated chamber. While the common theoretical account of the experiment correctly predicts the frequency of the oscillation, the damping is usually ascribed to a linear frictional force of an undetermined mechanical nature. In this paper, we argue that the irreversibility of the damped motion calls for a thermodynamical treatment involving dissipation (entropy production). The theory of Rüchardt’s experiment is reworked at the undergraduate level by allowing entropy to change owing to heat transfer into or out of the chamber. It is calculated that a linear heat transfer can explain the observed damping without assuming any mechanical friction. The calculation is quantitatively supported by an experiment. It is also calculated that the mechanical and thermal equilibrations occur at the same rate. Besides possibly improving Rüchardt and Clark-and-Katz apparatuses by shedding light on the damping, the paper helps to better grasp thermodynamics, and how to use entropy, by constrasting the mechanical and thermodynamical reasonings on the example of the damped motion of a piston.

  2. Effect of temperature on the lubrication characteristics between the piston ring and the cylinder liner of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harigaya, Yasuo; Ichinose, Minoru; Suzuki, Michiyoshi

    1996-12-31

    One technology for the advancement of efficiency of an internal combustion engine is to reduce the mechanical friction power loss on lubricated surfaces of the engine. For the attainment of higher efficiency of the engine, the minute investigation of lubrication characteristics and the various improvements are indispensable. The effect of temperature on the lubrication characteristics between a piston ring and a cylinder liner is studied by using Reynolds equation and energy equation in which the heat generated from the viscous dissipation. The oil film temperature between the ring and the liner is affected by the ring and the liner temperatures and viscous dissipation. Viscous dissipation is affected by the viscosity of oil film, the velocity of ring and the oil film thickness between the ring and the liner. The viscosity of the oil film between the ring and the liner is evaluated by the oil film temperature and it decreases with the increase of the oil film temperature for the viscous dissipation. The lubrication characteristics, that is the oil film thickness and the friction force, are affected largely by the viscosity of the oil film. Under the condition of viscosity varied with temperature, the oil film thickness and the friction force are lower than those under the condition of constant viscosity except the position near TDC in a cycle, because the oil film viscosity decreases with the increase of piston speed and the oil film temperature rise. It is very important to consider the thermohydrodynamic lubrication for the analysis of the lubrication characteristics between the piston ring and the cylinder liner in the internal combustion engine.

  3. Piston ring friction and vehicle fuel economy: Final report, November 1, 1983-January 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hoult, D.P.

    1987-08-01

    This project has involved three major tasks. They are: (1) The measurement of the transition of a piston ring, in a running engine, as it moves from the bottom to the top of the groove in the piston. (2) A theoretical analysis of the dynamics of a single piston ring. (3) The setup and calibration of a laser fluorescence measurement technique for oil film thickness measurements. Highlights of the results are (a) the discovery of a gas lubricated piston ring design, which holds promise for substantial reduction in piston ring friction, and successful operation at high temperatures; (b) the application of the quantum mechanical principals necessary to correctly calibrate the laser-fluorescence technique in a running engine.

  4. Fluid-film lubrication with an application to piston rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahanian, Mohsen

    1994-04-01

    This dissertation consists of four related studies. The first part provides dimensionless film thickness equations for four fluid-fllm lubrication regimes found for nonconformal surfaces while considering side-leakage effects. These regimes are isoviscous rigid, piezoviscous rigid, isoviscous elastic, and piezoviscous elastic. The influence or lack of influence of elastic effects from the solid surfaces and pressure-viscosity effects from the lubricant is a factor that distinguishes these regimes. Results are presented as a map of the lubrication regimes for four values of the ellipticity parameter. The second part deals with integrating artificial intelligence and conventional numerical design techniques to aid in tribological design. The study concentrates on the application of contact stresses. The result is a computer code, the Design Expert for Contact Stress, which incorporates and combines an expert system with numerical analysis techniques to aid the user in designing machine elements. This menu-driven program also performs a design compatibility analysis, which evaluates the compatibility between the specifications and the design, provides a rating on the overall design, lists reasons for the evaluation, and gives suggestions for improvements. The third part investigates the rheological effects in elastohydrodynamic lubrication. In this study the effects on fluid viscosity of pressure, temperature, shear strain rate, shear stress, and time are examined. A number of non-Newtonian models are introduced. The effects of pressure on fluid density are described. The role of solidification pressure on the density of the lubricants is also examined. The possible influence of a lubricant's viscoelastic behavior on its viscosity is considered. Finally, the influence of rheological effects on elastohydrodynamic lubrication is explained. The last part describes fundamental research into the basic mechanisms involved in piston ring lubrication. A recently developed

  5. CFD Modeling of Free-Piston Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Tew, Roy C., Jr.; Gedeon, David; Simon, Terrence W.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is funding Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a reliable Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code that can predict engine performance with the goal of significant improvements in accuracy when compared to one-dimensional (1-D) design code predictions. The funding also includes conducting code validation experiments at both the University of Minnesota (UMN) and CSU. In this paper a brief description of the work-in-progress is provided in the two areas (CFD and Experiments). Also, previous test results are compared with computational data obtained using (1) a 2-D CFD code obtained from Dr. Georg Scheuerer and further developed at CSU and (2) a multidimensional commercial code CFD-ACE+. The test data and computational results are for (1) a gas spring and (2) a single piston/cylinder with attached annular heat exchanger. The comparisons among the codes are discussed. The paper also discusses plans for conducting code validation experiments at CSU and UMN.

  6. Stability analysis of free piston Stirling engine power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Z. X.; Nasar, S. A.; Rosswurm, Mark

    This paper presents a stability analysis of the free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator power generation system. Such a system operates under sustained mechanical oscillators, stability of the system is important for proper operation, and as a criterion in selecting the tuning capacitor. The stability criterion of the system is that the rate of change in power dissipation and electric power output is always faster than the rate of the power generated by the engine. The dynamic equations and model of the system are developed in this paper. Frequency domain analysis and Bode plot techniques are utilized in the study. The stable operating frequency region corresponding to different levels of power output are then determined.

  7. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a Solar Liquid Piston Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.L.; Brew-Hammoud, A.

    1985-08-01

    The Solar Liquid Piston Pump (SLPP) is driven by oscillations of an enclosed column of liquid Freon 113. Cyclic evaporation and condensation from heating and cooling coils at the top of the liquid column generate the oscillations. The frequency and amplitude of the oscillations are enhanced by momentum forces in the inlet, outlet, and working tubes. Three geometrically different experimental models of a SLPP have been tested. To optimize the performance of the SLPP, a theoretical model was required to account for the large number of interdependent parametres that could be varied. A semiemperical time-incremented computer model was developed. A theoretical cycle was assumed and the heat transfer and fluid friction coefficient adjusted, within reasonable limits, so that the theoretical pressurevolume diagrams agreed closely with experimental ones. Input parameters were then varied for the theoretical model and compared to experimental results available. The theoretical model successfully predicted performance trends of the SLPP.

  8. Free-piston Stirling component test power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dochat, George; Dhar, Manmohan

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been evaluating free-piston Stirling power converters (FPSPCs) for use on a wide variety of space missions. They provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation and can be coupled with all potential heat sources, various heat input and heat rejection systems, and various power management and distribution systems. FPSPCs can compete favorably with alternative power conversion systems over a range of hundreds of watts to megawatts. Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) is developing FPSPC technology under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center and will demonstrate this technology in two full-scale power converters operating at space temperature conditions. The testing of the first of these, the component test power converter (CTPC), was initiated in Spring 1991 to evaluate mechanical operation at space operating temperatures. The CTPC design, hardware fabrication, and initial test results are reviewed.

  9. Powder-lubricated piston ring development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder lubrication that would utilize coal ash, either alone or in combination with another powder. The feasibility of this particular lubrication concept for reducing ring/liner wear was demonstrated in a series of experiments utilizing redesigned and properly selected components. Wear performance for suitable ring/liner materials lubricated with a powder that incorporates the abrasive ash particles was evaluated in terms of load capacity, friction, and rate of wear for the best combination of ring design, ring and liner materials, and powder constituents. In addition, the use of a powder-lubricated system in the upper portion of the cylinder isolated the particulates from the lower portions of the engine, thus further reducing engine wear. (VC)

  10. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  11. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  12. Thermodynamics of slow solutions to the gas-piston equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Chiuchiù, D.

    2016-10-01

    Despite its historical importance, a perfect gas enclosed by a pistons and in contact with a thermal reservoirs is a system still largely under study. Its thermodynamic properties are not yet well understood when driven under nonequilibrium conditions, and analytic formulas that describe the heat exchanged with the reservoir are rare. In this paper we prove a power series expansions for the heat when both the external force and the reservoir temperature are slowly varying over time but the overall process is not quasistatic. To do so, we use the dynamical equations from [Cerino et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 032128 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.032128] and an uncommon application of the regular perturbation technique.

  13. A drag measurement technique for free piston shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, S. R.; Simmons, J. M.; Tuttle, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    A new technique is described for measuring drag with 100-microsecond rise time on a nonlifting model in a free piston shock tunnel. The technique involves interpretation of the stress waves propagating within the model and its support. A finite element representation and spectral methods are used to obtain a mean square optimal estimate of the time history of the aerodynamic loading. Thus, drag is measured instantaneously and the previous restriction caused by the mechanical time constant of balances is overcome. The effectiveness of the balance is demonstrated by measuring the drag on cones with 5 and 15 deg semi-vertex angles in nominally Mach 5.6 flow with stagnation enthalpies from 2.6 to 33 MJ/kg.

  14. Thermally driven piston assembly and position control therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, III, Donald L. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermally driven piston assembly's housing has (i) a first material slidingly fitted therein, and (ii) at least one plug of a second material slidingly fitted therein and abutting the first material. The first material is one (e.g., a liquid crystal elastomer) that undergoes a stiffness change and/or a dimensional change when subjected to a temperature change in the temperature range of interest. When subjected to the temperature change while in the housing, the first material is restricted to changing dimensionally along a single dimension. The second material retains its shape and size throughout the temperature range of interest. As a result, the plug moves in the housing in correspondence with the dimensional change of the first material or the plug's movement is damped by the stiffness change of the first material.

  15. Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, Arnold E.; Kohl, Robert C.

    1959-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented covering the performance of a low-speed, five-cylinder piston pump designed for handling boiling hydrogen. This pump was designed for a flow of 55 gallons per minute at 240 rpm with a discharge pressure of 135 pounds per square inch. Tests were made using JP-4 fuel, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Pump delivery and endurance characteristics were satisfactory for the range of operation covered. In connection with the foregoing pump development, the cavitation characteristics of a preliminary visual model, glass-cylinder pump and of a simple reciprocating disk were studied. Subcooling of approximately 0.60 F was obtained from the cavitation produced by reciprocating a disk in boiling nitrogen and in boiling water. The subcooling obtained in a similar manner with liquid hydrogen was somewhat less.

  16. Accomplishments in free-piston stirling tests at NASA GRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Skupinski, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    A power system based on the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) has been identified for potential use on deep space missions, as well as for Mars rovers that may benefit from extended operation. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for developing the generator and the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is supporting DOE in this effort. The generator is based on a free-piston Stirling power convertor that has been developed by the Stirling Technology Company (STC) under contract to DOE. The generator would be used as a high-efficiency alternative to the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that have been used on many previous missions. The increased efficiency leads to a factor of 3 to 4 reduction in the inventory of plutonium required to heat the generator. GRC has been involved in the development of Stirling power conversion technology for over 25 years. The support provided to this project by GRC has many facets and draws upon the lab's scientists and engineers that have gained experience in applying their skills to the previous Stirling projects. This has created a staff with an understanding of the subtleties involved in applying their expertise to Stirling systems. Areas include materials, structures, tribology, controls, electromagnetic interference, permanent magnets, alternator analysis, structural dynamics, and cycle performance. One of the key areas of support to the project is in the performance testing of the free-piston Stirling convertors. Since these power convertors are the smallest, lowest power Stirling machines that have been tested at GRC, a new laboratory was equipped for this project. Procedures and test plans have been created, instrumentation and data systems developed, and Stirling convertors have been tested. This paper will describe the GRC test facility, the test procedures that are used, present some of the test results and outline plans for the future. .

  17. 5-kWe Free-piston Stirling Engine Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Peter A.; Vitale, Nicholas A.; Walter, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The high reliability, long life, and efficient operation of Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSEs) make them an attractive power system to meet future space power requirements with less mass, better efficiency, and less total heat exchanger area than other power convertor options. FPSEs are also flexible in configuration as they can be coupled with many potential heat sources and various heat input systems, heat rejection systems, and power management and distribution systems. Development of a 5-kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly (SCA) is underway to demonstrate the viability of an FPSE for space power. The design is a scaled-down version of the successful 12.5-kWe Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) developed under NAS3-25463. The ultimate efficiency target is 25% overall convertor efficiency (electrical power out over heat in). For the single cylinder prototype now in development, cost and time constraints required use of economical and readily available materials (steel versus beryllium) and components (a commercially available linear alternator) and thus lower efficiency. The working gas is helium at 150 bar mean pressure. The design consists of a displacer suspended on internally pumped gas bearings and a power piston/alternator supported on flexures. Non-contacting clearance seals are used between internal volumes. Heat to and from the prototype convertor is done via pumped liquid loops passing through shell and tube heat exchangers. The preliminary and detail designs of the convertor, controller, and support systems (heating loop, cooling loop, and helium supply system) are complete and all hardware is on order. Assembly and test of the prototype at Foster- Miller is planned for early 2008, when work will focus on characterizing convertor dynamics and steady-state operation to determine maximum power output and system efficiency. The device will then be delivered to Auburn University where assessments will include start-up and shutdown characterization and

  18. Data-Parallel Halo Finder Operator in PISTON

    SciTech Connect

    Widanagamaachchi, W. N.

    2012-08-01

    PISTON is a portable framework which supports the development of visualization and analysis operators using a platform-independent, data-parallel programming model. Operators such as isosurface, cut-surface and threshold have been implemented in this framework, with the exact same operator code achieving good parallel performance on different architectures. An important analysis operator in cosmology is the halo finder. A halo is a cluster of particles and is considered a common feature of interest found in cosmology data. As the number of cosmological simulations carried out in the recent past has increased, the resultant data of these simulations and the required analysis tasks have increased as well. As a consequence, there is a need to develop scalable and efficient tools to carry out the needed analysis. Therefore, we are currently implementing a halo finder operator using PISTON. Researchers have developed a wide variety of techniques to identify halos in raw particle data. The most basic algorithm is the friend-of-friends (FOF) halo finder, where the particles are clustered based on two parameters: linking length and halo size. In a FOF halo finder, all particles which lie within the linking length are considered as one halo and the halos are filtered based on the halo size parameter. A naive implementation of a FOF halo finder compares each and every particle pair, requiring O(n{sup 2}) operations. Our data-parallel halo finder operator uses a balanced k-d tree to reduce this number of operations in the average case, and implements the algorithm using only the data-parallel primitives in order to achieve portability and performance.

  19. CFD analysis of a diaphragm free-piston Stirling cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughley, Alan; Sellier, Mathieu; Gschwendtner, Michael; Tucker, Alan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a novel free-piston Stirling cryocooler that uses a pair of metal diaphragms to seal and suspend the displacer. The diaphragms allow the displacer to move without rubbing or moving seals. When coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator, the system produces a complete Stirling cryocooler with no rubbing parts in the working gas space. Initial modelling of this concept using the Sage modelling tool indicated the potential for a useful cryocooler. A proof-of-concept prototype was constructed and achieved cryogenic temperatures. A second prototype was designed and constructed using the experience gained from the first. The prototype produced 29 W of cooling at 77 K and reached a no-load temperature of 56 K. The diaphragm's large diameter and short stroke produces a significant radial component to the oscillating flow fields inside the cryocooler which were not modelled in the one-dimensional analysis tool Sage that was used to design the prototypes. Compared with standard pistons, the diaphragm geometry increases the gas-to-wall heat transfer due to the higher velocities and smaller hydraulic diameters. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the cryocooler was constructed to understand the underlying fluid-dynamics and heat transfer mechanisms with the aim of further improving performance. The CFD modelling of the heat transfer in the radial flow fields created by the diaphragms shows the possibility of utilizing the flat geometry for heat transfer, reducing the need for, and the size of, expensive heat exchangers. This paper presents details of a CFD analysis used to model the flow and gas-to-wall heat transfer inside the second prototype cryocooler, including experimental validation of the CFD to produce a robust analysis.

  20. Hot piston ring/cylinder liner materials: Selection and evaluation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sliney, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    In current designs of the automotive (kinematic) Stirling engine, the piston rings are made of a reinforced polymer and are located near the bottom of the pistons because they cannot withstand the high temperatures in the upper cylinder region. Theoretically, efficiency could be improved if ''hot piston rings'' were located near the top of the pistons. This paper describes a program to select piston ring and cylinder coating materials to test this theory. Candidate materials were screened theoretically and in a pin on disk friction and wear test machine. Tests were performed in hydrogen at specimen temperatures up to 760/sup 0/C to simulate environmental conditions in the region of ''hot piston ring'' reversal. Based upon the results of these tests, a cobalt based alloy, Stellite 6B, was chosen for the piston rings and PS200, which consists of a metal-bonded chromium carbide matrix with dispersed solid lubricants, was chosen as the cylinder coating. Tests of a modified engine and a baseline engine showed that the hot ring did reduce specific fuel consumption by up to 7% for some operating conditions and averaged about 3% for all conditions evaluated. Related applications of high-temperature coatings for shaft seals and as back-up lubricants for gas bearings are also described. 16 refs., 16 figs.

  1. Dynamically balanced, hydraulically driven compressor/pump apparatus for resonant free piston Stirling engines

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1984-05-29

    A compressor, pump, or alternator apparatus is designed for use with a resonant free piston Stirling engine so as to isolate apparatus fluid from the periodically pressurized working fluid of the Stirling engine. The apparatus housing has a first side closed by a power coupling flexible diaphragm (the engine working member) and a second side closed by a flexible diaphragm gas spring. A reciprocally movable piston is disposed in a transverse cylinder in the housing and moves substantially at right angles relative to the flexible diaphragms. An incompressible fluid fills the housing which is divided into two separate chambers by suitable ports. One chamber provides fluid coupling between the power diaphragm of the RFPSE and the piston and the second chamber provides fluid coupling between the gas spring diaphragm and the opposite side of the piston. The working members of a gas compressor, pump, or alternator are driven by the piston. Sealing and wearing parts of the apparatus are mounted at the external ends of the transverse cylinder in a double acting arrangement for accessibility. An annular counterweight is mounted externally of the reciprocally movable piston and is driven by incompressible fluid coupling in a direction opposite to the piston so as to damp out transverse vibrations.

  2. Dynamic counterbalancing the single-piston linear compressor of a Stirling cryogenic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Nachman, I.; Pundak, N.

    2009-05-01

    Low vibration Stirling cryocoolers often rely on dual-piston linear compressors, the known disadvantages of which, as compared to their single-piston rivals, are: low reliability, increased power consumption, price, bulk, sensitivity to external vibration and g-forces. However, because of the inherently low level of vibration export, as required in numerous vibration sensitive electronic and electro-optic applications, the dual-piston approach has become prevalent in today's industrial practice. The authors report on the novel approach to the passive control of a fundamental component of a vibration export from a single-piston compressor down to the levels typical for the actively controlled dual-piston rival. The technique relies on the newly proposed principle of dynamic counterbalancing, where an auxiliary movable mass is flexibly attached to a movable piston assembly and to the stationary compressor casing using auxiliary mechanical springs. The proper design of such a "spring-mass-spring" counterbalancer yields zero vibration export at minimum electrical power and current consumed by the motor. Based on the theoretical analysis, the design of the single-piston compressor of 1 W@77 K Ricor model K529N Stirling cryocooler was enhanced by adding such a counterbalancer. The obtained experimental results are in full agreement with the theoretical prediction. From experiment, the vibration export at driving frequency was reduced 57-fold at practically the same electrical current and power consumed by the compressor actuator as compared with the basic cooler.

  3. Open Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Having a Free-Piston for Wiping Condensed Working Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An open loop heat pipe radiator comprises a radiator tube and a free-piston. The radiator tube has a first end, a second end, and a tube wall, and the tube wall has an inner surface and an outer surface. The free-piston is enclosed within the radiator tube and is capable of movement within the radiator tube between the first and second ends. The free-piston defines a first space between the free-piston, the first end, and the tube wall, and further defines a second space between the free-piston, the second end, and the tube wall. A gaseous-state working fluid, which was evaporated to remove waste heat, alternately enters the first and second spaces, and the free-piston wipes condensed working fluid from the inner surface of the tube wall as the free-piston alternately moves between the first and second ends. The condensed working fluid is then pumped back to the heat source.

  4. On the identification of piston slap events in internal combustion engines using tribodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolatabadi, N.; Theodossiades, S.; Rothberg, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Piston slap is a major source of vibration and noise in internal combustion engines. Therefore, better understanding of the conditions favouring piston slap can be beneficial for the reduction of engine Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH). Past research has attempted to determine the exact position of piston slap events during the engine cycle and correlate them to the engine block vibration response. Validated numerical/analytical models of the piston assembly can be very useful towards this aim, since extracting the relevant information from experimental measurements can be a tedious and complicated process. In the present work, a coupled simulation of piston dynamics and engine tribology (tribodynamics) has been performed using quasi-static and transient numerical codes. Thus, the inertia and reaction forces developed in the piston are calculated. The occurrence of piston slap events in the engine cycle is monitored by introducing six alternative concepts: (i) the quasi-static lateral force, (ii) the transient lateral force, (iii) the minimum film thickness occurrence, (iv) the maximum energy transfer, (v) the lubricant squeeze velocity and (vi) the piston-impact angular duration. The validation of the proposed methods is achieved using experimental measurements taken from a single cylinder petrol engine in laboratory conditions. The surface acceleration of the engine block is measured at the thrust- and anti-thrust side locations. The correlation between the theoretically predicted events and the measured acceleration signals has been satisfactory in determining piston slap incidents, using the aforementioned concepts. The results also exhibit good repeatability throughout the set of measurements obtained in terms of the number of events occurring and their locations during the engine cycle.

  5. Fiber-reinforced piston for internal combustion engines and associated method of construction

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, K.; Daimaru, A.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a fiber reinforced piston for an internal combustion engine comprising a top land and a ring region provided with an uppermost ring groove. The top land and the ring region are defined by a reinforced part of the piston formed by a matrix metal reinforced with inorganic fibers. The reinforced part of the piston is circularly symmetrical around an axis of the piston and forms an annulus around a top portion of the piston. The reinforced part has a cross-section, in a plane containing the axis of the piston, of substantially rectangular shape except for the uppermost ring groove. The piston has an upper crown surface, the reinforced part being formed as a cylindrical shell having an upper radial surface which is continuously formed in the upper crown surface. A lower radial surface and an inner cylindrical surface join the upper and lower radial surfaces and an outer cylindrical surface has a radius equal to that of the outer cylindrical surface of the piston. The uppermost ring groove has an upper annular side wall surface, a lower annular side wall surface and an annular bottom surface connecting the upper and lower annular side wall surfaces, the inner cylindrical surface of the reinforced part having a smaller radius than that of the annular bottom surface of the uppermost ring groove. The reinforced part extends in the axial direction of the piston from the upper crown surface to a position below the lower annular side surface of the uppermost ring groove. The uppermost ring groove is totally defined within the reinforced part.

  6. Loss terms in free-piston Stirling-engine models. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    Various models for free piston Stirling engines are reviewed. Initial models were developed primarily for design purposes and to predict operating parameters, especially efficiency. More recently, however, such models have been used to predict engine stability. Free piston Stirling engines have no kinematic constraints and stability may not only be sensitive to the load, but also to various nonlinear loss and spring constraints. The present understanding is reviewed of various loss mechanisms for free piston Stirling engines and how they have been incorporated into engine models is discussed.

  7. The two-piston problem revisited: Generalization from reversible to irreversible expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Anacleto, Joaquim Alberto C.; Ferreira, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the adiabatic two-piston problem for an ideal gas confined between two pistons of equal mass and extend recent work based on the reversible approximation. More realistic equations that account for the roles of the gas temperature and particle mass are applied to extend the analysis of the expansion of the gas from reversible to irreversible behavior to the limit of free expansion. The evolution of quantities, such as temperature, piston speed, adiabatic reversibility coefficients, and entropy, is obtained, and differences between the irreversible and the reversible solutions are investigated.

  8. Directionality of sperm whale sonar clicks and its relation to piston radiation theory.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kristian; Møhl, Bertel

    2006-02-01

    This paper investigates the applicability to sperm whales of the theory of sound radiating from a piston. The theory is applied to a physical model and to a series of sperm whale clicks. Results show that wave forms of off-axis signals can be reproduced by convolving an on-axis signal with the spatial impulse response of a piston. The angle of a recorded click can be estimated as the angle producing the spatial impulse response that gives the best match with the observation when convolved with the on-axis wave form. It is concluded that piston theory applies to sperm whale sonar click emission.

  9. 21. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, HIGH PRESSURE PISTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, HIGH PRESSURE PISTON OF STEAM ENGINE NO. 4; CONTROL PANEL MOUNTED ON THE ENGINE; FLOOR VALVES CONTROL THE STEAM. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using piston cooling for a GDCI engine

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Gregory T; Husted, Harry L; Sellnau, Mark C

    2015-04-07

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of nozzles, at least one nozzle per cylinder, with each nozzle configured to spray oil onto the bottom side of a piston of the engine to cool that piston. Independent control of the oil spray from the nozzles is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the oil spray onto the piston in that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in in a cylinder of the engine and controlling an oil spray targeted onto the bottom of a piston disposed in that cylinder is also presented.

  11. Overview of free-piston Stirling technology at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The activities include: (1) a generic free-piston Stirling technology project being conducted to develop technologies synergistic to both space power and terrestrial heat pump applications in a cooperative, cost-shared effort with the Department of Energy (DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)), and (2) a free-piston Stirling space power technology demonstration project as part of the SP-100 program being conducted in support of the Department of Defense (DOD), DOE, and NASA/Lewis. The generic technology effort includes extensive parametric testing of a 1 kW free-piston Stirling engine (RE-1000), development and validation of a free-piston Stirling performance computer code, and fabrication and initial testing of an hydraulic output modification for the RE-1000 engine. The space power technology effort, under SP-100, addresses the status of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) including early test results.

  12. Evolution of ideal gas mixtures confined in an insulated container by two identical pistons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Rumelo C.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2010-09-01

    We study the quasistatic adiabatic expansion of monatomic-diatomic ideal gas mixtures bounded by identical pistons and obtain closed form expressions for the temperature of the gas as a function of the time. We find that the temperature decreases as an inverse power of the time for large times, with the exponent as a function of the monatomic to diatomic gas ratio. The piston speeds increase from zero to a maximum value determined by the heat capacity of the gas and the masses of the pistons. Plots of the temperature and piston speed versus the logarithm of the time show points of inflection, which are interpreted as signaling the onset of steady state behavior. These points shift to later times as the monatomic to diatomic gas ratio is varied from purely monatomic to purely diatomic.

  13. Method of estimating time scales of atmospheric piston and its application at Dome C (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A; Sarazin, M; Butterley, T; Wilson, R

    2007-07-20

    Temporal fluctuations of the atmospheric piston are critical for interferometers as they determine their sensitivity. We characterize an instrumental setup, termed the piston scope, that aims at measuring the atmospheric time constant, tau(0), through the image motion in the focal plane of a Fizeau interferometer. High-resolution piston scope measurements have been obtained at the observatory of Paranal, Chile in April 2006. The derived atmospheric parameters are shown to be consistent with data from the astronomical site monitor, provided that the atmospheric turbulence is displaced along a single direction. The piston scope measurements of lower temporal and spatial resolution were recorded for what is believed to be the first time in February 2005 at the Antarctic site of Dome C. Their reanalysis in terms of the new data calibration sharpens the conclusions of a first qualitative examination [Appl. Opt. 45, 5709 (2006)]. PMID:17609723

  14. Optimized design and predicted performance of a deep ocean 50 m piston coring system

    SciTech Connect

    Karnes, C. H.; Burchett, S. N.; Dzwilewski, P. T.

    1980-01-01

    Calculational techniques are described which were developed or adapted for the purpose of analyzing the mechanical response of a proposed piston coring system capable of recovering high quality 50 m long cores. The analysis includes the effects of barrel geometry on the mass required to penetrate 50 m of an assumed sediment, the effects of non-vertical entry and pullout on the stresses within the barrel, and the effects of steel cable or parachute piston restraints on the resulting core sample distortion. The results show that a wall thickness of 50 mm in the upper section is necessary to survive an entry of up to 1.5/sup 0/ from vertical or a recovery angle of up to 5/sup 0/. They also show that a mass of 15,400 kg and a pullout force of 330 kN are required. It is shown that active piston control is necessary to eliminate piston motion during penetration.

  15. Method of estimating time scales of atmospheric piston and its application at Dome C (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A; Sarazin, M; Butterley, T; Wilson, R

    2007-07-20

    Temporal fluctuations of the atmospheric piston are critical for interferometers as they determine their sensitivity. We characterize an instrumental setup, termed the piston scope, that aims at measuring the atmospheric time constant, tau(0), through the image motion in the focal plane of a Fizeau interferometer. High-resolution piston scope measurements have been obtained at the observatory of Paranal, Chile in April 2006. The derived atmospheric parameters are shown to be consistent with data from the astronomical site monitor, provided that the atmospheric turbulence is displaced along a single direction. The piston scope measurements of lower temporal and spatial resolution were recorded for what is believed to be the first time in February 2005 at the Antarctic site of Dome C. Their reanalysis in terms of the new data calibration sharpens the conclusions of a first qualitative examination [Appl. Opt. 45, 5709 (2006)].

  16. The development and testing of ceramic components in piston engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McEntire, B.J.; Willis, R.W.; Southam, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    Within the past 10--15 years, ceramic hardware has been fabricated and tested in a number of piston engine applications including valves, piston pins, roller followers, tappet shims, and other wear components. It has been shown that, with proper design and installation, ceramics improve performance, fuel economy, and wear and corrosion resistance. These results have been obtained using rig and road tests on both stock and race engines. Selected summaries of these tests are presented in this review paper.

  17. Development of EPA aircraft piston engine emission standards. [for air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtman, W.

    1976-01-01

    Piston engine light aircraft are significant sources of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of high activity general aviation airports. Substantial reductions in carbon monoxide were achieved by fuel mixture leaning using improved fuel management systems. The air quality impact of the hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions from piston engine light aircraft were insufficient to justify the design constraints being confronted in present control system developments.

  18. Control scheme for power modulation of a free piston Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Dhar, Manmohan

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to a control scheme for power modulation of a free-piston Stirling engine-linear alternator power generator system. The present invention includes connecting an autotransformer in series with a tuning capacitance between a linear alternator and a utility grid to maintain a constant displacement to piston stroke ratio and their relative phase angle over a wide range of operating conditions.

  19. Method for building or repairing rotary injection fuel pump piston cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.J. Jr.; Ash, E.G.

    1986-06-17

    A rotary fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine including a housing with inlet and outlet passages, a rotor having a longitudinal axis journaled in the housing having a rotor body with angularly spaced radially extending bores and a fuel passage in communication with the inner ends of the bores having inlet and outlet ports which communicate alternately with the inlet and outlet passages during rotation of the rotor for alternately conducting fuel to and from the bores respectively, a plunger assembly for each bore comprising a pump plunger reciprocally mounted in the bore to sequentially receive charges of fuel from and deliver them to the inlet and outlet passages respectively, and a plunger operating roller and roller shoe at the outer end of the plunger having a radial position relative to the axis of the rotor, a cam ring with an inner cam contour surrounding the rotor in the plane of revolution of the rollers engageable therewith to translate the cam contour into reciprocal movement of the plungers, and a plunger stroke limit mechanism for limiting the outward stroke of the plungers and thereby regulate the quantity of fuel injected during each inward pumping stroke thereof, a timing advance connector connected to the cam ring for changing the radial position of the lobes in the plane of revolution of the rollers relative to the rollers to thereby advance or retard the fuel injection depending upon the position of the cam ring, a timing means controlling the movement of a hydraulic timing piston mounted in a cylinder which moves the connector.

  20. Quantitative two-dimensional measurement of oil-film thickness by laser-induced fluorescence in a piston-ring model experiment.

    PubMed

    Wigger, Stefan; Füßer, Hans-Jürgen; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Schulz, Christof; Kaiser, Sebastian A

    2016-01-10

    This paper describes advances in using laser-induced fluorescence of dyes for imaging the thickness of oil films in a rotating ring tribometer with optical access, an experiment representing a sliding piston ring in an internal combustion engine. A method for quantitative imaging of the oil-film thickness is developed that overcomes the main challenge, the accurate calibration of the detected fluorescence signal for film thicknesses in the micrometer range. The influence of the background material and its surface roughness is examined, and a method for flat-field correction is introduced. Experiments in the tribometer show that the method yields quantitative, physically plausible results, visualizing features with submicrometer thickness.

  1. Progress in High Power Free-Piston Stirling Convertor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Kirby, Raymond L.; Chapman, Peter A.; Walter, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Space Exploration Policy has established a vision for human exploration of the moon and Mars. One option for power for future outposts on the lunar and Martian surfaces is a nuclear reactor coupled with a free-piston Stirling convertor at a power level of 30-40 kWe. A 25 kW convertor was developed in the 1990s under the SP-100 program. This system consisted of two 12.5 kWe engines connected at their hot ends and mounted in tandem to cancel vibration. Recently, NASA began a new project with Auburn University to develop a 5 kWe, single convertor for use in such a possible lunar power system. Goals of this development program include a specific power in excess of 140 We/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and a control system that will safely manage the convertors in case of an emergency. Foster-Miller, Inc. is developing the 5 kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly. The characteristics of the design along with progress in developing the system will be described.

  2. Development of an accelerating-piston implosion-driven launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneault, Justin; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    The ability to soft-launch projectiles at velocities exceeding 10 km/s is of interest to several scientific fields, including orbital debris impact testing and equation of state research. Current soft-launch technologies have reached a performance plateau below this operating range. The energy and power density of high explosives provides a possible avenue to reach this velocity if used to dynamically compress a light driver gas to significantly higher pressures and temperatures compared to light-gas guns. In the implosion-driven launcher (IDL), linear implosion of a pressurized tube drives a strong shock into the gas ahead of the tube pinch, thereby forming an increasingly long column of compressed gas which can be used to propel a projectile. The McGill IDL has demonstrated the ability to launch a 0.1-g projectile to 9.1 km/s. This study focuses on the implementation of a novel launch cycle wherein the explosively driven pinch is accelerated down the length of the tube in order to maintain a relatively constant projectile base pressure early in the launch cycle. The experimental development of an accelerating driver which utilizes an explosive lens to phase the detonation wave is presented. The design and experimental performance of an accelerating-piston IDL is also discussed.

  3. Optimizing the performance of a solar liquid piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C. L.

    The 0.1-m solar liquid piston pump (SLPP) model is shown to exhibit stable operation over a wide range of conditions, provided the heat input (at T = 85 C) and the heat rejected (at T = 22 C) are maintained above the critical values for stalling. Under these conditions, the pumps operation is affected primarily by the heating coil position and the geometries of the inlet and outlet water tubes. It is found that the optimum output power of the model SLPP is 4.5 W at a pumping heat of 2 m, a mass flow rate of 0.23 kg/s, and an overall efficiency of 1%. It is noted that further optimization of the model would at best only marginally increase the output power and efficiency. It is thought that larger mass flow rates can be obtained by increasing the cross sectional area of the working tube and/or staging a number of pumps in parallel. It is possible to increase the pump head by staging a number of pumps in series.

  4. Investigation of the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. Holland, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Aircraft Misfueling Detection Project was developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility at Wallops Island, Virginia. Its purpose was to investigate the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines by the inadvertent introduction of jet fuel in lieu of or as a contaminant of aviation gasoline. The final objective was the development of a device(s) that will satisfactorily detect misfueling and provide pilots with sufficient warning to avoid injury, fatality, or equipment damage. Two devices have been developed and successfully tested: one, a small contamination detection kit, for use by the pilot, and a second, more sensitive, modified gas chromatograph for use by the fixed-base operator. The gas chromatograph, in addition to providing excellent quality control of the fixed-base operator's fuel handling, is a very good backup for the detection kit in the event it produces negative results. Design parameters were developed to the extent that they may be applied easily to commercial production by the aircraft industry.

  5. New 5 Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Space Convertor Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has recently funded development of a 5 kW (or greater) free-piston Stirling conversion system for reactor power systems. A nominal 5 kW convertor allows two of these units to be dynamically balanced. A group of three dual-convertor combinations would yield the desired 30 kW. The status of this program will be presented. Goals include a specific power in excess of 140 W/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and AC output. The initial step is the design and development of a nominal 5 kW per cylinder Stirling convertor assembly (SCA) which will serve as a prototype of one or more SCAs that will make up the final 30 kW Stirling Convertor Power System. Assumed requirements for this new convertor for lunar fission power systems will be presented. The primary objective of this development effort will be to demonstrate a 5 kW SCA that can be tested to validate the viability of Stirling technology for space fission surface power systems.

  6. Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Sigurdur

    2012-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and test a capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments where oxygen fugacity could be controlled in the vicinity of the QFM buffer without H2O loss or carbon contamination of the sample material. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) plus H2O and an inner AuPd-capsule, containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. No H2O loss is observed from the sample, even after 48 h, but a slight increase in H2O content is found in longer runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO (NNO) and Co-CoO (CoCO) buffers was measured by analyzing Fe dissolved in the Pt-wire and in the AuPd-capsule. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer values, whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values.

  7. The Influence of Cylinder Lubrication on Piston Slap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerges, S. N. Y.; de Luca, J. C.; Lalor, N.

    2002-10-01

    A model has been developed for determining the time history of piston slap impact force. This model takes into account the influence of the oil film on the impact behaviour, which was found to be an important factor. However, it was also found that entrapped gas bubbles in the oil are equally significant. Three test rigs were designed and built to study these effects on the impact phenomenon and extensive tests were carried out. The impact force time history has been determined using Reynolds' theory. Results have shown that Reynolds' theory for fluid film squeezing can be applied for oil film damping determination. However, the experimental results have also shown that when gas is entrapped during the impact, this theory considerably overpredicts the magnitude of the impact. An eight-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model was developed through the dynamic analysis of each component of an internal combustion engine's reciprocating system. The effective damping factor derived from this model was found to be inversely proportional to the oil film thickness cubed, as expected from Reynolds' theory. A dynamic model has been proposed, where the oil film mixed with bubbles is considered to be analogous to a serial spring and damping system. By incorporating a spring in series with this damper, the effect of the bubbles can also be predicted.

  8. LED Monitoring System of the Phenix Muon Piston Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motschwiller, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The Muon Piston Calorimeter in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC has a monitoring system consisting of LEDs and PIN diodes to calibrate out the time dependent changes to the detector. The LEDs track the temperature and radiation-damage changes to the response of the MPC, while the absolute calibration can be done using 0̂ decays. To execute this, LEDs flash light through the PbWO4 crystal to the Avalanche Photo Diodes The MPC is made up of 416 independent electromagnetic calorimeter towers. By using the LEDs we can correct for changes in the gains of each tower in the MPC, on a run by run basis. Because the LED value only gives a relative measurement of the gain over time, this method of calibration can only be used in conjunction with absolute calibrations provided by 0̂ decays or by minimum ionizing peaks . This work will be used to make a final measurement on Transverse energy at √sNN = 200 GV in Au+Au collisions.

  9. One-Dimensional Shock Wave Formation by an Accelerating Piston. Ph.D. Thesis - Ohio State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    The formation of a shock wave by a solid accelerating piston was studied. A theoretical solution using the method of characteristics for a perfect gas showed that a complex wave system exists, and that the compressed gas can have large gradients in temperature, density and entropy. Experiments were performed with a piston tube where piston speed, shock speed and pressure were measured. The comparison of theory and experiment was good.

  10. Shallowly driven fluctuations in lava lake outgassing (gas pistoning), Kīlauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim; Sutton, A. J.; Lev, Einat; Thelen, Wes; Fee, David

    2016-01-01

    Lava lakes provide ideal venues for directly observing and understanding the nature of outgassing in basaltic magmatic systems. Kīlauea Volcano's summit lava lake has persisted for several years, during which seismic and infrasonic tremor amplitudes have exhibited episodic behavior associated with a rise and fall of the lava surface ("gas pistoning"). Since 2010, the outgassing regime of the lake has been tied to the presence or absence of gas pistoning. During normal behavior (no gas pistoning), the lake is in a "spattering" regime, consisting of higher tremor amplitudes and gas emissions. In comparison, gas piston events are associated with an abrupt rise in lava level (up to 20 m), during which the lake enters a "non-spattering" regime with greatly decreased tremor and gas emissions. We study this episodic behavior using long-term multidisciplinary monitoring of the lake, including seismicity, infrasound, gas emission and geochemistry, and time-lapse camera observations. The non-spattering regime (i.e. rise phase of a gas piston cycle) reflects gas bubbles accumulating near the top of the lake, perhaps as a shallow foam, while spattering regimes represent more efficient decoupling of gas from the lake. We speculate that the gas pistoning might be controlled by time-varying porosity and/or permeability in the upper portions of the lava lake, which may modulate foam formation and collapse. Competing models for gas pistoning, such as deeply sourced gas slugs, or dynamic pressure balances, are not consistent with our observations. Unlike other lava lakes which have cyclic behavior that is thought to be controlled by deeply sourced processes, external to the lake itself, we show an example of lava lake fluctuations driven by cycles of activity at shallow depth and close to the lake's surface. These observations highlight the complex and unsteady nature of outgassing from basaltic magmatic systems.

  11. Gas-enabled resonance and rectified motion of a piston in a vibrated housing filled with a viscous liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Louis A.; Torczynski, John R.; Clausen, Jonathan R.; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2015-11-16

    Herein, we show how introducing a small amount of gas can completely change the motion of a solid object in a viscous liquid during vibration. We analyze an idealized system exhibiting this behavior: a piston moving in a liquid-filled housing, where the gaps between the piston and the housing are narrow and depend on the piston position. Recent experiments have shown that vibration causes some gas to move below the piston and the piston to subsequently move downward and compress its supporting spring. Herein, we analyze the analogous but simpler situation in which the gas regions are replaced by bellows with similar pressure-volume relationships. We show that these bellows form a spring (analogous to the pneumatic spring formed by the gas regions) which enables the piston and the liquid to oscillate in a mode that does not exist without this spring. This mode is referred to here as the Couette mode because the liquid in the gaps moves essentially in Couette flow (i.e., with almost no component of Poiseuille flow). Since Couette flow by itself produces extremely low damping, the Couette mode has a strong resonance. We show that, near this resonance, the dependence of the gap geometry on the piston position produces a large rectified (net) force on the piston during vibration. As a result, this force can be much larger than the piston weight and the strength of its supporting spring and is in the direction that decreases the flow resistance of the gap geometry.

  12. Efficiency at maximum power output for an engine with a passive piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Tomohiko G.; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Efficiency at maximum power (MP) output for an engine with a passive piston without mechanical controls between two reservoirs is studied theoretically. We enclose a hard core gas partitioned by a massive piston in a temperature-controlled container and analyze the efficiency at MP under a heating and cooling protocol without controlling the pressure acting on the piston from outside. We find the following three results: (i) The efficiency at MP for a dilute gas is close to the Chambadal-Novikov-Curzon-Ahlborn (CNCA) efficiency if we can ignore the sidewall friction and the loss of energy between a gas particle and the piston, while (ii) the efficiency for a moderately dense gas becomes smaller than the CNCA efficiency even when the temperature difference of the reservoirs is small. (iii) Introducing the Onsager matrix for an engine with a passive piston, we verify that the tight coupling condition for the matrix of the dilute gas is satisfied, while that of the moderately dense gas is not satisfied because of the inevitable heat leak. We confirm the validity of these results using the molecular dynamics simulation and introducing an effective mean-field-like model which we call the stochastic mean field model.

  13. Development of free-piston Stirling engine performance and optimization codes based on Martini simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, William R.

    1989-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer code is described that could be used to design and optimize a free-displacer, free-piston Stirling engine similar to the RE-1000 engine made by Sunpower. The code contains options for specifying displacer and power piston motion or for allowing these motions to be calculated by a force balance. The engine load may be a dashpot, inertial compressor, hydraulic pump or linear alternator. Cycle analysis may be done by isothermal analysis or adiabatic analysis. Adiabatic analysis may be done using the Martini moving gas node analysis or the Rios second-order Runge-Kutta analysis. Flow loss and heat loss equations are included. Graphical display of engine motions and pressures and temperatures are included. Programming for optimizing up to 15 independent dimensions is included. Sample performance results are shown for both specified and unconstrained piston motions; these results are shown as generated by each of the two Martini analyses. Two sample optimization searches are shown using specified piston motion isothermal analysis. One is for three adjustable input and one is for four. Also, two optimization searches for calculated piston motion are presented for three and for four adjustable inputs. The effect of leakage is evaluated. Suggestions for further work are given.

  14. Optical Nanofluidic Piston: Assay for Dynamic Force-Compression of Single Confined Polymer Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshid, Ahmed; Zimny, Philip; Macos, Patrick; Massarelli, Geremia; Tétreault-La Roche, David; Reisner, Walter

    2014-03-01

    While single-molecule approaches now have a long-history in polymer physics, past methodology has a key limitation : it is not currently possible to apply well-defined forces to a precise number of chains in a well-defined volume. To this end,we have developed a nanofluidic assay for the study of DNA compression in vitro, the optical nanofluidic piston. The optical nanofluidic piston is a nanofluidic analog of a macroscopic piston-cylinder apparatus based on a nanosphere (``the piston'') optically trapped inside a 200-400nm nanochannel with embedded barrier (the ``cylinder''). The nanofluidic piston enables quantification of force required to compress single or multiple chains within a defined volume. We present combined fluorescence and force-measurements for the compression of T4 DNA under a variety of compression rates. Surprisingly, we find that compression occurs on a force-scale roughly 100x higher than that predicted by equilibrium theories, suggesting that the DNA is present in highly entangled states during the compression. Moreover, we observe that compression at high rates induces a ``shock-wave'' of high-polymer concentration near the bead, suggesting that our setup can quantitatively access novel non-equilibrium polymer phenomena.

  15. Compact high-efficiency linear cryocooler in single-piston moving magnet design for HOT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Rosenhagen, C.; Withopf, A.; Zehner, S.

    2012-06-01

    State of the art Mid Wave IR-technology has the potential to rise the FPA temperature from 77K to 130-150K (High Operation Temperature, HOT). Using a HOT FPA will significantly lower SWaP and keep those parameters finally dominated by the employed cryocooler. Therefore, compact high performance cryocoolers are mandatory. AIM has developed the SX040 cooler, optimized for FPA temperatures of about 95K (presented at SPIE 2010). The SX040 cooler incorporates a high efficient dual piston driving mechanism resulting in a very compact compressor of less than 100mm length. Higher compactness - especially shorter compressors - can be achieved by change from dual to single piston design. The new SX030 compressor has such a single piston Moving Magnet driving mechanism resulting in a compressor length of about 60mm. Common for SX040 and SX030 family is a Moving Magnet driving mechanism with coils placed outside the helium vessel. In combination with high performance plastics for the piston surfaces this design enables lifetimes in excess of 20,000h MTTF. Because of the higher FPA temperature and a higher operating frequency also a new displacer needs to be developed. Based on the existing 1/4" coldfinger interface AIM developed a new displacer optimized for an FPA temperature of 140K and above. This paper gives an overview on the development of this new compact single piston cryocooler. Technical details and performance data will be shown.

  16. The optimal path of piston motion for Otto cycle with linear phenomenological heat transfer law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shaojun; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui

    2009-05-01

    An Otto cycle engine with internal and external irreversibilities of friction and heat leakage, in which the heat transfer between the working fluid and the environment obeys linear phenomenological heat transfer law [ q ∝ Δ( T -1)], is studied in this paper. The optimal piston motion trajectory for maximizing the work output per cycle is derived for the fixed total cycle time and fuel consumed per cycle. Optimal control theory is applied to determine the optimal piston trajectories for the cases of with and without piston acceleration constraint on each stroke and the optimal distribution of the total cycle time among the strokes. The optimal piston motion with acceleration constraint for each stroke consists of three segments, including initial maximum acceleration and final maximum deceleration boundary segments, respectively. Numerical examples for optimal configuration are provided, and the obtained results are compared with those obtained with Newton’s heat transfer law [ q ∝ Δ( T)]. The results also show that optimizing the piston motion can improve power and efficiency of the engine by more than 9%. This is primarily due to the decrease in heat leakage loss on the initial portion of the power stroke.

  17. Design and novel type of a magnetorheological damper featuring piston bypass hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a novel type of magnetorheological (MR) damper configuration from which an excellent ride comfort can be achieved without using a sophisticated controller scheme. The proposed novel MR damper is featured by piston bypass holes to achieve low slope of the damping force in the pre-yield (low-piston-velocity) region and high magnitude of the damping force in the post-yield (high-piston-velocity) region. A mathematical model for the damping force of the proposed MR damper is formulated followed by the investigation on damping characteristics with respect to several geometrical design parameters such as the number of piston bypass hole, the diameter of the hole, the gap size of the orifice, the orifice length, the diameter of the bobbin, and the height of the coil. After selecting the main design parameters from the simulation results, numerical simulations for the damping force characteristics are conducted with eight design parameter sets to evaluate the significant effect on the damping force performance. The proposed MR dampers are then manufactured with the same design parameter sets and the damping force characteristics are experimentally obtained and compared with the analytical simulation results. It is identified from the parametric investigations that the size and the number of the piston bypass hole are very important on damping force characteristics of the proposed MR damper.

  18. Simulating Rectified Motion of a Piston in a Housing Subjected to Vibrational Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Jonthan; Torczynski, John; Romero, Louis; O'Hern, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    We employ ALE finite element simulations to investigate the behavior of a piston in a housing subjected to vertical vibrations. The housing is filled with a viscous liquid to damp the piston motion and has bellows at both ends to represent air bubbles present in real systems. The piston has a roughly cylindrical hole along its axis, and a post attached to the housing penetrates partway into this hole. Protrusions from the hole and the post form a gap with a length that varies as the piston moves and forces liquid through this gap. Under certain conditions, nonlinearities in the system can drive the piston to move downward and compress the spring that holds it up against gravity. This behavior is investigated using ALE finite element simulations, and these results are compared with theoretical predictions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Rotary hydraulic engine having oppositely disposed pistons in a scotch yoke assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Courtright, H.D.

    1986-07-08

    A rotary hydraulic engine is described comprising, in combination; frame means; crankshaft means supported by aid frame means in substantially fixed relation therewith and having an eccentric crank portion; housing means encircling the crankshaft means and being rotatable relative thereto, the housing means defining a plurality of pairs of cylinders disposed in laterally opposed sets such that each cylinder is laterally opposed to and co-axial with an opposed cylinder; a piston slidingly disposed within each of the cylinders; a scotch yoke assembly having a pair of discrete slide members each of which interconnects the pistons disposed within the laterally opposed set of cylinders and has cooperative relation with the eccentric crank portion so as to effect tandem movement of the interconnected pistons and thereby effect relative movement between the housing means and the crankshaft means; external valve means operatively associated with each of the cylinders so as to enable selective application of fluid pressure to the pistons in a manner adapted to effect predetermined sequential movement of the pistons and associated scotch yoke assembly, thereby imparting rotary motion to the housing.

  20. Overview of free-piston Stirling technology at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (Lewis) free-piston Stirling engine activities is presented. These activities include: (1) a generic free-piston Stirling technology project being conducted to develop technologies synergistic to both space power and terrestrial heat pump applications in a cooperative, cost-shared effort with the Department of Energy (DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ONRL)), and (2) a free-piston Stirling space-power technology demonstration project as part of the SP-100 program being conducted in support of the Department of Defense (DOD), DOE, and NASA/Lewis. The generic technology effort includes extensive parametric testing of a 1 kw free-piston Stirling engine (RE-1000), development and validation of a free-piston Stirling performance computer code, and fabrication and initial testing of an hydraulic output modification for the RE-1000 engine. The space power technology effort, under SP-100, addresses the status of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) including early test results.

  1. Piston head for an internal combustion engine and a compression ring therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, T.E.

    1989-03-28

    A reciprocating piston for mounting within a cylinder of an internal combustion engine is described, the piston comprising a piston head having an endface forming a wall of a combustion chamber when the piston assumes a predetermined relative position within the cylinder and an annular groove formed in a peripheral surface of the piston head and spaced from the endface. The peripheral surface is adapted to substantially conform to but being spaced inwardly from a wall defining the cylinder; and a compression ring is adjustably mounted within the groove; the groove being spaced a predetermined axial distance from the endface and being provided with spaced inwardly extending side walls. A recessed inner wall defines the depth of the groove; the compression ring having an inner section disposed within the groove with an axial dimension less than the spacing between the groove side walls and an outer section protruding from the groove for sliding sealing engagement with the cylinder wall. The ring inner section is provided with an inner surface and opposite side surfaces, the latter being spaced from the groove side walls, each ring inner section side surface having a first segment extending inwardly from the ring outer section and being in substantially parallel relation with an adjacent groove side wall, and a second segment extending inwardly from the first segment and angularly away from the adjacent groove side wall and terminating at the ring inner surface.

  2. Measurement of thermal deformation of an engine piston using a conical mirror and ESPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertazzi, Armando, Jr.; Melao, Iza; Devece, Eugenio

    1998-07-01

    An experimental technique is developed to measure the radial displacement component of cylindrical surfaces using a conical mirror for normal illumination and observation. Single illumination ESPI is used to obtain fringe patterns related to the radial displacement field. Some data processing strategies are presented and discussed to properly extract the measurement data. Data reduction algorithms are developed to quantify and compensate the rigid body displacements: translations and rotations. The displacement component responsible for shape distortion (deformation) can be separated from the total displacement field. The thermal radial deformation of an aluminum engine piston with a steel sash is measured by this technique. A temperature change of about 2 degrees Celsius was applied to the engine piston by means of an electrical wire wrapped up in the first engine piston grove. The fringe patterns are processed and the results are presented as polar graphics and 3D representation. The main advantages and limitations of the developed technique are discussed.

  3. Design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolan, Con

    1995-01-01

    This report outlines the design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube. The project has completed its construction phase and the facility has been installed in the new impulsive research laboratory where commissioning is about to take place. The X-2 uses a unique, two-stage driver design which allows a more compact and lower overall cost free piston compressor. The new facility has been constructed in order to examine the performance envelope of the two-stage driver and how well it couple to sub-orbital and super-orbital expansion tubes. Data obtained from these experiments will be used for the design of a much larger facility, X-3, utilizing the same free piston driver concept.

  4. Friction measurements in piston-cylinder apparatus using quartz-coesite reversible transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akella, J.

    1979-01-01

    The value of friction determined by monitoring piston displacement as a function of nominal pressure on compression and decompression cycles at 1273 K is compared with the friction value obtained by reversing the quartz-coesite transition at 1273 and 1073 K in a talc-glass-alsimag cell (Akella and Kennedy, 1971) and a low-friction salt cell (Mirwald et al., 1975). Quenching runs at 1273 K gave double values of friction of 0.25 GPa for the talc-glass-alsimag cell and 0.03 GPa for the salt cell. The piston-displacement technique gave somewhat higher values. Use of piston-displacement hysteresis loops in evaluating the actual pressure on a sample may lead to overestimates for decompression runs and underestimates for compression runs.

  5. Multiple scales approach to the gas-piston non-equilibrium themodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuchiù, D.; Gubbiotti, G.

    2016-05-01

    The non-equilibrium thermodynamics of a gas inside a piston is a conceptually simple problem where analytic results are rare. For example, it is hard to find in the literature analytic formulas that describe the heat exchanged with the reservoir when the system either relaxes to equilibrium or is compressed over a finite time. In this paper we derive this kind of analytic formula. To achieve this result, we take the equations derived by Cerino et al (2015 Phys. Rev. E 91 032128) describing the dynamic evolution of a gas-piston system, we cast them in a dimensionless form, and we solve the dimensionless equations with the multiple scales expansion method. With the approximated solutions we obtained, we express in a closed form the heat exchanged by the gas-piston system with the reservoir for a large class of relevant non-equilibrium situations.

  6. A Tunable Protein Piston That Breaks Membranes to Release Encapsulated Cargo.

    PubMed

    Polka, Jessica K; Silver, Pamela A

    2016-04-15

    Movement of molecules across membranes in response to a stimulus is a key component of cellular programming. Here, we characterize and manipulate the response of a protein-based piston capable of puncturing membranes in a pH-dependent manner. Our protein actuator consists of modified R bodies found in a bacterial endosymbiont of paramecium. We express and purify R bodies from in E. coli; these pistons undergo multiple rounds of rapid extension and retraction. We developed a high throughput screen for mutants with altered pH sensitivity for tuning of the extension process. We show that the R bodies are capable of acting as synthetic pH-dependent pistons that can puncture E. coli membranes to release the trapped content. As such, these protein machines present a novel way to selectively rupture membrane compartments and will be important for programming cellular compartmentalization. PMID:26814170

  7. Validity of nonequilibrium work relations for the rapidly expanding quantum piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, H. T.; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Recent work by Teifel and Mahler [Eur. Phys. J. BEPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2010-00145-y 75, 275 (2010)] raises legitimate concerns regarding the validity of quantum nonequilibrium work relations in processes involving moving hard walls. We study this issue in the context of the rapidly expanding one-dimensional quantum piston. Utilizing exact solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we find that the evolution of the wave function can be decomposed into static and dynamic components, which have simple semiclassical interpretations in terms of particle-piston collisions. We show that nonequilibrium work relations remain valid at any finite piston speed, provided both components are included, and we study explicitly the work distribution for this model system.

  8. Analysis of a system modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Debayan; Takahashi, Takéo; Tucsnak, Marius

    2016-09-01

    We study a free boundary problem modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas. The gas-piston system fills a cylinder with fixed extremities, which possibly allow gas from the exterior to penetrate inside the cylinder. The gas is modeled by the 1D compressible Navier-Stokes system and the piston motion is described by the second Newton's law. We prove the existence and uniqueness of global in time strong solutions. The main novelty brought in by our results is that they include the case of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions which, as far as we know, have not been studied in this context. Moreover, even for homogeneous boundary conditions, our results require less regularity of the initial data than those obtained in previous works.

  9. A multipurpose miniature piston-cylinder diamond-anvil cell for pressures beyond 100 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu. Machavariani, G.; Pasternak, M. P.; Hearne, G. R.; Rozenberg, G. Kh.

    1998-03-01

    A miniature piston-cylinder diamond-anvil cell (DAC) was constructed and tested for pressure operation at and beyond 100 GPa. Its advantages compared to other piston-cylinder DACs are its compactness (22-mm diam by 21-mm high), self-contained force generator, and simple way of operation. Tungsten carbide backing plates are used for supporting the anvils; one with a hemispherical shape allowing for parallelism alignment, and one with a flat circular shape allowing for lateral alignment of the anvils' culets. The force is generated by six M3 Allen screws and is conveyed to the piston via force rings. Pressures to 130 GPa were achieved with beveled culets having 300-μm flats and Re gaskets. Design features, mode of operation, and performance are described. The latter has been demonstrated for the particular case of Mössbauer spectroscopy in La57FeO3.

  10. An Analysis of Intermetallic Bonding between a Ring Carrier and an Aluminum Piston Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasijević, Srećko; Dolić, Natalija; Zovko Brodarac, Zdenka; Djurdjević, Mile; Radiša, Radomir

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the formation of an intermetallic bond between a ring carrier and an aluminum piston alloy. The ring carrier is made of austenitic cast iron (Ni-Resist) to increase the wear resistance of the first ring groove and is applied in highly loaded diesel engines. The most important thing is that the Ni-Resist (ferrous) must be bonded with a non-ferrous piston material during the casting of the piston. A metallographic investigation using an optical microscope in combination with the SEM/EDS analysis of the quality of the intermetallic bonding layer was done. The test results show that if the proper conditions are met, then the preparation of the ring carrier can be made successfully, as can the formation of the metal connection between the two materials of different qualities.

  11. A piston-rotaxane with two potential stripes: force transitions and yield stresses.

    PubMed

    Sevick, Edith M; Williams, David R M

    2013-01-01

    We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive) for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive). This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force. PMID:24177696

  12. Nitrited-Steel Piston Rings for Engines of High Specific Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, John H; Bisson, Edmond E; Schmiedlin, Ralph F

    1945-01-01

    Stability and control characteristics determined from tests in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel of a 0.2375-scale model of the Douglas XA-26 airplane are compared with those measured in flight tests of a Douglas A-26b airplane. Several designs of nitrided-steel piston rings were performance-tested under variable conditions of output. The necessity of good surface finish and conformity of the ring to the bore was indicated in the preliminary tests. Nitrided-steel rings of the same dimensions as cast-iron rings operating on the original piston were unsatisfactory, and the final design was a lighter, rectangular, thin-face-width ring used on a piston having a maximum cross-head area and a revised skirt shape. Results were obtained from single-cylinder and multicylinder engine runs.

  13. Pre-compression volume on flow ripple reduction of a piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bing; Song, Yuechao; Yang, Huayong

    2013-11-01

    Axial piston pump with pre-compression volume(PCV) has lower flow ripple in large scale of operating condition than the traditional one. However, there is lack of precise simulation model of the axial piston pump with PCV, so the parameters of PCV are difficult to be determined. A finite element simulation model for piston pump with PCV is built by considering the piston movement, the fluid characteristic(including fluid compressibility and viscosity) and the leakage flow rate. Then a test of the pump flow ripple called the secondary source method is implemented to validate the simulation model. Thirdly, by comparing results among the simulation results, test results and results from other publications at the same operating condition, the simulation model is validated and used in optimizing the axial piston pump with PCV. According to the pump flow ripples obtained by the simulation model with different PCV parameters, the flow ripple is the smallest when the PCV angle is 13°, the PCV volume is 1.3×10-4 m3 at such operating condition that the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure 15 MPa, the pump speed 1 000 r/min, the swash plate angle 13°. At the same time, the flow ripple can be reduced when the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure is 5 MPa,15 MPa, 22 MPa, pump speed is 400 r/min, 1 000 r/min, 1 500 r/min, the swash plate angle is 11°, 13°, 15° and 17°, respectively. The finite element simulation model proposed provides a method for optimizing the PCV structure and guiding for designing a quieter axial piston pump.

  14. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaltens, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. Free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for the space application are being conducted. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear powered. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Also, an overview is presented of proposed conceptual designs for the Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) using a free-piston Stirling engine and a liquid metal heat pipe receiver. Power extraction includes both a linear alternator and hydraulic output capable of delivering approximately 25 kW of electrical power to the electric utility grid. Target cost of the engine/alternator is 300 dollars per kilowatt at a manufacturing rate of 10,000 units per year. The design life of the ASCS is 60,000 h (30 y) with an engine overhaul at 40,000 h (20 y). Also discussed are the key features and characteristics of the ASCS conceptual designs.

  15. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar Distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is conducting free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for space applications. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed by LeRC for DOE/ORNL for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Since 1983, the SP-100 Program (DOD/NASA/DOE) is developing dynamic power sources for space. Although both applications (heat pump and space power) appear to be quite different, their requirements complement each other. A cooperative Interagency Agreement (IAA) was signed in 1985 with NASA Lewis to provide technical management for an Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) for SNLA. Conceptual design(s) using a free-piston Stirling (FPSE), and a heat pipe will be discussed. The ASCS will be designed using technology which can reasonably be expected to be available in the 1980's.

  16. Vibration-Induced Rectified Motion of a Piston in a Liquid-Filled Cylinder with Bellows to Mimic Gas Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torczynski, J. R.; Romero, L. A.; Clausen, J. R.; O'Hern, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    The motion of a piston within a cylinder is investigated. A spring suspends the piston against gravity. The cylinder is filled with a viscous liquid and has compressible bellows at the top and bottom to mimic gas regions. A fixed post with protrusions extends into a hole through the piston with opposing protrusions. The length of the gap formed by the protrusions depends on the piston's vertical position. The outer gap between the piston and the cylinder is extremely small. Hence, as the piston moves, the displaced liquid passes through the variable-length gap, and the liquid force on the piston depends on its position. When this system is subjected to vertical vibrations, this dependence can produce a nonzero net force. With bellows, this net force can become large enough for the piston to compress the spring. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Compression of helium to high pressures and temperatures using a ballistic piston apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, B. P.; Rovel, G. P.; Lewis, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    Some preliminary experiments are described which were carried out in a high enthalpy laboratory to investigate the compression of helium, a typical shock-tube driver gas, to very high pressures and temperatures by means of a ballistic piston. The purpose of these measurements was to identify any problem areas in the compression process, to determine the importance of real gas effects duDC 47355s process, and to establish the feasibility of using a ballistic piston apparatus to achieve temperatures in helium in excess of 10,000 K.

  18. A transient tribodynamic approach for the calculation of internal combustion engine piston slap noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolatabadi, N.; Littlefair, B.; De la Cruz, M.; Theodossiades, S.; Rothberg, S. J.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-09-01

    An analytical/numerical methodology is presented to calculate the radiated noise due to internal combustion engine piston impacts on the cylinder liner through a film of lubricant. Both quasi-static and transient dynamic analyses coupled with impact elasto-hydrodynamics are reported. The local impact impedance is calculated, as well as the transferred energy onto the cylinder liner. The simulations are verified against experimental results for different engine operating conditions and for noise levels calculated in the vicinity of the engine block. Continuous wavelet signal processing is performed to identify the occurrence of piston slap noise events and their spectral content, showing good conformance between the predictions and experimentally acquired signals.

  19. The effect of electrode material on the motion of a plasma piston in rail accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobashev, S. V.; Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Reznikov, B. I.

    2015-10-01

    The acceleration of a plasma piston in the channels of rail accelerators with copper and graphite electrodes is studied experimentally. It is found that the plasma velocity is reduced by 15-20% (at equal discharge currents) when graphite electrodes are used instead of copper ones. This may be attributed to an increase in the erosion graphite mass that is drawn into motion by the plasma piston. It is concluded based on the interpretation of the obtained data that the current flow in the channels of rail accelerators is governed at high plasma speeds by the processes of thermoautoelectron emission.

  20. A feasibility assessment of magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling space power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Curwen, P.W.; Rao, D.K.; Wilson, D.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes work performed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under NASA Contract NAS3-26061, {open_quotes}A Feasibility Assessment of Magnetic Bearings for Free-Piston Stirling Space Engines.{close_quotes} The work was performed over the period from July 1990 through August 1991. The objective of the effort was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery of the type currently being evaluated for possible use in future long-term space missions.

  1. Separation of combustion noise and piston-slap in diesel engine—Part II: Separation of combustion noise and piston-slap using blind source separation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servière, C.; Lacoume, J.-L.; El Badaoui, M.

    2005-11-01

    This paper is devoted to blind separation of combustion noise and piston-slap in diesel engines. The two phenomena are recovered only from signals issued from accelerometers placed on one of the cylinders. A blind source separation (BSS) method is developed, based on a convolutive model of non-stationary mixtures. We introduce a new method based on the joint diagonalisation of the time varying spectral matrices of the observation records and a new technique to handle the problem of permutation ambiguity in the frequency domain. This method is then applied to real data and the estimated sources are validated by several physical arguments. So, the contribution of the piston-slap and the combustion noise can be recovered for all the sensors. The energy of the two phenomena can then be given with regards to the position of the accelerometers.

  2. Influence of the skin effect in a rail gun on the parameters of the moving plasma piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuferev, V. S.; Gnedina, M. L.; Gnedin, N. Iu.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of the motion of the plasma piston in a rail gun launcher is solved with allowance for the skin effect using plane geometry and the quasi-stationary approximation. The temperature along the piston is assumed to be constant, and the piston is assumed to move as a whole at a velocity equal to that of the accelerated projectile. It is shown that current displacement toward the rear of the piston due to the skin effect leads to an increase in the gasdynamic pressure in the plasma, with a resulting reduction in the extension of the plasmoid. The latter effect is particularly pronounced when the mass of the plasma exceeds that of the piston.

  3. The Development of a Control System for a 5 Kilowatt Free Piston Stirling Engine Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Raymond L.; Vitale, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The new NASA Vision for Exploration, announced by President Bush in January 2004, proposes an ambitious program that plans to return astronauts to the moon by the 2018 time frame. A recent NASA study entitled "Affordable Fission Surface Power Study" recommended a 40 kWe, 900 K, NaK-cooled, Stirling convertors for 2020 launch. Use of two of the nominal 5 kW convertors allows the system to be dynamically balanced. A group of four dual-convertor combinations that would yield 40 kWe can be tested to validate the viability of Stirling technology for space fission surface power systems. The work described in this paper deals specifically with the control system for the 5 kW convertor described in the preceding paragraph. This control system is responsible for maintaining piston stroke to a setpoint in the presence of various disturbances including electrical load variations. Pulse starting of the Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) convertor is also an inherent part of such a control system. Finally, the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power is discussed in terms of setpoint control. Several novel ideas have been incorporated into the piston stroke control strategy that will engender a stable response to disturbances in the presence of midpoint drift while providing useful data regarding the position of both the power piston and displacer.

  4. Development of Gas-Lubricated Pistons for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, W.

    1984-01-01

    Static testing of a segmented, gas-lubricated, piston-ring was accomplished. The ring utilizes high-pressure gas generated during the diesel cycle to energize a hydrostatic gas film between the piston and cylinder liner. The configuration was deficient in overall performance, because all segments of a ring set failed to form a fluid-film simultaneously, when exposed to internal preload. The difficulty was traced to the moment balance required to prevent the segments from overturning and contacting the cylinder walls. Some individual sectors formed a film and performed well in every respect including load capability to 6,000 N. These results produce optimism as to the ultimate feasibility of hydrostatic, gas-lubricated piston rings. In addition to test results, the principles of operation, and theoretical developments are presented. Breathable liner concepts are suggested for future consideration. In these configurations, solid hydrostatic pistons are coupled with flexible liners that elastically deform to form a gas-film under hydrostatic pressurization. Breathable liners afford the mechanical simplicity required for mass produced engines, and initial examination indicates satisfactory operation.

  5. Design and Fabrication of a 5-kWe Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Peter A.; Walter, Thomas J.; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in the design and fabrication of a 5-kWe free-piston Stirling power conversion system is described. A scaled-down version of the successful 12.5-kWe Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) developed under NAS3-25463, this single cylinder prototype incorporates cost effective and readily available materials (steel versus beryllium) and components (a commercial linear alternator). The design consists of a displacer suspended on internally pumped gas bearings and a power piston/alternator supported on flexures. Non-contacting clearance seals are used between internal volumes. Heat to and from the prototype is supplied via pumped liquid loops passing through shell and tube heat exchangers. The control system incorporates several novel ideas such as a pulse start capability and a piston stroke set point control strategy that provides the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power. It also ensures stable response to various disturbances such as electrical load variations while providing useful data regarding the position of both power piston and displacer. All design and analysis activities are complete and fabrication is underway. Prototype test is planned for summer 2008 at Foster-Miller to characterize the dynamics and steady-state operation of the prototype and determine maximum power output and system efficiency. Further tests will then be performed at Auburn University to determine start-up and shutdown characteristics and assess transient response to temperature and load variations.

  6. Tribological evaluation of piston skirt/cylinder liner contact interfaces under boundary lubrication conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Demas, N. G.; Erck, R. A.; Fenske, G. R.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-01

    The friction and wear between the piston and cylinder liner significantly affects the performance of internal combustion engines. In this paper, segments from a commercial piston/cylinder system were tribologically tested using reciprocating motion. The tribological contact consisted of aluminium alloy piston segments, either uncoated, coated with a graphite/resin coating, or an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C : H) coating, in contact with gray cast iron liner segments. Tests were conducted in commercial synthetic motor oils and base stocks at temperatures up to 120 C with a 2 cm stroke length at reciprocating speeds up to 0.15 m s{sup -1}. The friction dependence of these piston skirt and cylinder liner materials was studied as a function of load, sliding speed and temperature. Specifically, an increase in the sliding speed led to a decrease in the friction coefficient below approximately 70 C, while above this temperature, an increase in sliding speed led to an increase in the friction coefficient. The presence of a coating played an important role. It was found that the graphite/resin coating wore quickly, preventing the formation of a beneficial tribochemical film, while the a-C : H coating exhibited a low friction coefficient and provided significant improvement over the uncoated samples. The effect of additives in the oils was also studied. The tribological behaviour of the interface was explained based on viscosity effects and subsequent changes in the lubrication regime, formation of chemical and tribochemical films.

  7. Stochastic stability assessment of a semi-free piston engine generator concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kigezi, T. N.; Gonzalez Anaya, J. A.; Dunne, J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Small engines, as power generators with low-noise and vibration characteristics, are needed in two niche application areas: as electric vehicle range extenders and as domestic micro Combined Heat and Power systems. A recent semi-free piston design known as the AMOCATIC generator fully meets this requirement. The engine potentially allows for high energy conversion efficiencies at resonance derived from having a mass and spring assembly. As with free-piston engines in general, stability and control of piston motion has been cited as the prime challenge limiting the technology's widespread application. Using physical principles, we derive in this paper two important results: an energy balance criterion and a related general stability criterion for a semi-free piston engine. Control is achieved by systematically designing a Proportional Integral (PI) controller using a control-oriented engine model for which a specific stability condition is stated. All results are presented in closed form throughout the paper. Simulation results under stochastic pressure conditions show that the proposed energy balance, stability criterion, and PI controller, operate as predicted to yield stable engine operation at fixed compression ratio.

  8. Numerical solution of the Stratonovich- and Ito–Euler equations: Application to the stochastic piston problem

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Xiu; Lin, Guang; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-03-01

    We consider a piston with a velocity perturbed by Brownian motion moving into a straight tube filled with a perfect gas at rest. The shock generated ahead of the piston can be located by solving the one-dimensional Euler equations driven by white noise using the Stratonovich or Ito formulations. We approximate the Brownian motion with its spectral truncation and subsequently apply stochastic collocation using either sparse grid or the quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) method. In particular, we first transform the Euler equations with an unsteady stochastic boundary into stochastic Euler equations over a fixed domain with a time-dependent stochastic source term. We then solve the transformed equations by splitting them up into two parts, i.e., a ‘deterministic part’ and a ‘stochastic part’. Numerical results verify the Stratonovich–Euler and Ito–Euler models against stochastic perturbation results, and demonstrate the efficiency of sparse grid and QMC for small and large random piston motions, respectively. The variance of shock location of the piston grows cubically in the case of white noise in contrast to colored noise reported in [1], where the variance of shock location grows quadratically with time for short times and linearly for longer times.

  9. Investigation into piston-slap-induced vibration for engine condition simulation and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Z.; Chen, J.

    2005-04-01

    Piston slap is a common impact phenomenon existing in the reciprocating engine. It is also a major cause of the complex transient vibration response related to the impact excitation inside the engine. In order to correlate the piston-slap impact with the slap-induced vibration and consequently find out an effective approach for the engine dynamic behaviour simulation and working condition monitoring, an in-depth investigation from theoretical modelling to experimental verification is made in this paper. Firstly, the piston-slap phenomenon inside the reciprocating engine is briefly discussed from the viewpoint of engine mechanics. Based upon this, a nonlinear model is developed to simulate the slap-induced vibration response. Using numerical integration procedure, the slap-induced vibration response and its correlation with the inner-cylinder piston-slap impact are reasonably evaluated. Guided by the simulating results and, by introducing a fast wavelet-packet decomposition and reconstruction algorithm, a specially designed experiment is made to practically measure and extract the slap-induced impact message inside the 6190Z LC diesel engine. Comparison between the simulation and practically measured and reconstructed engine vibration signals verifies the effectiveness and practicality of this approach for more detailed academic research and engineering application.

  10. Avco Lycoming/NASA contract status. [on reduction of emissions from aircraft piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions were the basis in a study of ways to reduce emissions from aircraft piston engines. A variable valve timing system, ultrasonic fuel atomization, and ignition system changes were postulated.

  11. Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Reed M; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M; Reitz, Rolf; Kokjohn, Sage

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that that produces low NO{sub x} and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom machined pistons designed for RCCI operation. The pistons were designed with assistance from the KIVA 3V computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. By using a genetic algorithm optimization, in conjunction with KIVA, the piston bowl profile was optimized for dedicated RCCI operation to reduce unburned fuel emissions and piston bowl surface area. By reducing these parameters, the thermal efficiency of the engine was improved while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions. Results show that with the new piston bowl profile and an optimized injection schedule, RCCI brake thermal efficiency was increased from 37%, with the stock EURO IV configuration, to 40% at the 2,600 rev/min, 6.9 bar BMEP condition, and NOx and PM emissions targets were met without the need for exhaust after-treatment.

  12. Gas-enabled resonance and rectified motion of a piston in a vibrated housing filled with a viscous liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Romero, Louis A.; Torczynski, John R.; Clausen, Jonathan R.; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2015-11-16

    Herein, we show how introducing a small amount of gas can completely change the motion of a solid object in a viscous liquid during vibration. We analyze an idealized system exhibiting this behavior: a piston moving in a liquid-filled housing, where the gaps between the piston and the housing are narrow and depend on the piston position. Recent experiments have shown that vibration causes some gas to move below the piston and the piston to subsequently move downward and compress its supporting spring. Herein, we analyze the analogous but simpler situation in which the gas regions are replaced by bellowsmore » with similar pressure-volume relationships. We show that these bellows form a spring (analogous to the pneumatic spring formed by the gas regions) which enables the piston and the liquid to oscillate in a mode that does not exist without this spring. This mode is referred to here as the Couette mode because the liquid in the gaps moves essentially in Couette flow (i.e., with almost no component of Poiseuille flow). Since Couette flow by itself produces extremely low damping, the Couette mode has a strong resonance. We show that, near this resonance, the dependence of the gap geometry on the piston position produces a large rectified (net) force on the piston during vibration. As a result, this force can be much larger than the piston weight and the strength of its supporting spring and is in the direction that decreases the flow resistance of the gap geometry.« less

  13. Quantitative two-dimensional measurement of oil-film thickness by laser-induced fluorescence in a piston-ring model experiment.

    PubMed

    Wigger, Stefan; Füßer, Hans-Jürgen; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Schulz, Christof; Kaiser, Sebastian A

    2016-01-10

    This paper describes advances in using laser-induced fluorescence of dyes for imaging the thickness of oil films in a rotating ring tribometer with optical access, an experiment representing a sliding piston ring in an internal combustion engine. A method for quantitative imaging of the oil-film thickness is developed that overcomes the main challenge, the accurate calibration of the detected fluorescence signal for film thicknesses in the micrometer range. The influence of the background material and its surface roughness is examined, and a method for flat-field correction is introduced. Experiments in the tribometer show that the method yields quantitative, physically plausible results, visualizing features with submicrometer thickness. PMID:26835762

  14. Calibration and comparison of the NASA Lewis free-piston Stirling engine model predictions with RE-1000 test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    A free-piston Stirling engine performance code is being upgraded and validated at the NASA Lewis Research Center under an interagency agreement between the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NASA Lewis. Many modifications were made to the free-piston code in an attempt to decrease the calibration effort. A procedure was developed that made the code calibration process more systematic. Engine-specific calibration parameters are often used to bring predictions and experimental data into better agreement. The code was calibrated to a matrix of six experimental data points. Predictions of the calibrated free-piston code are compared with RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine sensitivity test data taken at NASA Lewis. Resonable agreement was obtained between the code predictions and the experimental data over a wide range of engine operating conditions.

  15. Method and apparatus for locating top dead center position of a piston of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.

    1987-05-26

    The method is described of locating the top dead center position of a piston of a diesel internal combustion engine that is reciprocable within a cylinder of the engine and which is connected to the crankshaft of the engine. The steps comprise: while the engine is running detecting light radiation developed within the cylinder when the piston is operating in its compression stroke; developing an electrical signal the magnitude of which varies in accordance with the intensity of the light radiation, the signal having a peak that occurs at a position of the piston that is prior to the top dead center position of the piston; recording data that includes simultaneous crankshaft positions and signal magnitudes for a succession of crankshaft positions during the compression stroke of the engine, determining from the data the peak related crankshaft position at which the peak occurred; and determining engine speed.

  16. On the dynamic response of pressure transmission lines in the research of helium-charged free piston Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric L.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The signal distortion inherent to pressure transmission lines in free-piston Stirling engine research is discussed. Based on results from classical analysis, guidelines are formulated to describe the dynamic response properties of a volume-terminated transmission tube for applications involving the helium-charged free-piston Stirling engines. The underdamped flow regime is described, the primary resonance frequency is derived, and the pressure phase and amplitude distortion are discussed. The scope and limitation of the dynamic response analysis are considered.

  17. Qualitative analysis of the behavior of the plasma piston in the channel of a rail-gun launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorskii, A. V.

    1991-12-01

    The principal difficulties associated with the realization of high launching velocities in rail guns are briefly reviewed with emphasis on the difficulties related to the gasdynamic structure of the plasma piston and electrode erosion. These phenomena are analyzed in qualitative terms, with attention given to the conditions under which they occur and to the stability of stationary states. The importance of special measures aimed at ensuring the compactness of the plasma piston at the initial stage of acceleration is emphasized.

  18. Free-piston Stirling Engine system considerations for various space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dochat, George R.; Dhar, Manmohan

    1991-01-01

    Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (ac, dc, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper reviews potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. This paper briefly outlines the program and recent progress.

  19. Design & Development of a High Mass Flow Piston Synthetic Jet Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Hamad Muhammad; Murugan Illikkal, Karthika; D'souza, Francis; Alsayed Mahmood, Mohamed; Mahmud Mostafa, Suhail; Kim, Young Hwan

    2015-05-01

    The idea of having a device that is capable of working in a systematic process allowing control of the boundary layer by means of operated on high-frequency, small-scale, and low energy actuators has caught the interest of the aerodynamicist community. With an eye on the available data and potential flow control advantages, our research team set out to manufacture a compact SJA (Synthetic Jet Actuator) of its own, which would be capable of being installed inside an airfoil. It consists of components such as a single piston cylinder, with variable exit geometry along with the control system that has an electrical actuator which can be regulated in order for it to be capable of producing various operating frequencies. This paper consists of a study into the design of a single piston device SJA and will present all significant data both theoretical and computational regarding its design and performance.

  20. Electrothermally actuated tip-tilt-piston micromirror with integrated varifocal capability.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jessica; Imboden, Matthias; Little, Thomas D C; Bishop, D J

    2015-04-01

    MEMS micromirrors have proven to be very important optical devices with applications ranging from steerable mirrors for switches and cross-connects to spatial light modulators for correcting optical distortions. Usually beam steering and focusing are done with different MEMS devices and tilt angles in excess of 10 degrees are seldom obtained. Here we describe a single MEMS device that combines tip/tilt, piston mode and varifocal capability into a single, low cost device with very large tilt angles. Our device consists of a 400 micron diameter mirror driven with thermal bimorphs. We have demonstrated deflection angles of ± 40 degrees along both axes, a tunable focal length which varies between -0.48 mm to + 20.5 mm and a piston mode range of 300 microns - four separately controllable degrees of freedom in a single device. Potential applications range from smart lighting to optical switches and devices for telecom systems. PMID:25968784

  1. Performance analysis and field testing of a compact dual-piston, hydraulic sucker rod pumping unit

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Weaver, P.

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents a new compact dual acting piston hydraulic sucker rod pumping unit. Some unique advantages of the unit are presented. Stroke length and speed are readily changed by simple adjustments made to the hydraulics. Larger hydraulic piston cylinders are interchangable without having to replace the entire unit. Performance data is presented which compares the hydraulic unit against selected conventional rotary pumping units. A comparison is made between the hydraulic unit and conventional beam pumping units. Performance evaluations were made, based on numerous accoustical well sounding and dynamometer tests. Field dynagraph cards and their analysis are presented which provide a quantitative comparison of the hydraulic unit versus the beam unit. The results obtained verify that the hydraulic unit is superior to that of a conventional well pumping unit. Economic advantages and potential applications of the hydraulic unit are discussed.

  2. An Experimental Measurement of Lubrication Behavior of Piston Rings in a Spark Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungwoo; Choi, Sangmin; Bae, Choongsik

    Friction forces of a piston ring pack for a typical SI engine were measured using a floating liner system, in which the effects of cylinder pressure, oil starvation and piston secondary motion were excluded. Friction patterns of each individual ring, represented by measured friction forces, were classified into five frictional modes with regard to the combination of predominant lubrication regimes (boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication) and stroke regions (mid-stroke and dead centers). Those modes were identified on a Stribeck diagram of the dimensionless bearing parameter and friction coefficients; the coefficients were evaluated at mid-stroke and at dead centers. Frictional modes were evaluated by varying operation parameters (such as engine speed and cylinder wall temperature). Compression rings operated in the mode in which hydrodynamic lubrication was dominant at mid-stroke, while mixed lubrication was dominant at dead centers in steady conditions. However, oil control rings operated in the mode in which mixed lubrication was dominant throughout the entire stroke.

  3. Hypergolic combustion model for four-stroke heat-barrier piston engines--

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, D.A. ); Shih, T.-M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    A numerical model for hypergolic combustion within a four-stroke heat-barrier piston engine has been developed. An idealized fuel injector simulates the type of injector used in current experimental hypergolic combustion research. Significant to the modeling of this injector is the need to overcome the problems posed by a unit Mach number boundary condition at the injector orifice opening. Overall, the model is used to simulate a compression stroke and fuel injection portion of a power stroke. An implicit finite-difference solution of the governing flow field equations is used. The engine is modeled with the fuel injector being colocated with a single valve, making possible an axisymmetric solution. Because of its physics, hypergolic combustion dictates an eddy dissipation combustion approach. In the final run a 20 {times} 26 mesh is used for the greater region, which is made up of the flow field and a thin portion of the adjacent cylinder linings and piston.

  4. Blind source separation of internal combustion engine piston slap from other measured vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianhua; Randall, R. B.

    2005-11-01

    Internal combustion engines have several vibration sources, such as combustion, fuel injection, piston slap and valve operation. For machine condition monitoring or design improvement purposes, it is necessary to separate the vibration signals caused by different sources and then analyse each of them individually. However, traditional frequency analysis techniques are not very useful due to overlap of the different sources over a wide frequency range. This paper attempts to separate the vibration sources, especially piston slap, by using blind source separation techniques with the intention of revealing the potential of the new technique for solving mechanical vibration problems. The BSS method and the Blind least mean square algorithm using Gray's variable norm as a measure of non-Gaussianity of the sources is briefly described and separation results for both simulated and measured data are presented and discussed.

  5. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power, Phase I Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Buffalino, Andrew; Holliday, Ezekiel; Penswick, Barry; Gedeon, David

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the design of a 12 kW dual opposed free-piston Stirling convertor and controller for potential future use in space missions. The convertor is heated via a pumped NaK loop and cooling is provided by a pumped water circuit. Convertor efficiency is projected at 27 percent (AC electrical out/heat in). The controller converts the AC electrical output to 120 Vdc and is projected at 91 percent efficiency. A mechanically simple arrangement, based on proven technology, was selected in which the piston is resonated almost entirely by the working space pressure swing, while the displacer is resonated by planar mechanical springs in the bounce space.

  6. The effect of preignition on cylinder temperatures, pressures, power output, and piston failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrington, Lester C; Fisher, William F

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted using a cylinder of a V-type liquid-cooled engine to observe the behavior of the cylinder when operated under preignition conditions. Data were recorded that showed cylinder-head temperatures, time of ignition, engine speed, power output, and change in maximum cylinder pressure as a function of time as the engine entered preignition and was allowed to operate under preignition conditions for a short time. The effects of the following variables on the engine behavior during preignition were investigated: fuel-air ratio, power level, aromatic content of fuel, engine speed, mixture temperature, and preignition source. The power levels at which preignition would cause complete piston failure for the selected engine operating conditions and the types of failure encountered when using various values of clearance between the piston and cylinder barrel were determined. The fuels used had performance numbers high enough to preclude any possibility of knock throughout the test program.

  7. Free-Piston Stirling Convertor Controller Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor - the Stirling cycle engine, linear alternator, controller, and load. This paper is concerned with controllers. It discusses three controllers that have been studied using this model. Case motion has been added to the model recently so that effects of differences between convertor components can be simulated and ameliorative control engineering techniques can be developed. One concern when applying a system comprised of interconnected mass-spring-damper components is to prevent operation in any but the intended mode. The design mode is the only desired mode of operation, but all other modes are considered in controller design.

  8. Overview of free-piston Stirling SP-100 activities at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) SP-100 free-piston Stirling engine activities is presented. These activities are being conducted in support of the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. The space-power technology effort, under SP-100, addresses the status of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). Another facet of the SP-100 project covers the status of an endurance test. Dynamic balancing of the SPDE engine is discussed along with a summary covering the parametric results of a study showing the relationship between power-converter specific weight and efficiency both as a function of Stirling engine heater to cooler temperature ratio. Design parameters and conceptual design features are presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power converter. And finally, a description of a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept is presented.

  9. Comparative survey of dynamic analyses of free-piston Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Rauch, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    Reported dynamics analyses for evaluating the steady-state response and stability of free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) systems are compared. Various analytical approaches are discussed to provide guidance on their salient features. Recommendations are made in the recommendations remarks for an approach which captures most of the inherent properties of the engine. Such an approach has the potential for yielding results which will closely match practical FPSE-load systems.

  10. Development of Electronic Load Controllers for Free-Piston Stirling Convertors Aided by Stirling Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor: the Stirling cycle engine, heat source, linear alternator, controller, and load. So far, it has been used in evaluating the performance of electronic controller designs. Three different controller design concepts were simulated using the model: 1) Controllers with parasitic direct current loading. 2) Controllers with parasitic alternating current loading. 3) Controllers that maintain a reference current. The free-piston Stirling convertor is an electromechanical device that operates at resonance. It is the function of the electronic load controller to ensure that the electrical load seen by the machine is always great enough to keep the amplitude of the piston and alternator oscillation at the rated value. This is done by regulating the load on the output bus. The controller monitors the instantaneous voltage, regulating it by switching loads called parasitic loads onto the bus whenever the bus voltage is too high and removing them whenever the voltage is too low. In the first type of controller, the monitor-ing and switching are done on the direct-current (dc) bus. In the second type, the alternating current bus is used. The model allows designers to test a controller concept before investing time in hardware. The simulation code used to develop the model also offers detailed models of digital and analog electronic components so that the resulting designs are realistic enough to translate directly into hardware circuits.

  11. Four-piston double-duct liquid metal MHD engine and AC generator

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    Operating principles, features and applications of the Liquid Metal (LM) engine are presented. This engine combines a free-piston internal combustion engine with an MHD AC power generator. Liquid metal (LM) oscillates back-and-forth in two separate channels, driven by free pistons coupled magnetically to pistons driven by internal combustion. One of the principal breakthroughs is the concept of using double ducts in a Hartmann configuration for MHD production of alternating current. The LM flows in opposing directions in the two adjacent Hartmann ducts, thus eliminating magnetic-induced instabilities, eliminating vibration, and providing an ideal setup for attaching an output transformer on one side provide to provide useful ranges of current and voltage. Because LM is used, the length of the piston stroke can be easily varied over a large range, thus making possible an engine that, changes size, according to variation in output load requirements. Increasing the stroke length results in increased compression ratio, which requires computer controlled modification of the fuel injection mixture. Higher fuel efficiencies will result, whether the engine is idling or operating at maximum power. Because of viscous dissipation losses in the LM, this engine will be more efficient for larger engines. Applications include any power generation where variable load is required, such as stationary electric generators for remote towns and cities, temporary military encampments, and mobile primary power generators for off-road and on-road automotive equipment, including caterpillars, cars, military vehicles, trucks, and trains. The advantages for automotive propulsion will be described in comparisons with current and developmental vehicles using internal combustion engines. Because the LM-engine generates electricity, an LM-engine vehicle is readily adaptable to hybrid concepts. An R&D program will be outlined for bringing the concept of the LM engine to commercial application.

  12. Self-aligning hydraulic piston assembly for tensile testing of ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning grip housing assembly that can transmit an uniaxial load to a tensil specimen without introducing bending stresses into the specimen. Disposed inside said grip housing assembly are a multiplicity of supporting pistons connected to a common source of pressurized oil that carry equal shares of the load applied to the specimen irregardless whether there is initial misalignment between the specimen load column assembly and housing axis.

  13. Self-aligning hydraulic piston assembly for tensile testing of ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Liu, K.C.

    1987-08-18

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning grip housing assembly that can transmit an uniaxial load to a tensile specimen without introducing bending stresses into the specimen. Disposed inside said grip housing assembly are a multiplicity of supporting pistons connected to a common source of pressurized oil that carry equal shares of the load applied to the specimen regardless whether there is initial misalignment between the specimen load column assembly and housing axis. 4 figs.

  14. Hybrid sliding mode position control for a piston air motor ball screw table.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Hua; Hwang, Yean-Ren

    2012-05-01

    Air motors have been generally applied in the automation industry. Since air motors operate without electricity, they will not produce sparks, explosions or short circuit phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of a ball screw table actuated by a piston air motor and design a hybrid (backstepping and fuzzy) sliding mode controller for accomplishing accurate position performance. The experimental results validate the proposed position control strategy.

  15. Reciprocating balance weight mechanism for a piston type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nivi, H.; Field, N.L. III

    1987-08-25

    A balancing mechanism is described for reducing the vibration of a piston type internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a camshaft, the balancing mechanisms comprising one or more reciprocating balance weights, with each weight comprising an elongate body having a cam follower mounted at either end and with each weight being driven by two rotating cams with at least one of the cams being driven by either the crankshaft or the camshaft.

  16. Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of combustion engine piston rings. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Thomas, T.M.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures piston rings. Steel and iron rings are machined, chrome-plated or coated, machined again, cleaned, and shipped to customers. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that wastewater and wastewater treatment sludge are the waste streams generated in greatest quantity and that the greatest cost savings could be achieved by modifying the method of masking the rings prior to chrome plating.

  17. Testing and performance characteristics of a 1-kW free piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, J.

    1983-01-01

    A 1 kW single cylinder free piston Stirling engine, configured as a research engine, was tested with helium working gas. The engine features a posted displacer and dashpot load. The test results show the engine power output and efficiency to be lower than those observed during acceptance tests by the manufacturer. Engine tests results are presented for operation at the two heater head temperatures and with two regenerator porosities, along with flow test results for the heat exchangers.

  18. Flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a quasi-one-dimensional channel under the action of a piston

    SciTech Connect

    Kamchatnov, A. M.; Korneev, S. V.

    2010-01-15

    The problem of the flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a channel under the action of a piston is considered. Problems of this kind are topical in connection with experiments on condensate flow control in quasi-one-dimensional (cigar-shaped) traps, in wh ich the repulsive potential produced by a laser beam focused across the trap acts as a piston. A dispersive shock wave characterized by rapid oscillations of the condensate density and flow velocity is shown to be formed in the condensate flow after some instant of time for an arbitrary law of piston motion. The Whitham averaging method is used to obtain a solution for the main parameters of the dispersive shock wave in the case of a uniformly accelerated piston motion. The evolution of the dispersive shock wave immediately after the breaking time, when the dispersionless solution is well approximated by a cubic parabola for the coordinate dependence of the density, is analyzed in the case of an arbitrary piston motion. Comparison shows good agreement of the numerical calculation with the approximate analytical theory. The developed theory complements the previously considered case of a piston moving with a constant velocity and is important for describing the condensate transport in atomic chips.

  19. Influence of sliding surface roughness and oil temperature on piston ring pack operation of an automotive IC engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper a comprehensive model of a piston ring pack motion on an oil film has been presented. The local oil film thickness can be compared to height of the combined roughness of sliding surfaces of piston rings and cylinder liner. Equations describing the mixed lubrication problem based on the empirical mathematical model formulated in works of Patir, Cheng and Greenwood, Tripp have been combined and used in this paper. The developed model takes the following phenomena into account: hydrodynamic and contact forces, spring and gas forces acting on piston rings. The rings motion concerning low and high temperature of cylinder surface has been compared. These results concern cases of hydrodynamic and mixed lubrication. Changes of oil wetted area and contact zone of piston rings have been shown. In addition the oil film thickness distribution along cylinder liner and all the forces acting on piston rings have been analysed and discussed. The results have been presented in form of relevant diagrams. The developed model and software can be utilized for optimization of piston rings design.

  20. Piston diaphragm pumps: An economic and reliable tool for slurry pipeline transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, B. van den

    1998-07-01

    Slurry transportation systems by means of pumps and pipelines has been in use now for over 100 years. Hydraulic transportation of slurries is defined as a two-phase transportation of a mixture of a fluid carrier and solids, mainly in enclosed pipelines. In the mid fifties, slurry transportation techniques became more sophisticated, resulting in the design and operation of long distance pipelines for raw materials, such as coal, copper concentrate, iron concentrate, kaolin and phosphate. Nowadays, slurry transportation through pipelines has become a generally accepted means of solids transportation. A major contribution to its acceptance was the development of reliable and efficient high pressure positive displacement piston diaphragm slurry pumps. This paper will deal with the latest development in this field, namely, the high pressure GEHO piston diaphragm pump. In order to create more understanding for the possible applications and use of such piston diaphragm pumps in relation to minerals and waste transportation through pipelines, a number of typical examples will be discussed.

  1. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  2. Erythropsidinium (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) in the Pacific Ocean, a unique dinoflagellate with an ocelloid and a piston.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    The distribution and morphology of the dinoflagellate Erythropsidinium (=Erythropsis) was studied in the vicinity of the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents, the Philippine, Celebes, Sulu and South China Seas, western and central equatorial and southeast Pacific Ocean. Ninety-four specimens were observed, most of them collected from depths of less than 90m. The highest abundance (15cellsL(-1)) was recorded in the north Philippine Sea in May (32 degrees N, 138 degrees E, 30-m depth). Twenty-four specimens were found in a station in the offshore Perú-Chile Current (31 degrees 52'S, 91 degrees 24'W). The transition regions between open warm waters and productive currents or upwellings seem to favour the abundance of Erythropsidinium. Specimens with duplicate pistons, with two protuberant ocelloids, and specimens with a piston that attains up to 20 times the body length are illustrated for the first time. All the specimens have been ascribed to the type species, Erythropsidinium agile, until stable taxonomical criteria are established for the species diagnosis. Despite the complexity of its organelles, the ocelloid and piston, the competitiveness of Erythropsidinium in the pelagic ecosystem seems to be low.

  3. Design and control of a fast tool servo used in noncircular piston turning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Shuyan

    2013-03-01

    Noncircular pistons are becoming more and more popular in the automotive industry. The challenge of machining this kind of pistons (e.g., middle-convex and varying ellipse piston (MCVEP)), lies in the rigorous demand of the cutting feed mechanism for large force generation, high stiffness, fast response, long stroke and high accuracy. The conventional processing methods cannot meet the challenge so a new piezoelectric actuator (PEA) based fast tool servo (FTS) mechanism was developed to incorporate additional functions to a general CNC system that will facilitate the execution of MCVEP turning. Since the desired tool trajectories are approximately periodic signals in MCVEP turning, and the repetitive control can achieve asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection of periodic signals, a plug-in repetitive control is designed to be added on the conventional PID controller. In the experiments, the designed prototype was used to machine a MCVEP for the gasoline engine, which was equipped with the PEA-based FTS system, as well as the plug-in repetitive controller. The machining test validated the effective of the designed noncircular turning system.

  4. Overview of Multi-kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2008-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center. Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October, 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  5. Overview of Multi-Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2008-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center (GRC). Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  6. The Development of a Control System for a 5 Kilowatt Free Piston Stirling Space Convertor

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Raymond L.; Vitale, N.

    2008-01-21

    The new NASA Vision for Exploration, announced by President Bush in January 2004, proposes an ambitious program that plans to return astronauts to the moon by the 2018 time frame. A recent NASA study entitled 'Affordable Fission Surface Power Study' recommended a 40 kWe, 900 K, NaK-cooled, Stirling conversion for 2020 launch. Use of two of the nominal 5 kW converters allows the system to be dynamically balanced. A group of four dual-converter combinations that would yield 40 kWe can be tested to validate the viability of Stirling technology for space fission surface power systems. The work described in this paper deals specifically with the control system for the 5 kW convertor described in the preceding paragraph. This control system is responsible for maintaining piston stroke to a setpoint in the presence of various disturbances including electrical load variations. Pulse starting of the FSPE convertor is also an inherent part of such a control system. Finally, the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power is discussed in terms of setpoint control. Several novel ideas have been incorporated into the piston stroke control strategy that will engender a stable response to disturbances in the presence of midpoint drift while providing useful data regarding the position of both the power piston and displacer.

  7. Overview of Multi-Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at GRC

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2008-01-21

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center. Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October, 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  8. Influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters of spring-piston air guns.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    In firearm examiners' and forensic specialists' casework as well as in air gun proof testing, reliable measurement of the weapon's muzzle velocity is indispensable. While there are standardized and generally accepted procedures for testing the performance of air guns, the method of seating the diabolo pellets deeper into the breech of break barrel spring-piston air guns has not found its way into standardized test procedures. The influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters was investigated using ten different break barrel spring-piston air guns. Test shots were performed with the diabolo pellets seated 2 mm deeper into the breech using a pellet seater. The results were then compared to reference shots with conventionally loaded diabolo pellets. Projectile velocity was measured with a high-precision redundant ballistic speed measurement system. In eight out of ten weapons, the muzzle energy increased significantly when the pellet seater was used. The average increase in kinetic energy was 31 % (range 9-96 %). To conclude, seating the pellet even slightly deeper into the breech of spring-piston air guns might significantly alter the muzzle energy. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this effect is taken into account when accurate and reliable measurements of air gun muzzle velocity are necessary. PMID:27448569

  9. Conjugate conduction-convection heat transfer model for four-stroke heat-barrier-piston engines

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, D.A.; Shih, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model for conjugate conduction-convection heat transfer in a four-stroke heat-barrier-piston engine has been developed. The system boundaries were extended beyond the flow to fixed distances within the piston and cylinder linings. The model was used to simulate the compression stroke and fuel injection portion of the power stroke of a four-stroke engine cycle. Final runs involved a 20 X 26 mesh to solve the conjugate heat transfer problem in the large region made up of the flow field and a thin portion of the adjacent cylinder linings. A smaller mesh was used for other flow field calculations inside the interior boundary of the cylinder linings and piston. The engine was modeled with the fuel injector co-located with a single valve, making possible an axisymmetric solution. The effects of swirl were not considered. It was found to be convenient to divide the flow field into three regions: one fixed in space with time, one utilizing a stretching and compressing computational mesh, and one moving with time without stretching and compressing.

  10. The Development of a Control System for a 5 Kilowatt Free Piston Stirling Space Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Raymond L.; Vitale, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The new NASA Vision for Exploration, announced by President Bush in January 2004, proposes an ambitious program that plans to return astronauts to the moon by the 2018 time frame. A recent NASA study entitled "Affordable Fission Surface Power Study" recommended a 40 kWe, 900 K, NaK-cooled, Stirling conversion for 2020 launch. Use of two of the nominal 5 kW converters allows the system to be dynamically balanced. A group of four dual-converter combinations that would yield 40 kWe can be tested to validate the viability of Stirling technology for space fission surface power systems. The work described in this paper deals specifically with the control system for the 5 kW convertor described in the preceding paragraph. This control system is responsible for maintaining piston stroke to a setpoint in the presence of various disturbances including electrical load variations. Pulse starting of the FSPE convertor is also an inherent part of such a control system. Finally, the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power is discussed in terms of setpoint control. Several novel ideas have been incorporated into the piston stroke control strategy that will engender a stable response to disturbances in the presence of midpoint drift while providing useful data regarding the position of both the power piston and displacer.

  11. Both piston-like and rotational motions are present in bacterial chemoreceptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Daqi; Ma, Xiaomin; Tu, Yuhai; Lai, Luhua

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis signaling is triggered by binding of chemo-effectors to the membrane-bound chemoreceptor dimers. Though much is known about the structure of the chemoreceptors, details of the receptor dynamics and their effects on signaling are still unclear. Here, by using molecular dynamics simulations and principle component analysis, we study the dynamics of the periplasmic domain of aspartate chemoreceptor Tar dimer and its conformational changes when binding to different ligands (attractant, antagonist, and two attractant molecules). We found two dominant components (modes) in the receptor dynamics: a relative rotation of the two Tar monomers and a piston-like up-and-down sliding movement of the α4 helix. These two modes are highly correlated. Binding of one attractant molecule to the Tar dimer induced both significant piston-like downward movements of the α4 helix and strong relative rotations of the two Tar monomers, while binding of an antagonist or the symmetric binding of two attractant molecules to a Tar dimer suppresses both modes. The anti-symmetric effects of the relative rotation mode also explained the negative cooperativity between the two binding pockets. Our results suggest a mechanism of coupled rotation and piston-like motion for bacterial chemoreceptor signaling.

  12. Influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters of spring-piston air guns.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    In firearm examiners' and forensic specialists' casework as well as in air gun proof testing, reliable measurement of the weapon's muzzle velocity is indispensable. While there are standardized and generally accepted procedures for testing the performance of air guns, the method of seating the diabolo pellets deeper into the breech of break barrel spring-piston air guns has not found its way into standardized test procedures. The influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters was investigated using ten different break barrel spring-piston air guns. Test shots were performed with the diabolo pellets seated 2 mm deeper into the breech using a pellet seater. The results were then compared to reference shots with conventionally loaded diabolo pellets. Projectile velocity was measured with a high-precision redundant ballistic speed measurement system. In eight out of ten weapons, the muzzle energy increased significantly when the pellet seater was used. The average increase in kinetic energy was 31 % (range 9-96 %). To conclude, seating the pellet even slightly deeper into the breech of spring-piston air guns might significantly alter the muzzle energy. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this effect is taken into account when accurate and reliable measurements of air gun muzzle velocity are necessary.

  13. Fluid dynamic modeling of a free piston engine with labyrinth seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larjola, Jaakko; Honkatukia, Juha; Sallinen, Petri; Backman, Jari

    2010-04-01

    Preliminary design and simulation of a free piston engine suitable for small-scale energy production in distributed energy systems is presented in this paper. The properties, particularly the properties of gas seals of the engine are simulated using a simulation program developed for this case, and the results are utilized in preliminary main design parameter selection. The engine simulation program was developed by combining and modifying the source codes of the simulation and calculation programs obtained from Helsinki University of Technology, Tampere University of Technology, and Lappeenranta University of Technology. Because of the contact-free labyrinth seal used in the piston, the efficiency of the motor is lower than the efficiency of a conventional motor with oil lubricated piston rings. On the other hand, the lack of bearing losses, and the lack of losses associated with a crankshaft system and a gearbox, as well as the lack of lubrication oil expenses, compensates this effect. As a net result, this new motor would perform slightly better than the conventional one. Being completely oil-free, it is very environmentally friendly, and its exhaust gases are completely free of oil residuals which are causing problems in normal gas motors.

  14. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine sensitivity test results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.G.; Geng, S.M.; Lorenz, G.V.

    1986-10-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been testing a 1 kW (1.33 hp) free-piston Stirling engine at the NASA Lewis test facilities. The tests performed over the past several years have been on a single cylinder machine known as the RE-1000. The data recorded were to aid in the investigation of the dynamics and thermodynamics of the free-piston Stirling engine. The data are intended to be used primarily for computer code validation. NASA reports TM-82999, TM-83407, and TM-87126 give initial results of the engine tests. The tests were designed to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations on the mean pressure of the working space, the working fluid used, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics. These tests have now been completed at NASA Lewis. This report presents some of the detailed data collected in the sensitivity tests. In all, 781 data points were recorded. A complete description of the engine and test facility is given. Many of the data can be found in tabular form, while a microfiche containing all of the data points can be requested from NASA Lewis.

  15. Both piston-like and rotational motions are present in bacterial chemoreceptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Daqi; Ma, Xiaomin; Tu, Yuhai; Lai, Luhua

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis signaling is triggered by binding of chemo-effectors to the membrane-bound chemoreceptor dimers. Though much is known about the structure of the chemoreceptors, details of the receptor dynamics and their effects on signaling are still unclear. Here, by using molecular dynamics simulations and principle component analysis, we study the dynamics of the periplasmic domain of aspartate chemoreceptor Tar dimer and its conformational changes when binding to different ligands (attractant, antagonist, and two attractant molecules). We found two dominant components (modes) in the receptor dynamics: a relative rotation of the two Tar monomers and a piston-like up-and-down sliding movement of the α4 helix. These two modes are highly correlated. Binding of one attractant molecule to the Tar dimer induced both significant piston-like downward movements of the α4 helix and strong relative rotations of the two Tar monomers, while binding of an antagonist or the symmetric binding of two attractant molecules to a Tar dimer suppresses both modes. The anti-symmetric effects of the relative rotation mode also explained the negative cooperativity between the two binding pockets. Our results suggest a mechanism of coupled rotation and piston-like motion for bacterial chemoreceptor signaling. PMID:25728261

  16. Modeling and Performance Improvement of the Constant Power Regulator Systems in Variable Displacement Axial Piston Pump

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software. PMID:24282389

  17. Assessment of the Free-piston Stirling Convertor as a Long Life Power Convertor for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in the use of free-piston Stirling power convertors for space power applications. More specifically, the Stirling convertor is being developed to be part of the Stirling Radioisotope Power System to supply electric power to spacecraft for NASA deep space science missions. The current development effort involves the Department of Energy, Germantown, MD, the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, and the Stirling Technology Company, Kennewick, WA. The Stirling convertor will absorb heat supplied from the decay of plutonium dioxide contained in the General Purpose Heat Source modules and convert it into electricity to power the spacecraft. For many years the "potentials" of the free-piston Stirling convertor have been publicized by it's developers. Among these "potentials" were long life and high reliability. This paper will present an overview of the critical areas that enable long life of the free-piston Stirling power convertor, and present some of the techniques that have been used when long life has been achieved.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of multiple cycles in a valve/piston assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Martin; Frouzakis, Christos E.; Tomboulides, Ananias G.; Wright, Yuri M.; Boulouchos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics and multiple-cycle evolution of the incompressible flow induced by a moving piston through the open valve of a motored piston-cylinder assembly was investigated using direct numerical simulation. A spectral element solver, adapted for moving geometries using an Arbitrary Lagrange/Eulerian formulation, was employed. Eight cycles were simulated and the ensemble- and azimuthally-averaged data were found to be in good agreement with experimentally determined means and fluctuations at all measured points and times. During the first half of the intake stroke the flow field is dominated by the dynamics of the incoming jet and the vortex rings it creates. With decreasing piston speed a large central ring becomes the dominant flow feature until the top dead center. The flow field at the end of the previous cycle is found to have a dominant effect on the jet breakup and the vortex ring dynamics below the valve and on the observed significant cyclic variations. Based on statistical averaging, the evolution of the turbulent flow field during the first half of the intake stroke is dominated by the jet breakup process leading to a strongly anisotropic behavior. In the second part of the intake stroke, the decrease of the incoming jet velocity results in a more isotropic behavior.

  19. Development of moving magnet type linear motor for dual piston compressor for pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, Subhash; Singh Gour, Abhay Singh; Damu, C.; Das, M.

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of a moving magnet type linear motor of dual piston configuration for a pulse tube cryocooler for ground applications. Eight radially magnetized segmented magnets were used to form one set of a magnet ring. Four magnet rings of such type were constructed, in which one pair of rings has north-pole on its outer diameter and south-pole on inner diameter, while the other pair is it's complementary. The magnets were mounted with opposite poles together on the magnet holder with an axial moving shaft having a piston mounted on both ends of the shaft. The shaft movement was restricted to the axial direction by using C-clamp type flexures, mounted on both sides of the shaft. The force requirement for driving the compressor was calculated based on which the electrical circuit of motor is designed by proper selection of wire gauge and Ampere-turns. The flexure spring force estimation was done through simulation using ANSYS 11.0 and was verified experimentally; while the magnet spring force was determined experimentally. The motor with mounted piston was tested using a variable voltage and variable frequency power supply capable of driving 140 watts of load.

  20. Free-piston driver performance characterisation using experimental shock speeds through helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildfind, D. E.; James, C. M.; Morgan, R. G.

    2015-03-01

    Tuned free-piston driver operation involves configuring the driver to produce a relatively steady blast of driver gas over the critical time scales of the experiment. For the purposes of flow condition development and parametric studies, it is useful to establish some average working values of the driver pressure and temperature for a given driver operating condition. However, in practise, these averaged values need to produce sufficiently accurate estimates of performance. In this study, two tuned driver conditions in the X2 expansion tube have been used to generate shock waves through a helium test gas. The measured shock speeds have then been used to calculate the effective driver gas pressure and temperature after diaphragm rupture. Since the driver gas is typically helium, or a mixture of helium and argon, and the test gas is also helium, ideal gas assumptions can be made without significant loss of accuracy. The technique is applicable to tuned free-piston drivers with a simple area change, as well as those using orifice plates. It is shown that this technique can be quickly used to establish average working driver gas properties which produce very good estimates of actual driven shock speed, across a wide range of operating conditions. The use of orifice plates to control piston dynamics at high driver gas sound speeds is also discussed in the paper, and a simple technique for calculating the restriction required to modify an established safe condition for use with lighter gases, such as pure helium, is presented.

  1. Nanolaminate Mirrors With "Piston" Figure-Control Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Andrew; Redding, David; Hickey, Gregory; Knight, Jennifer; Moynihan, Philip; Lih, Shyh0Shiuh; Barbee, Troy

    2003-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop a special class of thin-shell curved mirrors for high-resolution imaging in visible and infrared light in a variety of terrestrial or extraterrestrial applications. These mirrors can have diameters of the order of a meter and include metallic film reflectors on nanolaminate substrates supported by multiple distributed piezoceramic gpiston h-type actuators for micron-level figure control. Whereas conventional glass mirrors of equivalent size and precision have areal mass densities between 50 and 150 kg/sq m, the nanolaminate mirrors, including not only the reflector/ shell portions but also the actuators and the backing structures needed to react the actuation forces, would have areal mass densities that may approach .5 kg/m2. Moreover, whereas fabrication of a conventional glass mirror of equivalent precision takes several years, the reflector/shell portion of a nanolaminate mirror can be fabricated in less than a week, and its actuation system can be fabricated in 1 to 2 months. The engineering of these mirrors involves a fusion of the technological heritage of multisegmented adaptive optics and deformable mirrors with more recent advances in metallic nanolaminates and in mathematical modeling of the deflections of thin, curved shells in response to displacements by multiple, distributed actuators. Because a nanolaminate shell is of the order of 10 times as strong as an otherwise identical shell made of a single, high-strength, non-nanolaminate metal suitable for mirror use, a nanolaminate mirror can be made very thin (typically between 100 and 150 m from the back of the nanolaminate substrate to the front reflecting surface). The thinness and strength of the nanolaminate are what make it possible to use distributed gpiston h-type actuators for surface figure control with minimal local concentrated distortion (called print-through in the art) at the actuation points.

  2. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  3. Experimental assessment of advanced Stirling component concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziph, B.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an experimental assessment of some advanced Stirling engine component concepts are presented. High performance piston rings, reciprocating oil scrapers and heat pipes with getters and with mechanical couplings were tested. The tests yielded the following results: (1) Bonded, split, pumping piston rings, in preliminary testing, proved a promising concept, exhibiting low leakage and friction losses. Solid piston rings proved impractical in view of their sensitivity to the operating temperature; (2) A babbit oil scraper in a compliant housing performed well in atmospheric endurance testing. In pressurized tests the scraper did not perform well as a containment seal. The latter tests suggest modifications which may adapt Ti successfully to that application; and (3) Heat pipe endurance tests indicated the adequacy of simple, inexpensive fabrication and filling procedures. Getters were provided to increase the tolerance of the heat pipes to the presence of air and commercially available couplings were demonstrated to be suitable for heat pipe application. In addition to the above tests, the program also included a design effort for a split shaft applicable to a swashplate driven engine with a pressurized crank-case. The design is aimed, and does accomplish, an increase in component life to more than 10,000 hours.

  4. Analysis of thermal stress of the piston during non-stationary heat flow in a turbocharged Diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustof, P.; Hornik, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper, numeric calculations of thermal stresses of the piston in a turbocharged Diesel engine in the initial phase of its work were carried out based on experimental studies and the data resulting from them. The calculations were made using a geometrical model of the piston in a five-cylinder turbocharged Diesel engine with a capacity of about 2300 cm3, with a direct fuel injection to the combustion chamber and a power rating of 85 kW. In order to determine the thermal stress, application of own mathematical models of the heat flow in characteristic surfaces of the piston was required to show real processes occurring on the surface of the analysed component. The calculations were performed using a Geostar COSMOS/M program module. A three-dimensional geometric model of the piston was created in this program based on a real component, in order to enable the calculations and analysis of thermal stresses during non-stationary heat flow. Modelling of the thermal stresses of the piston for the engine speed n=4250 min-1 and engine load λ=1.69 was carried out.

  5. A theoretical and experimental study of the deformation of the piston-cylinder unit of a metrological pressure balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares Júnior, L.; da Silva Júnior, F. I.; Lamary, P.

    2015-10-01

    Pressure balance is a measuring system widely used in metrology as a reference standard. The common procedure is to estimate the pressure from an analytical formula involving a set of phenomenological parameters. These parameters are determined experimentally by calibration tests of the balance. In particular, the piston-cylinder deformation is taking into account by the use of a global distortion coefficient and by the use of an effective area of the piston. In order to analyze the possible influence of local deformation on the pressure estimation, a Finite Element (FE) model has been developed using OpenCavok FE code. For a given position of the piston in the cylinder chamber, for a given initial gap between of the cylinder and the chamber, a coupled fluid-structure calculation is carried out. From the local fields, mean values are calculated from which the effective area of the piston-cylinder unit. The analysis is conducted for several engagement lengths of the piston in the chamber and for several loads. The first results obtained show that the local deformation play a role and that FE models could help for precise calculation of the measured pressure.

  6. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  7. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, J.S.; Kankam, M.D.; Santiago, W.; Madi, F.J.

    1992-08-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  8. Input/output models for general aviation piston-prop aircraft fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplane was tested. The following equations were made: (1) for the standard atmosphere; (2) airframe-propeller-atmosphere cruise performance; and (3) naturally aspirated engine cruise performance. Adjustments are made to the compact cruise performance model as follows: corrected quantities, corrected performance plots, algebraic equations, maximize R with or without constraints, and appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation. The following hardwares are recommended: ignition timing regulator, fuel-air mass ration controller, microprocessor, sensors and displays.

  9. Reducing the net torque and flow ripple effects of multiple hydraulic piston motor drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The torque and flow ripple effects which result when multiple hydraulic motors are used to drive a single motion of a mechanical device can significantly affect the way in which the device performs. This article presents a mathematical model describing the torque and flow ripple effects of a bent-axis hydraulic piston motor. The model is used to show how the ripple magnitude can be reduced when multiple motors are used to drive a motion. A discussion of the hydraulic servo system of the 70-m antennas located with the Deep Space Network is included to demonstrate the application of the concepts presented.

  10. Dynamics and design of a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misyurin, S. Yu.; Kreinin, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of the preselection of parameters of a power unit of a mechatronic complex on the basis of the condition for providing a required control energy has been discussed. The design of the unit is based on analysis of its dynamics under the effect of a special-type test conditional control signal. The specific features of the approach used are a reasonably simplified normalized dynamic model of the unit and the formation of basic similarity criteria. Methods of designing a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator that operates in point-to-point and oscillatory modes have been considered.

  11. A feasibility assessment of magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling space power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curwen, Peter W.; Rao, Dantam K.; Wilson, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a design and analysis study performed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under NASA Contract NAS3-26061. The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery of the type currently being evaluated for possible use in long-term space missions. The study was performed for a 50-kWe Reference Stirling Space Power Converter (RSSPC) system consisting of two 25-kWe free-piston Stirling engine modules. Two different versions of the RSSPC engine modules have been defined under NASA Contract NAS3-25463. These modules currently use hydrostatic gas bearings to support the reciprocating displacer and power piston assemblies. Results of this study show that active magnetic bearings of the attractive electromagnetic type are technically feasible for RSSPC application provided that wire insulation with 60,000-hr life capability at 300 C can be developed for the bearing coils. From a design integration standpoint, both versions of the RSSPC were found to be conceptually amenable to magnetic support of the power piston assembly. However, only one version of the RSSPC was found to be amendable to magnetic support of the displacer assembly. Unacceptable changes to the basic engine design would be required to incorporate magnetic displacer bearings into the second version. Complete magnetic suspension of the RSSPC can potentially increase overall efficiency of the Stirling cycle power converter by 0.53 to 1.4 percent (0.15 to 0.4 efficiency points). Magnetic bearings will also overcome several operational concerns associated with hydrostatic gas bearing systems. However, these advantages are accompanied by a 5 to 8 percent increase in specific mass of the RSSPC, depending on the RSSPC version employed. Additionally, magnetic bearings are much more complex, both mechanically and particularly electronically, than hydrostatic bearings. Accordingly, long

  12. Design and performance of a rapid piston expansion tube for the investigation of droplet condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, F.; Rodemann, T.

    A piston expansion tube (pex-tube) is described which has been developed for the investigation of homogeneous nucleation in a supersaturated vapor and subsequent droplet growth. The design of the tube with periphery is discussed as well as the underlying gasdynamics. Examples for the measurement of nucleation and growth rates in a binary mixture of n-propanol/water carried in nitrogen demonstrate performance and range. The focus of the paper is on the determination of the nucleation state. It is shown that this state may not be based on an adiabatic expansion when helium is used as carrier gas instead of argon or nitrogen.

  13. Tribological experiences of an axial piston pump and motor manufacturer with todays available biodegradable fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, K.H.; Wills, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    Since the late 1970`s, biodegradable fluids have been used in hydrostatics with limited success. Performance has not matched expectations during extensive field testing. For example, fluids reported as having excellent lubricating properties, by bench and field testing, produced excessive wear. Design modifications successfully resolved some of these problems, but wear problems with sealing and bearing surfaces still exist, suggesting that fluid properties may need to be modified. New test procedures measuring wear, e.g., may need to be developed as well because of the correlation problem between reported fluid properties and axial piston pump performance like good lubricity resulted in excessive wear.

  14. Hypervelocity flows of argon produced in a free piston driven expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neely, A. J.; Stalker, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    An expansion tube with a free piston driver has been used to generate quasi-steady hypersonic flows in argon at flow velocities in excess of 9 km/s. Irregular test flow unsteadiness has limited the performance of previous expansion tubes. Test section measurements of pitot pressure, static pressure, and flat plate heat transfer rates are used to confirm the presence of quasi-steady flow, and comparisons are made with predictions for the equilibrium flow of an ideal, ionizing, monatomic gas. The results of this work indicate that expansion tubes can be used to generate quasi-steady hypersonic flows in argon at speeds in excess of Earth orbital velocity.

  15. Homogeneous nucleation rates from the piston-expansion tube using a digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Franz; Graßmann, Arne

    2000-08-01

    Homogeneous nucleation rates of n-pentanol in nitrogen are obtained from a piston-expansion tube (pex-tube) involving the nucleation pulse method which generates a limited number of nuclei that grow into droplets. The detection of the droplets is achieved by a new counting method developed on the basis of a CCD camera in combination with a laser light sheet. Nucleation rates between 104 and 109cm-3 s-1 are covered for the nucleation temperature 260 K. The rates are plotted as isotherms versus supersaturation. An influence of the initial expansion temperature on the nucleation rate is identified. Literature data from other expansion experiments agree with our finding.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of UF sub 6 measured with a ballistic piston compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, D. E.; Lalos, G. T.; Schneider, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    From experiments performed with a ballistic piston compressor, certain thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride were investigated. Difficulties presented by the nonideal processes encountered in ballistic compressors are discussed and a computer code BCCC (Ballistic Compressor Computer Code) is developed to analyze the experimental data. The BCCC unfolds the thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride from the helium-uranium hexafluoride mixture used as the test gas in the ballistic compressor. The thermodynamic properties deduced include the specific heat at constant volume, the ratio of specific heats for UF6, and the viscous coupling constant of helium-uranium hexafluoride mixtures.

  17. Analysis of oil consumption in cylinder of diesel engine for optimization of piston rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Zhang, Guichang; He, Zhenpeng; Lin, Jiewei; Liu, Hai

    2013-01-01

    The performance and particulate emission of a diesel engine are affected by the consumption of lubricating oil. Most studies on oil consumption mechanism of the cylinder have been done by using the experimental method, however they are very costly. Therefore, it is very necessary to study oil consumption mechanism of the cylinder and obtain the accurate results by the calculation method. Firstly, four main modes of lubricating oil consumption in cylinder are analyzed and then the oil consumption rate under common working conditions are calculated for the four modes based on an engine. Then, the factors that affect the lubricating oil consumption such as working conditions, the second ring closed gap, the elastic force of the piston rings are also investigated for the four modes. The calculation results show that most of the lubricating oil is consumed by evaporation on the liner surface. Besides, there are three other findings: (1) The oil evaporation from the liner is determined by the working condition of an engine; (2) The increase of the ring closed gap reduces the oil blow through the top ring end gap but increases blow-by; (3) With the increase of the elastic force of the ring, both the left oil film thickness and the oil throw-off at the top ring decrease. The oil scraping of the piston top edge is consequently reduced while the friction loss between the rings and the liner increases. A neural network prediction model of the lubricating oil consumption in cylinder is established based on the BP neural network theory, and then the model is trained and validated. The main piston rings parameters which affect the oil consumption are optimized by using the BP neural network prediction model and the prediction accuracy of this BP neural network is within 8%, which is acceptable for normal engineering applications. The oil consumption is also measured experimentally. The relative errors of the calculated and experimental values are less than 10%, verifying the

  18. Fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, R.C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its simplicity and low volume data storage requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  19. Development of a linear piston-type pulse power electric generator for powering electric guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerfield, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The development of a linear piston-type electric pulse-power generator capable of powering electric guns and EM (rail and coil) guns and ET guns, presently under development, is discussed. The pulse-power generator consists of a cylindrical armature pushed by gases from the combustion of fuel or propellant through an externally produced magnetic field. An arrangement of electrodes and connecting straps serves to extract current from the moving armature and to send it to an external load (the electric gun).

  20. Time-resolved nature of exhaust gas emissions and piston wall temperature under transient operation in a small diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reksowardojo, I.K.; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Noboru; Enomoto, Yoshiteru; Kitamura, Toru

    1996-09-01

    Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.

  1. Advanced Stirling Convertor Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Matejczyk, Dan; Penswick, L. B.; Soendker, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the 88 We Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) currently being developed under Phase II of a NASA NRA program for possible use in advanced high specific power radioisotope space power systems. An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) which was built and tested in Phase I demonstrated 36% efficiency. The ASC-1 currently being developed under Phase II, uses a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C and is expected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (based on AC electrical out) at a temperature ratio of 3.1. The final lightweight ASC-2 convertor to be developed in Phase III is expected to have a mass of approximately 1 kg. The implementation of the ASC would allow for much higher specific power radioisotope power systems, requiring significantly less radioisotope fuel than current systems. The first run of the ASC-1 occurred in September 2005, and full temperature operation was achieved in early October 2005. Presented is an update on progress on the ASC program as well as the plans for future development. Also presented are efforts being performed to ensure the ASC has the required long life already demonstrated in free-piston Stirling cryocoolers.

  2. Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.

  3. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Benstein, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The small engine technology requirements suitable for general aviation service in the 1987 to 1988 time frame were defined. The market analysis showed potential United States engines sales of 31,500 per year providing that the turbine engine sales price approaches current reciprocating engine prices. An optimum engine design was prepared for four categories of fixed wing aircraft and for rotary wing applications. A common core approach was derived from the optimum engines that maximizes engine commonality over the power spectrum with a projected price competitive with reciprocating piston engines. The advanced technology features reduced engine cost, approximately 50 percent compared with current technology.

  4. On the dynamic response of pressure transmission lines in the research of helium-charged free piston Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric L.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1989-01-01

    In free piston Stirling engine research the integrity of both amplitude and phase of the dynamic pressure measurements is critical to the characterization of cycle dynamics and thermodynamics. It is therefore necessary to appreciate all possible sources of signal distortion when designing pressure measurement systems for this type of research. The signal distortion inherent to pressure transmission lines is discussed. Based on results from classical analysis, guidelines are formulated to describe the dynamic response properties of a volume-terminated transmission tube for applications involving helium-charged free piston Stirling engines. The scope and limitations of the dynamic response analysis are considered.

  5. Free-piston engine linear generator for hybrid vehicles modeling study. Interim report, January-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, T.J.; Ingram, S.K.

    1995-05-01

    Development of a free piston engine linear generator was investigated for use as an auxiliary power unit for a hybrid electric vehicle. The main focus of the program was to develop an efficient linear generator concept to convert the piston motion directly into electrical power. Computer modeling techniques were used to evaluate five different designs for linear generators. These designs included permanent magnet generators, reluctance generators, linear DC generators, and two and three-coil induction generators. The efficiency of the linear generator was highly dependent on the design concept. The two-coil induction generator was determined to be the best design, with an efficiency of approximately 90 percent.

  6. Tribological behavior of plasma spray coatings for marine diesel engine piston ring and cylinder liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jong-Hyun; Han, Myoung-Seoup; Kim, Dae-Young; Youn, Joong-Geun

    2006-06-01

    High-temperature wear characteristics between plasma spray coated piston rings and cylinder liners were investigated to find the optimum combination of coating materials using the disc-on-plate reciprocating wear test in dry conditions. The disc and plate represented the piston ring and the cylinder liner, respectively. Coating materials studied were Cr2O3-NiCr, Cr2O3-NiCr-Mo, and Cr3C2-NiCr-Mo. Plasma spray conditions for the coating materials were established adjusting stand-off distance to obtain a coating with a porosity content of ˜5%. It was found that a dissimilar coating combination of Cr2O3-NiCr-Mo and Cr3C2-NiCr-Mo provided the best antiwear performance. The addition of molybdenum was found to be beneficial to improve the wear resistance of the coating. Hardness differences between mating surfaces were also important factors in determining the wear characteristics, so that it should be controlled below 300 in Vickers hardness under dry conditions. Adhesive wear accompanying with metal transfer was a dominant wear mechanism for dry conditions.

  7. Laser surface hardening of gray cast iron used for piston ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Young; Youn, Joong-Geun; Lee, Yun-Sig

    2002-06-01

    The process parameters for laser surface-hardening has been experimentally established for improving the wear life of piston rings used for marine diesel engines by the formation of a proper hardened layer on it. The parameters of interest were the laser power and travel speed. Various hardened layers of gray cast iron were analyzed with respect to microstructure, hardness value, hardening depth, surface roughness, and wear resistance. The hardness of the laser-hardened layer was in a range between 840 and 950 Hv0.1, regardless of the laser power and travel speed range studied. Both the surface roughness and hardening depth increased in an almost linear manner with the increase in the heat input applied. Thus, the hardened layers formed with heat input ranges between 30 and 45 J/mm satisfied the piston ring application requirements for surface roughness (<6.3 µm in Ra) and the minimum effective hardening depth of 0.3 mm (>450 in Vickers number). Wear-test results obtained using a pin-on-disk-type wear-test machine showed that the wear life of the laser-hardened layer was almost twice that of the untreated one. This was directly attributed to the formation of the martensitic microstructure.

  8. Progress in Developing a New 5 Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Space Convertor

    SciTech Connect

    Brandhorst, Henry W. Jr.; Kirby, Raymond L.; Chapman, Peter A.

    2008-01-21

    The NASA Vision for Exploration of the Moon envisions a nuclear reactor coupled with a free-piston Stirling convertor at a power level of 30-40 kWe. In the 1990s, Mechanical Technology, Inc.'s Stirling Engine Systems Division (now a part of Foster-Miller, Inc.) developed a 25 kWe free piston Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine under the SP-100 program. This system consisted of two 12.5 kWe engines connected at their hot ends and mounted in tandem to cancel vibration. Recently, NASA and DoE have been developing dual 55 We and 80 We Stirling convertor systems for use with radioisotope heat sources. Total test times of all convertors in this effort exceed 120,000 hours. Recently, NASA began a new project with Auburn University to develop a 5 kWe, single convertor for use in the Lunar power system. Goals of this development program include a specific power in excess of 140 We/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and a control system that will safely manage the convertors in case of an emergency. Auburn University awarded a subcontract to Foster-Miller, Inc. to undertake development of the 5 kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly. The characteristics of the design along with progress in developing the system will be described.

  9. Start-up and control method and apparatus for resonant free piston Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    A resonant free-piston Stirling engine having a new and improved start-up and control method and system. A displacer linear electrodynamic machine is provided having an armature secured to and movable with the displacer and having a stator supported by the Stirling engine housing in juxtaposition to the armature. A control excitation circuit is provided for electrically exciting the displacer linear electrodynamic machine with electrical excitation signals having substantially the same frequency as the desired frequency of operation of the Stirling engine. The excitation control circuit is designed so that it selectively and controllably causes the displacer electrodynamic machine to function either as a generator load to extract power from the displacer or the control circuit selectively can be operated to cause the displacer electrodynamic machine to operate as an electric drive motor to apply additional input power to the displacer in addition to the thermodynamic power feedback to the displacer whereby the displacer linear electrodynamic machine also is used in the electric drive motor mode as a means for initially starting the resonant free-piston Stirling engine.

  10. Bernoulli's formula and Poisson's equations for a confined quantum gas: Effects due to a moving piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Sobirov, Zarifboy A.; Matrasulov, Davron U.; Avazbaev, Sanat K.

    2012-12-01

    We study a nonequilibrium equation of states of an ideal quantum gas confined in the cavity under a moving piston with a small but finite velocity in the case in which the cavity wall suddenly begins to move at the time origin. Confining ourselves to the thermally isolated process, the quantum nonadiabatic (QNA) contribution to Poisson's adiabatic equations and to Bernoulli's formula which bridges the pressure and internal energy is elucidated. We carry out a statistical mean of the nonadiabatic (time-reversal-symmetric) force operator found in our preceding paper [Nakamura , Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.041133 83, 041133 (2011)] in both the low-temperature quantum-mechanical and high-temperature quasiclassical regimes. The QNA contribution, which is proportional to the square of the piston's velocity and to the inverse of the longitudinal size of the cavity, has a coefficient that is dependent on the temperature, gas density, and dimensionality of the cavity. The investigation is done for a unidirectionally expanding three-dimensional (3D) rectangular parallelepiped cavity as well as its 1D version. Its relevance in a realistic nanoscale heat engine is discussed.

  11. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  12. Free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine and drive system for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Slaby, J. G.; Nussle, R. C.; Miao, D.

    1982-01-01

    The calculated fuel economy for an automotive free piston Stirling hydraulic engine and drive system using a pneumatic accumulator with the fuel economy of both a conventional 1980 spark ignition engine in an X body class vehicle and the estimated fuel economy of a 1984 spark ignition vehicle system are compared. The results show that the free piston Stirling hydraulic system with a two speed transmission has a combined fuel economy nearly twice that of the 1980 spark ignition engine - 21.5 versus 10.9 km/liter (50.7 versus 25.6 mpg) under comparable conditions. The fuel economy improvement over the 1984 spark ignition engine was 81 percent. The fuel economy sensitivity of the Stirling hydraulic system to system weight, number of transmission shifts, accumulator pressure ratio and maximum pressure, auxiliary power requirements, braking energy recovery, and varying vehicle performance requirements are considered. An important finding is that a multispeed transmission is not required. The penalty for a single speed versus a two speed transmission is about a 12 percent drop in combined fuel economy to 19.0 km/liter (44.7 mpg). This is still a 60 percent improvement in combined fuel economy over the projected 1984 spark ignition vehicle.

  13. Nonlinear quantum piston for the controlled generation of vortex rings and soliton trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsker, Florian; Berloff, Natalia G.; Pérez-García, Víctor M.

    2013-05-01

    We propose a simple way to generate nonlinear excitations in a controllable way by managing interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates. Under the action of a quantum analog of a classical piston, the condensed atoms are pushed through the trap, generating vortex rings infully three-dimensional condensates or soliton trains in quasi-one-dimensional scenarios. The vortex rings form due to transverse instability of the shock-wave train, enhanced and supported by the energy transfer between waves. We elucidate in what sense the self-interactions within the atom cloud define the properties of the generated vortex rings and soliton trains. Based on the quantum-piston scheme we study the behavior of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates and analyze how the presence of an additional superfluid influences the generation of vortex rings or solitons in the other component, and vice versa. Finally, we show the dynamical emergence of skyrmions within two-component systems in the immiscible regime.

  14. Preliminary results from a four-working space, double-acting piston, Stirling engine controls model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    A four working space, double acting piston, Stirling engine simulation is being developed for controls studies. The development method is to construct two simulations, one for detailed fluid behavior, and a second model with simple fluid behaviour but containing the four working space aspects and engine inertias, validate these models separately, then upgrade the four working space model by incorporating the detailed fluid behaviour model for all four working spaces. The single working space (SWS) model contains the detailed fluid dynamics. It has seven control volumes in which continuity, energy, and pressure loss effects are simulated. Comparison of the SWS model with experimental data shows reasonable agreement in net power versus speed characteristics for various mean pressure levels in the working space. The four working space (FWS) model was built to observe the behaviour of the whole engine. The drive dynamics and vehicle inertia effects are simulated. To reduce calculation time, only three volumes are used in each working space and the gas temperature are fixed (no energy equation). Comparison of the FWS model predicted power with experimental data shows reasonable agreement. Since all four working spaces are simulated, the unique capabilities of the model are exercised to look at working fluid supply transients, short circuit transients, and piston ring leakage effects.

  15. Analysis of mesoscale heating by piston supported waves in granular metalized explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.; Panchadhara, Rohan

    2013-07-01

    Deformation-induced heating of explosive composites is influenced by the material microstructure (i.e. porosity and particle sizes, shapes and packing), and component-specific thermomechanical properties and mass fractions. In this study, an explicit, 2D, Lagrangian finite and discrete element technique is used to examine thermomechanical fields in mixtures of explosive (HMX, C4H8N8O8) and metal particles (Al) induced by piston-supported deformation waves (piston speed 50 ⩽ Up ⩽ 500 m s-1). The mesoscale description uses a plane strain, thermoelastic-viscoplastic and friction constitutive theory to describe the motion and deformation of individual particles, and an energy consistent, penalty based method to describe inter-particle contact. The deformation response of material having an initial solid volume fraction of φs0 = 0.835 (porosity 1 - φs0 = 0.165) is characterized for different metal mass fractions and wave strengths. Transition from a strength-dominated to a pressure-dominated wave structure is predicted to occur with increasing wave strength due to the elimination of porosity. Average thermomechanical fields that define the effective wave structure differ both qualitatively and quantitatively for the two types of structures. Explosive component mass locally heated to elevated temperature behind waves is shown to be affected by the wave structure and the value of friction coefficient.

  16. Output characteristics of a series three-port axial piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Quan, Long; Yang, Yang; Wang, Chengbin; Yao, Liwei

    2012-05-01

    Driving a hydraulic cylinder directly by a closed-loop hydraulic pump is currently a key research area in the field of electro-hydraulic control technology, and it is the most direct means to improve the energy efficiency of an electro-hydraulic control system. So far, this technology has been well applied to the pump-controlled symmetric hydraulic cylinder. However, for the differential cylinder that is widely used in hydraulic technology, satisfactory results have not yet been achieved, due to the asymmetric flow constraint. Therefore, based on the principle of the asymmetric valve controlled asymmetric cylinder in valve controlled cylinder technology, an innovative idea for an asymmetric pump controlled asymmetric cylinder is put forward to address this problem. The scheme proposes to transform the oil suction window of the existing axial piston pump into two series windows. When in use, one window is connected to the rod chamber of the hydraulic cylinder and the other is linked with a low-pressure oil tank. This allows the differential cylinders to be directly controlled by changing the displacement or rotation speed of the pumps. Compared with the loop principle of offsetting the area difference of the differential cylinder through hydraulic valve using existing technology, this method may simplify the circuits and increase the energy efficiency of the system. With the software SimulationX, a hydraulic pump simulation model is set up, which examines the movement characteristics of an individual piston and the compressibility of oil, as well as the flow distribution area as it changes with the rotation angle. The pump structure parameters, especially the size of the unloading groove of the valve plate, are determined through digital simulation. All of the components of the series arranged three distribution-window axial piston pump are designed, based on the simulation analysis of the flow pulse characteristics of the pump, and then the prototype pump is made

  17. Fatigue Analysis of the Piston Rod in a Kaplan Turbine Based on Crack Propagation under Unsteady Hydraulic Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Y Luo, Y.; Wang, Z. W.

    2014-03-01

    As an important component of the blade-control system in Kaplan turbines, piston rods are subjected to fluctuating forces transferred by the turbines blades from hydraulic pressure oscillations. Damage due to unsteady hydraulic loads might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. In one running hydropower plant, the fracture failure of the piston rod was found twice at the same location. With the transient dynamic analysis, the retainer ring structure of the piston rod existed a relative high stress concentration. This predicted position of the stress concentration agreed well with the actual fracture position in the plant. However, the local strain approach was not able to explain why this position broke frequently. Since traditional structural fatigue analyses use a local stress strain approach to assess structural integrity, do not consider the effect of flaws which can significantly degrade structural life. Using linear elastic fracture mechanism (LEFM) approaches that include the effect of flaws is becoming common practice in many industries. In this research, a case involving a small semi-ellipse crack was taken into account at the stress concentration area, crack growth progress was calculated by FEM. The relationship between crack length and remaining life was obtained. The crack propagation path approximately agreed with the actual fracture section. The results showed that presence of the crack had significantly changed the local stress and strain distributions of the piston rod compared with non-flaw assumption.

  18. Numerical studies of the formation and destruction of vortices in a motored four-stroke piston-cylinder configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, H. J.; Sosoka, D. J.; Ramos, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    A finite-difference procedure which solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy is used to investigate the effects of the compression ratio, engine speed, bore-to-stroke ratio, and air intake flow angle on the turbulent flow field within an axisymmetric piston-cylinder configuration. It is shown that in a four-stroke piston-cylinder configuration, the intake stroke is characterized by the formation of a piston vortex. The piston vortex is stretched during the intake stroke, and the head vortex has an almost constant diameter. For a 0-deg air intake flow angle, both vortices disappear by the end of the compression stroke; for an air intake flow angle of 45 deg, the flow field within the cylinder shows three elongated vortices which persist into the compression stroke and then break up and merge. It is also shown that larger bore-to-stroke ratios give rise to lower turbulent levels than smaller bore-to-stroke ratios and that the turbulent intensity is almost independent of the rpm.

  19. Advanced Modeling of Micromirror Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalicek, M. Adrian; Sene, Darren E.; Bright, Victor M.

    1995-01-01

    The flexure-beam micromirror device (FBMD) is a phase only piston style spatial light modulator demonstrating properties which can be used for phase adaptive corrective optics. This paper presents a complete study of a square FBMD, from advanced model development through final device testing and model verification. The model relates the electrical and mechanical properties of the device by equating the electrostatic force of a parallel-plate capacitor with the counter-acting spring force of the device's support flexures. The capacitor solution is derived via the Schwartz-Christoffel transformation such that the final solution accounts for non-ideal electric fields. The complete model describes the behavior of any piston-style device, given its design geometry and material properties. It includes operational parameters such as drive frequency and temperature, as well as fringing effects, mirror surface deformations, and cross-talk from neighboring devices. The steps taken to develop this model can be applied to other micromirrors, such as the cantilever and torsion-beam designs, to produce an advanced model for any given device. The micromirror devices studied in this paper were commercially fabricated in a surface micromachining process. A microscope-based laser interferometer is used to test the device in which a beam reflected from the device modulates a fixed reference beam. The mirror displacement is determined from the relative phase which generates a continuous set of data for each selected position on the mirror surface. Plots of this data describe the localized deflection as a function of drive voltage.

  20. Dynamic analysis of free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator-load system - Experimentally validated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. D.; Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Santiago, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of a variations in system parameters on the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator (FPSE/LA)-load system. The mathematical formulations incorporates both the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the FPSE, as well as the electrical equations of the connected load. State-space technique in the frequency domain is applied to the resulting system of equations to facilitate the evaluation of parametric impacts on the system dynamic stability. Also included is a discussion on the system transient stability as affected by sudden changes in some key operating conditions. Some representative results are correlated with experimental data to verify the model and analytic formulation accuracies. Guidelines are given for ranges of the system parameters which will ensure an overall stable operation.

  1. Vortex formation analysis of a piston-cylinder apparatus with passively varying output inspired by jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2012-11-01

    The flow analysis of a robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) has led to the observation of an increase in performance due to passive flexible margin. Flexible margin are common on animals using an oscillating mode of propulsion. The understanding of flexible margins is therefore important for a better understanding of animal propulsion and bio-inspired propulsion. This work focuses on analyzing the effects of stiffness and geometry of flexible margins. A piston-cylinder apparatus was used with flexible margin at the output to test the different flexible margin configurations. These results characterize the effects of the different flexible margin parameters on vortex circulation and size. Office of Naval Research through contract number N00014-08-1-0654.

  2. Small plastic piston-cylinder cell for pulsed magnetic field studies at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglio, William A.; Graf, David E.; Tozer, Stanley W.

    2013-06-01

    A plastic piston-cylinder cell based on a thick wall test-tube has been designed for pulsed magnetic field studies. The small 12.7 mm diameter and overall height of 19.3 mm allow the cell to freely rotate in a cryostat with a diameter of 21.5 mm. Electrical leads, coax cable or microstrip transmission lines can be introduced into the pressure chamber for a variety of measurements such as electrical transport, de Haas-van Alphen, Shubnikov-de Haas and Hall effect. A fiber optic has been introduced for the purpose of calibrating the pressure via a ruby manometer. The fiber optic opens up additional experimental techniques such as photoluminescence, photoconductivity and, with use of a special fiber with a Bragg grating, magnetostriction and thermal expansion. Maximum pressures of 0.35 GPa at room temperature have been obtained.

  3. On the Limiting Markov Process of Energy Exchanges in a Rarely Interacting Ball-Piston Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bálint, Péter; Gilbert, Thomas; Nándori, Péter; Szász, Domokos; Tóth, Imre Péter

    2016-08-01

    We analyse the process of energy exchanges generated by the elastic collisions between a point-particle, confined to a two-dimensional cell with convex boundaries, and a `piston', i.e. a line-segment, which moves back and forth along a one-dimensional interval partially intersecting the cell. This model can be considered as the elementary building block of a spatially extended high-dimensional billiard modeling heat transport in a class of hybrid materials exhibiting the kinetics of gases and spatial structure of solids. Using heuristic arguments and numerical analysis, we argue that, in a regime of rare interactions, the billiard process converges to a Markov jump process for the energy exchanges and obtain the expression of its generator.

  4. Free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator 1000-hour endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, J.; Dochat, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) has the potential to be a long lived, highly reliable, power conversion device attractive for many product applications such as space, residential or remote site power. The purpose of endurance testing the FPSE was to demonstrate its potential for long life. The endurance program was directed at obtaining 1000 operational hours under various test conditions: low power, full stroke, duty cycle and stop/start. Critical performance parameters were measured to note any change and/or trend. Inspections were conducted to measure and compare critical seal/bearing clearances. The engine performed well throughout the program, completing more than 1100 hours. Hardware inspection, including the critical clearances, showed no significant change in hardware or clearance dimensions. The performance parameters did not exhibit any increasing or decreasing trends. The test program confirms the potential for long life FPSE applications.

  5. Large Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows in an Opposed-Piston Two Stroke Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Shalabh; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad

    2013-11-01

    The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale model has been used for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in a generic single cylinder, opposed-piston, two-stroke engine configuration. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method in which the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme, and the spray and FMDF are implemented with stochastic Lagrangian methods. The reliability and consistency of the numerical methods are established for the engine configuration by comparing the Eulerian and Lagrangian components of the LES/FMDF. The effects of various operating conditions like boost pressure, heat transfer model, fuel spray temperature, nozzle diameter, injection pressure, and injector configuration on the flow field, heat loss and the evolution of spray and combustion are studied.

  6. Direct and Inverse Kinematics of a Novel Tip-Tilt-Piston Parallel Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad

    2004-01-01

    Closed-form direct and inverse kinematics of a new three degree-of-freedom (DOF) parallel manipulator with inextensible limbs and base-mounted actuators are presented. The manipulator has higher resolution and precision than the existing three DOF mechanisms with extensible limbs. Since all of the manipulator actuators are base-mounted; higher payload capacity, smaller actuator sizes, and lower power dissipation can be obtained. The manipulator is suitable for alignment applications where only tip, tilt, and piston motions are significant. The direct kinematics of the manipulator is reduced to solving an eighth-degree polynomial in the square of tangent of half-angle between one of the limbs and the base plane. Hence, there are at most 16 assembly configurations for the manipulator. In addition, it is shown that the 16 solutions are eight pairs of reflected configurations with respect to the base plane. Numerical examples for the direct and inverse kinematics of the manipulator are also presented.

  7. Piston slap induced pressure fluctuation in the water coolant passage of an internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Kazuhide; Wang, Xiaoyu; Saeki, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Liner cavitation is caused by water pressure fluctuation in the water coolant passage (WCP). When the negative pressure falls below the saturated vapor pressure, the impulsive pressure following the implosion of cavitation bubbles causes cavitation erosion of the wet cylinder liner surface. The present work establishes a numerical model for structural-acoustic coupling between the crankcase and the acoustic field in the WCP considering their dynamic characteristics. The coupling effect is evaluated through mutual interaction terms that are calculated from the mode shapes of the acoustic field and of the crankcase vibration on the boundary. Water pressure fluctuations in the WCP under the action of piston slap forces are predicted and the contributions of the uncoupled mode shapes of the crankcase and the acoustic field to the pressure waveform are analyzed. The influence of sound speed variations on the water pressure response is discussed, as well as the pressure on the thrust sides of the four cylinders.

  8. Theory of the corrugation instability of a piston-driven shock wave.

    PubMed

    Bates, J W

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the two-dimensional stability of a shock wave driven by a steadily moving corrugated piston in an inviscid fluid with an arbitrary equation of state. For h≤-1 or h>h(c), where h is the D'yakov parameter and h(c) is the Kontorovich limit, we find that small perturbations on the shock front are unstable and grow--at first quadratically and later linearly--with time. Such instabilities are associated with nonequilibrium fluid states and imply a nonunique solution to the hydrodynamic equations. The above criteria are consistent with instability limits observed in shock-tube experiments involving ionizing and dissociating gases and may have important implications for driven shocks in laser-fusion, astrophysical, and/or detonation studies.

  9. Method of estimating time scales of the atmospheric piston and its application at Dome C (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglae; Sarazin, Marc; du Foresto, Vincent Coudé; Agabi, Karim; Aristidi, Eric; Sadibekova, Tatyana

    2006-08-01

    Analysis of the first interferometric fringes recorded at Dome C, Antarctica are presented. Measurements were taken 31 January and 1 February 2005 during daytime. Our purpose in performing the analysis was to measure temporal fluctuations of the atmospheric piston, which are critical for interferometers, and determine their sensitivity. These scales are derived through the motion of the image that is formed in the focal plane of a Fizeau interferometer. We could establish a lower limit to the coherence time by studying the decay rate of correlation between successive fringes. Coherence times are measured to be larger than 10 ms, i.e., at least three times higher than the median coherence time measured at the site of Paranal (3.3 ms). PMID:16855670

  10. Experimental performance of a piston expander in a small- scale organic Rankine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudkerk, J. F.; Dickes, R.; Dumont, O.; Lemort, V.

    2015-08-01

    Volumetric expanders are suitable for more and more applications in the field of micro- and small-scale power system as waster heat recovery or solar energy. This paper present an experimental study carried out on a swatch-plate piston expander. The expander was integrated into an ORC test-bench using R245fa. The performances are evaluated in term of isentropic efficiency and filling factor. The maximum efficiency and power reached are respectively 53% and 2 kW. Inside cylinder pressure measurements allow to compute mechanical efficiency and drown P-V diagram. A semi-empirical simulation model is then proposed, calibrated and used to analyse the different sources of losses.

  11. Homogeneous nucleation rates of n-pentanol in nitrogen measured in a piston-expansion tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graßmann, A.; Peters, F.

    2000-10-01

    Homogeneous nucleation rates of n-pentanol in nitrogen are presented. They are obtained from a piston-expansion tube (pex-tube) involving the nucleation pulse method which generates a limited number of nuclei that grow into droplets. The detection of the droplets is achieved by a new counting method developed on the basis of a CCD camera in combination with a laser light sheet. Nucleation rates between 104 and 109cm-3 s-1 are covered for three nucleation temperatures 250, 260, and 270 K. The rates are plotted as isotherms vs supersaturation. Influence of the initial expansion temperature and the nucleation pressure on the nucleation rate is identified. Comparison with results available in literature and classical nucleation theory (CNT) is provided.

  12. System analysis of a piston steam engine employing the uniflow principle, a study in optimized performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported which were obtained from a mathematical model of a generalized piston steam engine configuration employing the uniflow principal. The model accounted for the effects of clearance volume, compression work, and release volume. A simple solution is presented which characterizes optimum performance of the steam engine, based on miles per gallon. Development of the mathematical model is presented. The relationship between efficiency and miles per gallon is developed. An approach to steam car analysis and design is presented which has purpose rather than lucky hopefulness. A practical engine design is proposed which correlates to the definition of the type engine used. This engine integrates several system components into the engine structure. All conclusions relate to the classical Rankine Cycle.

  13. Controllability of Free-piston Stirling Engine/linear Alternator Driving a Dynamic Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Rauch, Jeffrey S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) driving a single-phase fractional horse-power induction motor. The controllability and dynamic stability of the system are discussed by means of sensitivity effects of variations in system parameters, engine controller, operating conditions, and mechanical loading on the induction motor. The approach used expands on a combined mechanical and thermodynamic formulation employed in a previous paper. The application of state-space technique and frequency domain analysis enhances understanding of the dynamic interactions. Engine-alternator parametric sensitivity studies, similar to those of the previous paper, are summarized. Detailed discussions are provided for parametric variations which relate to the engine controller and system operating conditions. The results suggest that the controllability of a FPSE-based power system is enhanced by proper operating conditions and built-in controls.

  14. Development of a Dynamic, End-to-End Free Piston Stirling Convertor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Gerber, Scott S.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic model for a free-piston Stirling convertor is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The model is an end-to-end system model that includes the cycle thermodynamics, the dynamics, and electrical aspects of the system. The subsystems of interest are the heat source, the springs, the moving masses, the linear alternator, the controller, and the end-user load. The envisioned use of the model will be in evaluating how changes in a subsystem could affect the operation of the convertor. The model under development will speed the evaluation of improvements to a subsystem and aid in determining areas in which most significant improvements may be found. One of the first uses of the end-toend model will be in the development of controller architectures. Another related area is in evaluating changes to details in the linear alternator.

  15. A multicylinder free-piston Stirling engine for application in Stirling-electric drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaff, Peter J.

    This study gives a short introduction to Stirling-electric drive systems and their applications. The development of a Stirling-electric drive system concentrates on the design of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), which will form the most important part of the system. One of the most important ideas behind the design of the FPSE is that a simple, robust, and efficient electric power generator has to be developed which can run on any available liquid for gaseous fuel and which can easily be plugged into a larger system, such as a Stirling-electric drive system. The benefits are found mainly in the silent and environmentally friendly operation of the system, but also in the free positioning of the FPSE and the ease with which a mechanical connection can be made between the electric motor and the load.

  16. Method of estimating time scales of the atmospheric piston and its application at Dome C (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglae; Sarazin, Marc; du Foresto, Vincent Coudé; Agabi, Karim; Aristidi, Eric; Sadibekova, Tatyana

    2006-08-01

    Analysis of the first interferometric fringes recorded at Dome C, Antarctica are presented. Measurements were taken 31 January and 1 February 2005 during daytime. Our purpose in performing the analysis was to measure temporal fluctuations of the atmospheric piston, which are critical for interferometers, and determine their sensitivity. These scales are derived through the motion of the image that is formed in the focal plane of a Fizeau interferometer. We could establish a lower limit to the coherence time by studying the decay rate of correlation between successive fringes. Coherence times are measured to be larger than 10 ms, i.e., at least three times higher than the median coherence time measured at the site of Paranal (3.3 ms).

  17. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Hendricks, Terry Lee; Ghandhi, Jaal B

    2014-01-01

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition

  18. Influence of piston and magnetic coils on the field-dependent damping performance of a mixed-mode magnetorheological damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeinali, Mohammadjavad; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Choi, Seung-Bok; Imaduddin, Fitrian; Hamidah Hamdan, Lailatul

    2016-05-01

    This work presents a 2D simulation study of a mixed-mode magnetorheological (MR) damper in which the influence of the geometric elements of the piston and magnetic coil on the MR damper’s performance is investigated by using the Ansoft Maxwell software tool. Four results of the simulation, which are magnetic flux density (B), MR fluid yield stress (τ 0), {τ }0{L}a and W{τ }0{L}a, are used to compare the performance of the MR damper. Multiplication of the yield stress by the active operating mode length ({τ }0{L}a) represents the variable portion of the active (on-state) damping force of the flow mode motion, while the value of W{τ }0{L}a represents the active damping force of the shear mode motion. The contribution of each operating mode (shear and flow) is related to the mixed-mode geometry and piston velocity. Therefore, each operating mode is evaluated separately. In this work, a total of 154 simulations are done in which 74, 20 and 60 simulations are conducted to analyse the effect of the piston radius, coil dimensions (width and length) and coil boundary lengths, respectively, on the performance of the MR damper. The simulation results show that increasing the piston radius can increase the W{τ }0{L}a value and reduce the value. For a given area of magnetic coil housing, a greater housing length in the axial direction of the piston can increase the achieved yield stress of the MR fluid and hence consequently the performance of the MR damper. A minimum boundary length is needed around the magnetic coil in order to attain a supreme magnetic field distribution. However, there is an optimised value for axial coil boundary lengths, which are the lengths of the upper and lower mixed-mode areas.

  19. Effect of cylinder distortions and piston ring design on oil consumption and friction losses in automobile engines

    SciTech Connect

    Brombolich, L.J.

    1988-07-01

    Much analysis has been done on piston ring design in circular cylinder bores; however, engine bores are never perfectly circular. Mechanical loads, from machining operations and assembling the engine, and thermal loads cause distortion of the engine bores. Engine bore distortions are important in predicting the effectiveness of piston rings to control oil consumption, yet minimize friction in spark ignited engines. Only recently has the effect of these bore distortions been investigated. The RING program has been developed to analyze ring conformability in distorted cylinder bores. In particular, oil transport and friction are predicted for the engine cycle. The finite element technique was used in a non-linear contact solution for the piston ring pack in a distorted bore. The inter-ring gas pressure loads and piston and ring dynamic loads are computed for the ring pack. The Reynolds' equation is solved for lubricant film thickness. Hydrodynamic or boundary friction power losses are calculated based on the lubricant film thickness between the ring and bore. During development of the program, correlation of results were made with experimental measurements. Oil consumption and friction measurements of operating production engines with measured bore distortions were compared with results from the RING program. Predicted gaps between the piston ring and distorted bore were verified with measurements of gaps for a ring in a ring gage. Results from the RING program and the correlation analysis confirm the importance of distortions in predicting engine performance. Bore distortions should also be considered in predicting emission and wear in reciprocating engine designs to improve engine performance and life. 106 refs., 70 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Piston-Liner Crevice Geometry Effect on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Espinosa-Loza, F; Martinez-Frias, J; Dibble, R W; Christensen, M; Johansson, B; Hessel, R P

    2002-09-04

    A multi-zone model has been developed that accurately predicts HCCI combustion and emissions. The multizone methodology is based on the observation that turbulence does not play a direct role on HCCI combustion. Instead, chemical kinetics dominates the process, with hotter zones reacting first, and then colder zones reacting in rapid succession. Here, the multi-zone model has been applied to analyze the effect of piston crevice geometry on HCCI combustion and emissions. Three different pistons of varying crevice size were analyzed. Crevice sizes were 0.26, 1.3 and 2.1 mm, while a constant compression ratio was maintained (17:1). The results show that the multi-zone model can predict pressure traces and heat release rates with good accuracy. Combustion efficiency is also predicted with good accuracy for all cases, with a maximum difference of 5% between experimental and numerical results. Carbon monoxide emissions are underpredicted, but the results are better than those obtained in previous publications. The improvement is attributed to the use of a 40-zone model, while previous publications used a 10-zone model. Hydrocarbon emissions are well predicted. For cylinders with wide crevices (1.3 and 2.1 mm), HC emissions do not decrease monotonically as the relative air/fuel ratio ({lambda}) increases. Instead, maximum HC emissions are obtained for an intermediate value of {lambda}. The model predicts this relative air/fuel ratio for maximum HC emissions with very good accuracy. The results show that the multi-zone model can successfully predict the effect of crevice geometry on HCCI combustion, and therefore it has applicability to the design of HCCI engines with optimum characteristics for high efficiency, low emissions and low peak cylinder pressure.

  1. In-cylinder flows of a motored four-stroke engine with flat-crown and slightly concave-crown pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.F.; Yang, H.S.; Yeh, C.-N.

    2008-04-15

    The temporal and spatial evolution processes of the in-cylinder flow structures and turbulence intensities in the symmetry and offset planes of a motored four-valve, four-stroke engine during the intake and compression strokes are diagnosed by using a particle image velocimeter. Two pistons of different crown shapes (flat-crown and slightly concave-crown pistons) are studied. The inception, establishment, and evolution of the tumbling vortical flow structures during the intake and compression strokes are clearly depicted. Quantitative strengths of the rotating vortical flow motions are presented by a dimensionless parameter, the tumble ratio, which can represent the mean angular velocity of the vortices in the target plane. The turbulence intensity of the in-cylinder flow is also calculated by using the measured time-varying velocity data. The results show that the flat-crown piston induces higher bulk-averaged tumble ratio and turbulence intensity than the slightly concave-crown piston does because the tumble ratio and turbulence generated by the flat-crown piston in the offset planes during the compression stroke are particularly large. The engine with the flat-crown piston also presents larger torque and power outputs and lower hydrocarbon emission than that with the slightly concave-crown piston. This might be caused by the enhanced combustion in the engine cylinder due to the stronger tumble ratio and turbulence intensity. (author)

  2. Numerical modelling of physical processes in a ballistic laboratory setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston used for obtaining high muzzle velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical modelling of a ballistic setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston is considered. The processes in the firing chamber are described within the framework of quasi- one-dimensional gas dynamics and a geometrical law of propellant burn by means of Lagrangian mass coordinates. The deformable piston is considered to be an ideal liquid with specific equations of state. The numerical solution is obtained by means of a modified explicit von Neumann scheme. The calculation results given show that the ballistic setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston produces increased shell muzzle velocities by a factor of more than 1.5-2.

  3. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  4. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  5. 75 FR 22439 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Large Municipal Waste Combustors'' 71 FR...://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/recycle/battery.pdf and ``Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling...\\ National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead 73 FR 66965 (Nov. 12, 2008). \\4\\ Centers for...

  6. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  7. Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

    2005-11-01

    A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

  8. Increasing reliability of gas-air systems of piston and combined internal combustion engines by improving thermal and mechanic flow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodov, Yu. M.; Grigor'ev, N. I.; Zhilkin, B. P.; Plotnikov, L. V.; Shestakov, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Results of experimental study of thermal and mechanical characteristics of gas exchange flow in piston and combined engines are presented. Ways for improving intake and exhaust processes to increase reliability of gas-air engine systems are proposed.

  9. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley

    2003-08-28

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. A detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and concepts have been explored, and engine experiments will validate these concepts. An iterative process of experimentation, simulation and analysis, will be followed with the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. As planned, MIT has developed guidelines for an initial set of low-friction piston-ring-pack designs. Current recommendations focus on subtle top-piston-ring and oil-control-ring characteristics. A full-scale Waukesha F18 engine has been installed at Colorado State University and testing of the baseline configuration is in progress. Components for the first design iteration are being procured. Subsequent work includes examining the friction and engine performance data and extending the analyses to other areas to evaluate opportunities for further friction improvement and the impact on oil consumption/emission and wear, towards demonstrating an optimized reduced-friction engine system.

  10. A fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, R. C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel-efficient cruise performance model which facilitates maximizing the specific range of General Aviation airplanes powered by spark-ignition piston engines and propellers is presented. Airplanes of fixed design only are considered. The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its implicity and low volume data storge requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  11. A novel single-phase flux-switching permanent magnet linear generator used for free-piston Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ping; Sui, Yi; Tong, Chengde; Bai, Jingang; Yu, Bin; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates a novel single-phase flux-switching permanent-magnet (PM) linear machine used for free-piston Stirling engines. The machine topology and operating principle are studied. A flux-switching PM linear machine is designed based on the quasi-sinusoidal speed characteristic of the resonant piston. Considering the performance of back electromotive force and thrust capability, some leading structural parameters, including the air gap length, the PM thickness, the ratio of the outer radius of mover to that of stator, the mover tooth width, the stator tooth width, etc., are optimized by finite element analysis. Compared with conventional three-phase moving-magnet linear machine, the proposed single-phase flux-switching topology shows advantages in less PM use, lighter mover, and higher volume power density.

  12. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the development and technological activities of the free-piston Stirling engine. The engine started as a small scale fractional horsepower engine which demonstrated basic engine operating principles and the advantages of being hermetically sealed, highly efficient, and simple. It eventually developed into the free piston Stirling engine driven heat pump, and then into the SP-100 Space Reactor Power Program from which came the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). The SPDE successfully operated for over 300 hr and delivered 20 kW of PV power to an alternator plunger. The SPDE demonstrated that a dynamic power conversion system can, with proper design, be balanced; and the engine performed well with externally pumped hydrostatic gas bearings.

  13. Development of high pressure-high vacuum-high conductance piston valve for gas-filled radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, D. N.; Ayyappan, R.; Kamble, L. P.; Singh, J. P.; Muralikrishna, L. V.; Alex, M.; Balagi, V.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2008-05-01

    Gas-filled radiation detectors need gas filling at pressures that range from few cms of mercury to as high as 25kg/cm2 at room temperature. Before gas-filling these detectors require evacuation to a vacuum of the order of ~1 × 10-5 mbar. For these operations of evacuation and gas filling a system consisting of a vacuum pump with a high vacuum gauge, gas cylinder with a pressure gauge and a valve is used. The valve has to meet the three requirements of compatibility with high-pressure and high vacuum and high conductance. A piston valve suitable for the evacuation and gas filling of radiation detectors has been designed and fabricated to meet the above requirements. The stainless steel body (80mm×160mm overall dimensions) valve with a piston arrangement has a 1/2 inch inlet/outlet opening, neoprene/viton O-ring at piston face & diameter for sealing and a knob for opening and closing the valve. The piston movement mechanism is designed to have minimum wear of sealing O-rings. The valve has been hydrostatic pressure tested up to 75bars and has Helium leak rate of less than 9.6×10-9 m bar ltr/sec in vacuum mode and 2×10-7 mbar ltr/sec in pressure mode. As compared to a commercial diaphragm valve, which needed 3 hours to evacuate a 7 litre chamber to 2.5×10-5 mbar, the new valve achieved vacuum 7.4×10-6mbar in the same time under the same conditions.

  14. Primary pressure standard based on piston-cylinder assemblies. Calculation of effective cross sectional area based on rarefied gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharipov, Felix; Yang, Yuanchao; Ricker, Jacob E.; Hendricks, Jay H.

    2016-10-01

    Currently, the piston-cylinder assembly known as PG39 is used as a primary pressure standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the range of 20 kPa to 1 MPa with a standard uncertainty of 3× {{10}-6} as evaluated in 2006. An approximate model of gas flow through the crevice between the piston and sleeve contributed significantly to this uncertainty. The aim of this work is to revise the previous effective cross sectional area of PG39 and its uncertainty by carrying out more exact calculations that consider the effects of rarefied gas flow. The effective cross sectional area is completely determined by the pressure distribution in the crevice. Once the pressure distribution is known, the elastic deformations of both piston and sleeve are calculated by finite element analysis. Then, the pressure distribution is recalculated iteratively for the new crevice dimension. As a result, a new value of the effective area is obtained with a relative difference of 3× {{10}-6} from the previous one. Moreover, this approach allows us to reduce significantly the standard uncertainty related to the gas flow model so that the total uncertainty is decreased by a factor of three.

  15. Research on detection method of end gap of piston rings based on area array CCD and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Qi; Li, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Piston ring is one of the most important parts in internal combustion engine, and the width of end gap is an important parameter which should be detected one by one. In comparison to the previous measurements of end gap, a new efficient detection method is presented based on computer vision and image processing theory. This paper describes the framework and measuring principle of the measurement system. In which, the image processing algorithm is highlighted. Firstly, the partial end gap image of piston ring is acquired by the area array CCD; secondly, the end gap edge contour which is connected by single pixel is obtained by grayscale threshold segmentation, mathematical morphology contour edge detection, contour trace and other image processing tools; finally, the distance between the two end gap edge contour lines is calculated by using the least distance method of straight-line fitting. It has been proved by the repetitive experiments that the measurement accuracy can reach 0.01mm. What's more, the detection efficiency of automatic inspected instrument on parameters of piston ring based on this method can reach 10~12 pieces/min.

  16. A Study of Free-Piston Double-Diaphragm Drivers for Expansion Tubes. Report 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the free-piston double-diaphragm driver has been used to increase the performance of the XI pilot expansion tube to super-orbital test conditions. However, the actual performance of the double-diaphragm driver was found to be considerably less than ideal. An experimental study of the double-diaphragm driver was carried out on the XI facility over a range of conditions with the objective of determining the effect of. heat losses; and the non-ideal rupture of the 'light' secondary diaphragm on the driver performance. The disparity between the theoretical and measured performance envelope are highlighted. A viscous limit for the experiments vas established. Heat transfer behind the primary shock is shown to be the mechanism behind this limit Incident, reflected and transmitted shock trajectories for the secondary diaphragm were experimentally determined and compared with computed trajectories from a one-dimensional diaphragm inertia model. It was found that the diaphragm did influence the unsteady expansion. A good agreement between experimental and computed shock trajectories was obtained using a diaphragm inertia model assuming that the diaphragm mass became negligible 3 microns after shock impact.

  17. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  18. Concepts for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of the aircraft piston engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a general aviation aircraft piston engine by applying known technology. Fourteen promising concepts such as stratified charge combustion chambers, cooling cylinder head improvements, and ignition system changes were evaluated for emission reduction and cost effectiveness. A combination of three concepts, improved fuel injection system, improved cylinder head with exhaust port liners and exhaust air injection was projected as the most cost effective and safe means of meeting the EPA standards for CO, HC and NO. The fuel economy improvement of 4.6% over a typical single engine aircraft flight profile does not though justify the added cost of the three concepts, and significant reductions in fuel consumption must be applied to the cruise mode where most of the fuel is used. The use of exhaust air injection in combination with exhaust port liners reduces exhaust valve stem temperatures which can result in longer valve guide life. The use of exhaust port liners alone can reduce engine cooling air requirements by 11% which is the equivalent of a 1.5% increase in propulsive power. The EPA standards for CO, HC and NO can be met in the IO-520 engine using air injection alone or the Simmonds improved fuel injection system.

  19. Conceptual design of free-piston Stirling conversion system for solar power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loktionov, Iu. V.

    A conversion system has been conceptually designed for solar power units of the dish-Stirling type. The main design objectives were to demonstrate the possibility of attaining such performance characteristics as low manufacturing and life cycle costs, high reliability, long life, high efficiency, power output stability, self-balance, automatic (or self-) start-up, and easy maintenance. The system design includes a heat transfer and utilization subsystem with a solar receiver, a free-piston engine, an electric power generation subsystem, and a control subsystem. The working fluid is helium. The structural material is stainless steel for hot elements, aluminum alloys and plastics for others. The electric generation subunit can be fabricated in three options: with an induction linear alternator, with a permanent magnet linear alternator, and with a serial rotated induction generator and a hydraulic drive subsystem. The heat transfer system is based on heat pipes or the reflux boiler principle. Several models of heat transfer units using a liquid metal (Na or Na-K) have been created and demonstrated.

  20. Development of a residential free-piston Stirling engine heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Robert A.

    After several years of development, the free-piston Stirling engine heat pump (FPSE/HP) has successfully met proof-of-concept targets. The performance targets were achieved during an off-site test and evaluation program conducted at the Lennox Industries Engineering Center. The performance achieved for the module was a cooling thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.91 and a heating thermal COP of 1.62. In addition to its performance achievement, the FPSE/HP module demonstrated good reliability in over 60 days of operation and ran stably and repeatably over a range of ambient conditions from 0 to 105 F. This paper will provide a description of the FPSE/HP module tested at Lennox, describe the developmental history of the FPSE/HP at Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI), and present the results of the Lennox tests. This work has been a collaborative effort of MTI, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Department of Energy (DOE), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI). The financial and technical support provided by ORNL, DOE, and GRI was responsible for the success achieved.

  1. Progress update of NASA's free-piston Stirling space power converter technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; Winter, Jerry M.; Alger, Donald

    1992-01-01

    A progress update is presented of the NASA LeRC Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Project. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least five fold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss progress toward 1050 K Stirling Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing, and predictive methodologies. This paper will compare progress in significant areas of component development from the start of the program with the Space Power Development Engine (SPDE) to the present work on CTPC.

  2. Acoustical tweezers using single spherically focused piston, X-cut, and Gaussian beams.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Farid G

    2015-10-01

    Partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) satisfying the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates are derived for circular spherically focused piston (i.e., apodized by a uniform velocity amplitude normal to its surface), X-cut (i.e., apodized by a velocity amplitude parallel to the axis of wave propagation), and Gaussian (i.e., apodized by a Gaussian distribution of the velocity amplitude) beams. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and the addition theorems for the Legendre and spherical wave functions are used to obtain the PWSEs assuming weakly focused beams (with focusing angle α ⩽ 20°) in the Fresnel-Kirchhoff (parabolic) approximation. In contrast with previous analytical models, the derived expressions allow computing the scattering and acoustic radiation force from a sphere of radius a without restriction to either the Rayleigh (a ≪ λ, where λ is the wavelength of the incident radiation) or the ray acoustics (a ≫λ) regimes. The analytical formulations are valid for wavelengths largely exceeding the radius of the focused acoustic radiator, when the viscosity of the surrounding fluid can be neglected, and when the sphere is translated along the axis of wave propagation. Computational results illustrate the analysis with particular emphasis on the sphere's elastic properties and the axial distance to the center of the concave surface, with close connection of the emergence of negative trapping forces. Potential applications are in single-beam acoustical tweezers, acoustic levitation, and particle manipulation. PMID:26470046

  3. Accelerating piston action and plasma heating in high-energy density laser plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.; Wilks, S. C.; Baring, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    In the field of high-energy density physics (HEDP), lasers in both the nanosecond and picosecond regimes can drive conditions in the laboratory relevant to a broad range of astrophysical phenomena, including gamma-ray burst afterglows and supernova remnants. In the short-pulse regime, the strong light pressure (>Gbar) associated ultraintense lasers of intensity I > 1018 W/cm2 plays a central role in many HEDP applications. Yet, the behavior of this nonlinear pressure mechanism is not well-understood at late time in the laser-plasma interaction. In this paper, a more realistic treatment of the laser pressure 'hole boring' process is developed through analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. A simple Liouville code capturing the phase space evolution of ponderomotively-driven ions is employed to distill effects related to plasma heating and ion bulk acceleration. Taking into account these effects, our results show that the evolution of the laser-target system encompasses ponderomotive expansion, equipartition, and quasi-isothermal expansion epochs. These results have implications for light piston-driven ion acceleration scenarios, and astrophysical applications where the efficiencies of converting incident Poynting flux into bulk plasma flow and plasma heat are key unknown parameters.

  4. A prototype of volume-controlled tidal liquid ventilator using independent piston pumps.

    PubMed

    Robert, Raymond; Micheau, Philippe; Cyr, Stéphane; Lesur, Olivier; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Liquid ventilation using perfluorochemicals (PFC) offers clear theoretical advantages over gas ventilation, such as decreased lung damage, recruitment of collapsed lung regions, and lavage of inflammatory debris. We present a total liquid ventilator designed to ventilate patients with completely filled lungs with a tidal volume of PFC liquid. The two independent piston pumps are volume controlled and pressure limited. Measurable pumping errors are corrected by a programmed supervisor module, which modifies the inserted or withdrawn volume. Pump independence also allows easy functional residual capacity modifications during ventilation. The bubble gas exchanger is divided into two sections such that the PFC exiting the lungs is not in contact with the PFC entering the lungs. The heating system is incorporated into the metallic base of the gas exchanger, and a heat-sink-type condenser is placed on top of the exchanger to retrieve PFC vapors. The prototype was tested on 5 healthy term newborn lambs (<5 days old). The results demonstrate the efficiency and safety of the prototype in maintaining adequate gas exchange, normal acido-basis equilibrium, and cardiovascular stability during a short, 2-hour total liquid ventilator. Airway pressure, lung volume, and ventilation scheme were maintained in the targeted range.

  5. Repulsive Casimir effect from extra dimensions and Robin boundary conditions: From branes to pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S. D.; Saharian, A. A.

    2009-03-15

    We evaluate the Casimir energy and force for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter, subject to Robin boundary conditions on two codimension-one parallel plates, located on a (D+1)-dimensional background spacetime with an arbitrary internal space. The most general case of different Robin coefficients on the two separate plates is considered. With independence of the geometry of the internal space, the Casimir forces are seen to be attractive for special cases of Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on both plates and repulsive for Dirichlet boundary conditions on one plate and Neumann boundary conditions on the other. For Robin boundary conditions, the Casimir forces can be either attractive or repulsive, depending on the Robin coefficients and the separation between the plates, what is actually remarkable and useful. Indeed, we demonstrate the existence of an equilibrium point for the interplate distance, which is stabilized due to the Casimir force, and show that stability is enhanced by the presence of the extra dimensions. Applications of these properties in braneworld models are discussed. Finally, the corresponding results are generalized to the geometry of a piston of arbitrary cross section.

  6. Numerical analysis of a wells turbine at different non-dimensional piston frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisu, T.; Puddu, P.; Cambuli, F.

    2015-11-01

    Wave energy is one of the renewable energy sources with the highest potential. Several pilot plants have been built based on the principle of the Oscillating Water Column (OWC). Among the different solutions that have been suggested, the Wells turbine has gained particular attention due to its simplicity and reliability. The majority of available studies concentrate on the steady operation of the Wells turbine, while only few analyze its performance under an unsteady and bi-directional air flow, as determined by the presence of the OWC system. In this work, experimental and numerical performance of a high-solidity Wells turbine with NACA0015 profiles have been compared, at different non-dimensional piston frequencies. The numerical simulations have been conducted using commercial CFD software and focus on unsteady predictions, with particular attention to the behavior of the flow upstream and downstream of the rotor, flow hysteresis between acceleration and deceleration phases and differences between intake and exhaust strokes due to the non-symmetrical configuration of the machine.

  7. Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of combustion engine piston rings

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Thomas, T.M.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures piston rings. Steel and iron rings are machined, chrome-plated or coated, machined again, cleaned, and shipped to customers. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that wastewater and wastewater treatment sludge are the waste streams generated in greatest quantity and that the greatest cost savings could be achieved by modifying the method of masking the rings prior to chrome plating. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  8. A prototype of volume-controlled tidal liquid ventilator using independent piston pumps.

    PubMed

    Robert, Raymond; Micheau, Philippe; Cyr, Stéphane; Lesur, Olivier; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Liquid ventilation using perfluorochemicals (PFC) offers clear theoretical advantages over gas ventilation, such as decreased lung damage, recruitment of collapsed lung regions, and lavage of inflammatory debris. We present a total liquid ventilator designed to ventilate patients with completely filled lungs with a tidal volume of PFC liquid. The two independent piston pumps are volume controlled and pressure limited. Measurable pumping errors are corrected by a programmed supervisor module, which modifies the inserted or withdrawn volume. Pump independence also allows easy functional residual capacity modifications during ventilation. The bubble gas exchanger is divided into two sections such that the PFC exiting the lungs is not in contact with the PFC entering the lungs. The heating system is incorporated into the metallic base of the gas exchanger, and a heat-sink-type condenser is placed on top of the exchanger to retrieve PFC vapors. The prototype was tested on 5 healthy term newborn lambs (<5 days old). The results demonstrate the efficiency and safety of the prototype in maintaining adequate gas exchange, normal acido-basis equilibrium, and cardiovascular stability during a short, 2-hour total liquid ventilator. Airway pressure, lung volume, and ventilation scheme were maintained in the targeted range. PMID:17117053

  9. Modeling piston-ring dynamics, blowby, and ring-twist effects

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, T.; Noordzij, L.B.; Wong, V.W.; Heywood, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    A ring-dynamics and gas-flow model has been developed to study ring/groove contact, blowby, and the influence of ring static twist, keystone ring/groove configurations, and other piston and ring parameters. The model is developed for a ring pack with three rings. The dynamics of the top two rings and the gas pressures in the regions above the oil control ring are simulated. Distributions of oil film thickness and surface roughness on the groove and ring surfaces are assumed in the model to calculate the forces generated by the ring/groove contact. Ring static and dynamic twists are considered as well as different keystone ring/groove configurations. Ring dynamics and gas flows are coupled in the formulation and an implicit scheme is implemented, enabling the model to resolve detailed events such as ring flutter. Studies on a spark ignition engine found that static twist or, more generally speaking, the relative angle between rings and their grooves, has great influence on ring/groove contact characteristics, ring stability, and blowby. Ring flutter is found to occur for the second ring with a negative static twist under normal operating conditions and for the top ring with a negative static twist under high-speed/low-load operating conditions. Studies on a diesel engine show that different keystone ring/groove configurations result in different twist behaviors of the ring that may affect the wear pattern of the keystone ring running surfaces.

  10. Interferometric nulling limits with tip-tilt-piston deformable mirrors and a pinhole spatial filter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Brian A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the use of hexagonal segment tip-tilt-piston deformable mirrors alone and paired with pinhole spatial filter arrays for high-order wavefront correction of nulling interferometers used for visible light study of exoplanetary systems at 107 to 1010 contrast within regions extending ˜0.1 to 6 arc s from a parent star. A similar system has been proposed using a single-mode fiber array as an alternative to using multiple deformable mirrors to correct both phase aberrations and balance electric field amplitude, the benefit being drastically reduced component and control complexity. Performance is compared using measured deformable mirror data for hexagonal arrays consisting of a number of rings NR=2 to 18, emphasizing the trade between throughput and the additional contrast gained from suppressing wavefront errors introduced by the deformable mirror at spatial frequencies Λ≥NR that are otherwise present in the image at corresponding field locations. Taking into account effects of loss of throughput and vignetting, the nulled signal-to-noise ratio is shown to improve for filtered systems in the outer portion of the field of view. Modeled performance shows no significant change in signal-to-noise in the inner field of view.

  11. Performance tests of a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine with a displacer piston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, C S; Foster, H H

    1935-01-01

    Engine performance was investigated using a rectangular displacer on the piston crown to cause a forced air flow in a vertical-disk combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine. The optimum air-flow area was determined first with the area concentrated at one end of the displacer and then with the area equally divided between two passages, one at each end of the displacer. Best performance was obtained with the two-passage air flow arranged to give a calculated maximum air-flow speed of 8 times the linear crank-pin speed. With the same fuel-spray formation as used without the air flow, the maximum clear exhaust brake mean effective pressure at 1,500 r.p.m. was increased from 90 to 115 pounds per square inch and the corresponding fuel consumption reduced from 0.46 to 0.43 pound per brake horsepower-hour. At 1,200 r.p.m., a maximum clear exhaust brake mean effective pressure of 120 pounds per square inch was obtained at a fuel consumption of 0.42 pound per brake horsepower-hour. At higher specific fuel consumption the brake mean effective pressure was still increasing rapidly.

  12. Observation of Oil Flow Characteristics in Rolling Piston Rotary Compressor for Reducing Oil Circulation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S. j.; Noh, K. Y.; Min, B. C.; Yang, J. S.; Choi, G. M.; Kim, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    The oil circulation rate (OCR) of the rolling piston rotary compressor is a significant factor which affects the performance of refrigeration system. The increase of oil discharge causes decreasing of the heat transfer efficiency in the heat exchanger, pressure drop and lack of oil in lubricate part in compressor. In this study, the internal flow of compressor was visualized to figure out the oil droplet flow characteristics. The experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in various frequency of compressor to observe the effect of operation frequency on oil droplet flow characteristics for reducing OCR. In situ, measurement of oil droplet diameter and velocity were conducted by using high speed image visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow paths were dominated by copper wire parts driving the motor which was inserted in compressor. In order to verify the reliability of CFD simulation, the tendency of oil flow characteristics in each flow path and the compressor operating conditions were applied in CFD simulation. For reducing OCR, the structure such as vane, disk and ring is installed in the compressor to restrict the main flow path of oil particle. The effect of additional structure for reducing OCR was evaluated using CFD simulation and the results were discussed in detail.

  13. Domain wall in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator as a magnetoelectric piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Pramey; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study the magnetoelectric coupling in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator state induced by interfacing a dynamic magnetization texture to a topological insulator. In particular, we propose that the quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a magnetic configuration of a domain wall, when contacted by electrical reservoirs, acts as a magnetoelectric piston. A moving domain wall pumps charge current between electrical leads in a closed circuit, while applying an electrical bias induces reciprocal domain-wall motion. This pistonlike action is enabled by a finite reflection of charge carriers via chiral modes imprinted by the domain wall. Moreover, we find that, when compared with the recently discovered spin-orbit torque-induced domain-wall motion in heavy metals, the reflection coefficient plays the role of an effective spin-Hall angle governing the efficiency of the proposed electrical control of domain walls. Quantitatively, this effective spin-Hall angle is found to approach a universal value of 2, providing an efficient scheme to reconfigure the domain-wall chiral interconnects for possible memory and logic applications.

  14. Seismic source dynamics of gas-piston activity at Kı¯lauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Since 2008, eruptive activity at the summit of Kı¯lauea Volcano, Hawai`i has been confined to the new Overlook pit crater within the Halema`uma`u Crater. Among the broad range of magmatic processes observed in the new pit are recurring episodes of gas pistoning. The gas-piston activity is accompanied by seismic signals that are recorded by a broadband network deployed in the summit caldera. We use raw data recorded with this network to model the source mechanism of representative gas-piston events in a sequence that occurred on 20-25 August 2011 during a gentle inflation of the Kı¯lauea summit. To determine the source centroid location and source mechanism, we minimize the residual error between data and synthetics calculated by the finite difference method for a point source embedded in a homogeneous medium that takes topography into account. We apply a new waveform inversion method that accounts for the contributions from both translation and tilt in horizontal seismograms through the use of Green's functions representing the seismometer response to translation and tilt ground motions. This method enables a robust description of the source mechanism over the period range 1-10,000 s. Most of the seismic wavefield produced by gas-pistoning originates in a source region ˜1 km below the eastern perimeter of the Halema`uma`u pit crater. The observed waveforms are well explained by a simple volumetric source with geometry composed of two intersecting cracks featuring an east striking crack (dike) dipping 80°to the north, intersecting a north striking crack (another dike) dipping 65° to the east. Each gas-piston event is marked by a similar rapid inflation lasting a few minutes, trailed by a slower deflation ramp extending up to 15 min, attributed to the efficient coupling at the source centroid location of the pressure and momentum changes accompanying the growth and collapse of a layer of foam at the top of the lava column. Assuming a simple lumped parameter

  15. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements of the ideal Stirling cycle, as well as basic types of practical engines are described. Advantages, disadvantages, and problem areas of these Stirling engines are discussed. The potential for ceramic components is also considered. Currently ceramics are used in only two areas, the air preheater and insulating tiles between the burner and the heater head. For the advanced Stirling engine to achieve high efficiency and low cost, the principal components are expected to be made from ceramic materials, including the heater head, air preheater, regenerator, the burner and the power piston. Supporting research and technology programs for ceramic component development are briefly described.

  16. Determination of "Sub-Solidus" Equilibration of Fertile Peridotite in Piston-Cylinder Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. H.; Schwab, B. E.

    2006-12-01

    A 1.0 GPa piston-cylinder experiment was performed to investigate sub-solidus re-equilibration of PbO-fluxed fertile peridotite composition FER-A (Pickering-Witter &Johnston, 2000), equivalent to MM3 (Baker & Stolper, 1994). The starting material was constructed from olivine (ol), orthopyroxene (opx), clinopyroxene (cpx), and spinel (sp) mineral separates of a spinel lherzolite xenolith from Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico. The mineral separates were combined by weight to create initial ol:opx:cpx:sp ratio of 0.50:0.30:0.17:0.03 (weight %) and ground to ≤12μm. A portion of the FER-A peridotite was mixed with 1 wt% PbO, ground under ethanol, then stored in 110°C furnace. The PbO served as a flux, lowering the solidus temperature of the peridotite. While the experiments are not truly sub-solidus, the resulting PbO-fluxed melt increases the rate of chemical equilibration of the minerals by providing a pathway for diffusion that would be much slower if restricted to solid state diffusion. The starting material was sealed within a graphite-lined Pt capsule and placed in the hot spot of a graphite/CaF2 and crushable MgO cell furnace assembly in a 1.27 cm diameter piston-cylinder apparatus and run at 1220°C for 48 hours. Run temperature was selected to be ~20°C below the 1.0 GPa solidus of MM3 and FER-A. Based on back scattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron microprobe analysis of the dissected run product, ol, opx, cpx, sp, and PbO-fluxed melt are present. Quantitative microprobe analysis of &~&20μm olivine grains show slight zoning in Cr# and Mg# from core to rim. Olivine cores have an average Mg# of 90.7 with average Mg# of 90.9 toward the rims. Olivine cores also have an average Cr# of 61.2 with average Cr# of 64.7 toward the rim. Compared to starting xenolith mineral separates, average olivine (rim) Mg# (90.9) are higher than the 90.5 of the starting olivine grains. Average FeO and NiO concentrations of olivine in the run product, 8.77 and 0.04 wt

  17. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penswick, L. Barry; Beale, William T.; Wood, J. Gary

    1990-01-01

    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis.

  18. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine hydraulic output system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Geng, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center was involved in free-piston Stirling engine research since 1976. Most of the work performed in-house was related to characterization of the RE-1000 engine. The data collected from the RE-1000 tests were intended to provide a data base for the validation of Stirling cycle simulations. The RE-1000 was originally build with a dashpot load system which did not convert the output of the engine into useful power, but was merely used as a load for the engine to work against during testing. As part of the interagency program between NASA Lewis and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, (ORNL), the RE-1000 was converted into a configuration that produces useable hydraulic power. A goal of the hydraulic output conversion effort was to retain the same thermodynamic cycle that existed with the dashpot loaded engine. It was required that the design must provide a hermetic seal between the hydraulic fluid and the working gas of the engine. The design was completed and the hardware was fabricated. The RE-1000 was modified in 1985 to the hydraulic output configuration. The early part of the RE-1000 hydraulic output program consisted of modifying hardware and software to allow the engine to run at steady-state conditions. A complete description of the engine is presented in sufficient detail so that the device can be simulated on a computer. Tables are presented showing the masses of the oscillating components and key dimensions needed for modeling purposes. Graphs are used to indicate the spring rate of the diaphragms used to separate the helium of the working and bounce space from the hydraulic fluid.

  19. A sample-freezing drive shoe for a wire line piston core sampler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, F.; Herkelrath, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Loss of fluids and samples during retrieval of cores of saturated, noncohesive sediments results in incorrect measures of fluid distributions and an inaccurate measure of the stratigraphic position of the sample. To reduce these errors, we developed a hollow drive shoe that freezes in place the lowest 3 inches (75 mm) of a 1.88-inch-diameter (48 mm), 5-foot-long (1.5 m) sediment sample taken using a commercial wire line piston core sampler. The end of the core is frozen by piping liquid carbon dioxide at ambient temperature through a steel tube from a bottle at the land surface to the drive shoe where it evaporates and expands, cooling the interior surface of the shoe to about -109??F (-78??C). Freezing a core end takes about 10 minutes. The device was used to collect samples for a study of oil-water-air distributions, and for studies of water chemistry and microbial activity in unconsolidated sediments at the site of an oil spill near Bemidji, Minnesota. Before freezing was employed, samples of sandy sediments from near the water table sometimes flowed out of the core barrel as the sampler was withdrawn. Freezing the bottom of the core allowed for the retention of all material that entered the core barrel and lessened the redistribution of fluids within the core. The device is useful in the unsaturated and shallow saturated zones, but does not freeze cores well at depths greater than about 20 feet (6 m) below water, possibly because the feed tube plugs with dry ice with increased exhaust back-pressure, or because sediment enters the annulus between the core barrel and the core barrel liner and blocks the exhaust.

  20. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Green, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.